WorldWideScience

Sample records for high luminosity probe

  1. PROBING HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY FORMATION AT THE HIGHEST LUMINOSITIES: NEW INSIGHTS FROM DEIMOS SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present Keck DEIMOS spectroscopic observations of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at redshifts 3.2 < z < 4.6. Our sample, selected in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, contains galaxies with luminosities of L* {approx}< L{sub UV} {approx}< 7 L* and is one of the largest samples to date of the most UV-luminous galaxies at these redshifts. Our spectroscopic data confirm 41 candidates as star-forming galaxies at 3.2 < z < 4.6 and validate the relatively clean selection of the photometric candidates with a contamination rate of 11%-28%. We find that the fraction of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies increases with decreasing UV luminosity. None of the 12 galaxies with M{sub UV} < -22 (i.e., L{sub UV} > 3 L*) exhibit strong Ly{alpha} emission. We find strong evidence of large-scale outflows, transporting the neutral/ionized gas in the interstellar medium away from the galaxy. Galaxies exhibiting both interstellar absorption and Ly{alpha} emission lines show a significant offset between the two features, with a relative velocity of 200-1150 km s{sup -1}. We find tentative evidence that this measure of the outflow velocity increases with UV luminosity and/or stellar mass. The luminosity- and mass-dependent outflow strengths suggest that the efficiency of feedback and enrichment of the surrounding medium depend on these galaxy parameters. We also stack the individual spectra to construct composite spectra of the absorption-line-only and Ly{alpha}-emitting subsets of the UV luminous galaxies at z {approx_equal} 3.7. The composite spectra are very similar to those of lower-redshift and lower-luminosity Lyman break galaxy (LBG) samples, but with some subtle differences. Analyses of the composite spectra suggest that the UV luminous LBGs at z {approx_equal} 3.7 may have a higher covering fraction of absorbing gas, and may be older (or have had more prolonged star formation histories) than their lower-redshift and lower-luminosity counterparts. In

  2. High Luminosity LHC Project Description

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Rossi, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a novel configuration of the Large Hadron Collider, aiming at increasing the luminosity by a factor five or more above the nominal LHC design, to allow increasing the integrated luminosity, in the high luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS, from the 300 fb-1 of the LHC original design up to 3000 fb-1 or more. This paper contains a short description of the main machine parameters and of the main equipment that need to be developed and installed. The preliminary cost evaluation and the time plan are presented, too. Finally, the international collaboration that is supporting the project, the governance and the project structure are discussed, too.

  3. To High Luminosity and beyond!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    This week marks a major milestone for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC - see here) project, as it moves from the design study to the machine construction phase. HL-LHC will extend the LHC’s discovery potential, increasing luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value and allowing the scientific community to study new phenomena.    Composer Domenico Vicinanza (left) directs the musical performance of sonified LHC data during a special Hi-Lumi event (see box). The green light was given during the 5th Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP annual meeting that took place at CERN from 26 to 30 October 2015. The meeting saw the participation of more than 230 experts from all over the world to discuss the results and achievements of the HiLumi LHC Design Study. During the week, these experts approved the first version of the HL-LHC Technical Design Report – the document that, following the Preliminary Design Report issued in 2014, describes in detail how the LHC upgrade progra...

  4. Reverberation Mapping of High-Luminosity Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Kaspi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades reverberation mapping (RM has been applied to about 100 AGNs. Their broad line region (BLR sizes were measured and yielded mass estimates of the black holes in their center. However, very few attempts were carried out for high-luminosity quasars, at luminosities higher than 1046 erg/sec in the optical. Most of these attempts failed since RM of such quasars is difficult due to a number of reasons, mostly due to the long time needed to monitor these objects. During the past two decades we carried out a RM campaign on six high-luminosity quasars. This contribution presents some of the final light curves of that RM campaign in which we measured the BLR size in C iv of three of the objects (S5 0836+71, SBS 1116+603, and SBS 1425+606. We present the C iv BLR size and luminosity relation over eight orders of magnitude in luminosity, pushing the luminosity limit to its highest point so far.

  5. ATLAS Upgrades Towards the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    With the LHC having successfully collected data at center-of-mass energies of sqrt{s} = 7/8 TeV, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades leading eventually to about five times the LHC design luminosity some 10-years from now in the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. Coping with the high luminosity and the corresponding very high particle density will require significant changes to the ATLAS detector. Designs are developing rapidly for a replacement for the inner tracker, great changes in the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers. This article summarizes the environment expected at the HL-LHC and the status of various improvements to the ATLAS detector.

  6. Robust Tracking at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Woods, Natasha Lee

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) aims to increase the LHC data-set by an order of magnitude in order to increase its potential for discoveries. Starting from the middle of 2026, the HL-LHC is expected to reach the peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5×10^34cm^-2s^-1 which corresponds to about 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. To cope with the large radiation doses and high pileup, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new all-silicon Inner Tracker. In this talk the expected performance of tracking and vertexing with the HL-LHC tracker is presented. Comparison is made to the performance with the Run2 detector. Ongoing developments of the track reconstruction for the HL-LHC are also discussed.

  7. High Luminosity LHC Studies with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Anna Kathryn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC aims to provide a total integrated luminosity of 3000fb$^{-1}$ from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 14 TeV over the course of $\\sim$ 10 years, reaching instantaneous luminosities of up to L = 7.5 $\\times$ 1034cm$^{-2}s$^{-1}$, corresponding to an average of 200 inelastic p-p collisions per bunch crossing ($\\mu$ = 200). Fast simulation studies have been carried out to evaluate the prospects of various benchmark physics analyses to be performed using the upgraded ATLAS detector with the full HL-LHC dataset. The performance of the upgrade has been estimated in full simulation studies, assuming expected HL-LHC conditions. This talk will focus on the results of physics prospects studies for benchmark analyses involving in particular boosted hadronic objects (e.g. ttbar resonances, HH resonances), and on results of Jet/EtMiss studies of jet performance and pileup mitigation techniques that will be critical in HL-LHC analyses.

  8. Cosmological Evolution of the Central Engine in High-Luminosity, High-Accretion Rate AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guainazzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the status of observational studies aiming at probing the cosmological evolution of the central engine in high-luminosity, high-accretion rate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. X-ray spectroscopic surveys, supported by extensive multi-wavelength coverage, indicate a remarkable invariance of the accretion disk plus corona system, and of their coupling up to redshifts z≈6. Furthermore, hard X-ray (E >10 keV surveys show that nearby Seyfert Galaxies share the same central engine notwithstanding their optical classication. These results suggest that the high-luminosity, high accretion rate quasar phase of AGN evolution is homogeneous over cosmological times.

  9. Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.

    2014-12-01

    There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4luminosity functions (GLFs) based on photometric redshifts for 30 clusters in B, V, R and I restframe bands. We show that completeness is a key parameter to understand the different observed behaviors when fitting the GLFs. We also investigate the evolution of GLFs with redshift for red and blue galaxy populations separately. We find a drop of the faint end of red GLFs which is more important at higher redshift while the blue GLF faint end remains flat in our redshift range. These results can be interpreted in terms of galaxy quenching. Faint blue galaxies transform into red ones which enrich the red sequence from high to low redshifts in clusters while some blue galaxies are still accreted from the environment, compensating for this evolution so that the global GLF does not seem to evolve.

  10. Flavour Physics with High-Luminosity Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    With the first dedicated B-factory experiments BaBar (USA) and BELLE (Japan) Flavour Physics has entered the phase of precision physics. LHCb (CERN) and the high luminosity extension of KEK-B together with the state of the art BELLE II detector will further push this precision frontier. Progress in this field always relied on close cooperation between experiment and theory, as extraction of fundamental parameters often is very indirect. To extract the full physics information from existing and future data, this cooperation must be further intensified. This MIAPP programme aims in particular to prepare for this task by joining experimentalists and theorists in the various relevant fields, with the goal to build the necessary tools in face of the challenge of new large data sets. The programme will begin with a focus on physics with non-leptonic final states, continued by semileptonic B meson decays and Tau decays, and on various aspects of CP symmetry violation closer to the end. In addition, in the final ...

  11. ATLAS Higgs Physics Prospects at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218105; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the properties of the Higgs boson and eventually probe for new physics beyond the Standard Model. The large anticipated data sample will allow for more precise investigations of topics already studied with earlier data samples, as well as for studies of processes that are accessible only with the much larger statistics. Rates and signal strengths will be measured for a variety of Higgs-boson production and decay modes, allowing extraction of the Higgs boson couplings. Particular final states will allow differential cross-sections to be measured for all production modes, and for studies of the Higgs width and CP properties, as well as the tensor structure of its coupling to bosons. An important part of the High-Luminosity LHC experimental program will be investigations of the Higgs self-coupling, which is accessible via studies of di-Higgs production. In this note the projections of the ATLAS physics reach in the Higgs...

  12. High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) general infographics

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC, which is expected to be operational after 2025, will increase the LHC’s luminosity by a factor of 10. To achieve this major upgrade, several technologies, some of which are completely innovative, are being developed.

  13. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvan, Jean-baptiste

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities...

  14. Estimating Luminosity Function Constraints from High-Redshift Galaxy Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E.

    2010-04-01

    The installation of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will revolutionize the study of high-redshift galaxy populations. Initial observations of the HST Ultra Deep Field (UDF) have yielded multiple z >~ 7 dropout candidates. Supplemented by the GOODS Early Release Science (ERS) and further UDF pointings, these data will provide crucial information about the most distant known galaxies. However, achieving tight constraints on the z ~ 7 galaxy luminosity function (LF) will require even more ambitious photometric surveys. Using a Fisher matrix approach to fully account for Poisson and cosmic sample variance, as well as covariances in the data, we estimate the uncertainties on LF parameters achieved by surveys of a given area and depth. Applying this method to WFC3 z ~ 7 dropout galaxy samples, we forecast the LF parameter uncertainties for a variety of model surveys. We demonstrate that performing a wide area (~1 deg2) survey to H AB ~ 27 depth or increasing the UDF depth to H AB ~ 30 provides excellent constraints on the high-z LF when combined with the existing Ultradeep Field Guest Observation and GOODS ERS data. We also show that the shape of the matter power spectrum may limit the possible gain of splitting wide area (gsim0.5 deg2) high-redshift surveys into multiple fields to probe statistically independent regions; the increased rms density fluctuations in smaller volumes mostly offset the improved variance gained from independent samples.

  15. Performance of the Muon MWPC in high luminosity runs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinci, Davide

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector was conceived to operate with an average luminosity of 2x10$^{32}$cm$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. During the last year of the LHC run, the whole apparatus has shown to be able to perfectly acquire and manage data produced at a luminosity as high as 4x10$^{32}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. In this condition, all subdetectors operated at average particle rates higher than the design ones and in particular the detectors equipping the Muon System had to sustain a particle rate as high as 100kHz/cm$^2$. In order to study the possibility of increasing the luminosity of operation several tests were performed. This paper reports detailed studies on the performance of the LHCb Muon System in runs with a luminosity between 4 x 10$^{32}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and 10$^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$.

  16. The CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Luetic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    The era of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will pose unprecedented challenges for detector design and operation. The planned luminosity of the upgraded machine is $5$x$10^{34} $ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, reaching an integrated luminosity of more than 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. The CMS Tracker detector will have to be replaced in order to fully exploit the delivered luminosity and cope with the demanding operating conditions. The new detector will provide robust tracking as well as input for the first level trigger. This report is focusing on the replacement of the CMS Outer Tracker system, describing the new layout and technological choices together with some highlights of research and development activities.

  17. FUTURE VERY HIGH LUMINOSITY OPTIONS FOR PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, J

    2004-03-08

    A Super B Factory, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, can provide a sensitive probe of new physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. The success of PEP-II and KEKB in producing unprecedented luminosity with unprecedented short commissioning time has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders in a new parameter regime. It appears to be possible to build on this success to advance the state of the accelerator art by building a collider at a luminosity approaching 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity up to 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year. Design studies are underway to arrive at a complete parameter set based on a collider in the PEP-II tunnel but with an upgraded RF system (perhaps a higher frequency) and an upgraded interaction region [1-6].

  18. LHCb: LHCb Muon System Performance at High Luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    Pinci, D

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector was conceived to operate with an average Luminosity of $2 \\times 10^{32}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. During the last year of LHC run, the whole apparatus has shown to be able to perfectly acquire and manage data produced at a Luminosity as high as $4 \\times 10^{32}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. In these conditions, all sub-detectors operated at average particle rates higher than the design ones and in particular the Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers equipping the Muon System had to sustain a particle rate as high as 250 kHz/cm$^{2}$. In order to study the possibility of increasing the Luminosity of operation of the whole experiment several tests were performed. The effective beam Luminosity at the interaction point of LHCb was increased in several steps up to $10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and in each step the behavior of all the detectors in the Muon System was recorded. The data analysis has allowed to study the performance of the Muon System as a function of the LHC Luminosity and the results are r...

  19. Track reconstruction in CMS high luminosity environment

    CERN Document Server

    Goetzmann, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The CMS tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built, covering 200 square meters and providing an average of 14 high-precision measurements per track. Tracking is essential for the reconstruction of objects like jets, muons, electrons and tau leptons starting from the raw data from the silicon pixel and strip detectors. Track reconstruction is widely used also at trigger level as it improves objects tagging and resolution.The CMS tracking code is organized in several levels, known as iterative steps, each optimized to reconstruct a class of particle trajectories, as the ones of particles originating from the primary vertex or displaced tracks from particles resulting from secondary vertices. Each iterative step consists of seeding, pattern recognition and fitting by a kalman filter, and a final filtering and cleaning. Each subsequent step works on hits not yet associated to a reconstructed particle trajectory.The CMS tracking code is continuously evolving to make the reconstruction computing load compat...

  20. Track reconstruction in CMS high luminosity environment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067159

    2016-01-01

    The CMS tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built, covering 200 square meters and providing an average of 14 high-precision measurements per track. Tracking is essential for the reconstruction of objects like jets, muons, electrons and tau leptons starting from the raw data from the silicon pixel and strip detectors. Track reconstruction is widely used also at trigger level as it improves objects tagging and resolution.The CMS tracking code is organized in several levels, known as iterative steps, each optimized to reconstruct a class of particle trajectories, as the ones of particles originating from the primary vertex or displaced tracks from particles resulting from secondary vertices. Each iterative step consists of seeding, pattern recognition and fitting by a kalman filter, and a final filtering and cleaning. Each subsequent step works on hits not yet associated to a reconstructed particle trajectory.The CMS tracking code is continuously evolving to make the reconstruction computing load compat...

  1. High Speed Measurements of the LHC Luminosity Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Beche, J F; Monroy, M; Ratti, A; Turner, W; Bravin, E

    2006-01-01

    The LHC luminosity monitor is a gas ionization chamber designed to operate in the high radiation environment present in the TAN neutral absorbers at the LHC. One of the challenges is to measure the luminosity of individual bunch crossings with a minimum separation of 25 nsec. To test the time response and other aspects of a prototype chamber, we have performed a test using an x‐ray beam of 40–60 keV with pulse spacing of 26 nsec as an ionizing beam. The tests were made at BL 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS)

  2. Physics prospects for High-luminosity LHC with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, Tatsuo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In order to extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 to reach 10^35 cm−2s−1. This may allow to collect about 3000 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions. The physics accessible at the high-luminosity phase of the LHC extends well beyond that of the earlier LHC program. Selected topics, spanning from Higgs boson studies to new particle searches and rare top quark decays, etc. The talk will also cover the the planned upgrades of the ATLAS detector.

  3. Optical Variability Properties of High Luminosity AGN Classes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INOV) characteristics of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, which involves a systematic intra-night optical monitoring of seven sets of high luminosity AGNs covering the redshift range ≃ 0.2 to ≃ 2.2. The sample, matched in the optical ...

  4. Upgrade of the CMS Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Auzinger, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about $ 5 \\times 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2028, possibly reaching an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 Upgrade. The current CMS Tracker, including both inner pixel and outer strip systems, is already running beyond design specifications and will not be able to survive HL-LHC radiation conditions. CMS will need a completely new device in order to fully exploit the demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The upgrade plan includes extending the Pixel Detector in the forward region from the current coverage of $ \\lvert \\eta \\rvert < 2.4 $ to $ \\lvert \\eta \\rvert < 4$, where up to seven forward- and four extension disks will compose the new detector. Additionally, the new outer system should also have trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R\\&...

  5. ATLAS Fast Tracker Status and Tracking at High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Nikolina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LHC’s increase in centre of mass energy and luminosity in 2015 makes controlling trigger rates with high efficiency challenging. The ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is a hardware processor built to reconstruct tracks at a rate of up to 100 kHz and provide them to the high level trigger. The FTK reconstructs tracks by matching incoming detector hits with pre-defined track patterns stored in associative memory on custom ASICs. Inner detector hits are fit to these track patterns using modern FPGAs. This talk describes the electronics system used for the FTK’s massive parallelization. The installation, commissioning and running of the system is happening in 2016, and is detailed in this talk. Tracking at High luminosity LHC is also presented.

  6. Silicon Sensors for Trackers at High-Luminosity Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than the one of LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 collaboration "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge ...

  7. Dynamic aperture studies for the LHC high luminosity lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, R. de [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Giovannozzi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); McIntosh, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Nosochkov, Y. M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cai, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wang, M. -H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    Since quite some time, dynamic aperture studies have been undertaken with the aim of specifying the required field quality of the new magnets that will be installed in the LHC ring in the framework of the high-luminosity upgrade. In this paper the latest results concerning the specification work will be presented, taking into account both injection and collision energies and the field quality contribution from all the magnets in the newly designed interaction regions.

  8. Electron-cloud effects in high-luminosity colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1998-01-01

    Electron-cloud instabilities are expected to be important in most high-luminosity double-ring colliders. In this report, the author describes a few parameter regimes and some critical parameter dependences of this type of instability, and illustrate these with simulation results for the PEP-II and KEK B factories, the LHC, the VLHC, and DAPHNE. In addition, the author studies the possibility and the potential impact of an electron cloud in the interaction region.

  9. High-Luminosity LHC moves to the next phase

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This week saw several meetings vital for the medium-term future of CERN.    From Monday to Wednesday, the Resource Review Board, RRB, that oversees resource allocation in the LHC experiments, had a series of meetings. Thursday then saw the close-out meeting for the Hi-Lumi LHC design study, which was partially funded by the European Commission. These meetings focused on the High Luminosity upgrade for the LHC, which responds to the top priority of the European Strategy for Particle Physics adopted by the CERN Council in 2013. This upgrade will transform the LHC into a facility for precision studies, the logical next step for the high-energy frontier of particle physics. It is a challenging upgrade, both for the LHC and the detectors. The LHC is already the highest luminosity hadron collider ever constructed, generating up to a billion collisions per second at the heart of the detectors. The High Luminosity upgrade will see that number rise by a factor of five from 2025. For the detectors...

  10. SLHC, the High-Luminosity Upgrade (public event)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    In the morning of June 23rd a public event is organised in CERN's Council Chamber with the aim of providing the particle physics community with up-to-date information about the strategy for the LHC luminosity upgrade and to describe the current status of preparation work. The presentations will provide an overview of the various accelerator sub-projects, the LHC physics prospects and the upgrade plans of ATLAS and CMS. This event is organised in the framework of the SLHC-PP project, which receives funding from the European Commission for the preparatory phase of the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade project. Informing the public is among the objectives of this EU-funded project. A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast, available at the following address: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  11. Designing the ATLAS trigger menu for high luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahama, Yu

    2012-12-01

    The LHC has a bunch-crossing rate of 20 MHz whereas the ATLAS detector has an average recording rate of about 400 Hz. To reduce the rate of events but still maintain a high efficiency for selecting interesting events needed by ATLAS physics analyses, a three-level trigger system is used in ATLAS. Events are selected based on the Trigger Menu, the definitions of the physics signatures the experiment triggers on. In the 2012 data taking since April, approximately 700 chains are used online. The menu must reflect not only the physics goals of the collaboration but also take into consideration the LHC luminosity and the strict DAQ limitations. An overview of the design, the validation and the performance of the trigger menu for the 2011 data-taking is given. During 2011, the menu had to evolve as the luminosity increase from below 2×1033 cm-2s-1 to almost 5×1033 cm-2s-1. Re-designing the menu for the up-coming high luminosity of around 1034 cm-2s-1 and large number of collision events that take place per each bunch crossing (pile-up) of around 35 interactions per bunch crossing at √s = 8 TeV is described. Initial performance in the 2012 data-taking is also reported.

  12. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to $7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of $3000\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ and hadron fluencies over $2\\times10^{16}\\;\\mathrm{n}_{\\mathrm{eq}}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six disks on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector Technical Design R...

  13. EU supports the LHC high-luminosity study

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The design collision energy and luminosity of the LHC are already at record numbers, making the machine one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built. However, to extend its discovery potential even further, a major upgrade of the LHC will be required around 2020. This will increase its average luminosity by a factor of 5 to 10 beyond its design value. Fifteen worldwide institutions and the European Union are supporting the initial design phase of the project through the HiLumi LHC programme, whose kick-off meeting will take place on 16-18 November.   The CERN team that has successfully built and tested the Short Magnet Coil – a small 40 cm long magnet capable of producing a 12.5 T magnetic field. The upgrade of the LHC will require about 10 years of design, construction and implementation. The new machine configuration will be called “High Luminosity LHC” (HL-LHC). The similarly named “HiLumi LHC” is the EU programme that supports...

  14. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Seixas, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Sotto-Maior-Peralva, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measure for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measure has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measure to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superposed information, and the QF may be us...

  15. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to 7.5E34 per second and cm2 corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb and hadron fluencies over 1E16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the ...

  16. Prospects for BSM searches at the high-luminosity LHC with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ruehr, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Discovering new physics beyond the Standard Model is a primary goal of research at the LHC. Recent searches by ATLAS and CMS, using data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, have already probed a considerable fraction of the parameter space for a wide variety of models. The discovery reach is expected to be considerably extended at higher energy. The high-luminosity phase of upgraded LHC will provide datasets with a total integrated luminosity of about 3 ab-1, allowing ATLAS to probe new physics well beyond the reach of the first 0.3 ab-1 of 14 TeV running. In this talk, the prospects of ATLAS searches for new heavy bosons, dark matter candidates, inclusive strong production of squarks and gluinos, direct production of 3rd generation squarks and weak production of electro-weakinos at the 14 TeV LHC are presented. The results make use of parametrisations of the expected performance of the LHC for the first 0.3 ab-1 of 14 TeV running and for the high-luminosity phase.

  17. Prospects for BSM searches at the high-luminosity LHC with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ruehr, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Discovering new physics beyond the Standard Model is a primary goal of research at the LHC. Recent searches by ATLAS and CMS, using data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, have already probed a considerable fraction of the parameter space for a wide variety of models. The discovery reach is expected to be considerably extended at higher energy. The high-luminosity phase of upgraded LHC will provide datasets with a total integrated luminosity of about 3 ab-1, allowing ATLAS to probe new physics well beyond the reach of the first 0.3 ab-1 of 14 TeV running. In this talk, the prospects of ATLAS searches for new heavy bosons, dark matter candidates, inclusive strong production of squarks and gluinos, direct production of 3rd generation squarks and weak production of electro-weakinos at the 14 TeV LHC are presented. The results make use of parametrisations of the expected performance of the LHC for the first 0.3 ab-1 of 14 TeV running and for the high-luminosity phase.

  18. High luminosity electron-hadron collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Aschenauer, E.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M..; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hammons, L.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; He, P.; Hao, Y.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Skaritka, J.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Pozdeyev, E.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2011-03-28

    We present the design of a future high-energy high-luminosity electron-hadron collider at RHIC called eRHIC. We plan on adding 20 (potentially 30) GeV energy recovery linacs to accelerate and to collide polarized and unpolarized electrons with hadrons in RHIC. The center-of-mass energy of eRHIC will range from 30 to 200 GeV. The luminosity exceeding 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be achieved in eRHIC using the low-beta interaction region with a 10 mrad crab crossing. We report on the progress of important eRHIC R&D such as the high-current polarized electron source, the coherent electron cooling, ERL test facility and the compact magnets for recirculation passes. A natural staging scenario of step-by-step increases of the electron beam energy by building-up of eRHIC's SRF linacs is presented.

  19. Physics prospects at the high luminosity LHC with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, Eduard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The physics prospects at the luminosity upgrade of LHC, HL-LHC, with a data set equivalent to 3000 fb-1 simulated in the ATLAS detector, are presented and discussed. The ultimate precision attainable on measurements of 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings to elementary fermions and bosons is discussed, as well as the searches for partners associated with this new particle. The electroweak sector is further studied with the analysis of the vector boson scattering, testing the SM predictions at the LHC energy scale. Supersymmetry is still one of the best motivated extensions of the Standard Model. The current searches at the LHC have yielded sensitivity to TeV scale gluinos and 1st and 2nd generation squarks, as well as to 3rd generation squarks. The sensitivity to electro-weakinos has reached the hundreds of GeV mass range. Benchmark studies are presented to show how the sensitivity improves at the future high-luminosity LHC runs. Prospects for searches for new heavy bosons and dark matter candidates at 14 TeV pp col...

  20. ATLAS Physics Prospects at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bindi, Marcello; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The physics prospects at the luminosity upgrade of LHC, HL-LHC, with a data set equivalent to 3000 fb-1 simulated in the ATLAS detector, are presented and discussed. The ultimate precision attainable on measurements of 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings to elementary fermions and bosons is discussed, as well as the searches for partners associated with this new particle. The electroweak sector is further studied with the analysis of the vector boson scattering, testing the SM predictions at the LHC energy scale. Supersymmetry is still one of the best motivated extensions of the Standard Model. The current searches at the LHC have yielded sensitivity to TeV scale gluinos and 1st and 2nd generation squarks, as well as to 3rd generation squarks. The sensitivity to electro-weakinos has reached the hundreds of GeV mass range. Benchmark studies are presented to show how the sensitivity improves at the future high-luminosity LHC runs. Prospects for searches for new heavy bosons and dark matter candidates at 14 TeV pp col...

  1. High-luminosity LHC prospects with the upgraded ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00379172; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 1 at the LHC was very successful with the discovery of a new boson. The boson’s properties are found to be compatible with those of the Standard Model Higgs boson. It is now revealing the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and (possibly) the discovery of physics beyond the Standard Model that are the primary goals of the just restarted LHC. The ultimate precision will be reached at the high-luminosity LHC run with a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. In this contribution physics prospects are presented for ATLAS for the integrated luminosities 300 and 3000 fb−1: the ultimate precision attainable on measurements of the Higgs boson couplings to elementary fermions and bosons, its trilinear self-coulping, as well as perspectives on the searches for partners associated with it. Benchmark studies are presented to show how the sensitivity improves at the future LHC runs. For all these studies, a parameterised simulation of the upgraded ATLAS detector is used and expected pileup condition...

  2. ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrades for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Valderanis, Chrysostomos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrades for the High Luminosity LHC The luminosity of the LHC will increase up to 2x10^34 cm-2s-1 after the long shutdown in 2019 (phase-1 upgrade) and up to 7x10^34 cm-2s-1 after the long shutdown in 2025 (phase-2 upgrade). In order to cope with the increased particle fluxes, upgrades are envisioned for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At phase-1, the current innermost stations of the ATLAS muon endcap tracking system (the Small Wheels) will be upgraded with 2x4-layer modules of Micromega detectors, sandwiched by two 4 layer modules of small strip Thin Gap Chambers on either side. Each 4-layer module of the so-called New Small Wheels covers a surface area of approximately 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2 each for the two technologies. On such large area detectors, the mechanical precision (30 \\mu m along the precision coordinate and 80 \\mu m along the beam) is a key point and must be controlled and monitored along the process of construction and integration. The design and re...

  3. High luminosity liquid-argon calorimeter test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novgorodova, Olga; Straessner, Arno [TU Dresden, IKTP (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the future HL-LHC the luminosity will increase by factor of 5-7 with respect to the original LHC design. The HiLum collaboration studied the impact on small-sized modules of the ATLAS electromagnetic, hadronic, and forward calorimeters also instrumented by various intensity and position detectors. The intensity of beam varied over a wide range (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 12} p/s) and beyond the maximum expected at HL-LHC for these calorimeters. Results from the last test beam campaign in 2013 on the signal shape analysis from the calorimeter modules are compared with MC simulations. The correlation between high-voltage return currents of the electromagnetic calorimeter and beam intensity is used to estimate critical parameters and compared with predictions.

  4. A passive CMOS pixel sensor for the high luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daas, Michael; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Janssen, Jens; Krueger, Hans; Pohl, David-Leon; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The high luminosity upgrade for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new inner tracking detector for the ATLAS experiment. About 200 m{sup 2} of silicon detectors are needed demanding new, low cost hybridization- and sensor technologies. One promising approach is to use commercial CMOS technologies to produce the passive sensor for a hybrid pixel detector design. In this talk a fully functional prototype of a 300 μm thick, backside biased CMOS pixel sensor in 150 nm LFoundry technology is presented. The sensor is bump bonded to the ATLAS FE-I4 with AC and DC coupled pixels. Results like leakage current, noise performance, and charge collection efficiency are presented and compared to the actual ATLAS pixel sensor design.

  5. Higgs physics programme at the High-Luminosity LHC with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jezequel, Stephane; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    From the mid-2020s, the Large Hadron Collider will run as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) with a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV and an instantaneous luminosity of 5-7 x 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. It aims to collect a total integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 by about 2037. The unprecedented amount of data collected by the upgraded ATLAS detector at the HL-LHC will be used to make precision measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. In addition final states including Higgs bosons can be used to probe for beyond-the-Standard-Model physics and for search for rare processes. Observation of di-Higgs production, pp—>HH, can be used to constrain the parameter lambda in the Higgs potential and is one of the key physics drivers for the HL-LHC programme. However due to the small predicted cross section for HH production many final states must be considered to gain sensitivity to di-Higgs production at the HL-LHC. In this talk we present the studies on the prospects for precision measurements of the Higgs boson and searches for rar...

  6. Removing Known SPS Intensity Limitations for High Luminosity LHC Goals

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Bohl, Thomas; Cruikshank, Paul; Goddard, Brennan; Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Lasheen, Alexandre; Perez Espinos, Jaime; Repond, Joël; Salvant, Benoit; Vollinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In preparation of the SPS as an LHC injector its impedance was significantly reduced in 1999 - 2000. A new SPS impedance reduction campaign is planned now for the High Luminosity (HL)-LHC project, which requires bunch intensities twice as high as the nominal one. One of the known intensity limitations is a longitudinal multi-bunch instability with a threshold 3 times below this operational intensity. The instability is presently cured using the 4th harmonic RF system and controlled emittance blow-up, but reaching the HL-LHC parameters cannot be assured without improving the machine impedance. Recently the impedance sources responsible for this instability were identified and implementation of their shielding and damping is foreseen during the next long shutdown (2019 - 2020) in synergy with two other important upgrades: amorphous carbon coating of (part of) the vacuum chamber against the e-cloud effect and rearrangement of the 200 MHz RF system. In this paper the strategy of impedance reduction is presented t...

  7. High Luminosity 100 TeV Proton-Antiproton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.

    2016-10-01

    The energy scale for new physics is known to be in the multi-TeV range, signaling the potential need for a collider beyond the LHC. A $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ luminosity 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider is explored. Prior engineering studies for 233 and 270 km circumference tunnels were done for Illinois dolomite and Texas chalk signaling manageable tunneling costs. At a $p\\bar{p}$ the cross section for high mass states is of order 10x higher with antiproton collisions, where antiquarks are directly present rather than relying on gluon splitting. The higher cross sections reduce the synchrotron radiation in superconducting magnets, because lower beam currents can produce the same rare event rates. In our design the increased momentum acceptance (11 $\\pm$ 2.6 GeV/c) in a Fermilab-like antiproton source is used with septa to collect 12x more antiprotons in 12 channels. For stochastic cooling, 12 cooling systems would be used, each with one debuncher/momentum equalizer ring and two accumulator rings. One electron cooling ring would follow. Finally antiprotons would be recycled during runs without leaving the collider ring, by joining them to new bunches with synchrotron damping.

  8. ATLAS Future Plans: Upgrade and the Physics with High Luminosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS experiment is planning a series of detector upgrades to cope with the planned increases in instantaneous luminosity and multiple interactions per crossing to maintain its physics capabilities. During the coming decade, the Large Hadron Collider will collide protons on protons at a center of mass energy up to 14 TeV with luminosities steadily increasing in a phased approach to over 5 × 1034 cm−2s−1. The resulting large data sets will significantly enhance the physics reach of the ATLAS detector building on the recent discovery of the Higgs-like boson. The planned detector upgrades being designed to cope with the increasing luminosity and its impact on the ATLAS physics program will be discussed.

  9. Development of Silicon Detectors for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, Thomas Valentin

    2015-07-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be upgraded to a High Luminosity LHC in the year 2022, increasing the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of five. This will have major impacts on the experiments at the LHC, such as the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, and especially for their inner silicon tracking systems. Among other things, the silicon sensors used therein will be exposed to unprecedented levels of radiation damage, necessitating a replacement of the entire tracking detector. In order to maintain the excellent current performance, a new tracking detector has to be equipped with sensors of increased radiation hardness and higher granularity. The CMS experiment is undertaking an extensive R and D campaign in the search for the future silicon sensor technology baseline to be used in this upgrade. This thesis presents two methods suitable for use in this search: finite element TCAD simulations and test beam measurements. The simulations are focussed on the interstrip capacitance between sensor strips and are compared to measurements before and after the inclusion of radiation damage effects. A geometrical representation of the strip sensors used in the campaign has been found, establishing the predictive power of simulations. The test beam measurements make use of the high-precision pixel telescopes available at the DESY-II test beam facility. The performance of these telescopes has been assessed and their achievable pointing resolution has been found to be below 2 μm. Thin, epitaxial silicon is a candidate material for usage in radiation hard sensors for the future CMS tracking detector. Sample strip sensors of this material have been irradiated to fluences of up to 1.3 x 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} with 800 MeV or 23 GeV protons. Test beam measurements with 5 GeV electrons have been performed to investigate the radiation hardness of epitaxial sensors using the pixel beam telescopes. The epitaxial device under test (DUT) has been integrated

  10. Prospects for physics at high luminosity with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela João

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The precision measurements of the properties of the recently discovered Higgs-like boson will be central to the future LHC physics program. In parallel the search for New Physics beyond the SM will continue. Higher luminosity will extend the mass reach and allow sensitive searches for possible subtle signatures for new physics. In this paper we review the potential sensitivity of CMS to a selection of relevant future physics scenarios accessible with the LHC upgrades and a correspondingly upgraded CMS detector.

  11. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetry and Muon Spectrometers - Part I : In the first part of the lecture series, the motivation for a high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will be quickly reviewed together with the challenges for the LHC detectors. In particular, the plans and ongoing research for new calorimeter detectors will be explained. The main issues in the high-luminosity era are an improved radiation tolerance, natural ageing of detector components and challenging trigger and physics requirements. The new technological solutions for calorimetry at a high-luminosity LHC will be reviewed.

  12. Upgrade of RHIC Vacuum Systems for High Luminosity Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Smart, Loralie; Todd, Robert J; Weiss, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    With increasing ion beam intensity during recent RHIC operations, pressure rises of several decades were observed at most room temperature sections and at a few cold sections. The pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam ion induced desorption and have been one of the major intensity and luminosity limiting factors for RHIC. Improvement of the warm sections has been carried out in the last few years. Extensive in-situ bakes, additional UHV pumping, anti-grazing ridges and beam tube solenoids have been implemented. Several hundred meters of NEG coated beam pipes have been installed and activated. Vacuum monitoring and interlock were enhanced to reduce premature beam aborts. Preliminary measures, such as pumping before cool down to reduce monolayer condensates, were also taken to suppress the pressure rises in the cold sections. The effectiveness of these measures in reducing the pressure rises during machine studies and during physics runs are discussed...

  13. SLHC, the high-luminosity upgrade (public event)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    In the morning of February 26th a public event is organised in CERN's main auditorium with the aim of informing the particle physics community about the current status of preparation work for the future LHC luminosity upgrade (Phase 1 and Phase 2). The presentations will provide an overview of the various accelerator sub-projects, the physics potential and the experiment upgrade plans. This event is organised in the framework of the SLHC-PP project, which receives funding from the European Commission for the preparatory phase of the SLHC project. Informing the public about the overall status of SLHC is among the objectives of this EU-funded project. A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast, available at the following address: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  14. UPGRADE OF RHIC VACUUM SYSTEMS FOR HIGH LUMINOSITY OPERATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HSEUH, H.C.; MAPES, M.; SMART, L.A.; TODD, R.; WEISS, D.

    2005-05-16

    With increasing ion beam intensity during recent RHIC operations, rapid pressure rises of several decades were observed at most warm sections and at a few cold sections. The pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam ion induced desorption and have been one of the major intensity and luminosity limiting factors for RHIC. Improvement of the warm sections has been carried out in the last few years. Extensive in-situ bakes, additional UHV pumping and anti-grazing ridges have been implemented. Several hundred meters of NEG coated beam pipes have been installed and activated. Vacuum monitoring and logging were enhanced. Preventive measures, such as pumping before cool down to reduce monolayer condensates, were also taken to suppress the pressure rises in the cold sections. The effectiveness of these measures in reducing the pressure rises during machine studies and during physics runs are discussed and summarized.

  15. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs): New z > 6 Quasar Survey with Subaru/HSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; SHELLQs Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Quasars at high redshift are an important and unique probe of the distant Universe, for understanding the origin and progress of cosmic reionization, the early growth of supermassive black holes, and the evolution of quasar host galaxies and their dark matter halos, among other topics. We are currently carrying out a new spectroscopic survey, called SHELLQs (Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars), to search for low-luminosity quasars at z > 6. By exploiting the exquisite imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we aim to probe quasar luminosities down to M1450 ~ -22 mag, i.e., below the classical threshold between quasars and Seyfert galaxies. Candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm. A large spectroscopic observing program is underway, using Subaru/FOCAS, GTC/OSIRIS, and Gemini/GMOS; in particular, SHELLQs has been approved as a Subaru intensive program to use 20 nights in the coming four semesters. As of August 2016, we have discovered ~40 quasars and bright galaxies at z ~ 6 and beyond, from the first 100 deg2 of the HSC survey (Matsuoka et al. 2016, ApJ, 828, 26). Surprisingly, we are starting to see the steep rise of the luminosity function of high-z galaxies, compared with that of quasars, at magnitudes fainter than M1450 ~ -22 mag or zAB ~ 24 mag. Multi-wavelength follow-up studies of the discovered objects as well as further survey observations are ongoing.

  16. Magnetic Measurements of the First Nb$_3$Sn Model Quadrupole (MQXFS) for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarco, J; Chlachidze, G; Ferracin, P; Holik, E; Sabbi, G; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Velev, G; Wang, X

    2016-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN are developing high-gradient Nb3Sn magnets for the High Luminosity LHC interaction regions. Magnetic measurements of the first 1.5 m long, 150 mm aperture model quadrupole, MQXFS1, were performed during magnet assembly at LBNL, as well as during cryogenic testing at Fermilab’s Vertical Magnet Test Facility. This paper reports on the results of these magnetic characterization measurements, as well as on the performance of new probes developed for the tests.

  17. The CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) for Operation at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pitters, Florian Michael

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm^2 cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors will...

  18. Prospects for SUSY and BSM Physics at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Richman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    elucidate the origin of a signal. A brief discussion is also given for exotic particle searches, illustrating how high-luminosity data samples can provide key information on the properties of discovered particles.

  19. Development of High Resolution Si Strip Detectors for Experiments at High Luminosity at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-20 \\\\ \\\\ Recent studies indicate that good tracking near the interaction region in LHC experiments will be crucial to fully exploit the physics potential of this machine up to the highest luminosities. It is believed that Si strip detectors are among the best candidates to survive in the experimental environment imposed by the high energy, high luminosity and the severe radiation levels expected. It is therefore proposed to perform a systematic study of the feasibility of using Si strip detectors and suitably designed front-end electronics for tracking in LHC experiments. Issues discussed here are possible physics applications, requirements and design characteristics for Si strip detectors and front-end electronics and cooling. An R\\&D programme for the coming two years is described.

  20. The high luminosity interaction region for a ring-ring Large Hadron Electron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R. B.; Thompson, L.; Holzer, B.; Fitterer, M.; Bernard, N.; Kostka, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) project is a proposal for high luminosity TeV-scale electron-proton (ep) collisions at the LHC. The LHeC Conceptual Design Report presented an early overview of the machine, including an electron linac solution and a solution involving a 60 GeV electron storage ring. Here we present a new complete solution for the collision insertion of this electron ring, incorporating all constraints including those imposed by the LHC and, for the first time, proving the feasibility of ep collisions at a luminosity of ˜1033 cm-2s-1 in the LHC era. The solution presented offers high luminosity while maintaining the large detector coverage required by the particle physics programme. This negates the earlier need for two separate interaction region designs, one optimized for high luminosity at the cost of detector coverage, and the other for lower luminosity but higher coverage. Synchrotron radiation emission is also a major factor in electron accelerator design, and studies are presented showing the feasibility of the design in this regard. The design is found to be technically viable, solving the problem of TeV-scale, high luminosity and high coverage ep collisions at a ring-ring LHeC.

  1. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter high-voltage system: commissioning, optimisation, and LHC relative luminosity measurement.

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaoui, Samir; Monnier, E

    2011-01-01

    The main goals of the ATLAS scientific programme are the observation or exclusion of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), as well as the measurement of production cross-sections of SM processes. In oder to do so,it is important to measure the luminosity at the interaction point with great precision. The ATLAS luminosity is extracted using several detectors with varying efficiencies and acceptances. Different methods, such as inclusive - or coincidence - event counting and calorimeter integrated current measurements, are calibrated and cross-compared to provide the most accurate luminosity determination. In order to provide more cross-checks and a better control on the systematic uncertainties, an independent measurement using the liquid argon (LAr) forward calorimeter (FCal), based on the readout current of its high-voltage system, has been developed. This document describes how the LAr calorimeter high-voltage system has been installed and commissioned, as well as its application to a relative luminosity ...

  2. Strip Detector for the ATLAS Detector Upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1*10^35 cm2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1*10^16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  3. Strip Detector for the ATLAS Detector Upgrade for the High - Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1*10^35 cm2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1*10^16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  4. Wedge Absorbers for Final Cooling for a High-Energy High-Luminosity Lepton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago (main); Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.

    2016-06-01

    A high-energy high-luminosity muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance to ~25 microns (normalized) while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. Ionization cooling using high-field solenoids (or Li Lens) can reduce transverse emittances to ~100 microns in readily achievable configurations, confirmed by simulation. Passing these muon beams at ~100 MeV/c through cm-sized diamond wedges can reduce transverse emittances to ~25 microns, while increasing longitudinal emittance by a factor of ~5. Implementation will require optical matching of the exiting beam into downstream acceleration systems.

  5. Reverberation time lags in the high luminosity quasar PG 1247+267

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, M.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Saturni, F. G.

    2014-10-01

    Virial estimates of the black hole mass in the center of AGNs, derived from single-epoch observations of luminosity and emission line widths, are now available for several thousands of objects at all redshifts and luminosities, so that studies of the cosmological evolution of the AGN mass function are becoming possible. These estimates are based on the empirical luminosity-size relation measured through reverberation mapping at low redshifts and luminosities. For this reason the spectrophotometric monitoring of 4 luminous quasars was started in 2003, with the 1.8 m telescope of the Asiago Observatory. To measure the reverberation time lag we adopt a method, recently introduced by Zu et al. (2011), which takes advantage of the available statistical information on variability autocorrelation and makes simple assumptions on the continuum-emission line transfer function. We present the estimate of the broad line region size for the quasar PG 1247+267, which is the most luminous object with reverberation measures to date. Virial products computed for C IV and C III] emission lines provide consistent results. A possible flattening of the size-luminosity relation for C IV at high luminosity is suggested.

  6. High pressure optical combustion probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed a combustion probe for monitoring flame presence and heat release. The technology involved is a compact optical detector of the OH radical`s UV fluorescence. The OH Monitor/Probe is designed to determine the flame presence and provide a qualitative signal proportional to the flame intensity. The probe can be adjusted to monitor a specific volume in the combustion zone to track spatial fluctuations in the flame. The probe is capable of nanosecond time response and is usually slowed electronically to fit the flame characteristics. The probe is a sapphire rod in a stainless steel tube which may be inserted into the combustion chamber and pointed at the flame zone. The end of the sapphire rod is retracted into the SS tube to define a narrow optical collection cone. The collection cone may be adjusted to fit the experiment. The fluorescence signal is collected by the sapphire rod and transmitted through a UV transmitting, fused silica, fiber optic to the detector assembly. The detector is a side window photomultiplier (PMT) with a 310 run line filter. A Hamamatsu photomultiplier base combined with a integral high voltage power supply permits this to be a low voltage device. Electronic connections include: a power lead from a modular DC power supply for 15 VDC; a control lead for 0-1 volts to control the high voltage level (and therefore gain); and a lead out for the actual signal. All low voltage connections make this a safe and easy to use device while still delivering the sensitivity required.

  7. The Herschel* PEP-HERMES Luminosity Function- I. Probing the Evolution of PACS Selected Galaxies to z approx. equal to 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppioni, Carlotta; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Pozzetti, L.; Zamorani, G.; Andreani, P.; Cimatti, A.; Ilbert, O.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the deep and extended far-IR data sets (at 70, 100 and 160 µm) of the Herschel Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) Survey, in combination with the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey data at 250, 350 and 500 µm, to derive the evolution of the rest-frame 35-, 60-, 90- and total infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) up to z 4.We detect very strong luminosity evolution for the total IR LF (LIR ? (1 + z)(sup 3.55 +/- 0.10) up to z 2, and ? (1 + z)(sup 1.62 +/- 0.51) at 2 less than z less than approximately 4) combined with a density evolution (? (1 + z)(sup -0.57 +/- 0.22) up to z 1 and ? (1 + z)(sup -3.92 +/- 0.34) at 1 less than z less than approximately 4). In agreement with previous findings, the IR luminosity density (?IR) increases steeply to z 1, then flattens between z 1 and z 3 to decrease at z greater than approximately 3. Galaxies with different spectral energy distributions, masses and specific star formation rates (SFRs) evolve in very different ways and this large and deep statistical sample is the first one allowing us to separately study the different evolutionary behaviours of the individual IR populations contributing to ?IR. Galaxies occupying the well-established SFR-stellar mass main sequence (MS) are found to dominate both the total IR LF and ?IR at all redshifts, with the contribution from off-MS sources (=0.6 dex above MS) being nearly constant (20 per cent of the total ?IR) and showing no significant signs of increase with increasing z over the whole 0.8 < z <2.2 range. Sources with mass in the range 10 = log(M/solar mass) = 11 are found to dominate the total IR LF, with more massive galaxies prevailing at the bright end of the high-z (greater than approximately 2) LF. A two-fold evolutionary scheme for IR galaxies is envisaged: on the one hand, a starburst-dominated phase in which the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) grows and is obscured by dust (possibly triggered by a major merging event

  8. Operation of the LHC with Protons at High Luminosity and High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, Giulia; Alemany-Fernandez, Reyes; Crockford, Guy; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Giachino, Rossano; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Lamont, Mike; Nisbet, David; Normann, Lasse; Pojer, Mirko; Ponce, Laurette; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Suykerbuyk, Ronaldus; Uythoven, Jan; Wenninger, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) entered the first year in its second long Run, after a 2-year shutdown that prepared it for high energy. The first two months of beam operation were dedicated to setting up the nominal cycle for proton-proton operation at 6.5 TeV/beam, and culminated with the first physics with 3 nominal bunches/ring at 13 TeV CoM on 3 June. The year continued with a stepwise intensity ramp up that allowed reaching 2244 bunches/ring for a peak luminosity of ~5·10³³ cm⁻²s^{−1} and a total of just above 4 fb-1 delivered to the high luminosity experiments. Beam operation was shaped by the high intensity effects, e.g. electron cloud and macroparticle-induced fast losses (UFOs), which on a few occasions caused the first beam induced quenches at high energy. This paper describes the operational experience with high intensity and high energy at the LHC, together with the issues that had to be tackled along the way.

  9. FROM NEARBY LOW LUMINOSITY AGN TO HIGH REDSHIFT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    44

    galaxies exhibited primarily two radio morphologies: the. Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I galaxies had broad jets that flared into diffuse radio plumes / lobes, while the FR type II galaxies had collimated jets that terminated in regions of high surface brightness called “hot spots” with the back-flowing plasma or the plasma left behind ...

  10. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartoukh, Stephane [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Shatilov, Dmitry [BINP, Novosibirsk

    2015-06-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical $\\beta^{\\ast}$values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  11. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070952; Valishev, Aleksander; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical β∗ values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  12. Magnet Design of the 150 mm Aperture Low-β Quadrupoles for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ferracin, P; Anerella, M; Borgnolutti, F; Bossert, R; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D R; Felice, H; Ghosh , A; Godeke, A; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Fessia, P; Krave, S; Juchno, M; Perez, J C; Oberli, L; Sabbi, G; Todesco, E; Yu, M

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project is aimed at studying and implementing the necessary changes in the LHC to increase its luminosity by a factor five. Among the magnets that will be upgraded are the 16 superconducting low-β quadrupoles placed around the two high luminosity interaction regions (ATLAS and CMS experiments). In the current baseline scenario, these quadrupole magnets will have to generate a gradient of 140 T/m in a coil aperture of 150 mm. The resulting conductor peak field of more than 12 T will require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. We present in this paper the HL-LHC low-β quadrupole design, based on the experience gathered by the US LARP program, and, in particular, we describe the support structure components to pre-load the coils, withstand the electro-magnetic forces, provide alignment and LHe containment, and integrate the cold mass in the LHC IRs.

  13. ATLAS physics prospects at the high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Philip James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Run-I at the LHC has been very successful, including the discovery of a new particle with a mass of about 125 GeV compatible within uncertainties with the Higgs boson predicted by Standard Model. Precise measurements of the properties of this boson, and the discovery of new physics beyond the Standard Model, are primary goals of future running at the LHC. The physics prospects with a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV are presented for 300 fb-1 (Phase I) and 3000 fb-1 at the high-luminositiy LHC (Phase II). The ultimate precision attainable on measurements of the couplings of the 125 GeV particle to elementary fermions and bosons is discussed, as well as perspectives on the searches for partners associated with this new object, predicted by several extensions of the standard theory. Supersymmetry is one of the best motivated and well-studied extensions of the Standard Model. The current searches at the LHC have yielded sensitivity to TeV scale gluinos and 1st and 2nd generation squarks, as well as ...

  14. Preparing the ATLAS Jet Trigger for High Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kasieczka, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Poster for PLHC 2011 Conference The performance of jet finding in the ATLAS trigger is presented. Results from early-2011 LHC runs are reviewed and enhancements aimed at improving performance are evaluated. The fast and precise measurement of hadronic jets with high transverse momenta in the trigger is essential to the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The ATLAS trigger finds jets in three stages with increasingly more complex algorithms and tighter selection criteria. Jets are found in the first stage, Level 1, from coarse granularity calorimeter towers using a sliding windows algorithm. Jets are reconstructed in the second stage, Level 2, from calorimeter cells with a cone algorithm seeded by the Level 1 jets. In the final stage - the Event Filter - topological clusters of calorimeter cells are input into the anti-kT algorithm for jet finding. This is similar to the methodology adopted by the offline analyses and improves the jet energy and angular resolution. The calorimeter is also read-out in a sing...

  15. Nb3Sn High Field Magnets for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new generation of high field superconducting magnets. High field large aperture quadrupoles (MQXF) are needed for the low-beta triplets close to the ATLAS and CMS detectors, and high field two-in-one dipoles (11 T dipoles) are needed to make room for additional collimation. The MQXF quadrupoles, with a field gradient of 140 T/m in 150 mm aperture, have a peak coil field of 12.1 T at nominal current. The 11 T dipoles, with an aperture of 60 mm, have a peak coil field of 11.6 T at nominal current. Both magnets require Nb3Sn conductor and are the first applications of this superconductor to actual accelerator magnets.

  16. Energy deposition studies for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider inner triplet magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S.; Cerutti, F.; Esposito, L.S.; Lechner, A.

    2015-05-06

    A detailed model of the High Luminosity LHC inner triplet region with new large-aperture Nb3Sn magnets, field maps, corrector packages, and segmented tungsten inner absorbers was built and implemented into the FLUKA and MARS15 codes. In the optimized configuration, the peak power density averaged over the magnet inner cable width is safely below the quench limit. For the integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, the peak dose in the innermost magnet insulator ranges from 20 to 35 MGy. Dynamic heat loads to the triplet magnet cold mass are calculated to evaluate the cryogenic capability. In general, FLUKA and MARS results are in a very good agreement.

  17. Tracking with CVD diamond radiation sensors at high luminosity colliders (1999-3.1507)

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetzer, S R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Da Graca, J; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jamieson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Plano, R J; Polesello, P; Prawer, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Sciortino, S; Somalwar, S V; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress on developing diamond-based sensors for vertex detection at high luminosity hadron colliders is described. Measurements of the performance of diamond sensors after irradiation to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ hadrons/cm/sup 2/ are shown. These indicate that diamond sensors will operate at distances as close as 5 cm from the interaction point at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for many years at full luminosity without significant degradation in performance. Measurements of the quality of the signals from diamond sensors as well as spatial uniformity are presented. Test beam results on measurements of diamond-based microstrip and pixels devices are described.

  18. Final Cooling For a High-luminosity High-Energy Lepton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D.; Sayed, H.; Hart, T.; Summers, D.

    2015-05-01

    The final cooling system for a high-energy high-luminosity heavy lepton collider requires reduction of the transverse emittance εt by an order of magnitude to ~0.00003 m (rms, N), while allowing longitudinal emittance εL to increase to ~0.1m. In the present baseline approach, this is obtained by transverse cooling of low-energy muons within a sequence of high-field solenoids with low-frequency rf systems. Recent studies of such systems are presented. Since the final cooling steps are mostly emittance exchange, a variant form of that final system can be obtained by a round to flat transform in x-y, with transverse slicing of the enlarged flat transverse dimension followed by longitudinal recombination of the sliced bunchlets. Other variants are discussed. More explicit emittance exchange can greatly reduce the cost of a final cooling system.

  19. Light dark sector searches at low-energy high-luminosity e + e - colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Shou-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Although the standard model (SM) is extremely successful, there are various motivations for considering the physics beyond the SM. For example, the SM includes neither dark energy nor dark matter, which has been confirmed through astrophysical observations. Examination of the dark sector, which contains new, light, weakly-coupled particles at the GeV scale or lower, is well motivated by both theory and dark-matter detection experiments. In this mini-review, we focus on one particular case in which these new particles can interact with SM particles through a kinematic mixing term between U(1) gauge bosons. The magnitude of the mixing can be parameterized by a parameter є. Following a brief overview of the relevant motivations and the constraints determined from numerous experiments, we focus on the light dark sector phenomenology at low-energy high-luminosity e + e - colliders. These colliders are ideal for probing the new light particles, because of their large production rates and capacity for precise resonance reconstruction. Depending on the details of a given model, the typical observed signatures may also contain multi lepton pairs, displaced vertices, and/or missing energy. Through the use of extremely large data samples from existing experiments, such as KLOE, CLEO, BABAR, Belle, and BESIII, the magnitude of the mixing can be parameterized by a parameter є < 10-4-10-3 constraint can be obtained. Obviously, future experiments with larger datasets will provide opportunities for the discovery of new particles in the dark sector, or for stricter upper limits on є. Once the light dark sector is confirmed, the particle physics landscape will be changed significantly.

  20. RD50 Status Report 2008 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Campabadal, Francesca; Díez, Sergio; Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Rafí, Joan Marc; Ullán, Miguel; Creanza, Donato; De Palma, Mauro; Fedele, Francesca; Manna, Norman; Kierstead, Jim; Li, Zheng; Buda, Manuela; Lazanu, Sorina; Pintilie, Lucian; Pintilie, Ioana; Popa, Andreia-Ioana; Lazanu, Ionel; Collins, Paula; Fahrer, Manuel; Glaser, Maurice; Joram, Christian; Kaska, Katharina; La Rosa, Alessandro; Mekki, Julien; Moll, Michael; Pacifico, Nicola; Pernegger, Heinz; Goessling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Weber, Jens; Wunstorf, Renate; Roeder, Ralf; Stolze, Dieter; Uebersee, Hartmut; Cihangir, Selcuk; Kwan, Simon; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Bruzzi, Mara; Focardi, Ettore; Menichelli, David; Scaringella, Monica; Breindl, Michael; Eckert, Simon; Köhler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich; Wiik, Liv; Bates, Richard; Blue, Andrew; Buttar, Craig; Doherty, Freddie; Eklund, Lars; Bates, Alison G; Haddad, Lina; Houston, Sarah; James, Grant; Mathieson, Keith; Melone, J; OShea, Val; Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David; Buhmann, Peter; Eckstein, Doris; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Hönniger, Frank; Khomenkov, Vladimir; Klanner, Robert; Lindström, Gunnar; Pein, Uwe; Srivastava, Ajay; Härkönen, Jaakko; Lassila-Perini, Katri; Luukka, Panja; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuovinen, Esa; Eremin, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Igor; Ivanov, Alexandr; Kalinina, Evgenia; Lebedev, Alexander; Strokan, Nikita; Verbitskaya, Elena; Barcz, Adam; Brzozowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Pawel; Kozlowski, Roman; Kozubal, Michal; Luczynski, Zygmunt; Pawlowski, Marius; Surma, Barbara; Zelazko, Jaroslaw; de Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Hartmann, Frank; Zhukov, Valery; Barabash, L; Dolgolenko, A; Groza, A; Karpenko, A; Khivrich, V; Lastovetsky, V; Litovchenko, P; Polivtsev, L; Campbell, Duncan; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Fox, Harald; Hughes, Gareth; Jones, Brian Keith; Sloan, Terence; Samadashvili, Nino; Tuuva, Tuure; Affolder, Anthony; Allport, Phillip; Bowcock, Themis; Casse, Gianluigi; Vossebeld, Joost; Cindro, Vladimir; Dolenc, Irena; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandic, Igor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Zontar, Dejan; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Grégoire, Ghislain; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Kazuchits, Nikolai; Makarenko, Leonid; Charron, Sébastien; Genest, Marie-Helene; Houdayer, Alain; Lebel, Celine; Leroy, Claude; Aleev, Andrey; Golubev, Alexander; Grigoriev, Eugene; Karpov, Aleksey; Martemianov, Alxander; Rogozhkin, Sergey; Zaluzhny, Alexandre; Andricek, Ladislav; Beimforde, Michael; Macchiolo, Anna; Moser, Hans-Günther; Nisius, Richard; Richter, Rainer; Gorelov, Igor; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Metcalfe, Jessica; Seidel, Sally; Toms, Konstantin; Hartjes, Fred; Koffeman, Els; van der Graaf, Harry; Visschers, Jan; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Sundnes Løvlie, Lars; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt G; Bisello, Dario; Candelori, Andrea; Litovchenko, Alexei; Pantano, Devis; Rando, Riccardo; Bilei, Gian Mario; Passeri, Daniele; Petasecca, Marco; Pignatel, Giorgio Umberto; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Messineo, Alberto; Bohm, Jan; Mikestikova, Marcela; Popule, Jiri; Sicho, Petr; Tomasek, Michal; Vrba, Vaclav; Broz, Jan; Dolezal, Zdenek; Kodys, Peter; Tsvetkov, Alexej; Wilhelm, Ivan; Chren, Dominik; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Kohout, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solar, Michael; Sopko, Vít; Sopko, Bruno; Uher, Josef; Horisberger, Roland; Radicci, Valeria; Rohe, Tilman; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Giolo, Kim; Miyamoto, Jun; Rott, Carsten; Roy, Amitava; Shipsey, Ian; Son, SeungHee; Demina, Regina; Korjenevski, Sergey; Grillo, Alexander; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Schumm, Bruce; Seiden, Abraham; Spence, Ned; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Artuso, Marina; Borgia, Alessandra; Lefeuvre, Gwenaelle; Guskov, J; Marunko, Sergey; Ruzin, Arie; Tylchin, Tamir; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian - Franco; Gregori, Paolo; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Zen, Mario; Zorzi, Nicola; Garcia, Carmen; Lacasta, Carlos; Marco, Ricardo; Marti i Garcia, Salvador; Minano, Mercedes; Soldevila-Serrano, Urmila; Gaubas, Eugenijus; Kadys, Arunas; Kazukauskas, Vaidotas; Sakalauskas, Stanislavas; Storasta, Jurgis; Vidmantis Vaitkus, Juozas; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders, particularly to face the requirements of a possible upgrade scenario of the LHC.This document reports the status of research and main results obtained after the sixth year of activity of the collaboration.

  1. Pulse simulations and heat flow measurements for the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter under high-luminosity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)758133; Zuber, Kai

    The high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is an important step for further and more detailed studies of the Standard Model of particle physics as well as searches for new physics. The necessary upgrade of the ATLAS detector is a challenging task as the increased luminosity entails many problems for the different detector parts. The liquid-argon Forward Calorimeter suffers signal-degradation effects and a high voltage drop of the supply potential under high-luminosity conditions. It is possible that the argon starts to boil due to the large energy depositions. The effect of the high-luminosity environment on the liquid-argon Forward Calorimeter has been simulated in order to investigate the level of signal degradation. The results show a curvature of the triangular pulse shape that appears prolonged when increasing the energy deposit. This effect is caused by the drop in the electric potential that produces a decrease in the electric field across the liquid-argon gap in the Forward Calorim...

  2. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Tracking Detectors - Part II. Calorimetry, muon detection, vertexing, and tracking will play a central role in determining the physics reach for the High Luminosity LHC Era. In these lectures we will cover the requirements, options, and the R&D efforts necessary to upgrade the current LHC detectors and enabling discoveries.

  3. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (3/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Tracking Detectors - Part I. Calorimetry, muon detection, vertexing, and tracking will play a central role in determining the physics reach for the High Luminosity LHC Era. In these lectures we will cover the requirements, options, and the R&D efforts necessary to upgrade the current LHC detectors and enabling discoveries.

  4. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS) in SDSS and the high-z bright-end Quasar Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early Universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. Unfortunately, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) nd the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) have so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z>3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of $z~3$ quasars at the brightest end.We have identified the purely optical color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore we have designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using WISE AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright (i learning algorithms on SDSS and WISE photometry for quasar-star classification and photometric redshift estimation.The ELQS is spectroscopically following up ~230 new quasar candidates in an area of ~12000 deg2 in the SDSS footprint, to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 2.8<= z<=5.0. So far the ELQS has identified 75 bright new quasars in this redshift range and observations of the fall sky will continue until the end of the year. At the AAS winter meeting we will present the full spectroscopic results of the survey, including a re-estimation and extension of the high-z QLF toward higher luminosities.

  5. Long term dynamics of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider with crab cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco García, J.; De Maria, R.; Grudiev, A.; Tomás García, R.; Appleby, R. B.; Brett, D. R.

    2016-10-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) aims to achieve an integrated luminosity of 200 - 300 fb-1 per year, including the contribution from the upgrade of the injector chain. For the HL-LHC the larger crossing angle together with a smaller beta function at the collision point would result in more than 70% luminosity loss due to the incomplete geometric overlap of colliding bunches. To recover head-on collisions at the high-luminosity particle-physics detectors ATLAS and CMS and benefit from the very low β* provided by the Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) optics, a local crab cavity scheme provides transverse kicks to the proton bunches. The tight space constraints at the location of these cavities leads to designs which are axially non-symmetric, giving rise to high order multipoles components of the main deflecting mode and, since these kicks are harmonic in time, we expand them in a series of multipoles in a similar fashion as is done for static field magnets. In this work we calculate, for the first time, the higher order multipoles and their impact on beam dynamics for three different crab cavity prototypes. Different approaches to calculate the multipoles are presented. Furthermore, we perform the first calculation of their impact on the long term stability of the machine using the concept of dynamic aperture.

  6. Long term dynamics of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider with crab cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barranco García

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC aims to achieve an integrated luminosity of 200–300  fb^{-1} per year, including the contribution from the upgrade of the injector chain. For the HL-LHC the larger crossing angle together with a smaller beta function at the collision point would result in more than 70% luminosity loss due to the incomplete geometric overlap of colliding bunches. To recover head-on collisions at the high-luminosity particle-physics detectors ATLAS and CMS and benefit from the very low β^{*} provided by the Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS optics, a local crab cavity scheme provides transverse kicks to the proton bunches. The tight space constraints at the location of these cavities leads to designs which are axially non-symmetric, giving rise to high order multipoles components of the main deflecting mode and, since these kicks are harmonic in time, we expand them in a series of multipoles in a similar fashion as is done for static field magnets. In this work we calculate, for the first time, the higher order multipoles and their impact on beam dynamics for three different crab cavity prototypes. Different approaches to calculate the multipoles are presented. Furthermore, we perform the first calculation of their impact on the long term stability of the machine using the concept of dynamic aperture.

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10ˆ34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will a...

  8. Upgrade of Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10^34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC in 2026. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow th...

  9. Upgrade of Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of $5 * 10^{34} cm^{-2} s ^{-1} $, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC in 2026. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allo...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00127668; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5 1034cm2s1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow ...

  11. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Madaffari, Daniele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1x10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x10$^{16}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm$^2$. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.

  12. The ATLAS Fast Tracker and Tracking at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00236423; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC’s increase in centre of mass energy and luminosity in 2015 makes controlling trigger rates with high efficiency challenging. The ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) is a hardware processor built to reconstruct tracks at a rate of up to 100 kHz and provide them to the high level trigger. The FTK reconstructs tracks by matching incoming detector hits with pre-defined track patterns stored in associative memory on custom ASICs. Inner detector hits are fit to these track patterns using modern FPGAs. These procedings describe the electronics system used for the FTK’s massive parallelization. An overview of the installation, commissioning and running of the system is given. The ATLAS upgrades planned to enable tracking at the High Luminosity LHC are also discussed.

  13. The new transfer line collimation system for the LHC high luminosity era

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Goddard, B; Maciariello, F; Meddahi, M; Mereghetti, A; Steele, G; Velotti, F; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2014-01-01

    A set of passive absorbers is located at the end of each of the 3 km long injection lines to protect the LHC in case of failures during the extraction process from the LHC’s last pre-injector or in the beam transfer itself. In case of an erroneous extraction, the absorbers have to attenuate the beam to a safe level and be robust enough themselves to survive the impact. These requirements are difficult to fulfill with the very bright and intense beams produced by the LHC injectors for the high luminosity era. This paper revisits the requirements for the LHC transfer line collimation system and the adapted strategy to fulfill these for the LHC high luminosity era. A possible solution for the new transfer line collimation system is presented.

  14. The New Transfer Line Collimation System for the LHC High Luminosity Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, Verena [CERN; Bracco, Chiara [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Maciariello, Fausto [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Mereghetti, Alessio [CERN; Steele, Genevieve [CERN; Velotti, Francesco [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    A set of passive absorbers is located at the end of each of the 3 km long injection lines to protect the LHC in case of failures during the extraction process from the LHC’s last pre-injector or the beam transfer itself. In case of an erroneous extraction, the absorbers have to attenuate the beam to a safe level and be robust enough themselves to survive the impact. These requirements are difficult to fulfil with the very bright and intense beams produced by the LHC injectors for the high luminosity era. This paper revisits the requirements for the SPS-to-LHC transfer line collimation system and the adapted strategy to fulfill these for the LHC high luminosity operation. A possible solution for the new transfer line collimation system is presented.

  15. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gras, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The lead tungstatecrystals forming the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) will still perform well, even after theexpected 3000$\\,$fb$^{-1}$ at the end of HL-LHC. The scintillation light is measured with avalanche photodiodes (APDs).Although the APDs will continue to be operational, there will be some increase in noise due to radiation-induceddark-currents. Triggering on electromagnetic objects with $\\sim$140 pileup events necessitates a change of the front-endelectronics. New developments in high-speed optical links will allow single-crystal readout at 40 MHz to upgradedoff-detector processors, allowing maximum flexibility and enhanced triggering possibilities. The very-front-end system willalso be upgraded, to provide improved rejection of anomalous signals in the APDs as well as to mitigate the increase in APDnoise. We are also considering lowering the ECAL barrel operating temperature...

  16. Design of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with this high rate, the ATLAS Inner Detector is being completely redesigned, and will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems. The components of the Inner Tracker will have to be resistant to the large radiation dose from the particles produced in HL-LHC collisions, and have low mass and sufficient sensor granularity to ensure a good tracking performance over the pseudorapidity range |η|<4. In this talk, first the challenges and second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed, i.e. designs under consideration for the pixel and strip modules, and the mechanics of local supports in the barrel and endcaps.

  17. Design of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Vickey, Trevor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with this high rate, the ATLAS Inner Detector is being completely redesigned, and will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems. The components of the Inner Tracker will have to be resistant to the large radiation dose from the particles produced in HL-LHC collisions, and have low mass and sufficient sensor granularity to ensure a good tracking performance over the pseudorapidity range |η|<4. In this talk, first the challenges and second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed, i.e. designs under consideration for the pixel and strip modules, and the mechanics of local supports in the barrel and endcaps.

  18. The design of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Allbrooke, Benedict; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper turn-on curves, b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, precise custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy. This talk will discuss the projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics.

  19. Performance of Drift-Tube Detectors at High Counting Rates for High-Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, Bernhard; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Manfredini, Alessandro; Nowak, Sebastian; Ott, Sebastian; Richter, Robert; Schwegler, Philipp; Zanzi, Daniele; Biebel, Otmar; Hertenberger, Ralf; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The performance of pressurized drift-tube detectors at very high background rates has been studied at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN and in an intense 20 MeV proton beam at the Munich Van-der-Graaf tandem accelerator for applications in large-area precision muon tracking at high-luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS muon drifttube (MDT) chambers with 30 mm tube diameter have been designed to cope with and neutron background hit rates of up to 500 Hz/square cm. Background rates of up to 14 kHz/square cm are expected at LHC upgrades. The test results with standard MDT readout electronics show that the reduction of the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm, while leaving the operating parameters unchanged, vastly increases the rate capability well beyond the requirements. The development of new small-diameter muon drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for LHC upgrades is completed. Further improvements of tracking e?ciency and spatial resolution at high counting rates will be achieved with ...

  20. Superconducting Quadrupoles for the ISR High Luminosity insertion Coil cross section

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    This picture shows a cut out section of an ISR High Luminosity (low beta) Quadrupole. One can clearly see the distribution of conductors and spacers which produces the wanted quadrupolar field. The spacers are made of pure copper and the central pole of stainless steel.The superconducting wire may be seen in photo 8008591X. See also pictures 7702690X, 8008591X, 7702698X.

  1. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) : Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Béjar Alonso, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Brüning, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Lamont, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-12-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology and physical processes for beam collimation and 300 metre-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. The present document describes the technologies and components that will be used to realise the project and is intended to serve as the basis for the detailed engineering design of HL-LHC.

  2. Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Tom; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), with instantaneous luminosities of up to 7.5 times the original design value, will have an impact on many sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. This contribution highlights the particular impacts on the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system, together with an overview of the various upgrade plans leading up to the HL-LHC. The higher luminosities are of particular importance for the forward calorimeters (FCal), where the expected increase in the ionization load poses a number of problems that can degrade the FCal performance such as beam heating and space-charge effects in the liquid argon gaps and high-voltage drop due to increased current drawn over the current-limiting resistors. A proposed FCal replacement as a way to counter some of these problems is weighed against the risks associated with the replacement. To further mitigate the effects of increased pile-up, the installation of a high-granularity timing detector...

  3. The Physics Program of a High-Luminosity Asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, A.; Mandelkern, M.; Morrison, R.; Witherell, M.; Burchat, P.; Kent, J.; Erbacher, R.; Vernon, W.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Weinstein, A.; Wisniewski, W.; Wagner, S.; Franzini, P.; Tuts, M.; Averill, D.; Snyder, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Oddone, P.; Roe, N.; Ronan, M.; Spahn, M.; MacFarlane, D.; Bartelt, J.; Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Cords, D.; Dib, C.; Dorfan, J.; Dunietz, I.; Gilman, F.; Godfrey, G.; Hyer, T.; Jensen, G.; Leith, D.; Marsiske, H.; Nir, Y.; Lee-Franzini, J.

    1989-10-01

    A high-luminosity asymmetric energy B Factory, proposed as an upgrade to the PEP storage ring at SLAC, provides the best opportunity to study CP violation as a means of testing the consistency of the Standard Model. If the phenomenon of CP violation is xplained by the Standard Model simply through the non-zero angles and phase of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, then there are precise relations between the K-M parameters and the various measurable CP-violating asymmetries in B meson decay. Should these onsistency relations fail, the origin of CP violation must lie outside the Standard Model framework. Our measurements would then lead to the first experiment-driven extensions of the Standard Model. The B Factory will also carry out a varied, high-quality program of studies f other aspects of the physics of b quarks, as well as high-precision measurements in r and charm physics. We describe a detailed series of measurements to be carried out in the first few years at a peak luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -1}, the initial luminosity goal of the B Factory, as well as the program accessible to a larger data sample.

  4. Silicon Sensors for High-Luminosity Trackers - RD50 Collaboration Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The revised schedule for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upg rade foresees a significant increase of the luminosity of the LHC by upgrading towards the HL-LHC ( High Luminosity-LHC). The final upgrade is planned for around the year 2023, followed by the HL-LHC running. This is motivated by the need to harvest the maximum physics potenti al from the machine. It is clear that the high integrated luminosity of 3000 fb − 1 will result in very high radiation levels, which manifest a serious challenge for the detectors. This is espe cially true for the tracking detectors installed close to the interaction point. For HL-LHC, all-s ilicon central trackers are being studied in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, with extremely radiation hard silico n sensors to be employed in the innermost layers. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a massive R&D; program is underway, with an open cooperation across experimental boundaries to deve lop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. This report presents several researc h topics...

  5. The physics program of a high-luminosity asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    A high-luminosity asymmetric energy B Factory, proposed as an upgrade to the PEP storage ring at SLAC, provides the best opportunity to study CP violation as a means of testing the consistency of the Standard Model. If the phenomenon of CP violation is explained by the Standard Model simply through the non-zero angles and phase of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, then there are precise relations between the K-M parameters and the various measurable CP-violating asymmetries in B meson decay. Should these consistency relations fail, the origin of CP violation must lie outside the Standard Model framework. Our measurements would then lead to the first experiment-driven extensions of the Standard Model. The B Factory will also carry out a varied, high-quality program of studies of other aspects of the physics of b quarks, as well as high-precision measurements in {tau} and charm physics. We describe a detailed series of measurements to be carried out in the first few years at a peak luminosity of 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -1}, the initial luminosity goal of the B Factory, as well as the program accessible to a larger data sample.

  6. An FPGA based track finder at L1 for CMS at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Amstutz, Christian; Balzer, Matthias Norbert; Brooke, James John; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Clement, Emyr John; Hall, Geoffrey; Harbaum, Tanja Renate; Harder, Kristian; Hobson, Peter; Iles, Gregory Michiel; James, Thomas Owen; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Matsushita, Takashi; Morton, Alexander; Newbold, David; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Pesaresi, Mark Franco; Reid, Ivan; Rose, A. W; Sander, Oliver; Schuh, Thomas; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni Paris; Tapper, Alexander; Tomalin, Ian; Uchida, Kirika; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Weber, M

    2016-01-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2025. It includes an outer tracker based on PT-modules which will construct tracker stubs, built by correlating clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers for the rejection of low transverse momentum track hits, and transmit them off-detector at 40MHz. If tracker data is to contribute to maintaining the Level-1 trigger rate under increased luminosity, a crucial component of the upgrade will be the ability to identify tracks with transverse momentum above 3GeV/c by building tracks out of stubs. A concept for an FPGA-based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed spatially pipelined architecture is presented, where track candidates are identified using a projective binning algorithm. Results from a hardware demonstrator system, where a slice of the track trigger will be constructed to help gauge the performance and requirements for a full system, will be included.

  7. Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders

    CERN Multimedia

    Joram, C; Gregor, I; Dierlamm, A H; Wilson, F F; Sloan, T; Tuboltsev, Y V; Marone, M; Artuso, M; Cindro, V; Bruzzi, M; Bhardwaj, A; Bohm, J; Mikestikova, M; Walz, M; Breindl, M A; Ruzin, A; Marunko, S; Guskov, J; Haerkoenen, J J; Pospisil, S; Fadeyev, V; Makarenko, L; Kaminski, P; Zelazko, J; Pintilie, L; Radu, R; Nistor, S V; Ullan comes, M; Storasta, J V; Gaubas, E; Lacasta llacer, C; Kilminster, B J; Garutti, E; Buhmann, P; Khomenkov, V; Poehlsen, J A; Fernandez garcia, M; Buttar, C; Eklund, L M; Eremin, V; Aleev, A; Modi, B; Sicho, P; Gisen, A J; Nikolopoulos, K; Van beuzekom, M G; Kozlowski, R; Lozano fantoba, M; Leroy, C; Pernegger, H; Del burgo, R; Vila alvarez, I; Palomo pinto, F R; Lounis, A; Eremin, I; Fadeeva, N; Rogozhkin, S; Shivpuri, R K; Arsenovich, T; Ott, J; Abt, M; Loenker, J; Savic, N; Monaco, V; Visser, J; Lynn, D; Horazdovsky, T; Solar, M; Dervan, P J; Meng, L; Spencer, E N; Kazuchits, N; Brzozowski, A; Kozubal, M; Nistor, L C; Marti i garcia, S; Gomez camacho, J J; Fretwurst, E; Hoenniger, F; Schwandt, J; Hartmann, F; Maneuski, D; Mandic, I; Gadda, A; Preiss, J; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Grinstein, S; Marchiori, G; Gonella, L; Slavicek, T; Masek, P; Casse, G; Flores, D; Tuuva, T; Jimenez ramos, M D C; Charron, S; Rubinskiy, I; Jansen, H; Eichhorn, T V; Matysek, M; Andersson-lindstroem, G; Donegani, E; Oshea, V; Muenstermann, D; Holmkvist, C W; Verbitskaya, E; Mitina, D; Grigoriev, E; Zaluzhnyy, A; Mikuz, M; Kramberger, G; Scaringella, M; Ranjeet, R; Jain, A; Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Bomben, M; Allport, P P; Cartiglia, N; Brigljevic, V; Kohout, Z; Quirion, D; Lauer, K; Collins, P; Gallrapp, C; Rohe, T V; Villani, E G; Fox, H; Nikitin, A; Spiegel, L G; Creanza, D M; Menichelli, D; Mcduff, H; Carna, M; Weers, M; Weigell, P; Chauveau, J; Bortoletto, D; Staiano, A; Bellan, R; Szumlak, T; Sopko, V; Pawlowski, M; Pintilie, I; Pellegrini, G; Rafi tatjer, J M; Moll, M; Eckstein, D; Klanner, R; Gomez, G; Shepelev, A; Golubev, A; Lipton, R J; Borgia, A; Zavrtanik, M; Manna, N; Ranjan, K; Chhabra, S; Beyer, J; Korolkov, I; Heintz, U; Sadrozinski, H; Seiden, A; Surma, B; Esteban, S; Kazukauskas, V; Kalendra, V; Mekys, A; Nachman, B P; Tackmann, K; Steinbrueck, G; Pohlsen, T; Bolla, G; Zontar, D; Focardi, E; Seidel, S C; Winkler, A D; Altenheiner, S; Parzefall, U; Moser, H; Calderini, G; Briglin, D L; Sopko, B; Buckland, M D; Vaitkus, J V; Ortlepp, T; Lange, J C

    2002-01-01

    The requirements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN have pushed the present day silicon tracking detectors to the very edge of the current technology. Future very high luminosity colliders or a possible upgrade scenario of the LHC to a luminosity of 10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ will require semiconductor detectors with substantially improved properties. Considering the expected total fluences of fast hadrons above 10$^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and a possible reduced bunch-crossing interval of $\\approx$10 ns, the detector must be ultra radiation hard, provide a fast and efficient charge collection and be as thin as possible.\\\\ We propose a research and development program to provide a detector technology, which is able to operate safely and efficiently in such an environment. Within this project we will optimize existing methods and evaluate new ways to engineer the silicon bulk material, the detector structure and the detector operational conditions. Furthermore, possibilities to use semiconductor materials othe...

  8. Design of High Luminosity Ring-Ring Electron- Light Ion Collider at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slawomir Bogacz; Antje Bruell; Jean Delayen; Yaroslav Derbenev; Rolf Ent; Joseph Grames; Andrew Hutton; Geoffrey Krafft; Rui Li; Nikolitsa Merminga; Benard Poelker; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Byung Yunn; Yuhong Zhang; C Montag

    2007-06-25

    Experimental studies of fundamental structure of nucleons require an electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 with both beams polarized. A CEBAF-based collider of 9 GeV electrons/positrons and 225 GeV ions is envisioned to meet this science need and as a next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. A ring-ring scheme of this collider developed recently takes advantage of the existing polarized electron CW beam from the CEBAF and a green-field design of an ion complex with electron cooling. We present a conceptual design and report design studies of this high-luminosity collider.

  9. Simulations of fast crab cavity failures in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee-Rendon, Bruce; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Barranco, Javier; Calaga, Rama; Marsili, Aurelien; Tomás, Rogelio; Zimmermann, Frank; Bouly, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Crab cavities (CCs) are a key ingredient of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. At KEKB, CCs have exhibited abrupt changes of phase and voltage during a time period of the order of a few LHC turns and considering the significant stored energy in the HL-LHC beam, CC failures represent a serious threat in regard to LHC machine protection. In this paper, we discuss the effect of CC voltage or phase changes on a time interval similar to, or longer than, the one needed to dump the beam. The simulations assume a quasistationary-state distribution to assess the particles losses for the HL-LHC. These distributions produce beam losses below the safe operation threshold for Gaussian tails, while, for non-Gaussian tails are on the same order of the limit. Additionally, some mitigation strategies are studied for reducing the damage caused by the CC failures.

  10. Tracking with CVD diamond radiation sensors at high luminosity colliders (1999-3.1508)

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetzer, S R

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress on developing diamond-based sensors for vertex detection at high luminosity hadron colliders is described. Measurements of the performance of diamond sensors after irradiation to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ $9 hadrons/cm/sup 2/ are shown. These indicate that diamond sensors will operate at distances as close as 5 cm from the interaction point at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for many years at full luminosity without significant $9 degradation in performance. Measurements of the quality of the signals from diamond sensors as well as spatial uniformity are presented. Test beam results on measurements of diamond-based microstrip and pixels devices are described. $9 (6 refs).

  11. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, G; Béjar Alonso, I; Brüning, O; Lamont, M; Rossi, L

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cav...

  12. Studies of Read-Out Electronics and Trigger for Muon Drift Tube Detectors at High Luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. For precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs-Boson and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, the LHC luminosity of $L=10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ is planned to be increased by a factor of ten leading to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to cope with the higher background and data rates, the LHC experiments need to be upgraded. In this thesis, studies for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are presented with respect to the read-out electronics of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and the small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers and the Level-1 muon trigger. Due to the reduced tube diameter of sMDT chambers, background occupancy and space charge effects are suppressed by an order of magnitude compar...

  13. The CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade and R\\&D for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Viliani, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN is expected to collide protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14\\,TeV and to reach an unprecedented peak instantaneous luminosity of $5 \\times 10^{34}\\,{\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$ with an average number of pileup events of 140. This will allow the ATLAS and CMS experiments to collect integrated luminosities of up to $3000\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ during the project lifetime. To cope with this extreme scenario the CMS detector will be substantially upgraded before starting the HL-LHC, a plan known as CMS Phase-2 Upgrade. In the upgrade the entire CMS silicon pixel detector will be replaced and the new detector will feature increased radiation hardness, higher granularity and capability to handle higher data rate and longer trigger latency. In this report the Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector will be reviewed, focusing on the features of the detector layout and on the development of new pixel devices.

  14. Energy deposition studies for the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider inner triplet magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mokhov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A detailed model of the high-luminosity LHC inner triplet region with new large-aperture Nb_{3}Sn magnets, field maps, corrector packages, and segmented tungsten inner absorbers was built and implemented into the fluka and mars15 codes. Detailed simulations have been performed coherently with the codes on the impact of particle debris from the 14-TeV center-of-mass pp-collisions on the short- and long-term stability of the inner triplet magnets. After optimizing the absorber configuration, the peak power density averaged over the magnet inner cable width is found to be safely below the quench limit at the luminosity of 5×10^{34}  cm^{−2} s^{−1}. For the anticipated lifetime integrated luminosity of 3000  fb^{−1}, the peak dose calculated for the innermost magnet insulator ranges from 20 to 35 MGy, a figure close to the commonly accepted limit. Dynamic heat loads to the triplet magnet cold mass are calculated to evaluate the cryogenic capability. fluka and mars results on energy deposition are in very good agreement.

  15. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Wanderer, P; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  16. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley

    2016-10-06

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  17. Evaluation of GPUs as a level-1 track trigger for the High-Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, H.; Dritschler, T.; Ardila, L. E.; Balzer, M.; Caselle, M.; Chilingaryan, S.; Kopmann, A.; Rota, L.; Schuh, T.; Vogelgesang, M.; Weber, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the use of GPUs as a way of realizing a low-latency, high-throughput track trigger, using CMS as a showcase example. The CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will undergo a major upgrade after the long shutdown from 2024 to 2026 when it will enter the high luminosity era. During this upgrade, the silicon tracker will have to be completely replaced. In the High Luminosity operation mode, luminosities of 5-7 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and pileups averaging at 140 events, with a maximum of up to 200 events, will be reached. These changes will require a major update of the triggering system. The demonstrated systems rely on dedicated hardware such as associative memory ASICs and FPGAs. We investigate the use of GPUs as an alternative way of realizing the requirements of the L1 track trigger. To this end we implemeted a Hough transformation track finding step on GPUs and established a low-latency RDMA connection using the PCIe bus. To showcase the benefits of floating point operations, made possible by the use of GPUs, we present a modified algorithm. It uses hexagonal bins for the parameter space and leads to a more truthful representation of the possible track parameters of the individual hits in Hough space. This leads to fewer duplicate candidates and reduces fake track candidates compared to the regular approach. With data-transfer latencies of 2 μs and processing times for the Hough transformation as low as 3.6 μs, we can show that latencies are not as critical as expected. However, computing throughput proves to be challenging due to hardware limitations.

  18. Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetry and Muon Spectromers - Part II: When upgrading the LHC to higher luminosities, the detector and trigger performance shall be preserved - if not improved - with respect to the nominal performance. The ongoing R&D for new radiation tolerant front-end electronics for calorimeters with higher read-out bandwidth are summarized and new possibilities for the trigger systems are presented. Similar developments are foreseen for the muon spectrometers, where also radiation tolerance of the muon detectors and functioning at high background rates is important. The corresponding plans and research work for the calorimeter and muon detectors at a LHC with highest luminsity are presented.

  19. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  20. High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider A description for the European Strategy Preparatory Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest scientific instrument ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2009, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. It will remain the most powerful accelerator in the world for at least two decades, and its full exploitation is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond its design value. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about 10 years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 13 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconduc...

  1. Sparse Representation for Signal Reconstruction in Calorimeters Operating in High Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Davis P.; de A. Filho, Luciano M.; Peralva, Bernardo S.; Cerqueira, Augusto S.; de Seixas, José M.

    2017-07-01

    A calorimeter signal reconstruction method, based on sparse representation (SR) of redundant data, is proposed for energy reconstruction in particle colliders operating in high-luminosity conditions. The signal overlapping is first modeled as an underdetermined linear system, leading to a convex set of feasible solutions. The solution with the smallest number of superimposed signals (the SR) that represents the recorded data is obtained through the use of an interior-point (IP) optimization procedure. From a signal processing point-of-view, the procedure performs a source separation, where the information of the amplitude of each convoluted signal is obtained. In the simulation results, a comparison of the proposed method with standard signal reconstruction one was performed. For this, a toy Monte Carlo simulation was developed, focusing in calorimeter front-end signal generation only, where the different levels of pileup and signal-to-noise ratio were used to qualify the proposed method. The results show that the method may be competitive in high-luminosity environments.

  2. Progress with Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation Studies for High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Adriana; et al.

    2017-05-01

    Long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interactions can be a source of emittance growth and beam losses in the LHC during physics and will become even more relevant with the smaller '* and higher bunch intensities foreseen for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade (HL-LHC), in particular if operated without crab cavities. Both beam losses and emittance growth could be mitigated by compensat-ing the non-linear LRBB kick with a correctly placed current carrying wire. Such a compensation scheme is currently being studied in the LHC through a demonstration test using current-bearing wires embedded into col-limator jaws, installed either side of the high luminosity interaction regions. For HL-LHC two options are considered, a current-bearing wire as for the demonstrator, or electron lenses, as the ideal distance between the particle beam and compensating current may be too small to allow the use of solid materials. This paper reports on the ongoing activities for both options, covering the progress of the wire-in-jaw collimators, the foreseen LRBB experiments at the LHC, and first considerations for the design of the electron lenses to ultimately replace material wires for HL-LHC.

  3. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Planer, Michael David

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The lead tungstate crystals forming the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) will still perform well, even after the expected 3000 fb-1 at the end of HL-LHC. The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) used to detect the scintillation light have recently been exposed to the levels of radiation expected at the end of HL-LHC. Although they will continue to be operational, there will be some increase in noise due to radiation-induced dark-currents. Triggering on electromagnetic objects with ~140 pileup events necessitates a change of the front-end electronics. New developments in high-speed optical links will allow single-crystal readout at 40 MHz to upgraded off-detector processors, allowing maximum flexibility and enhanced triggering capabilities. The very-front-end system will also be upgraded, to provide improved rejection of anomalous signals in the APDs as well as to mitigate the increase in APD n...

  4. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071985

    2016-03-14

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The lead tungstate crystals forming the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) will still perform well, even after the expected 3000fb-1 at the end of HL-LHC. The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) used to detect the scintillation light have recently been exposed to the levels of radiation expected at the end of HL-LHC. Although they will continue to be operational, there will be some increase in noise due to radiation-induced dark-currents. Triggering CMS with ~140 pileup events necessitates a change of the front-end electronics. New developments in high-speed optical links will allow single-crystal readout at 40 MHz. This will provide maximum flexibility and enhanced triggering possibilities when used in conjunction with upgraded off-detector processors. The very-front-end system will also be upgraded, to provide improved rejection of anomalous signals in the APDs as well as to mitigate the incr...

  5. High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Technical Design Report V. 0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar Alonso I.; Brüning O.; Fessia P.; Lamont M.; Rossi L.; Tavian L.

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a newenergy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists work-ing in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. Tosustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase itsinstantaneous luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integratedluminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely opti-mised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. Thenew configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), relies on a number of key innovations that pushaccelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting mag-nets, compact superconduc...

  6. CMOS pixel sensor development for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rimoldi, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a fully silicon based detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) before the start of the High Luminosity-LHC project (HL-LHC) in 2026. To cope with the harsh environment expected at the HL-LHC, new approaches are being developed for pixel detector based on CMOS pixel techology. Such detectors provide charge collection, analog and digital amplification in the same silicon bulk. The radiation hardness is obtained with multiple nested wells that have embedded the CMOS electronics with sufficient shielding. The goal of this programme is to demonstrate that depleted CMOS pixels are suitable for high rate, fast timing and high radiation operation at the LHC. A number of alternative solutions have been explored and characterised, and are presented in this document.

  7. Layout and prototyping of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Ankush; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The current inner tracker of the ATLAS experiment is foreseen to be replaced at the High Luminosity era of the LHC to cope with the occuring increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage. It will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). This new tracker will have both silicon pixel and silicon strip sub-systems aiming to provide tracking coverage up to |η|<4. For a high tracking performance are radiation hard and high-rate capable silicon sensors and readout electronics important. Moreover, services and stable, low mass mechanical structures are essential and give challenges to the system design. In this talk first the tracker layout and challenges, second possible solutions to these challenges will be discussed. The layouts under considerations and their technical realizations in terms of mechanics of local supports will be presented.

  8. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00236332; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. An analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitized and then...

  9. Upgrade of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade (2024-2025) will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. In the new architecture, all signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at the rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). . The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade (2024-2025) will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. In the new architecture, all signals will be digitized and sent to the first level of trigger at the rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. ...

  11. Design and testing of a four rod crab cavity for High Luminosity LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-rod deflecting structure is proposed as a possible crab cavity design for the LHC high luminosity upgrade. Crab cavities are required for the LHC luminosity upgrade to provide a greater bunch overlap in the presence of a crossing angle, but must fit in the existing limited space. The structure has two parallel sections consisting of two longitudinally opposing quarter-wave rods, where each rod has the opposite charge from each of its nearest neighbors. The structure is transversely compact because the frequency is dependent on the rod lengths rather than the cavity radius. Simulations were undertaken to investigate the effect of rod shape on surface fields, higher order multipole terms and induced wakefields in order to obtain the optimal rod shape. The simulation results presented show that the addition of focus electrodes or by shaping the rods the sextupole contribution of the cavity voltage can be negated; the sextupole contribution is 321.57  mTm/m^{2}, E_{peak}=27.7  MV/m, and B_{peak}=63.9  mT at the design voltage of 3 MV. The damping requirements for the LHC are critical and suitable couplers to damp all modes but the operating mode are presented. The results of various testing cycles of the first SRF 4 rod prototype cavity are presented and show that the cavity has reached the required transverse voltage of 3 MV.

  12. Simulations of fast crab cavity failures in the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Yee-Rendon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Crab cavities (CCs are a key ingredient of the high luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC project for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. At KEKB, CCs have exhibited abrupt changes of phase and voltage during a time period of the order of a few LHC turns and considering the significant stored energy in the HL-LHC beam, CC failures represent a serious threat in regard to LHC machine protection. In this paper, we discuss the effect of CC voltage or phase changes on a time interval similar to, or longer than, the one needed to dump the beam. The simulations assume a quasistationary-state distribution to assess the particles losses for the HL-LHC. These distributions produce beam losses below the safe operation threshold for Gaussian tails, while, for non-Gaussian tails are on the same order of the limit. Additionally, some mitigation strategies are studied for reducing the damage caused by the CC failures.

  13. Strip detector for the ATLAS detector upgrade for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veloce, Laurelle Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High Luminosity LHC, scheduled for 2025. The expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1 will require the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1x1016 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, the existing Inner Detector will have to be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The ITk strip detector consists of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel. The current prototyping phase has resulted in the ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the involved institutes. In this contribution we present the design of the ITk Strip Detector and current status of R&D of various detector components.

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. Currently, an analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitiz...

  15. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Asensi Tortajada, Ignacio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter consisting of alternating thin steel plates and scintillating tiles. Wavelength shifting fibers coupled to the tiles collect the produced light and are read out by photomultiplier tubes. An analog sum of the processed signal of several photomultipliers serves as input to the first level of trigger. Photomultiplier signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed (at a rate of maximum 100 kHz). The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the upgrade of the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and of...

  16. Thermally Enhanced Cable Insulation for the Nb-Ti High Luminosity LHC Inner Triplet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Richter, D; Tommasini, D

    2012-01-01

    A new concept of polyimide electrical insulation for superconducting cables of accelerator magnets was developed in the last years. Its enhanced He II permeability allows a significant improvement of the heat extraction from the coil. This cable insulation concept is used for the quadrupole magnet prototype for the insertion region of the High Luminosity - Large Hadron Collider project. It aims at pushing the limits of the Nb Ti technology to withstand high heat deposition. Cable samples wrapped with the new insulation scheme were characterized from the thermal standpoint, as well as from the electrical and mechanical ones. In particular, heat transfer measurements from insulated cables towards the helium cooling bath were performed in a coil-like configuration. Various wrapping schemes were tested in different mechanical conditions, and a model was developed to explain the experimental results. The paper summarizes the main results of all these investigations.

  17. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bracco, C; Fraser, M; Galleazzi, F; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Kosmicki, A; Maciariello, F; Meddahi, M; Nuiry, F X; Steele, G; Velotti, F

    2015-01-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  18. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V. [CERN; Aberle, O. [CERN; Bracco, C. [CERN; Fraser, M. [CERN; Galleazzi, F. [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, E. [Fermilab; Kosmicki, A. [CERN; Maciariello, F. [CERN; Meddahi, M. [CERN; Nuiry, F. X. [CERN; Steele, G. [CERN; Velotti, F. [CERN

    2015-06-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  19. FLUKA studies of hadron-irradiated scintillating crystals for calorimetry at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Quittnat, Milena Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    Calorimetry at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will be performed in a harsh radiation environment with high hadron fluences. The upgraded CMS electromagnetic calorimeter design and suitable scintillating materials are a focus of current research. In this paper, first results using the Monte Carlo simulation program FLUKA are compared to measurements performed with proton-irradiated LYSO, YSO and cerium fluoride crystals. Based on these results, an extrapolation to the behavior of an electromagnetic sampling calorimeter, using one of the inorganic scintillators above as an active medium, is performed for the upgraded CMS experiment at the HL-LHC. Characteristic parameters such as the induced ambient dose, fluence spectra for different particle types and the residual nuclei are studied, and the suitability of these materials for a future calorimeter is surveyed. Particular attention is given to the creation of isotopes in an LYSO-tungsten calorimeter that might contribute a prohibitive background to the measu...

  20. submitter Optimization of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford Cables Geometry for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fleiter, Jerome; Bonasia, Angelo; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole and dipole magnets for the LHC High Luminosity (HL-LHC) upgrade will be based on Nb3Sn Rutherford cables that operate at 1.9 K and experience magnetic fields of up to about 12 T. An important step in the design of these magnets is the development of the high aspect ratio Nb3Sn cables to achieve the nominal field with sufficient margin. The strong plastic deformation of unreacted $Nb_3Sn$ strands during the Rutherford cabling process may induce non negligible $I_c$ and RRR degradation. In this paper, the cabling degradation is investigated as a function of the cable geometry for both PIT and RRP conductors. Based on this analysis, new baseline geometries for both 11 T and QXF magnets of HL-LHC are proposed.

  1. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter, its performance with pp collisions and its upgrades for high luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Davidek, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with the other calorimeters it is designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in the muon identification.  A summary of the upgrades and performance results for TileCal using pp collisions from the initial LHC Run II at 13 TeV will be presented. For the high luminosity era a major upgrade of the TileCal electronics is planned, and the ongoing developments for on- and off-detector systems, together with expected performance characteristics and recent beam tests of prototypes, will be described.

  2. Engineering Study of Crab Cavity HOM Couplers for LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Hyekyung; Delayen, Jean Roger; De Silva, S U; Li, Z; Nicol, T H; Capelli, Teddy; Templeton, Niklas John

    2015-01-01

    The LHC is planning to employ crab cavities for the high luminosity upgrade. Old Dominion University and SLAC National Laboratory are developing a crab cavity completed with the HOM damping couplers [1]. The HOM couplers are coaxial type and perform over broadband up to 2 GHz. The amount of extracted power requires active cooling using liquid helium. The electromagnetic study has provided expected power dissipation on the coupler. Correlations between the fabrication tolerance and its damping performance have been studied and the results are providing guidelines on how to manufacture the HOM couplers. This paper summarizes the engineering studies; mechanical strength as a part of pressure system, thermal stability, and fabrication method to ensure the required tolerance.

  3. The LHC's future, part 1: The High-Luminosity quadrupole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the number of collisions by a factor of 10 is a future goal for the Large Hadron Collider. To do this, the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project is working on cranking up LHC performance to increase discovery potential after 2025. Among the components to be upgraded are the quadrupole magnets in interaction points IP1 and IP5, which will use a new superconducting technology based on the superconductor Niobium-tin (Nb3Sn). This superconductor will help reach magnetic fields of about 12 T, but it requires a complex fabrication process that includes heat treatment of the coils to about 650 degrees Celsius and vacuum impregnation with epoxy. In CERN's superconducting model magnets laboratory the Magnet, Superconductors and Cryostats group is currently fabricating short models of the final Nb3Sn HL-LHC quadrupole magnet to verify the magnet design and define fabrication and assembly procedures.

  4. ATLAS Higgs and Supersymmetry Physics Prospects at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Venturi, Nicola; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Higgs physics prospects at the high-luminosity LHC are presented, assuming an energy of sqrt(s) = 14 TeV and a data sample of 3000-4000 fb-1. In particular, the ultimate precision attainable on the couplings measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson with SM fermions and bosons is discussed, as well as perspectives on the search for the Standard Model di-Higgs production, which could lead to the measurement of the Higgs boson self-coupling. Scenarios of SUSY sparticle production, among others, have been used as benchmark to drive the design of the component upgrades, and to evaluate the sensitivity of the upgraded accelerator and detector. This talk will also overview the expected sensitivity that the ATLAS experiment will have to SUSY sparticle production with 3000 fb-1 pf proton-proton collisions collected at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV.

  5. The design of a fast Level 1 Track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00235773; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency, due to the increase in the likelihood of individual trigger thresholds being passed as a result of pile-up related activity. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper turn-on curves, b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, precise custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy.

  6. The design of a fast Level 1 Track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Allbrooke, Benedict Marc; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency, due to the increase in the likelihood of individual trigger thresholds being passed as a result of pile-up related activity. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper turn-on curves, b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, precise custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy.

  7. Multi-Wave Luminosity of High-Synchrotron-Peaked TeV BL Lacs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    calculated from the relation Lν = 4πdL. 2Sν, where dL is the luminosity distance. 3. Correlation analysis. As pointed out by Padovani (1992), for flux-limited sample, the luminosity is strongly correlated with redshift, and would result in a spurious correlation. So. Pearson's partial correlation analysis is applied to the relevant ...

  8. Exploration of a High Luminosity 100 TeV Proton Antiproton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros, Sandra J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, Lucien [Mississippi U.; Acosta, John [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2017-04-12

    New physics is being explored with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and with Intensity Frontier programs at Fermilab and KEK. The energy scale for new physics is known to be in the multi-TeV range, signaling the need for a future collider which well surpasses this energy scale. We explore a 10$^{\\,34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ luminosity, 100 TeV $p\\bar{p}$ collider with 7$\\times$ the energy of the LHC but only 2$\\times$ as much NbTi superconductor, motivating the choice of 4.5 T single bore dipoles. The cross section for many high mass states is 10 times higher in $p\\bar{p}$ than $pp$ collisions. Antiquarks for production can come directly from an antiproton rather than indirectly from gluon splitting. The higher cross sections reduce the synchrotron radiation in superconducting magnets and the number of events per beam crossing, because lower beam currents can produce the same rare event rates. Events are more centrally produced, allowing a more compact detector with less space between quadrupole triplets and a smaller $\\beta^{*}$ for higher luminosity. A Fermilab-like $\\bar p$ source would disperse the beam into 12 momentum channels to capture more antiprotons. Because stochastic cooling time scales as the number of particles, 12 cooling ring sets would be used. Each set would include phase rotation to lower momentum spreads, equalize all momentum channels, and stochastically cool. One electron cooling ring would follow the stochastic cooling rings. Finally antiprotons would be recycled during runs without leaving the collider ring by joining them to new bunches with synchrotron damping.

  9. Design of a High Luminosity 100 TeV Proton-Antiproton Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros Tautiva, Sandra Jimena

    Currently new physics is being explored with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and with Intensity Frontier programs at Fermilab and KEK. The energy scale for new physics is known to be in the multi-TeV range, signaling the need for a future collider which well surpasses this energy scale. A 10 34 cm-2 s-1 luminosity 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider is explored with 7x the energy of the LHC. The dipoles are 4.5 T to reduce cost. A proton-antiproton collider is selected as a future machine for several reasons. The cross section for many high mass states is 10 times higher in pp than pp collisions. Antiquarks for production can come directly from an antiproton rather than indirectly from gluon splitting. The higher cross sections reduce the synchrotron radiation in superconducting magnets and the number of events per bunch crossing, because lower beam currents can produce the same rare event rates. Events are also more centrally produced, allowing a more compact detector with less space between quadrupole triplets and a smaller beta* for higher luminosity. To adjust to antiproton beam losses (burn rate), a Fermilab-like antiproton source would be adapted to disperse the beam into 12 different momentum channels, using electrostatic septa, to increase antiproton momentum capture 12 times. At Fermilab, antiprotons were stochastically cooled in one Debuncher and one Accumulator ring. Because the stochastic cooling time scales as the number of particles, two options of 12 independent cooling systems are presented. One electron cooling ring might follow the stochastic cooling rings for antiproton stacking. Finally antiprotons in the collider ring would be recycled during runs without leaving the collider ring, by joining them to new bunches with snap bunch coalescence and synchrotron damping. These basic ideas are explored in this work on a future 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider and the main parameters are presented.

  10. Design of a High Luminosity 100 TeV Proton Antiproton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros Tuativa, Sandra Jimena [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Currently new physics is being explored with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and with Intensity Frontier programs at Fermilab and KEK. The energy scale for new physics is known to be in the multi-TeV range, signaling the need for a future collider which well surpasses this energy scale. A 10$^{\\,34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ luminosity 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider is explored with 7$\\times$ the energy of the LHC. The dipoles are 4.5\\,T to reduce cost. A proton-antiproton collider is selected as a future machine for several reasons. The cross section for many high mass states is 10 times higher in $p\\bar{p}$ than $pp$ collisions. Antiquarks for production can come directly from an antiproton rather than indirectly from gluon splitting. The higher cross sections reduce the synchrotron radiation in superconducting magnets and the number of events per bunch crossing, because lower beam currents can produce the same rare event rates. Events are also more centrally produced, allowing a more compact detector with less space between quadrupole triplets and a smaller $\\beta^{*}$ for higher luminosity. To adjust to antiproton beam losses (burn rate), a Fermilab-like antiproton source would be adapted to disperse the beam into 12 different momentum channels, using electrostatic septa, to increase antiproton momentum capture 12 times. At Fermilab, antiprotons were stochastically cooled in one Debuncher and one Accumulator ring. Because the stochastic cooling time scales as the number of particles, two options of 12 independent cooling systems are presented. One electron cooling ring might follow the stochastic cooling rings for antiproton stacking. Finally antiprotons in the collider ring would be recycled during runs without leaving the collider ring, by joining them to new bunches with snap bunch coalescence and synchrotron damping. These basic ideas are explored in this work on a future 100 TeV proton-antiproton collider and the main parameters are presented.

  11. High precision electromagnetic calorimetry with 40 MHz readout: the CMS crystal ECAL for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Orimoto, Toyoko Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) will be upgraded to meet the challenging running conditions expected after the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC). Particular challenges at HL-LHC are the harsh radiation environment, the increasing data rates and the extreme level of pile-up events, with up to 200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions. The detector will have to sustain an instantaneous luminosity of above $5 \\times 10^{34} cm^2 s^{-1}$, maintaining a performance similar to the one of LHC Run I for an integrated luminosity of 3 to 5 $ab^{-1}$. This poses stringent requirements on the radiation resistance of detector components, the readout and data transfer from the front end to the back end electronics, as well as the latency of the trigger system. The barrel region of the CMS ECAL will be able to retain the current lead tungstate crystals and avalanche photodiode detectors which will meet the energy measurement performance requirements throughout t...

  12. Upgrade plans for the Hadronic-Endcap Calorimeter of ATLAS for the high luminosity stage of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadov, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Cheplakov, A; Dominguez, R; Fischer, A; Habring, J; Hambarzumjan, A; Javadov, N; Kiryunin, A; Kurchaninov, L; Menke, S; Molinas Conde, I; Nagel, M; Oberlack, H; Reimann, O; Schacht, P; Strizenec, P; Vogt, S; Wichmann, G; Cadabeschi, Mircea Ioan; Langstaff, Reginald Roy; Lenckowski, Mark Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The expected increase of the instantaneous luminosity of a factor seven and of the total integrated luminosity by a factor 3-5 at the second phase of the upgraded high luminosity LHC compared to the design goals for LHC makes it necessary to re-evaluate the radiation hardness of the read-out electronics of the ATLAS Hadronic Endcap Calorimeter. The current cold electronics made of GaAs ASICs have been tested with neutron and proton beams to study their degradation under irradiation and the effect it would have on the ATLAS physics programme. New, more radiation hard technologies which could replace the current amplifiers have been studied as well: SiGe bipolar, Si CMOS FET and GaAs FET transistors have been irradiated with neutrons and protons with fluences up to ten times the total expected fluences for ten years of running of the high luminosity LHC. The performance measurements of the current read-out electronics and potential future technologies and expected performance degradations under high luminosity ...

  13. Prospects of a search for $t\\bar{t}$ resonances at the High Luminosity LHC with an upgraded ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Anna Kathryn; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A study of the expected mass reach of a search for new high-mass resonances decaying to a top quark pair using a simulation of the upgraded ATLAS experiment and using an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ from the High Luminosity LHC has been made. The simulation of the upgraded ATLAS experiment under HL-LHC conditions, including pileup, was done using parameterised estimates of the performance. Expected upper limits are set on the cross section of a $t\\bar{t}$ resonance in a benchmark model for several signal masses and show that particles with masses up to 4 TeV can be seen.

  14. The design of a fast Level-1 track trigger for the high luminosity upgrade of ATLAS.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00413032; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high/luminosity upgrade of the LHC will increase the rate of the proton-proton collisions by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the initial LHC-design. The ATLAS experiment will upgrade consequently, increasing its robustness and selectivity in the expected high radiation environment. In particular, the earliest, hardware based, ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will require higher rejection power, still maintaining efficient selection on many various physics signatures. The key ingredient is the possibility of extracting tracking information from the brand new full-silicon detector and use it for the process. While fascinating, this solution poses a big challenge in the choice of the architecture, due to the reduced latency available at this trigger level (few tens of micro-seconds) and the high expected working rates (order of MHz). In this paper, we review the design possibilities of such a system in a potential new trigger and readout architecture, and present the performance resulting from a d...

  15. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Fukun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS cover-ing the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics in 2024 for the high luminosity program of the LHC. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and shipped to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies are being employed to determine which option will be selected. The off-detector electronic is based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard and is equipped with high performance optical connectors. The system is designed to operate in a high radiation environmen...

  16. Elliptical Accretion and Low Luminosity from High Accretion Rate Stellar Tidal Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirski, Gilad; Piran, Tsvi; Krolik, Julian

    2017-05-01

    Models for tidal disruption events (TDEs) in which a supermassive black hole disrupts a star commonly assume that the highly eccentric streams of bound stellar debris promptly form a circular accretion disc at the pericentre scale. However, the bolometric peak luminosity of most TDE candidates, ˜ 1044 erg s- 1, implies that we observe only ˜1 per cent of the energy expected from radiatively efficient accretion. Even the energy that must be lost to circularize the returning tidal flow is larger than the observed energy. Recently, Piran et al. suggested that the observed optical TDE emission is powered by shocks at the apocentre between freshly infalling material and earlier arriving matter. This model explains the small radiated energy, the low temperature and the large radius implied by the observations as well as the t-5/3 light curve. However the question of the system's low bolometric efficiency remains unanswered. We suggest that the high orbital energy and low angular momentum of the flow make it possible for magnetic stresses to reduce the matter's already small angular momentum to the point at which it can fall ballistically into the supermassive black hole before circularization. As a result, the efficiency is only ˜1-10 per cent of a standard accretion disc's efficiency. Thus, the intrinsically high eccentricity of the tidal debris naturally explains why most TDE candidates are fainter than expected.

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Fukun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics in 2024 for the high luminosity program of the LHC. The calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and transmitted to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide a better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies are being employed to determine which option will be selected. The off-detector electronics are based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard and are equipped with high performance optical connectors. The system is designed to operate in a high radiation envi...

  18. ECFA 2016: Prospects for selected standard model measurements with the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The prospects for selected standard model measurements at the High-Luminosity LHC presented at ECFA 2016 workshop are summarized. The extrapolations assume proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 14$\\,$TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to $3\\,\\text{ab}^{-1}$. The achievable precision for top quark mass measurements based on different analysis strategies is estimated. Searches for flavour-changing neutral currents in top quark decays are studied and expected limits are set, based on different scenarios for the extrapolation of systematic uncertainties to the High-Luminosity LHC run conditions. The feasibility of a dedicated track trigger for the $B_s \\rightarrow \\phi \\phi$ decay studies is discussed.

  19. Constraints on dark matter scenarios from measurements of the galaxy luminosity function at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corasaniti, P. S.; Agarwal, S.; Marsh, D. J. E.; Das, S.

    2017-04-01

    We use state-of-the-art measurements of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z =6 , 7, and 8 to derive constraints on warm dark matter (WDM), late-forming dark matter, and ultralight axion dark matter models alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. To this purpose, we have run a suite of high-resolution N -body simulations to accurately characterize the low-mass end of the halo mass function and derive dark matter (DM) model predictions of the high-z luminosity function. In order to convert halo masses into UV magnitudes, we introduce an empirical approach based on halo abundance matching, which allows us to model the LF in terms of the amplitude and scatter of the ensemble average star formation rate halo mass relation, ⟨SFR (Mh ,z )⟩, of each DM model. We find that, independent of the DM scenario, the average SFR at fixed halo mass increases from z =6 to 8, while the scatter remains constant. At halo mass Mh≳1012 M⊙ h-1 , the average SFR as a function of halo mass follows a double power law trend that is common to all models, while differences occur at smaller masses. In particular, we find that models with a suppressed low-mass halo abundance exhibit higher SFR compared to the CDM results. Thus, different DM models predict a different faint-end slope of the LF which causes the goodness of fit to vary within each DM scenario for different model parameters. Using deviance statistics, we obtain a lower limit on the WDM thermal relic particle mass, mWDM≳1.5 keV at 2 σ . In the case of LFDM models, the phase transition redshift parameter is bounded to zt≳8 ×105 at 2 σ . We find ultralight axion dark matter best-fit models with axion mass ma≳1.6 ×10-22 eV to be well within 2 σ of the deviance statistics. We remark that measurements at z =6 slightly favor a flattening of the LF at faint UV magnitudes. This tends to prefer some of the non-CDM models in our simulation suite, although not at a statistically significant level to distinguish

  20. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider the new machine for illuminating the mysteries of Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brüning, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to the physics and technology of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This new configuration of the LHC is one of the major accelerator projects for the next 15 years and will give new life to the LHC after its first 15-year operation. Not only will it allow more precise measurements of the Higgs boson and of any new particles that might be discovered in the next LHC run, but also extend the mass limit reach for detecting new particles. The HL-LHC is based on the innovative accelerator magnet technologies capable of generating 11–13 Tesla fields, with effectiveness enhanced by use of the new Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing scheme, and other state-of-the-art accelerator technologies, such as superconducting compact RF crab cavities, advanced collimation concepts, and novel power technology based on high temperature superconducting links. The book consists of a series of chapters touching on all issues of technology and design, and each chapter can be re...

  1. Expected Performance of the ATLAS Inner Tracker at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Jason Dhia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The large data samples at the High-Luminosity LHC will enable precise measurements of the Higgs boson and other Standard Model particles, as well as searches for new phenomena such as supersymmetry and extra dimensions. To cope with the experimental challenges presented by the HL-LHC such as large radiation doses and high pileup, the current Inner Detector will be replaced with a new all-silicon Inner Tracker for the Phase II upgrade of the ATLAS detector. The current tracking performance of two candidate Inner Tracker layouts with an increased tracking acceptance (compared to the current Inner Detector) of |η|<4.0, employing either an ‘Extended’ or ‘Inclined’ Pixel barrel, is evaluated. New pattern recognition approaches facilitated by the detector designs are discussed, and ongoing work in optimising the track reconstruction for the new layouts and experimental conditions are outlined. Finally, future approaches that may improve the physics and/or technical performance of the ATLAS track reconst...

  2. Quench Protection System Optimization for the High Luminosity LHC Nb $_3$Sn Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Auchmann, B; Ferracin, P; Maciejewski, M; Rodriguez-Mateos, F; Sabbi, GL; Todesco, E; Verweij, A P

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the large hadron collider to achieve higher luminosity requires the installation of twenty-four 150 mm aperture, 12 T, $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupole magnets close to the two interaction regions at ATLAS and CMS. The protection of these high-field magnets after a quench is particularly challenging due to the high stored energy density, which calls for a fast, effective, and reliable protection system. Three design options for the quench protection system of the inner triplet circuit are analyzed, including quench heaters attached to the coil's outer and inner layer, Coupling-Loss Induced Quench (CLIQ), and combinations of those. The discharge of the magnet circuit and the electromagnetic and thermal transients occurring in the coils are simulated by means of the TALES and LEDET programs. The sensitivity to strand parameters and the effects of several failure cases on the coil's hot-spot temperature and peak voltages to ground are assessed. A protection system based only on quench heaters attached to the o...

  3. The INFN R\\&D: new pixel detector for the High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dinardo, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the CERN-LHC (HL-LHC) demands for a new high-radiation tolerant solid-state pixel sensor capable of surviving fluencies up to a few $10^{16}$~ particles/cm$^2$ at $\\sim$3~cm from the interaction point. To this extent the INFN ATLAS-CMS joint research activity, in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler-FBK, is aiming at the development of thin n-in-p type pixel sensors for the HL-LHC. The R\\&D covers both planar and single-sided 3D columnar pixel devices made with the Si-Si Direct Wafer Bonding technique, which allows for the production of sensors with 100~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ active thickness for planar sensors, and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ for 3D sensors, the thinnest ones ever produced so far. First prototypes of hybrid modules bump-bonded to the present CMS and ATLAS readout chips have been tested in beam tests. Preliminary results on their performance before and after irradiation are presented.

  4. Design Study of the High Luminosity LHC Recombination Dipole (D2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, GianLuca; Wang, Xiaorong

    2014-05-26

    The interaction region design of the high-luminosity LHC requires replacing the recombination dipole magnets (D2) with new ones. The preliminary specifications include an aperture of 105 mm, with 186 mm separation between the twin-aperture axes, and an operating field in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 T. The main design challenge is to decouple the magnetic field in the two apertures and ensure good field quality. The approach adopted for the present D2 magnets, using the iron yoke as a shield between the two apertures, leads to large saturation effects. In this study, we propose an alternative approach where the iron yoke is designed primarily for low saturation, and the resulting large but current-independent cross-talk between the apertures is corrected with an asymmetric arrangement of the conductor blocks. A preliminary solution based on the LHC dipole cable is presented, and the expected harmonics for geometric, saturation and persistent current effects are provided. Finally, the feasibility of an operating field at the high end of the range considered is discussed, to minimize the D2 magnet length and facilitate the space allocation for other components.

  5. A muon trigger upgrade with high transverse momentum resolution for the ATLAS detector at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Horii, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 trigger for muons in ATLAS is based on trigger chambers (RPCs, TGCs) with excellent time resolution which are able to identify muons coming from a particular beam crossing. It is proposed to use precision tracking chambers (MDTs) for improving the transverse momentum resolution at the Level-1 trigger for the phase II of the LHC, the so-called High-Luminosity LHC. We present the new trigger algorithm and the architecture of the electronics as well as a prototype test. We demonstrate the performance for a transverse momentum threshold of 20 GeV using experimental data.

  6. Challenges of Particle Flow reconstruction in the CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chlebana, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are driven by the large number of overlapping proton-proton collisions (pileup) in each bunch-crossing and the extreme radiation dose to detectors positioned at high pseudorapidity. To overcome this challenge CMS is designing and implementing an endcap electromagnetic+hadronic sampling calorimeter employing silicon pad devices in the electromagnetic and front hadronic sections, comprising over 6 million channels, and highly-segmented plastic scintillators in the rear part of the hadronic section. This High-Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will be the first of its kind used in a colliding beam experiment. Clustering deposits of energy over many cells and layers is a complex and challenging computational task, particularly in the high-pileup and high-event-rate environment of HL-LHC. These challenges and their solutions will be discussed in detail, as well as their implementation in the HGCAL offline reconstruction. Baseline detector performance results will be ...

  7. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Usai, Giulio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS (TileCal) will undergo a complete replacement of its on-detector and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC in 2024. The calorimeter signals from all PMTs will be digitized and sent directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals are reconstructed and feed into the ATLAS first level trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision and a finer granularity for the trigger system and will allow the development of more efficient trigger selections. To validate this free-running read-out architecture we plan to insert into ATLAS at the end of 2015 one demonstrator prototype. The demonstrator is an hybrid module containing the new electronics but also providing the analog trigger signals to be compatible with the present system. At the current stage of development three different options are being investigated for the upgrade of the front-end electronic and we plan extensive test beam and simulation studies to select the bes...

  8. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC (HL-LHC)expected to begin in year 2026 requires new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and for better performance under higher pileup. All the TileCal on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024-2025. PMT signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes...

  9. Investigation of collimator materials for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085459; Bertarelli, Alessandro; Redaelli, Stefano

    This PhD thesis work has been carried out at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland), in the framework of the High Luminosity (HL) upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The HL-LHC upgrade will bring the accelerator beyond the nominal performance: it is planning to reach higher stored beam energy up to 700 MJ, through more intense proton beams. The present multi-stage LHC collimation system was designed to handle 360 MJ stored beam energy and withstand realistic losses only for this nominal beam. Therefore, the challenging HL-LHC beam parameters pose strong concerns for beam collimation, which call for important upgrades of the present system. The objective of this thesis is to provide solid basis for optimum choices of materials for the different collimators that will be upgraded for the baseline layout of the HL-LHC collimation system. To achieve this goal, material-related limitations of the present system are identified and novel advanced composite materials are se...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter read out via wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The PMT signals are digitized and stored on detector until a trigger is received. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC (HL-LHC) expected to begin in year 2026 requires new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and for better performance under higher pileup. All the TileCal on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024-2025. PMT signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Change...

  11. Instrumentation of a Level-1 Track Trigger in the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Boisvert, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in particle physics experiments at hadron colliders is to build detector systems that can take advantage of the future luminosity increase that will take place during the next decade. More than 200 simultaneous collisions will be recorded in a single event which will make the task to extract the interesting physics signatures harder than ever before. Not all events can be recorded hence a fast trigger system is required to select events that will be stored for further analysis. In the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) two different architectures for accommodating a level-1 track trigger are being investigated. The tracker has more readout channels than can be readout in time for the trigger decision. Both architectures aim for a data reduction of 10-100 in order to make readout of data possible in time for a level-1 trigger decision. In the first architecture the data reduction is achieved by reading out only parts of the detector seeded by a high rate pre-trigger ...

  12. Boosted Higgses from chromomagnetic $b$'s: $b\\bar{b}h$ at high luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bramante, Joseph; Lehman, Landon; Martin, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines detection prospects and constraints on the chromomagnetic dipole operator for the bottom quark. This operator has a flavor, chirality and Lorentz structure that is distinct from other dimension six operators considered in Higgs coupling studies. Its non-standard Lorentz structure bolsters boosted $b \\bar{b} h$ events, providing a rate independent signal of new physics. To date, we find this operator is unconstrained by $p p \\rightarrow h + {\\rm jets}$ and $pp \\rightarrow \\bar b b $ searches: for order-one couplings the permitted cutoff $\\Lambda$ for this operator can be as low as $\\Lambda \\sim 1~{\\rm TeV}$. We show how to improve this bound with collider cuts that allow a $b$-tagged Higgs plus dijet search in the Higgs to diphoton decay channel to exclude cutoffs as high as $\\sim 6~{\\rm TeV}$ at $2 \\sigma$ with 3 $\\text{ab}^{-1}$ of luminosity at the 14 TeV LHC. Cuts on the $p_T$ of the Higgs are key to this search, because the chromomagnetic dipole yields a non-standard fraction of booste...

  13. Cavity voltage phase modulation to reduce the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider rf power requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastoridis, T.; Baudrenghien, P.; Molendijk, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) radio frequency (rf) and low-level rf (LLRF) systems are currently configured for constant rf voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal LHC beam current (0.55 A dc) and cannot be sustained for the high-luminosity (HL-LHC) beam current (1.1 A dc), since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the voltage reference will reproduce the modulation driven by the beam (transient beam loading), but the strong rf feedback and one-turn delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability. To achieve this, the voltage reference will be adapted for each bunch. This paper includes a theoretical derivation of the optimal cavity modulation, introduces the implemented algorithm, summarizes simulation runs that tested the algorithm performance, and presents results from a short LHC physics fill with the proposed implementation.

  14. Accelerator Magnet Quench Heater Technology and Quality Control Tests for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2132435; Seifert, Thomas

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) foresees the installation of new superconducting Nb3Sn magnets. For the protection of these magnets, quench heaters are placed on the magnet coils. The quench heater circuits are chemically etched from a stainless steel foil that is glued onto a flexible Polyimide film, using flexible printed circuit production technology. Approximately 500 quench heaters with a total length of about 3000 m are needed for the HL-LHC magnets. In order to keep the heater circuit electrical resistance in acceptable limits, an approximately 10 µm-thick Cu coating is applied onto the steel foil. The quality of this Cu coating has been found critical in the quench heater production. The work described in this thesis focuses on the characterisation of Cu coatings produced by electrolytic deposition, sputtering and electron beam evaporation. The quality of the Cu coatings from different manufacturers has been assessed for instance by ambient temperature electrical res...

  15. Cavity voltage phase modulation to reduce the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider rf power requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mastoridis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC radio frequency (rf and low-level rf (LLRF systems are currently configured for constant rf voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal LHC beam current (0.55 A dc and cannot be sustained for the high-luminosity (HL-LHC beam current (1.1 A dc, since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier, the voltage reference will reproduce the modulation driven by the beam (transient beam loading, but the strong rf feedback and one-turn delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability. To achieve this, the voltage reference will be adapted for each bunch. This paper includes a theoretical derivation of the optimal cavity modulation, introduces the implemented algorithm, summarizes simulation runs that tested the algorithm performance, and presents results from a short LHC physics fill with the proposed implementation.

  16. Surface damage characterization of FBK devices for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, F.; Passeri, D.; Morozzi, A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Bomben, M.; Bilei, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The very high fluences (e.g. up to 2×1016 1 MeV neq/cm2) and total ionising doses (TID) of the order of 1 Grad, expected at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), impose new challenges for the design of effective, radiation resistant detectors. Ionising energy loss is the dominant effect for what concerns SiO2 and SiO2/Si interface radiation damage. In particular, surface damage can create a positive charge layer near the SiO2/Si interface and interface traps along the SiO2/Si interface, which strongly influence the breakdown voltage, the inter-electrode isolation and capacitance, and might also impact the charge collection properties of silicon sensors. To better understand in a comprehensive framework the complex and articulated phenomena related to surface damage at these very high doses, measurements on test structures have been carried out in this work (e.g. C–V and I–V). In particular, we have studied the properties of the SiO2 layer and of the SiO2/Si interface, using MOS capacitors, gated diodes (GD) and MOSFETs manufactured by FBK on high-resistivity n-type and p-type silicon, before and after irradiation with X-rays in the range from 50 krad(SiO2) to 20 Mrad(SiO2). Relevant parameters have been determined for all the tested devices, converging in the oxide charge density NOX, the surface generation velocity s0 and the integrated interface-trap density NIT dose-dependent values. These parameters have been extracted to both characterize the technology as a function of the dose and to be used in TCAD simulations for the surface damage effect modeling and the analysis and optimization of different classes of detectors for the next HEP experiments.

  17. Research and Development for a Free-Running Readout System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)758889; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to \\SI{14}{\\tera\\electronvolt} and instantaneous luminosities up to \\SI{d34}{\\per\\centi\\meter\\squared\\per\\second}. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of \\SI{3000}{\\per\\femto\\barn}. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels require a replacement of the front-end (FE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Furthermore, the ATLAS trigger system is foreseen to increase the trigger accept rate and the trigger latency which requires a larger data volume to be buffered. Therefore, the LAr Calorimeter read-out will be exchanged with a new FE and a high bandwidth back-end (BE) system for receiving data from all \

  18. Research and Development for a Free-Running Readout System for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hils, Maximilian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2} \\text{s}^{-1}$. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of $3000~\\text{fb}^{-1}$. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels require a replacement of the front-end electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Furthermore, the ATLAS trigger system is foreseen to increase the trigger accept rate by a factor 10 to 1 MHz and the trigger latency by a factor of 20 which requires a larger data volume to be buffered. Therefore, the LAr Calorimeter read-out will be exchanged with a new front-end and a high bandwidth back-end system for receiving data from all 186.000 channels at 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency and for off-detector buffering...

  19. Large area thinned planar sensors for future high-luminosity-LHC upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, T.; Lawerenz, A.; Röder, R.

    2016-12-01

    Planar hybrid silicon sensors are a well proven technology for past and current particle tracking detectors in HEP experiments. However, the future high-luminosity upgrades of the inner trackers at the LHC experiments pose big challenges to the detectors. A first challenge is an expected radiation damage level of up to 2ṡ 1016 neq/cm2. For planar sensors, one way to counteract the charge loss and thus increase the radiation hardness is to decrease the thickness of their active area. A second challenge is the large detector area which has to be built as cost-efficient as possible. The CiS research institute has accomplished a proof-of-principle run with n-in-p ATLAS-Pixel sensors in which a cavity is etched to the sensor's back side to reduce its thickness. One advantage of this technology is the fact that thick frames remain at the sensor edges and guarantee mechanical stability on wafer level while the sensor is left on the resulting thin membrane. For this cavity etching technique, no handling wafers are required which represents a benefit in terms of process effort and cost savings. The membranes with areas of up to ~ 4 × 4 cm2 and thicknesses of 100 and 150 μm feature a sufficiently good homogeneity across the whole wafer area. The processed pixel sensors show good electrical behaviour with an excellent yield for a suchlike prototype run. First sensors with electroless Ni- and Pt-UBM are already successfully assembled with read-out chips.

  20. Cryogenic Test of Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, B; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zvi, I; Calaga, Rama; Cullen, C; Capatina, Ofelia; Hammons, L; Li, Z; Marques, C; Skaritka, J; Verdú-Andres, S; Wu, Q

    2015-01-01

    A Proof-of-Principle (PoP) Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed and fabricated for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A vertical cryogenic test has been done at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). The cavity achieved 4.5 MV deflecting voltage with a quality factor above 3×109 . We report the test results of this design.

  1. Ultraspecific probes for high throughput HLA typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggers Rick

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variations within an individual's HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen genes have been linked to many immunological events, e.g. susceptibility to disease, response to vaccines, and the success of blood, tissue, and organ transplants. Although the microarray format has the potential to achieve high-resolution typing, this has yet to be attained due to inefficiencies of current probe design strategies. Results We present a novel three-step approach for the design of high-throughput microarray assays for HLA typing. This approach first selects sequences containing the SNPs present in all alleles of the locus of interest and next calculates the number of base changes necessary to convert a candidate probe sequences to the closest subsequence within the set of sequences that are likely to be present in the sample including the remainder of the human genome in order to identify those candidate probes which are "ultraspecific" for the allele of interest. Due to the high specificity of these sequences, it is possible that preliminary steps such as PCR amplification are no longer necessary. Lastly, the minimum number of these ultraspecific probes is selected such that the highest resolution typing can be achieved for the minimal cost of production. As an example, an array was designed and in silico results were obtained for typing of the HLA-B locus. Conclusion The assay presented here provides a higher resolution than has previously been developed and includes more alleles than previously considered. Based upon the in silico and preliminary experimental results, we believe that the proposed approach can be readily applied to any highly polymorphic gene system.

  2. Evolution of the CMS ECAL Performance and R&D Studies for Calorimetry Options at High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Auffray, Etiennette

    During the past years the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN operated with a maximum center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$~TeV, a peak luminosity of around $7\\times 10^{33}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and collected about $23$~fb$^{-1}$ of data which lead to the discovery of a Higgs Boson in July 2012. To further constrain the properties of the newly discovered Higgs boson, the decision to extend the LHC program has recently been made. In this framework, a major upgrade of the beam optics in the interaction region will take place around 2022 to achieve a leveled peak luminosity of $\\mathcal{L} = 5\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. These will be the operating conditions during the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) which is expected to deliver an integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$^{-1}$ by 2035. During HL-LHC phase the radiation levels will become much higher with respect to the nominal values for which the CMS detector was designed. Therefore it is of crucial importance to identify and quantify the effects ofradiation damag...

  3. A muon trigger upgrade with high transverse momentum resolution for the ATLAS detector at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Horii, Yasuyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Level-1 trigger for muons of the ATLAS experiment is based on trigger chambers with excellent time resolution which identifies muons coming from a particular beam crossing. To cope with a stringent constraint on the trigger rates expected at the phase II of the LHC, the socalled High-Luminosity LHC, it is proposed to include precision tracking chambers in the Level-1 muon trigger for improving the transverse momentum resolution. The rate of a single muon trigger with a transverse momentum threshold of 20 GeV is estimated to reduce to about half in an entire pseudorapidity region by introducing the proposed upgrade. An architecture of the electronics includes an additional priority readout chain, which is independent of the standard and asynchronous readout. A demonstrator of the frontend electronics has been developed and an initial test based on cosmic muons shows a resolution of position measurements consistent with a simulation.

  4. Chip development in 65 nm CMOS technology for the high luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germic, Leonard; Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Testsuichi; Krueger, Hans; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wermes, Norbert [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Havranek, Miroslav [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    The LHC High Luminosity upgrade will result in a significant change of environment in which particle detectors are going to operate, especially for devices very close to the interaction point like pixel detector electronics. Challenges coming from the higher hit rate will have to be solved by designing faster and more complex circuits, while at the same time keeping in mind very high radiation hardness requirements. Therefore matching the specification set by the high luminosity upgrade requires a large R and D effort. Our group is participating in such a joint development * namely the RD53 collaboration * which goal is to design a new pixel chip using an advanced 65 nm CMOS technology. During this presentation motivations and benefits of using this very deep-submicron technology will be shown together with a comparison with older technologies (130 nm, 250 nm). Most of the talk is allocated to presenting some of the circuits designed by our group, along with their performance measurement results.

  5. Final Cooling for a High-Energy High-Luminosity Lepton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Sayed, H. [Brookhaven; Hart, T. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. [Mississippi U.

    2015-12-03

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of an alternative approach. Wedge-based emittance exchange could provide much of the required transverse cooling with longitudinal heating. Li-lens and quadrupole focusing systems could also provide much of the required final cooling.

  6. Cryogenic test of double quarter wave crab cavity for the LHC High luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alberty, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Calaga, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cullen, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Capatina, O. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hammons, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Li, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marques, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verdu-Andres, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    A Proof-of-Principle (PoP) Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed and fabricated for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A vertical cryogenic test has been done at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). The cavity achieved 4.5 MV deflecting voltage with a quality factor above 3×109. We report the test results of this design.

  7. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, M.; Grauges Pous, E.; Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Venturini, M.; Soni, N.; Bruschi, M.; De Castro, S.; Faccioli, P.; Gabrieli, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Semprini Cesare, N.; Spighi, R.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J.; Soni, A.; Khan, A.; Barniakov, A.Y.; Barniakov, M.Y.; Blinov, V.E.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Koop, I.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Nikitin, S.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Piminov, P.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shatilov, D.N.; Skovpen, Y.I.; Solodov, E.A.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D.J.; Porter, F.C.; Asner, D.M.; Pham, T.N.; Fleischer, R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hurth, T.; Mangano, M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soffer, A.; Beard, C.D.; Haas, T.; Mankel, R.; Hiller, G.; Ball, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Pennington, M.R.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Abada, A.; Becirevic, D.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Pene, O.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabresi, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Stancari, G.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Drago, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Guiducci, S.; Isidori, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Rama, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zallo, A.; Zobov, M.; De Sangro, R.; Buzzo, A.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Matias, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Borzumati, F.; Eyges, V.; Prell, S.A.; Pedlar, T.K.; Korpar, S.; Pestonik, R.; Staric, M.; Neubert, M.; Denig, A.G.; Nierste, U.; Agoh, T.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Fry, J.R.; Touramanis, C.; Wolski, A.; Golob, B.; Krizan, P.; Flaecher, H.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; George, K.A.; Barlow, R.; Lafferty, G.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Kaidalov, A.; Buras, A.J.; Tarantino, C.; Buchalla, G.; Sanda, A.I.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Ricciardi, G.; Bigi, I.; Jessop, C.P.; Losecco, J.M.; Honscheid, K.; Arnaud, N.; Chehab, R.; Fedala, Y.; Polci, F.; Roudeau, P.; Sordini, V.; Soskov, V.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Vivoli, A.; Wormser, G.; Zomer, F.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Lombardo, V.; Calderini, G.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Servoli, L.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Mazur, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.; Braun, V.; Lenz, A.; Adams, G.S.; Danko, I.Z.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, Mario; Jackson, P.; Martinelli, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, Silvio; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Voena, C.; Catani, L.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Messi, R.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Wilson, F.F.; Godang, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.; Trivedi, A.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Allen, M.T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Cai, Y.; Coleman, J.; Convery, M.R.; DeBarger, S.; Dingfelder, J.C.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Haller, G.; Heifets, S.A.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Li, N.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D.; Messner, R.; Muller, D.R.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Sullivan, M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W.; Stoeck, H.; Cheng, H.Y.; Li, H.N.; Keum, Y.Y.; Gronau, M.; Grossman, Y.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Gambino, P.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Mussa, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D.A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paradisi, P.; Pich, A.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Roney, J.M.; Back, J.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Petrov, A.A.; Pierini, M.; INFN

    2007-01-01

    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  8. Prospects for standard model measurements at the High-Luminosity LHC with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos

    2017-01-01

    LHC are presented. These studies investigate the potential of the upgraded CMS detector at the HL-LHC for precision measurements of the top mass and a flavour changing neutral currents search in single top quark production. An extrapolation to the proton proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV with the HL-LHC run conditions is performed assuming an integrated luminosity of up to 3 $\\mathrm{ab}^{-1}$.

  9. GIF++: A new CERN Irradiation Facility to test large-area particle detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC program

    CERN Document Server

    Guida, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a higher particle background with respect to present conditions. To study performance and stability of detectors at LHC and future HL-LHC upgrades, a new dedicated facility has been built at CERN: the new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). The GIF++ is a unique place where high energy charged particle beams (mainly muons) are combined with gammas from a 14 TBq 137Cesium source which simulates the background radiation expected at the LHC experiments. Several centralized services and infrastructures are made available to the LHC detector community to facilitate the different R&D; programs.

  10. STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN HIGH-LUMINOSITY QUASAR HOSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AGN BLACK HOLE MASS SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Zu, Y. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, L. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dasyra, K. M. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France); Dietrich, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45601 (United States); Ferrarese, L. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BV V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-08-20

    We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole (BH) masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of BHs and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass BHs are not offset with respect to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation exhibited by lower-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with lower-mass BHs, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor (f) that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain (f) = 4.31 {+-} 1.05, which is slightly lower than, but consistent with, most previous determinations.

  11. A proposal to upgrade the ATLAS RPC system for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of the present trigger system in the ATLAS Muon Barrel was designed according to a reference luminosity of 10^34 cm-2 s-1 with a safety factor of 5, with respect to the simulated background rates, now confirmed by LHC Run-1 data. HL-LHC will provide a luminosity 5 times higher and an order of magnitude higher background. As a result, the performance demand increases, while the detector being susceptible to ageing effects. Moreover, the present muon trigger acceptance in the barrel is just above 70%, due to the presence of the barrel toroid structures. This scenario induced the ATLAS muon Collaboration to propose an appropriate upgrade plan, involving both detector and trigger-readout electronics, to guarantee the performance required by the physics program for the 20 years scheduled. This consists in installing a layer of new generation RPCs in the inner barrel, to increase the redundancy, the selectivity, and provide almost full acceptance. The first 10% of the system, corresponding to the e...

  12. SuperB: A High-Luminosity Asymmetric e+e- Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, M.; /et al.

    2007-05-18

    We discuss herein the exciting physics program that can be accomplished with a very large sample of heavy quark and heavy lepton decays produced in the very clean environment of an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider; a program complementary to that of an experiment such as LHCb at a hadronic machine. It then presents the conceptual design of a new type of e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that produces a nearly two-order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity over the current generation of asymmetric B Factories. The key idea is the use of low emittance beams produced in an accelerator lattice derived from the ILC Damping Ring Design, together with a new collision region, again with roots in the ILC final focus design, but with important new concepts developed in this design effort. Remarkably, SuperB produces this very large improvement in luminosity with circulating currents and wallplug power similar to those of the current B Factories. There is clear synergy with ILC R&D; design efforts have already influenced one another, and many aspects of the ILC Damping Rings and Final Focus would be operationally tested at SuperB. Finally, the design of an appropriate detector, based on an upgrade of BABAR as an example, is discussed in some detail. A preliminary cost estimate is presented, as is an example construction timeline.

  13. Effective pile-up density as a measure of the experimental data quality for High-Luminosity LHC operational scenarios.

    CERN Document Server

    Medina Medrano, Luis Eduardo; Arduini, Gianluigi; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments will operate at unprecedented level of event pile-up from proton-proton collisions at 14TeV center-of-mass energy. In this paper we study the performance of the baseline and a series of alternative scenarios in terms of the delivered integrated luminosity and its quality (pile-up density). A new figure-of-merit is introduced, the effective pile-up density, a concept that reflects the expected detector efficiency in the reconstruction of event vertices for a given operational scenario, acting as a link between the machine and experimental slides. Alternative scenarios have been proposed either to improve the baseline performance, or tot provide operational schemes in the case of particular limitations. Simulations of the evolution of optimum fills with the latest set of parameters of the HL-LHC are performed with β* - levelling, and results are discussed in terms of both the integrated luminosity and the effective pile-up density. The crab kissing scheme, a propose...

  14. LEP3: A high luminosity e+e- collider in the LHC tunnel to study the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A P; Koratzinos, M; Zanetti, M

    2012-01-01

    Recent indications from the LHC suggest that the Higgs boson might be light, within the mass range 115- 130 GeV. Such object could be studied at an e+e− collider with about 240-GeV centre-of-mass energy. A corresponding Higgs factory – ‘LEP3’ – could be installed in the LHC tunnel, reducing its cost and also allowing for a second life of the two LHC general-purpose detectors. We present preliminary accelerator and beam parameters for LEP3 [1] tailored so as to provide a peak luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1 at each of two experiments, while respecting a number of constraints including beamstrahlung limits. At this luminosity around 20,000 Higgs events per year per experiment could be obtained for a Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass of 115-130 GeV. For the parameters considered the estimated luminosity lifetime is about 16 minutes, and the synchrotron radiation losses are 50 MW per beam. High operational efficiency requires two rings: a low emittance collider storage ring operating at constant energy,...

  15. Exploratory study of a novel low occupancy vertex detector architecture based on high precision timing for high luminosity particle colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, Peter, E-mail: porel@hawaii.edu; Varner, Gary S.; Niknejadi, Pardis

    2017-06-11

    Vertex detectors provide space–time coordinates for the traversing charged particle decay products closest to the interaction point. Resolving these increasingly intense particle fluences at high luminosity particle colliders, such as SuperKEKB, is an ever growing challenge. This results in a non-negligible occupancy of the vertex detector using existing low material budget techniques. Consequently, new approaches are being studied that meet the vertexing requirements while lowering the occupancy. In this paper, we introduce a novel vertex detector architecture. Its design relies on an asynchronous digital pixel matrix in combination with a readout based on high precision time-of-flight measurement. Denoted the Timing Vertex Detector (TVD), it consists of a binary pixel array, a transmission line for signal collection, and a readout ASIC. The TVD aims to have a spatial resolution comparable to the existing Belle2 vertex detector. At the same time it offers a reduced occupancy by a factor of ten while decreasing the channel count by almost three orders of magnitude. Consequently, reducing the event size from about 1 MB/event to about 5.9 kB/event.

  16. Exploratory study of a novel low occupancy vertex detector architecture based on high precision timing for high luminosity particle colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, Peter; Varner, Gary S.; Niknejadi, Pardis

    2017-06-01

    Vertex detectors provide space-time coordinates for the traversing charged particle decay products closest to the interaction point. Resolving these increasingly intense particle fluences at high luminosity particle colliders, such as SuperKEKB, is an ever growing challenge. This results in a non-negligible occupancy of the vertex detector using existing low material budget techniques. Consequently, new approaches are being studied that meet the vertexing requirements while lowering the occupancy. In this paper, we introduce a novel vertex detector architecture. Its design relies on an asynchronous digital pixel matrix in combination with a readout based on high precision time-of-flight measurement. Denoted the Timing Vertex Detector (TVD), it consists of a binary pixel array, a transmission line for signal collection, and a readout ASIC. The TVD aims to have a spatial resolution comparable to the existing Belle2 vertex detector. At the same time it offers a reduced occupancy by a factor of ten while decreasing the channel count by almost three orders of magnitude. Consequently, reducing the event size from about 1 MB/event to about 5.9 kB/event.

  17. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Iglesias-Freire

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic force microscopy (MFM is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm topographic (magnetic lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  18. Electromagnetic Design and Optimization of Directivity of Stripline Beam Position Monitors for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Draskovic, Drasko; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Lefèvre, Thibaut; Wendt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary electromagnetic design of a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the High Luminosity program of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN. The design is fitted into a new octagonal shielded Beam Screen for the low-beta triplets and is optimized for high directivity. It also includes internal Tungsten absorbers, required to reduce the energy deposition in the superconducting magnets. The achieved broadband directivity in wakefield solver simulations presents significant improvement over the directivity of the current stripline BPMs installed in the LHC.

  19. Impact of an Extended ATLAS Tracker on $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}$ Scattering at a High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Milic, Adriana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector will undergo a major upgrade in Phase-II in order to maintain the high performance in the challenging environmental conditions that will be imposed by the High-Luminosity (HL) LHC. Several inner detector scenarios are under consideration including an extension of the nominal tracker from $|\\eta| = 200$. The study shows a significant improvement for the tracker layouts with a larger $\\eta$ coverage than the nominal one. Hence, the physics process studied provides a strong argument for the extension of the $\\eta$ coverage of the ITk.

  20. Performance of the CMS precision electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC Run II and prospects for high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is a high-performance calorimeter wich will operate also at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This talk will describe the strategies that have been employed to maintain the excellent performance of the CMS ECAL throughout Run 2. Performance results from the 2015-2016 data taking periods will be shown and an outlook on the expected Run 2 performance in the years to come will be provided. The status and plans for the upgraded ECAL barrel electronics for the HL-LHC will be presented, based on recent results from simulations, laboratory tests, and test beam measurements of prototype devices.

  1. Performance Evaluation of the SPS Scraping System in View of the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)659273; Cerutti, Francesco

    Injection in the LHC is a delicate moment, since the LHC collimation system cannot offer adequate protection during beam transfer. For this reason, a complex chain of injection protection devices has been put in place. Among them, the SPS scrapers are the multi-turn cleaning system installed in the SPS aimed at halo removal immediately before injection in the LHC. The upgrade in luminosity of the LHC foresees beams brighter than those currently available in machine, posing serious problems to the performance of the existing injection protection systems. In particular, the integrity of beam-intercepting devices is challenged by unprecedented beam parameters, leading to interactions potentially destructive. In this context, a new design of scrapers has been proposed, aimed at improved robustness and performance. This thesis compares the two scraping systems, i.e. the existing one and the one proposed for upgrade. Unlike any other collimation system for regular halo cleaning, both are "fast" systems, characteris...

  2. Magnetic Analysis of the Nb$_3$Sn low-beta Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Chlachidze, G; Ferracin, P; Holik, E; Di Marco, J; Todesco, E; Sabbi, G L; Vallone, G; Wang, X

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build 150 mm aperture $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions. A first series of 1.5 m long coils were fabricated, assembled and tested in the first short model. This paper presents the magnetic analysis, comparing magnetic field measurements with the expectations and the field quality requirements. The analysis is focused on the geometrical harmonics, iron saturation effect and cold-warm correlation. Three dimensional effects such as the variability of the field harmonics along the magnet axis and the contribution of the coil ends are also discussed. Moreover, we present the influence of the conductor magnetization and the dynamic effects.

  3. Recent advances in the development of semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    For the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the SLHC, the tracking systems of the LHC experiments need to be replaced. A main concern is the extreme radiation hardness requirement up to $1 x 10^{16} cm^{-2}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent. This paper describes an extract of recent results on radiation hardening technologies developed within the RD50 Collaboration (http://www.cern.ch/rd50) [1] for the tracker upgrades. Silicon detectors have been designed and produced on n- and p-type wafers made by Float Zone, epitaxy and Czochralski technology. Their charge collection efficiency after proton, neutron and mixed irradiation has been studied. Novel detector concepts, as 3D detectors, have been designed, produced and studied as well. Radiation induced microscopic disorder has been also investigated and correlated with the performance degradation of irradiated detectors.

  4. A proposed Drift Tubes-seeded muon track trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobon, N.; Lazzizzera, I.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The LHC program at 13 and 14 TeV, after the observation of the candidate SM Higgs boson, will help clarify future subjects of study and shape the needed tools. Any upgrade of the LHC experiments for unprecedented luminosities, such as the High Luminosity-LHC ones, must then maintain the acceptance on electroweak processes that can lead to a detailed study of the properties of the candidate Higgs boson. The acceptance of the key lepton, photon and hadron triggers should be kept such that the overall physics acceptance, in particular for low-mass scale processes, can be the same as the one the experiments featured in 2012. In such a scenario, a new approach to early trigger implementation is needed. One of the major steps will be the inclusion of high-granularity tracking sub-detectors, such as the CMS Silicon Tracker, in taking the early trigger decision. This contribution can be crucial in several tasks, including the confirmation of triggers in other subsystems, and the improvement of the on-line momentum measurement resolution. A muon track-trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC is presented. A back-extrapolation of Drift Tubes trigger primitives is proposed to match tracks found at Level 1 with muon candidates. The main figures-of-merit are presented, featuring sharp thresholds and less contamination from lower momentum muons, and an expected rate reduction of a factor of 5-10 at typical thresholds with respect to the muon trigger configuration used in 2012.

  5. Design and Prototyping of a 400 MHz RF-dipole Crabbing Cavity for the LHC High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    De Silva, S U; Delayen, J R; Li, Z; Nicol, T H

    2015-01-01

    LHC High Luminosity Upgrade is in need of two crabbing systems that deflects the beam in both horizontal and vertical planes. The 400 MHz rf-dipole crabbing cavity system is capable of crabbing the proton beam in both planes. At present we are focusing our efforts on a complete crabbing system in the horizontal plane. Prior to LHC installation the crabbing system will be installed for beam test at SPS. The crabbing system consists of two rfdipole cavities in the cryomodule. This paper discusses the electromagnetic design and mechanical properties of the rf-dipole crabbing system for SPS beam test.

  6. Development of Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High-Luminosity Upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, B; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.

    2016-01-01

    The muon detectors of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have to cope with unprecedentedly high neutron and gamma ray background rates. In the forward regions of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector, for instance, counting rates of 1.7 kHz/square cm are reached at the LHC design luminosity. For high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC, up to 10 times higher background rates are expected which require replacement of the muon chambers in the critical detector regions. Tests at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility showed that drift-tube detectors with 15 mm diameter aluminum tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas at 3 bar and a maximum drift time of about 200 ns provide e?cient and high-resolution muon tracking up to the highest expected rates. For 15 mm tube diameter, space charge e?ects deteriorating the spatial resolution at high rates are strongly suppressed. The sense wires have to be positioned in the chamber with an accuracy of better than 50 ?micons in order to achieve the desired spatial...

  7. RHIC LUMINOSITY UPGRADE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-05-23

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operates with either ions or polarized protons. After increasing the heavy ion luminosity by two orders of magnitude since its commissioning in 2000, the current luminosity upgrade program aims for an increase by another factor of 4 by means of 3D stochastic cooling and a new 56 MHz SRF system. An Electron Beam Ion Source is being commissioned that will allow the use of uranium beams. Electron cooling is considered for collider operation below the current injection energy. For the polarized proton operation both luminosity and polarization are important. In addition to ongoing improvements in the AGS injector, the construction of a new high-intensity polarized source has started. In RHIC a number of upgrades are under way to increase the intensity and polarization transmission to 250 GeV beam energy. Electron lenses will be installed to partially compensate the head-on beam-beam effect.

  8. The design of a fast Level-1 track trigger for the High Luminosity Upgrade of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00413032; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To increase the number of proton-proton collisions the Large Hadron Collider at CERN aims to increase its instantaneuos luminosity to around five times the nominal value for run four, set to begin in 2026. This will force the experiments, including ATLAS, to adapt to the increased event rate which will require substantial hardware upgrades. The current trigger system will not be able to cope with these rates without raised thresholds wich would mean loosing many of the events. To increase the rejection rate without loosing signal efficiency tracking information could be utilized in the first level hardware trigger. This document presents results from simulating a track trigger seeded by regions of interest. It is shown that with this approach we can reach a five times rejection of background events while keeping the single lepton efficiency above 95%. To reduce the amount of track fits needed per event the L1Track trigger is not only seeded by regions of interest corresponding to 10% of the tracking volume, b...

  9. A Nb-Ti 90 mm Double-Aperture Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Segreti, M; Todesco, E

    2015-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the LHC requires replacing the magnets around the ATLAS and CMS experiments with larger aperture dipoles, quadrupoles and correctors. The goal is to have a magnetic lattice that can allow to halve the beam size in the collision points with respect to present baseline. Within the framework of HiLumi LHC, CEA-Saclay studied the replacement of the 70-mm double aperture quadrupole Q4, with a 90-mm magnet based on Nb-Ti technology. The main challenges are due to the distance between the beams of 194 mm, giving a non-negligible magnetic coupling between the two apertures. The coil chosen to be the baseline is a single layer with 15-mm-width cable of the LHC MQ quadrupole. The mechanical structure is based on stainless steel collars to withstand the Lorentz forces. The iron yoke has a magnetic function, and guarantees the alignment of the two apertures. Electromagnetic and mechanical aspects and effects of unbalanced regimes on the field quality have been analyzed. A 3-D design of the coil ...

  10. A proposed Drift Tubes-seeded muon track trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070813; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    The LHC program at 13 and 14 TeV, after the observation of the candidate SM Higgs boson, will help clarify future subjects of study and shape the needed tools. Any upgrade of the LHC experiments for unprecedented luminosities, such as the High Luminosity-LHC ones, must then maintain the acceptance on electroweak processes that can lead to a detailed study of the properties of the candidate Higgs boson. The acceptance of the key lepton, photon and hadron triggers should be kept such that the overall physics acceptance, in particular for low-mass scale processes, can be the same as the one the experiments featured in 2012.In such a scenario, a new approach to early trigger implementation is needed. One of the major steps will be the inclusion of high-granularity tracking sub-detectors, such as the CMS Silicon Tracker, in taking the early trigger decision. This contribution can be crucial in several tasks, including the confirmation of triggers in other subsystems, and the improvement of the on-line momentum mea...

  11. Conceptual study of the cryostats for the cold powering system for the triplets of the High Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, A.; Giannelli, S.; Jacquemod, A.; Leclercq, Y.; Ortiz Ferrer, C.; Parma, V.

    2017-12-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a project aiming to upgrade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) after 2020-2025 in order to increase the integrated luminosity by about one order of magnitude and extend the operational capabilities until 2035. The upgrade of the focusing triplet insertions for the Atlas and CMS experiments foresees using superconducting magnets operating in a pressurised superfluid helium bath at 1.9 K. The increased radiation levels from the particle debris produced by particle collisions in the experiments require that the power converters are placed in radiation shielded zones located in a service gallery adjacent to the main tunnel. The powering of the magnets from the gallery is achieved by means of MgB2 superconducting cables in a 100-m long flexible cryostat transfer line, actively cooled by 4.5 K to 20 K gaseous helium generated close to the magnets. At the highest temperature end, the helium flow cools the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads before being recovered at room temperature. At the magnet connection side, a dedicated connection box allows connection to the magnets and a controlled boil-off production of helium for the cooling needs of the powering system. This paper presents the overall concept of the cryostat system from the magnet connection boxes, through the flexible cryostat transfer line, to the connection box of the current leads.

  12. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00425747; McMahon, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that detects proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The Semiconductor Tracker is part of the Inner Detector, implemented using silicon microstrip detectors with binary read-out, providing momentum measurement of charged particles with excellent resolution. The operation of the LHC and the ATLAS experiment started in 2010, with ten years of operation expected until major upgrades are needed in the accelerator and the experiments. The ATLAS tracker will need to be completely replaced due to the radiation damage and occupancy of some detector elements and the data links at high luminosities. These upgrades after the first ten years of operation are named the Phase-II Upgrade and involve a re-design of the LHC, resulting in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker a...

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovyanov Oleg

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC, delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, the Tile Calorimeter will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitised and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision for the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow the development of more complex trigger algorithms. Changes to the electronics will also contribute to the reliability and redundancy of the system. Three different front-end options are presently being investigated for the upgrade. Results of extensive laboratory tests and with beams of the three options will be presented, as well as the latest results on the development of the power distribution and the off-detector electronics.

  14. High-luminosity primary vertex selection in top-quark studies using the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzatu, Adrian; /McGill U.

    2006-08-01

    Improving our ability to identify the top quark pair (t{bar t}) primary vertex (PV) on an event-by-event basis is essential for many analyses in the lepton-plus-jets channel performed by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) Collaboration. We compare the algorithm currently used by CDF (A1) with another algorithm (A2) using Monte Carlo simulation at high instantaneous luminosities. We confirm that A1 is more efficient than A2 at selecting the t{bar t} PV at all PV multiplicities, both with efficiencies larger than 99%. Event selection rejects events with a distance larger than 5 cm along the proton beam between the t{bar t} PV and the charged lepton. We find flat distributions for the signal over background significance of this cut for all cut values larger than 1 cm, for all PV multiplicities and for both algorithms. We conclude that any cut value larger than 1 cm is acceptable for both algorithms under the Tevatron's expected instantaneous luminosity improvements.

  15. Conceptual Design of the Cryogenic System for the High-luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, K.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U.; Van Weelderen, R.

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at CERN in 2012 is the start of a major program of work to measure this particle's properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of the Standard Model and to search for further new physics at the energy frontier. The LHC is in a unique position to pursue this program. Europe's top priority is the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with an objective to collect ten times more data than in the initial design, by around 2030. To reach this objective, the LHC cryogenic system must be upgraded to withstand higher beam current and higher luminosity at top energy while keeping the same operation availability by improving the collimation system and the protection of electronics sensitive to radiation. This paper will present the conceptual design of the cryogenic system upgrade with recent updates in performance requirements, the corresponding layout and architecture of the system as well as the main technical challenges which have to be met in the coming years.

  16. Upgrades to the SPS-to-LHC Transfer Line Beam Stoppers for the LHC High-Luminosity Era

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, Verena; Fraser, Matthew; Goddard, Brennan; Meddahi, Malika; Perillo Marcone, Antonio; Steele, Genevieve; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Each of the 3 km long transfer lines between the SPS and the LHC is equipped with two beam stoppers (TEDs), one at the beginning of the line and one close to the LHC injection point, which need to absorb the full transferred beam. The beam stoppers are used for setting up the SPS extractions and transfer lines with beam without having to inject into the LHC. Energy deposition and thermo-mechanical simulations have, however, shown that the TEDs will not be robust enough to safely absorb the high intensity beams foreseen for the high-luminosity LHC era. This paper will summarize the simulation results and limitations for upgrading the beam stoppers. An outline of the hardware upgrade strategy for the TEDs together with modifications to the SPS extraction interlock system to enforce intensity limitations for beam on the beam stoppers will be given.

  17. SDSS J013127.34–032100.1: A NEWLY DISCOVERED RADIO-LOUD QUASAR AT z = 5.18 WITH EXTREMELY HIGH LUMINOSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Wei-Min; Bai, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Ai, Yanli [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Ran [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); and others

    2014-11-10

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34–032100.1 (J0131–0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131–0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ∼100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L {sub bol} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1}, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131–0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  18. Piezoresistive Probe Array for High Throughput Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitas, A.; French, P.

    2011-01-01

    Microcantilevers are used in a number of applications including atomic-force microscopy (AFM). In this work, piezoresistive deflection-sensing elements are integrated onto micromachined cantilevers to increase sensitivity, and reduce complexity and cost. An array of probes with 5 nm gold ultrathin

  19. The design and simulated performance of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martensson, Mikael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC will face a fivefold increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper trigger turn-on curves can be achieved, and b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, custom electronic device integrated in the hardware based first trigger level of the experiment. This article will discuss the requirements, architecture and projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics, based on detailed simulations. Studies are carried out using data from the strip subsystem only or both strip and pixel subsystems.

  20. A Novel Assembly Procedure of GE1\\slash1 Detectors for CMS High Luminosity Phase of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Aashaq

    2017-01-01

    A CMS muon group is investigating the possibility of enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in the region 1.6$\\textless$$\\eta$$\\textless$2.18 of the CMS experiment at the LHC by instrumenting the end-cap muon system with large-area tipple GEM detectors. These GE1/1 detectors are considered as an important technology for High-Luminosity phase of LHC and contain a triple-GEM with a 3\\slash1\\slash2\\slash1 mm drift\\slash transfer-1\\slash transfer-2\\slash induction field gap configuration and the active readout area of 0.345\\slash0.409m$^{2}$ for the short/long chambers. We describe a novel assembly procedure of such detectors at LHC.

  1. Upgrade of the SPS Injection Kicker System for the LHC High Luminosity Operation with Heavy Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Goddard, B; Ducimetière, L; Sermeus, L; Uythoven, J; Velotti, FM

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade project a performance upgrade for heavy ions is envisaged. One of the performance limitations is the rise time of the present SPS injection kicker system MKP. A reduction of the rise time for lead ions was studied in line with a modification of the whole injection system. This paper briefly describes the different rise time options studied for an initially proposed dedicated ion kicker system MKP-I, focuses however on a cost effective alternative using the presently installed 12 MKPS magnets connected to a new fast pulse forming line. As only 12 out of the 16 injection kicker magnets would be fast enough to be used in an upgraded system, additional deflection has to be provided by the septa. The beam optics for that variant is highlighted and first requirements for the septum elements are stipulated. The paper concludes with a failure analysis of the proposed scheme.

  2. Development of edgeless silicon pixel sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS high-luminosity upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste and INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2014-11-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R and D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  3. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  4. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, G; Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchiori, G; Zorzi, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  5. Chip development in 65 nm CMOS technology for the high luminosity upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germic, Leonard; Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krueger, Hans; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wermes, Norbert [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The LHC High Luminosity upgrade will result in a significant change of environment in which particle detectors are going to operate, especially for devices very close to the interaction point like pixel detector electronics. Challenges arising from the increased hit rate will have to be solved by designing faster and more complex readout electronics that will also have to withstand unprecedented radiation doses. Developing such integrated circuit requires a significant R and D effort and resources, therefore a joint development project between several institutes (including ours) was started. This collaboration, named RD53, aims to develop a pixel readout chip suitable for ATLAS' and CMS' upgrades using a 65nm CMOS technology. During this presentation motivations and benefits of using this very deep-submicron technology are discussed. Most of the talk is allocated to presenting some of the circuits designed by our group (focusing on developments connected to RD53 collaboration), along with their performance measurement results.

  6. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  7. The design and simulated performance of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Mikael

    2017-08-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC will face a fivefold increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper trigger turn-on curves can be achieved, and b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, custom electronic device integrated in the hardware based first trigger level of the experiment. This article will discuss the requirements, architecture and projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics, based on detailed simulations. Studies are carried out using data from the strip subsystem only or both strip and pixel subsystems.

  8. GRB 120422A/SN 2012bz: Bridging the gap between low- and high-luminosity gamma-ray bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, S.; et al., [Unknown; Ellerbroek, L.E.; Kaper, L.; Hartoog, O.E.

    2014-01-01

    Context. At low redshift, a handful of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been discovered with luminosities that are substantially lower (Liso ≲ 1048.5 erg s-1) than the average of more distant ones (Liso ≳ 1049.5 erg s-1). It has been suggested that the properties of several low-luminosity (low-L) GRBs

  9. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  10. High Temperature Ultrasonic Probe and Pulse-Echo Probe Mounting Fixture for Testing and Blind Alignment on Steam Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Takano, Nobuyuki (Inventor); Ostlund, Patrick N. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A high temperature ultrasonic probe and a mounting fixture for attaching and aligning the probe to a steam pipe using blind alignment. The high temperature ultrasonic probe includes a piezoelectric transducer having a high temperature. The probe provides both transmitting and receiving functionality. The mounting fixture allows the high temperature ultrasonic probe to be accurately aligned to the bottom external surface of the steam pipe so that the presence of liquid water in the steam pipe can be monitored. The mounting fixture with a mounted high temperature ultrasonic probe are used to conduct health monitoring of steam pipes and to track the height of condensed water through the wall in real-time.

  11. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). II. Discovery of 32 quasars and luminous galaxies at 5.7 < z ≤ 6.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Onoue, Masafusa; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Strauss, Michael A.; Nagao, Tohru; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Akiyama, Masayuki; Asami, Naoko; Bosch, James; Foucaud, Sébastien; Furusawa, Hisanori; Goto, Tomotsugu; Gunn, James E.; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Takuma; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kikuta, Satoshi; Kohno, Kotaro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H.; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Niida, Mana; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Oguri, Masamune; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A.; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Schulze, Andreas; Shirakata, Hikari; Silverman, John D.; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tait, Philip J.; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tang, Ji-Jia; Toba, Yoshiki; Utsumi, Yousuke; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    We present spectroscopic identification of 32 new quasars and luminous galaxies discovered at 5.7 galaxies, two [O III] emitters at z ˜ 0.8, and 15 Galactic brown dwarfs. The new quasars have considerably lower luminosity (M1450 ˜ -25 to -22 mag) than most of the previously known high-z quasars. Several of these quasars have luminous (>1043 erg s-1) and narrow (galaxies have extremely high luminosities (M1450 ˜ -24 to -22 mag) compared to other galaxies found at similar redshifts. With the discovery of these new classes of objects, we are opening up new parameter spaces in the high-z Universe. Further survey observations and follow-up studies of the identified objects, including the construction of the quasar luminosity function at z ˜ 6, are ongoing.

  12. OLYMPUS luminosity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Ozgur [Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia (United States); Collaboration: OLYMPUS-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY has been measuring the ratio of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange, which is widely considered to be responsible for the discrepancy between measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer methods. In order to control the systematic uncertainties to the percent level, the luminosities are monitored redundantly with high precision by measuring the rates for symmetric Moller and Bhabha scattering, and by measuring the ep-elastic count rates at forward angles and low momentum transfer with tracking telescopes based on GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and MWPC (Multi Wire Proportional Chamber) technology. During two data taking periods, performances of GEM and MWPC luminosity monitors are presented.

  13. A Study to Improve the Radiation Hardness of Gaseous Detectors for Use at Very High Luminosities

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A two-year project is proposed to study the ageing of gas filled proportional detectors under irradiation. The goal is to obtain experimentally a better understanding of the gas polymerisation processes appearing at high radiation doses, in order to extend the lifetime of detectors well above the MRad region. \\\\ \\\\ The wide range of reported lifetimes is symptomatic of our poor understanding of the ageing process: often, measurements supposedly done under identical conditions result in very different lifetimes.\\\\ \\\\ The aim of this project is, with the knowledge gained, to construct a full scale prototype chamber on which future designs can be based. This will ultimately check the validity of our findings and results under realistic experimental circumstances. \\\\ \\\\ The study of ageing processes in gaseous detectors should commence with the construction of reference chambers.\\\\ \\\\ These chambers will be tested for signs of ageing by examination of the $^5

  14. Evaluation of Field Quality for Seperation Dipoles and Matching Section Quadrupoles for the LHC High Luminosity Lattice at Collision Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nosochkov, Y; Wang, MH; Fartoukh, S; Giovannozzi, M; DeMaria, R; McIntosh, E

    2013-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC lattice (HLLHC) requires new larger aperture magnets to be installed in the low-beta interaction regions (IRs). These include Nb3Sn superconducting (SC) inner triplet (IT) quadrupoles, Nb-Ti SC separation dipoles D1 and D2, and SC Q4 quadrupoles [1, 2, 3, 4]. The upgrade significantly reduces the β* functions at these IRs at collision energy [5]. Consequently, beta functions and beam size in these magnets will increase, thus requiring a larger aperture. The high beta functions also increase the impact of high order field errors in these magnets on dynamic aperture (DA). Therefore, to maintain an acceptable DA, the field quality in the new magnets needs to be specified. Since the error effects at collision are dominated by the triplets, their field quality was specified first [6]. Next, the field errors were added to the D1, D2 dipoles and Q4, Q5 matching quadrupoles while keeping the IT errors to specifications. The impact of these errors on DA was determined in trackin...

  15. Simulations of planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, G; Dinu, N; Lounis, A; Marchiori, G

    2011-01-01

    A physics-based device simulation was used to study the charge carrier distribution and the electric field configuration inside simplified two-dimensional models for pixel layouts based on the ATLAS pixel sensor. In order to study the behavior of such detectors under different levels of irradiation, a three-level defect model was implemented into the simulation. Using these models, the number of guard rings, the dead edge width and the detector thickness were modified to investigate their influence on the detector depletion at the edge and on its internal electric field distribution in order to optimize the layout parameters. Simulations indicate that the number of guard rings can be reduced by a few hundred microns with respect to the layout used for the present ATLAS sensors, with a corresponding extension of the active area of the sensors. A study of the inter-pixel capacitance and of the capacitance between the implants and the high-voltage contact as a function of several parameters affecting the geometr...

  16. Probing thermodynamic fluctuations in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Felix; Veira, J. A.; Maza, J.; Miguélez, F.; Morán, E.; Alario, M. A.

    1988-04-01

    We probe thermodynamic fluctuations in HTSC by measuring the excess electrical conductivity, Δσ, abovr T c in single-phase (within 4%) Ba 2LnCu 3O 7-δ compounds, with LnY, Ho and Sm. As expected, the measured relative effect, Δσ / σ (300 K), is much more important in HTSC than for low-temperature superconductors (at least one order of magnitude). In the reduced temperature region -5=-0.47 ± 0.06. This result confirms an universal critical behaviour of Δσ in HTSC, and the value of agrees with that predicted by the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) theory for three-dimensional BCS superconductivity. However, A shows a normal conductivity dependence which is not accounted for by the AL theory.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyanov, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tauparticles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudo-rapidity up to 1.7, with almost 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ˜30 MeV to ˜2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction, is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions, acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from electroweak bosons decays are employed to study the energy response of the calorimeter at the electromagnetic scale. The calorimeter response to hadronic particles is evaluated with a sample of isolated hadrons. The modelling of the response by the Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. The calorimeter timing calibration and resolutions are studied with a sample of multijets events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. TileCal performance satisfies the design requirements and has provided an essential contribution to physics results in ATLAS. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has envisaged a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), delivering five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Phase II upgrade, in 2024, will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system for the HL-LHC. In particular, the Tile Calorimeter will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics. All signals will be digitised and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz

  18. Analysis of the Stability Margin of the High Luminosity LHC Superconducting Cables with a Multi-Strand Model

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2096257; Bottura, Luca

    At CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), between 1998 and 2008, the world’s largest and most powerful particle collider has been built. The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is the biggest scientific instrument ever built to explore the new high-energy physic frontiers and it gathers a global user community of 7,000 scientists from all over 60 countries. The accelerated particles are made to collide together approaching the speed of light. This process allows to understand how the particles interact and provides insights into the fundamental laws of nature. After the latest amazing discoveries concerning the Higgs boson and the penta-quarks, another step forward is needed. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value (from 300 to 3000 $fb^{−1})$. As a highly complex and optimised machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about 10 yea...

  19. Performance of the CMS precision electromagnetic calorimeter at LHC Run II and prospects for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhicai

    2017-01-01

    Many physics analyses using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the LHC require accurate, high-resolution electron and photon energy measurements. Following the excellent performance achieved during LHC Run I at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is operating at the LHC with proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy. The instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC during Run II has achieved unprecedented levels. The average number of concurrent proton-proton collisions per bunch-crossing (pileup) has reached up to 40 interactions in 2016 and may increase further in 2017. These high pileup levels necessitate a retuning of the ECAL readout and trigger thresholds and reconstruction algorithms. In addition, the energy response of the detector must be precisely calibrated and monitored. We present new reconstruction algorithms and calibration strategies that were implemented to maintain the excellent performance of the CMS ECAL throughout Run...

  20. Applying a physical continuum model to describe the broadband X-ray spectra of accreting pulsars at high luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja; Hemphill, Paul B.; Wolff, Michael T.; Cheatham, Diana M.; Iwakiri, Wataru; Gottlieb, Amy M.; Falkner, Sebastian; Ballhausen, Ralf; Fuerst, Felix; Kuehnel, Matthias; Ferrigno, Carlo; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern

    2018-01-01

    A new window for better understanding the accretion onto strongly magnetized neutron stars in X-ray binaries is opening. In these systems the accreted material follows the magnetic field lines as it approaches the neutron star, forming accretion columns above the magnetic poles. The plasma falls toward the neutron star surface at near-relativistic speeds, losing energy by emitting X-rays. The X-ray spectral continua are commonly described using phenomenological models, i.e., power laws with different types of curved cut-offs at higher energies. Here we consider high luminosity pulsars. In these systems the mass transfer rate is high enough that the accreting plasma is thought to be decelerated in a radiation-dominated radiative shock in the accretion columns. While the theory of the emission from such shocks had already been developed by 2007, a model for direct comparison with X-ray continuum spectra in xspec or isis has only recently become available. Characteristic parameters of this model are the accretion column radius and the plasma temperature, among others. Here we analyze the broadband X-ray spectra of the accreting pulsars Centaurus X-3 and 4U 1626-67 obtained with NuSTAR. We present results from traditional empirical modeling as well as successfully apply the radiation-dominated radiative shock model. We also take the opportunity to compare to similar recent analyses of both sources using these and other observations.

  1. The design and simulated performance of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martensson, Mikael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper trigger turn-on curves can be achieved, and b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy. This talk will discuss the requirements, architecture and projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics, based on detailed simulations. Studies are carried out comparing two detector geometries and using...

  2. New micropattern gas detectors for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Calabria, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    For the era of the high-luminosity LHC, new detectors are planned to enhance the performance of the endcap muon system of the CMS detector. We report on two types of these detectors that will be installed during the third long shutdown (LS3) of the LHC. In the pseudo-rapidity region $1.6 < \\lvert\\eta\\rvert < 2.4$, new triple-foil large-area Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors will be installed in the third of five detector stations in each endcap, the first station being closest to the interaction point. These GEM detectors are in addition to ones that will have already been installed in the second station during LS2. We present a design for the third station detectors that must cover a larger geometrical area than those in the second station, while maintaining good performance for efficiency and spatial resolution. A new innermost (first) detector station will be installed in the endcaps to extend the range of muon identification up to about $ \\lvert\\eta\\rvert = 3.0$. We describe the geometric...

  3. Progress on the Development of the $Nb_3Sn$ 11T Dipole for the High Luminosity Upgrade of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Savary, Frederic; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Fiscarelli, Lucio; Fleiter, Jerome; Foussat, Arnaud; Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; Karppinen, Mikko; Lackner, Friedrich; Loffler, Christian H; Nilsson, Emelie; Perez, Juan Carlos; Prin, Herve; Principe, Rosario; Ramos, Delio; de Rijk, Gijs; Rossi, Lucio; Smekens, David; Sequeira Tavares, Sandra; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity large hadron collider (LHC) project at CERN entered into the production phase in October 2015 after the completion of the design study phase. In the meantime, the development of the 11 T dipole needed for the upgrade of the collimation system of the machine made significant progress with very good performance of the first two-in-one magnet model of 2-m length made at CERN. The 11 T dipole, which is more powerful than the current main dipoles of LHC, can be made shorter with an equivalent integrated field. This will allow creating space for the installation of additional collimators in specific locations of the dispersion suppressor regions. Following tests carried out during heavy ions runs of LHC in the end of 2015, and a more recent review of the project budget, the installation plan for the 11 T dipole was revised. Consequently, one 11 T dipole full assembly containing two 11 T dipoles of 5.5-m length will be installed on either side of interaction point 7. These two units shall be inst...

  4. An FPGA based track finder for the L1 trigger of the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, R.; Ardila-Perez, L. E.; Ball, F. A.; Balzer, M. N.; Boudoul, G.; Brooke, J.; Caselle, M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Clement, E.; Dutta, S.; Hall, G.; Harder, K.; Hobson, P. R.; Iles, G. M.; James, T. O.; Manolopoulos, K.; Matsushita, T.; Morton, A. D.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Pesaresi, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Reid, I. D.; Rose, A. W.; Sander, O.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Shtipliyski, A.; Schuh, T.; Skinnari, L.; Summers, S. P.; Tapper, A.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I.; Uchida, K.; Vichoudis, P.; Viret, S.; Weber, M.

    2017-12-01

    A new tracking detector is under development for use by the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A crucial requirement of this upgrade is to provide the ability to reconstruct all charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above 2–3 GeV within 4 μs so they can be used in the Level-1 trigger decision. A concept for an FPGA-based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed architecture is presented, where track candidates are reconstructed using a projective binning algorithm based on the Hough Transform, followed by a combinatorial Kalman Filter. A hardware demonstrator using MP7 processing boards has been assembled to prove the entire system functionality, from the output of the tracker readout boards to the reconstruction of tracks with fitted helix parameters. It successfully operates on one eighth of the tracker solid angle acceptance at a time, processing events taken at 40 MHz, each with up to an average of 200 superimposed proton-proton interactions, whilst satisfying the latency requirement. The demonstrated track-reconstruction system, the chosen architecture, the achievements to date and future options for such a system will be discussed.

  5. Luminosity monitor at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.D.; Franklin, M.E.B.

    1981-02-01

    The luminosity monitor system utilized by the MKII Detector and by the PEP operators is described. This system processes information from 56 photomultipliers and calculates independent luminosities for each of the 3 colliding bunches in PEP. Design considerations, measurement techniques, and sources of error in the luminosity measurement are discussed.

  6. High-Resolution and Frequency, Printed Miniature Magnetic Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Picard, Julian

    2013-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a technique to significantly reduce the cost and development time of producing magnetic field diagnostics. EHT is designing probes that can be printed on flexible PCBs thereby allowing for extremely small coils to be produced while essentially eliminating the time to wind the coils. The coil size can be extremely small when coupled with the EHT Hybrid Integrator, which is capable of high bandwidth measurements over short and long pulse durations. This integrator is currently being commercialized with the support of a DOE SBIR. Additionally, the flexible PCBs allow probes to be attached to complex surface and/or probes that have a complex 3D structure to be designed and fabricated. During the Phase I, EHT will design and construct magnetic field probes on flexible PCBs, which will be tested at the University of Washington's HIT-SI experiment and in EHT's material science plasma reactor. Funding provided by DOE SBIR/STTR Program.

  7. Magnetic probe array with high sensitivity for fluctuating field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamaru, Yuki; Gota, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Kayoko; Ikeyama, Taeko; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2007-03-01

    A magnetic probe array is constructed to measure precisely the spatial structure of a small fluctuating field included in a strong confinement field that varies with time. To exclude the effect of the confinement field, the magnetic probes consisting of figure-eight-wound coils are prepared. The spatial structure of the fluctuating field is obtained from a Fourier analysis of the probe signal. It is found that the probe array is more sensitive to the fluctuating field with a high mode number than that with a low mode number. An experimental demonstration of the present method is attempted using a field-reversed configuration plasma, where the fluctuating field with 0.1% of the confinement field is successfully detected.

  8. Higher Order Mode Filter Design for Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, B P; Ben-Zv, I; Burt, Graeme Campbell; Calaga, Rama; Capatina, Ofelia; Hall, B; Jones, T; Skaritka, J; Verdú-Andrés, S; Wu, Q

    2015-01-01

    A Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A compact Higher Order Mode (HOM) filter with wide stop band at the deflecting mode is developed for this cavity. Multi-physics finite element simulation results are presented. The integration of this design to the cavity cryomodule is described.

  9. Application of the iterative probe correction technique for a high-order probe in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2006-01-01

    An iterative probe-correction technique for spherical near-field antenna measurements is examined. This technique has previously been shown to be well-suited for non-ideal first-order probes. In this paper, its performance in the case of a high-order probe (a dual-ridged horn) is examined....

  10. Precision probes of QCD at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioli, Simone; Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2017-07-01

    New physics, that is too heavy to be produced directly, can leave measurable imprints on the tails of kinematic distributions at the LHC. We use energetic QCD processes to perform novel measurements of the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory. We show that the dijet invariant mass spectrum, and the inclusive jet transverse momentum spectrum, are sensitive to a dimension 6 operator that modifies the gluon propagator at high energies. The dominant effect is constructive or destructive interference with SM jet production. We compare differential next-to-leading order predictions from POWHEG to public 7 TeV jet data, including scale, PDF, and experimental uncertainties and their respective correlations. We constrain a New Physics (NP) scale of 3.5 TeV with current data. We project the reach of future 13 and 100 TeV measurements, which we estimate to be sensitive to NP scales of 8 and 60 TeV, respectively. As an application, we apply our bounds to constrain heavy vector octet colorons that couple to the QCD current. We project that effective operators will surpass bump hunts, in terms of coloron mass reach, even for sequential couplings.

  11. High spatial resolution probes for neurobiology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, D. E.; Kenney, C. J.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive biological neural networks, such as the brain and the retina, require position-sensitive detection methods to identify, map and study their behavior. Traditionally, planar microelectrodes have been employed to record the cell's electrical activity with device limitations arising from the electrode's 2-D nature. Described here is the development and characterization of an array of electrically conductive micro-needles aimed at addressing the limitations of planar electrodes. The capability of this array to penetrate neural tissue improves the electrode-cell electrical interface and allows more complicated 3-D networks of neurons, such as those found in brain slices, to be studied. State-of-the-art semiconductor fabrication techniques were used to etch and passivate conformally the metal coat and fill high aspect ratio holes in silicon. These are subsequently transformed into needles with conductive tips. This process has enabled the fabrication of arrays of unprecedented dimensions: 61 hexagonally close-packed electrodes, ˜200 μm tall with 60 μm spacing. Electroplating the tungsten tips with platinum ensure suitable impedance values (˜600 kΩ at 1 kHz) for the recording of neuronal signals. Without compromising spatial resolution of the neuronal recordings, this array adds a new and exciting dimension to the study of biological neural networks.

  12. Off-shell Higgs signal strength measurement using high-mass H$\\rightarrow$ZZ$\\rightarrow$ 4l events at High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the high-mass off-peak regions in the H$\\rightarrow$ZZ and H$\\rightarrow$WW channels above the 2mV threshold (V=W,Z) have sensitivity to off-shell Higgs production and interference effects. This feature can be exploited to characterize the Higgs boson off-shell signal strength and its associated couplings. This note will concern prospects studies on the Higgs off-shell couplings in the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) configuration using a simplified version of the main analysis employed in a previous ATLAS paper. This study comprises the H$\\rightarrow$ZZ$\\rightarrow$4l final state only.

  13. The massive protostar W43-MM1 as seen by Herschel-HIFI water spectra: high turbulence and accretion luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpin, F.; Chavarría, L.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jacq, T.; Braine, J.; Baudry, A.; Bontemps, S.; Kristensen, L.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We present Herschel-HIFI observations of 14 water lines in W43-MM1, a massive protostellar object in the luminous star-cluster-forming region W43. We place our study in the more general context of high-mass star formation. The dynamics of these regions may be represented by either the monolithic collapse of a turbulent core, or competitive accretion. Water turns out to be a particularly good tracer of the structure and kinematics of the inner regions, allowing an improved description of the physical structure of the massive protostar W43-MM1 and an estimation of the amount of water around it. Methods: We analyze the gas dynamics from the line profiles using Herschel-HIFI observations acquired as part of the Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel project of 14 far-IR water lines (H216O, H217O, H218O), CS(11-10), and C18O(9-8) lines, using our modeling of the continuum spectral energy distribution. The spectral modeling tools allow us to estimate outflow, infall, and turbulent velocities and molecular abundances. We compare our results to previous studies of low-, intermediate-, and other high-mass objects. Results: As for lower-mass protostellar objects, the molecular line profiles are a mix of emission and absorption, and can be decomposed into "medium" (full width at half maximum FWHM ≃ 5-10 km s-1), and "broad" velocity components (FWHM ≃ 20-35 km s-1). The broad component is the outflow associated with protostars of all masses. Our modeling shows that the remainder of the water profiles can be well-fitted by an infalling and passively heated envelope, with highly supersonic turbulence varying from 2.2 km s-1 in the inner region to 3.5 km s-1 in the outer envelope. In addition, W43-MM1 has a high accretion rate of between 4.0 × 10-4 and 4.0 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1, as derived from the fast (0.4-2.9 km s-1) infall observed. We estimate a lower mass limit for gaseous water of 0.11 M⊙ and total water luminosity of 1.5 L⊙ (in the 14 lines presented here

  14. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on a phase-sensitive probe absorption technique with high sensitivity, capable of detecting a few hundred ultra-cold atoms in flight in an observation time of a few milliseconds. The large signal-to-noise ratio achieved is sufficient for reliable measurements on low intensity beams of cold atoms. We demonstrate the ...

  15. Probing the bias of radio sources at high redshift

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Passmoor, S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the clustering of dark matter and that of luminous matter is often described using the bias parameter. Here, we provide a new method to probe the bias of intermediate-to-high-redshift radio continuum sources for which...

  16. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absorption imaging using a high sensitivity CCD camera gives the size of the expanding cloud and hence ... (LVIS) [2], the peak signal in a 1 mm thick resonant probe beam corresponds to the absorption by 3 × 105 ... used in our atom optics experiments on the reflection of atoms from magnetic thin films [13]. The sensitivity ...

  17. Search for Resonant s-channel Higgs Production at a future high-luminosity e+e- collider (FCC-ee)

    CERN Document Server

    Wojcik, George

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the plausibility of measuring direct resonant s-channel Higgs production at a future high-luminosity e+e- collider machine (of the FCC-ee type) is examined. Using PYTHIA8 to generate expected samples for signal (e+e--->H-->WW*,ZZ*,bbar,gluon-gluon) and backgrounds (e+e- -->Z*,gamma*-->qqbar,tautau,WW,ZZ) in seven possible Higgs decay channels (combining isolated leptons, neutrinos and heavy-quark, light-quark and gluon jets), a total combined statistical significance of 3.6 sigma per experiment is obtained at an integrated luminosity of 10 $ab^{-1}$. This preliminary result, not accounting yet for signal loss from ISR and beam energy spreading, seems to confirm the possibility to access (or at least put strong constraints) on the fundamental Yukawa coupling of the Higgs boson to electrons.

  18. Performance of the first short model 150 mm aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole MQXFS for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Chlachidze, G; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; DiMarco, J; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Grosclaude, P; Guinchard, M; Hafalia, A R; Holik, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Nobrega, F; Orris, D; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G L; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Stoynev, S; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Vallone, G; Velev, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN combined their efforts in developing Nb3Sn magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The ultimate goal of this collaboration is to fabricate large aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles for the LHC interaction regions (IR). These magnets will replace the present 70 mm aperture NbTi quadrupole triplets for expected increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 5. Over the past decade LARP successfully fabricated and tested short and long models of 90 mm and 120 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupoles. Recently the first short model of 150 mm diameter quadrupole MQXFS was built with coils fabricated both by the LARP and CERN. The magnet performance was tested at Fermilab’s vertical magnet test facility. This paper reports the test results, including the quench training at 1.9 K, ramp rate and temperature dependence studies.

  19. Polarization-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with high harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairesse, Y; Fabre, B; Higuet, J; Constant, E; Descamps, D; Mevel, E; Petit, S [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux I, UMR 5107 (CNRS, Bordeaux 1, CEA), 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Haessler, S; Boutu, W; Breger, P; Salieres, P [CEA-Saclay, DSM, Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: mairesse@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr

    2008-02-15

    High harmonic generation in gases can be used as a probe of the electronic structure of the emitting medium, with attosecond temporal resolution and angstroem spatial resolution. The prospect of measuring molecular dynamics by pump-probe spectroscopy with such precision is attracting a lot of interest. An important issue in pump-probe spectroscopy lies in the ability to detect small signals: the detected signal can be easily dominated by the contributions from non-excited molecules or from a carrier gas. In this paper, we demonstrate that polarization-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy can be used to overcome this issue. We study high harmonic generation from rotationally excited molecules. We show that by measuring the harmonic field that is generated orthogonally to the driving laser field, the contrast in the detection of alignment revivals in nitrogen can be increased by a factor 4. We use this configuration to measure alignment revivals in an argon-nitrogen mixture, in which the total harmonic signal is dominated by the contributions from argon.

  20. Improved controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Wu, Yuehua; Jacobsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    ) is monitored by an oxygen sensor. We present here some examples of its capabilities demonstrated by high temperature topography with simultaneously ac electrical conductance measurements during atmosphere changes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures, and measurements of the surface......To locally access electrochemical active surfaces and interfaces in operando at the sub-micron scale at high temperatures in a reactive gas atmosphere is of great importance to understand the basic mechanisms in new functional materials, for instance, for energy technologies, such as solid oxide...... fuel cells and electrolyzer cells. Here, we report on advanced improvements of our original controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope, CAHT-SPM. The new microscope can employ a broad range of the scanning probe techniques including tapping mode, scanning tunneling microscopy...

  1. Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy with high temporal dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael; Huber, Heinz P

    2012-04-23

    Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy is a common method for time and space resolved imaging of short and ultra-short pulse laser ablation. The temporal delay between the ablating pump pulse and the illuminating probe pulse is tuned either by an optical delay, resulting in several hundred femtoseconds temporal resolution for delay times up to a few ns, or by an electronic delay, resulting in several nanoseconds resolution for longer delay times. In this work we combine both delay types for temporally high resolved observations of complete ablation processes ranging from femtoseconds to microseconds, while ablation is initiated by an ultrafast 660 fs laser pump pulse. For this purpose, we also demonstrate the calibration of the delay time zero point, the synchronization of both probe sources, as well as a method for image quality enhancing. In addition, we present for the first time to our knowledge pump-probe microscopy investigations of the complete substrate side selective ablation process of molybdenum films on glass. The initiation of mechanical film deformation is observed at about 400 ps, continues until approximately 15 ns, whereupon a Mo disk is sheared off free from thermal effects due to a directly induced laser lift-off ablation process. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  2. Practical aspects of spherical near-field antenna measurements using a high-order probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2006-01-01

    Two practical aspects related to accurate antenna pattern characterization by probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with a high-order probe are examined. First, the requirements set by an arbitrary high-order probe on the scanning technique are pointed out. Secondly, a channel...... balance calibration procedure for a high-order dual-port probe with non-identical ports is presented, and the requirements set by this procedure for the probe are discussed....

  3. Second Generation Coil Design of the Nb3Sn low-beta Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Ballarino, A; Cavanna, E; Bossert, R; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Hagen,P; Holik, E; Perez, J C; Rochepault, E; Schmalzle, J; Todesco, E; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build a 150 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupole for the LHC interaction regions. A first series of 1.5 m long coils were fabricated and assembled in a first short model. A detailed visual inspection of the coils was carried out to investigate cable dimensional changes during heat treatment and the position of the windings in the coil straight section and in the end region. The analyses allow identifying a set of design changes which, combined with a fine tune of the cable geometry and a field quality optimization, were implemented in a new, second-generation, coil design. In this paper we review the main characteristics of the first generation coils, describe the modification in coil lay-out, and discuss their impact on parts design and magnet analysis.

  4. Probing the Circumgalactic Gas around High Redshift Galaxies with VUDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hernández, Hugo; Cassata, Paolo; Ibar, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    We probe the CGM of high redshift galaxies belonging to VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We used deep spectroscopy of different lines-of-sight around foreground galaxies to get useful information on the overall kinematics, chemical abundances, and (in some cases) estimates of the mass flux of cool material entrained in an in-outflow.We have selected a sample of 1244 close (0 150 kpc) galaxy pairs from the Vimos Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS) to probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around galaxies at 2CIV, OISiII, CIV, AlII) out to galactocentric radii of ˜150 kpc on stacked spectra, and found that the CGM of galaxies at 2< z <5 are rich in metals even at ˜150 kpc away from the galaxies.

  5. Concept of a Stand-Alone Muon Trigger with High Transverse Momentum Resolution for the ATLAS Detector at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Horii, Yasuyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger uses a three-level trigger system. The level-1 (L1) trigger for muons with high transverse momentum pT in ATLAS is based on fast chambers with excellent time resolution which are able to identify muons coming from a particular beam crossing. These trigger chambers also provide a fast measurement of the muon transverse momenta, however with limited accuracy caused by the moderate spatial resolution along the deflecting direction of the magnetic field. The higher luminosity foreseen for Phase-II puts stringent limits on the L1 trigger rates. A way to control these rates is the improvement of the spatial resolution of the triggering device which drastically sharpens the turn-on curve of the L1 trigger. To do this, the precision tracking chambers (MDT) can be used in the L1 trigger, if the corresponding trigger latency is increased as planned. The trigger rate reduction is accomplished by strongly decreasing the rate of triggers from muons with pT lower than a predefined threshold (typically 20 ...

  6. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design, testing and prototyping of superconducting elements for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project and for the production of spare quadrupole magnets for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design, testing and prototyping of superconducting elements for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project and for the production of spare quadrupole magnets for LHC

  7. Hiding from the moonlight: luminosity and temperature affect activity of Asian nocturnal primates in a highly seasonal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Starr

    Full Text Available The effect of moonlight and temperature on activity of slow lorises was previously little known and this knowledge might be useful for understanding many aspects of their behavioural ecology, and developing strategies to monitor and protect populations. In this study we aimed to determine if the activity of the pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus is affected by ambient temperature and/or moonlight in a mixed deciduous forest. We radio-collared five females and five males in the Seima Protection Forest, Cambodia, in February to May, 2008 and January to March, 2009 and recorded their behaviour at 5 minutes intervals, totalling 2736 observations. We classified each observation as either inactive (sleeping or alert or active behaviour (travel, feeding, grooming, or others. Moon luminosity (bright/dark and ambient temperature were recorded for each observation. The response variable, activity, was binary (active or inactive, and a logit link function was used. Ambient temperature alone did not significantly affect mean activity. Although mean activity was significantly affected by moonlight, the interaction between moonlight and temperature was also significant: on bright nights, studied animals were increasingly more active with higher temperature; and on dark nights they were consistently active regardless of temperature. The most plausible explanation is that on bright cold nights the combined risk of being seen and attacked by predators and heat loss outweigh the benefit of active behaviours.

  8. Layout Overview and Developments for the upgrade of the Inner Tracker of the ATLAS experiment for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Peter William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with the resultant increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk), aiming to provide tracking coverage up to |η|<4. The ITk consists of an inner pixel and an outer strip detector. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 13 m^2, depending on the final layout choice. The strip detector will compromise up to 190 m^2 of silicon. The design is developed by careful compromises of the conflicting requirements of a low mass, mechanically stable tracker with sufficient number of high granularity sensors for high quality tracking. The required number of hits has to be achieved with various layers of silicon sensors in r-phi. In the collaboration, a large effort is ong...

  9. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Du

    Full Text Available Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  10. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangang; Blanche, Timothy J; Harrison, Reid R; Lester, Henry A; Masmanidis, Sotiris C

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  11. Bright end of the luminosity function of high-mass X-ray binaries: contributions of hard, soft and supersoft sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, S.; Khabibullin, I.

    2017-04-01

    Using a spectral analysis of bright Chandra X-ray sources located in 27 nearby galaxies and maps of star-formation rate (SFR) and interstellar medium surface densities for these galaxies, we constructed the intrinsic X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of luminous high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), taking into account absorption effects and the diversity of HMXB spectra. The XLF per unit SFR can be described by a power-law dN/dlog LX,unabs ≈ 2.0(LX,unabs/1039 erg s-1)-0.6 (M⊙ yr-1)-1 from LX,unabs = 1038 to 1040.5 erg s-1, where LX,unabs is the unabsorbed luminosity at 0.25-8 keV. The intrinsic number of luminous HMXBs per unit SFR is a factor of ˜2.3 larger than the observed number reported before. The intrinsic XLF is composed of hard, soft and supersoft sources (defined here as those with the 0.25-2 keV to 0.25-8 keV flux ratio of 0.95, respectively) in ˜ 2:1:1 proportion. We also constructed the intrinsic HMXB XLF in the soft X-ray band (0.25-2 keV). Here, the numbers of hard, soft and supersoft sources prove to be nearly equal. The cumulative present-day 0.25-2 keV emissivity of HMXBs with luminosities between 1038 and 1040.5 erg s-1 is ˜5 × 1039 erg s-1(M⊙ yr-1)-1, which may be relevant for studying the X-ray preheating of the early Universe.

  12. A high brightness probe of polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sirong; Zhu, Jiarong; Li, Yaping; Feng, Liheng

    2018-03-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with high brightness in long wavelength region were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, the high brightness property of the CPNs was realized by four different emission polymers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the CPNs possessed a spherical structure and an average diameter of 75 nm. Analysis assays showed that the CPNs had excellent biocompatibility, good photostability and low cytotoxicity. The CPNs were bio-modified with a cell penetrating peptide (Tat, a targeted element) through covalent link. Based on the entire wave fluorescence emission, the functionalized CPNs1-4 can meet multichannel and high throughput assays in cell and organ imaging. The contribution of the work lies in not only providing a new way to obtain a high brightness imaging probe in long wavelength region, but also using targeted cell and organ imaging.

  13. Summary of Test Results of MQXFS1—The First Short Model 150 mm Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Quadrupole for the High-Luminosity LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Stoynev, S; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; DiMarco, J; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Chlachidze, G; Ghosh, A; Grosclaude, P; Guinchard, M; Hafalia, A R; Holik, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Marchevsky, M; Nobrega, F; Orris, D; Pan, H; Perez, J C; Prestemon, S; Ravaioli, E; Sabbi, G; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Strauss, T; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Todesco, E; Vallone, G; Velev, G; Wanderer, P; Wang, X; Yu, M

    2017-01-01

    The development of $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupole magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade is a joint venture between the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)* and CERN with the goal of fabricating large aperture quadrupoles for the LHC in-teraction regions (IR). The inner triplet (low-β) NbTi quadrupoles in the IR will be replaced by the stronger Nb3Sn magnets boosting the LHC program of having 10-fold increase in integrated luminos-ity after the foreseen upgrades. Previously LARP conducted suc-cessful tests of short and long models with up to 120 mm aperture. The first short 150 mm aperture quadrupole model MQXFS1 was assembled with coils fabricated by both CERN and LARP. The magnet demonstrated strong performance at the Fermilab’s verti-cal magnet test facility reaching the LHC operating limits. This paper reports the latest results from MQXFS1 tests with changed pre-stress levels. The overall magnet performance, including quench training and memory, ramp rate and temperature depend-ence, is also summariz...

  14. Study on the prospects of a $t\\bar{t}$ resonance search in events with one lepton at a High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A study on the prospects of a search for a new particle decaying to a top quark pair at the High Luminosity LHC using Monte Carlo simulations is presented. The proposed search will assume an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data taken at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 14 TeV. Detector effects are accounted for using parameterised estimates of the performance of an upgraded ATLAS detector. The search is carried out by examining the $t\\bar{t}$ invariant mass spectrum for localised excesses or deficits. A statistical analysis sets expected upper limits on the cross section of a $t\\bar{t}$ resonance in a benchmark model for several signal masses. The mass reach of a search for a Z' boson in the TopColour model at the HL-LHC is estimated to be 4 TeV. This is an increase of $\\sim$ 1 TeV relative to the estimated limit using 300 fb$^{−1}$ that is expected from the LHC prior to the upgrade.

  15. Summary of Test Results of MQXFS1 - The First Short Model 150 mm Aperture $Nb_3Sn$ Quadrupole for the High-Luminosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoynev, S.; et al.

    2017-01-01

    The development of $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupole magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade is a joint venture between the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)* and CERN with the goal of fabricating large aperture quadrupoles for the LHC in-teraction regions (IR). The inner triplet (low-β) NbTi quadrupoles in the IR will be replaced by the stronger Nb3Sn magnets boosting the LHC program of having 10-fold increase in integrated luminos-ity after the foreseen upgrades. Previously LARP conducted suc-cessful tests of short and long models with up to 120 mm aperture. The first short 150 mm aperture quadrupole model MQXFS1 was assembled with coils fabricated by both CERN and LARP. The magnet demonstrated strong performance at the Fermilab’s verti-cal magnet test facility reaching the LHC operating limits. This paper reports the latest results from MQXFS1 tests with changed pre-stress levels. The overall magnet performance, including quench training and memory, ramp rate and temperature depend-ence, is also summarized.

  16. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-01-01

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determinationof the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since theHiggs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale anda search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions areof crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross sectionmeasurement.To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section,the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm−2 s−1was reached with 1011 protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In suchconditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required,especially for instrumentation near the beam.The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminomet...

  17. Reference Ultraviolet Luminosity Functions for the JWST Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven

    We propose to construct the most accurate set of galaxy ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions yet assembled over the redshift range 4 early universe. This will be accomplished using archival data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and a variety of ground-based telescopes (NOAO CTIO and KPNO 4m, VISTA, Subaru, VLT, CFHT), selecting an expected sample of 47,000 galaxies (>4x larger than the previous largest sample of galaxies in this epoch selected with multiwavelength data). In an advance over previous studies, we will select samples of galaxies including Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) mid-infrared imaging data, which are crucial to both minimize contamination and to improve the precision of photometric redshifts. Additionally, we will be the first to apply a uniform set of selection criteria simultaneously to datasets spanning an order of magnitude in dynamic range of area covered, allowing the construction of high-redshift UV luminosity functions spanning nearly 10 astronomical magnitudes. We will use this dataset to accomplish the following science goals: 1) We will provide the most robust constraints on the abundance of bright star-forming galaxies in the epoch 4 early times. While initial results concluded that the SFR density decreased rapidly in this epoch, our pilot study using Spitzer/IRAC data implies that galaxies in this epoch are more numerous than previously observed. Our proposed project will perform a detailed analysis into the abundance of galaxies at z=9-10, providing a robust baseline for future studies with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 3) Due to our large volume probed, we expect 1600 AGNs at z=4-6. These AGN come from the faint-end of the AGN luminosity function, which is presently poorly constrained. Our large dynamic range in UV luminosity probed will allow us to fit the galaxy and AGN luminosity functions simultaneously (supplementing with Sloan quasar data to constrain the bright-end of the AGN

  18. Unusual features of negative leaders' development in natural lightning, according to simultaneous records of current, electric field, luminosity, and high-speed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Miguel; Arcanjo, Marcelo; Murta Vale, Maria Helena; Visacro, Silverio

    2017-02-01

    The development of downward and upward leaders that formed two negative cloud-to-ground return strokes in natural lightning, spaced only about 200 µs apart and terminating on ground only a few hundred meters away, was monitored at Morro do Cachimbo Station, Brazil. The simultaneous records of current, close electric field, relative luminosity, and corresponding high-speed video frames (sampling rate of 20,000 frames per second) reveal that the initiation of the first return stroke interfered in the development of the second negative leader, leading it to an apparent continuous development before the attachment, without stepping, and at a regular two-dimensional speed. Based on the experimental data, the formation processes of the two return strokes are discussed, and plausible interpretations for their development are provided.

  19. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter, its performance with 13~TeV proton-proton collisions, and its upgrades for the high luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00075913; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with the other calorimeters it is designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. It also assists in the muon identification. A summary of the upgrades and performance results for TileCal using pp collisions from the initial LHC Run II at 13~TeV will be presented. For the high luminosity era a major upgrade of the TileCal electronics is planned, and the ongoing developments for on- and off-detector systems, together with expected performance characteristics and recent beam tests of prototypes, will be described.

  20. Noise evaluation of silicon strip super-module with ABCN250 readout chips for the ATLAS detector upgrade at the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todome, K., E-mail: todome@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Clark, A.; Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; La Marra, D.; Perrin, E.; Weber, M. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Takashima, R. [Department of Science Education, Kyoto University of Education, Kyoto 612-8522 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Tojo, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Kono, T. [Ochadai Academic Production, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Solid State Div., Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Toward High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the whole ATLAS inner tracker will be replaced, including the semiconductor tracker (SCT) which is the silicon micro strip detector for tracking charged particles. In development of the SCT, integration of the detector is the important issue. One of the concepts of integration is the “super-module” in which individual modules are assembled to produce the SCT ladder. A super-module prototype has been developed to demonstrate its functionality. One of the concerns in integrating the super-modules is the electrical coupling between each module, because it may increase intrinsic noise of the system. To investigate the electrical performance of the prototype, the new Data Acquisition (DAQ) system has been developed by using SEABAS. The electric performance of the super-module prototype, especially the input noise and random noise hit rate, was investigated by using SEABAS system.

  1. Pinhole Luminosity Monitor with Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J

    2004-05-17

    Previously, the generalized luminosity L was defined and calculated for all incident channels based on an NLC e{sup +}e{sup -} design. Alternatives were then considered to improve the differing beam-beam e{sup -}e{sup -} e{gamma} and {gamma}{gamma} channels. Regardless of the channel, there was a large flux of outgoing, high energy photons that were produced from the beam-beam interaction e.g. beamsstrahlung that needs to be disposed of and whose flux depended on L. One approach to this problem is to consider it a resource and attempt to take advantage of it by disposing of these straight-ahead photons in more useful ways than simply dumping them. While there are many options for monitoring the luminosity, any method that allows feedback and optimization in real time and in a non-intercepting and non-interfering way during normal data taking is extremely important--especially if it provides other capabilities such as high resolution tuning of spot sizes and can be used for all incident channels without essential modifications to their setup. Our ''pin-hole'' camera appears to be such a device if it can be made to work with high energy photons in ways that are compatible with the many other constraints and demands on space around the interaction region. The basis for using this method is that it has, in principle, the inherent resolution and bandwidth to monitor the very small spot sizes and their stabilities that are required for very high, integrated luminosity. While there are many possible, simultaneous uses of these outgoing photon beams, we limit our discussion to a single, blind, proof-of-principle experiment that was done on the FFTB line at SLAC to certify the concept of a camera obscura for high energy photons.

  2. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  3. GRB Probes of the High-z Universe with EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan; EXIST Team

    2009-05-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission concept was selected for further study under the Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program. The mission design is optimized for study of high-z GRBs as probes of the early Universe. With a 4.5 m2 imaging 5-600 keV (CZT) detector imaging a 90°×70° (>10% coding fraction) field of view with 2' resolution and 5σ sources, EXIST will perform rapid (exist, and spectra for studies of the host galaxy and local re-ionization bubble as well as intervening cosmic structure. With ~600 GRBs/yr expected, EXIST will open a new era in studies of the early Universe as well as carry out a rich program of AGN and transient-source science. An overview of the GRB science objectives and a brief discussion of the overall mission design and operations is given, and example high-z GRB spectra are shown. EXIST is being proposed to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey as a Medium Class mission that could be launched as early as 2017.

  4. New gas electron-multiplier detectors for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC design and prototype performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gruchala, Marek Michal

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity LHC will require new detectors in the CMS endcap muon system to suppress the trigger rate of background events, to maintain high trigger efficiency for low transverse momentum muons, to enhance the robustness of muon detection in the high-flux environment of the endcap, and to extend the geometrical acceptance. We report on the design and recent progress towards implementing a new system of large-area, triple-foil gas electron-multiplier (GEM) detectors that will be installed in the first three of five muon detector stations in each endcap, the first station being closest to the interaction point. The first station will extend the geometric acceptance in pseudo-rapidity to eta lt 3.0 from the current limit of eta lt 2.4. The second and third stations will enhance the performance in the range 1.6 lt eta lt 2.4. We describe the design of the chambers and readout electronics and report on the performance of prototype systems in tests with cosmic ray muons, high-energy particlebeams, a...

  5. Acoustic analysis of shock production by very high-altitude meteors—I: infrasonic observations, dynamics and luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. G.; Edwards, W. N.; Revelle, D. O.; Spurny, P.

    2007-04-01

    Four very high-velocity and high-altitude meteors (a Leonid, two Perseids and a high-speed sporadic fireball) have been unambiguously detected at the ground both optically using precision all-sky cameras and acoustically via infrasound and seismic signals. Infrasound arriving from altitudes of over 100 km is not very common, but has been previously observed for re-entering spacecraft. This, however, is the first reported detection of such high-altitude infrasound unambiguously from meteors to our knowledge. These fragile meteoroids were found to generate acoustic waves at source heights ranging from 80 to 110 km, with most acoustic energy being generated near the lowest heights. Time residuals between observed acoustic onset and model predictions based on ray-tracing points along the photographically determined trajectories indicate that the upper winds given by the UK meteorological office (UKMO) model systematically produce lower residuals for first arrivals than those from the Naval Research Laboratory Horizontal Wind Model (HWM). Average source energies for three of the four events from acoustic data alone are found to be in the range of 2×108-9 J. One event, EN010803, had unusually favorable geometry for acoustic detection at the ground and therefore has the smallest photometric source energy (10-5 kt; 6×107 J) of any meteor detected infrasonically. When compared to the total optical radiation recorded by film, the results for the three events produce equivalent integral panchromatic luminous efficiencies of 3 7%, within a factor of two of the values proposed by Ceplecha and McCrosky [1976. Fireball end heights—a diagnostic for the structure of meteoric material. Journal of Geophysical Research 81, 6257 6275] for the velocity range (55 70 km s-1) appropriate to our events. Application of these findings to meteor showers in general suggest that the Geminid shower should be the most prolific producer of infrasound detectable meteors at the ground of all the

  6. The ATLAS Production System Evolution. New Data Processing and Analysis Paradigm for the LHC Run2 and High-Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS specific workflows, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resources utilization is one of the major system’s features, it didn’t exist in the earliest versions of the production system, where Grid resources topology has been predefined using national or/and geographical pattern. Production System has a sophisticated job fault-recovery mechanism, which allows effici...

  7. The ATLAS Production System Evolution: New Data Processing and Analysis Paradigm for the LHC Run2 and High-Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)677929; The ATLAS collaboration; Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; De, Kaushik; Golubkov, Dmitry; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Padolski, Siarhei; Wenaus, Torre

    2017-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS Production System called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS specific workflows, across more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criteria, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption, with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resources utilization is one of the major features of the system, it didn’t exist in the earliest versions of the production system where Grid resources topology has been predefined using national or/and geographical pattern. Production System has a sophisticated job fault-recovery mechanism, which efficiently a...

  8. The NMR Probe of High-T$_{c}$ Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Walstedt, Russell E

    2008-01-01

    The NMR probe has yielded a vast array of data for the high-Tc materials, corresponding to different compounds, ionic sites, and nuclear species, as well as to a wide variety of experimental conditions. Over the twenty years, since the discovery of superconducting cuprates, ongoing analysis and discussion of cuprate NMR data have resulted in a wealth of important insights into the physics of these exotic systems. The aims of this monograph are threefold. First, it reviews NMR methodology as it has been applied to the cuprate studies. This is addressed to NMR practitioners and to physics laypersons alike. Next, it presents a review of cuprate NMR measurements and the wide variety of phenomena which they represent. The third phase is to recount the theoretical model calculations and other proposals which have been put forward to account for these data. Parts two and three are presented in parallel, as there are many aspects to both topics, each with its own interesting history. There is, even twenty years on, a...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high moment...

  10. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from $\\sim$30 MeV to $\\sim$2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from electroweak bosons decays are employed to study the energy response of the calorimeter at the electromagnetic scale. The calorimeter response to hadronic particles is evaluated with a sample of isolated hadrons and the modelling of the response by the Monte Carlo simulation is dis...

  11. The ATLAS Production System Evolution: New Data Processing and Analysis Paradigm for the LHC Run2 and High-Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, F. H.; Borodin, M.; De, K.; Golubkov, D.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Padolski, S.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS Production System called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS specific workflows, across more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criteria, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption, with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteer-computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resources utilization is one of the major features of the system, it didn’t exist in the earliest versions of the production system where Grid resources topology was predefined using national or/and geographical pattern. Production System has a sophisticated job fault-recovery mechanism, which efficiently allows to run multi-Terabyte tasks without human intervention. We have implemented “train” model and open-ended production which allow to submit tasks automatically as soon as new set of data is available and to chain physics groups data processing and analysis with central production by the experiment. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System and its major components features and architecture: task definition, web user interface and monitoring. We describe the important design decisions and lessons learned from an operational experience during the first year of LHC Run2. We also report the performance of the designed system and how various workflows, such as data (re)processing, Monte-Carlo and physics group production, users analysis, are scheduled and executed within one production system on heterogeneous computing resources.

  12. Effect of primordial non-Gaussianities on the far-UV luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies: implications for cosmic reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Silk, Joseph; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Habouzit, Melanie; Mamon, Gary A.; Peirani, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the intergalactic medium (IGM) was reionized at z ≳ 6 is one of the big challenges of current high-redshift astronomy. It requires modelling the collapse of the first astrophysical objects (Pop III stars, first galaxies) and their interaction with the IGM, while at the same time pushing current observational facilities to their limits. The observational and theoretical progress of the last few years have led to the emergence of a coherent picture in which the budget of hydrogen-ionizing photons is dominated by low-mass star-forming galaxies, with little contribution from Pop III stars and quasars. The reionization history of the Universe therefore critically depends on the number density of low-mass galaxies at high redshift. In this work, we explore how changes in the cosmological model, and in particular in the statistical properties of initial density fluctuations, affect the formation of early galaxies. Following Habouzit et al. (2014), we run five different N-body simulations with Gaussian and (scale-dependent) non-Gaussian initial conditions, all consistent with Planck constraints. By appealing to a phenomenological galaxy formation model and to a population synthesis code, we compute the far-UV galaxy luminosity function down to MFUV = -14 at redshift 7 ≤ z ≤ 15. We find that models with strong primordial non-Gaussianities on ≲ Mpc scales show a far-UV luminosity function significantly enhanced (up to a factor of 3 at z = 14) in low-mass galaxies. We adopt a reionization model calibrated from state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations and show that such scale-dependent non-Gaussianities leave a clear imprint on the Universe reionization history and electron Thomson scattering optical depth τe. Although current uncertainties in the physics of reionization and on the determination of τe still dominate the signatures of non-Gaussianities, our results suggest that τe could ultimately be used to constrain the statistical properties

  13. Performance of new radiation tolerant thin n-in-p Silicon pixel sensors for the CMS experiment at High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla Betta, G.F; Darbo, G; Dinardo, Mauro; Giacomini, G; Menasce, Dario; Meschini, Marco; Messineo, Alberto; Moroni, Luigi; Rivera, Ryan Allen; Ronchin, S; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Zoi, Irene; Zuolo, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the CERN-LHC (HL-LHC) demands for a new high-radiation tolerant solid-state pixel sensor capable of surviving fluencies up to a few 10$^{16}$ particles/cm$^2$ at $\\sim$3 cm from the interaction point. To this extent the INFN ATLAS-CMS joint research activity in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler-FBK, is aiming at the development of thin n-in-p type pixel sensors for the HL-LHC. The R and D covers both planar and single-sided 3D columnar pixel devices made with the Si-Si Direct Wafer Bonding technique, which allows for the production of sensors with 100~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ active thickness for planars, and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ for 3D sensors, the thinnest ones ever produced so far. First prototypes of hybrid modules bump-bonded to the present CMS readout chip have been tested in beam tests. Preliminary results on their performance before and after irradiation are presented.

  14. Theory and practice of the FFT/matrix inversion technique for probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with high-order probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2010-01-01

    A complete antenna pattern characterization procedure for spherical near-field antenna measurements employing a high-order probe and a full probe correction is described. The procedure allows an (almost) arbitrary antenna to be used as a probe. Different measurement steps of the procedure...... and the associated data processing are described in detail, and comparison to the existing procedure employing a first-order probe is made. The procedure is validated through measurements....

  15. Operational results from the LHC luminosity monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; Ratti, A.; Matis, H.S.; Stezelberger, T.; Turner, W.C.; Yaver, H.; Bravin, E.

    2011-03-28

    The luminosity monitors for the high luminosity regions in the LHC have been operating to monitor and optimize the luminosity since 2009. The device is a gas ionization chamber inside the neutral particle absorber 140 m from the interaction point and monitors showers produced by high energy neutral particles from the collisions. It has the ability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation in the nominal LHC operation. We present operational results of the device during proton and lead ion operations in 2010 and make comparisons with measurements of experiments. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN can accelerate proton and lead ion beams to 7 TeV and 547 TeV and produce collisions of these particles. Luminosity measures performance of the LHC and is particularly important for experiments in high luminosity interaction points (IPs), ATLAS (IP1) and CMS (IP5). To monitor and optimize the luminosities of these IPs, BRAN (Beam RAte Neutral) detectors [1, 2] have been installed and operating since the beginning of the 2009 operation [3]. A neutral particle absorber (TAN) protects the D2 separation dipole from high energy forward neutral particles produced in the collisions [4]. These neutral particles produce electromagnetic and hadronic showers inside the TAN and their energy flux is proportional to the collision rate and hence to the luminosity. The BRAN detector is an Argon gas ionization chamber installed inside the TANs on both sides of the IP1 and IP5 and monitors the relative changes in the luminosity by detecting the ionization due to these showers. When the number of collisions per bunch crossing (multiplicity) is small, the shower rate inside the TAN is also proportional to the luminosity. Hence, the detector is designed to operate by measuring either the shower rate (counting mode for low and intermediate luminosities) or the average shower flux (pulse height mode for high luminosities). The detector is

  16. The galactic census of high- and medium-mass protostars. II. Luminosities and evolutionary states of a complete sample of dense gas clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Bo; Tan, Jonathan C.; Barnes, Peter J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, FL 32611 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP) is the first large-scale (280° < l < 300°, –4° < b < 2°), unbiased, subparsec resolution survey of Galactic molecular clumps and their embedded stars. Barnes et al. presented the source catalog of ∼300 clumps based on HCO{sup +}(1-0) emission, used to estimate masses M. Here we use archival midinfrared-to-millimeter continuum data to construct spectral energy distributions. Fitting two-temperature gray-body models, we derive bolometric luminosities, L. We find that the clumps have 10 ≲ L/L {sub ☉} ≲ 10{sup 6.5} and 0.1 ≲ L/M/[L {sub ☉}/M {sub ☉}] ≲ 10{sup 3}, consistent with a clump population spanning a range of instantaneous star-formation efficiencies from 0 to ∼50%. We thus expect L/M to be a useful, strongly varying indicator of clump evolution during the star cluster formation process. We find correlations of the ratio of warm-to-cold component fluxes and of cold component temperature with L/M. We also find a near-linear relation between L/M and Spitzer-IRAC specific intensity (surface brightness); thus, this relation may also be useful as a star-formation efficiency indicator. The lower bound of the clump L/M distribution suggests that the star-formation efficiency per free-fall time is ε{sub ff} < 0.2. We do not find strong correlations of L/M with mass surface density, velocity dispersion, or virial parameter. We find a linear relation between L and L{sub HCO{sup +}(1--0)}, although with large scatter for any given individual clump. Fitting together with extragalactic systems, the linear relation still holds, extending over 10 orders of magnitude in luminosity. The complete nature of the CHaMP survey over a several kiloparsec-scale region allows us to derive a measurement at an intermediate scale, bridging those of individual clumps and whole galaxies.

  17. Mechanical Qualification of the Support Structure for MQXF, the Nb3Sn Low-Beta; Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Juchno, M; Anerella, M; Bajas, H; Bajko, M; Bourcey, N; Cheng, D W; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Grosclaude, P; Guinchard, M; Perez, J C; Prin, H; Schmalzle

    2016-01-01

    Within the scope of the High Luminosity LHC project, the collaboration between CERN and U.S. LARP is developing new low-β quadrupoles using the Nb3Sn superconducting technology for the upgrade of the LHC interaction regions. The magnet support structure of the first short model was designed and two units were fabricated and tested at CERN and at LBNL. The structure provides the preload to the collars-coils subassembly by an arrangement of outer aluminum shells pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders. For the mechanical qualification of the structure and the assembly procedure, superconducting coils were replaced with solid aluminum “dummy coils”, the structure was preloaded at room temperature, and then cooled-down to 77 K. Mechanical behavior of the magnet structure was monitored with the use of strain gauges installed on the aluminum shells, the dummy coils and the axial preload system. This paper reports on the outcome of the assembly and the cool-down tests with dummy coils, which were performe...

  18. submitter Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, Michinaka; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2015-01-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young's moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young's modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb–Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young's moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76–97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  19. The Development of Global Feature eXtractor (gFEX) – the ATLAS Calorimeter Level 1 Trigger for ATLAS at High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shaochun; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai

    2017-01-01

    As part of ATLAS Phase-I Upgrade, the gFEX is designed to help maintain the ATLAS Level-1 trigger acceptance rate with the increasing LHC luminosity. The gFEX identifies patterns of energy associated with the hadronic decays of high momentum Higgs, W, & Z bosons, top quarks, and exotic particles in real time at the 40MHz LHC bunch crossing rate. The prototype v1 and v2 were designed and fully tested in 2015 and 2016 respectively. A pre-production gFEX board has been manufactured, which is an ATCA module consisting of three UltraScale+ FPGAs and one ZYNQ UltraScale+, and 35 MiniPODs are implemented in an ATCA module. This board receives coarse-granularity (0.2x0.2) information from the entire ATLAS calorimeters on up to 300 optical fibers and 96 links to the L1Topo at the speed up to 12.8 Gb/s.

  20. Testing Results for Nb-Ti, 120-mm-Aperture, Low-B Quadrupole Models for the LHC High-Luminosity Insertion

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Bajko, M; Charrondiere, M; Bourcey, N; Datskov, V I; Fessia, P; Feuvrier, J; Galbraith, P; Garcia Tabares, A; Garcia-Perez, J; Granieri, P; Hagen, P; Lorin, C; Perez, J C; Russenschuck, S; Sahner, T; Segreti, M; Todesco, E; Willering, G

    2013-01-01

    The design and construction of a 120 mm wide-aperture, Nb-Ti superconducting quadrupole magnet for the LHC insertion region is part of a study towards a luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, envisaged for 2020-22. The main challenges for this accelerator quality magnet are to operate reliably with the high heat and radiation loads that are predicted in the insertion magnet regions. Calculations give approximately 500 Watts over the 30-m-long string of insertion magnets, while today LHC is operating for a nominal heat load of 12 Watts. To extract this heat, the model magnets incorporate new features: Open cable insulation, open ground insulation, open magnet structure, and a quench heater that has open channels to help extract the steady state heat load. This paper presents results from tests at room temperature and 1.8 K for the initial model magnet. We report magnet training, transfer function and field quality measurements, quench heater performance, and heat extraction studies using imbedded heaters to si...

  1. Very high-accuracy calibration of radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, very high-accuracy calibration of the radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe is described. An open-ended waveguide near-field probe has been used in a recent measurement of the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna Subsystem for the Sentinel 1 mission of the Europ......In this paper, very high-accuracy calibration of the radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe is described. An open-ended waveguide near-field probe has been used in a recent measurement of the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna Subsystem for the Sentinel 1 mission...

  2. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  3. A dumbell probe-mediated rolling circle amplification strategy for highly sensitive transcription factor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Qiu, Xiyang; Hou, Zhaohui; Deng, Keqin

    2015-02-15

    Highly sensitive detection of transcription factors (TF) is essential to proteome and genomics research as well as clinical diagnosis. We describe herein a novel fluorescent-amplified strategy for ultrasensitive, quantitative, and inexpensive detection of TF. The strategy consists of a hairpin DNA probe containing a TF binding sequence for target TF, a dumbbell-shaped probe, a primer DNA probe designed partly complementary to hairpin DNA probe, and a dumbbell probe. In the presence of target TF, the binding of the TF with hairpin DNA probe will prohibit the hybridization of the primer DNA probe with the "stem" and "loop" region of the hairpin DNA probe, then the unhybridized region of the primer DNA will hybridize with dumbbell probe, subsequently promote the ligation reaction and the rolling circle amplification (RCA), finally, the RCA products are quantified via the fluorescent intensity of SYBR Green I (SG). Using TATA-binding protein (TBP) as a model transcription factor, the proposed assay system can specifically detect TBP with a detection limit as low as 40.7 fM, and with a linear range from 100 fM to 1 nM. Moreover, this assay related DNA probe does not involve any modification and the whole assay proceeds in one tube, which makes the assay simple and low cost. It is expected to become a powerful tool for bioanalysis and clinic diagnostic application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM) for High Resolution Probing of Earth's Microstructural Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cambrian explosion; occurrence of landslides in very dry weather conditions; rockslides; dead, shriveled-up and crumbled leaves possessing fossil records with the semblance of well preserved, flat leaves; abundance of trilobite tracks in lower and higher rock layers; and sailing stones are enigmas demanding demystifications. These enigmas could be elucidated when data on soil structure, texture and strength are provided by some device with submicrometre accuracy; for these and other reasons, the design of a Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM), is being proposed; it is expected to deliver soft X-rays, at spatial resolution, ϛ≥600nm and to probe at the depth of 0.5m in 17s. The microprobe is portable compared to a synchrotron radiation facility (Diamond Light Source has land size of 43,300m2); spatial resolution,ϛ , of the DPSXRM surpasses those of the X-ray Fluorescence microanalysis (10µm), electron microprobe (1-3µm) and ion microprobe (5->30µm); the DPSXRM has allowance for multiple targets. Vanadium and Manganese membranes are proposed owing to respective 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 X-rays emitted, which best suits micro-probing of Earth's microstructural samples. Compound systems like the Kirk-Patrick and Baez and Wolter optics, aspheric mirrors like elliptical and parabolic optics, small apertures and Abbe sine condition are employed to reduce or remove astigmatism, obliquity, comatic and spherical aberrations—leading to good image quality. Results show that 5.899KeV MnKα1 and 4.952KeV VKα1 soft X-rays will travel a distance of 2.75mm to form circular patches of radii 2.2mm and 2.95mm respectively. Zone plate with nth zone radius of 1.5mm must be positioned 1.5mm and 2mm from the electron gun if circular patches must be formed from 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 soft X-rays respectively. The focal lengths of 0.25μm≤ƒ≤1.50μm and 0.04μm≤ƒ≤0.2μm covered by 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV Mn Kα1 soft X-Rays, will

  5. Precision Crystal Calorimetry at High Energy and High Luminosity CMS ECAL Performance at 13 TeV and Upgrade Test Beam studies

    CERN Document Server

    Micheli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) is operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2016 with proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy and at a bunch spacing of 25 ns. The instantaneous luminosity during this LHC Run II is expected to exceed 10^34 cm-2s-1 in routine operation. In this talk we present detailed performance results from the 2016 data taking period. At the higher center of mass energy and with the rapidly growing data set the performance at higher electron and photon energies becomes crucial. The CMS ECAL design ensures that its superb performance extends over a very wide range of energies up to electron and photon energies of 1 TeV and beyond. This is of crucial importance for physics searches beyond the standard model. We discuss how the triggering, event reconstruction and calibration of the ECAL detector is performing in this new regime. The impact of the ECAL performance on resonance searches in the mass range up to 1 TeV wi...

  6. MAGIC detection of very high energy γ-ray emission from the low-luminosity blazar 1ES 1741+196

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; Becerra González, J.; Rani, B.; Krauss, F.; Perri, M.; Verrecchia, F.; Reinthal, R.

    2017-06-01

    We present the first detection of the nearby (z = 0.084) low-luminosity BL Lac object 1ES 1741+196 in the very high energy (E > 100 GeV) band. This object lies in a triplet of interacting galaxies. Early predictions had suggested 1ES 1741+196 to be, along with several other high-frequency BL Lac sources, within the reach of MAGIC detectability. Its detection by MAGIC, later confirmed by VERITAS, helps to expand the small population of known TeV BL Lacs. The source was observed with the MAGIC telescopes between 2010 April and 2011 May, collecting 46 h of good quality data. These observations led to the detection of the source at 6.0 σ confidence level, with a steady flux F(>100 GeV) = (6.4 ± 1.7stat ± 2.6syst) × 10-12 ph cm-2s-1 and a differential spectral photon index Γ = 2.4 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2syst in the range of ˜80 GeV-3 TeV. To study the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) simultaneous with MAGIC observations, we use KVA, Swift/UVOT and XRT and Fermi/LAT data. One-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) modelling of the SED of 1ES 1741+196 suggests values for the SSC parameters that are quite common among known TeV BL Lacs except for a relatively low Doppler factor and slope of electron energy distribution. A thermal feature seen in the SED is well matched by a giant elliptical's template. This appears to be the signature of thermal emission from the host galaxy, which is clearly resolved in optical observations.

  7. Implementation of a high energy 4w probe beam on the Omega Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Shiromizu, S; Antonini, G; Haney, K; Froula, D; Moody, J; Gregori, G; Sorce, C; Divol, L; Griffith, R; Glenzer, S; Huff, R; Thorp, K; Armstrong, W; Bahr, R; Seka, W; Pien, G; Mathers, J; Morse, S; Loucks, S

    2004-04-15

    An ultraviolet high-energy Thomson scattering probe beam has been implemented on the Omega laser facility at the University of Rochester. The new probe operates at a wavelength of 264nm, with a maximum energy of 260J in a pulselength of 1ns. The probe is focused with an F/6.7 lens to a minimum focal spot of 40{micro}m within a pointing tolerance of <50{micro}m. Data obtained from this probe beam has provided new diagnostic information on plasmas relevant for inertial confinement fusion and atomic physics studies.

  8. An Anthropology of Luminosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between light, material culture and social experiences. It argues that understanding light as a powerful social agent, in its relationship with people, things, colours, shininess and places, may facilitate an appreciation of the active social role...... of luminosity in the practice of day-to-day activities. The article surveys an array of past conceptions of light within philosophy, natural science and more recent approaches to light in the fields of anthropology and material culture studies. A number of implications are discussed, and by way of three case...... studies it is argued that light may be used as a tool for exercising social intimacy and inclusion, of shaping moral spaces and hospitality, and orchestrating movement, while working as a metaphor as well as a material agent in these social negotiations. The social comprehension of light is a means...

  9. MPX detectors as LHC luminosity monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopczak, Andre; Ali, Babar; Bergmann, Benedikt; Caforio, Davide; Heijne, Erik; Pospisil, Stanislav; Seifert, Frank; Solc, Jaroslav; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel [IEAP CTU in Prague (Czech Republic); Ashba, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [University of Montreal (Canada); Bekhouche, Khaled [Biskra University (Algeria); Campbell, Michael; Nessi, Marzio [CERN (Switzerland); Lipniacka, Anna [Bergen University (Norway)

    2016-07-01

    A network of 16 Medipix-2 (MPX) silicon pixel devices was installed in the ATLAS detector cavern at CERN. It was designed to measure the composition and spectral characteristics of the radiation field in the ATLAS experiment and its surroundings. This study demonstrates that the MPX network can also be used as a self-sufficient luminosity monitoring system. The MPX detectors collect data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain, and thus they provide independent measurements of the bunch-integrated ATLAS/LHC luminosity. In particular, the MPX detectors located close enough to the primary interaction point are used to perform van der Meer calibration scans with high precision. Results from the luminosity monitoring are presented for 2012 data taken at √(s) =8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The characteristics of the LHC luminosity reduction rate are studied and the effects of beam-beam (burn-off) and beam-gas (single bunch) interactions are evaluated. The systematic variations observed in the MPX luminosity measurements are below 0.3% for one minute intervals.

  10. Luminosity calibration from elastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, H

    2006-01-01

    The absolute luminosity of the LHC at the ATLAS interaction point will be calibrated by the measurement of the t-distribution of elastic pp-scattering in the Coulomb-Nuclear interference region. The ALFA detector housed in Roman Pots located 240m away from IP1 is designed to approach the beam at mm distance and to measure elastic pp-scattering at micro-radian scattering angles. This measurement will be performed with dedicated runs using a special beam optics with high beta* and parallel-to-point focusing in order to access the Coulomb regime. In this note the expected performance of this method, evaluated with a simulation of the experimental set-up, is presented.

  11. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. -M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R. F.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Maerki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Sanchez, A. Martin; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. -B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilschut, H. W.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy root s. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for root s = 2.76, 7 and 8TeV

  12. MIDOT: A novel probe for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, K; Novac, B M; Graneau, N; Senior, P; Smith, I R; Sinclair, M

    2016-12-01

    A novel inductive probe, termed MIDOT, was developed for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines. While being inexpensive the probe does not require calibration, is resistant to both shock waves and temperature variations, and it is easy to manufacture and mount. It generates strong output signals that are relatively easy to interpret and has a detection region limited to a pre-defined part of the transmission line. The theoretical background related to the MIDOT probes, together with their practical implementation in both preliminary experimentation and high-current tests, is also presented in the paper. The novel probe can be used to benchmark existing 2D numerical codes used in calculating the current distribution inside the conductors of a transmission line but can also easily detect an early movement of a transmission line component. The probe can also find other applications, such as locating the position of a pulsed current flowing through a thin wire.

  13. High Speed Pump-Probe Apparatus for Observation of Transitional Effects in Ultrafast Laser Micromachining Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Alexeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pump-probe experimental approach has been shown to be a very efficient tool for the observation and analysis of various laser matter interaction effects. In those setups, synchronized laser pulses are used to create an event (pump and to simultaneously observe it (probe. In general, the physical effects that can be investigated with such an apparatus are restricted by the temporal resolution of the probe pulse and the observation window. The latter can be greatly extended by adjusting the pump-probe time delay under the assumption that the interaction process remains fairly reproducible. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid in the case of high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser material processing, where the irradiation history strongly affects the ongoing interaction process. In this contribution, the authors present an extension of the pump-probe setup that allows to investigate transitional and dynamic effects present during ultrafast laser machining performed at high pulse repetition frequencies.

  14. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2016: Extending Reverberation Mapping to Higher Luminosity AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Vivian; LAMP2016 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The technique of reverberation mapping has been used to estimate virial black hole masses and, more fundamentally, to probe the broad line region structure in Seyfert I galaxies. Efforts from the previous Lick AGN Monitoring Project (LAMP) campaigns and other studies to date have culminated in a large sample of reverberation mapped AGNs and measurements of their black hole masses, which in turn enabled major improvement to various AGN scaling relations. However, the high-luminosity end of such relations remains poorly constrained; this is because of observational challenges presented by the weaker continuum flux variations and longer time dilation in these sources. To this end, we have initiated a new LAMP2016 campaign to target AGNs with luminosities of 10^44 erg/s, with predicted H-beta lags of ~20 - 60 days or black hole masses of 10^7 - 10^8.5 Msun. Designed to monitor ~20 AGNs biweekly from Spring 2016 through Winter 2017 with the Kast spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory, we aim to probe luminosity-dependent trends in broad line region structure and dynamics, improve calibrations for single-epoch estimates of high-redshift quasar black hole masses, and test photoionization models for the radially-stratified structure of the broad line region. In this talk, I will present the overview and scope of LAMP2016 and show preliminary results from our ongoing campaign.

  15. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with high-redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calverley, Alexander Peter

    2011-11-01

    Clues about the timing of reionization and the nature of the ionizing sources responsible are imprinted in the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. In this thesis, I use high-resolution quasar spectra in conjunction with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to probe the IGM at high redshift, focusing on the ionization and thermal state of the gas. After reionization, the ionization state of the IGM is set by the intensity of the ultraviolet background (UVB), quantified by the hydrogen photoionization rate, Γ_bkg. At high redshifts this has been estimated by measuring the mean flux in the Lyα forest, and scaling Γ_bkg in simulations such that the simulated mean flux matches the observed value. In Chapter 3 I investigate whether the precision of these estimates can be improved by using the entire flux probability distribution function (PDF) instead of only the mean flux. Although I find it cannot improve the precision directly, the flux PDF can potentially be used to constrain other sources of error in observational estimates of Γ_bkg, and so may increase the precision indirectly. The ionizing output of a quasar will locally dominate over the UVB, and this leads to enhanced transmission bluewards of the quasar Lyα line, known as the proximity effect. In Chapter 4 I present the first measurements of Γ_bkg at z > 5 from the proximity effect. The UVB intensity declines smoothly with redshift over 4.6 6.4. There is a drop in Γ_bkg by roughly a factor of five, which corresponds to a drop in the ionizing emissivity by about a factor of two. Such a redshift evolution in the emissivity cannot continue to much higher redshift without reionization failing to complete, which suggests that reionization cannot have ended much higher than z = 6.4. Estimates of Γ_bkg from the proximity effect and the mean flux are generally discrepant at z ∼ 2-4, with those from the proximity effect systematically higher. This is generally attributed to effects of the

  16. Note: Production of stable colloidal probes for high-temperature atomic force microscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditscherlein, L; Peuker, U A

    2017-04-01

    For the application of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy at high temperatures (>500 K), stable colloidal probe cantilevers are essential. In this study, two new methods for gluing alumina particles onto temperature stable cantilevers are presented and compared with an existing method for borosilicate particles at elevated temperatures as well as with cp-cantilevers prepared with epoxy resin at room temperature. The durability of the fixing of the particle is quantified with a test method applying high shear forces. The force is calculated with a mechanical model considering both the bending as well as the torsion on the colloidal probe.

  17. Probing contact interactions at high energy lepton colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Godfrey, S. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Ottawa Carleton Inst. for Physics; Hewett, J.A. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Fermion compositeness and other new physics can be signaled by the presence of a strong four-fermion contact interaction. Here the authors present a study of {ell}{ell}qq and {ell}{ell}{ell}{prime}{ell}{prime} contact interactions using the reactions: {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup {minus}} {r_arrow} {ell}{prime}{sup +} {ell}{prime}{sup {minus}}, b{anti b}, c{anti c} at future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear colliders with {radical}s = 0.5--5 TeV and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders with {radical}s = 0.5, 4 TeV. They find that very large compositeness scales can be probed at these machines and that the use of polarized beams can unravel their underlying helicity structure.

  18. New integrated imaging high intensity focused ultrasound probe for transrectal prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, S; Gelet, A; Curiel, L; Chesnais, S; Chapelon, J-Y

    2008-07-01

    The present study proposes a new integrated imaging (II) high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) probe intended as an improvement to the Ablatherm prostate cancer treatment. Because of a perforation in the center of the II probe, the expected lesion differs from the one obtained for the original Ablatherm probe. In this paper, the new geometry and the strategy followed to establish the treatment parameters are presented. The original probe has a 40-mm focal length, a 50-mm aperture and is truncated at 31 mm. The II probe has a 45-mm focal length, a 61-mm aperture, a central perforation of 25 mm and is truncated at 31 mm. Both probes operate at 3 MHz. A mathematical model for lesion prediction was used for setting the treatment parameters for the II probe. These parameters should ensure equivalence between the lesions obtained with the original and II probes. Simulation-obtained parameters were validated by in-vitro and in-vivo (on liver of 70 New Zealand rabbits) experiments. The new II probe was used clinically to treat 30 patients. The mean age was 70.9 +/- 5.3 years (SD), the mean prostate volume 26.9 +/- 7.7 mL and the mean serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration before treatment was 9.2 +/- 5.5 ng/mL. Simulations showed that for the II probe acoustical power and duration when the transducer is inactive should be reduced of 14% and 1s. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments confirmed the equivalence between the lesions obtained with the two probes. The lesion volume obtained under in-vitro conditions (for a traversed tissue depth of 16 mm to the focus) was 5 +/- 0.4 cm(3) and 5.1 +/- 0.5 cm(3) for the original and II probes, respectively. Under in-vivo conditions, the lesion volume (for a traversed tissue depth of 18 mm) was 5.3 +/- 1.1 cm(3) and 5.1 +/- 1.1 cm(3) for the original and II probes, respectively. During the clinical trial, a correction of + 1s in the exposure time was required to recreate the same degree of efficacy observed with the

  19. Expected sensitivity of ATLAS to FCNC top quark decays $t \\rightarrow Zu$ and $t \\rightarrow Hq$ at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The expected sensitivity of the upgraded ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC to the flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) top quark decays $t \\rightarrow Zu$ and $t \\rightarrow Hq$ is estimated for an integrated luminosity of $3000\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The analysis is based on tt̄ events produced in proton-proton collisions in which one top quark decays to $W(\\to \\ell \

  20. Simulations of the LHC high luminosity monitors at beam energies from 3.5 TeV to 7.0 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, H.S.; Miyamoto, R.; Humphreys, P.; Ratti, A.; Turner, W.C.; Stiller, J.

    2011-03-28

    We have constructed two pairs of fast ionization chambers (BRAN) for measurement and optimization of luminosity at IR1 and IR5 of the LHC. These devices are capable of monitoring the performance of the LHC at low luminosity 10{sup 28} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} during beam commissioning all the way up to the expected full luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at 7.0 TeV. The ionization chambers measure the intensity of hadronic/electromagnetic showers produced by the forward neutral particles of LHC collisions. To predict and improve the understanding of the BRAN performance, we created a detailed FLUKA model of the detector and its surroundings. In this paper, we describe the model and the results of our simulations including the detector's estimated response to pp collisions at beam energies of 3.5, 5.0, and 7.0 TeV per beam. In addition, these simulations show the sensitivity of the BRAN to the crossing angle of the two LHC beams. It is shown that the BRAN sensitivity to the crossing angle is proportional to the measurement of crossing angle by the LHC beam position monitors.

  1. Fully Integrated, Miniature, High-Frequency Flow Probe Utilizing MEMS Leadless SOI Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned, Alex; Kurtz, Anthony; Shang, Tonghuo; Goodman, Scott; Giemette. Gera (d)

    2013-01-01

    This work focused on developing, fabricating, and fully calibrating a flowangle probe for aeronautics research by utilizing the latest microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), leadless silicon on insulator (SOI) sensor technology. While the concept of angle probes is not new, traditional devices had been relatively large due to fabrication constraints; often too large to resolve flow structures necessary for modern aeropropulsion measurements such as inlet flow distortions and vortices, secondary flows, etc. Mea surements of this kind demanded a new approach to probe design to achieve sizes on the order of 0.1 in. (.3 mm) diameter or smaller, and capable of meeting demanding requirements for accuracy and ruggedness. This approach invoked the use of stateof- the-art processing techniques to install SOI sensor chips directly onto the probe body, thus eliminating redundancy in sensor packaging and probe installation that have historically forced larger probe size. This also facilitated a better thermal match between the chip and its mount, improving stability and accuracy. Further, the leadless sensor technology with which the SOI sensing element is fabricated allows direct mounting and electrical interconnecting of the sensor to the probe body. This leadless technology allowed a rugged wire-out approach that is performed at the sensor length scale, thus achieving substantial sensor size reductions. The technology is inherently capable of high-frequency and high-accuracy performance in high temperatures and harsh environments.

  2. Plasma Perturbations in High-Speed Probing of Hall Thruster Discharge Chambers: Quantification and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented to quantify the effect of high-speed probing on the plasma parameters inside the discharge chamber of a 6-kW Hall thruster. Understanding the nature of these perturbations is of significant interest given the importance of accurate plasma measurements for characterizing thruster operation. An array of diagnostics including a high-speed camera and embedded wall probes is employed to examine in real time the changes in electron temperature and plasma potential induced by inserting a high-speed reciprocating Langmuir probe into the discharge chamber. It is found that the perturbations onset when the scanning probe is downstream of the electron temperature peak, and that along channel centerline, the perturbations are best characterized as a downstream shift of plasma parameters by 15-20% the length of the discharge chamber. A parametric study is performed to investigate techniques to mitigate the observed probe perturbations including varying probe speed, probe location, and operating conditions. It is found that the perturbations largely disappear when the thruster is operated at low power and low discharge voltage. The results of this mitigation study are discussed in the context of recommended methods for generating unperturbed measurements of the discharge chamber plasma.

  3. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  4. LUCID: The ATLAS Luminosity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cabras, Grazia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID detector is the main luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment and the only one able to provide a reliable luminosity determination in all beam configurations, luminosity ranges and at bunch-crossing level. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for Run II: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. An innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers was implemented, resulting in the ability to control the detectors long time stability at few percent level. A description of the detector and its readout electronics will be given as well as preliminary results on the ATLAS luminosity measurement and related systematic uncertainties.

  5. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081126; Klute, Markus; Medlock, Catherine Aiko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The x-y correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1%.

  6. A highly selective and sensitive rhodamine-derived fluorescent probe for detection of Cu2 +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Linlin; Diao, Quanping

    2017-05-01

    A novel water-soluble and reversible fluorescent probe was designed and synthesized based on a rhodamine B derivative. It was used for detection of Cu2 + in drinking water and in living cells with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. The tested concentration range and the limit of detection (LOD) of the probe were 0-15.00 μmol L- 1 and 0.085 μmol L- 1, respectively. In addition, the mode of binding and mechanism of interaction between the probe and Cu2 + were analyzed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  7. MPX Detectors as LHC Luminosity Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Sopczak, Andre; Asbah, Nedaa; Bergmann, Benedikt; Bekhouche, Khaled; Caforio, Davide; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik; Leroy, Claude; Lipniacka, Anna; Nessi, Marzio; Pospisil, Stanislav; Seifert, Frank; Solc, Jaroslav; Soueid, Paul; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    A network of 16 Medipix-2 (MPX) silicon pixel devices was installed in the ATLAS detector cavern at CERN. It was designed to measure the composition and spectral characteristics of the radiation field in the ATLAS experiment and its surroundings. This study demonstrates that the MPX network can also be used as a self-sufficient luminosity monitoring system. The MPX detectors collect data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain, and thus they provide independent measurements of the bunch-integrated ATLAS/LHC luminosity. In particular, the MPX detectors located close enough to the primary interaction point are used to perform van der Meer calibration scans with high precision. Results from the luminosity monitoring are presented for 2012 data taken at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The characteristics of the LHC luminosity reduction rate are studied and the effects of beam-beam (burn-off) and beam-gas (single bunch) interactions are evaluated. The systematic variations observed in the MPX lum...

  8. Versatile ultrafast pump-probe imaging with high sensitivity CCD camera

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeril, Thomas; Klieber, Christoph; Temnov, Vasily; Huntzinger, Jean-Roch; Anane, Abdelmadjid

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A powerful imaging technique based on femtosecond time-resolved measurements with a high dynamic range, commercial CCD camera is presented. Ultrafast phenomena induced by a femtosecond laser pump are visualized through the lock-in type acquisition of images recorded by a femtosecond laser probe. This technique allows time-resolved measurements of laser excited phenomena at multiple probe wavelengths (spectrometer mode) or conventional imaging of the sample surface (ima...

  9. Ion bunch length effects on the beam-beam interaction and its compensation in a high-luminosity ring-ring electron-ion collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag C.; Oeftiger, A.; Fischer, W.

    2012-05-20

    One of the luminosity limits in a ring-ring electron-ion collider is the beam-beam effect on the electrons. In the limit of short ion bunches, simulation studies have shown that this limit can be significantly increased by head-on beam-beam compensation with an electron lens. However, with an ion bunch length comparable to the beta-function at the IP in conjunction with a large beam-beam parameter, the electrons perform a sizeable fraction of a betatron oscillation period inside the long ion bunches. We present recent simulation results on the compensation of this beam-beam interaction with multiple electron lenses.

  10. Probing High Temperature Superconductors with Magnetometry in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-07-26

    The objective of this research is to investigate the high-field magnetic properties of high temperature superconductors, materials that conduct electricity without loss. A technique known as high-resolution torque magnetometry that was developed to directly measure the magnetization of high temperature superconductors. This technique was implemented using the 65 Tesla pulsed magnetic field facility that is part of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research addressed unanswered questions about the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity, determine the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors, and shed light on the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity and on potential applications of these materials in areas such as energy generation and power transmission. Further applications of the technology resolve the novel physical phenomena such as correlated topological insulators, and spin liquid state in quantum magnets.

  11. Rational design of highly sensitive fluorescence probes for protease and glycosidase based on precisely controlled spirocyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, Masayo; Asanuma, Daisuke; Kamiya, Mako; Iwatate, Ryu J; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Terai, Takuya; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru

    2013-01-09

    We have synthesized and evaluated a series of hydroxymethyl rhodamine derivatives and found an intriguing difference of intramolecular spirocyclization behavior: the acetylated derivative of hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (Ac-HMRG) exists as a closed spirocyclic structure in aqueous solution at physiological pH, whereas HMRG itself takes an open nonspirocyclic structure. Ac-HMRG is colorless and nonfluorescent, whereas HMRG is strongly fluorescent. On the basis of these findings, we have developed a general design strategy to obtain highly sensitive fluorescence probes for proteases and glycosidases, by replacing the acetyl group of Ac-HMRG with a substrate moiety of the target enzyme. Specific cleavage of the substrate moiety in the nonfluorescent probe by the target enzyme generates a strong fluorescence signal. To confirm the validity and flexibility of our strategy, we designed and synthesized fluorescence probes for leucine aminopeptidase (Leu-HMRG), fibroblast activation protein (Ac-GlyPro-HMRG), and β-galactosidase (βGal-HMRG). All of these probes were almost nonfluorescent due to the formation of spirocyclic structure, but were converted efficiently to highly fluorescent HMRG by the target enzymes. We confirmed that the probes can be used in living cells. These probes offer great practical advantages, including high sensitivity and rapid response (due to regulation of fluorescence at a single reactive site), as well as resistance to photobleaching, and are expected to be useful for a range of biological and pathological investigations.

  12. Dynamic Hysteresis Probes High-{\\beta} Nanolaser Emission Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Si Hui; Amili, Abdelkrim El; Vallini, Felipe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2016-01-01

    The quest for an integrated light source that promises high energy efficiency and fast modulation for high-performance photonic circuits has led to the development of room-temperature telecom-wavelength nanoscale laser with high spontaneous emission factors, \\beta. The coherence characterization of this type of lasers is inherently difficult with the conventional measurement of output light intensity versus input pump intensity due to the diminishing kink in the measurement curve. We demonstrate the transition from chaotic to coherent emission of a high-{\\beta} pulse-pump metallo-dielectric nanolaser can be determined by examining the width of a second order intensity correlation peak, which shrinks below and broadens above threshold. Photon fluctuation study, first one ever reported for this type of nanolaser, confirms the validity of this measurement technique. Additionally, we show that the width variation above threshold results from the delayed threshold phenomenon, providing the first indirect observati...

  13. Nonlinear ultrafast dynamics of high temperature YBa2Cu3O7–δ superconductors probed with THz pump / THz probe spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen H. T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High power THz pulses induce near transparency in superconductive YBCO thin films below the critical temperature. THz pump/THz probe measurements reveal a decay of the induced transparency on the time scale of a few picoseconds.

  14. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  15. Search for High-Mass Diphoton Resonances in Proton-Proton Collisions at 13 TeV and Radiation Studies for Calorimetry at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00379436; Wallny, Rainer ETH Zürich

    2017-06-02

    In this dissertation, two different topics are addressed which are part of the main areas of research of modern high-energy physics experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): a search for new physics and the development of new detectors. The first part of this dissertation presents the search for high mass diphoton resonances in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. Particular attention is paid to the assessment of the background. The results are interpreted in terms of spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with masses between 0.5 and 4.5 TeV and widths, relative to the mass, between 1.4x10^(-4) and 5.6x10^(-2). Limits are set on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall–Sundrum gravitons. Two results are presented, both following the same search strategy, but one employing a dataset of 3.3 1/fb, the other 16.2 1/fb. Both are statistically combined with results obtained by the CMS collaboration at 8 TeV with 19....

  16. PRIMEGENSw3: a web-based tool for high-throughput primer and probe design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Garima; Srivastava, Gyan Prakash; Xu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Highly specific and efficient primer and probe design has been a major hurdle in many high-throughput techniques. Successful implementation of any PCR or probe hybridization technique depends on the quality of primers and probes used in terms of their specificity and cross-hybridization. Here we describe PRIMEGENSw3, a set of web-based utilities for high-throughput primer and probe design. These utilities allow users to select genomic regions and to design primer/probe for selected regions in an interactive, user-friendly, and automatic fashion. The system runs the PRIMEGENS algorithm in the back-end on the high-performance server with the stored genomic database or user-provided custom database for cross-hybridization check. Cross-hybridization is checked not only using BLAST but also by checking mismatch positions and energy calculation of potential hybridization hits. The results can be visualized online and also can be downloaded. The average success rate of primer design using PRIMEGENSw3 is ~90 %. The web server also supports primer design for methylated sequences, which is used in epigenetic studies. Stand-alone version of the software is also available for download at the website.

  17. Diamond Pixel Luminosity Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-12-15

    In this document, Halyo summaries her key contributions to CMS at the LHC and provide an explanation of their importance and her role in each project. At the end Halyo describes her recent research interest that includes GPU/MIC Acceleration of the High Level Trigger (HLT) to Extend the Physics Research at the LHC. A description of her work the recent promising results that she accomplished and the deliverable are also elaborated. These contribution were only possible thanks to DOE support of junior faculty research and their clear goal to promote research and innovations.

  18. Multimodal nonlinear endo-microscopy probe design for high resolution, label-free intraoperative imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Xu, Xiaoyun; McCormick, Daniel T.; Wong, Kelvin; Wong, Stephen T.C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a portable, multimodal, nonlinear endo-microscopy probe designed for intraoperative oncological imaging. Application of a four-wave mixing noise suppression scheme using dual wavelength wave plates (DWW) and a polarization-maintaining fiber improves tissue signal collection efficiency, allowing for miniaturization. The probe, with a small 14 mm transversal diameter, includes a customized miniaturized two-axis MEMS (micro-electromechanical system) raster scanning mirror and micro-optics with an illumination laser delivered by a polarization-maintaining fiber. The probe can potentially be integrated into the arms of a surgical robot, such as da Vinci robotic surgery system, due to its minimal cross sectional area. It has the ability to incorporate multiple imaging modalities including CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering), SHG (second harmonic generation), and TPEF (two-photon excited fluorescence) in order to allow the surgeon to locate tumor cells within the context of normal stromal tissue. The resolution of the endo-microscope is experimentally determined to be 0.78 µm, a high level of accuracy for such a compact probe setup. The expected resolution of the as-built multimodal, nonlinear, endo-microscopy probe is 1 µm based on the calculation tolerance allocation using Monte-Carlo simulation. The reported probe is intended for use in laparoscopic or radical prostatectomy, including detection of tumor margins and avoidance of nerve impairment during surgery. PMID:26203361

  19. Development of a 13C-optimized 1.5-mm high temperature superconducting NMR probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vijaykumar; Hooker, Jerris W.; Withers, Richard S.; Nast, Robert E.; Brey, William W.; Edison, Arthur S.

    2013-10-01

    We report a 1.5-mm NMR probe based on high temperature superconductors operating at 14.1 T optimized for 13C detection. The probe has a total sample volume of about 35 microliters (μL) with an active volume of 20 μL and provides exceptional mass sensitivity for 13C detection. The probe also has excellent 1H sensitivity and employs a 2H lock; 15N irradiation capability can be added in the future. The coils are cooled to about 20 K using a standard Agilent cryogenic refrigeration system, and the sample temperature is regulated near room temperature. The coil design considerations are discussed in detail. This probe is ideal for directly detected 13C NMR experiments for natural products chemistry and metabolomics applications, for which 35 μL is an optimal sample volume. The outstanding 13C sensitivity of this probe allowed us to directly determine the 13C connectivity on 1.1 mg of natural abundance histidine using an INADEQUATE experiment. We demonstrated the utility of this probe for 13C-based metabolomics using a synthetic mixture of common natural abundance metabolites whose concentrations ranged from 1 to 5 mM (40-200 nmol).

  20. Probing High Frequency Noise with Macroscopic Resonant Tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, T.; Amin, M. H. S.; Johnson, M. W.; Altomare, F.; Berkley, A. J.; Gildert, S.; Harris, R; Johansson, J; Bunyk, P.; Ladizinsky, E.; Tolkacheva, E.; Averin, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a method for extracting the high-frequency noise spectral density of an rf-SQUID flux qubit from macroscopic resonant tunneling (MRT) rate measurements. The extracted noise spectral density is consistent with that of an ohmic environment up to frequencies ~ 4 GHz. We have also derived an expression for the MRT lineshape expected for a noise spectral density consisting of such a broadband ohmic component and an additional strongly peaked low-frequency component. This hybrid m...

  1. Simulations of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and its high-luminosity upgrade scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    The heat load generated by an electron cloud in the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a concern for operation near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, with updated secondary- emission models, which examine the severity of the electron heat load over a range of possible operation parameters, both for the nominal LHC and for various luminosity-upgrade scenarios, such as the so-called ‘‘full crab crossing’’ and ‘‘early separation’’ schemes, the ‘‘large Piwinski angle’’ scheme, and a variant of the latter providing ‘‘compatibility’’ with the (upgraded) LHCb experiment. The variable parameters considered are the maximum secondary-emission yield, the number of particles per bunch, and the spacing between bunches. In addition, the dependence of the heat load on the longitudinal bunch profile is investigated.

  2. Higgs Pair Production in the $H(\\rightarrow \\tau\\tau)H(\\rightarrow b\\bar{b})$ channel at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Prospects studies are presented for the observation of double Higgs production in the channel $H(\\rightarrow b \\overline{b})H(\\rightarrow \\tau \\tau)$ for a total integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$ ^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}=$14~TeV proton-proton collisions at the HL-LHC. A cut-based analysis strategy using MC data and a parametrisation of the ATLAS detector provide assessment to the measurement prospects performed under different assumptions for the trilinear Higgs couplings values. Assuming SM background and SM signal, we expect to set an upper limit of the cross section for the di-Higgs production of $4.3 \\times \\sigma(HH \\rightarrow b\\bar{b}\\tau^+\\tau^-)$ at 95\\% Confidence Level. Using an effective Lagrangian for the Higgs potential, and allowing its trilinear coupling to vary, we can project an exclusion of $\\lambda_{HHH}/\\lambda_{SM} \\leq -4$ and $\\lambda_{HHH}/\\lambda_{SM} \\geq 12$.

  3. Simulations of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and its high-luminosity upgrade scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Maury Cuna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat load generated by an electron cloud in the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC is a concern for operation near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, with updated secondary-emission models, which examine the severity of the electron heat load over a range of possible operation parameters, both for the nominal LHC and for various luminosity-upgrade scenarios, such as the so-called “full crab crossing” and “early separation” schemes, the “large Piwinski angle” scheme, and a variant of the latter providing “compatibility” with the (upgraded LHCb experiment. The variable parameters considered are the maximum secondary-emission yield, the number of particles per bunch, and the spacing between bunches. In addition, the dependence of the heat load on the longitudinal bunch profile is investigated.

  4. Probing high-frequency noise with macroscopic resonant tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanting, T.; Amin, M. H. S.; Johnson, M. W.; Altomare, F.; Berkley, A. J.; Gildert, S.; Harris, R.; Johansson, J.; Bunyk, P.; Ladizinsky, E.; Tolkacheva, E.; Averin, D. V.

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a method for extracting the high-frequency noise spectral density of an rf-SQUID flux qubit from macroscopic resonant tunneling (MRT) rate measurements. The extracted noise spectral density is consistent with that of an ohmic environment up to frequencies ~4 GHz. We have also derived an expression for the MRT line shape expected for a noise spectral density consisting of such a broadband ohmic component and an additional strongly peaked low-frequency component. This hybrid model provides an excellent fit to experimental data across a range of tunneling amplitudes and temperatures.

  5. Solving the Capacitive Effect in the High-Frequency sweep for Langmuir Probe in SYMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramila; Patel, J. J.; Rajpal, R.; Hansalia, C. J.; Anitha, V. P.; Sathyanarayana, K.

    2017-04-01

    Langmuir Probe based measurements need to be routinely carried out to measure various plasma parameters such as the electron density (ne), the electron temperature (Te), the floating potential (Vf), and the plasma potential (Vp). For this, the diagnostic electronics along with the biasing power supplies is installed in standard industrial racks with a 2KV isolation transformer. The Signal Conditioning Electronics (SCE) system is populated inside the 4U-chassis based system with the front-end electronics, designed using high common mode differential amplifiers which can measure small differential signal in presence of high common mode dc- bias or ac ramp voltage used for biasing the probes. DC-biasing of the probe is most common method for getting its I-V characteristic but method of biasing the probe with a sweep at high frequency encounters the problem of corruption of signal due to capacitive effect specially when the sweep period and the discharge time is very fast and die down in the order of μs or lesser. This paper presents and summarises the method of removing such effects encountered while measuring the probe current.

  6. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-12-05

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  7. A new hydroxynaphthyl benzothiazole derived fluorescent probe for highly selective and sensitive Cu2 + detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; He, Ping; Zhong, Keli; Hou, Shuhua; Bian, Yanjiang

    2016-12-01

    A new reactive probe, 1-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-yl-picolinate (BTNP), was designed and synthesized. BTNP acts as a highly selective probe to Cu2 + in DMSO/H2O (7/3, v/v, Tris-HCl 10 mM, pH = 7.4) solution based on Cu2 + catalyzed hydrolysis of the picolinate ester moiety in BTNP, which leads to the formation of an ESIPT active product with dual wavelength emission enhancement. The probe also possesses the advantages of simple synthesis, rapid response and high sensitivity. The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant was calculated to be 0.205 min- 1. Moreover, application of BTNP to Cu2 + detection in living cells and real water samples was also explored.

  8. High Reynolds Number Effects on Multi-Hole Probes and Hot Wire Anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Smith, A.; Gerry, G.; Kauffman, W.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reports on the results from an experimental investigation of the response of multi-hole and hot wire probes at high flow Reynolds numbers (Re approx. 10(exp 6)). The limited results available in literature for 5-hole probes are restricted to Re approx. 10(exp 4). The experiment aims to investigate the probe response (in terms of dimensionless pressure ratios, characterizing pitch, and yaw angles and the total and static pressures) at high Re values and to gauge their effect on the calculated velocity vector. Hot wire calibrations were also undertaken with a parametric variation of the flow pressure, velocity and temperature. Different correction and calibration schemes are sought to be tested against the acquired data set. The data is in the analysis stage at the present time. The test provided good benchmark quality data that can be used to test future calibration and testing methods.

  9. Luminosity--time and luminosity--luminosity correlations for GRB prompt and afterglow plateau emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Dainotti, M. G.; Petrosian, V.; Willingale, R.; P. O'Brien(Univ. Leicester); Ostrowski, M.; Nagataki, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of 123 Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with known redshifts possessing an afterglow plateau phase. We reveal that $L_a-T^{*}_a$ correlation between the X-ray luminosity $L_a$ at the end of the plateau phase and the plateau duration, $T^*_a$, in the GRB rest frame has a power law slope different, within more than 2 $\\sigma$, from the slope of the prompt $L_{f}-T^{*}_{f}$ correlation between the isotropic pulse peak luminosity, $L_{f}$, and the pulse duration, $T^{*}_{f}$, from t...

  10. Studies on the impact of an extended Inner Detector tracker and a forward muon tagger on $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}$ scattering in $pp$ collisions at the High-Luminosity LHC with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The impact of an extended silicon tracker and a forward muon tagger on the measurement of the \\ssWW vector boson scattering process is evaluated in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 14 TeV at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Simulated events with two leptons of the same electric charge, missing transverse momentum, and at least two jets are analysed. The gain in significance and precision obtained with tracking, electron, and muon reconstruction extended up to $|\\eta|$ $\\le$ 4 is reported, with respect to the current coverage of $|\\eta|$ $\\le$ 2.7.

  11. The new Basel high-latitude field star survey of the Galaxy. II. The thick disk component: density structure, luminosity function, and metallicity distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Roland; Rong, Jianxiang; Karaali, Salih

    1999-08-01

    We present an expanded and refined analysis of the Galactic thick disk as observed in seven fields of the new Basel RGU star count and color survey data. Based on the optimized structural models which were obtained in the initial analysis (Buser et al. 1998a, hereafter Paper I), we now employ the same systematic least-squares algorithm, introducing more realistic luminosity functions for each population component, applying a more adequate matrix of color transformations in simulating the data, and extending the structural parameter ranges in order to determine improved characteristics of the thick-disk model. Compared with the earlier results of Paper I, the present models provide chi (2) -fits to the data which are improved by about 25%. From these we conclude that, on the one hand, each of the thin disk, thick disk, and halo components has its own local luminosity function, characterized by a distinctly specific shape and metallicity. On the other hand, the above improvement also allows us to derive more reliable estimates of optimized parameter values and constraints for the structural thick-disk model. According to our currently best models, we find the Galactic thick disk to have local density bar n1 = 5.9 +/- 3% of the local thin-disk density, exponential scale length bar d3 = 3.0 +/- 1.5 kpc, and exponential scale height bar h4 = 0.91 +/- 0.3 kpc. We also confirm the result of Paper I that the data are consistent with a metallicity distribution of the thick disk centered on ~ -0.63 dex and having dispersion sigma_ {} ~ 0.4 dex. While these results are in remarkable agreement with the majority of independent recent determinations of the global properties of the Galactic thick disk, we cannot yet exclude the possibility that the sizeable dispersions associated with the mean parameter values are indicative of structural differences between the individual fields that may largely be due to features of the real thick disk - reflecting intrinsic deviations from the

  12. Compensation of the long-range beam-beam interactions as a path towards new configurations for the high luminosity LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Fartoukh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colliding bunch trains in a circular collider demands a certain crossing angle in order to separate the two beams transversely after the collision. The magnitude of this crossing angle is a complicated function of the bunch charge, the number of long-range beam-beam interactions, of β^{*} and type of optics (flat or round, and possible compensation or additive effects between several low-β insertions in the ring depending on the orientation of the crossing plane at each interaction point. About 15 years ago, the use of current bearing wires was proposed at CERN in order to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects [J. P. Koutchouk, CERN Report No. LHC-Project-Note 223, 2000], therefore offering the possibility to minimize the crossing angle with all the beneficial effects this might have: on the luminosity performance by reducing the need for crab-cavities or lowering their voltage, on the required aperture of the final focus magnets, on the strength of the orbit corrector involved in the crossing bumps, and finally on the heat load and radiation dose deposited in the final focus quadrupoles. In this paper, a semianalytical approach is developed for the compensation of the long-range beam-beam interactions with current wires. This reveals the possibility of achieving optimal correction through a careful adjustment of the aspect ratio of the β functions at the wire position. We consider the baseline luminosity upgrade plan of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC project, and compare it to alternative scenarios, or so-called “configurations,” where modifications are applied to optics, crossing angle, or orientation of the crossing plane in the two low-β insertions of the ring. For all these configurations, the beneficial impact of beam-beam compensation devices is then demonstrated on the tune footprint, the dynamical aperture, and/or the frequency map analysis of the nonlinear beam dynamics as the main figures of merit.

  13. Highly sensitive iridium(iii) complex-based phosphorescent probe for thiophenol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Yang, Lin; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Yan; Lu, Zhiyun

    2017-10-10

    A cyclometalated iridium(iii) complex (Ir-DNBS) was designed and synthesized as a high-performance phosphorescent thiophenol probe. Ir-DNBS displays a distinct phosphorescence "off-on" response toward thiophenol with high selectivity, high sensitivity (detection limit: 2.5 nM) and fast response (10 min). It is noteworthy that the signaling phosphore of Ir-DNBS possesses relatively high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (ΦPL = 0.21) together with relatively long lifetime (τ = 2.07 μs), indicative of its potential in achieving high temporal resolution. Ir-DNBS is also applicable to the detection of thiophenol in actual water samples with high recovery rate. Photophysical and spectral characterization results revealed that the probing mechanism of Ir-DNBS toward thiophenol lies in the thiolate-mediated cleavage reaction, resulting in suppressed photo-induced excited state electron transfer process in the reaction product.

  14. The Space High Angular Resolution Probe for the Infrared (SHARP-IR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, S. A.; Rizzo, M. J.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Staguhn, J. G.; Dipirro, M.; Mentzell, J. E.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Dhabal, A.; Mundy, L. G.; Moseley, S. H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Space High Angular Resolution Probe for the Infrared (SHARP-IR) is a new mission currently under study. As partof the preparation for the Decadal Survey, NASA is currently undertaking studies of four major missions, but interesthas also been shown in determining if there are feasible sub-$1B missions that could provide significant scientific return.SHARP-IR is being designed as one such potential probe. In this talk, we will discuss some of the potential scientificquestions that could be addressed with the mission, the current design, and the path forward to concept maturation.

  15. Probe-Fed Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for High-Resolution Polarimetric C-Band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, Niels

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes a C-band, dual-linear polarization wideband antenna for use in the next-generation of the Danish high-resolution, airborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, EMISAR. The design and performance of a probe-fed, stacked microstrip patch element, operating from 4...

  16. Simulating Satellite and Space Probe Motion at High School with Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives an account of an experiment in which thirty-three high school students of ages 17-19 developed spreadsheet numerical models of satellite and space probe motion. The models are free to download. A survey was carried out to find out the students' opinion of the lessons.

  17. Design of planar microcoil-based NMR probe ensuring high SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zishan; Poenar, D. P.; Aditya, Sheel

    2017-09-01

    A microNMR probe for ex vivo applications may consist of at least one microcoil, which can be used as the oscillating magnetic field (MF) generator as well as receiver coil, and a sample holder, with a volume in the range of nanoliters to micro-liters, placed near the microcoil. The Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) of such a probe is, however, dependent not only on its design but also on the measurement setup, and the measured sample. This paper introduces a performance factor P independent of both the proton spin density in the sample and the external DC magnetic field, and which can thus assess the performance of the probe alone. First, two of the components of the P factor (inhomogeneity factor K and filling factor η ) are defined and an approach to calculate their values for different probe variants from electromagnetic simulations is devised. A criterion based on dominant component of the magnetic field is then formulated to help designers optimize the sample volume which also affects the performance of the probe, in order to obtain the best SNR for a given planar microcoil. Finally, the P factor values are compared between different planar microcoils with different number of turns and conductor aspect ratios, and planar microcoils are also compared with conventional solenoids. These comparisons highlight which microcoil geometry-sample volume combination will ensure a high SNR under any external setup.

  18. Design of planar microcoil-based NMR probe ensuring high SNR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zishan Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A microNMR probe for ex vivo applications may consist of at least one microcoil, which can be used as the oscillating magnetic field (MF generator as well as receiver coil, and a sample holder, with a volume in the range of nanoliters to micro-liters, placed near the microcoil. The Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR of such a probe is, however, dependent not only on its design but also on the measurement setup, and the measured sample. This paper introduces a performance factor P independent of both the proton spin density in the sample and the external DC magnetic field, and which can thus assess the performance of the probe alone. First, two of the components of the P factor (inhomogeneity factor K and filling factor η are defined and an approach to calculate their values for different probe variants from electromagnetic simulations is devised. A criterion based on dominant component of the magnetic field is then formulated to help designers optimize the sample volume which also affects the performance of the probe, in order to obtain the best SNR for a given planar microcoil. Finally, the P factor values are compared between different planar microcoils with different number of turns and conductor aspect ratios, and planar microcoils are also compared with conventional solenoids. These comparisons highlight which microcoil geometry-sample volume combination will ensure a high SNR under any external setup.

  19. Compensation of the long-range beam-beam interactions as a path towards new configurations for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)390904; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Colliding bunch trains in a circular collider demands a certain crossing angle in order to separate the two beams transversely after the collision. The magnitude of this crossing angle is a complicated function of the bunch charge, the number of long-range beam-beam interactions, of β* and type of optics (flat or round), and possible compensation or additive effects between several low-β insertions in the ring depending on the orientation of the crossing plane at each interaction point. About 15 years ago, the use of current bearing wires was proposed at CERN in order to mitigate the longrange beam-beam effects, therefore offering the possibility to minimize the crossing angle with all the beneficial effects this might have: on the luminosity performance by reducing the need for crab-cavities or lowering their voltage, on the required aperture of the final focus magnets, on the strength of the orbit corrector involved in the crossing bumps, and finally on the heat load and radiation dose deposited in the fi...

  20. submitter Influence of 3D Effects on Field Quality in the Straight Part of Accelerator Magnets for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Emelie; Todesco, Ezio; Enomoto, Shun; Farinon, Stefania; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Savary, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    A dedicated D1 beam separation dipole is currently being developed at KEK for the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Four 150 mm aperture, 5.6 T magnetic field and 6.7 m long Nb-Ti magnets will replace resistive D1 dipoles. The development includes fabrication and testing of 2.2 m model magnets. The dipole has a single layer coil and thin spacers between coil and iron, giving a non-negligible impact of saturation on field quality at nominal field. The magnetic design of the straight section coil cross section is based on 2D optimization and a separate optimization concerns the coil ends. However, magnetic measurements of the short model showed a large difference (tens of units) between the sextupole harmonic in the straight part and the 2D calculation. This difference is correctly modelled only by a 3D analysis: 3D calculations show that the magnetic field quality in the straight part is influenced by the coil ends, even for the 6.7 m long magnets. The effect is even more remarkable in the sho...

  1. ACADEMIC TRAINING: Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    17, 18, 19 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs by G. GABRIELSE / Harvard University, USA Experiments with atomic energy scales probe nature and its symmetries with exquisite precision. Particle traps allow the manipulation of single charged particles for months at a time, allow the most accurate comparison of theory and experiment, and promise to allow better measurement of fundamental quantities like the fine structure constant. Ions and atoms can be probed with lasers that are phase locked to microwave frequency standards via optical combs, thus calibrating optical sources in terms of the official cesium second. A series of three lectures will illustrate what can be measured and discuss key techniques.  ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  2. Probe experiment characterizing 30-MHz radio wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, M.; Gorokhov, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Hansen, T.

    1999-07-01

    A probe experiment, consisting of radio links between a common 30-MHz transmitter located at Murmansk, Russia, and two receivers used as the imaging riometer (two-dimensional 64 multiple-beam antenna) located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, and Tjornes, Iceland, was carried out to characterize wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere. They are nearly aligned with and perpendicular to the geomagnetic meridian, respectively. In experiments conducted in March-April 1994, the 30-MHz probe signals were identified at nighttime more frequently than during the day at both receiver stations during periods of increased geomagnetic activity near the path midpoints, indicating that a relationship between the propagation path and the location of the auroral oval controls signal identification. For the nighttime propagation paths within or crossing through the auroral oval, duty cycles of the probe signals were roughly correlated with increases in geomagnetic activity. Their arrival directions showed a spread with a dominant power on the low elevation and a normal distribution in azimuth. These results indicate that the probe signals are characterized as nonmeteoric "auroral E" scatter caused by irregular, large-scale profiles of electron density enhancements at the lower edge of the ionosphere. However, on 2 days of weak geomagnetic activity, strong probe signals with bursty behavior were identified by an extremely high duty cycle (˜98%) for the nighttime meridian path only, and their arrival directions showed an isotropic spread in azimuth. Such nonmeteoric probe signals are characterized as "coherent" scatter caused by small-scale (˜5 m) field-aligned irregularities in electron density in the E region ionosphere, related to "sporadic E" occurrence.

  3. Dual-Modality Imaging Probes with High Magnetic Relaxivity and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Based Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Fei-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-modal imaging by combining magnetic resonance (MR and near-infrared (NIR fluorescence can integrate the advantages of high-resolution anatomical imaging with high sensitivity in vivo fluorescent imaging, which is expected to play a significant role in biomedical researches. Here we report a dual-modality imaging probe (NIR/MR-MSNs fabricated by conjugating NIR fluorescent heptamethine dyes (IR-808 and MR contrast agents (Gd-DTPA within highly aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs-NH2. The dual-modality imaging probes NIR/MR-MSNs possess a size of ca. 120 nm. The NIR/MR-MSNs show not only near-infrared fluorescence imaging property with an emission peak at 794 nm, but also highly MR T1 relaxivity of 14.54 mM−1 s−1, which is three times more than Gd-DTPA. In vitro experiment reveals high uptake and retention abilities of the nanoprobes, while cell viability assay demonstrates excellent cytocompatibility of the dual-modality imaging probe. After intratumor injection with the NIR/MR-MSNs, MR imaging shows clear anatomical border of the enhanced tumor region while NIR fluorescence exhibits high sensitive tumor detection ability. These intriguing features suggest that this newly developed dual-modality imaging probes have great potential in biomedical imaging.

  4. A Luminosity Calorimeter for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Sadeh, I

    2009-01-01

    For the relative precision of the luminosity measurement at CLIC, a preliminary target value of 1% is being assumed. This may be accomplished by constructing a finely granulated calorimeter, which will measure Bhabha scattering at small angles. In order to achieve the design goal, the geometrical parameters of the calorimeter need to be defined. Several factors influence the design of the calorimeter; chief among these is the need to minimize the error on the luminosity measurement while avoiding the intense beam background at small angles. In this study the geometrical parameters are optimized for the best performance of the calorimeter. In addition, the suppression of physics background to Bhabha scattering is investigated and a set of selection cuts is introduced.

  5. Observing the high resolution capabilities of a silicon PET insert probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, K.; Oliver, J. F.; Gillam, J.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.

    2011-03-01

    A high resolution silicon detector probe in coincidence with a conventional PET scanner should be able to increase the scanner's spatial resolution. The MADEIRA PET probe is such a device and was simulated in coincidence with a clinical scanner was simulated using the Monte Carlo package GATE. The device consists of ten layers of silicon of 1x1x1 mm3 pixels in a 80x52 array. Simulations were run with various activity distributions. No attenuation was included to reduce the amount of scatter in the simulated data. The simulations were conducted in air. Coincidence sorting was performed on the singles list mode data. Random coincidences were rejected and no time or energy blurring was used in order to isolate the events which determine the highest achievable spatial resolution. Sinograms where calculated from the sorted data with one sinogram containing events where both annihilation photons were detected in the PET ring and another for probe-ring events. The probe-ring sinograms identified the limited FOV of the probe. The point-spread function was calculated from the sinograms. The full-width half-maximum decreased from 5.5 mm in the ring-ring sinogram to 2.7 mm in the ring-probe sinogram. The full-width third-maximum decreased from 7 mm to 3 mm. Images were reconstructed using the Maximum Likelihood-Expectation Maximization (ML-EM) algorithm using the list-mode coincidence data. The improvement in spatial resolution seen in the sinograms is reflected in the images.

  6. High risk HPV contamination of endocavity vaginal ultrasound probes: an underestimated route of nosocomial infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-sebastien Casalegno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocavity ultrasound is seen as a harmless procedure and has become a common gynaecological procedure. However without correct disinfection, it may result in nosocomial transmission of genito-urinary pathogens, such as high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV. We aimed to evaluate the currently recommended disinfection procedure for covered endocavity ultrasound probes, which consists of "Low Level Disinfection" (LLD with "quaternary ammonium compounds" containing wipes. METHODS: From May to October 2011 swabs were taken from endovaginal ultrasound probes at the Gynecology Department of the Lyon University Hospital. During the first phase (May-June 2011 samples were taken after the ultrasound examination and after the LLD procedure. In a second phase (July-October 2011 swab samples were collected just before the probe was used. All samples were tested for the presence of human DNA (as a marker for a possible transmission of infectious pathogens from the genital tract and HPV DNA with the Genomica DNA microarray (35 different HPV genotypes. RESULTS: We collected 217 samples before and 200 samples after the ultrasound examination. The PCR was inhibited in two cases. Human DNA was detected in 36 (18% post-examination samples and 61 (28% pre-examination samples. After the ultrasound LLD procedure, 6 (3.0% samples contained HR-HPV types (16, 31, 2×53 and 58. Similarly, HPV was detected in 6 pre-examination samples (2.7%. Amongst these 4 (1.9% contained HR-HPV (types 53 and 70. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that a considerable number of ultrasound probes are contaminated with human and HR-HPV DNA, despite LLD disinfection and probe cover. In all hospitals, where LLD is performed, the endovaginal ultrasound procedure must therefore be considered a source for nosocomial HR-HPV infections. We recommend the stringent use of high-level disinfectants, such as glutaraldehyde or hydrogen peroxide solutions.

  7. High risk HPV contamination of endocavity vaginal ultrasound probes: an underestimated route of nosocomial infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Jean-sebastien; Le Bail Carval, Karine; Eibach, Daniel; Valdeyron, Marie-Laure; Lamblin, Gery; Jacquemoud, Hervé; Mellier, Georges; Lina, Bruno; Gaucherand, Pascal; Mathevet, Patrice; Mekki, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    Endocavity ultrasound is seen as a harmless procedure and has become a common gynaecological procedure. However without correct disinfection, it may result in nosocomial transmission of genito-urinary pathogens, such as high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). We aimed to evaluate the currently recommended disinfection procedure for covered endocavity ultrasound probes, which consists of "Low Level Disinfection" (LLD) with "quaternary ammonium compounds" containing wipes. From May to October 2011 swabs were taken from endovaginal ultrasound probes at the Gynecology Department of the Lyon University Hospital. During the first phase (May-June 2011) samples were taken after the ultrasound examination and after the LLD procedure. In a second phase (July-October 2011) swab samples were collected just before the probe was used. All samples were tested for the presence of human DNA (as a marker for a possible transmission of infectious pathogens from the genital tract) and HPV DNA with the Genomica DNA microarray (35 different HPV genotypes). We collected 217 samples before and 200 samples after the ultrasound examination. The PCR was inhibited in two cases. Human DNA was detected in 36 (18%) post-examination samples and 61 (28%) pre-examination samples. After the ultrasound LLD procedure, 6 (3.0%) samples contained HR-HPV types (16, 31, 2×53 and 58). Similarly, HPV was detected in 6 pre-examination samples (2.7%). Amongst these 4 (1.9%) contained HR-HPV (types 53 and 70). Our study reveals that a considerable number of ultrasound probes are contaminated with human and HR-HPV DNA, despite LLD disinfection and probe cover. In all hospitals, where LLD is performed, the endovaginal ultrasound procedure must therefore be considered a source for nosocomial HR-HPV infections. We recommend the stringent use of high-level disinfectants, such as glutaraldehyde or hydrogen peroxide solutions.

  8. WITNESSING THE DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION OF DISK GALAXIES IN LUMINOSITY AND SIZE VIA GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, Kaushala; Crampton, David; Peng, Chien; Simard, Luc [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    We take advantage of the magnification in size and flux of a galaxy provided by gravitational lensing to analyze the properties of 62 strongly lensed galaxies from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. The sample of lensed galaxies spans a redshift range of 0.20 ≤ z ≤ 1.20 with a median redshift of z = 0.61. We use the lens modeling code LENSFIT to derive the luminosities, sizes, and Sérsic indices of the lensed galaxies. The measured properties of the lensed galaxies show a primarily compact, {sup d}isk{sup -}like population with the peaks of the size and Sérsic index distributions corresponding to ∼1.50 kpc and n ∼ 1, respectively. Comparison of the SLACS galaxies to a non-lensing, broadband imaging survey shows that a lensing survey allows us to probe a galaxy population that reaches ∼2 mag fainter. Our analysis allows us to compare the (z) = 0.61 disk galaxy sample (n ≤ 2.5) to an unprecedented local galaxy sample of ∼670, 000 SDSS galaxies at z ∼ 0.1; this analysis indicates that the evolution of the luminosity-size relation since z ∼ 1 may not be fully explained by a pure-size or pure-luminosity evolution but may instead require a combination of both. Our observations are also in agreement with recent numerical simulations of disk galaxies that show evidence of a mass-dependent evolution since z ∼ 1, where high-mass disk galaxies (M{sub *} > 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) evolve more in size and low-mass disk galaxies (M{sub *} ≤ 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) evolve more in luminosity.

  9. Combining high-dispersion spectroscopy with high contrast imaging: Probing rocky planets around our nearest neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellen, I.; de Kok, R.; Birkby, J. L.; Brandl, B.; Brogi, M.; Keller, C.; Kenworthy, M.; Schwarz, H.; Stuik, R.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Ground-based high-dispersion (R ~ 100 000) spectroscopy (HDS) is proving to be a powerful technique with which to characterize extrasolar planets. The planet signal is distilled from the bright starlight, combining ral and time-differential filtering techniques. In parallel, high-contrast imaging (HCI) is developing rapidly, aimed at spatially separating the planet from the star. While HDS is limited by the overwhelming noise from the host star, HCI is limited by residual quasi-static speckles. Both techniques currently reach planet-star contrast limits down to ~10-5, albeit for very different types of planetary systems. Aims: In this work, we discuss a way to combine HDS and HCI (HDS+HCI). For a planet located at a resolvable angular distance from its host star, the starlight can be reduced up to several orders of magnitude using adaptive optics and/or coronography. In addition, the remaining starlight can be filtered out using high-dispersion spectroscopy, utilizing the significantly different (or Doppler shifted) high-dispersion spectra of the planet and star. In this way, HDS+HCI can in principle reach contrast limits of ~10-5 × 10-5, although in practice this will be limited by photon noise and/or sky-background. In contrast to current direct imaging techniques, such as Angular Differential Imaging and Spectral Differential Imaging, it will work well at small working angles and is much less sensitive to speckle noise. For the discovery of previously unknown planets HDS+HCI requires a high-contrast adaptive optics system combined with a high-dispersion R ~ 100 000 integral field spectrograph (IFS). This combination currently does not exist, but is planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Methods: We present simulations of HDS+HCI observations with the E-ELT, both probing thermal emission from a planet at infrared wavelengths, and starlight reflected off a planet atmosphere at optical wavelengths. For the infrared simulations we use the

  10. Full-field parallel interferometry coherence probe microscope for high-speed optical metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrani, A; Abdulhalim, I

    2015-06-01

    Parallel detection of several achromatic phase-shifted images is used to obtain a high-speed, high-resolution, full-field, optical coherence probe tomography system based on polarization interferometry. The high enface imaging speed, short coherence gate, and high lateral resolution provided by the system are exploited to determine microbump height uniformity in an integrated semiconductor chip at 50 frames per second. The technique is demonstrated using the Linnik microscope, although it can be implemented on any polarization-based interference microscopy system.

  11. A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Alex M.; Gülder, Ömer L. [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame.

  12. PET-Probe: Evaluation of Technical Performance and Clinical Utility of a Handheld High-Energy Gamma Probe in Oncologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, Seza A; Daghighian, Farhad; Essner, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become an invaluable part of patient evaluation in surgical oncology. PET is less than optimal for detecting lesions PET-positive lesions can be challenging as a result of difficulties in surgical exposure. We undertook this investigation to assess the utility of a handheld high-energy gamma probe (PET-Probe) for intraoperative identification of 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG)-avid tumors. Forty patients underwent a diagnostic whole-body FDG-PET scan for consideration for surgical exploration and resection. Before surgery, all patients received an intravenous injection of 7 to 10 mCi of FDG. At surgery, the PET-Probe was used to determine absolute counts per second at the known tumor site(s) demonstrated by whole-body PET and at adjacent normal tissue (at least 4 cm away from tumor-bearing sites). Tumor-to-background ratios were calculated. Thirty-two patients (80%) underwent PET-Probe-guided surgery with therapeutic intent in a recurrent or metastatic disease setting. Eight patients underwent surgery for diagnostic exploration. Anatomical locations of the PET-identified lesions were neck and supraclavicular (n = 8), axilla (n = 5), groin and deep iliac (n = 4), trunk and extremity soft tissue (n = 3), abdominal and retroperitoneal (n = 19), and lung (n = 2). PET-Probe detected all PET-positive lesions. The PET-Probe was instrumental in localization of lesions in 15 patients that were not immediately apparent by surgical exploration. The PET-Probe identified all lesions demonstrated by PET scanning and, in selected cases, was useful in localizing FDG-avid disease not seen with conventional PET scanning.

  13. Precision luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073074; Pandurovic, M; Smiljanic, I

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings a novel approach to deal with the beam-induced effects in luminosity measurement is presented. Based on the relativistic kinematics of the collision frame of the Bhabha process, the beam-beam related uncertainties can be reduced to the permille level independently of a precision with which the beam parameters are known. Specific event selection combined with the corrective methods we introduce, leads to the systematic uncertainty from the beam-induced effects to be at a few permille level in the peak region above the 80% of the nominal centre-of-mass energies at ILC.

  14. A radiation emission shielding method for high intensity focus ultrasound probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a key issue in the design and development of safe and effective medical instruments. The treatment probes of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) systems not only receive and transmit electromagnetic waves, but also radiate ultrasound waves, resulting in electromagnetic coupling. In this paper, an electromagnetic shielding method involving the enclosure of the probe in a copper wire mesh was introduced. First, sound pressure distribution simulations and measurements were performed using a hydrophone in order to evaluate the effects of the wire mesh on the acoustic performance of the HIFU system. The results indicated that the wire mesh did not disturb the normalized sound pressure field. In addition, the attenuation of the maximum pressure in the focal plane was equal to 6.2%. Then, the electronic emission level was tested in a chamber. After the implementation of the wire mesh, the 10-100 MHz frequency band radiation was suppressed, and the HIFU system satisfied the national EMC standards.

  15. A probe station for testing silicon sensors

    CERN Multimedia

    Ulysse, Fichet

    2017-01-01

    A probe station for testing silicon sensors. The probe station is located inside a dark box that can keep away light during the measurement. The set-up is located in the DSF (Department Silicon Facility). The golden plate is the "chuck" where the sensor is usually placed on. With the help of "manipulators", thin needles can be precisely positioned that can contact the sensor surface. Using these needles and the golden chuck, a high voltage can be applied to the sensor to test its behaviour under high voltage. We will use the silicon sensors that we test here for building prototypes of a highly granular sandwich calorimeter, the CMS HGC (Highly granular Calorimeter) upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC.

  16. Transcript-based redefinition of grouped oligonucleotide probe sets using AceView: High-resolution annotation for microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cam Margaret C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracting biological information from high-density Affymetrix arrays is a multi-step process that begins with the accurate annotation of microarray probes. Shortfalls in the original Affymetrix probe annotation have been described; however, few studies have provided rigorous solutions for routine data analysis. Results Using AceView, a comprehensive human transcript database, we have reannotated the probes by matching them to RNA transcripts instead of genes. Based on this transcript-level annotation, a new probe set definition was created in which every probe in a probe set maps to a common set of AceView gene transcripts. In addition, using artificial data sets we identified that a minimal probe set size of 4 is necessary for reliable statistical summarization. We further demonstrate that applying the new probe set definition can detect specific transcript variants contributing to differential expression and it also improves cross-platform concordance. Conclusion We conclude that our transcript-level reannotation and redefinition of probe sets complement the original Affymetrix design. Redefinitions introduce probe sets whose sizes may not support reliable statistical summarization; therefore, we advocate using our transcript-level mapping redefinition in a secondary analysis step rather than as a replacement. Knowing which specific transcripts are differentially expressed is important to properly design probe/primer pairs for validation purposes. For convenience, we have created custom chip-description-files (CDFs and annotation files for our new probe set definitions that are compatible with Bioconductor, Affymetrix Expression Console or third party software.

  17. A highly selective long-wavelength fluorescent probe for hydrazine and its application in living cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Yintang; Ruan, Kehong; Meng, Fanteng; Li, Ting; Guan, Jinsheng; Du, Lulu; Qu, Peng; Xu, Maotian

    2017-09-01

    A highly selective long-wavelength turn-on fluorescent probe has been developed for the detection of N2H4. The probe was prepared by conjugation the tricyanofuran-based D-π-A system with a recognizing moiety of acetyl group. In the presence of N2H4, the probe can be effectively hydrazinolysized and produce a turn-on fluorescent emission at 610 nm as well as a large red-shift in the absorption spectrum corresponding to a color change from yellow to blue. The sensing mechanism was confirmed by HPLC, MS, UV-vis, emission spectroscopic and theoretical calculation studies. The probe displayed high selectivity and sensitivity for N2H4 with a LOD (limit of detection) of 0.16 μM. Moreover, the probe was successfully utilized for the detection of hydrazine in living cells.

  18. High phylogenetic utility of an ultraconserved element probe set designed for Arachnida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, James; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Hedin, Marshal; Bryson, Robert W; McCormack, John E; Faircloth, Brant C

    2017-07-01

    Arachnida is an ancient, diverse and ecologically important animal group that contains a number of species of interest for medical, agricultural and engineering applications. Despite their importance, many aspects of the arachnid tree of life remain unresolved, hindering comparative approaches to arachnid biology. Biologists have made considerable efforts to resolve the arachnid phylogeny; yet, limited and challenging morphological characters, as well as a dearth of genetic resources, have hindered progress. Here, we present a genomic toolkit for arachnids featuring hundreds of conserved DNA regions (ultraconserved elements or UCEs) that allow targeted sequencing of any species in the arachnid tree of life. We used recently developed capture probes designed from conserved regions of available arachnid genomes to enrich a sample of loci from 32 diverse arachnids. Sequence capture returned an average of 487 UCE loci for all species, with a range from 170 to 722. Phylogenetic analysis of these UCEs produced a highly resolved arachnid tree with relationships largely consistent with recent transcriptome-based phylogenies. We also tested the phylogenetic informativeness of UCE probes within the spider, scorpion and harvestman orders, demonstrating the utility of these markers at shallower taxonomic scales and suggesting that these loci will be useful for species-level differences. This probe set will open the door to phylogenomic and population genomic studies across the arachnid tree of life, enabling systematics, species delimitation, species discovery and conservation of these diverse arthropods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. High-Sensitivity and Low-Toxicity Fucose Probe for Glycan Imaging and Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Sho; Shogomori, Hidehiko; Nakano, Miyako; Nakajima, Kazuki; Oka, Ritsuko; Kitazume, Shinobu; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Sano, Masahiro; Korekane, Hiroaki; Hsu, Tsui-Ling; Lee, Hsiu-Yu; Wong, Chi-Huey; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2016-07-21

    Fucose, a terminal sugar in glycoconjugates, critically regulates various physiological and pathological phenomena, including cancer development and inflammation. However, there are currently no probes for efficient labeling and detection of this sugar. We chemically synthesized a novel series of alkynyl-fucose analogs as probe candidates and found that 7-alkynyl-fucose gave the highest labeling efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Among the fucose analogs, 7-alkynyl-fucose was the best substrate against all five fucosyltransferases examined. We confirmed its conversion to the corresponding guanosine diphosphate derivative in cells and found that cellular glycoproteins were labeled much more efficiently with 7-alkynyl-fucose than with an existing probe. 7-Alkynyl-fucose was detected in the N-glycan core by mass spectrometry, and 7-alkynyl-fucose-modified proteins mostly disappeared in core-fucose-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, suggesting that this analog mainly labeled core fucose in these cells. These results indicate that 7-alkynyl-fucose is a highly sensitive and powerful tool for basic glycobiology research and clinical application for biomarker discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-resolution disruption halo current measurements using Langmuir probes in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Berg, A.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.

    2018-01-01

    Halo currents generated during disruptions on Alcator C-Mod have been measured with Langmuir ‘rail’ probes. These rail probes are embedded in a lower outboard divertor module in a closely-spaced vertical (poloidal) array. The dense array provides detailed resolution of the spatial dependence (~1 cm spacing) of the halo current distribution in the plasma scrape-off region with high time resolution (400 kHz digitization rate). As the plasma limits on the outboard divertor plate, the contact point is clearly discernible in the halo current data (as an inversion of current) and moves vertically down the divertor plate on many disruptions. These data are consistent with filament reconstructions of the plasma boundary, from which the edge safety factor of the disrupting plasma can be calculated. Additionally, the halo current ‘footprint’ on the divertor plate is obtained and related to the halo flux width. The voltage driving halo current and the effective resistance of the plasma region through which the halo current flows to reach the probes are also investigated. Estimations of the sheath resistance and halo region resistivity and temperature are given. This information could prove useful for modeling halo current dynamics.

  1. Transverse Electromagnetic Mode Conversion for High-Harmonic Self-Probing Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Camper

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on high-order harmonic (HHG two-source interferometry (TSI in molecular gases. We used a 0-\\(\\pi\\ phase plate to create two bright spots at the focus of a lens by converting a Gaussian laser beam into a TEM please define \\(_{01}\\ Transverse Electromagnetic Mode. The two bright foci produce two synchronized HHG sources. One of them is used to probe on-going dynamics in the generating medium, while the other serves to heterodyne the signal. The interference of the emissions in the far–field gives access to the phase difference between the two sources. In self–probing HHG phase spectroscopy, one of the two sources is used as a reference while the other one probes some on goin dynamics in the generating medium. We first compute overlap integrals to investigate the mode conversion efficiency. We then establish a clear relation between the laser phase-front curvature and the far-field overlap of the two HHG beams. Both Fresnel diffraction calculations and an experimental lens position scan are used to reveal variations of the phase front inclination in each source. We show that this arrangement offers \\(\\frac{\\lambda_{XUV}}{100}\\ precision, enabling extremely sensitive phase measurements. Finally, we use this compact setup for TSI and measure phase variations across the molecular alignment revival of nitrogen and in vibrating sulfur hexafluoride. In both gases, the phase variations change sign around the ionization threshold of the investigated molecule.

  2. Synthesis and application of a highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin group

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangjie; Liu, Xiangli; Xu, Jinhe; Ji, Liguo; Yang, Linlin; Fan, Aiying; Wang, Songjun; Wang, Qingzhi

    2018-02-01

    A highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin-type Schiff base derivative 1 (probe) was produced by condensation reaction between coumarin carbohydrazide and 1H-indazole-3-carbaldehyde. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the maximum absorption peak of compound 1 appeared at 439 nm. In the presence of Cu2 + ions, the maximum peak decreased remarkably compared with other physiological important metal ions and a new absorption peak at 500 nm appeared. The job's plot experiments showed that complexes of 1:2 binding mode were formed in CH3CN:HEPES (3:2, v/v) solution. Compound 1 exhibited a strong blue fluorescence. Upon addition of copper ions, the fluorescence gradually decreased and reached a plateau with the fluorescence quenching rate up to 98.73%. The detection limit for Cu2 + ions was estimated to 0.384 ppm. Fluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that probe 1 had potential to be used to investigate biological processes involving Cu2 + ions within living cells.

  3. A molecular line scan in the Hubble deep field north: Constraints on the co luminosity function and the cosmic H{sub 2} density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F.; Decarli, R.; Da Cunha, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sargent, M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Carilli, C. [NRAO, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickinson, M.; Daddi, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Riechers, D. [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ellis, R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, D.; Weiner, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Bell, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cox, P.; Downes, D.; Neri, R. [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M., E-mail: walter@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2014-02-20

    We present direct constraints on the CO luminosity function at high redshift and the resulting cosmic evolution of the molecular gas density, ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z), based on a blind molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our line scan of the entire 3 mm window (79-115 GHz) covers a cosmic volume of ∼7000 Mpc{sup 3}, and redshift ranges z < 0.45, 1.01 < z < 1.89 and z > 2. We use the rich multiwavelength and spectroscopic database of the HDF-N to derive some of the best constraints on CO luminosities in high redshift galaxies to date. We combine the blind CO detections in our molecular line scan (presented in a companion paper) with stacked CO limits from galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts (slit or mask spectroscopy from Keck and grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope) to give first blind constraints on high-z CO luminosity functions and the cosmic evolution of the H{sub 2} mass density ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) out to redshifts z ∼ 3. A comparison to empirical predictions of ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) shows that the securely detected sources in our molecular line scan already provide significant contributions to the predicted ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) in the redshift bins (z) ∼ 1.5 and (z) ∼ 2.7. Accounting for galaxies with CO luminosities that are not probed by our observations results in cosmic molecular gas densities ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) that are higher than current predictions. We note, however, that the current uncertainties (in particular the luminosity limits, number of detections, as well as cosmic volume probed) are significant, a situation that is about to change with the emerging ALMA observatory.

  4. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    1996-06-25

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.).

  5. A highly selective and ratiometric fluorescent probe for cyanide by rationally altering the susceptible H-atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuanqiang; Nguyen, Khac Hong; Zhang, Yintang; Zhang, Guan; Fan, Shengnan; Li, Fen; Guo, Chao; Lu, Yuanyuan; Song, Xiaoqing; Qu, Peng; Liu, You-Nian; Xu, Maotian

    2018-01-01

    A highly selective and ratiometric fluorescent probe for cyanide was rationally designed and synthesized. The probe comprises a fluorophore unit of naphthalimide and a CN- acceptor of methylated trifluoroacetamide group. For these previous reported trifluoroacetamide derivative-based cyanide chemosensors, the H-atom of amide adjacent to trifluoroacetyl group is susceptible to be attacked by various anions (CN- itself, F-, AcO-, et al.) and even the solvent molecule, which resulted in the bewildered reaction mechanism and poor selectivity of the assay. In this work, the susceptible H-atom of trifluoroacetamide was artfully substituted by alkyl group. Thus a highly specific fluorescent probe was developed for cyanide sensing. Upon the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion to the carbonyl of trifluoroacetamide moiety of the probe, the ICT process of the probe was significantly enhanced and leading to a remarkable red shift in both absorption and emission spectra of the probe. This fluorescent assay showed a linear range of 1.0-80.0µM and a LOD (limit of detection) of 0.23µM. All the investigated interference have no influence on the sensing behavior of the probe toward cyanide. Moreover, by coating on TLC plate, the probe can be utilized for practical detection of trace cyanide in water samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Luminosity Spectrum Reconstruction at Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Poss, Stéphane

    2014-04-11

    A good knowledge of the luminosity spectrum is mandatory for many measurements at future e+e- colliders. As the beam-parameters determining the luminosity spectrum cannot be measured precisely, the luminosity spectrum has to be measured through a gauge process with the detector. The measured distributions, used to reconstruct the spectrum, depend on Initial State Radiation, cross-section, and Final State Radiation. To extract the basic luminosity spectrum, a parametric model of the luminosity spectrum is created, in this case the spectrum at the 3 TeV Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The model is used within a reweighting technique to extract the luminosity spectrum from measured Bhabha event observables, taking all relevant effects into account. The centre-of-mass energy spectrum is reconstructed within 5% over the full validity range of the model. The reconstructed spectrum does not result in a significant bias or systematic uncertainty in the exemplary physics benchmark process of smuon pair production.

  7. Differential Luminosity Measurement using Bhabha Events

    CERN Document Server

    Poss, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    A good knowledge of the luminosity spectrum is mandatory for many measurements at future e+e- colliders. As the beam-parameters determining the luminosity spectrum cannot be measured precisely, the luminosity spectrum has to be measured through a gauge process with the detector. The measured distributions, used to reconstruct the spectrum, depend on Initial State Radiation, cross-section, and Final State Radiation. To extract the basic luminosity spectrum, a parametric model of the luminosity spectrum is created, in this case the spectrum at the 3 TeV CLIC. The model is used in a reweighting technique to extract the luminosity spectrum from measured Bhabha event observables, taking all relevant effects into account. The centre-of-mass energy spectrum is reconstructed within 5% over the full validity range of the model. The reconstructed spectrum does not result in a significant bias or systematic uncertainty in the exemplary physics benchmark process of smuon pair production.

  8. The Experimental Demonstration of the Optimized Electrical Probe Memory for Ultra-High Density Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gong, Sidi; Yang, Cihui; Wen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical model has been previously proposed to optimize the structure of the electrical probe memory system, whereby the optimal thickness and resistivity of DLC capping layer and TiN under layer are predicted to be 2 nm, 0.01 Ωm, and 40 nm, 2×10-7 Ωm,respectively However, there is no experimental evidence to show that such a media stack can be fabricated in reality by the time of writing and few patents regarding this intriguing topic have been reviewed and cited. In order to realize this optimized design experimentally, the thickness dependent resistivity for both DLC and TiN film are assessed, from which it is not possible to obtain a media stack with exactly the same properties as the optimized design. Therefore, the previously proposed architecture is re-optimized using the measured properties values, and the capability of using the modified memory architecture to provide ultra-high density, high data rate, and low energy consumption is demonstrated. The results show that it is difficult to experimentally attain an electrical probe memory with exactly the same properties values as the optimized counterpart. An optimized electrical probe memory structure that includes a DLC capping layer and TiN under layer was previously proposed according to a parametric approach, while the practicality of realizing such a media stack experimentally has not bee investigated. In order to assess its practical feasibility, we first measured the electrical resistivities of DLC and TiN films for different thicknesses. In this case, for the purpose of optimizing the memory system with appropriate, but more physically realistic properties values, we re-designed the architecture using the measured properties, and the modified system is able to provide ultra-high density, large data rate, and low energy consumption. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. AXIS - A High Angular Resoltuion X-ray Probe Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard; AXIS Study Team

    2018-01-01

    AXIS is a probe-class concept under study to the 2020 Decadal survey. AXIS will extend and enhance the science of high angular resolution x-ray imaging and spectroscopy in the next decade with ~0.3" angular resolution over a 7' radius field of view and an order of magnitude more collecting area than Chandra in the 0.3-12 keV band with a cost consistent with a probe.These capabilities enable major advances in a wide range of science such as: (1) measuring the event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the spins of supermassive black holes through observations of gravitationally-microlensed quasars; (ii) determining AGN and starburst feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters through direct imaging of winds and interaction of jets and via spatially resolved imaging of galaxies at high-z; (iii) fueling of AGN by probing the Bondi radius of over 20 nearby galaxies; (iv) hierarchical structure formation and the SMBH merger rate through measurement of the occurrence rate of dual AGN and occupation fraction of SMBHs; (v) advancing SNR physics and galaxy ecology through large detailed samples of SNR in nearby galaxies; (vi) measuring the Cosmic Web through its connection to cluster outskirts. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS benefits from natural synergies with the ELTs, LSST, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA. AXIS utilizes breakthroughs in the construction of lightweight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, and developments in the fabrication of large format, small pixel, high readout rate detectors allowing a robust and cost effective design. The AXIS team welcomes input and feedback from the community in preparation for the 2020 Decadal review.

  10. Jet activity as a probe of high-mass resonance production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L.A. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V.A. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M.G. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Spannowsky, M. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    We explore the method of using the measured jet activity associated with a high-mass resonance state to determine the corresponding production modes. To demonstrate the potential of the approach, we consider the case of a resonance of mass M{sub R} decaying to a diphoton final state. We perform a Monte Carlo study, considering three mass points M{sub R} = 0.75, 1.5, 2.5 TeV, and show that the γγ, WW, gg and light and heavy q anti q initiated cases lead to distinct predictions for the jet multiplicity distributions. As an example, we apply this result to the ATLAS search for resonances in diphoton events, using the 2015 data set of 3.2 fb{sup -1} at √(s) = 13 TeV. Taking the spin-0 selection, we demonstrate that a dominantly gg-initiated signal hypothesis is mildly disfavoured, while the γγ and light quark cases give good descriptions within the limited statistics, and a dominantly WW-initiated hypothesis is found to be in strong tension with the data. We also comment on the b anti b initial state, which can already be constrained by the measured b-jet multiplicity. Finally, we present expected exclusion limits with integrated luminosity, and demonstrate that with just a few 10s of fb{sup -1} we can expect to constrain the production modes of such a resonance. (orig.)

  11. Intense Plasma Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz Probe Science with Ultrafast Lasers for Solid State Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0029 Intense Plasma-Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz probe science with ultrafast lasers for Solid State Physics ...Plasma-Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz probe science with ultrafast lasers for Solid State Physics , 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT... Physics Matter Probe 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18.  NUMBER OF PAGES  11  19a.  NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  12. Novel HDD-type SNDM ferroelectric data storage system aimed at high-speed data transfer with single probe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Uda, Tomoya; Kurihashi, Yuichi; Tanaka, Kenkou; Cho, Yasuo

    2007-12-01

    In this study, several read/write tests were conducted using a novel ferroelectric data storage test system equipped with a spindle motor, targeted at high-speed data transfer using a single probe head. A periodically inverted signal can be read out correctly with a bit rate of 100 kbps using this test system, and 10 Mbps data transfer is also possible during writing operations. The effect of a dc-offset voltage applied to the writing waveform with high-speed probe scanning is discussed. In addition, a novel noncontact probe height control technique was adopted to solve the problem of tip abrasion.

  13. Fitting the Luminosity Decay in the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    McCrory, Elliott; Slaughter, Anna Jean; Xiao, Aimin

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the various ways in which the decay of the luminosity in the Tevatron have been fit. The standard assumptions of a fixed-lifetime exponential decay are only appropriate for very short time intervals. A "1/time" funcional form fits rather well, and is supported by analytical derivations. A more complex form, assuming a time-varying lifetime, produces excellent results. Changes in the luminosity can be factored into two phenomena: The luminosity burn-off rate, and the burn-off rate from non-luminosity effects. The luminous and the non-luminous burn rate are shown for stores in the Tevatron.

  14. A Left and Right Truncated Schechter Luminosity Function for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zaninetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The luminosity function for quasars (QSOs is usually fitted by a Schechter function. The dependence of the number of quasars on the redshift, both in the low and high luminosity regions, requires the inclusion of a lower and upper boundary in the Schechter function. The normalization of the truncated Schechter function is forced to be the same as that for the Schechter function, and an analytical form for the average value is derived. Three astrophysical applications for QSOs are provided: deduction of the parameters at low redshifts, behavior of the average absolute magnitude at high redshifts, and the location (in redshift of the photometric maximum as a function of the selected apparent magnitude. The truncated Schechter function with the double power law and an improved Schechter function are compared as luminosity functions for QSOs. The chosen cosmological framework is that of the flat cosmology, for which we provided the luminosity distance, the inverse relation for the luminosity distance, and the distance modulus.

  15. ON THE RADIO AND OPTICAL LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Lawrence, A. [Institute for Astronomy, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Stawarz, L., E-mail: jsingal@stanford.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5510 (Japan)

    2011-12-20

    We calculate simultaneously the radio and optical luminosity evolutions of quasars, and the distribution in radio loudness R defined as the ratio of radio and optical luminosities, using a flux-limited data set containing 636 quasars with radio and optical fluxes from White et al. We first note that when dealing with multi-variate data it is imperative to first determine the true correlations among the variables, not those introduced by the observational selection effects, before obtaining the individual distributions of the variables. We use the methods developed by Efron and Petrosian which are designed to obtain unbiased correlations, distributions, and evolution with redshift from a data set truncated due to observational biases. It is found that the population of quasars exhibits strong positive correlation between the radio and optical luminosities. With this correlation, whether intrinsic or observationally induced accounted for, we find that there is a strong luminosity evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with significantly higher radio than optical evolution. We conclude that the luminosity evolution obtained by arbitrarily separating the sources into radio-loud (R > 10) and radio-quiet (R < 10) populations introduces significant biases that skew the result considerably. We also construct the local radio and optical luminosity functions and the density evolution. Finally, we consider the distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R obtained from careful treatment of the selection effects and luminosity evolutions with that obtained from the raw data without such considerations. We find a significant difference between the two distributions and no clear sign of bi-modality in the true distribution for the range of R values considered. Our results indicate therefore, somewhat surprisingly, that there is no critical switch in the efficiency of the production of disk outflows/jets between very radio-quiet and very radio-loud quasars, but rather a

  16. On the Radio and Optical Luminosity Evolution of Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.

    2011-05-20

    We calculate simultaneously the radio and optical luminosity evolutions of quasars, and the distribution in radio loudness R defined as the ratio of radio and optical luminosities, using a flux limited data set containing 636 quasars with radio and optical fluxes from White et al. We first note that when dealing with multivariate data it is imperative to first determine the true correlations among the variables, not those introduced by the observational selection effects, before obtaining the individual distributions of the variables. We use the methods developed by Efron and Petrosian which are designed to obtain unbiased correlations, distributions, and evolution with redshift from a data set truncated due to observational biases. It is found that as expected the population of quasars exhibits strong positive correlation between the radio and optical luminosities and that this correlation deviates from a simple linear relation in a way indicating that more luminous quasars are more radio loud. We also find that there is a strong luminosity evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with significantly higher radio than optical evolution. We conclude that the luminosity evolution obtained by arbitrarily separating the sources into radio loud (R > 10) and radio quiet (R < 10) populations introduces significant biases that skew the result considerably. We also construct the local radio and optical luminosity functions and the density evolution. Finally, we consider the distribution of the radio loudness parameter R obtained from careful treatment of the selection effects and luminosity evolutions with that obtained from the raw data without such considerations. We find a significant difference between the two distributions and no clear sign of bi-modality in the true distribution. Our results indicate therefore, somewhat surprisingly, that there is no critical switch in the efficiency of the production of disk outflows/jets between very radio quiet and very radio

  17. Determination of the Absolute Luminosity at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    White, Simon Mathieu; Puzo, P

    2010-01-01

    For particle colliders, the most important performance parameters are the beam energy and the luminosity. High energies allow the particle physics experiments to study and observe new effects. The luminosity describes the ability of the collider to produce the required number of useful interactions or events. It is defined as the proportionality factor between the event rate, measured by the experiments, and the cross section of the observed event which describes its probability to occur. The absolute knowledge of the luminosity therefore allows for the experiments to measure the absolute cross sections. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was designed to produce proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. This energy would be the highest ever reached in a particle accelerator. The knowledge and understanding of particle physics at such high energy is based on simulations and theoretical predictions. As opposed to e+ e- colliders, for which the Bhabba scattering cross section can be accurately ...

  18. RHIC PERFORMANCE AND PLANS TOWARDS HIGHER LUMINOSITY AND HIGHER POLARIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SATOGATA,T.

    2004-07-05

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent rings, has completed its fourth year of operation since commissioning in 1999. RHIC is designed to provide luminosity over a wide range of beam energies and species, including heavy ions, polarized protons, and asymmetric beam collisions. RHIC has produced physics data at four experiments in runs that include gold-on-gold collisions at various beam energies (9.8, 31, 65, and 100 GeV/u), high-energy polarized proton-proton collisions (100 GeV), and deuteron-gold collisions (100 GeV/u). We review recent machine performance for high-luminosity gold-gold operations and polarized proton operations, including causes and solutions for known operational limits. Plans and progress for luminosity and polarization improvements, electron cooling, and the electron-ion collider eRHIC are discussed.

  19. Probing ultrafast dynamics of solid-density plasma generated by high-contrast intense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kamalesh; Blackman, David R.; Shaikh, Moniruzzaman; Lad, Amit D.; Sarkar, Deep; Dey, Indranuj; Robinson, Alex P. L.; Pasley, John; Ravindra Kumar, G.

    2018-01-01

    We present ultrafast dynamics of solid-density plasma created by high-contrast (picosecond contrast ˜10-9), high-intensity (˜4 × 1018 W/cm2) laser pulses using time-resolved pump-probe Doppler spectrometry. Experiments show a rapid rise in blue-shift at early time delay (2-4.3 ps) followed by a rapid fall (4.3-8.3 ps) and then a slow rise in blue-shift at later time delays (>8.3 ps). Simulations show that the early-time observations, specifically the absence of any red-shifting of the reflected probe, can only be reproduced if the front surface is unperturbed by the laser pre-pulse at the moment that the high intensity pulse arrives. A flexible diagnostic which is capable of diagnosing the presence of low-levels of pre-plasma formation would be useful for potential applications in laser-produced proton and ion production, such as cancer therapy and security imaging.

  20. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained high resolution images of the central regions of 14 reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Camera to account for host-galaxy starlight contamination of measured AGN luminosities. We measure th...

  1. HTSSIP: An R package for analysis of high throughput sequencing data from nucleic acid stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Nicholas D; Barnett, Samuel E; Buckley, Daniel H

    2018-01-01

    Combining high throughput sequencing with stable isotope probing (HTS-SIP) is a powerful method for mapping in situ metabolic processes to thousands of microbial taxa. However, accurately mapping metabolic processes to taxa is complex and challenging. Multiple HTS-SIP data analysis methods have been developed, including high-resolution stable isotope probing (HR-SIP), multi-window high-resolution stable isotope probing (MW-HR-SIP), quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP), and ΔBD. Currently, there is no publicly available software designed specifically for analyzing HTS-SIP data. To address this shortfall, we have developed the HTSSIP R package, an open-source, cross-platform toolset for conducting HTS-SIP analyses in a straightforward and easily reproducible manner. The HTSSIP package, along with full documentation and examples, is available from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/HTSSIP/index.html and Github at https://github.com/buckleylab/HTSSIP.

  2. Large area scanning probe microscope in ultra-high vacuum demonstrated for electrostatic force measurements on high-voltage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Gysin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The resolution in electrostatic force microscopy (EFM, a descendant of atomic force microscopy (AFM, has reached nanometre dimensions, necessary to investigate integrated circuits in modern electronic devices. However, the characterization of conducting or semiconducting power devices with EFM methods requires an accurate and reliable technique from the nanometre up to the micrometre scale. For high force sensitivity it is indispensable to operate the microscope under high to ultra-high vacuum (UHV conditions to suppress viscous damping of the sensor. Furthermore, UHV environment allows for the analysis of clean surfaces under controlled environmental conditions. Because of these requirements we built a large area scanning probe microscope operating under UHV conditions at room temperature allowing to perform various electrical measurements, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy, scanning capacitance force microscopy, scanning spreading resistance microscopy, and also electrostatic force microscopy at higher harmonics. The instrument incorporates beside a standard beam deflection detection system a closed loop scanner with a scan range of 100 μm in lateral and 25 μm in vertical direction as well as an additional fibre optics. This enables the illumination of the tip–sample interface for optically excited measurements such as local surface photo voltage detection.Results: We present Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM measurements before and after sputtering of a copper alloy with chromium grains used as electrical contact surface in ultra-high power switches. In addition, we discuss KPFM measurements on cross sections of cleaved silicon carbide structures: a calibration layer sample and a power rectifier. To demonstrate the benefit of surface photo voltage measurements, we analysed the contact potential difference of a silicon carbide p/n-junction under illumination.

  3. Do Low Luminosity Stars Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Teresa

    2010-11-01

    Historically, low luminosity stars have attracted very little attention, in part because they are difficult to see except with large telescopes, however, by neglecting to study them we are leaving out the vast majority of stars in the Universe. Low mass stars evolve very slowly, it takes them trillions of years to burn their hydrogen, after which, they just turn into a He white dwarf, without ever going through the red giant phase. This lack of observable evolution partly explains the lack of interest in them. The search for the “missing mass” in the galactic plane turned things around and during the 60s and 70s the search for large M/L objects placed M-dwarfs and cool WDs among objects of astrophysical interest. New fields of astronomical research, like BDs and exoplanets appeared as spin-offs from efforts to find the “missing mass”. The search for halo white dwarfs, believed to be responsible for the observed microlensing events, is pursued by several groups. The progress in these last few years has been tremendous, here I present highlights some of the great successes in the field and point to some of the still unsolved issues.

  4. Soft and hard probes of high-temperature matter with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion collisions provide an experimental setting for studying a variety of novel QCD phenomena. In particular, they enable the study of QCD at high temperatures and provide accessibility to a medium, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), containing a high density of unscreened color charges. Measurements performed in the LHC era have revolutionized our understanding of phenomena such as harmonic flow and jet quenching in the QGP and have altered the paradigm underlying proton-ion collisions. The high-quality calorimetry make the ATLAS detector an ideal apparatus to study jet observables and the large acceptance enables detailed measurements of soft particle correlations. In this talk I will summarize measurements performed by the ATLAS Collaboration. These include jet observables that are directly sensitive to jet quenching as well as a comprehensive set of color-neutral probes that provide control over hard scattering rates. Also presented are flow measurements that elucidate the role of initial geo...

  5. An Early Separation Scheme for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sterbini, G; Rivkin, L

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we evaluate the potential of the Early Separation Scheme for the Luminosity Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main goal of the Early Separation Scheme is to reduce the crossing angle between the proton beams at the collision point in order to increase the luminosity performance of the machine and to alleviate, at the same time, the detrimental effects due to the electromagnetic interaction between the beams. The Early Separation Scheme consists of four dipoles for each of the two high luminosity Interaction Points of the LHC, corresponding to the ATLAS and CMS detectors. Two dipoles out of the four, the so-called D0 dipoles, have to be integrated in the experimental cavern. We show that, working in synergy with an increased beam current and with a stronger final focusing system, the Early Separation Scheme can provide an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb^(−1) over a period of 6.5 − 7 years with a leveled luminosity of 5.5 10^34 cm^(−2) s^(−1). These figures are possible tha...

  6. LIGHT and LUMINOSITY, from Einstein to LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. ROSSI, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    After an introduction on the concept of light in physics, this talk will focus on CERN’s High Luminosity LHC project, aiming at extending the discovery potential of CERN’s flagship accelerator by increasing its “luminosity” (ie the number of particles that can be squeezed inside the accelerator to maximize the number of collisions). To achieve this objective, many new technologies are being developed at CERN and many collaborating institutes worldwide, especially in the field of superconductivity. Lucio Rossi, the main speaker, is the head of the HL-LHC project, based at CERN. Giorgio Apollinari, Director for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) will speak through a videoconference from Fermilab (USA). The event is webcast live and will be followed by Fermilab and other institutes in the USA.

  7. Highly fluorescent conjugated pyrenes in nucleic acid probes: (phenylethynyl)pyrenecarbonyl-functionalized locked nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Irina V; Korshun, Vladimir A; Wengel, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides have become a widely used tool in diagnostics, DNA sequencing, and nanotechnology. The recently developed (phenylethynyl)pyrenes are attractive dyes for nucleic acid labeling, with the advantages of long-wave emission relative to the parent pyrene, high fluorescence quantum yields, and the ability to form excimers. Herein, the synthesis of six (phenylethynyl)pyrene-functionalized locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers M(1)-M(6) and their incorporation into DNA oligomers is described. Multilabeled duplexes display higher thermal stabilities than singly modified analogues. An increase in the number of phenylethynyl substituents attached to the pyrene results in decreased binding affinity towards complementary DNA and RNA and remarkable bathochromic shifts of absorption/emission maxima relative to the parent pyrene fluorochrome. This bathochromic shift leads to the bright fluorescence colors of the probes, which differ drastically from the blue emission of unsubstituted pyrene. The formation of intra- and interstrand excimers was observed for duplexes that have monomers M(1)-M(6) in both complementary strands and in numerous single-stranded probes. If more phenylethynyl groups are inserted, the detected excimer signals become more intense. In addition, (phenylethynyl)pyrenecarbonyl-LNA monomers M(4), M(5), and M(6) proved highly useful for the detection of single mismatches in DNA/RNA targets.

  8. Plasma measurement by optical visualization and triple probe method under high-speed impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Umeda, K.; Kinoshita, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2017-02-01

    High-speed impact on spacecraft by space debris poses a threat. When a high-speed projectile collides with target, it is conceivable that the heat created by impact causes severe damage at impact point. Investigation of the temperature is necessary for elucidation of high-speed impact phenomena. However, it is very difficult to measure the temperature with standard methods for two main reasons. One reason is that a thermometer placed on the target is instantaneously destroyed upon impact. The other reason is that there is not enough time resolution to measure the transient temperature changes. In this study, the measurement of plasma induced by high-speed impact was investigated to estimate temperature changes near the impact point. High-speed impact experiments were performed with a vertical gas gun. The projectile speed was approximately 700 m/s, and the target material was A5052. The experimental data to calculate the plasma parameters of electron temperature and electron density were measured by triple probe method. In addition, the diffusion behavior of plasma was observed by optical visualization technique using high-speed camera. The frame rate and the exposure time were 260 kfps and 1.0 μs, respectively. These images are considered to be one proof to show the validity of plasma measurement. The experimental results showed that plasma signals were detected for around 70 μs, and the rising phase of the wave form was in good agreement with timing of optical visualization image when the plasma arrived at the tip of triple probe.

  9. Sensing Performance Analysis on Quartz Tuning Fork-Probe at the High Order Vibration Mode for Multi-Frequency Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-frequency scanning near-field optical microscopy, based on a quartz tuning fork-probe (QTF-p sensor using the first two orders of in-plane bending symmetrical vibration modes, has recently been developed. This method can simultaneously achieve positional feedback (based on the 1st in-plane mode called the low mode and detect near-field optically induced forces (based on the 2nd in-plane mode called the high mode. Particularly, the high mode sensing performance of the QTF-p is an important issue for characterizing the tip-sample interactions and achieving higher resolution microscopic imaging but the related researches are insufficient. Here, we investigate the vibration performance of QTF-p at high mode based on the experiment and finite element method. The frequency spectrum characteristics are obtained by our homemade laser Doppler vibrometer system. The effects of the properties of the connecting glue layer and the probe features on the dynamic response of the QTF-p sensor at the high mode are investigated for optimization design. Finally, compared with the low mode, an obvious improvement of quality factor, of almost 50%, is obtained at the high mode. Meanwhile, the QTF-p sensor has a high force sensing sensitivity and a large sensing range at the high mode, indicating a broad application prospect for force sensing.

  10. Sensing Performance Analysis on Quartz Tuning Fork-Probe at the High Order Vibration Mode for Multi-Frequency Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Gao, Fengli; Li, Xide

    2018-01-24

    Multi-frequency scanning near-field optical microscopy, based on a quartz tuning fork-probe (QTF-p) sensor using the first two orders of in-plane bending symmetrical vibration modes, has recently been developed. This method can simultaneously achieve positional feedback (based on the 1st in-plane mode called the low mode) and detect near-field optically induced forces (based on the 2nd in-plane mode called the high mode). Particularly, the high mode sensing performance of the QTF-p is an important issue for characterizing the tip-sample interactions and achieving higher resolution microscopic imaging but the related researches are insufficient. Here, we investigate the vibration performance of QTF-p at high mode based on the experiment and finite element method. The frequency spectrum characteristics are obtained by our homemade laser Doppler vibrometer system. The effects of the properties of the connecting glue layer and the probe features on the dynamic response of the QTF-p sensor at the high mode are investigated for optimization design. Finally, compared with the low mode, an obvious improvement of quality factor, of almost 50%, is obtained at the high mode. Meanwhile, the QTF-p sensor has a high force sensing sensitivity and a large sensing range at the high mode, indicating a broad application prospect for force sensing.

  11. High sensitivity high-resolution full range relaxometry using a fast mechanical sample shuttling device and a cryo-probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Ching-Yu [Université Paris-Saclay, NIMBE, CEA, CNRS (France); Chu, Minglee [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics (China); Chang, Chi-Fon [Academia Sinica, Genomics Research Center (China); Yu, Tsunai; Huang, Tai-huang, E-mail: bmthh@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Institute of Biomedical Science (China); Sakellariou, Dimitris, E-mail: dimitrios.sakellariou@cea.fr [Université Paris-Saclay, NIMBE, CEA, CNRS (France)

    2016-11-15

    Field-dependent NMR studies of bio-molecular systems using a sample shuttling hardware operating on a high-field NMR apparatus have provided valuable structural and dynamic information. We have recently published a design of a compact sample transportation device, called “field-cycler”, which was installed in a commercial spectrometer and which provided highly precise positioning and stability during high speed shuttling. In this communication, we demonstrate the first use of a sample shuttling device on a commercial high field standard bore NMR spectrometer, equipped with a commercial triple resonance cryogenically cooled NMR probe. The performance and robustness of the hardware operating in 1D and 2D field cycling experiments, as well as the impact of the sample shuttling time on the signal intensity are discussed.

  12. Update on Predictions for Yearly Integrated Luminosity for HL-LHC based on Expected Machine Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Apollonio, Andrea; Jonker, Michael; Schmidt, Ruediger; Todd, Benjamin; Wollmann, Daniel; Zerlauth, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Machine availability is one of the key performance indicators to reach the ambitious goals for integrated luminosity in the post Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) era. Machine availability is even more important for the future High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) [1]. In this paper a Monte Carlo approach has been used to predict integrated luminosity as a function of LHC machine availability. The baseline model assumptions such as fault-time distributions and machine failure rate (number of fills with stable bea...

  13. Photon-Photon Luminosities in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Hencken, Kai; Trautmann, Dirk; Baur, Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Effective photon-photon luminosities are calculated for various realistic hadron collider scenarios. The main characteristics of photon-photon processes at relativistic heavy-ion colliders are established and compared to the corresponding photon-photon luminosities at electron-positron and future Photon Linear Colliders (PLC). Higher order corrections as well as inelastic processes are discussed. It is concluded that feasible high luminosity Ca-Ca collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)...

  14. Photon-Photon Luminosities in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Hencken, Kai; Trautmann, Dirk; Baur, Gerhard

    1995-01-01

    Effective photon-photon luminosities are calculated for various realistic hadron collider scenarios. The main characteristics of photon-photon processes at relativistic heavy-ion colliders are established and compared to the corresponding photon-photon luminosities at electron-positron and future Photon Linear Colliders (PLC). Higher order corrections as well as inelastic processes are discussed. It is concluded that feasible high luminosity Ca-Ca collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)...

  15. LHC luminosity upgrades using closed-in magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Limon, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Among luminosity upgrades presently being considered for the LHC are those that require changes to the insertion optics and magnet systems; changes to the existing inner triplets, quadrupoles placed closer to the detectors, and beam-splitting dipoles placed very close to and even inside the experiments at the high-luminosity interaction regions. The modifications of these magnet systems create challenges for both the experiments and for the magnets themselves. In this paper, we will discuss some of those issues and possible solutions and R&D paths.

  16. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution HST images of all 35 AGNs with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity...... findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation...... measurements from which we determine the form of the R-L relationship....

  17. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  18. High Temperature Antenna Measurement System with GSG or GS Contact Probing Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Applications that require data transmission at high temperatures are becoming more common due to growing commercial and military needs. Antennas are an indispensable part of these systems and the ability to characterize them at elevated temperatures is quite complicated with little or no information being reported on the subject [1]. This paper describes a measurement system that can characterize planar antennas up 600 C with ground-signal-ground (GSG) or ground-signal (GS) probe contacts. The return loss and radiation patterns of a folded slot antenna (FSA), designed to operate at 5 GHz (no ground plane on back side) and fabricated on an alumina substrate, are presented at room temperature (RT) and 250 C [2]. All measurements were made with Agilent's Precision Network Analyzer (PNA) E8361. The return loss and radiation patterns were also measured on a Styrofoam chuck to illustrate the effect the high temperature measurement system has on the patterns.

  19. High temperature reflectance of hyperpure slip cast silica. [for Outer Planet Entry Probe reflective heat shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, C. F.; Schmitt, R. J.; Blome, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to optically characterize hyperpure slip cast silica at elevated temperatures is described. This sintered ceramic material is being used in the development of a reflective heat shield for the Outer Planet Entry Probe. A unique high temperature integrating sphere reflectometer is described and reflectance data in the spectral range 0.23-2.3 micron are presented at temperatures up to 1427 C in air and helium environments. Kubelka-Munk (K-M) scattering and absorptance coefficients (K and S), using the Reichman extension of the K-M theory, are presented as is a unique method of obtaining K and S from the Reichman equations using only reflectance data. The hyperpure slip cast silica material was found to retain its high diffuse reflectance at temperatures up to 1204 C, with slight degradation occurring at higher temperatures.

  20. Hall thruster plume measurements from High-speed Dual Langmuir Probes with Ion Saturation Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerak, M.; McDonald, M.; Hofer, R.; Gallimore, A.

    The plasma plume of a 6 kW Hall Effect Thruster (HET) has been investigated in order to determine time-averaged and time-resolved plasma properties in a 2-D plane. HETs are steady-state devices with a multitude of kilohertz and faster plasma oscillations that are poorly understood yet impact their performance and may interact with spacecraft subsystems. HETs are known to operate in different modes with differing efficiencies and plasma characteristics, particularly the axial breathing mode and the azimuthal spoke mode. In order to investigate these phenomena, high-speed diagnostics are needed to observe time-resolved plasma properties and correlate them to thruster operating conditions. A new technique called the High-speed Dual Langmuir Probe with Ion Saturation Reference (HDLP-ISR) builds on recent results using an active and an insulated or null probe in conjunction with a third, fixed-bias electrode maintained in ion saturation for ion density measurements. The HDLP-ISR was used to measure the plume of a 6-kW-class single-channel HET called the H6 operated at 300 V and 20 A at 200 kHz. Time-averaged maps of electron density, electron temperature and plasma potential were determined in a rectangular region from the exit plane to over five channel radii downstream and from the centrally mounted cathode radially out to over three channel radii. The power spectral density (PSD) of the time-resolved plasma density oscillations showed four discrete peaks between 16 and 28 kHz which were above the broad breathing mode peak between 10 and 15 kHz. Using a high-speed camera called FastCam imaging at 87,500 frames per second, the plasma oscillations were correlated with visible rotating spokes in the discharge channel. Probes were vertically spaced in order to identify azimuthal plasma transients around the discharge channel where density delays of 14.4 μ s were observed correlating to a spoke velocity of 1800 m/s in the E× B direction. The results presented- here are

  1. High quality copy number and genotype data from FFPE samples using Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuker; Carlton, Victoria E.H.; Karlin-Neumann, George; Sapolsky, Ronald; Zhang, Li; Moorhead, Martin; Wang, Zhigang C.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Warren, Robert; Walther, Axel; Bondy, Melissa; Sahin, Aysegul; Krahe, Ralf; Tuna, Musaffe; Thompson, Patricia A.; Spellman, Paul T.; Gray, Joe W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Faham, Malek

    2009-02-24

    A major challenge facing DNA copy number (CN) studies of tumors is that most banked samples with extensive clinical follow-up information are Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE). DNA from FFPE samples generally underperforms or suffers high failure rates compared to fresh frozen samples because of DNA degradation and cross-linking during FFPE fixation and processing. As FFPE protocols may vary widely between labs and samples may be stored for decades at room temperature, an ideal FFPE CN technology should work on diverse sample sets. Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) technology has been applied successfully to obtain high quality CN and genotype data from cell line and frozen tumor DNA. Since the MIP probes require only a small ({approx}40 bp) target binding site, we reasoned they may be well suited to assess degraded FFPE DNA. We assessed CN with a MIP panel of 50,000 markers in 93 FFPE tumor samples from 7 diverse collections. For 38 FFPE samples from three collections we were also able to asses CN in matched fresh frozen tumor tissue. Using an input of 37 ng genomic DNA, we generated high quality CN data with MIP technology in 88% of FFPE samples from seven diverse collections. When matched fresh frozen tissue was available, the performance of FFPE DNA was comparable to that of DNA obtained from matched frozen tumor (genotype concordance averaged 99.9%), with only a modest loss in performance in FFPE. MIP technology can be used to generate high quality CN and genotype data in FFPE as well as fresh frozen samples.

  2. High quality copy number and genotype data from FFPE samples using Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondy Melissa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge facing DNA copy number (CN studies of tumors is that most banked samples with extensive clinical follow-up information are Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE. DNA from FFPE samples generally underperforms or suffers high failure rates compared to fresh frozen samples because of DNA degradation and cross-linking during FFPE fixation and processing. As FFPE protocols may vary widely between labs and samples may be stored for decades at room temperature, an ideal FFPE CN technology should work on diverse sample sets. Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP technology has been applied successfully to obtain high quality CN and genotype data from cell line and frozen tumor DNA. Since the MIP probes require only a small (~40 bp target binding site, we reasoned they may be well suited to assess degraded FFPE DNA. We assessed CN with a MIP panel of 50,000 markers in 93 FFPE tumor samples from 7 diverse collections. For 38 FFPE samples from three collections we were also able to asses CN in matched fresh frozen tumor tissue. Results Using an input of 37 ng genomic DNA, we generated high quality CN data with MIP technology in 88% of FFPE samples from seven diverse collections. When matched fresh frozen tissue was available, the performance of FFPE DNA was comparable to that of DNA obtained from matched frozen tumor (genotype concordance averaged 99.9%, with only a modest loss in performance in FFPE. Conclusion MIP technology can be used to generate high quality CN and genotype data in FFPE as well as fresh frozen samples.

  3. A highly selective G-quadruplex-based luminescent switch-on probe for the detection of gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Zhang; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-10-04

    A G-quadruplex-based switch-on luminescence assay has been developed for the detection of gene deletion using a cyclometallated iridium(III) complex as a G-quadruplex-selective probe. Upon hybridization with the target DNA, the two split G-quadruplex-forming sequences assemble into a split G-quadruplex, which greatly enhances the luminescence emission of the iridium(III) probe. The assay is simple and highly selective.

  4. Bremsstrahlung-induced highly penetrating probes for nondestructive assay and defect analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Selim, F A; Harmon, J F; Kwofie, J; Spaulding, R; Erickson, G; Roney, T

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive assay and defect analysis probes based on bremsstrahlung-induced processes have been developed to identify elements and probe defects in large volume samples. Bremsstrahlung beams from (electron accelerators) with end-point energies both above and below neutron emission threshold have been used. Below neutron emission threshold these beams (from 6 MeV small pulsed linacs), which exhibit high penetration, create positrons via pair production inside the material and produce X-ray fluorescence (XRF) radiation. Chemical assays of heavy elements in thick samples up to 10 g/cm sup 2 thick are provided by energy dispersive XRF measurements. The pair-produced positrons annihilate within the material, thereby emitting 511 keV gamma radiation. Doppler broadening spectroscopy of the 511 keV radiation can be performed to characterize the material and measure defects in samples of any desired thickness. This technique has successfully measured induced strain due to tensile stress in steel samples of 0.64 cm...

  5. Highly sensitive scanning of gene mutations: TaqMan probes as blocking agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Botezatu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA Melting Analysis is very effective in clinical DNA diagnostics: it is simple to perform, high throughput, labor-, time- and cost-effective and is implemented in the “closed tube” format minimizing the risk of samples cross-contamination. Although more sensitive than sequencing by Sanger (mutant allele detection limit is ~5 and ~15 % respectively, it, however, is inferior in this respect to some other, more laborious and expensive methods (in particular, ddPCR (digital droplet PCR. Using the BRAF gene as a prototype, we developed the original version of the DNA melting analysis, based on the ability of TaqMan probes to hamper the primer extension reaction by Taq-polymerase. It is found that the weaker blocking effect on the mutant template, which is due to the mismatch in the probe-DNA heteroduplex, permits enriched amplification of the mutant allele and provides a significant (10-fold or more increase in sensitivity of mutation scanning.

  6. What Is the Hidden Depolarization Mechanism in Low-luminosity AGNs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bower, G.C.; Dexter, J.; Markoff, S.; Rao, R; Plambeck, R.L.

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wavelength polarimetry of accreting black hole systems can provide a tomographic probe of the accretion flow on a wide range of linear scales. We searched for linear polarization in two low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs), M81 and M84, using the Combined Array for Millimeter

  7. A nontoxic, photostable and high signal-to-noise ratio mitochondrial probe with mitochondrial membrane potential and viscosity detectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanan; Qi, Jianguo; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Xiaomin; Niu, Linqiang; Yan, Zhijie; Wang, Jianhong

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we reported a yellow emission probe 1-methyl-4-(6-morpholino-1, 3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl) pyridin-1-ium iodide which could specifically stain mitochondria in living immortalized and normal cells. In comparison to the common mitochondria tracker (Mitotracker Deep Red, MTDR), this probe was nontoxic, photostable and ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio, which could real-time monitor mitochondria for a long time. Moreover, this probe also showed high sensitivity towards mitochondrial membrane potential and intramitochondrial viscosity change. Consequently, this probe was used for imaging mitochondria, detecting changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and intramitochondrial viscosity in physiological and pathological processes.

  8. A nontoxic, photostable and high signal-to-noise ratio mitochondrial probe with mitochondrial membrane potential and viscosity detectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanan; Qi, Jianguo; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Xiaomin; Niu, Linqiang; Yan, Zhijie; Wang, Jianhong

    2018-01-15

    Herein, we reported a yellow emission probe 1-methyl-4-(6-morpholino-1, 3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl) pyridin-1-ium iodide which could specifically stain mitochondria in living immortalized and normal cells. In comparison to the common mitochondria tracker (Mitotracker Deep Red, MTDR), this probe was nontoxic, photostable and ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio, which could real-time monitor mitochondria for a long time. Moreover, this probe also showed high sensitivity towards mitochondrial membrane potential and intramitochondrial viscosity change. Consequently, this probe was used for imaging mitochondria, detecting changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and intramitochondrial viscosity in physiological and pathological processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, K. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Artuso, M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Beveren, V. van; Beuzekom, M. van; Boterenbrood, H. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R. [CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Heijden, B. van der [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hombach, C. [University of Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire (United Kingdom); Hynds, D. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Hsu, D. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); John, M. [University of Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Koffeman, E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leflat, A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Li, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Longstaff, I.; Morton, A. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Pérez Trigo, E. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Plackett, R. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-03-21

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100–200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  10. Scalable maskless patterning of nanostructures using high-speed scanning probe arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Akella, Meghana; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang

    2017-08-01

    Nanoscale patterning is the key process to manufacture important products such as semiconductor microprocessors and data storage devices. Many studies have shown that it has the potential to revolutionize the functions of a broad range of products for a wide variety of applications in energy, healthcare, civil, defense and security. However, tools for mass production of these devices usually cost tens of million dollars each and are only affordable to the established semiconductor industry. A new method, nominally known as "pattern-on-the- y", that involves scanning an array of optical or electrical probes at high speed to form nanostructures and offers a new low-cost approach for nanoscale additive patterning. In this paper, we report some progress on using this method to pattern self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon substrate. We also functionalize the substrate with gold nanoparticle based on the SAM to show the feasibility of preparing amphiphilic and multi-functional surfaces.

  11. Probing whole cell currents in high-frequency electrical fields: identification of thermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapinski, Michael; Manus, Stephan; Fertig, Niels; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2008-01-18

    An open-end coaxial probe is combined with a planar patch-clamp system to apply electric fields with GHz frequencies during conventional patch-clamp measurements. The combination of pulsed microwave irradiation and lock-in detection allows for the separation of fast and slow effects and hence facilitates the identification of thermal effects. The setup and the influence of radiation on the patch-clamp current are thoroughly characterized. For the independent optical verification of heating effects, a temperature microscopy technique is applied with high spatial, temporal and temperature resolution. It is shown that the effect of radiation at GHz frequencies on whole cell currents is predominantly thermal in nature in the case of RBL cells with an endogenous K(ir) 2.1 channel.

  12. Near Infrared Emission of Highly Electronically Excited CO: A Sensitive Probe to Study the Interstellar Medium??

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2002-01-01

    Among the various spectroscopic features of the second most abundant molecule in the space, CO, "the triplet - triplet transitions involving the lowest triplet state a(sup 3)II and the higher-lying a(sup 1)3 SIGMA (sup +), d(sup 3) (DELTA), e (sup 3) SIGMA (sup -) states spanning near-UV to mid-IR spectral range" have so far not been explored in astrophysical observations. The energies of these transitions are highly sensitive to the surroundings in which CO exists, i.e. gas-phase, polar or non-polar condensed phase. It is proposed here that these triplet-triplet emission/absorption bands can be used as a sensitive probe to investigate the local environments of CO, whether in the planetary atmosphere, stellar atmosphere or interstellar medium.

  13. Probing gauge-phobic heavy Higgs bosons at high energy hadron colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Kuang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the probe of the gauge-phobic (or nearly gauge-phobic heavy Higgs bosons (GPHB at high energy hadron colliders including the 14 TeV LHC and the 50 TeV Super Proton–Proton Collider (SppC. We take the process pp→tt¯tt¯, and study it at the hadron level including simulating the jet formation and top quark tagging (with jet substructure. We show that, for a GPHB with MH<800 GeV, MH can be determined by adjusting the value of MH in the theoretical pT(b1 distribution to fit the observed pT(b1 distribution, and the resonance peak can be seen at the SppC for MH=800 GeV and 1 TeV.

  14. BDS tuning and luminosity monitoring in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, Barbara; Latina, Andrea; Marin, Eduardo; Pfingstner, Jurgen; Schulte, Daniel; Snuverink, Jochem; Tomas, Rogelio; Zamudio, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The emittance preservation in the Beam Delivery System (BDS) is one of the major challenges in CLIC. The fast detuning of the final focus optics requires an on-­line tuning procedure in order to keep luminosity close to the maximum. Different tuning techniques have been applied to the CLIC BDS and in particular to the Final Focus System (FFS) in order to mitigate static and dynamic imperfections. Some of them require a fast luminosity measurement. Here we study the possibility to use beam-­beam backgrounds processes at CLIC 3 TeV CM energy as fast luminosity signal. In particular the hadrons multiplicity in the detector region is investigated.

  15. Luminosity determination at HERA-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adams, M. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Agari, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (DE)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A detailed description of an original method used to measure the luminosity accumulated by the HERA-B experiment for a data sample taken during the 2002-2003 HERA running period is reported. We show that, with this method, a total luminosity measurement can be achieved with a typical precision, including overall systematic uncertainties, at a level of 5% or better. We also report evidence for the detection of {delta}-rays generated in the target and comment on the possible use of such delta rays to measure luminosity. (orig.)

  16. Luminosity Measurements at LHCb for Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Coombs, George

    2018-01-01

    A precise measurement of the luminosity is a necessary component of many physics analyses, especially cross-section measurements. At LHCb two different direct measurement methods are used to determine the luminosity: the “van der Meer scan” (VDM) and the “Beam Gas Imaging” (BGI) methods. A combined result from these two methods gave a precision of less than 2% for Run I and efforts are ongoing to provide a similar result for Run II. Fixed target luminosity is determined with an indirect method based on the single electron scattering cross-section.

  17. The influence of a rectal ultrasound probe on the separation between prostate and rectum in high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Susanne; Buus, Simon; Bentzen, Lise; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Tanderup, Kari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the distance between prostate and rectum as well as rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy (BT) with and without a transrectal ultrasound (US) probe in place during delivery. The study included 20 patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated consecutively with combined external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and MRI-based HDR-BT. The MRI-based HDR-BT dose plan and prostate gland contour were transferred to the US images after rigid MRI/US coregistration, followed by delineation of the rectum on US images acquired with a transrectal US probe. The prostate-rectum separation was estimated at the apex, reference, and base plane on the US (with rectal probe) and MR images (without rectal probe). Rectal DVH parameters for EBRT + HDR-BT given in equivalent 2 Gy fractionation doses were estimated and compared for US-based and MRI-based HDR-BT dose planning. The median (and range) prostate-rectum separation increased on MR images (without rectal probe) as compared with on US images (with rectal probe) by 10 mm (-5, 18) at the base, 1 mm (-2, 3) at the reference and decreased at the apex by 2 mm (-5, 11). The rectal D5.0cm3, D2.0cm3, and D0.1cm3 decreased by a median of 4 Gy (-1, 10), 4 Gy (-2, 13), and 7 Gy (-4, 26), respectively. MRI-based HDR-BT without a rectal US probe in place as compared with US-based BT with the probe in place demonstrated a significant increase in the prostate-rectum separation, with a potential of reducing rectal dose. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A highly selective fluorescent probe based on Michael addition for fast detection of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baozhen; Cui, Lixia; Pan, Yong; Xue, Minjie; Zhu, Boyu; Zhang, Guomei; Zhang, Caihong; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan

    2017-02-15

    A new 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide-based compound (probe 1) has been designed and synthesized. The colorimetric and fluorescent properties of probe 1 towards hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were investigated in detail. The results show that the probe 1 could selectively and sensitively recognize H2S rather than other reactive sulfur species. The reaction mechanism of this probe is an intramolecular cyclization caused by the Michael addition of H2S to give 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide. The intramolecular charge transfer of 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide is significant. Probe 1 quickly responded to H2S and showed a 75-fold fluorescence enhancement in 5min. Moreover, probe 1 could detect H2S quantitatively with a detection limit as low as 0.23μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High-throughput microarray technology in diagnostics of enterobacteria based on genome-wide probe selection and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Torben; Rahmann, Sven; Weigel, Wilfried; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Fruth, Angelika; Ron, Eliora; Gunzer, Florian; Dandekar, Thomas; Hacker, Jörg; Müller, Tobias; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2010-10-21

    The Enterobacteriaceae comprise a large number of clinically relevant species with several individual subspecies. Overlapping virulence-associated gene pools and the high overall genome plasticity often interferes with correct enterobacterial strain typing and risk assessment. Array technology offers a fast, reproducible and standardisable means for bacterial typing and thus provides many advantages for bacterial diagnostics, risk assessment and surveillance. The development of highly discriminative broad-range microbial diagnostic microarrays remains a challenge, because of marked genome plasticity of many bacterial pathogens. We developed a DNA microarray for strain typing and detection of major antimicrobial resistance genes of clinically relevant enterobacteria. For this purpose, we applied a global genome-wide probe selection strategy on 32 available complete enterobacterial genomes combined with a regression model for pathogen classification. The discriminative power of the probe set was further tested in silico on 15 additional complete enterobacterial genome sequences. DNA microarrays based on the selected probes were used to type 92 clinical enterobacterial isolates. Phenotypic tests confirmed the array-based typing results and corroborate that the selected probes allowed correct typing and prediction of major antibiotic resistances of clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae, including the subspecies level, e.g. the reliable distinction of different E. coli pathotypes. Our results demonstrate that the global probe selection approach based on longest common factor statistics as well as the design of a DNA microarray with a restricted set of discriminative probes enables robust discrimination of different enterobacterial variants and represents a proof of concept that can be adopted for diagnostics of a wide range of microbial pathogens. Our approach circumvents misclassifications arising from the application of virulence markers, which are highly affected by

  20. THE LOCAL [C ii] 158 μ m EMISSION LINE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Yan, Lin; Capak, Peter; Faisst, Andreas; Masters, Daniel [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Diaz-Santos, Tanio [Nucleo de Astronomia de la Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Armus, Lee, E-mail: shemmati@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present, for the first time, the local [C ii] 158 μ m emission line luminosity function measured using a sample of more than 500 galaxies from the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. [C ii] luminosities are measured from the Herschel PACS observations of the Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey and estimated for the rest of the sample based on the far-infrared (far-IR) luminosity and color. The sample covers 91.3% of the sky and is complete at S{sub 60μm} > 5.24 Jy. We calculate the completeness as a function of [C ii] line luminosity and distance, based on the far-IR color and flux densities. The [C ii] luminosity function is constrained in the range ∼10{sup 7–9} L{sub ⊙} from both the 1/ V{sub max} and a maximum likelihood methods. The shape of our derived [C ii] emission line luminosity function agrees well with the IR luminosity function. For the CO(1-0) and [C ii] luminosity functions to agree, we propose a varying ratio of [C ii]/CO(1-0) as a function of CO luminosity, with larger ratios for fainter CO luminosities. Limited [C ii] high-redshift observations as well as estimates based on the IR and UV luminosity functions are suggestive of an evolution in the [C ii] luminosity function similar to the evolution trend of the cosmic star formation rate density. Deep surveys using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array with full capability will be able to confirm this prediction.

  1. High-resolution image reconstruction for GRIN rod lens probe (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Park, Kwan Jun; Yang, Taeseok D.; Choi, Wonshik; Kim, Beop-Min; Choi, Youngwoon

    2017-02-01

    Graded-index (GRIN) lenses have been widely used for developing compact imaging devices due to the small dimensions and simple optics designs. GRIN lenses, however, have intrinsic aberration which causes a distortion of the image and thus are subject to limited resolution and blurred imaging quality. Here, we employ the high-precision wavefront measurement technique for compensation of the distortion of a GRIN lens to obtain a high-resolution and high-contrast image. In doing so, we demonstrate a high-resolution and ultra-thin endo-microscope using a GRIN. A reflection-type interferometric microscope through a GRIN lens was constructed using multiple lasers (473 nm, 532 nm, and 633 nm) as light sources. The characteristics of the aberration of the GRIN lens were measured using the digital holographic method. The distortion of the GRIN lens was removed by numerical image processing with the prior information from the pre-calibration. We apply this technique to a reflection image of biological tissues acquired by our custom-built GRIN lens probe. Consequently, a diffraction limited lateral resolution as well as improved axial resolution can be achieved. Our approach will facilitate the use of GRIN lenses for compact imaging devices without compromising optical resolution and image quality.

  2. Luminosity and spectral evolution of QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Y Y; Yi, I S

    1999-01-01

    We apply the observed spectral states of the Galactic black hole candidates (GBHCs) to the quasi-stellar object (QSO) luminosity evolution based on the correlation between luminosity and the spectrum, which is strongly supported by the similarities of emission mechanisms in GBHCs and QSOs. We derive the QSO luminosity evolution trends in the UV/optical and the X-ray energy bands and demonstrate that their trends are significantly affected by the spectral evolution. Each energy band shows distinct evolution properties. We test one of the widely discussed cosmological evolution scenarios of QSOs, in which QSOs evolve as a single long-lived population, and show that the resulting luminosity functions seen in different energy bands exhibit distinguishable and potentially observable evolution signatures in the X-ray energy bands.

  3. High-spatial-resolution electron density measurement by Langmuir probe for multi-point observations using tiny spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, H.; Røed, K.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Trondsen, E.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    A method for evaluating electron density using a single fixed-bias Langmuir probe is presented. The technique allows for high-spatio-temporal resolution electron density measurements, which can be effectively carried out by tiny spacecraft for multi-point observations in the ionosphere. The results are compared with the multi-needle Langmuir probe system, which is a scientific instrument developed at the University of Oslo comprising four fixed-bias cylindrical probes that allow small-scale plasma density structures to be characterized in the ionosphere. The technique proposed in this paper can comply with the requirements of future small-sized spacecraft, where the cost-effectiveness, limited space available on the craft, low power consumption and capacity for data-links need to be addressed. The first experimental results in both the plasma laboratory and space confirm the efficiency of the new approach. Moreover, detailed analyses on two challenging issues when deploying the DC Langmuir probe on a tiny spacecraft, which are the limited conductive area of the spacecraft and probe surface contamination, are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that the limited conductive area, depending on applications, can either be of no concern for the experiment or can be resolved by mitigation methods. Surface contamination has a small impact on the performance of the developed probe.

  4. A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Peng; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Løland, Claus Juul

    2013-01-01

    A novel fluorescent ligand was synthesized as a high-affinity, high specificity probe for visualizing the serotonin transporter (SERT). The rhodamine fluorophore was extended from an aniline substitution on the 5-position of the dihydroisobenzofuran ring of citalopram (2, 1-(3-(dimethylamino)prop...

  5. The luminosity function of field galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahtessian, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    Schmidt's method for construction of luminosity function of galaxies is generalized by taking into account the dependence of density of galaxies from the distance in the near Universe. The logarithmical luminosity function (LLF) of field galaxies depending on morphological type is constructed. We show that the LLF for all galaxies, and also separately for elliptical and lenticular galaxies can be presented by Schechter function in narrow area of absolute magnitudes. The LLF of spiral galaxies...

  6. [Connection of magnetic antisense probe with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide detected by high resolution atomic force microscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shude; Ouyang, Yu; Li, Xinyou; Wen, Ming; Li, Shaolin

    2011-06-01

    The present paper is aimed to detect superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled c-erbB2 oncogene antisense oligonucleotide probe (magnetic antisense probe) connected with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide by high resolution atomic force microscope (AFM). We transfected SK-Br-3 oncocyte with magnetic antisense probe, then observed the cells by AFM with high resolution and detected protein expression and magnetic resonance imagine (MRI). The high resolution AFM clearly showed the connection of the oligonucleotide remote end of magnetic antisense probe with the mRNA nucleotide of oncocyte. The expression of e-erbB2 protein in SK-Br3 cells were highly inhibited by using magnetic antisense probe. We then obtained the lowest signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SK-Br-3 oncocyte transfected with magnetic antisense probe by MRI (Pmagnetic antisense probe and SK-Br-3 mRNA of tumor cell nuclear.

  7. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity

  8. Proton probing of ultra-thin foil dynamics in high intensity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Aktan, Esin; Aurand, Bastian; Cerchez, Mirela; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration has been enriched significantly over the past decade, thanks to the advanced laser technologies. Already, from 100s TW class systems, laser driven sources of particles and radiations are being considered in number of potential applications in science and medicine due to their unique properties. New physical effects unearthed at these systems may help understand and conduct successful experiments at several PW class multi-beam facilities with high rep rate systems, e.g. ELI. Here we present the first experimental results on ultra-thin foil dynamics irradiated by an ultra-high intensity (1020 W/cm2) , ultra-high contrast (10-12) laser pulse at ARCTURUS laser facility at HHU Duesseldorf. By employing the elegant proton probing technique it is observed that for the circular polarization of laser light, a 100nm thin target is pushed forward as a compressed layer due to the radiation pressure of light. Whereas, the linear polarization seems to decompress the target drastically. 2D particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the experimental findings. Our results confirm the previous simulation studies investigating the fundamental role played by light polarization, finite focus spot size effect and eventually electron heating including the oblique incidence at the target edges.

  9. Highly sensitive ratiometric detection of heparin and its oversulfated chondroitin sulfate contaminant by fluorescent peptidyl probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pramod Kumar; Lee, Hyeri; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2017-05-15

    The selective and sensitive detection of heparin, an anticoagulant in clinics as well as its contaminant oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) is of great importance. We first reported a ratiometric sensing method for heparin as well as OSCS contaminants in heparin using a fluorescent peptidyl probe (Pep1, pyrene-GSRKR) and heparin-digestive enzyme. Pep1 exhibited a highly sensitive ratiometric response to nanomolar concentration of heparin in aqueous solution over a wide pH range (2~11) and showed highly selective ratiometric response to heparin among biological competitors such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Pep1 showed a linear ratiometric response to nanomolar concentrations of heparin in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. The detection limit for heparin was calculated to be 2.46nM (R2=0.99) in aqueous solutions, 2.98nM (R2=0.98) in 1% serum samples, and 3.43nM (R2=0.99) in 5% serum samples. Pep1 was applied to detect the contaminated OSCS in heparin with heparinase I, II, and III, respectively. The ratiometric sensing method using Pep1 and heparinase II was highly sensitive, fast, and efficient for the detection of OSCS contaminant in heparin. Pep1 with heparinase II could detect as low as 0.0001% (w/w) of OSCS in heparin by a ratiometric response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular inversion probe: a new tool for highly specific detection of plant pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yih Lau

    Full Text Available Highly specific detection methods, capable of reliably identifying plant pathogens are crucial in plant disease management strategies to reduce losses in agriculture by preventing the spread of diseases. We describe a novel molecular inversion probe (MIP assay that can be potentially developed into a robust multiplex platform to detect and identify plant pathogens. A MIP has been designed for the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and the proof of concept for the efficiency of this technology is provided. We demonstrate that this methodology can detect as little as 2.5 ng of pathogen DNA and is highly specific, being able to accurately differentiate Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans from other fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and even pathogens of the same species such as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The MIP assay was able to detect the presence of the pathogen in infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants as soon as the tissues contained minimal amounts of pathogen. MIP methods are intrinsically highly multiplexable and future development of specific MIPs could lead to the establishment of a diagnostic method that could potentially screen infected plants for hundreds of pathogens in a single assay.

  11. Molecular inversion probe: a new tool for highly specific detection of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Han Yih; Palanisamy, Ramkumar; Trau, Matt; Botella, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    Highly specific detection methods, capable of reliably identifying plant pathogens are crucial in plant disease management strategies to reduce losses in agriculture by preventing the spread of diseases. We describe a novel molecular inversion probe (MIP) assay that can be potentially developed into a robust multiplex platform to detect and identify plant pathogens. A MIP has been designed for the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and the proof of concept for the efficiency of this technology is provided. We demonstrate that this methodology can detect as little as 2.5 ng of pathogen DNA and is highly specific, being able to accurately differentiate Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans from other fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and even pathogens of the same species such as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The MIP assay was able to detect the presence of the pathogen in infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants as soon as the tissues contained minimal amounts of pathogen. MIP methods are intrinsically highly multiplexable and future development of specific MIPs could lead to the establishment of a diagnostic method that could potentially screen infected plants for hundreds of pathogens in a single assay.

  12. Comparison of attraction capabilities associated with high-speed, dual-pneumatic vitrectomy probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel, Pravin U; Abulon, Dina J K; Dimalanta, Ramon

    2015-05-01

    To measure membrane attraction capabilities of enhanced 27-gauge, enhanced 25-gauge, and 23-gauge vitrectomy probes under various parameters. A membrane-on-cantilever apparatus was used to measure membrane attraction for enhanced 27-, enhanced 25-, and 23-gauge UltraVit probes (n = 6 for each). The following parameters were evaluated: effects of cut rates and duty cycles on membrane attraction distances, and flow rates and vacuum levels required to attract a membrane at a fixed distance. The enhanced 27-gauge probe had the shortest attraction distance across all cutting speeds and duty cycles. To attract a membrane at a fixed distance, increasing vacuum was necessary with higher cutting rates and smaller probe gauges but flow rate remained relatively constant. The biased open duty cycle was associated with a longer attraction distance than 50/50 or biased closed modes. The shorter membrane attraction distance of the enhanced 27-gauge probe versus 23-gauge and enhanced 25-gauge probes may permit greater membrane dissection precision while providing improved access to small tissue planes. Equivalent fluid flow capabilities of the 27-gauge probe compared with the 23-gauge and 25-gauge probes may provide efficient aspiration. Surgeon selection of duty cycle modes may improve intraoperative fluid control and expand the cutter utility as a multifunctional tool.

  13. A numerical investigation of the performance of sound intensity probes at high frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Jacobsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    The influence of diffraction on the performance of sound intensity probes has been examined using a boundary element model of an axisymmetric 'two-microphone' probe with the microphones in the usual 'face-to-face' arrangement. On the basis of calculations for a variety of sound field conditions a...

  14. A verification protocol for the probe sequences of Affymetrix genome arrays reveals high probe accuracy for studies in mouse, human and rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Rudi; Terpstra, Peter; Hardonk, Menno; Bystrykh, Leonid V.; de Haan, Gerald; Breitling, Rainer; Nap, Jan-Peter; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Affymetrix GeneChip technology uses multiple probes per gene to measure its expression level. Individual probe signals can vary widely, which hampers proper interpretation. This variation can be caused by probes that do not properly match their target gene or that match multiple

  15. A verification protocol for the probe sequences of Affymetrix genome arrays reveals high probe accuracy for studies in mouse, human and rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, R.; Terpstra, P.; Hardonk, M.; Bystrykh, L.V.; Haan, de G.; Breitling, R.; Nap, J.P.H.; Jansen, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Background - The Affymetrix GeneChip technology uses multiple probes per gene to measure its expression level. Individual probe signals can vary widely, which hampers proper interpretation. This variation can be caused by probes that do not properly match their target gene or that match multiple

  16. Probing the high momentum component of the deuteron at high Q^2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, Werner; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Aniol, Konrad; Arrington, John; Batigne, Guillaume; Bosted, Peter; Camsonne, Alexandre; Chang, C; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Deur, Alexandre; Epstein, Martin; Finn, John; Frullani, Salvatore; Furget, Christophe; Garibaldi, Franco; Gayou, Olivier; Gilman, Ronald; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hayes, David; Higinbotham, Douglas; Hinton, Wendy; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim, Hassan; De Jager, Cornelis; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Kaufman, Lisa; Klein, Andreas; Kox, Serge; Kramer, Laird; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Laget, Jean; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Margaziotiz, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; McCormick, Kathy; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Milbrath, Brian; Mitchell, Joseph; Monaghan, Peter; Moteabbed, Maryam; Moussiegt, Pierre; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Paschke, Kent; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Punjabi, Vina; Qattan, Issam; Quemener, Gilles; Ransome, Ronald; Raue, Brian; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Reinhold, Joerg; Reitz, Bodo; Roche, Rikki; Roedelbronn, Michael; Saha, Arunava; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vincent; Ulmer, Paul; Voutier, Eric; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2011-12-01

    The {sup 2}H(e,e'p) cross section at a momentum transfer of 3.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} was measured over a kinematical range that made it possible to study this reaction for a set of fixed missing momenta as a function of the neutron recoil angle {theta}{sub nq} and to extract missing momentum distributions for fixed values of {theta}{sub nq} up to 0.55 GeV/c. In the region of 35{sup o} {le} {theta}{sub nq} {le} 45{sup o} recent calculations, which predict that final state interactions are small, agree reasonably well with the experimental data. Therefore these experimental reduced cross sections provide direct access to the high momentum component of the deuteron momentum distribution in exclusive deuteron electro-disintegration.

  17. Performance of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Luminosity Measurement at CMS during Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors arranged into "telescopes", each consisting of three planes. It was installed during LS1 at the beginning of 2015 and has been providing online and offline luminosity measurements throughout Run 2. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the "fast-or" capability of the pixel readout chip (PSI46) to identify events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope corresponding primarily to tracks originating from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for the calculation of corrections to the online luminosity from effects such as the miscounting of tracks not originating from the interaction point and detector efficiency. In this talk, we will present results from 2016 running and preliminary 2017 results, including commissioning and operational history, luminosity calibration using Va...

  18. Performance of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Luminosity Measurement at CMS during Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Lujan, Paul Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors arranged into telescopes, each consisting of three sensor planes. It was installed in CMS at the beginning of 2015 and has been providing online and offline luminosity measurements throughout Run 2 of the LHC. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the fast-or capability of the pixel readout chip to identify events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope, corresponding primarily to tracks originating from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for the calculation of corrections to the online luminosity from effects such as the miscounting of tracks not originating from the interaction point and detector efficiency. This paper presents results from the 2016 running of the PLT, including commissioning and operational history, luminosity calibration using Van der Meer scans, and...

  19. LHC Report: Boost in bunches brings record luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Having hit a luminosity of around 8.4x1032 cm-2 s-1 with 768 bunches per beam, the LHC went into a 5-day machine development (MD) program on Wednesday 4 May. Operators are now working on increasing the number of particle bunches in the machine towards a 2011 maximum of around 1380 bunches. The team is already hitting major milestones, recording another record-breaking peak luminosity on Monday 23 May.   Former LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans (to the right) and Laurette Ponce, the engineer-in-charge when the recent luminosity record was achieved. The MD periods improve our understanding of the machine, with the aim of increasing its short- and long-term performance. This one also included tests of the machine’s configurations for special physics runs and a future high luminosity LHC. It was an intense program and overall it went very well, with most measurements carried out successfully. Highlights included: commissioning a dedicated machine setup for TOTEM and ALFA; succe...

  20. Recombinant differential anchorage probes that tower over the spatial dimension of intracellular signals for high content screening and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Laura; Zanese, Marion; Depierre-Plinet, Gaelle; Petit, Muriel; Elkaoukabi-Chaibi, Assia; Tauzin, Loic; Florean, Cristina; Lartigue, Lydia; Medina, Chantal; Rey, Christophe; Belloc, Francis; Reiffers, Josy; Ichas, François; De Giorgi, Francesca

    2009-12-01

    Recombinant fluorescent probes allow the detection of molecular events inside living cells. Many of them exploit the intracellular space to provide positional signals and, thus, require detection by single cell imaging. We describe here a novel strategy based on probes capable of encoding the spatial dimension of intracellular signals into "all-or-none" fluorescence intensity changes (differential anchorage probes, DAPs). The resulting signals can be acquired in single cells at high throughput by automated flow cytometry, (i) bypassing image acquisition and analysis, (ii) providing a direct quantitative readout, and (iii) allowing the exploration of large experimental series. We illustrate our purpose with DAPs for Bax and the effector caspases 3 and 7, which are keys players in apoptotic cell death, and show applications in basic research, high content multiplexed library screening, compound characterization, and drug profiling.

  1. The NMR probe of high-Tc materials and correlated electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Walstedt, Russell E

    2018-01-01

    This new edition updates readers in three areas of NMR studies, namely, recent developments in high-Tc materials, heavy fermion systems and actinide oxides are presented.  The NMR probe has yielded a vast array of data for solid state materials, corresponding to different compounds, ionic sites, and nuclear species, as well as to a wide variety of experimental conditions. The last two parts of the book are completely new in this edition, while the first part has seen major updates. This edition features the latest developments for high-Tc materials, especially the advances in the area of pseudogap studies are reviewed.  An in depth overview of heavy fermion systems is presented in the second part,  notably Kondo lattices, quantum critical points and unconventional superconductivity are areas of intense research recently and are covered extensively. Finally, valuable information from NMR studies with actinide oxides will be provided. Ongoing analysis and discussion of NMR data have resulted in a wealth o...

  2. 6th International Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes of High-Energy Nuclear Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    One of the premier meetings in the field of high-energy nuclear physics, the Hard Probes conference series brings together the experimental and theoretical communities interested in the hard and electromagnetic observables related to nuclear matter at extreme temperatures and densities. Prior to the conference, the University of Cape Town will host a summer school for young physicists in the field. High energy nuclear physics focuses on the science of a trillion degrees. These temperatures were last seen in nature a microsecond after the Big Bang, but mankind recreates them thousands of times a second in particle accelerators such as CERN's Large Hadron Collider and BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. At these temperatures, 100,000 times hotter than the center of the sun, the strong force is dominant, and we hope to learn about the fundamental and non-trivial emergent many-body dynamics of the quarks and gluons that make up 99% of the mass of the visible universe. We anticipate the usual format for the H...

  3. A highly specific ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe to detect dipeptidyl peptidase IV in plasma and living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Wei; Wang, Ping; Qian, Xing-Kai; Feng, Lei; Yu, Yang; Wang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Qiang; Hou, Jie; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Ge, Guang-Bo; Yang, Ling

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a highly specific ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe GP-BAN was developed and well-characterized to monitor dipeptidyl peptidase IV in plasma and living systems. GP-BAN was designed on the basis of the catalytic properties and substrate preference of DPP-IV, and it could be readily hydrolyzed upon addition of DPP-IV under physiological conditions. Both reaction phenotyping and inhibition assays demonstrated that GP-BAN displayed good reactivity and high selectivity towards DPP-IV over other human serine hydrolases including FAP, DPP-VIII, and DPP-IX. The probe was successfully used to monitor the real activities of DPP-IV in complex biological systems including diluted plasma, while it could be used for high throughput screening of DPP-IV inhibitors by using human plasma or tissue preparations as enzyme sources. As a two-photon fluorescent probe, GP-BAN was also successfully used for two-photon imaging of endogenous DPP-IV in living cells and tissues, and showed high ratiometric imaging resolution and deep-tissue penetration ability. Taken together, a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe GP-BAN was developed and well-characterized for highly selective and sensitive detection of DPP-IV in complex biological systems, which could serve as a promising imaging tool to explore the biological functions and physiological roles of this key enzyme in living systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A luminosity model of RHIC gold runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-11-01

    In this note, we present a luminosity model for RHIC gold runs. The model is applied to the physics fills in 2007 run without cooling, and with the longitudinal cooling applied to one beam only. Having good comparison, the model is used to project a fill with the longitudinal cooling applied to both beams. Further development and possible applications of the model are discussed. To maximize the integrated luminosity, usually the higher beam intensity, smaller longitudinal and transverse emittance, and smaller {beta} are the directions to work on. In past 10 years, the RHIC gold runs have demonstrated a path toward this goal. Most recently, a successful commissioning of the bunched beam stochastic cooling, both longitudinal and transverse, has offered a chance of further RHIC luminosity improvement. With so many factors involved, a luminosity model would be useful to identify and project gains in the machine development. In this article, a preliminary model is proposed. In Section 2, several secondary factors, which are not yet included in the model, are identified based on the RHIC operation condition and experience in current runs. In Section 3, the RHIC beam store parameters used in the model are listed, and validated. In Section 4, the factors included in the model are discussed, and the luminosity model is presented. In Section 5, typical RHIC gold fills without cooling, and with partial cooling are used for comparison with the model. Then a projection of fills with more coolings is shown. In Section 6, further development of the model is discussed.

  5. High-Throughput Chemical Probing of Full-Length Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, James M; Menon, Arya; Mitchell, Dylan C; Johnson, Oleta T; Garner, Amanda L

    2017-12-11

    Human biology is regulated by a complex network of protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and disruption of this network has been implicated in many diseases. However, the targeting of PPIs remains a challenging area for chemical probe and drug discovery. Although many methodologies have been put forth to facilitate these efforts, new technologies are still needed. Current biochemical assays for PPIs are typically limited to motif-domain and domain-domain interactions, and assays that will enable the screening of full-length protein systems, which are more biologically relevant, are sparse. To overcome this barrier, we have developed a new assay technology, "PPI catalytic enzyme-linked click chemistry assay" or PPI cat-ELCCA, which utilizes click chemistry to afford catalytic signal amplification. To validate this approach, we have applied PPI cat-ELCCA to the eIF4E-4E-BP1  and eIF4E-eIF4G PPIs, key regulators of cap-dependent mRNA translation. Using these examples, we have demonstrated that PPI cat-ELCCA is amenable to full-length proteins, large (>200 kDa) and small (∼12 kDa), and is readily adaptable to automated high-throughput screening. Thus, PPI cat-ELCCA represents a powerful new tool in the toolbox of assays available to scientists interested in the targeting of disease-relevant PPIs.

  6. High throughput multiplex PCR and probe-based detection with Luminex beads for seven intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Mami; Verweij, Jaco J; Noor, Zannatun; Sobuz, Shihab U; Lieshout, Lisette van; Petri, William A; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R

    2011-02-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for intestinal parasites are increasingly being used on fecal DNA samples for enhanced specificity and sensitivity of detection. Comparison of these tests against microscopy and copro-antigen detection has been favorable, and substitution of PCR-based assays for the ova and parasite stool examination is a foreseeable goal for the near future. One challenge is the diverse list of protozoan and helminth parasites. Several existing real-time PCR assays for the major intestinal parasites-Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, and Strongyloides stercoralis-were adapted into a high throughput protocol. The assay involves two multiplex PCR reactions, one with specific primers for the protozoa and one with specific primers for the helminths, after which PCR products are hybridized to beads linked to internal oligonucleotide probes and detected on a Luminex platform. When compared with the parent multiplex real-time PCR assays, this multiplex PCR-bead assay afforded between 83% and 100% sensitivity and specificity on a total of 319 clinical specimens. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR-bead protocol provides a sensitive diagnostic screen for a large panel of intestinal parasites.

  7. A NMR bioreactor setup for 5 mm high-resolution probes at 800 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramm, Paul [Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert [Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Bogdahn, Ulrich [Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Aigner, Ludwig [Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy (MRS) of cells and tissues provides a quantitative insight into cellular composition and metabolism. A common approach is MRS of cell extracts, which can be used to distinguish e.g. different neural cell types. MRS of living cells more closely resembles the in vivo situation, but is restricted due to unphysiological conditions in a NMR tube. Therefore, we are realizing a cell perfusion setup for a Bruker Avance 800 MHz spectrometer equipped with a 5 mm cryo probe. Immobilized cells can then be perfused with variably composed media saturated with a tunable gas mixture of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. Highly-resolved {sup 1}H-NMR spectra (FWHM<3 Hz) can be acquired with a temporal resolution <5 min. Based on our former investigations on stem cell-specific biomarkers of neural progenitor cells (NPCs), MRS of NPCs under controllable cell culture conditions will be the next step towards a metabolic profiling and biomarker screening of neurogenesis, leading to both a better understanding of stem cell metabolism and to a possible detection of neurogenesis in humans.

  8. Maltodextrin-based imaging probes detect bacteria in vivo with high sensitivity and specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xinghai; Lee, Seungjun; Wang, Zhirui; Kim, Dongin; Stubblefield, Bryan; Gilbert, Eric; Murthy, Niren

    2011-08-01

    The diagnosis of bacterial infections remains a major challenge in medicine. Although numerous contrast agents have been developed to image bacteria, their clinical impact has been minimal because they are unable to detect small numbers of bacteria in vivo, and cannot distinguish infections from other pathologies such as cancer and inflammation. Here, we present a family of contrast agents, termed maltodextrin-based imaging probes (MDPs), which can detect bacteria in vivo with a sensitivity two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported, and can detect bacteria using a bacteria-specific mechanism that is independent of host response and secondary pathologies. MDPs are composed of a fluorescent dye conjugated to maltohexaose, and are rapidly internalized through the bacteria-specific maltodextrin transport pathway, endowing the MDPs with a unique combination of high sensitivity and specificity for bacteria. Here, we show that MDPs selectively accumulate within bacteria at millimolar concentrations, and are a thousand-fold more specific for bacteria than mammalian cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MDPs can image as few as 105 colony-forming units in vivo and can discriminate between active bacteria and inflammation induced by either lipopolysaccharides or metabolically inactive bacteria.

  9. Characterizing shock waves in hydrogel using high speed imaging and a fiber-optic probe hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip A.; Betney, M. R.; Doyle, H. W.; Tully, B.; Ventikos, Y.; Hawker, N. A.; Roy, Ronald A.

    2017-05-01

    The impact of a stainless steel disk-shaped projectile launched by a single-stage light gas gun is used to generate planar shock waves with amplitudes on the order of 102MPa in a hydrogel target material. These shock waves are characterized using ultra-high-speed imaging as well as a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. Although the hydrogel equation of state (EOS) is unknown, the combination of these measurements with conservation of mass and momentum allows us to calculate pressure. It is also shown that although the hydrogel behaves similarly to water, the use of a water EOS underpredicts pressure amplitudes in the hydrogel by ˜10 % at the shock front. Further, the water EOS predicts pressures approximately 2% higher than those determined by conservation laws for a given value of the shock velocity. Shot to shot repeatability is controlled to within 10%, with the shock speed and pressure increasing as a function of the velocity of the projectile at impact. Thus the projectile velocity may be used as an adequate predictor of shock conditions in future work with a restricted suite of diagnostics.

  10. Nanoscale Stoichiometric Analysis of a High-Temperature Superconductor by Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, Stella; London, Andrew J; Gault, Baptiste; Saxey, David; Speller, Susannah; Grovenor, Chris R M; Danaie, Mohsen; Moody, Michael P; Edmondson, Philip D; Bagot, Paul A J

    2017-04-01

    The functional properties of the high-temperature superconductor Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (Y-123) are closely correlated to the exact stoichiometry and oxygen content. Exceeding the critical value of 1 oxygen vacancy for every five unit cells (δ>0.2, which translates to a 1.5 at% deviation from the nominal oxygen stoichiometry of Y7.7Ba15.3Cu23O54-δ ) is sufficient to alter the superconducting properties. Stoichiometry at the nanometer scale, particularly of oxygen and other lighter elements, is extremely difficult to quantify in complex functional ceramics by most currently available analytical techniques. The present study is an analysis and optimization of the experimental conditions required to quantify the local nanoscale stoichiometry of single crystal yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) samples in three dimensions by atom probe tomography (APT). APT analysis required systematic exploration of a wide range of data acquisition and processing conditions to calibrate the measurements. Laser pulse energy, ion identification, and the choice of range widths were all found to influence composition measurements. The final composition obtained from melt-grown crystals with optimized superconducting properties was Y7.9Ba10.4Cu24.4O57.2.

  11. High-Affinity LNA-DNA Mixmer Probes for Detection of Chromosome-Specific Polymorphisms of 5S rDNA Repeats in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lauriane; Probst, Aline V

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization is a standard technique to visualize specific DNA sequences by hybridization with fluorescent probes and, most commonly, relies on DNA probes generated by nick translation. In this chapter, we describe the use of directly labeled LNA-DNA mixmer probes for the rapid detection of repetitive sequences on Arabidopsis thaliana nuclei spreads. We further demonstrate that due to the high thermal stability of the heteroduplexes and the resulting elevated binding affinity of LNA-DNA mixmer probes for their target DNA, these probes can be used to discriminate between repetitive sequences differing by only a few single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  12. Neutron–proton bremsstrahlung as a possible probe of high-momentum component in nucleon momentum distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutron-proton bremsstrahlung in intermediate energy nucleus–nucleus collisions is proposed as a possible probe to study the high-momentum component in nucleon momentum distribution of finite nucleus. Based on the Boltzmann–Uehling–Uhlenbeck (BUU transport model, the effects of high-momentum component on the production of bremsstrahlung photons in the reaction of C12+12C collisions at different incident beam energies are studied. It is found that the high-momentum component increases the high-energy bremsstrahlung photon production remarkably. Furthermore, the ratio of photon production at different incident beam energies is suggested as a potential observable to probe the high-momentum component in nucleon momentum distribution of finite nucleus.

  13. Leveraging two-way probe-level block design for identifying differential gene expression with high-density oligonucleotide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Leah; Benner, Chris; Tao, Yong-Chuan; Winzeler, Elizabeth; Zhou, Yingyao

    2004-04-20

    To identify differentially expressed genes across experimental conditions in oligonucleotide microarray experiments, existing statistical methods commonly use a summary of probe-level expression data for each probe set and compare replicates of these values across conditions using a form of the t-test or rank sum test. Here we propose the use of a statistical method that takes advantage of the built-in redundancy architecture of high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We employ parametric and nonparametric variants of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on probe-level data to account for probe-level variation, and use the false-discovery rate (FDR) to account for simultaneous testing on thousands of genes (multiple testing problem). Using publicly available data sets, we systematically compared the performance of parametric two-way ANOVA and the nonparametric Mack-Skillings test to the t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for detecting differentially expressed genes at varying levels of fold change, concentration, and sample size. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve comparisons, we observed that two-way methods with FDR control on sample sizes with 2-3 replicates exhibits the same high sensitivity and specificity as a t-test with FDR control on sample sizes with 6-9 replicates in detecting at least two-fold change. Our results suggest that the two-way ANOVA methods using probe-level data are substantially more powerful tests for detecting differential gene expression than corresponding methods for probe-set level data.

  14. Leveraging two-way probe-level block design for identifying differential gene expression with high-density oligonucleotide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yong-Chuan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify differentially expressed genes across experimental conditions in oligonucleotide microarray experiments, existing statistical methods commonly use a summary of probe-level expression data for each probe set and compare replicates of these values across conditions using a form of the t-test or rank sum test. Here we propose the use of a statistical method that takes advantage of the built-in redundancy architecture of high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Results We employ parametric and nonparametric variants of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA on probe-level data to account for probe-level variation, and use the false-discovery rate (FDR to account for simultaneous testing on thousands of genes (multiple testing problem. Using publicly available data sets, we systematically compared the performance of parametric two-way ANOVA and the nonparametric Mack-Skillings test to the t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for detecting differentially expressed genes at varying levels of fold change, concentration, and sample size. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve comparisons, we observed that two-way methods with FDR control on sample sizes with 2–3 replicates exhibits the same high sensitivity and specificity as a t-test with FDR control on sample sizes with 6–9 replicates in detecting at least two-fold change. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two-way ANOVA methods using probe-level data are substantially more powerful tests for detecting differential gene expression than corresponding methods for probe-set level data.

  15. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Brian -Tinh Van [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (104-106K) and high density plasmas (1022-1024cm-3) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (1013 - 1015W/cm2) and subpicosecond (10-12-10-13s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature (~40eV) super-critical density (~1023/cm3) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical (~1018/cm3) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films.

  16. Colours, luminosity functions and counts of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Chincarini, G.; Iovino, A.

    1996-12-01

    Standard models for deep galaxy counts are based on luminosity functions (LFs) that have a relatively flat faint end (alpha~-1.0). Galaxy counts in the B band exceed the prediction of such models from a factor of 2 to more than a factor of 5, forcing the introduction of strong luminosity and/or density evolution. Recently Marzke, Huchra & Geller, using the CfA redshift survey sample, found that the number of galaxies in the range -16<2.5 for dwarf galaxies, we reproduce well also the observed K-band deep galaxy counts. This assumption is supported by the strong correlation we found between B-K colour of galaxies and their infrared absolute magnitude: galaxies become bluer with decreasing luminosity.

  17. The Luminosity Measurement for the DZERO Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Gregory R. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Primary project objective: The addition of University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) human resources supported by this grant helped ensure that Fermilab’s DZERO experiment had a reliable luminosity measurement through the end of Run II data taking and an easily-accessible repository of luminosity information for all collaborators performing physics analyses through the publication of its final physics results. Secondary project objective: The collaboration between the UNL Instrument Shop and Fermilab’s Scintillation Detector Development Center enhanced the University of Nebraska’s future role as a particle detector R&D and production facility for future high energy physics experiments. Overall project objective: This targeted project enhanced the University of Nebraska’s presence in both frontier high energy physics research in DZERO and particle detector development, and it thereby served the goals of the DOE Office of Science and the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) for the state of Nebraska.

  18. A universal probe design for colorimetric detection of single-nucleotide variation with visible readout and high specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueping; Zhou, Dandan; Shen, Huawei; Chen, Hui; Feng, Wenli; Xie, Guoming

    2016-02-02

    Single-nucleotide variation (SNV) is a crucial biomarker for drug resistance-related detection in cancer and bacterial infection. However, the unintended binding of DNA probes limits the specificity of SNV detection, and the need for redesigned sequences compromise the universality of SNV assay. Herein, we demonstrated a universal and low-cost assay for the colorimetric discrimination of drug-resistance related point mutation. By the use of a universal DNA probe and a split G-quadruplex, the signal could be recognized by naked eye at room temperature. The DNA probe was used as a signal reporter which not only improved the universality, but also enabled high specificity of probe hybridization. This assay was successfully applied in the detection of cancer-related SNV in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS), and tuberculosis drug-resistance related point mutation in RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB) with high specificity and visible readout. This method was simple, rapid, high-throughput and effective, which was suitable for point-of-care applications.

  19. HTSSIP: An R package for analysis of high throughput sequencing data from nucleic acid stable isotope probing (SIP experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Youngblut

    Full Text Available Combining high throughput sequencing with stable isotope probing (HTS-SIP is a powerful method for mapping in situ metabolic processes to thousands of microbial taxa. However, accurately mapping metabolic processes to taxa is complex and challenging. Multiple HTS-SIP data analysis methods have been developed, including high-resolution stable isotope probing (HR-SIP, multi-window high-resolution stable isotope probing (MW-HR-SIP, quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP, and ΔBD. Currently, there is no publicly available software designed specifically for analyzing HTS-SIP data. To address this shortfall, we have developed the HTSSIP R package, an open-source, cross-platform toolset for conducting HTS-SIP analyses in a straightforward and easily reproducible manner. The HTSSIP package, along with full documentation and examples, is available from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/HTSSIP/index.html and Github at https://github.com/buckleylab/HTSSIP.

  20. Closed-loop high-speed 3D thermal probe nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. W.; Zientek, M.; Cheong, L. L.; Rawlings, C.; Paul, P.; Holzner, F.; Hedrick, J. L.; Coady, D. J.; Allen, R.; Dürig, U.

    2014-03-01

    Thermal Scanning Probe Lithography (tSPL) is an AFM based patterning technique, which uses heated tips to locally evaporate organic resists such as molecular glasses [1] or thermally sensitive polymers.[2][3] Organic resists offer the versatility of the lithography process known from the CMOS environment and simultaneously ensure a highly stable and low wear tip-sample contact due to the soft nature of the resists. Patterning quality is excellent up to a resolution of sub 15 nm,[1] at linear speeds of up to 20 mm/s and pixel rates of up to 500 kHz.[4] The patterning depth is proportional to the applied force which allows for the creation of 3-D profiles in a single patterning run.[2] In addition, non-destructive imaging can be done at pixel rates of more than 500 kHz.[4] If the thermal stimulus for writing the pattern is switched off the same tip can be used to record the written topography with Angstrom depth resolution. We utilize this unique feature of SPL to implement an efficient control system for reliable patterning at high speed and high resolution. We combine the writing and imaging process in a single raster scan of the surface. In this closed loop lithography (CLL) approach, we use the acquired data to optimize the writing parameters on the fly. Excellent control is in particular important for an accurate reproduction of complex 3D patterns. These novel patterning capabilities are equally important for a high quality transfer of two-dimensional patterns into the underlying substrate. We utilize an only 3-4 nm thick SiOx hardmask to amplify the 8±0.5 nm deep patterns created by tSPL into a 50 nm thick transfer polymer. The structures in the transfer polymer can be used to create metallic lines by a lift-off process or to further process the pattern into the substrate. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of 27 nm wide lines and trenches 60 nm deep into the Silicon substrate.[5] In addition, the combined read and write approach ensures that the lateral

  1. LHC abort gap cleaning studies during luminosity operation

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jeff, A; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Roncarolo, F; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

  2. Operating microscope in Endodontics: visual magnification and luminosity

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Moreira Feix; Daiana Boijink; Ronise Ferreira; Márcia Helena Wagner; Fernando Branco Barletta

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical microscope has been used in Endodontics in order to minimize the obscurity of the surgical field, because it provides a high magnification and luminosity, thereby enhancing the procedures performed and providing a final result of higher quality. Objective and literature review: The objective of this study was to review the literature by addressing the current situation of the operating microscope in Endodontics, emphasizing its advantages and limitations. Despite be...

  3. Probing Gravity with Spacetime Sirens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffayet, Cédric; Menou, Kristen

    2007-10-01

    A gravitational observatory such as LISA will detect coalescing pairs of massive black holes, accurately measure their luminosity distance, and help identify a host galaxy or an electromagnetic counterpart. If dark energy is a manifestation of modified gravity on large scales, gravitational waves from cosmologically distant spacetime sirens are direct probes of this new physics. For example, a gravitational Hubble diagram based on black hole pair luminosity distances and host galaxy redshifts could reveal a large distance extradimensional leakage of gravity. Various additional signatures may be expected in a gravitational signal propagated over cosmological scales.

  4. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  5. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings......Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  6. [Testing of a new probe 16/18/45 Hybrid Capture (Digene) in women with high risk HPV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantz, S; Decroisette, E; Caly, H; Renaudie, J; Dussartre, C; Bakeland, D; Denis, F; Alain, S

    2009-02-01

    HPV HR detection test are needed when ASCUS is diagnosed on Pap test. The risk of progression to cervical cancer is dependant on the HPV genotype and three types (HPV 16, 18 and 45) are found in 77.4% of the cervical cancer. Here we have tested a new probe 16/18/45 (Digene) that is able to detect specifically these three types. Thirty-seven women with a Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk test (Digene) positive were selected to test the new probe 16/18/45. Samples were typed using sequencing reaction after GP5+/GP6+ PCR. Types were given after comparison with the GenBank. Discordant results were controlled with Inno-Lipa HPV genotyping v2 test (Innogenetics). Among the 37 women with HR HPV result, 48.6% were positive with the probe 16/18/45 (18 patients). After genotyping, 12 results were concordant and six discordant (three HPV 31, two HPV 58 et one HPV 59). For the other 19 patients with negative result, 18 are concordant and one discordant (HPV 18). Global concordance for typing between this probe and sequencing was 81% with a kappa test of 0.62 that means a good concordance. Positive predictive value is 66.6% and negative predictive value is 94.7%. This study shows a good efficiency of the 16/18/45 probe to detect the genotypes that have the higher risk of progression to cervical cancer. This probe could also allow to follow the epidemiology of HR HPV infection after a large use of HPV vaccines.

  7. A near-infrared fluorescent probe based on BODIPY derivative with high quantum yield for selective detection of exogenous and endogenous cysteine in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Jiao; Fu, Ya-Jun; Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Yong-Fei; Yi, Lan-Hua; Ou-Yang, Juan

    2017-11-22

    Cysteine (Cys) is involved in cellular growth and Cys deficiency is related with many diseases. So far, a number of fluorescent probes have been constructed for the detection of Cys successfully. However, the probes are difficult to discriminate Cys from Hcy and the emission wavelength of the probes is in ultraviolet or visible range. Herein, a NIR fluorescent probe named NIR-BODIPY-Ac is synthesized and used to detect Cys. The emission wavelength of the probe is at 708 nm that belongs to near-infrared (NIR) region by attaching indolium to BODIPY core, which is suitable for bioimaging in vivo. Moreover, the probe exhibits high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.51) after the addition of Cys and high sensitivity toward Cys with 81-fold fluorescence enhancement. The linear range of the probe for Cys covers from 0.2 to 30 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM. Furthermore, the probe shows high selectivity towards Cys owing to the fact that there is more fast reaction rate between the probe and Cys than that of Hcy. In particular, the NIR fluorescent probe is applied for the detection of exogenous and endogenous Cys in biological samples such as cell, tissue and mouse with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Probing Primordial Magnetic Fields with 21-cm Line Observations of the High-redshift Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklopcic, Antonija; Gluscevic, V.; Hirata, C. M.; Mishra, A.; Venumadhav, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent magnetic fields with strengths of the order of 10^(-5) G are observed on scales of individual galaxies, including the Milky Way. They are thought to be organized and maintained by a dynamo mechanism. However, the nature and origin of the seed magnetic field, required for the dynamo effect to take place, are still unknown. Here, we propose a method of probing the magnetic field in the intergalactic medium before the Epoch of Reionization through observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation of neutral hydrogen. The 21-cm line is created during the spin-flip transition between the hyperfine levels of the hydrogen ground state. The upper hyperfine level is a triplet consisting of atomic states with three different projections of the total angular momentum vector. Anisotropic 21-cm radiation, resulting from perturbations in the high-redshift IGM, unevenly populates triplet sublevels. If an atom is located in an external magnetic field, it precesses between the three states; this causes an additional anisotropy in the 21-cm radiation, which could be imprinted in the 21-cm power spectrum. In order to evaluate the effect of the magnetic field, we need to consider in full detail all mechanisms that affect the distribution of atoms in hyperfine sublevels, such as the interaction of hydrogen atoms with the 21-cm radiation, optical pumping by Lyman-alpha photons, and spin-exchange in hydrogen-hydrogen collisions. Preliminary calculations suggest that this method could be sensitive to extremely weak magnetic fields, of the order of 10^(-17) G.

  9. Pure zinc sulfide quantum dot as highly selective luminescent probe for determination of hazardous cyanide ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: h.rajabi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and simple fluorescence method is presented for selective and sensitive determination of hazardous cyanide ion in aqueous solution based on functionalized zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dot (QD) as luminescent prob. The ultra-small ZnS QDs were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as an efficient capping agent. The prepared pure ZnS QDs was applied as an optical sensor for determination of cyanide ions in aqueous solutions. ZnS nanoparticles have exhibited a strong fluorescent emission at about 424 nm. The fluorescence intensity of QDs is linearly proportional to the cyanide ion concentration in the range 2.44 × 10{sup −6} to 2.59 × 10{sup −5} M with a detection limit of 1.70 × 10{sup −7} M at pH 11. The designed fluorescent sensor possesses remarkable selectivity for cyanide ion over other anions such as Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, F{sup −}, I{sup −}, IO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}, BrO{sub 3}{sup −}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}, SCN{sup −}, N{sub 3}{sup −}, citrate and tartarate with negligible influences on the cyanide detection by fluorescence spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Preparation of functionalized ZnS quantum dots in aqueous media • Highly selective quantum dot based luminescent probe for determination of cyanide • Fast and sensitive determination of hazardous CN{sup −} by fluorescence quenching.

  10. Highly sensitive reduced graphene oxide impedance sensor harnessing π-stacking interaction mediated direct deposition of protein probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Su; Um, Yu Mi; Jang, Ji-Ryang; Choe, Woo-Seok; Yoo, Pil J

    2013-05-01

    Graphene-based electrochemical impedance sensors have recently received much attention due to their outstanding sensing capability and economic viability. In this study, we present a novel means of constructing an impedance sensing platform via harnessing intrinsic π-stacking interactions between probe protein molecules and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) substrate, obviating the need for introducing external chemical groups often required for covalent anchoring of the probes. To achieve this goal, protein molecules used as a probe were denatured to render their hydrophobic residues exposed in order to facilitate their direct π-stacking interactions with the surface of RGO nanosheets. The protein molecules in denatured form, which would otherwise have difficulty in undergoing π-stacking interactions with the RGO surface, were found to uniformly cover the RGO nanosheets at high density, conducive to providing a graphene-based impedance sensing platform capable of detecting a probe-specific analyte at high sensitivity. The proof-of-concept performance of thus-constructed RGO-based impedance sensors was demonstrated via selective detection of biological binding events of antigen-antibody reaction at a femtomolar range. Notably, since the π-stacking interaction can occur on the entire RGO surface, it can desirably exclude a backfill process indispensable for the conventional biosensors to suppress background noise signals. Since the procedure of π-stacking mediated direct deposition of on-purpose denatured protein probes onto the RGO surface is facile and straightforward, the proposed strategy is anticipated to extend its applicability for fabrication of high performance graphene-based bio or chemical sensors.

  11. Precision targeted ruthenium(ii) luminophores; highly effective probes for cell imaging by stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Aisling; Burke, Christopher S; Keyes, Tia E

    2016-10-19

    Fluorescence microscopy has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past two decades with development of super-resolution far-field microscopy methods that break the light diffraction limited resolution of conventional microscopy, offering unprecedented opportunity to interrogate cellular processes at the nanoscale. However, these methods make special demands of the luminescent agents used for contrast and development of probes suited to super-resolution fluorescent methods is still relatively in its infancy. In spite of their many photophysical advantages, metal complex luminophores have not yet been considered as probes in this regard, where to date, only organic fluorophores have been applied. Here, we report the first examples of metal complex luminophores applied as probes for use in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Exemplified with endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear targeting complexes we demonstrate that luminescent Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes can, through signal peptide targeting, be precisely and selectively delivered to key cell organelles without the need for membrane permeabilization, to give high quality STED images of these organelles. Detailed features of the tubular ER structure are revealed and in the case of the nuclear targeting probe we exploit the molecular light switch properties of a dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine containing complex which emits only on DNA/RNA binding to give outstanding STED contrast and resolution of the chromosomes within the nucleus. Comparing performance with a member of the AlexaFluor family commonly recommended for STED, we find that the performance of the ruthenium complexes is superior across both CW and gated STED microscopy methods in terms of image resolution and photostability. The large Stokes shifts of the Ru probes permit excellent matching of the stimulating depletion laser with their emission whilst avoiding anti-Stokes excitation. Their long lifetimes make them particularly amenable to

  12. Rational Design and Bioimaging Applications of Highly Selective Fluorescence Probes for Hydrogen Polysulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reactive sulfur species have received considerable attention due to their various biological functions. Among these molecules, hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn, n > 1) are recently suggested to be the actual signaling molecules derived from hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Hydrogen polysulfides may also have their own biosynthetic pathways. The research on H2Sn is rapidly growing. However, the detection of H2Sn is still challenging. In this work we report a H2Sn-mediated benzodithiolone formation under mild conditions. Based on this reaction, specific fluorescent probes for H2Sn are prepared and evaluated. The probe DSP-3 shows good selectivity and sensitivity for H2Sn. PMID:24809803

  13. The z = 5 Quasar Luminosity Function from SDSS Stripe 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen, Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Myers, Adam D.; Brandt, W. Niel; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge, Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-05-01

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M 1450 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 confidence. The break luminosity appears to evolve strongly at high redshift, providing an explanation for the flattening of the bright-end slope reported previously. We find a factor of ~2 greater decrease in the number density of luminous quasars (M 1450 joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. This paper also includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. Academic Training - LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 13, 14, 15, March, from 11:00 to 12:00 - 16 March from 10:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 14, 15 March, Council Room on 13, 16 March LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges A. De Roeck / CERN-PH, D. Bortoletto / Purdue Univ. USA, R. Wigmans / Texas, Tech Univ. USA, W. Riegler / CERN-PH, W. Smith / Wisconsin Univ. USA The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm-2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector ...

  15. Tracking and Luminosity Calibration of the PLT

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is one of the newest additions to the CMS detector for the LHC Run II data taking period. On each side of the CMS detector it consists of eight 3-layer telescopes based on silicon pixel detectors that are placed around the beam pipe viewing the interaction point at small angle. A fast 3-fold coincidence of the pixel planes in each telescope provides a bunch-by-bunch measurement of the relative luminosity. In addition to the physics program of CMS, this measurement is useful for accelerator diagnostics and optimization. Particle tracking information sampled at a kHz rate allows collision products to be distinguished from beam background, provides a self-alignment of the detectors, and provides for continuous in-time monitoring of the efficiency of each telescope plane. After calibration of the delivered luminosity in Van der Meer scans of the LHC beam, the PLT is expected to reduce the uncertainty on the delivered luminosity of the LHC which is a crucial input for precision...

  16. The luminosity monitor of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bruschi, M

    2009-01-01

    The LUCID (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) apparatus is composed by two symmetric arms deployed at about 17 m from the ATLAS interaction point. The purpose of this detector, installed in summer 2008, is to monitor the luminosity delivered by the LHC machine to the ATLAS experiment, and to provide an interaction trigger when running at low luminosity. An absolute luminosity calibration is needed and it will be provided by a Roman Pot type detector with the two arms placed at about 240 m from the interaction point. Each arm of the LUCID detector is based on an aluminum vessel containing 20 Cherenkov tubes, 15 mm diameter and 1500 mm length, filled with C4F10 radiator gas at about 1.1 bar. The Cherenkov light generated by charged particles above the threshold is collected by photomultiplier tubes (PMT) directly placed at the tubes end. The intrinsically fast response of the detector and its readout electronics makes it ideal to follow the number of interactions per LHC bunch crossing therefore providi...

  17. Absolute luminosity determination for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2076571; Pauly, Thilo

    ATLAS is one of the four big experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In order to accurately measure cross sections, the precise knowledge of the integrated luminosity is a prerequisite. The relative luminosity is measured with various detectors and algorithms. The purpose of the algorithms is to convert raw rates measured by a detector into a quantity which is proportional to the luminosity. In this work, three algorithms linked to the two main ATLAS luminosity detectors are absolutely calibrated: BCMH_EventOR, BCMV_EventOR, and LUCID_EventOR. The determination of the calibration constants is based on Van der Meer (VdM) scans, which were carried out in July and November 2012. The statistical errors of this method are negligible and the precision is limited by systematic uncertainties. The different uncertainty sources are quantitatively estimated. The overall uncertainty on the calibration constants is estimated to be 5.40% for the July VdM scans and 2.50% for the November VdM scans. The November cali...

  18. An ionization chamber shower detector for the LHC luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Beche, J F; Datte, P S; Haguenauer, Maurice; Manfredi, P F; Millaud, J E; Placidi, Massimo; Ratti, L; Re, V; Riot, V J; Schmickler, Hermann; Speziali, V; Turner, W C

    2000-01-01

    The front IR quadrupole absorbers (TAS) and the IR neutral particle absorbers (TAN) in the high luminosity insertions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) each absorb approximately 1.8 TeV of forward collision products on average per pp interaction (~235 W at design luminosity 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). This secondary particle flux can be exploited to provide a useful storage ring operations tool for optimization of luminosity. A novel segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for sampling the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The system design choices have been strongly influenced by optimization of signal to noise ratio and by the very high radiation environment. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. Data on each bunch are to be separately accumulated over multiple bunch crossings until the desire...

  19. Osteoid osteoma of the spine: a novel technique using combined computer-assisted and gamma probe-guided high-speed intralesional drill excision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Royen, B.J.; Baayen, J.C.; Pijpers, R.; Noske, D.P.; Schakenraad, D.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Study Design. A report of five cases of thoracolumbar osteoid osteoma treated with combined computer-assisted and γ probe-guided high-speed drill excision. Objectives. To document the surgical technique consisting of a combination of both computer-assisted and γ probe-guided high-speed drill

  20. Progenitors of low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The progenitors of low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are believed to be red supergiant (RSG) stars, but there is much disparity in the literature concerning their mass at core collapse and therefore on the main sequence. Here, we model the SN radiation arising from the low-energy explosion of RSG stars of 12, 25 and 27 M⊙ on the main sequence and formed through single star evolution. Despite the narrow range in ejecta kinetic energy (2.5-4.2 × 1050 erg) in our model set, the SN observables from our three models are significantly distinct, reflecting the differences in progenitor structure (e.g. surface radius, H-rich envelope mass and He-core mass). Our higher mass RSG stars give rise to Type II SNe that tend to have bluer colours at early times, a shorter photospheric phase, and a faster declining V-band light curve (LC) more typical of Type II-linear SNe, in conflict with the LC plateau observed for low-luminosity SNe II. The complete fallback of the CO core in the low-energy explosions of our high-mass RSG stars prevents the ejection of any 56Ni (nor any core O or Si), in contrast to low-luminosity SNe II-P, which eject at least 0.001 M⊙ of 56Ni. In contrast to observations, Type II SN models from higher mass RSGs tend to show an H α absorption that remains broad at late times (due to a larger velocity at the base of the H-rich envelope). In agreement with the analyses of pre-explosion photometry, we conclude that low-luminosity SNe II-P likely arise from low-mass rather than high-mass RSG stars.