WorldWideScience

Sample records for high life expectancy

  1. Best Practice Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life...... expectancies at birth and age 65, for both sexes, using data from the Human Mortality Database and the United Nations. Conclusions: Generalized extreme value distributions offer a theoretically justified way to model best-practice life expectancies. Using this framework one can straightforwardly obtain...

  2. Social Policy Expenditures and Life Expectancy in High-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan M; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. spends more than any other country on health care, yet Americans have lower life expectancy than people in most industrialized countries. Recent studies suggest that lower expenditures on social policies in the U.S. may contribute to less-favorable trends in life expectancy. This study tests the hypothesis that greater social spending will be positively associated with life expectancy across the countries of the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development and that the magnitude of these associations will outweigh those between government healthcare spending and life expectancy. In 2016, longitudinal data on six domains of social expenditures for the U.S. and 19 other wealthy nations between 1980 and 2010 were used to estimate the associations between prior year expenditures on education, family, unemployment, incapacity, old age, and active labor market programs, and period life expectancy using fixed effects models. Controlling for a wide set of confounders and government healthcare expenditures, a 1% increase in prior year education expenditures was associated with 0.160 (95% CI=0.033, 0.286) of a year gain in life expectancy, whereas a 1% increase in prior year incapacity benefit expenditures was associated with 0.168 (95% CI=0.003, 0.333) of a year gain in life expectancy. Counterfactual models suggest that if the U.S. were to increase expenditures on education and incapacity to the levels of the country with the maximum expenditures, life expectancy would increase to 80.12 years. The U.S. life expectancy lag could be considerably smaller if U.S. expenditures on education and incapacity programs were comparable with those in other high-income countries. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Life Expectancy in 2040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; DuGoff, Eva H; Wu, Albert W.

    2016-01-01

    expectancy at age 20 will increase by approximately one year per decade for females and males between now and 2040. According to the clinical experts, 70% of the improvement in life expectancy will occur in cardiovascular disease and cancer, while in the last 30 years most of the improvement has occurred......We use expert clinical and public health opinion to estimate likely changes in the prevention and treatment of important disease conditions and how they will affect future life expectancy. Focus groups were held including clinical and public health faculty with expertise in the six leading causes...... of death in the United States. Mortality rates and life tables for 2040 were derived by sex and age. Life expectancy at age 20 and 65 was compared to figures published by the Social Security Administration and to estimates from the Lee-Carter method. There was agreement among all three approaches that life...

  4. Gompertz-Makeham Life Expectancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, Trifon I.; Lenart, Adam; Vaupel, James W.

    We study the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham mortality models. We prove that the resulting life expectancy can be expressed in terms of a hypergeometric function if the population is heterogeneous with gamma-distributed individual frailty, or an incomplete gamma function if the study population...... is homogeneous. We use the properties of hypergeometric and incomplete gamma functions to construct approximations that allow calculating the respective life expectancy with high accuracy and interpreting the impact of model parameters on life expectancy....

  5. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  6. Life expectancy and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploits the unexpected decline in the death rate from cardiovascular diseases since the 1970s as a large positive health shock that affected predominantly old-age mortality; i.e. the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition. Using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy......, we find that US states with higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease prior to the 1970s experienced greater increases in adult life expectancy and higher education enrollment. Our estimates suggest that a one-standard deviation higher treatment intensity is associated with an increase...... in adult life expectancy of 0.37 years and 0.07–0.15 more years of higher education....

  7. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    at all ages, and the second term captures the effect of heterogeneity in the pace of improvement in mortality at different ages. We extend the formula to decompose change in life expectancy into age-specific and cause-specific components, and apply the methods to analyze changes in life expectancy......We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...

  8. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-08-01

    Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we calculated remaining life expectancies for values of age 15, 25, 35 ⃛ 75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. For the typical male or female patient aged 25 to 45 years, the remaining life expectancy was decreased by 12.0-8.7 years and 10.6-8.3 years, respectively. The ratio between remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously reported. Patients start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... calculated remaining life expectancies for values of age 15, 25, 35 ⃛ 75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. RESULTS: For the typical male or female patient aged 25 to 45 years, the remaining life expectancy was decreased by 12.0-8.7 years and 10.6-8.3 years, respectively. The ratio between...

  10. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  11. Am I Halfway? Life Lived = Expected Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    life expectancy at that age. This relationship in stable population models between life lived and life left has captured the attention of mathematical demographers since Lotka. Our paper aims to contribute to the halfway-age debate by showing its time trends under mortality models and with current data......“Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita, Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, Ché la diritta via era smarrita. [In the middle of the journey of our life, I came to myself in a dark wood, for the straight way was lost.]” (Dante 1308-1320) We have reached halfway in life when our age equals our remaining...

  12. Maintaining High Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  13. [Male life expectancy and prolongation of life expectancy were lowest in small towns in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, S

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between size of population and life expectancy of residents was investigated in 652 cities in Japan, using municipal life tables for 1985 and 1990. The following findings were seen: 1) Population size and life expectancy Life expectancy of males at age 0, 20 and 40 was lowest in small towns with a population less than 30,000 (except for age 40 in 1985), and highest in cities with a population of 70,000-199,999 in 1985 and 1990. Life expectancy of females at age 0, 20, 40 and 65 did not significantly vary with size of population in 1985 and 1990. 2) Population size and prolongation of life expectancy (1985-1990) Life expectancy was prolonged in males by 1.02, 0.88, 0.86 and 0.66 years at age 0, 20, 40 and 65, respectively. The prolongation of life expectancy of males at age 0, 20 and 40 was smallest in small towns with a population less than 30,000. Life expectancy was prolonged in females by 1.41, 1.32, 1.29 and 1.12 years at age 0, 20, 40 and 65, respectively. The prolongation of life expectancy was shortest at birth for females who lived in cities with a population of 50,000-59,999. 3) Socioeconomic factors and prolongation of life expectancy The prolongation of life expectancy of males was related to the entrance rate for high school and inversely related to the unemployment rate. The prolongation of life expectancy of females was not related to any of the socioeconomic factors studied.

  14. Trends in disability-free life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess trends in Disability-Free Life Expectancy, in life expectancy with disabilities according to levels of severity and in Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2000. Method: The disability-free life expectancy, a composite population health status

  15. Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagger, P J

    2004-06-01

    With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy.

  16. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  17. Mortality hazard rates and life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Kaas, R.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the relation between mortality hazards and life expectancy for men and women in the Netherlands and in England. Halving the lifetime mortality hazards increases life expectancy at birth by only 9%.

  18. Social gradient in life expectancy and health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Otto; Kjøller, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels.......Health status of a population can be evaluated by health expectancy expressed as average lifetime in various states of health. The purpose of the study was to compare health expectancy in population groups at high, medium and low educational levels....

  19. Decolonization and life expectancy in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Soraya P A; van Oers, Hans A M; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-12-01

    Decolonization has brought political independence to half the Caribbean states in the last half of the 20th century, while the other states remain affiliated. Previous studies suggested a beneficial impact of affiliated status on population health, which may be mediated by more favorable economic development. We assessed how disparities in life expectancy between currently sovereign and affiliated states developed over time, whether decolonization coincided with changes in life expectancy, and whether decolonization coincided with similar changes in GDP per capita. Time-series data on life expectancy and related variables, GDP per capita and political status were collected from harmonized databases. We quantified variations in life expectancy by current political status during the 1950-2010 period. We assessed whether decolonization coincided with life expectancy trend changes by: 1. calculating the annual changes before and after independence, and 2. evaluating trend breaks in a predefined period during decolonization using joinpoint analyses. Similar analyses were undertaken for GDP per capita. Life expectancy in currently sovereign Caribbean states was already lower than in affiliated states before political independence. Overall, decolonization coincided with reductions in life expectancy growth, but not with reductions in economic growth, and changes in life expectancy growth in the decade after independence did not correspond with changes in economic performance. The widening of the life expectancy gap between currently sovereign and affiliated states accelerated in the 1990's and continues to increase. Despite considerable life expectancy gains in all Caribbean states, life expectancy in currently sovereign states increasingly lags behind that of states which remained affiliated. Our results indicate that changing economic conditions were not the main determinant of the unfavorable trends in life expectancy during and after decolonization. Circumstantial

  20. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Sinusitis Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to ... Cause of Death Contribute to the Hispanic Mortality Advantage in the United States? Leading Causes of Death ...

  1. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...... of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure...

  2. [Number of deaths that attributable to high fasting plasma glucose among population aged 25 and above and its impact on life expectancy in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y F; Wang, Z Q; Yang, J; Liu, Y N; Liu, S W; Zeng, X Y; Li, Y C; Yin, P; Zhou, M G

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To analyze deaths that attributable to high fasting plasma glucose and its impact on life expectancy among Chinese residents in 2013. Methods: Data from the Mortality Surveillance Programs in National Disease Surveillance Points System and the China Chronic Disease Surveillance (2013) were used. Death attributed to high fasting plasma glucose and its impact on the life expectancy of Chinese residents were estimated, based on the principle of population attributable fraction. Results: In 2013, the total number of deaths attributed to high fasting plasma glucose among aged ≥25 years old was 621 thousand, with 333 thousand males and 288 thousand females. Diseases related to the number of deaths caused by high fasting plasma glucose would include ischemic heart disease (212 thousand) as the most important one. Cerebrovascular disease appeared the 2(nd) place, with around 181 thousand cases and then followed by diabetes (145 thousand), chronic kidney disease (52 thousand) and tuberculosis (31 thousand). After removal of the effects on high blood glucose exposure, the life expectancy of Chinese residents in 2013 would have reached 76.5 years old, an average increase of 0.7 years, compared to the average life expectancy of all deaths, with men having an increase of 0.7 years and women of 0.8 years, respectively. Conclusions: High fasting plasma glucose appeared an important risk factor for mortality and life expectancy on the Chinese residents. Programs related to prevention and control of high fasting plasma glucose and related diseases should be strengthened.

  3. Persistent social inequality in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The state old-age pension in Denmark increases to keep pace with the projected increase in average life expectancy (LE) without any regard to the social gap in LE and expected lifetime in good health. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in LE and disability-free life expectancy...... between people with high and low levels of education remained more than 2 years. In 2006-2007, 65-year-old men with a high level of education could expect 3.2 more years without disability than men of the same age with a low level of education. In 2013-2014, the difference was 2.9 years. For women...

  4. Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…

  5. Incorporating life expectancy in glaucoma care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, C.; Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To calculate for which combinations of age and perimetric disease stage glaucoma patients are unlikely to become visually impaired during their lifetime. Methods We used residual life expectancy data (life expectancy adjusted for the age already reached) as provided by Statistics Netherlands and

  6. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  7. Infant mortality and life expectancy in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanhua; Zhang, Weifang; Yang, Rulai; Zou, Chaochun; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2014-01-01

    Background It is reported that the infant mortality (IM) rate decreased rapidly in China and the life expectancy (LE) also had a high increase. Our objective was to determine the health status of the Chinese population by investigating IM and LE and their inter-relationship. Material/Methods Based on a literature review on the history and current status of IM and LE in China and other major countries, the relationship between IM, LE, and per capita gross national income (GNI) was investigated...

  8. Dutch life expectancy from an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bodegom, D.; Bonneux, L.G.A.; Engelaer, F.M.; Lindenberg, J.; Meij, J.J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    In general, longer life spans go with longer lives with good quality. Abstention from smoking is an obvious target to get more out of our lives. The ability to better manage chronic diseases is a first step of progress. Life expectancy, disability and quality of life are distinct concepts and may

  9. Subjective Life Expectancy Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Alyssa E; Arigo, Danielle

    2017-09-14

    Establishing healthy habits in college is important for long-term health. Despite existing health promotion efforts, many college students fail to meet recommendations for behaviors such as healthy eating and exercise, which may be due to low perceived risk for health problems. The goals of this study were to examine: (1) the accuracy of life expectancy predictions, (2) potential individual differences in accuracy (i.e., gender and conscientiousness), and (3) potential change in accuracy after inducing awareness of current health behaviors. College students from a small northeastern university completed an electronic survey, including demographics, initial predictions of their life expectancy, and their recent health behaviors. At the end of the survey, participants were asked to predict their life expectancy a second time. Their health data were then submitted to a validated online algorithm to generate calculated life expectancy. Participants significantly overestimated their initial life expectancy, and neither gender nor conscientiousness was related to the accuracy of these predictions. Further, subjective life expectancy decreased from initial to final predictions. These findings suggest that life expectancy perceptions present a unique-and potentially modifiable-psychological process that could influence college students' self-care.

  10. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  11. [Healthy life expectancy in older adults with social security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ábrego, Gabriela; Ramírez-Sánchez, Teresita Jesús; Torres-Cosme, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Population aging increases the prevalence of chronic diseases. This morbidity impacts on the relatively high mortality levels and has disabling effects. Classic health indicators -life expectancy at birth and gross mortality rate- are complemented by the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), whose advantage is a standardization of concepts, sources of information and calculation methods. In this investigation, the healthy life expectancy in adult older population with social security in Mexico is estimated. Life expectancy was estimated from the mortality analysis and by constructing life tables of the population affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Chiang's method was used and the disability prevalence-adjusted life table was modified using Sullivan's method. The healthy life expectancy, life expectancy free of disability and life expectancy with disability in the older adult analysis was highlighted. Life expectancy free of disability was estimated at 66.5 years. In females, it was 16 years and, in men, 15.2 years, indicating that from this age on they live less time with a healthy life. Healthy life expectancy is an indicator that can be useful to build scenarios to support the planning, administration and strategic management of healthy aging programs.

  12. Why did Danish women's life expectancy stagnate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Oeppen, James; Rizzi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The general health status of a population changes over time, generally in a positive direction. Some generations experience more unfavourable conditions than others. The health of Danish women in the interwar generations is an example of such a phenomenon. The stagnation in their life expectancy...... between 1977 and 1995 is thought to be related to their smoking behaviour. So far, no study has measured the absolute effect of smoking on the mortality of the interwar generations of Danish women and thus the stagnation in Danish women's life expectancy. We applied a method to estimate age......-specific smoking-attributable number of deaths to examine the effect of smoking on the trends in partial life expectancy of Danish women between age 50 and 85 from 1950 to 2012. We compared these trends to those for women in Sweden, where there was no similar stagnation in life expectancy. When smoking...

  13. Life expectancy after the first suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, J; Talbäck, M; Feychting, M; Ahlbom, A; Ljung, R

    2017-12-14

    To assess excess mortality among suicide attempters compared to the general population. Remaining life expectancy was calculated for a nationwide cohort of all 187 894 persons 18 years or older hospitalised for the first time attempted suicide in Sweden in 1971-2010. Life expectancy was shortened throughout the lifespan for both men and women debuting with suicide attempt. The reduction in life expectancy for men debuting with a suicide attempt at 20 years of age was 18 years while the reduction for men debuting at 50 years of age was 10 years. For women attempting suicide, the life expectancy was shortened by 11 and 8 years respectively. The gender difference in life expectancy attenuated in patients making their first suicide attempt at age 70 years or older. Suicide deaths explained about 20% of the total mortality within 10 years of the suicide attempt and 5% in those with duration of four decades since the first suicide attempt. The life expectancy is dramatically reduced in patients attempting suicide. With most excess deaths being due to physical health conditions, public efforts should be directed both towards improving physical health and to prevent suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Improving life expectancy: how many years behind has the USA fallen? A cross-national comparison among high-income countries from 1958 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Jamison, Dean T

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have documented higher mortality levels in the USA compared to other high-income nations. We add to this discussion by quantifying how many years behind comparison countries the USA has fallen and by identifying when US mortality rates began to diverge. We use full life tables, for men and women, for 17 high-income countries including the USA. We extract the life expectancy at birth and compute the mortality rates for each 5-year age group from birth up to age 80. Using the metric of how many 'years behind' a country has fallen, we compare US mortality levels with those in other high-income countries ('comparators'). We report life expectancy for 17 high-income countries, for the period 1958-2007. Up to the late 1970s, US men and especially women closely tracked comparators in life expectancy. In the late 1970s in the USA, most strikingly women began to diverge from comparators so that the US female life expectancy in 2007 corresponded to that of the comparators' average 10 years earlier. Mortality rates also began to diverge from the late 1970s, and the largest mortality gap was in the 15-49 age group, for both men and women, where the USA had fallen about 40 years behind the comparators by 2007. Some causes proposed for the relatively high US mortality today-racial differences, lack of universal health insurance, US exceptionalism-changed little while the mortality gap emerged and grew. This suggests that explanations for the growing gap lie elsewhere. Quantification of how many years behind the USA has fallen can help provide clues about where to look for potential causes and remedies.

  15. Life expectancy and cardiovascular mortality in persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Thomas M; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-03-01

    To assess the impact of cardiovascular disease on the excess mortality and shortened life expectancy in schizophrenic patients. Patients with schizophrenia have two-fold to three-fold higher mortality rates compared with the general population, corresponding to a 10-25-year reduction in life expectancy. Although the mortality rate from suicide is high, natural causes of death account for a greater part of the reduction in life expectancy. The reviewed studies suggest four main reasons for the excess mortality and reduced life expectancy. First, persons with schizophrenia tend to have suboptimal lifestyles including unhealthy diets, excessive smoking and alcohol use, and lack of exercise. Second, antipsychotic drugs may have adverse effects. Third, physical illnesses in persons with schizophrenia are common, but diagnosed late and treated insufficiently. Lastly, the risk of suicide and accidents among schizophrenic patients is high. Schizophrenia is associated with a substantially higher mortality and curtailed life expectancy partly caused by modifiable risk factors.

  16. Gompertz-Makeham Life Expectancies: Expressions and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, Trifon; Lenart, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In a population of individuals, whose mortality is governed by a Gompertz–Makeham hazard, we derive closed-form solutions to the life-expectancy integral, corresponding to the cases of homogeneous and gamma-heterogeneous populations, as well as in the presence/absence of the Makeham term. Derived...... expressions contain special functions that aid constructing high-accuracy approximations, which can be used to study the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to model parameters. Knowledge of Gompertz–Makeham life expectancies aids constructing life-table exposures....

  17. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine

    2014-01-01

    study using single-decrement period life tables. SUBJECTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. MEASURES: Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer...... and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency....

  18. Trends in life expectancy in wellbeing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R. J. M.; van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's

  19. [Life expectancy and influence on disease in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Zhou, M G; Li, X H; Liu, Y N; Wu, R X; Xue, M

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of life expectancy and influencing factors in Chinese population in different areas and provide scientific evidence for policy-making on disease managements, medical care and risk factor intervention. Methods: Based on the national census data from National Bureau of Statistics and the death registration data from the National Health and Family Planning Commission, we used exponential model, under-report adjustment model and abbreviated life tables to estimate the life expectancy and influence on disease in Chinese population in 2013. Results: The Chinese life expectancy was 75.8 years in 2013, 1 year higher than that in 2010. The life expectancy in urban area was 77.4 years, while it was 75.1 years that in rural area with the gap between the rural area and urban area was 2.3 years. The life expectancy was 77.2 years in the eastern area, 75.8 years in middle area and 73.5 years in western area, the gap between the east and west was 3.6 years. In 2013, the first 10 leading diseases causing the life expectancy lost were cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, road injury, liver cancer, stomach cancer, hypertensive heart disease, lower respiratory infection, esophagus cancer, resulting in 7.97 years of life expectancy lost. Conclusion: The life expectancy in Chinese has already reached a relative high level, while the gap between different areas still exists. Different policies on disease management, medical care and risk factor interventions targeting different areas are needed to increase the life expectancy and improve the quality of life.

  20. Infant mortality and life expectancy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanhua; Zhang, Weifang; Yang, Rulai; Zou, Chaochun; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2014-03-07

    It is reported that the infant mortality (IM) rate decreased rapidly in China and the life expectancy (LE) also had a high increase. Our objective was to determine the health status of the Chinese population by investigating IM and LE and their inter-relationship. Based on a literature review on the history and current status of IM and LE in China and other major countries, the relationship between IM, LE, and per capita gross national income (GNI) was investigated in 2013. The decline in IM from 30% to 15% took China only 7 years, which was faster than in developed countries. The leading causes of infant death in China were perinatal diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases, congenital anomalies, accidents, and signs, symptoms, and ill-defined conditions. Most under-5 mortality occurred during infancy (80%), particularly during the neonatal period (55%). LE was negatively correlated with IM (r=-0.921, PChina are still below the level of developing countries. Some countries have a comparable IM and healthcare capabilities, but they have a much higher per capita GNI than China. In China, IM has decreased and IE increased rapidly. However, they were not in parallel with the current economic development. Deviation of these data might be attributed to many factors. In-house surveys and hospital-based follow-ups should be carried out to better understand infant death.

  1. Years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Stürup, Anne Emilie; McGrath, John J

    2017-01-01

    lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia, which are more direct, absolute measures of increased mortality. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, Cinahl, and Web of Science for published studies on years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia. Data from individual studies...... was least in the Asian study and greatest in Africa. The overall weighted average life expectancy was 64·7 years (95% CI 61·1-71·3), and was lower for men than women (59·9 years, 95% CI 55·5-64·3 vs 67·6 years, 63·1-72·1). Life expectancy was lowest in Asia and Africa. Timing of publication and risk of bias...... had little effect on results. INTERPRETATION: The effects of schizophrenia on years potential life lost and life expectancy seem to be substantial and not to have lessened over time. Development and implementation of interventions and initiatives to reduce this mortality gap are urgently needed...

  2. Life Expectancy in Pleural and Peritoneal Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Shavelle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mesothelioma is a rare cancer with a historically dire prognosis. We sought to calculate life expectancies for patients with pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma, both at time of diagnosis and several years later, and to examine whether survival has improved in recent years. Methods. Data on 10,258 pleural and 1,229 peritoneal patients from the SEER US national cancer database, 1973–2011, were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results. The major factors related to survival were age, sex, stage, grade, histology, and treatment. Survival improved only modestly over the study period: 0.5% per year for pleural and 2% for peritoneal. Conclusions. Life expectancies were markedly reduced from normal, even amongst 5-year survivors with the most favorable characteristics and treatment options.

  3. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Oscar H; de Laet, Chris; Peeters, Anna; Jonker, Jacqueline; Mackenbach, Johan; Nusselder, Wilma

    2005-11-14

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical activity levels after age 50 years on total life expectancy and life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. We constructed multistate life tables using data from the Framingham Heart Study to calculate the effects of 3 levels of physical activity (low, moderate, and high) among populations older than 50 years. For the life table calculations, we used hazard ratios for 3 transitions (healthy to death, healthy to disease, and disease to death) by levels of physical activity and adjusted for age, sex, smoking, any comorbidity (cancer, left ventricular hypertrophy, arthritis, diabetes, ankle edema, or pulmonary disease), and examination at start of follow-up period. Moderate and high physical activity levels led to 1.3 and 3.7 years more in total life expectancy and 1.1 and 3.2 more years lived without cardiovascular disease, respectively, for men aged 50 years or older compared with those who maintained a low physical activity level. For women the differences were 1.5 and 3.5 years in total life expectancy and 1.3 and 3.3 more years lived free of cardiovascular disease, respectively. Avoiding a sedentary lifestyle during adulthood not only prevents cardiovascular disease independently of other risk factors but also substantially expands the total life expectancy and the cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy for men and women. This effect is already seen at moderate levels of physical activity, and the gains in cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy are twice as large at higher activity levels.

  4. Life Expectancy of Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Approaches the Life Expectancy of the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hannah; Björkholm, Magnus; Dickman, Paul W; Höglund, Martin; Lambert, Paul C; Andersson, Therese M-L

    2016-08-20

    A dramatic improvement in the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) occurred after the introduction of imatinib mesylate, the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). We assessed how these changes affected the life expectancy of patients with CML and life-years lost as a result of CML between 1973 and 2013 in Sweden. Patients recorded as having CML in the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1973 to 2013 were included in the study and followed until death, censorship, or end of follow-up. The life expectancy and loss in expectation of life were predicted from a flexible parametric relative survival model. A total of 2,662 patients with CML were diagnosed between 1973 and 2013. Vast improvements in the life expectancy of these patients were seen over the study period; larger improvements were seen in the youngest ages. The great improvements in life expectancy translated into great reductions in the loss in expectation of life. Patients of all ages diagnosed in 2013 will, on average, lose life-years as a result of CML. Imatinib mesylate and new TKIs along with allogeneic stem cell transplantation and other factors have contributed to the life expectancy in patients with CML approaching that of the general population today. This will be an important message to convey to patients to understand the impact of a CML diagnosis on their life. In addition, the increasing prevalence of patients with CML will have a great effect on future health care costs as long as continuous TKI treatment is required. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Factors Associated With Subjective Life Expectancy: Comparison With Actuarial Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jaekyoung; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been found to show a significant association with mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the major factors affecting SLE. We also examined whether any differences existed between SLE and actuarial life expectancy (LE) in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1000 individuals in Korea aged 20-59 was conducted. Participants were asked about SLE via a self-reported questionnaire. LE from the National Health Insurance database in Kor...

  6. Differences in Life Expectancy and Disability Free Life Expectancy in Italy. A Challenge to Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, A.; Murianni, L.; Folino-Gallo, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Measures of health expectancy such as Disability Free Life Expectancy are used to evaluate and compare regional/national health statuses. These indicators are useful for understanding changes in the health status and defining health policies and decisions on the provision of services because provide useful information on possible areas…

  7. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy: a life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine; Leff, Bruce; Anderson, Gerard F

    2014-08-01

    The number of people living with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, but we know little about the impact of multimorbidity on life expectancy. We analyze life expectancy in Medicare beneficiaries by number of chronic conditions. A retrospective cohort study using single-decrement period life tables. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, and Alzheimer disease), and number of comorbid conditions. Comorbidity was measured as a count of conditions collected by Chronic Conditions Warehouse and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Life expectancy decreases with each additional chronic condition. A 67-year-old individual with no chronic conditions will live on average 22.6 additional years. A 67-year-old individual with 5 chronic conditions and ≥10 chronic conditions will live 7.7 fewer years and 17.6 fewer years, respectively. The average marginal decline in life expectancy is 1.8 years with each additional chronic condition-ranging from 0.4 fewer years with the first condition to 2.6 fewer years with the sixth condition. These results are consistent by sex and race. We observe differences in life expectancy by selected conditions at 67, but these differences diminish with age and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency.

  8. The future of life expectancy and life expectancy inequalities in England and Wales: Bayesian spatiotemporal forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James E; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Best, Nicky; Kontis, Vasilis; Pearson, Clare; Hambly, Peter; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-07-11

    To plan for pensions and health and social services, future mortality and life expectancy need to be forecast. Consistent forecasts for all subnational units within a country are very rare. Our aim was to forecast mortality and life expectancy for England and Wales' districts. We developed Bayesian spatiotemporal models for forecasting of age-specific mortality and life expectancy at a local, small-area level. The models included components that accounted for mortality in relation to age, birth cohort, time, and space. We used geocoded mortality and population data between 1981 and 2012 from the Office for National Statistics together with the model with the smallest error to forecast age-specific death rates and life expectancy to 2030 for 375 of England and Wales' 376 districts. We measured model performance by withholding recent data and comparing forecasts with this withheld data. Life expectancy at birth in England and Wales was 79·5 years (95% credible interval 79·5-79·6) for men and 83·3 years (83·3-83·4) for women in 2012. District life expectancies ranged between 75·2 years (74·9-75·6) and 83·4 years (82·1-84·8) for men and between 80·2 years (79·8-80·5) and 87·3 years (86·0-88·8) for women. Between 1981 and 2012, life expectancy increased by 8·2 years for men and 6·0 years for women, closing the female-male gap from 6·0 to 3·8 years. National life expectancy in 2030 is expected to reach 85·7 (84·2-87·4) years for men and 87·6 (86·7-88·9) years for women, further reducing the female advantage to 1·9 years. Life expectancy will reach or surpass 81·4 years for men and reach or surpass 84·5 years for women in every district by 2030. Longevity inequality across districts, measured as the difference between the 1st and 99th percentiles of district life expectancies, has risen since 1981, and is forecast to rise steadily to 8·3 years (6·8-9·7) for men and 8·3 years (7·1-9·4) for women by 2030. Present forecasts underestimate

  9. Expectations on Track? High School Tracking and Adolescent Educational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms...... of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents’ expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across...

  10. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions.

  11. Life Expectancy in Patients Treated for Osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Osmond, Clive; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease, carrying an elevated risk of fractures, morbidity, and death. Long-term treatment may be required, but the long-term risks with osteoporosis drugs remain incompletely understood. The competing risk of death may be a barrier to treating the oldest, yet this may...... not be rational if the risk of death is reduced by treatment. It is difficult to devise goal-directed long-term strategies for managing osteoporosis without firm information about residual life expectancy in treated patients. We conducted an observational study in Danish national registries tracking prescriptions...... for osteoporosis drugs, comorbid conditions, and deaths. We included 58,637 patients and 225,084 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Information on deaths until the end of 2013 was retrieved, providing a follow-up period of 10 to 17 years. In men younger than 80 years and women younger than 60 years...

  12. Family (Dis)Advantage and Life Course Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Hitlin, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Optimistic assessments of life chances can positively influence life outcomes, but conflicting theories suggest these assessments either reflect structural privilege or develop as a result of childhood hardship. In addition, competing hypotheses suggest that these assessments may matter differently depending on who holds them. We examine whether family socioeconomic status shapes adolescents' expectations about how successful their lives will turn out. We distinguish generalized life expectations (GLE), capturing anticipated success in life across multiple domains, from intergenerational comparative expectations (ICE), which register expectations about improvement relative to observed success within the respondent's family lineage. We find that adolescents from higher socioeconomic status families are simultaneously more optimistic about their likely success in life (GLE) but less likely to anticipate relative improvement in life success across generations (ICE). Holding high GLE in combination with low ICE predicted doing better in adulthood across a range of health, attainment, and well-being outcomes, though in most cases high GLE, regardless of ICE, was the key. These beneficial patterns are, for the most part, at least as beneficial for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth as they are for advantaged youth.

  13. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Best Practice Life Expectancy: An Extreme value Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    probability estimates of best-practice life expectancy levels or make projections about future maximum life expectancy. Comments: Our findings may be useful for policymakers and insurance/pension analysts who would like to obtain estimates and probabilities of future maximum life expectancies.......Background: Whereas the rise in human life expectancy has been extensively studied, the evolution of maximum life expectancies, i.e., the rise in best-practice life expectancy in a group of populations, has not been examined to the same extent. The linear rise in best-practice life expectancy has...... been reported previously by various authors. Though remarkable, this is simply an empirical observation. Objective: We examine best-practice life expectancy more formally by using extreme value theory. Methods: Extreme value distributions are fit to the time series (1900 to 2012) of maximum life...

  15. Impact of startup scheme on Francis runner life expectancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, M; Tahan, S A; Bocher, P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada); Thibault, D, E-mail: martin.gagnon.8@ens.etsmtl.c [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Francis runners are subject to complex dynamic forces which might lead to eventual blade cracking and the need for corrective measure. Damage due to cracks in runner blades are usually not a safety issues but might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. Avoiding the main damaging operating conditions is often the only option left to plant operators to maximize the life expectancy of their runner. The startup scheme is one of the available parameter which is controlled by the end user and could be used to minimize the damage induced to the runner. In this study, two startup schemes have been used to investigate life expectancy of Francis runner using in situ measurements. The results obtained show that the induced damage during the startup event could be significantly reduced with change to the startup scheme. In our opinion, an optimization of the startup scheme with regard to fatigue damage could extend significantly the life expectancy and the reliability of Francis runner.

  16. The life expectancy of profoundly handicapped people with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, R K; Grossman, H J; Chaney, R H; Call, T L

    1990-08-30

    The life expectancy of people with mental retardation is shorter than that of the general population. Exact estimates of the length of survival for mentally retarded persons at especially high risk are not available, however. We collected data on mortality and other factors for 99,543 persons with developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, who received services from the California Department of Developmental Services between March 1984 and October 1987. Three subgroups were selected on the basis of the four characteristics identified in previous studies as the best predictors of mortality among mentally retarded people (deficits in cognitive function, limitations on mobility, incontinence, and inability to eat without assistance). In all three subgroups, the subjects had severe deficits in cognitive function and were incontinent; the subjects in subgroup 1 (n = 1550) were immobile and required tube feeding; those in subgroup 2 (n = 4513) were immobile but could eat with assistance; those in subgroup 3 (n = 997) were mobile (but not ambulatory) and could eat with assistance. Life tables were generated for each of the three subgroups. Immobile subjects were found to have a much shorter life expectancy than those who could move about. Those who also required tube feeding (subgroup 1) had a very short life expectancy (i.e., four to five additional years). Those who could eat if fed by others (subgroup 2) had an average life expectancy of approximately eight additional years. In contrast, those who were mobile though not ambulatory (subgroup 3) had a life expectancy of about 23 additional years. Severe mental retardation is associated with a decrease in life expectancy, particularly for those who were immobile.

  17. Indigenous life expectancy in Sweden 1850-1899: Towards a long and healthy life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Karlsson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previous research has shown that the health transition and demographical pattern of indigenous people has followed a different path compared to non-indigenous groups living in the same area with higher mortality rates and shortened life expectancy at birth. OBJECTIVE This paper draws attention to the development of life expectancy for the Sami and non-Sami during the colonization era (1850-1899. The paper will compare the development of life expectancy levels, infant mortality, and age-specific mortality between the Sami and the non-Sami population and analyze the main causes of death. METHODS The source material for this study is a set of data files from the Demographic Data Base (DDB at Umeå University. Life tables and calculations of values of life expectancies are calculated using period data. RESULTS The analysis reveals that the life expectancy at birth was remarkably lower for the Sami during the entire period, corresponding to a high infant mortality. When comparing life expectancy at birth with life expectancy at age one, Sami still had a lower life expectancy during the entire period. The analysis also reveals a lower proportion of deaths due to infections among the younger Sami. CONCLUSIONS The results paint a complex picture of the demographic transition in Sápmi. Neither the Sami nor the non-Sami population followed the same pattern of increased life expectancies at birth, as the Swedish population did in general. The negative consequences of colonization (high mortality, low life expectancy at birth hit the Sami and non-Sami populations, but at different time periods. COMMENTS The study includes the two northern parishes of Gällivare and Jukkasjärvi.

  18. Achievement domain and life expectancies in Japanese civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, D K

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the expected life span of eminent personalities may vary systematically according to the domain of achievement. The current investigation examines this phenomenon more closely by 1) introducing methodological controls for potential gender and cohort artifacts, 2) adding substantive predictors (e.g., suicide and homicide) that provide clues regarding the substantive basis for the differences, 3) scrutinizing a greater variety of achievement domains in both creativity and leadership, and 4) using a non-Western sample of historical figures (1,632 Japanese born between 450 and 1883 A.D.). Multiple regression analyses revealed domain contrasts in life expectancy (e.g., the shorter life spans of fiction authors and political figures, but the longer life spans of religious leaders and sword makers). In addition, the analyses helped decipher the extent to which these domain differences were due to violent death or to the stress of occupying high positions of power.

  19. Animal-assisted interventions and quality of life: expectations among

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Cepero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed expectations among university students (N= 474, X= 22.7, SD=5.6 years towards the possible benefits of animal-assisted interventions on quality of life. Attitudes were measured with the Improving Quality of Life scale, which is an instrument created ad hoc that demonstrated adequate psychometric properties (four easily interpretable factors, with 49% of explained variance and alphas ranging from .76 to .89. The results showed that the participants (from the departments of Social, Health or Educational Sciences had very positive attitudes (high effect sizes, ES>.80 regardless of training. The experience of sharing households with pets was associated with better expectations. These findings emphasize the high expectations that future professionals in different fields hold regarding animal-assisted interventions, and highlight the current shortcomings in training curricula. The implications of these findings for the development of animal-assisted interventions are discussed.

  20. Trends in Life Expectancy and the Macroeconomy in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies the trends in life expectancy in Malawi since independence and offers possible explanations regarding inter-temporal variations. Descriptive analysis reveals that the life expectancy in Malawi has trailed below the Sub Saharan African average. From the 1960s through to the early 1980s life expectancy ...

  1. Health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, changes in the quality of health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population between 1991 and 1998 are analysed. It is found that at all given age levels, life expectancy increased during this period. Life expectancy at birth increased by 1 year for women and by 1.5 years for

  2. Factors Associated With Subjective Life Expectancy: Comparison With Actuarial Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaekyoung; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2017-07-01

    Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been found to show a significant association with mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the major factors affecting SLE. We also examined whether any differences existed between SLE and actuarial life expectancy (LE) in Korea. A cross-sectional survey of 1000 individuals in Korea aged 20-59 was conducted. Participants were asked about SLE via a self-reported questionnaire. LE from the National Health Insurance database in Korea was used to evaluate differences between SLE and actuarial LE. Age-adjusted least-squares means, correlations, and regression analyses were used to test the relationship of SLE with four categories of predictors: demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Among the 1000 participants, women (mean SLE, 83.43 years; 95% confidence interval, 82.41 to 84.46 years; 48% of the total sample) had an expected LE 1.59 years longer than that of men. The socioeconomic factors of household income and housing arrangements were related to SLE. Among the health behaviors, smoking status, alcohol status, and physical activity were associated with SLE. Among the psychosocial factors, stress, self-rated health, and social connectedness were related to SLE. SLE had a positive correlation with actuarial estimates (r=0.61, p actuarial LE. Demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors showed significant associations with SLE, in the expected directions. Further studies are needed to determine the reasons for these results.

  3. Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy of Japan: the fastest graying society in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokudome, Shinkan; Hashimoto, Shuji; Igata, Akihiro

    2016-10-28

    We appraised time trends of Japanese life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) by gender, LE-HALE and (LE-HALE)/LE figures, along with the women-men's differences. Using the Japanese LE and HALE values from 1990 through 2013 by gender in the article by the GBD 2013 DALYs and HALE Collaborators, we examined trends of LE and HALE, and their 5- or 3-year changes. We also probed LE-HALE and (LE-HALE)/LE values, and the women-men's differences. LE consistently elongated as reported 76.0, 76.5, 77.6, 78.7, 79.3 and 80.1 years for men from 1990 to 2013; and 82.0, 82.8, 84.3, 85.5, 86.1 and 86.4 years for women, respectively. Both time trends demonstrated a significant linear increase (p for trend life and well-being.

  4. Contribution of obesity to international differences in life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Samuel H; Stokes, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    The United States has the highest prevalence of obesity and one of the lowest life expectancies among high-income countries. We investigated the relationship between these 2 phenomena. We estimated the fraction of deaths attributable to obesity by country, age, and sex and reestimated life tables after removing these deaths. To allow for a possible secular decline in obesity risks, we employed alternative risks from a more recent period. In our baseline analysis, obesity reduced US life expectancy at age 50 years in 2006 by 1.54 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37, 1.93) for women and by 1.85 years (95% CI = 1.62, 2.10) for men. Removing the effects of obesity reduced the US shortfall by 42% (95% CI = 36, 48) for women and 67% (95% CI = 57, 76) for men, relative to countries with higher life expectancies. Using more recently recorded risk data, we estimated that differences in obesity still accounted for a fifth to a third of the shortfall. The high prevalence of obesity in the United States contributes substantially to its poor international ranking in longevity.

  5. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, Govert E; van Poppel, Frans; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L H

    2015-01-01

    Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate effects. The aim of this paper is to present a novel method to estimate gains in life expectancy specifically associated with increased education. Our analysis is based on a structural model in which education level, IQ at age 18 and mortality all depend on (latent) intelligence. The model allows for (selective) educational choices based on observed factors and on an unobserved factor capturing intelligence. Our estimates are based on information from health examinations of military conscripts born in 1944-1947 in The Netherlands and their vital status through age 66 (n = 39,798). Our empirical results show that men with higher education have lower mortality. Using structural models to account for education choice, the estimated gain in life expectancy for men moving up one educational level ranges from 0.3 to 2 years. The estimated gain in months alive over the observational period ranges from -1.2 to 5.7 months. The selection effect is positive and amounts to a gain of one to two months. Decomposition of the selection effect shows that the gain from selection on (latent) intelligence is larger than the gain from selection on observed factors and amounts to 1.0 to 1.7 additional months alive. Our findings confirm the strong selection into education based on socio-economic status and intelligence. They also show significant higher life expectancy among individuals with higher education after the selectivity of education choice has been taken into account. Based on these estimates, it is plausible therefore that increases in education could lead to increases in life expectancy.

  6. Factors Associated With Subjective Life Expectancy: Comparison With Actuarial Life Expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyoung Bae

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Subjective life expectancy (SLE has been found to show a significant association with mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the major factors affecting SLE. We also examined whether any differences existed between SLE and actuarial life expectancy (LE in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1000 individuals in Korea aged 20-59 was conducted. Participants were asked about SLE via a self-reported questionnaire. LE from the National Health Insurance database in Korea was used to evaluate differences between SLE and actuarial LE. Age-adjusted least-squares means, correlations, and regression analyses were used to test the relationship of SLE with four categories of predictors: demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Results Among the 1000 participants, women (mean SLE, 83.43 years; 95% confidence interval, 82.41 to 84.46 years; 48% of the total sample had an expected LE 1.59 years longer than that of men. The socioeconomic factors of household income and housing arrangements were related to SLE. Among the health behaviors, smoking status, alcohol status, and physical activity were associated with SLE. Among the psychosocial factors, stress, self-rated health, and social connectedness were related to SLE. SLE had a positive correlation with actuarial estimates (r=0.61, p<0.001. Gender, household income, history of smoking, and distress were related to the presence of a gap between SLE and actuarial LE. Conclusions Demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors showed significant associations with SLE, in the expected directions. Further studies are needed to determine the reasons for these results.

  7. Causes of death behind low life expectancy of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The authors examined causes of death contributing to the relatively high mortality of Danish women born 1915-45, and evaluated the impact of smoking related causes of death. METHODS: Age-period-cohort analysis of mortality of Danish women aged 40-89 in 1960-98. Estimate of the negative curv...... explanation behind the relatively low life expectancy of Danish women born 1915-45....

  8. Deriving age-specific death rates from life expectancy forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pascariu, Marius; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    Predicting the human longevity level in the future by directly forecasting life expectancy others numerous advantages compared with methods based on extrapolation of age-specific death rates. But the reconstruction of accurate life tables starting from a given level of life expectancy at birth...

  9. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  10. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990-1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006-2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010.

  11. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9% had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%. The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010.

  12. Increasing social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Baadsgaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine trends in social inequality in mortality and life expectancy in Denmark. METHODS: The study was based on register data on educational level and mortality during the period 1981-2005 and comprised all deaths among Danes aged 30-60. Sex- and age......-specific death rates for each of three levels of education were calculated and age-standardized to allow comparisons over time and between groups. As data obtained since 1996 included ages up to 74, partial life expectancy (i.e. expected lifetime of 30-year-olds before the age of 75) was calculated...... for the period 1996-2005. RESULTS: Between 1981 and 2005, the difference in death rates between people aged 30-60 with low and high educational level increased by two-thirds for men and was doubled for women. During the period 1996-2005, the gap in partial life expectancy from age 30 to 75 between people...

  13. Impact of diabetes mellitus on life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukine Lidia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this study were to estimate life expectancy (LE and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE for Canadians with and without diabetes and to evaluate the impact of diabetes on population health using administrative and survey data. Mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2004 to 2006 and Health Utilities Index data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2000 to 2005 were used. Life table analysis was applied to calculate LE, HALE, and their confidence intervals using the Chiang and the adapted Sullivan methods. LE and HALE were significantly lower among people with diabetes than for people without the disease. LE and HALE for females without diabetes were 85.0 and 73.3 years, respectively (males: 80.2 and 70.9 years. Diabetes was associated with a loss of LE and HALE of 6.0 years and 5.8 years, respectively, for females, and 5.0 years and 5.3 years, respectively, for males, living with diabetes at 55 years of age. The overall gains in LE and HALE after the hypothetical elimination of prevalent diagnosed diabetes cases in the population were 1.4 years and 1.2 years, respectively, for females, and 1.3 years for both LE and HALE for males. The results of the study confirm that diabetes is an important disease burden in Canada impacting the female and male populations differently. The methods can be used to calculate LE and HALE for other chronic conditions, providing useful information for public health researchers and policymakers.

  14. Joint Probabilistic Projection of Female and Male Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E.; Lalic, Nevena; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The United Nations (UN) produces population projections for all countries every two years. These are used by international organizations, governments, the private sector and researchers for policy planning, for monitoring development goals, as inputs to economic and environmental models, and for social and health research. The UN is considering producing fully probabilistic population projections, for which joint probabilistic projections of future female and male life expectancy at birth are needed. OBJECTIVE We propose a methodology for obtaining joint probabilistic projections of female and male life expectancy at birth. METHODS We first project female life expectancy using a one-sex method for probabilistic projection of life expectancy. We then project the gap between female and male life expectancy. We propose an autoregressive model for the gap in a future time period for a particular country, which is a function of female life expectancy and a t-distributed random perturbation. This method takes into account mortality data limitations, is comparable across countries, and accounts for shocks. We estimate all parameters based on life expectancy estimates for 1950–2010. The methods are implemented in the bayesLife and bayesPop R packages. RESULTS We evaluated our model using out-of-sample projections for the period 1995–2010, and found that our method performed better than several possible alternatives. CONCLUSIONS We find that the average gap between female and male life expectancy has been increasing for female life expectancy below 75, and decreasing for female life expectancy above 75. Our projections of the gap are lower than the UN’s 2008 projections for most countries and so lead to higher projections of male life expectancy. PMID:25580082

  15. Estimating the Life Expectancy of Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-01

    Expectancy 1’ Facilitie,." The applicable requirement code is QCR L.01.005. Mr. Frauik Beck is the OCEI Technical Monitor. ’The stud , ast% conducted under...59,327 1934 concrete HTS Spanish Tile 223 72410 3.390 1893 Rock Brick Asphalt 2406 74050 4,035 1956 Concrete Mascnry Composition *Abbrevimions: ASBSH...1tructure B. PipesI . Corro~ion A. FloorJoists 2. Scale I. Cracks C. Stoker---Coal Burner2. Deterioration I. Wear 3. Excessive deflection 4. Insect and

  16. Main factors of megalopolis citizens’ life expectancy (example of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Novoselova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes mortality rate, life expectancy and self-preservation behavior of the Russian population. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of these indicators in Moscow. The author analyzes and explains the differences in life expectancy between Muscovites and residents of other regions. The article shows that despite the environmental problems, levels of noise and stress, chaotic rhythm of life, life expectancy in Moscow is the highest in the country. The analysis also demonstrates indicators of life expectancy in different administrative districts of the capital. The correlation is discovered between education, material wealth, social status and life expectancy. The statistical data is given which characterizes the mortality rate and life expectancy of the population of Moscow and underlines the main trends. Author considers that one of the key factors influencing the life expectancy is the positive side of self-preservation behavior of the population, focus on a healthy lifestyle. The article examines the impact on mortality and life expectancy indicators such as the percentage of smokers among the population and the level of alcohol consumption.

  17. Regional differences in healthy life expectancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter P.; Westert, Gert P.; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Healthy life expectancy has mainly been studied at the level of healthcare systems rather than at regional level within healthcare systems. In this article, healthy life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age for men and women in the Netherlands has been described, and factors

  18. Regional differences in healthy life expectancy in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Westert, G.P.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Healthy life expectancy has mainly been studied at the level of healthcare systems rather than at regional level within healthcare systems. In this article, healthy life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age for men and women in the Netherlands has been described, and factors

  19. Active life expectancy of older people in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Beaman, Sandra; Jagger, Carol; Garcia-Peña, Carmen; Muñoz, Onofre; Beaman, Peter E; Stafford, Bruce

    2005-03-04

    Social and economic development together with demographic changes and health interventions have resulted in an increase in life expectancy and a rapidly ageing population in Mexico. Whether people will live longer active and independent lives is still, however, unknown. We will address this question, providing the first estimates of active life expectancy by age, sex and local regional area in Mexico. Active life expectancy was calculated using the Sullivan method with abridged life tables. Information on the older Mexican population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) and the number of deaths for the same group in the year 2000 was obtained from the Office for Health Statistics and Information at IMSS in Mexico. Information on ability to perform basic activities of daily living was obtained from the National Survey on Ageing carried out in IMSS during 1998-99. For males and females combined, active life expectancy decreased from 26.9 years at 60 years to 5.7 years at 85 years. Women's life expectancy exceeded that of men but women lived more years dependent. Similarly, older people in geographical areas with longer life expectancy spent a lower proportion of remaining life active. The success in increasing life expectancy above average in some groups of older people covered by IMSS has been accompanied by increments in the proportion of remaining years dependent upon others for help in basic self-care activities.

  20. Political conditions and life expectancy in Europe, 1900-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-04-01

    The rise of life expectancy in Europe has been a very uneven process, both in time and space. This paper aims to identify instances in which major political conditions are likely to have influenced the rise of life expectancy, focusing on formation and dissolution of states and supranational blocs and on differences between political regimes (democratic vs. authoritarian non-communist and communist rule). Data on life expectancy, cause-specific mortality and political conditions were compiled from existing data sources. Possible relations between political conditions and life expectancy were studied by direct comparisons of changes in life expectancy in countries with different political conditions but similar starting levels of life expectancy. We found that formation and dissolution of states often went together with convergence and divergence of life expectancy, respectively, and that otherwise similar countries that did or did not become part of the Soviet bloc had distinctly different life expectancy trajectories. Democratically governed states had higher life expectancies than authoritarian states throughout the 20th century. The gap narrowed between 1920 and 1960 due to rapid catching up of infectious disease control in both non-communist and communist authoritarian states. It widened again after 1960 due to earlier and more rapid progress in democratic states against cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents and other causes of death that have become amenable to intervention. We conclude that the history of life expectancy in Europe contains many instances in which political conditions are likely to have had a temporary or more lasting impact on population health. This suggests that there is scope for further in-depth studies of the impact of specific political determinants on the development of population health in Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  2. The relationship of life expectancy to the development and valuation of life care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Steven M; Reynolds, Robert J; Kush, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    A life care plan often analyzes needs up to a person's life expectancy. Expected present value of necessary funding for such a plan is likewise based on the fixed survival time. If a client should live beyond or die before the life expectancy, a shortfall or excess of funding may seem inevitable. The life table, of which life expectancy is a summary measure, clarifies these issues. We explain life expectancy and how it is used in tort litigation, economic calculations, and life care planning. We examine the life table, of which life expectancy is one output. We illustrate how a life table provides age-specific probabilities of death and survival, life expectancies, and median survival times, and other information and that every life expectancy must be associated with a life table. We consider the implications for life care planners, forensic economists, and others. Life expectancy is a summary of more detailed information provided in a life table. The full life table provides better information for planning purposes. Whether life expectancy or a full life table should be used in developing and valuing a life care plan is not well understood. A multi-disciplinary approach may help clarify these issues.

  3. Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

  4. Persistent social inequality in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy: Outlook for a differential pension age in Denmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Jeune, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The state old-age pension in Denmark increases to keep pace with the projected increase in average life expectancy (LE) without any regard to the social gap in LE and expected lifetime in good health. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in LE and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) between groups of Danes with high, medium and low levels of education. Nationwide register data on education and mortality were combined with data from the Surveys of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) surveys in 2006-2007, 2010-2011 and 2013-2014 and the DFLE by educational level was estimated by Sullivan's method for each of these three time points. Between 2006-2007 and 2013-2014, LE among 65-year-old men and women with a low educational level increased by 1.3 and 1.0 years, respectively, and by 1.4 and 1.3 years for highly educated men and women. The gap in LE between people with high and low levels of education remained more than 2 years. In 2006-2007, 65-year-old men with a high level of education could expect 3.2 more years without disability than men of the same age with a low level of education. In 2013-2014, the difference was 2.9 years. For women, the results were 3.7 and 3.4 years, respectively. With the persistent social inequality in LE of more than 2 years and the continuous gap between high and low educational groups in DFLE of about 3 years, a differential pension age is recommended.

  5. Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, S; Sahi, T; Koskenvuo, M; Kaprio, J

    1993-02-01

    Reliable data are scanty on the incidence of chronic diseases and life expectancy (LE) of highly trained athletes. We therefore studied Finnish male world class athletes to estimate the LE of athletes. Finnish team members in the Olympic games, World or European championships or intercountry competitions during 1920-1965 in track and field athletics, cross-country skiing, soccer, ice hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and shooting were included (N = 2613 men). The reference cohort, 1712 men, was selected from the Finnish Defence Forces conscription register matched on age and area of residence. All referents were classified completely healthy at the time of induction to military service. The stratified Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to estimate the life expectancies and the mortality odds ratios (OR) and their confidence limits. The mean LE adjusted for occupational group, marital status, and the age at entry to the cohort (and its 95% confidence limits) was in endurance sports (long distance running and cross-country skiing) 75.6 (73.6, 77.5) yr; in team games (soccer, ice hockey, basketball, as well as jumpers and short-distance runners from track and field (73.9 (72.7, 75.1) yr; in power sports (boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and throwers from field athletics) 71.5 (70.4, 72.2) yr; and in the reference group 69.9 (69.0, 70.9) yr. The increased mean life expectancies were mainly explained by decreased cardiovascular mortality (endurance sports mortality odds ratio OR = 0.49 (95% CL 0.26, 0.93), team sports OR = 0.61 (0.41, 0.92) compared with referents). For maximum life span no differences between the groups were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Natural Variation in the Sex Gap in Life Expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Zarulli, Virginia; Christensen, Kaare

    Women outlive men in all countries of the world and for decades women’s life expectancy has increased more rapidly then that of males. Factors contributing to these observations are believed to be associated with the external environment and internal biological factors. It has been hypothesized...... that females withstand harsh environments better then males in terms of survival, partly explaining their higher life expectancy. If this hypothesis is true and females survive environmental stressors better then males then large sex differences in life expectancies could reflect the action...... of these environmental factors whereas small differences would reflect a lower action of the factors and approach the ‘natural’ biological level. Here we examine variability in sex differences in life expectancy in 47 historical and contemporary human populations to address our hypothesis: large sex differences in life...

  7. Widening socioeconomic inequalities in US life expectancy, 1980-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    This study examines changes in the extent of inequalities in life expectancy at birth and other ages in the United States between 1980 and 2000 by gender and socioeconomic deprivation levels. A factor-based deprivation index consisting of 11 education, occupation, wealth, income distribution, unemployment, poverty, and housing quality indicators was used to define deprivation deciles, which were then linked to the US mortality data at the county-level. Life expectancy estimates were developed by age, gender, and deprivation levels for three 3 year time periods: 1980-82, 1989-91, and 1998-2000. Inequalities in life expectancy were measured by the absolute difference between the least-deprived group and each of the other deprivation deciles. Slope indices of inequality for each gender and time period were calculated by regressing life expectancy estimates on deprivation levels using weighted least squares models. Those in less-deprived groups experienced a longer life expectancy at each age than their counterparts in more-deprived groups. In 1980-82, the overall life expectancy at birth was 2.8 years longer for the least-deprived group than for the most-deprived group (75.8 vs 73.0 years). By 1998-2000, the absolute difference in life expectancy at birth had increased to 4.5 years (79.2 vs 74.7 years). The inequality indices also showed a substantial widening of the deprivation gradient in life expectancy during the study period for both males and females. Between 1980 and 2000, those in higher socioeconomic groups experienced larger gains in life expectancy than those in more-deprived groups, contributing to the widening gap.

  8. Trends in U.S. life expectancy gradients: the role of changing educational composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2015-06-01

    I examined age patterns and the role of shifting educational distributions in driving trends in educational gradients in life expectancy among non-Hispanic Whites between 1991 and 2005. Data were from the 1986-2004 National Health Interview Survey with mortality follow-up through 2006. Life expectancies were computed by sex, period and education. Age decompositions of life expectancy gradients and composition-adjusted life expectancies were computed to account for age patterns and shifting educational distributions. Life expectancy at age 25 among White men increased for all education groups, decreased among the least-educated White women and increased among White women with college degrees. Much of the decline in measured life expectancy for White women with less than a high school education comes from the 85+ age group. Educational gradients in life expectancy widened for White men and women. One-third of the gradient is due to ages below 50. Approximately 26% (0.7 years) and 87% (0.8 years) of the widening of the gradient in life expectancy between ages 25 and 85 for White women and men is attributable to shifting education distributions. Over half of the decline in temporary life expectancy among the least-educated White women is due to compositional change. Life expectancy has increased among White men for all education groups and has decreased among White women with less than a high school education, though not to the extent reported in previous studies. The fact that a large proportion of the change in education-specific life expectancy among women is due to the 85+ age group suggests changes in institutionalization may be affecting estimates. Much of the change in education-specific life expectancy and the growth in the educational gradient in life expectancy is due to the shifting distribution of individuals across education categories. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International

  9. [Regional life expectancy rankings : Methodological artefacts in population updates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Franziska; Annuß, Rolf; Kuhn, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    For the calculation of life expectancy on a regional level, data from the mortality statistics and population numbers are needed. The latter are derived from population censuses, which have to be undertaken every 10 years according to the EU regulation No. 763/2008. In Germany, the last census took place in 2011 (Census 2011). The current population numbers are calculated on the basis of the most recent population census (population update). Births, deaths, immigration and migration, in addition to other data, are taken into account in this calculation. However, with passing time since the last census, inaccuracies in population updates may increase, which can affect the value of life expectancy calculations.Based on the comparison of life expectancy rankings, the impact and extent of changing over from the 1987 to the more recent 2011 census for regional comparisons were examined in two parts of Germany, Bavaria and North Rhine-Westphalia. As expected, the results show that larger changes in the calculated life expectancy result from larger changes in population statistics. However, noteworthy changes in life expectancy rankings do not necessarily follow larger changes in the population numbers. Regional life expectancy rankings are potentially always influenced by inaccuracies in the underlying population statistics. This should be taken into account when interpreting such small-scale differences.

  10. Status of Women in Society and Life Expectancy at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the status of women in society over life expectancy at birth. Based on the data of some of the socio-economic variables for 187 countries worldwide, collected by the United Nations within United Nations Development Programme – Human Development Report, we developed a regression model of life expectancy factors. Through empirical testing of the three hypotheses which refer to different aspects of the status of women in society, we found that the employment ratio between women and men has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth, which is, at least at first glance, unexpected. At the same time, the number of teenage births per 100 women aged 15–19 as well as gender inequality has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth.

  11. Estimating life expectancies for US small areas: a regression framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of area mortality variations and estimation of area life tables raise methodological questions relevant to assessing spatial clustering, and socioeconomic inequalities in mortality. Existing small area analyses of US life expectancy variation generally adopt ad hoc amalgamations of counties to alleviate potential instability of mortality rates involved in deriving life tables, and use conventional life table analysis which takes no account of correlated mortality for adjacent areas or ages. The alternative strategy here uses structured random effects methods that recognize correlations between adjacent ages and areas, and allows retention of the original county boundaries. This strategy generalizes to include effects of area category (e.g. poverty status, ethnic mix), allowing estimation of life tables according to area category, and providing additional stabilization of estimated life table functions. This approach is used here to estimate stabilized mortality rates, derive life expectancies in US counties, and assess trends in clustering and in inequality according to county poverty category.

  12. The Jewish-Arab divide in life expectancy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, Dov; Anson, Jon

    2005-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in Israel in 2001 was 77.7 years for males and 81.6 years for females among Jews, and 74.5 and 77.8 years for males and females, respectively, among Israeli Arabs. In spite of vast improvements in health conditions of the two populations since Israel's statehood in 1948, persistent disparities in life expectancy between the two groups have challenged the Israeli socialized health care system. These disparities are influenced primarily by differences between the two population groups in infant and child mortality rates. This early study suggests that the distribution of life expectancy across localities in Israel reflects the distribution of those localities' socio-economic condition index (not including health and medical care), and the distribution of medical services. The positive association between life expectancy and the index is pronounced, however, only within the Jewish population but not among Arabs. While there may be no significant difference in life expectancy among Jews and Arabs living in poorer communities, there are fewer Arabs living in relatively affluent communities. Thus, persistent higher concentration of poverty among Arabs than among Jews has sufficed to maintain the gap in life expectancy between them. In addition, however, there are population-specific effects: wealth and education are more protective among Jews than among Arabs, while medical services are more protective among Arabs.

  13. Circulating MicroRNAs and Life Expectancy Among Identical Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Scherler, Kelsey; Baxter, David; Wang, Kai; Krasnow, Ruth E; Reed, Terry; Dai, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Human life expectancy is influenced not only by longevity assurance mechanisms and disease susceptibility loci but also by the environment, gene-environment interactions, and chance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs closely related to genes. Circulating miRNAs have been shown as promising noninvasive biomarkers in the development of many pathophysiological conditions. However, the concentration of miRNA in the circulation may also be affected by environmental factors. We used a next-generation sequencing platform to assess the association of circulating miRNA with life expectancy, for which deaths are due to all causes independent of genes. In addition, we showed that miRNAs are present in 41-year archived plasma samples, which may be useful for both life expectancy and all-cause mortality risk assessment. Plasma miRNAs from nine identical male twins were profiled using next-generation sequencing. The average absolute difference in the minimum life expectancy was 9.68 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients were above 0.4 for 50% of miRNAs. Comparing deceased twins with their alive co-twin brothers, the concentrations were increased for 34 but decreased for 30 miRNAs. Identical twins discordant in life expectancy were dissimilar in the majority of miRNAs, suggesting that environmental factors are pivotal in miRNAs related to life expectancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  14. Dental Status and Compression of Life Expectancy with Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Y; Aida, J; Watt, R G; Tsuboya, T; Koyama, S; Sato, Y; Kondo, K; Osaka, K

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether the number of teeth contributes to the compression of morbidity, measured as a shortening of life expectancy with disability, an extension of healthy life expectancy, and overall life expectancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A self-reported baseline survey was given to 126,438 community-dwelling older people aged ≥65 y in Japan in 2010, and 85,161 (67.4%) responded. The onset of functional disability and all-cause mortality were followed up for 1,374 d (follow-up rate = 96.1%). A sex-stratified illness-death model was applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 3 health transitions (healthy to dead, healthy to disabled, and disabled to dead). Absolute differences in life expectancy, healthy life expectancy, and life expectancy with disability according to the number of teeth were also estimated. Age, denture use, socioeconomic status, health status, and health behavior were adjusted. Compared with the edentulous participants, participants with ≥20 teeth had lower risks of transitioning from healthy to dead (adjusted HR, 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.50-0.68] for men and 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.85] for women) and from healthy to disabled (adjusted HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.44-0.61] for men and 0.58 [95% CI, 0.49-0.68] for women). They also transitioned from disabled to dead earlier (adjusted HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.99-1.60] for men and 2.42 [95% CI, 1.72-3.38] for women). Among the participants aged ≥85 y, those with ≥20 teeth had a longer life expectancy (men: +57 d; women: +15 d) and healthy life expectancy (men: +92 d; women: +70 d) and a shorter life expectancy with disability (men: -35 d; women: -55 d) compared with the edentulous participants. Similar associations were observed among the younger participants and those with 1 to 9 or 10 to 19 teeth. The presence of remaining teeth was associated with a significant compression of morbidity: older Japanese adults' life expectancy with disability was

  15. Predicting Life Expectancy in Men Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammon, Jesse D; Abdollah, Firas; D'Amico, Anthony; Gettman, Matthew; Haese, Alexander; Suardi, Nazareno; Vickers, Andrew; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2015-11-01

    The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has led to the detection of more indolent prostate cancer (PCa) in healthy men. PCa treatment and screening must therefore balance the potential for life gained against the potential for harm. Fundamental to this balance is physician awareness of a patient's estimated life expectancy (LE). To review the evidence on LE differences between men diagnosed with PCa and the general population. To examine clinician- and model-predicted LE and publicly available LE calculators. A comprehensive search of the PubMed database between 1990 and September 2014 was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Free text protocols of the following search terms were used "life expectancy prostate cancer", "life expectancy non-cancer", "non-cancer mortality prostate", and "comorbidity-adjusted life expectancy". Two internet search engines were queried daily for 1 mo for the search term "life expectancy calculator", and the top 20 results were examined. Of 992 articles and 32 websites screened, 17 articles and nine websites were selected for inclusion. Men with non-screening-detected PCa and distant disease at diagnosis were found to have shorter LE than age-matched peers, whereas men with localized PCa had prolonged LE. In general, clinician-predicted 10-yr LE was pessimistic and of limited accuracy; however, model-predicted LE provided only modest improvements in accuracy (c-index of models 0.65-0.84). Online LE calculators provide consistent LE estimates, but government life tables provide LE estimates near the mean for all calculators examined. The accuracy of clinician-predicted survival is limited, and while available statistical models offer improvement in discrimination, it is unclear whether they provide advantages over freely available government life tables. We examined differences in life expectancy between men diagnosed with prostate cancer and

  16. Unequal geographic distribution of life expectancy in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmi; Yi, Seonju; Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwayoung; Jeon, Taekryeon; Cho, Youngtae

    2015-03-01

    This study examined life expectancies in 25 gus, administrative districts of Seoul, the capital of Korea, by gender in 1995, 2002, and 2008 to explore trends in mortality inequality among areas. The authors constructed single-decrement life tables and employed between-group variance, the Theil index, and mean log deviation to measure absolute and relative disparities in life expectancy among areas during the periods 1995-2002 and 2002-2008. It was found that life expectancy gaps between gus have widened in absolute and relative terms in both genders over the decade, and that this pattern was particularly dramatic in females after 2002. This increasing gap could be attributable to the more negative health impact on females since the late 1990s stemming from the economic crisis, eventually reflected in their places of residence. Thus, a social buffer system to narrow the health gap between geographic areas and social classes must be established. © 2012 APJPH.

  17. Life expectancy and disparity: an international comparison of life table data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, James W; Zhang, Zhen; van Raalte, Alyson A

    2011-07-29

    To determine the contribution of progress in averting premature deaths to the increase in life expectancy and the decline in lifespan variation. International comparison of national life table data from the Human Mortality Database. 40 developed countries and regions, 1840-2009. Men and women of all ages. We use two summary measures of mortality: life expectancy and life disparity. Life disparity is a measure of how much lifespans differ among individuals. We define a death as premature if postponing it to a later age would decrease life disparity. In 89 of the 170 years from 1840 to 2009, the country with the highest male life expectancy also had the lowest male life disparity. This was true in 86 years for female life expectancy and disparity. In all years, the top several life expectancy leaders were also the top life disparity leaders. Although only 38% of deaths were premature, fully 84% of the increase in life expectancy resulted from averting premature deaths. The reduction in life disparity resulted from reductions in early-life disparity, that is, disparity caused by premature deaths; late-life disparity levels remained roughly constant. The countries that have been the most successful in averting premature deaths have consistently been the life expectancy leaders. Greater longevity and greater equality of individuals' lifespans are not incompatible goals. Countries can achieve both by reducing premature deaths.

  18. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  19. [Income inequality, corruption, and life expectancy at birth in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro Javier

    2005-01-01

    To ascertain if the effect of income inequality on life expectancy at birth in Mexico is mediated by corruption, used as a proxy of social capital. An ecological study was carried out with the 32 Mexican federative entities. Global and by sex correlations between life expectancy at birth were estimated by federative entity with the Gini coefficient, the Corruption and Good Government Index, the percentage of Catholics, and the percentage of the population speaking indigenous language. Robust linear regressions, with and without instrumental variables, were used to explore if corruption acts as intermediate variable in the studied relationship. Negative correlations with Spearman's rho near to -0.60 (p Corruption and Good Government Index correlated with men's life expectancy at birth with Spearman's rho -0.3592 (p Mexico, mediated by corruption levels and other related cultural factors.

  20. Life Expectancy Varies in Local Communities in Chicago: Racial and Spatial Disparities and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Bijou R; Tran, Gary; Whitman, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Life expectancy in the USA reached a record high of 78.7 years in 2010. However, the racial gap in life expectancy persists. National data, which are readily available, provide averages which mask important local-level differences. Local data are needed to identify the worst off groups, key to reducing disparities and pursuing health equity. Using vital records data, we calculated life expectancy for the USA and Chicago by race/ethnicity and gender and for Chicago's 77 community areas. We also examined the correlation between life expectancy and (1) racial/ethnic composition of a community area and (2) median household income. In Chicago, the highest life expectancy was observed among Hispanics at 84.6 and the lowest life expectancy was observed among Blacks at 71.7-a difference of about 13 years. Life expectancy varied substantially across the 77 community areas of Chicago, from a low of 68.2 to a high of 83.3-a difference of 15 years. There were strong correlations between life expectancy and the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic distributions among the community areas. The examination of data at the local level provides invaluable insight into which communities are facing the greatest burden in terms of health and well-being. It is only through the examination of local-level data that we can understand the unique needs of these communities and begin to address them.

  1. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Federated States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To estimate the healthy life expectancy at 60 years by sex and Federated States and to investigate geographical inequalities by socioeconomic status. METHODS Healthy life expectancy was estimated by the Sullivan method, based on the information of the National Survey on Health, 2013. Three criteria were adopted for the definition of “unhealthy state”: self-assessment of bad health, functionality for performing the activities of daily living, and the presence of noncommunicable disease with intense degree of limitation. The indicator of socioeconomic status was built based on the number of goods at household and educational level of the head of household. To analyze the geographical inequalities and socioeconomic level, inequality measures were calculated, such as the ratio, the difference, and the angular coefficient. RESULTS Healthy life expectancy among men ranged from 13.8 (Alagoas to 20.9 (Espírito Santo for the self-assessment criterion of bad health. Among women, the corresponding estimates were always higher and ranged from 14.9 (Maranhão to 22.2 (São Paulo. As to the ratio of inequality by Federated State, the medians were always higher for healthy life expectancy than for life expectancy, regardless of the definition adopted for healthy state. Regarding the differences per Federated State, the healthy life expectancy was seven years higher in one state than in another. By socioeconomic status, differences of three and four years were found, approximately, between the last and first fifth, for men and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Despite the association of the mortality indicators with living conditions, the inequalities are even more pronounced when the welfare and the limitations in usual activities are considered, showing the necessity to promote actions and programs to reduce the socio-spatial gradient.

  2. Life experiences and expectations of young women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the life experiences and expectations of young women of Busoga in Eastern Uganda. Using qualitative methods, a small group of young women drew, wrote stories and made videos together. The data which emerged from this exercise were analysed alongside the researcher's own observations. Basoga society's main expectation of young women is that they will work in the home. Yet, young women describe very different ideas of what they want from their lives; this includes a desire for access to a good educational experience, and different expectations for family life than cultural norms. They find, however, that there are many barriers to meeting those expectations. The study is important because it acknowledges and forefronts Ugandan young women's life expectations. Typically, development focuses on "outsider" considerations rather than "insider" views and desires. The desires of the marginalised, such as young women in Africa, are a particularly neglected subject. There is a need for continued efforts to explore and include young women's experiences and expectations countering gender inequality and as part of ongoing gender empowerment and sexual health strategies.

  3. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects' relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...

  4. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  5. Effectiveness of Life Review Group Therapy on Psychological Well-Being and the Life Expectancy of Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Sadri Damirchi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that life review group therapy could significantly enhance the psychological well-being and life expectancy in elderly women. With the rapid increase in the number of elderly, life review group therapy is highly recommended.

  6. Unemployment, disability and life expectancy in the United States: A life course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment may be associated with health through factors including stress, depression, unhealthy behaviors, reduced health care, and loss of social networks. Little is known about associations of total lifetime unemployment with disability and life expectancy. People with high unemployment (≥the median) will live shorter lives with more disability than those with less unemployment. Data were nationally representative of African Americans and non-Hispanic whites, from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (37 waves 1968-2011, n = 7,970, mean work years = 24.7). Seven waves (1999-2011, 58,268 person-years) measured disability in activities of daily living. We estimated monthly probabilities of disability and death associated with unemployment using multinomial logistic Markov models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, health status at baseline and throughout work life, and social support. We used the probabilities to create large populations with microsimulation, each individual having known monthly disability status, age 40 to death. We analyzed the populations to measure outcomes. Respectively for African American and white women and African American and white men, life expectancies (with 95% confidence intervals) from age 40 with low unemployment were ages: 77.1 (75.0-78.3), 80.6 (78.4-81.4), 71.4 (69.6-72.5), and 76.9 (74.9-77.9). Corresponding high unemployment results were: 73.7 (71.7-75.0), 77.5 (75.1-78.0), 68.4 (66.8-69.0), and 73.7 (71.5-74.3). The percentage of life disabled from age 40 was greater with high unemployment for the same groups, by 23.9%, 21.0%, 21.3%, and 21.1% (all p unemployment may be associated with a larger proportion of later life with disability and lower life expectancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of selected risk factors on quality-adjusted life expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The construct quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) combines mortality and overall health status and can be used to quantify the impact of risk factors on population health. The purpose of the study was to estimate the impact of tobacco smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity...... Health Survey 2000, and Danish EQ-5D values. RESULTS: The quality-adjusted life expectancy of 25-year-olds was 10-11 QALYs shorter for heavy smokers than for those who never smoke. The difference in life expectancy was 9-10 years. Men and women with high alcohol consumption could expect to lose about 5...... and 3 QALYs, respectively. Sedentary persons could expect to have about 7 fewer QALYs than physically active persons. Obesity shortened QALYs by almost 3 for men and 6 for women. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity strongly reduce life expectancy and health...

  8. Deviating Trends in Dutch Life Expectancy : Explanation and Projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Peters (Frederick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract After almost two decades of slower improvement and partly even stagnating progress, Dutch life expectancy increased substantially since 2002. Although such a positive development represents a great societal advancement it also poses a financial burden for the Dutch

  9. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  10. Mortality and life expectancy in persons with severe unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Musliner, Katherine L; Benros, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    rate ratios (MRRs) and life expectancy in persons with unipolar depression were calculated using survival analysis techniques. RESULTS: The overall MRR was 2.07 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.05-2.09) in people with a previous unipolar depression diagnosis compared to the general Danish population...

  11. Future life expectancy in 35 industrialised countries: projections with a Bayesian model ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Vasilis; Bennett, James E; Mathers, Colin D; Li, Guangquan; Foreman, Kyle; Ezzati, Majid

    2017-04-01

    Projections of future mortality and life expectancy are needed to plan for health and social services and pensions. Our aim was to forecast national age-specific mortality and life expectancy using an approach that takes into account the uncertainty related to the choice of forecasting model. We developed an ensemble of 21 forecasting models, all of which probabilistically contributed towards the final projections. We applied this approach to project age-specific mortality to 2030 in 35 industrialised countries with high-quality vital statistics data. We used age-specific death rates to calculate life expectancy at birth and at age 65 years, and probability of dying before age 70 years, with life table methods. Life expectancy is projected to increase in all 35 countries with a probability of at least 65% for women and 85% for men. There is a 90% probability that life expectancy at birth among South Korean women in 2030 will be higher than 86·7 years, the same as the highest worldwide life expectancy in 2012, and a 57% probability that it will be higher than 90 years. Projected female life expectancy in South Korea is followed by those in France, Spain, and Japan. There is a greater than 95% probability that life expectancy at birth among men in South Korea, Australia, and Switzerland will surpass 80 years in 2030, and a greater than 27% probability that it will surpass 85 years. Of the countries studied, the USA, Japan, Sweden, Greece, Macedonia, and Serbia have some of the lowest projected life expectancy gains for both men and women. The female life expectancy advantage over men is likely to shrink by 2030 in every country except Mexico, where female life expectancy is predicted to increase more than male life expectancy, and in Chile, France, and Greece where the two sexes will see similar gains. More than half of the projected gains in life expectancy at birth in women will be due to enhanced longevity above age 65 years. There is more than a 50% probability

  12. Receipt of Cancer Screening Is a Predictor of Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, James S; Sheffield, Kristin; Li, Shuang; Tan, Alai

    2016-11-01

    Obtaining cancer screening on patients with limited life expectancy has been proposed as a measure for low quality care for primary care physicians (PCPs). However, administrative data may underestimate life expectancy in patients who undergo screening. To determine the association between receipt of screening mammography or PSA and overall survival. Retrospective cohort study from 1/1/1999 to 12/31/2012. Receipt of screening was assessed for 2001-2002 and survival from 1/1/2003 to 12/31/2012. Life expectancy was estimated as of 1/1/03 using a validated algorithm, and was compared to actual survival for men and women, stratified by receipt of cancer screening. A 5 % sample of Medicare beneficiaries aged 69-90 years as of 1/1/2003 (n = 906,723). Receipt of screening mammography in 2001-2002 for women, or a screening PSA test in 2002 for men. Survival from 1/1/2003 through 12/31/2012. Subjects were stratified by life expectancy based on age and comorbidity. Within each stratum, the subjects with prior cancer screening had actual median survivals higher than those who were not screened, with differences ranging from 1.7 to 2.1 years for women and 0.9 to 1.1 years for men. In a Cox model, non-receipt of screening in women had an impact on survival (HR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.51, 1.54) similar in magnitude to a diagnosis of complicated diabetes or heart failure, and was comparable to uncomplicated diabetes or liver disease in men (HR = 1.23; 1.22, 1.25). Receipt of cancer screening is a powerful marker of health status that is not captured by comorbidity measures in administrative data. Because life expectancy algorithms using administrative data underestimate the life expectancy of patients who undergo screening, they can overestimate the problem of cancer screening in patients with limited life expectancy.

  13. How much of the difference in life expectancy between Scottish cities does deprivation explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R; Mitchell, R; Dundas, R; Leyland, A H; Popham, F

    2015-10-16

    Glasgow's low life expectancy and high levels of deprivation are well documented. Studies comparing Glasgow to similarly deprived cities in England suggest an excess of deaths in Glasgow that cannot be accounted for by deprivation. Within Scotland comparisons are more equivocal suggesting deprivation could explain Glasgow's excess mortality. Few studies have used life expectancy, an intuitive measure that quantifies the between-city difference in years. This study aimed to use the most up-to-date data to compare Glasgow to other Scottish cities and to (i) evaluate whether deprivation could account for lower life expectancy in Glasgow and (ii) explore whether the age distribution of mortality in Glasgow could explain its lower life expectancy. Sex specific life expectancy was calculated for 2007-2011 for the population in Glasgow and the combined population of Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh. Life expectancy was calculated for deciles of income deprivation, based on the national ranking of datazones, using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Life expectancy in Glasgow overall, and by deprivation decile, was compared to that in Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh combined, and the life expectancy difference decomposed by age using Arriaga's discrete method. Life expectancy for the whole Glasgow population was lower than the population of Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh combined. When life expectancy was compared by national income deprivation decile, Glasgow's life expectancy was not systematically lower, and deprivation accounted for over 90 % of the difference. This was reduced to 70 % of the difference when carrying out sensitivity analysis using city-specific income deprivation deciles. In both analyses life expectancy was not systematically lower in Glasgow when stratified by deprivation. Decomposing the differences in life expectancy also showed that the age distribution of mortality was not systematically different in Glasgow after accounting for deprivation

  14. Left behind: widening disparities for males and females in US county life expectancy, 1985–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States spends more than any other country on health care. The poor relative performance of the US compared to other high-income countries has attracted attention and raised questions about the performance of the US health system. An important dimension to poor national performance is the large disparities in life expectancy. Methods We applied a mixed effects Poisson statistical model and Gaussian Process Regression to estimate age-specific mortality rates for US counties from 1985 to 2010. We generated uncertainty distributions for life expectancy at each age using standard simulation methods. Results Female life expectancy in the United States increased from 78.0 years in 1985 to 80.9 years in 2010, while male life expectancy increased from 71.0 years in 1985 to 76.3 years in 2010. The gap between female and male life expectancy in the United States was 7.0 years in 1985, narrowing to 4.6 years in 2010. For males at the county level, the highest life expectancy steadily increased from 75.5 in 1985 to 81.7 in 2010, while the lowest life expectancy remained under 65. For females at the county level, the highest life expectancy increased from 81.1 to 85.0, and the lowest life expectancy remained around 73. For male life expectancy at the county level, there have been three phases in the evolution of inequality: a period of rising inequality from 1985 to 1993, a period of stable inequality from 1993 to 2002, and rising inequality from 2002 to 2010. For females, in contrast, inequality has steadily increased during the 25-year period. Compared to only 154 counties where male life expectancy remained stagnant or declined, 1,405 out of 3,143 counties (45%) have seen no significant change or a significant decline in female life expectancy from 1985 to 2010. In all time periods, the lowest county-level life expectancies are seen in the South, the Mississippi basin, West Virginia, Kentucky, and selected counties with large Native American populations

  15. Life expectancy in HIV-positive persons in Switzerland: matched comparison with general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueler, Aysel; Moser, André; Calmy, Alexandra; Günthard, Huldrych F; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob; Fux, Christoph A; Battegay, Manuel; Cavassini, Matthias; Vernazza, Pietro; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2017-01-28

    To estimate life expectancy over 25 years in HIV-positive people and to compare their life expectancy with recent estimates for the general population, by education. Patients aged 20 years or older enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study 1988-2013 were eligible. Patients alive in 2001 were matched to up to 100 Swiss residents, by sex, year of birth, and education. Life expectancy at age 20 was estimated for monotherapy (1988-1991), dual therapy (1992-1995), early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, 1996-1998), later cART (1999-2005) and recent cART (2006-2013) eras. Parametric survival regression was used to model life expectancy. In all, 16 532 HIV-positive patients and 927 583 residents were included. Life expectancy at age 20 of HIV-positive individuals increased from 11.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.2-12.5] in the monotherapy era to 54.9 years (95% CI 51.2-59.6) in the most recent cART era. Differences in life expectancy across educational levels emerged with cART. In the most recent cART period, life expectancy at age 20 years was 52.7 years (95% CI 46.4-60.1) with compulsory education, compared to 60.0 years (95% CI 53.4-67.8) with higher education. Estimates for the general population were 61.5 and 65.6 years, respectively. Male sex, smoking, injection drug use, and low CD4 cell counts at enrolment were also independently associated with mortality. In Switzerland, educational inequalities in life expectancy were larger among HIV-infected persons than in the general population. Highly educated HIV-positive people have an estimated life expectancy similar to Swiss residents with compulsory education. Earlier start of cART and effective smoking-cessation programs could improve HIV-positive life expectancy further and reduce inequalities.

  16. Determinants of life expectancy in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Adrienne M; Skrepnek, Grant H

    2015-06-01

    Although the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) healthcare sector has been expanding rapidly, many differences exist across socioeconomic status, clinical practice standards and healthcare systems. Predict production functions of health by measuring socioeconomic and expenditure factors that impact life expectancy in the EMR. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Health Observatory and the World Bank were used for this cross-sectional, time-series study spanning 21 nations in the EMR from 1995 to 2010. The primary outcome was life expectancy at birth. Covariates of interest included sociodemographic and health indicators. To both establish and validate appropriate categorization of countries, a cluster analysis was undertaken to group cases by taking selected characteristics into account. A variance-component, multilevel mixed-effects linear model was employed that incorporated a finite, Almon, distributed lag of 5 years and bootstrapping with 5000 simulations to model the production function of life expectancy. Results of the cluster analysis found four groupings. Clusters 1 and 2, composed of six total countries, generally represented non-industrialized/least developed countries. Clusters 3 and 4, totalling 15 nations, captured more industrialized nations. Overall, gross domestic product (GDP) (P = 0.011), vaccination averages (P = 0.026) and urbanization (P = 0.026), were significant positive predictors of life expectancy. No significant predictors existed for Cluster 1 countries. Among Cluster 2 nations, physician density (P = 0.014) and vaccination averages (P = 0.044) were significant positive predictors. GDP (P = 0.037) and literacy (P = 0.014) were positive significant predictors among Cluster 3 nations. GDP (P = 0.002), health expenditures (P = 0.002) and vaccination averages (P = 0.014) were positive significant predictors in Cluster 4 countries. Predictors of life expectancy differed between non-industrialized and industrialized nations

  17. Projected life expectancy of people with HIV according to timing of diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Lodwick, Rebecca K; Smith, Colette J

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has contributed greatly toward survival for people with HIV, yet many remain undiagnosed until very late. Our aims were to estimate the life expectancy of an HIV-infected MSM living in a developed country with extensive access to ART...... and healthcare, and to assess the effect of late diagnosis on life expectancy. Methods: A stochastic computer simulation model of HIV infection and the effect of ART was used to estimate life expectancy and determine the distribution of potential lifetime outcomes of an MSM, aged 30 years, who becomes HIV...... positive in 2010. The effect of altering the diagnosis rate was investigated. Results: Assuming a high rate of HIV diagnosis (median CD4 cell count at diagnosis, 432¿cells/µl), projected median age at death (life expectancy) was 75.0 years. This implies 7.0 years of life were lost on average due to HIV...

  18. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for, life expectancy : A life-table analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A; Barendregt, JJ; Willekens, F; Mackenbach, JP; Al Mamun, A; Bonneux, L

    2003-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in adulthood are linked to an increased risk for death and disease. Their potential effect on life expectancy and premature death has not yet been described. Objective: To analyze reductions in life expectancy and increases in premature death associated with

  19. Genetic stabilization of transthyretin, cerebrovascular disease, and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise S; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    Transthyretin can cause amyloidosis attributable to destabilization of transthyretin tetramers in plasma. We tested the hypothesis that genetic stabilization of transthyretin associates with reduced risk of vascular disease and increased life expectancy. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included 68 602...... participants from 2 prospective studies of the general population. We genotyped for 2 stabilizing genetic variants in the transthyretin gene (TTR), R104H and T119M, and determined the association of genotypes with plasma levels of transthyretin, measures of thyroid function, risk of vascular disease, and life...

  20. Gender differences in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Guevara, Pilar Egüez; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    research on life expectancy has demonstrated the negative impact of disability on the health of older adults and its differential effects on women as evidenced by their higher disabled life expectancy (DLE). The goal of the present study was to investigate gender differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), and DLE; examine gender differences on personal care assistance among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil; and discuss the implications for public policies. the sample was drawn from two waves (2000, 2006) of the dataset of Salud, Bienestar, y Envejecimiento, a large longitudinal study conducted in São Paulo (n = 2,143). The study assessed disability using the activities of daily living (ADL). The interpolation of Markov Chain method was used to estimate gender differences in TLE, DLE, and DFLE. TLE at age 60 years was approximately 5 years longer for women than men. Women aged 60 years were expected to live 28% of their remaining lives-twice the percentage for men-with at least one ADL disability. These women also lived more years (M = 0.71, SE = 0.42) with three or more ADL disabilities than men (M = 0.82, SE = 0.16). In terms of personal care assistance, women received more years of assistance than men. among older adults in São Paulo, women lived longer lives but experienced a higher and more severe disability burden than men. In addition, although women received more years of personal assistance than men, women experienced more unmet care assistance needs.

  1. Going beyond life expectancy in assessments of health systems' performance: life expectancy adjusted by perceived health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Erika; Szrek, Helena

    2016-06-01

    International comparisons of health systems data have been used to guide health policy. Health systems performance is generally evaluated on how different factors contribute to mortality and longevity. Fewer studies scrutinize the factors that determine morbidity in different countries, partly because indicators that assess morbidity on a country level are not as widely available as mortality and longevity data. We introduce a new health status indicator able to combine mortality and morbidity in a single composite measure for each country and gender at a point in time (LEAPHS), yielding the average number of years that men (women) can expect to live in "good" (or better) health. Using the Sullivan method we combine the mortality risk, calculated for specific age and gender groups, with perceived health status for the same age and gender groups, and we estimate how medical care and various socio-economic, environmental and structural, lifestyle, and technological factors affect LEAPHS and life expectancy at birth for a large panel of thirty OECD countries. We find that some variables (alcohol consumption, urbanization) have a significant effect on both LEAPHS and life expectancy, while one variable (the number of hospitals) has a significant effect for both genders on life expectancy only. However, the effects of many other variables (health expenditure per capita, health expenditure per capita squared, GDP growth, and technology) were only significant predictors for LEAPHS. This leads us to conclude that LEAPHS is able to capture the impact of some health determinants not captured by life expectancy at birth. While we believe this new measure may be useful for health economists and statisticians doing cross-country analyses, further comparisons with other measures may be useful.

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-9 - Life expectancy and distribution period tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life expectancy and distribution period tables.... § 1.401(a)(9)-9 Life expectancy and distribution period tables. Q-1. What is the life expectancy for... The following table, referred to as the Single Life Table, is used for determining the life expectancy...

  3. [Influencing factors on healthy life expectancy in adults in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Li, G; Gao, Y L; Wei, Z H; Wang, J; Su, J T; Liu, Q P; Wang, P

    2016-08-10

    To understand the main influencing factors related to healthy life expectancy (HALE) among adults in Beijing. The calculation on health-adjusted life expectancy was performed by Sullivan METHODS. Data from the self-reported health survey program on adults in Beijing 2012 was gathered. Hierarchical ordered probit model was used to estimate the severity-weighted prevalence of disability and then combined with the period life table to obtain the HALE. Factors associated with the severity-adjusted prevalence of the disabled were analyzed under the generalized additive models (GAM). The main influencing factors of HALE would include age (t=40.351, P<0.001), sex (t=9.689, P<0.001), levels of education (t=5.021, P< 0.001), exercise (t=5.487, P<0.001) and alcohol intake (t=-2.380, P=0.017) etc. The influence of per capita monthly income (χ(2) =3.949, P=0.044) showed as non-linear. Levels of income would directly influence the severity-weighted prevalence of the disability, which also affecting the HALE. Programs on improving healthy life style and health care in women should be promoted.

  4. The promise of prevention: the effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the "Eight Americas" defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005.We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age-sex-disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking; whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP. SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South--5-7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y; F, 3.6 y and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y; F, 5.7 y. Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18% in men and 0.45 y (21% in women if these risks

  5. The Promise of Prevention: The Effects of Four Preventable Risk Factors on National Life Expectancy and Life Expectancy Disparities by Race and County in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Rimm, Eric B.; Oza, Shefali; Kulkarni, Sandeep C.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US) but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the “Eight Americas”) defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005. Methods and Findings We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age–sex–disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking; whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP). SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South—5–7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y; F, 3.6 y) and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y; F, 5.7 y). Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18%) in men and 0

  6. Investigation of the Relationship between Quality of Life and Life Expectancy in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alagheband

    2016-07-01

    Methods: The research design was descriptive - correlational.In this study, 80 women with breast cancer to chemotherapy referring physician specialty Oncology A randomly chosen and quality of life questionnaire (SF-36 and Schneider hope to complete the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson tests. Results: By using Pearson correlation test and p.value = 0.01 CI 95% r = 0.288 It can be said that a significant positive correlation exists between quality of life and life expectancy of patients with breast cancer. Conclusion: The higher life expectancy, quality of life will be better and vice versa.The ability to predict the life expectancy of a better life there.

  7. Impact of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    SUMMARY. The study seeks to raise awareness and expand knowledge about the deleterious effect of. HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy, a country with a relatively high. HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (19. percent). Using the multiple and associated single decrement life table techniques, the study estimates ...

  8. Impact of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to raise awareness and expand knowledge about the deleterious effect of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy, a country with a relatively high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (19. percent). Using the multiple and associated single decrement life table techniques, the study estimates the total ...

  9. Mortality Salience Effects on the Life Expectancy Estimates of Older Adults as a Function of Neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Maxfield

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death.

  10. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency.

  11. Mortality salience effects on the life expectancy estimates of older adults as a function of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Molly; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

    2010-11-29

    Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death.

  12. Location, vocation, procreation: how choice influences life expectancy in doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleyman, R; Vann Jones, S

    2016-06-01

    Stress and mortality are negatively correlated and it is generally accepted that certain professions are more stressful than others. Medical graduates begin as a relatively homogenous population who then choose vastly different career options making doctors an ideal population in which to try to assess whether job stress is likely to be causal to increased mortality. To establish the influence of various modifiable risk factors on the life expectancy of UK doctors. We analysed a decade of obituaries from the British Medical Journal published between January 2003 and December 2012. Data included age at death (AAD), specialty, region (deanery), marriage status and children. A total of 3068 obituaries were eligible for inclusion. Mean AAD was 78.5 years. Male sex was associated with a significantly increased AAD by an additional 3.8 years (95% CI 2.4-5.2 years, P < 0.001). Public health, obstetrics and gynaecology and laboratory medicine specialties were all associated with significantly increased AAD (P < 0.05). London and Northern Ireland deaneries were both associated with significantly increased AAD (P < 0.05). Each additional child was associated with a relative increase in AAD of +1.1 years (95% CI 0.7-1.4 years, P < 0.001). Our results show that location and career choices may affect life expectancy. While this does not necessarily reflect quality of life, the additional years of life gained from having extra children have a positive effect on your quantity of life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Bayesian Probabilistic Projections of Life Expectancy for All Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E.; Chunn, Jennifer L.; Gerland, Patrick; Ševčíková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for producing probabilistic forecasts of male period life expectancy at birth for all the countries of the world from the present to 2100. Such forecasts would be an input to the production of probabilistic population projections for all countries, which is currently being considered by the United Nations. To evaluate the method, we did an out-of-sample cross-validation experiment, fitting the model to the data from 1950–1995, and using the estimated model to forecast for the subsequent ten years. The ten-year predictions had a mean absolute error of about 1 year, about 40% less than the current UN methodology. The probabilistic forecasts were calibrated, in the sense that (for example) the 80% prediction intervals contained the truth about 80% of the time. We illustrate our method with results from Madagascar (a typical country with steadily improving life expectancy), Latvia (a country that has had a mortality crisis), and Japan (a leading country). We also show aggregated results for South Asia, a region with eight countries. Free publicly available R software packages called bayesLife and bayesDem are available to implement the method. PMID:23494599

  14. Life expectancy of HIV-positive people after starting combination antiretroviral therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeraananchai, S; Kerr, S J; Amin, J; Ruxrungtham, K; Law, M G

    2017-04-01

    Life expectancy is an important indicator informing decision making in policies relating to HIV-infected people. Studies estimating life expectancy after starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have noted differences between income regions. The objective of our study was to perform a meta-analysis to assess life expectancy of HIV-positive people after starting cART, and to quantify differences between low/middle- and high-income countries. Eight cohort studies estimating life expectancy in HIV-positive people initiating cART aged ≥ 14 years using the abridged life table method were identified. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool estimated outcomes, overall and by income region. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed with the I 2 statistic. We estimated additional years of life expected after starting cART at ages 20 and 35 years. Overall life expectancy in high-income countries was an additional 43.3 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.5-44.2 years] and 32.2 years (95% CI 30.9-33.5 years) at ages 20 and 35 years, respectively, and 28.3 (95% CI 23.3-33.3) and 25.6 (95% CI 22.1-29.2) additional years, respectively, in low/middle-income countries. In low/middle-income countries, life expectancy after starting cART at age 20 years was an additional 22.9 years (95% CI 18.4-27.5 years) for men and 33.0 years (95% CI 30.4-35.6 years) for women, but was similar in the two sexes in high-income countries. In all income regions, life expectancy after starting cART increased over calendar time. Our results suggest that the life expectancy of HIV-positive people after starting cART has improved over time. Monitoring life expectancy into the future is important to assess how changes to cART guidelines will affect patient long-term outcomes. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  15. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Banda

    Full Text Available Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related mortality in Zambia.We used data on all-cause and pregnancy-related deaths of females aged 15-49 reported in the Zambia 2010 census, and evaluated, adjusted and smoothed them using existing and verified techniques. We used associated single decrement life tables, assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths to estimate the potential gains in female life expectancy at birth, at age 15, and over the ages 15-49. We compared these gains with the gains from eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, violence and suicide.Complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths would extend life expectancy at birth among Zambian women by 1.35 years and life expectancy at age 15 by 1.65 years. In rural areas, this would be 1.69 years and 2.19 years, respectively, and in urban areas, 0.78 years and 0.85 years. An additional 0.72 years would be spent in the reproductive age group 15-49; 1.00 years in rural areas and 0.35 years in urban areas. Eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, suicide and violence among women aged 15-49 would cumulatively contribute 0.55 years to female life expectancy at birth.Eliminating pregnancy-related mortality would extend female life expectancy in Zambia substantially, with more gains among adolescents and females in rural areas. The application of life table techniques to census data proved very valuable, although rigorous evaluation and adjustment of reported deaths and age was necessary to attain plausible estimates. The collection of detailed high quality cause-specific mortality data in future censuses is indispensable.

  16. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Richard; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Fylkesnes, Knut; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related mortality in Zambia. We used data on all-cause and pregnancy-related deaths of females aged 15-49 reported in the Zambia 2010 census, and evaluated, adjusted and smoothed them using existing and verified techniques. We used associated single decrement life tables, assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths to estimate the potential gains in female life expectancy at birth, at age 15, and over the ages 15-49. We compared these gains with the gains from eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, violence and suicide. Complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths would extend life expectancy at birth among Zambian women by 1.35 years and life expectancy at age 15 by 1.65 years. In rural areas, this would be 1.69 years and 2.19 years, respectively, and in urban areas, 0.78 years and 0.85 years. An additional 0.72 years would be spent in the reproductive age group 15-49; 1.00 years in rural areas and 0.35 years in urban areas. Eliminating deaths from accidents, injury, suicide and violence among women aged 15-49 would cumulatively contribute 0.55 years to female life expectancy at birth. Eliminating pregnancy-related mortality would extend female life expectancy in Zambia substantially, with more gains among adolescents and females in rural areas. The application of life table techniques to census data proved very valuable, although rigorous evaluation and adjustment of reported deaths and age was necessary to attain plausible estimates. The collection of detailed high quality cause-specific mortality data in future censuses is indispensable.

  17. Clinician Factors Associated With Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening in Older Veterans With Limited Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Victoria L; Shi, Ying; Fung, Kathy; Tan, Jessica; Espaldon, Roxanne; Sudore, Rebecca; Wong, Melisa L; Walter, Louise C

    2016-05-01

    Despite guidelines recommending against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in elderly men with limited life expectancy, PSA screening remains common. To identify clinician characteristics associated with PSA screening rates in older veterans stratified by life expectancy. Cross-sectional study of 826 286 veterans 65 years or older eligible for PSA screening who had VA laboratory tests performed in 2011 in the VA health care system. The primary outcome was the percentage of men with a screening PSA test in 2011. Limited life expectancy was defined as age of at least 85 years with Charlson comorbidity score of 1 or greater or age of at least 65 years with Charlson comorbidity score of 4 or greater. Primary predictors were clinician characteristics including degree-training level, specialty, age, and sex. We performed log-linear Poisson regression models for the association between each clinician characteristic and PSA screening stratified by patient life expectancy and adjusted for patient demographics and clinician clustering. In 2011, 466 017 (56%) of older veterans received PSA screening, including 39% of the 203 717 men with limited life expectancy. After adjusting for patient demographics, higher PSA screening rates in patients with limited life expectancy was associated with having a clinician who was an older man and was no longer in training. The PSA screening rates ranged from 27% for men with a physician trainee to 42% for men with an attending physician (P life expectancy received PSA screening. Men whose clinician was a physician trainee had substantially lower PSA screening rates than those with an attending physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant. Interventions to reduce PSA screening rates in older men with limited life expectancy should be designed and targeted to high-screening clinicians- older male, nontrainee clinicians-for greatest impact.

  18. [Live longer and better? Estimates of healthy life expectancy in the Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed differences in healthy life expectancy in the elderly based on three health dimensions in Brazil from 1998 to 2008: disability-free life expectancy, healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health, and chronic disease-free life expectancy. The Sullivan method was used, combining life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and interval estimates of the prevalence of functional disability, self-rated health, and chronic diseases according to the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD, 1998 and 2008). Besides the increase in life expectancy, the study showed significant and similar increases in disability-free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health at almost all ages. Women had higher life expectancies than men, but expected to live longer with poor health, regardless of the indicator used to measure health. Although the studies measured health differently (making comparisons difficult), women showed a consistent disadvantage in healthy life expectancy.

  19. Life expectancy: complex measures of the length and the health related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spizzichino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Life expectancy is one of the most frequently used indicators to assess mortality and the health of a population. It is a synthetic measure of mortality, which has the advantage of allowing for comparisons over time and between different groups, while eliminating the influence of the age structure of the population. Life expectancy has the advantage of being very easy to understand, although it needs to be interpreted within the context of the complex system of hypothesis that generates it. This is even more important for health expectancies and health gap measures, which are synthetic indicators that take into account both survival and health condition of a population.

    Methods: It is given a description of the most frequently used methods to calculate life expectancy, health expectancies and health gap measures. Measures of health expectancy are disability free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy. As health gap measures, frequently are used DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Discussion: There are various bodies and central government agencies that either have management data or carry out statistical systematic surveys and disability surveys. Statistically speaking, the worst aspect of this scenario is that it creates confusion and uncertainty among the end users of this data, namely the policy makers. At an international level the statistical data on disability is scarcely comparable among countries, despite huge efforts on the part of international organisations to harmonize classifications and definitions of disability.

    Results and Conclusions: There are several methods to compute life expectancy, each of these has some advantages and some disadvantages. Usually life expectancy is used also to account for the health status of population. Actually with the growing role of chronic and degenerative diseases, the increased number of

  20. Causes of decreased life expectancy over the life span in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; McIntyre, Roger S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the increased prevalence of comorbid general medical illnesses in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that lost life years due to natural causes starts in early and mid-adulthood, supporting the hypothesis...... of accelerated aging. METHODS: Using individual data from nationwide registers of patient with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder we calculated remaining life expectancies before age 90 years for values of age 15, 25, 35…75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. Further, we estimated the reduction in life......, remaining life expectancy before age 90 years was decreased 12.7 and 8.9 life years, respectively, for men and women with bipolar disorder. For 15-year old boys with bipolar disorder, natural causes accounted for 58% of all lost life years and for 15-year old girls, natural causes accounted for 67...

  1. Investigation of the Relationship between Quality of Life and Life Expectancy in Patients with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    M Alagheband; F Servat; F Zarepour

    2016-01-01

    Introdution: Among disorders that severely affect the health and quality of life as a result of chronic diseases such as cancer. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Due to the growth of breast cancer, the present study investigated the relationship between quality of life and life expectancy in patients with breast cancer was included. Methods: The research design was descriptive - correlational.In this study, 80 women with breast cancer to chemothera...

  2. High Performance Expectations: Concept and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2017-01-01

    literature research, HPE is defined as the degree to which leaders succeed in expressing ambitious expectations to their employees’ achievement of given performance criteria, and it is analyzed how leadership behavior affects employee-perceived HPE. This study applies a large-scale leadership field...

  3. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Federated States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Montilla, Dália Elena Romero; Marques, Aline Pinto; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the healthy life expectancy at 60 years by sex and Federated States and to investigate geographical inequalities by socioeconomic status. Healthy life expectancy was estimated by the Sullivan method, based on the information of the National Survey on Health, 2013. Three criteria were adopted for the definition of "unhealthy state": self-assessment of bad health, functionality for performing the activities of daily living, and the presence of noncommunicable disease with intense degree of limitation. The indicator of socioeconomic status was built based on the number of goods at household and educational level of the head of household. To analyze the geographical inequalities and socioeconomic level, inequality measures were calculated, such as the ratio, the difference, and the angular coefficient. Healthy life expectancy among men ranged from 13.8 (Alagoas) to 20.9 (Espírito Santo) for the self-assessment criterion of bad health. Among women, the corresponding estimates were always higher and ranged from 14.9 (Maranhão) to 22.2 (São Paulo). As to the ratio of inequality by Federated State, the medians were always higher for healthy life expectancy than for life expectancy, regardless of the definition adopted for healthy state. Regarding the differences per Federated State, the healthy life expectancy was seven years higher in one state than in another. By socioeconomic status, differences of three and four years were found, approximately, between the last and first fifth, for men and women, respectively. Despite the association of the mortality indicators with living conditions, the inequalities are even more pronounced when the welfare and the limitations in usual activities are considered, showing the necessity to promote actions and programs to reduce the socio-spatial gradient. Estimar a esperança de vida saudável aos 60 anos por sexo e Unidade da Federação e investigar as desigualdades geográficas e por nível socioeconômico. A esperan

  4. Are Global and Regional Improvements in Life Expectancy and in Child, Adult and Senior Survival Slowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum, Ryan J.; Verguet, Stéphane; Cheng, Yu-Ling; McGahan, Anita M.; Jha, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health–primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest. PMID:25992949

  5. Increases in adult life expectancy in rural South Africa: valuing the scale-up of HIV treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob; Herbst, Abraham J; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expected to raise adult life expectancy in populations with high HIV prevalence. Using data from a population cohort of over 101,000 individuals in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we measured changes in adult life expectancy for 2000–2011. In 2003, the year before ART became available in the public sector health system, adult life expectancy was 49.2 years; by 2011, adult life expectancy had increased to 60.5 years – an 11.3-year gain. Based on standard monetary valuation of life, the survival benefits of ART far outweigh the costs of providing treatment in this community. These gains in adult life expectancy signify the social value of ART and have implications for investment decisions of individuals, governments, and donors. PMID:23430655

  6. Heart Rate, Life Expectancy and the Cardiovascular System: Therapeutic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Borer, Jeffrey S; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that life span is inversely related to resting heart rate in most organisms. This association between heart rate and survival has been attributed to the metabolic rate, which is greater in smaller animals and is directly associated with heart rate. Studies have shown that heart rate is related to survival in apparently healthy individuals and in patients with different underlying cardiovascular diseases. A decrease in heart rate due to therapeutic interventions may result in an increase in survival. However, there are many factors regulating heart rate, and it is quite plausible that these may independently affect life expectancy. Nonetheless, a fast heart rate itself affects the cardiovascular system in multiple ways (it increases ventricular work, myocardial oxygen consumption, endothelial stress, aortic/arterial stiffness, decreases myocardial oxygen supply, other) which, in turn, may affect survival. In this brief review, the effects of heart rate on the heart, arterial system and survival will be discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Accuracy of advanced cancer patients' life expectancy estimates: The role of race and source of life expectancy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Kelly M; Zhang, Baohui; Shen, Megan J; Prigerson, Holly G

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the source of advanced cancer patients' information about their prognosis and determine whether this source of information could explain racial disparities in the accuracy of patients' life expectancy estimates (LEEs). Coping With Cancer was a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of terminally ill cancer patients followed until death. In structured interviews, patients reported their LEEs and the sources of these estimates (ie, medical providers, personal beliefs, religious beliefs, and other). The accuracy of LEEs was calculated through a comparison of patients' self-reported LEEs with their actual survival. The sample for this analysis included 229 patients: 31 black patients and 198 white patients. Only 39.30% of the patients estimated their life expectancy within 12 months of their actual survival. Black patients were more likely to have an inaccurate LEE than white patients. A minority of the sample (18.3%) reported that a medical provider was the source of their LEEs; none of the black patients (0%) based their LEEs on a medical provider. Black race remained a significant predictor of an inaccurate LEE, even after the analysis had been controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and the source of LEEs. The majority of advanced cancer patients have an inaccurate understanding of their life expectancy. Black patients with advanced cancer are more likely to have an inaccurate LEE than white patients. Medical providers are not the source of information for LEEs for most advanced cancer patients and especially for black patients. The source of LEEs does not explain racial differences in LEE accuracy. Additional research into the mechanisms underlying racial differences in prognostic understanding is needed. Cancer 2016;122:1905-12. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons

  8. Changes in life expectancy 1950-2010: contributions from age- and disease-specific mortality in selected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jochen; Keil, Ulrich; Jaensch, Andrea; Christiansen, Marcus C; Nagel, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Changes of life expectancy over time serve as an interesting public health indicator for medical, social and economic developments within populations. The aim of this study was to quantify changes of life expectancy between 1950 and 2010 and relate these to main causes of death. Pollard's actuarial method of decomposing life expectancy was applied to compare the contributions of different age- and disease-groups on life expectancy in 5-year intervals. From the 1960 to 70s on, declines in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality play an increasing role in improving life expectancy in many developed countries. During the past decades gains in life expectancy in these countries were mainly observed in age groups ≥65 years. A further consistent pattern was that life expectancy increases were stronger in men than in women, although life expectancy is still higher in women. In Japan, an accelerated epidemiologic transition in causes of death was found, with the highest increases between 1950 and 1955. Short-term declines and subsequent gains in life expectancy were observed in Eastern Europe and the former states of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), reflecting the changes of the political system. Changes of life years estimated with the decomposing method can be directly interpreted and may therefore be useful in public health communication. The development within specific countries is highly sensitive to changes in the political, social and public health environment.

  9. [Methodological basics of prognosticating the life expectancy of population in big cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men', T Kh; Zaridze, D G

    2004-01-01

    The reasons of high mortality and of low life expectancy among Russian citizens as well as their sharp fluctuations observed in the 90-ies were explained differently by researchers, however, no attempt was made to analyze the impact made by a huge inflow of immigrant from the republics of the former USSR and "close abroad" in any case studies. In this paper we point at the fact that the mortality statistics and life expectancy in Moscow were influenced, at least for as long as 12 years, by a systemic error, which made the mortality index higher and the life expectancy lower, among Muscovites, due to overestimates of the absolute number of died Muscovites and to underestimates of the city residents. The 2001 life expectancy of men and women in Moscow calculated on the basis of data, from which non-residents who died in the capital were deleted, was 64.7 and 75.0, respectively, but not 61.7 and 73.5 as represented by the official statistics. The maximum negative effect of death cases of non-residents exerted on the life expectancy coincides with the overall mortality peak value in Moscow: life expectancy of Muscovites for 1994 estimated without accounting of the mortality rate for non-residents turned out to be 3.2 years higher for men and 1.5 years higher for women. Supposedly, the Russian mortality statistics is not nation-wide in line with the actual state of affairs. However, the influence of the discussed systemic error in Russia's regions can be expected to be less pronounced since the level of immigration in Moscow is most probably by far higher.

  10. A jam-jar model of life expectancy and limits to life

    OpenAIRE

    Mayhew, L.; Smith, D.

    2015-01-01

    Age at death will increasingly cluster in the 90s and the life expectancy of men and women will converge, according to a study by academics from Cass Business School in partnership with the ILC-UK.\\ud \\ud Over the coming decades, men in particular will live longer, increasing the need for the country to face the challenges of an ageing society.\\ud \\ud Based on historical mortality data from England and Wales, the researchers developed a new method for forecasting life expectancy – the results...

  11. Association of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene with shorter life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, L; Christiansen, L; Nybo, H

    2001-01-01

    in the distribution of mutations in exon 2 in the different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-carrier frequency population like Denmark, mutations in HFE show an age-related reduction in the frequency of heterozygotes for C282Y, which suggests that carrier status is associated with shorter life expectancy....

  12. Trends in Life Expectancy and Lifespan Variation by Educational Attainment: United States, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The educational gradient in life expectancy is well documented in the United States and in other low-mortality countries. Highly educated Americans, on average, live longer than their low-educated counterparts, who have recently seen declines in adult life expectancy. However, limiting the discussion on lifespan inequality to mean differences alone overlooks other dimensions of inequality and particularly disparities in lifespan variation. The latter represents a unique form of inequality, with higher variation translating into greater uncertainty in the time of death from an individual standpoint, and higher group heterogeneity from a population perspective. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System from 1990 to 2010, this is the first study to document trends in both life expectancy and S25--the standard deviation of age at death above 25--by educational attainment. Among low-educated whites, adult life expectancy declined by 3.1 years for women and by 0.6 years for men. At the same time, S25 increased by about 1.5 years among high school-educated whites of both genders, becoming an increasingly important component of total lifespan inequality. By contrast, college-educated whites benefited from rising life expectancy and record low variation in age at death, consistent with the shifting mortality scenario. Among blacks, adult life expectancy increased, and S25 plateaued or declined in nearly all educational attainment groups, although blacks generally lagged behind whites of the same gender on both measures. Documenting trends in lifespan variation can therefore improve our understanding of lifespan inequality and point to diverging trajectories in adult mortality across socioeconomic strata.

  13. Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...

  14. Projected life expectancy of people with HIV according to timing of diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Lodwick, Rebecca K; Smith, Colette J; Smith, Ruth; Cambiano, Valentina; Lundgren, Jens D; Delpech, Valerie; Phillips, Andrew N

    .... Our aims were to estimate the life expectancy of an HIV-infected MSM living in a developed country with extensive access to ART and healthcare, and to assess the effect of late diagnosis on life expectancy...

  15. Mortality inequality in populations with equal life expectancy: Arriaga's decomposition method in SAS, Stata, and Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Feuillet, Pascaline; Martel, Sylvie; Lo, Ernest; Barry, Amadou D; Harper, Sam

    2014-08-01

    Life expectancy is used to measure population health, but large differences in mortality can be masked even when there is no life expectancy gap. We demonstrate how Arriaga's decomposition method can be used to assess inequality in mortality between populations with near equal life expectancy. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Quebec and the rest of Canada from 2005 to 2009 using life tables and partitioned the gap between both populations into age and cause-specific components using Arriaga's method. The life expectancy gap between Quebec and Canada was negligible (Excel spreadsheeet to facilitate application of Arriaga's method to other settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resolving the life cycle alters expected impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Buckley, Lauren B; Keitt, Timothy H; Smith, Colton D; Boateng, Kwasi O; Kumar, Davina S; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-08-22

    Recent models predict contrasting impacts of climate change on tropical and temperate species, but these models ignore how environmental stress and organismal tolerance change during the life cycle. For example, geographical ranges and extinction risks have been inferred from thermal constraints on activity during the adult stage. Yet, most animals pass through a sessile embryonic stage before reaching adulthood, making them more susceptible to warming climates than current models would suggest. By projecting microclimates at high spatio-temporal resolution and measuring thermal tolerances of embryos, we developed a life cycle model of population dynamics for North American lizards. Our analyses show that previous models dramatically underestimate the demographic impacts of climate change. A predicted loss of fitness in 2% of the USA by 2100 became 35% when considering embryonic performance in response to hourly fluctuations in soil temperature. Most lethal events would have been overlooked if we had ignored thermal stress during embryonic development or had averaged temperatures over time. Therefore, accurate forecasts require detailed knowledge of environmental conditions and thermal tolerances throughout the life cycle. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnik, J M; Land, K C; Blazer, D; Fillenbaum, G G; Branch, L G

    1993-07-08

    Persons of low socioeconomic status are known to have reduced life expectancy. In a study of the relation of socioeconomic status to disability-free or active life expectancy among older persons, we analyzed prospectively gathered data on 2219 blacks and 1838 whites who were 65 years of age or older in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We defined disability as the inability to perform independently one or more basic functional activities such as walking, bathing, dressing, eating, and using the toilet. For subgroups defined by sex, race, and education, statistical models were used to estimate, for persons at each year of age, the probability of transition from not being disabled or being disabled at base line to not being disabled, being disabled, or having died one year later. These transition probabilities were then entered into increment-decrement life tables to generate estimates of total, active, and disabled life expectancy (with total life expectancy equal to active life expectancy plus disabled life expectancy). Sixty-five-year-old black men had a lower total life expectancy (11.4 years) and active life expectancy (10 years) than white men (total life expectancy, 12.6 years; active life expectancy, 11.2 years), although the differences were reduced after we controlled for education. The estimates for 65-year-old black women (total life expectancy, 18.7 years; active life expectancy, 15.9 years) were similar to those for white women. Black men and women 75 years old and older had higher values for total life expectancy and active life expectancy than whites, and the differences were larger after stratification for education. Education had a substantially stronger relation to total life expectancy and active life expectancy than did race. At the age of 65, those with 12 or more years of education had an active life expectancy that was 2.4 to 3.9 years longer than the values for those with less education in all the four subgroups defined by sex and race

  18. Income differences in life expectancy: the changing contribution of harmful consumption of alcohol and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Pekka; Mäkelä, Pia; Peltonen, Riina; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    Social differences in mortality have increased in high-income countries, but the causes of these changes remain unclear. We quantify the contribution of alcohol and smoking to trends in income differences in life expectancy from 1988 through 2007 in Finland. An 11% sample from the population registration data of Finns 25 years and older was linked with an 80% oversample of death records. Alcohol-attributable mortality was based on underlying and contributory causes of death on individual death certificates and smoking-attributable mortality on an indirect method that used lung cancer mortality as an indicator for the impact of smoking on mortality. Alcohol- and smoking-attributable deaths reduced life expectancy by about 4.5 years among men. Alcohol-attributable mortality increased and smoking-attributable mortality decreased over the period 1988-2007, leaving the joint contribution stable. Among women, the contribution of these risk factors to life expectancy over the same period increased from 0.7 to 1.2 years. In 2003-2007, life expectancy differentials between the lowest and highest income quintile were 11.4 years (men) and 6.3 years (women). In the absence of alcohol and smoking, these differences would have been 60% less for men and 36% less for women. Life expectancy differentials increased rapidly over the study period; without alcohol and smoking, the increase would have been 69% less among men and 85% less among women. Alcohol and smoking have a major influence on income differences in mortality and, with the exception of smoking among men, their contribution is increasing. Without alcohol and smoking, there would have been little change in life expectancy differentials.

  19. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy production function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; J.M. Bowker; H.K. Cordell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of natural resource amenities on human life expectancy. Extending theexisting model of the life expectancy production function, and correcting for spatial dependence, weevaluated the determinants of life expectancy using county level data. Results indicate that after controlling

  20. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy production function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; J.M. Bowker; H.K. Cordell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of natural resource amenities on human life expectancy. Extending the existing model of the life expectancy production function, and correcting for spatial dependence, we evaluated the determinants of life expectancy using county level data. Results indicate that after controlling for socio-demographic and economic factors, medical...

  1. How Important Are Health Care Expenditures for Life Expectancy? A Comparative, European Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J A; Olaroiu, Marinela

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between health care expenditures and health care outcomes, such as life expectancy and mortality, is complex. Research outcomes show different and contradictory results on this relationship. How and why health care expenditures affect health outcomes is not clear. A causal link between the two is not proven. Without such knowledge, effects of increase/decrease in health care expenses on health outcomes may be overestimated/underestimated. This study analyzes the relationship between life expectancy at birth and expenditures on health care, taking into account expenditures of social production and education, as well as the quantity and quality of health care provisions and lifestyles. This is a cross-sectional study, analyzing national data of 31 European countries. First, the bivariate correlation between the dependent variable and independent variables are calculated and described. Next a forward linear regression analysis is applied. The data are derived from standardized, comparative data bases as available in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Eurostat. Health care expenditures are assessed as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Health care expenditures are not the main determinant of life expectancy at birth, but social protection expenditures are. The regression analysis shows that in countries that spend a high percentage of their GDP on social protection, that have fewer curative beds and low infant mortality, whose citizens report fewer unmet health care needs and drink less alcohol, citizens have a significant longer life expectancy. To realize high life expectancy of citizens, policy measures have to be directed on investment in social protection expenditures, on improving quality of care, and on promoting a healthy life style. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The aging process and potential interventions to extend life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Tosato

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Tosato1, Valentina Zamboni1, Alessandro Ferrini1, Matteo Cesari1,21Department of Gerontology, Geriatrics and Physiatry; Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, Institute on Aging, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death. The major theories of aging are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of age-related physiological changes. However, a global view of them is needed when debating of a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects. In this context, the search for a single cause of aging has recently been replaced by the view of aging as an extremely complex, multifactorial process. Therefore, the different theories of aging should not be considered as mutually exclusive, but complementary of others in the explanation of some or all the features of the normal aging process. To date, no convincing evidence showing the administration of existing “anti-aging” remedies can slow aging or increase longevity in humans is available. Nevertheless, several studies on animal models have shown that aging rates and life expectancy can be modified. The present review provides an overlook of the most commonly accepted theories of aging, providing current evidence of those interventions aimed at modifying the aging process.Keywords: Aging, anti-aging medicine, caloric restriction, oxidative damage, inflammation, physical exercise

  3. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  4. Age-specific contributions to changes in the period and cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Schoen, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Period life expectancy has increased more slowly than its cohort counterpart. This paper explores the differences between life expectancies at a given time (the gap) and the time required for period life expectancy to reach the current level of cohort life expectancy (the lag). Additionally......, to understand the disparity between the two life expectancies we identify and compare age-specific contributions to change in life expectancy. Using mortality models and historical data for Sweden, we examine the effect of mortality changes over time. Our results indicate that the widening of the gap between...... the two life expectancies is primarily a consequence of the dramatic mortality decline at older ages that occurred during the twentieth century. These results imply that the divergence between the two measures is likely to become even greater in the future as reductions in deaths are concentrated at older...

  5. A long life in good health: subjective expectations regarding length and future health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappange, David R; Brouwer, Werner B F; van Exel, Job

    2016-06-01

    Subjective life expectancy is considered relevant in predicting mortality and future demand for health services as well as for explaining peoples' decisions in several life domains, such as the perceived impact of health behaviour changes on future health outcomes. Such expectations and in particular subjective expectations regarding future health-related quality of life remain understudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate individuals' subjective quality adjusted life years (QALYs) expectation from age 65 onwards in a representative sample of the Dutch generic public. A web-based questionnaire was administered to a sample of the adult population from the Netherlands. Information on subjective expectations regarding length and future health-related quality of life were combined into one single measure of subjective expected QALYs from age 65 onwards. This subjective QALY expectation was related to background, health and lifestyle variables. The implications of using different methods to construct our main outcome measure were addressed. Mean subjective expected QALYs from age 65 onwards was 11 QALYs (range -9 to 40 QALYs). Individuals with unhealthier lifestyles, chronic diseases, severe disorders or lower age of death of next of kin reported lower QALY expectations. Indicators were varyingly associated with either subjective life expectancy or future health-related quality of life, or both. Extending the concept of subjective life expectancy by correcting for expected quality of life appears to generate important additional information contributing to our understanding of people's perceptions regarding ageing and lifestyle choices.

  6. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Public Investment in the Increase in Life Expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Nikolaevich Kabanov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century was marked by the emergence of national projects in our country, which exactly correspond to the private integral indicators used by the UN in calculating the index of human capital development since 1996. The national project “Health care” is aimed at increasing life expectancy, “Education” – expanding the population’s access to knowledge, “Doubling GDP” – raising people’s income. Attaching equal importance to each indicator, the author of the article set a task to consider the economic efficiency of budgetary funds allocated to improve the nation’s health. The author assumed a proportion as the main hypotheses about the nature of correlation between life expectancy (H and expenditures on health care (G; the calculated coefficients of correlation (Pearson, r of dependence H = f(G for all RF subjects for 2003–2013 (0.49 < r < or = 0.97 confirmed the existence of correlation. The author proposed to use the slope of the straight H = f(G to x-axis as a quantitative value, indicating the economic efficiency of the transformation of budget expenditures to the increase in life expectancy. This indicator means that the achieved increase in life expectancy (Y axis motion depending on changes in budget expenditures on health (axis motion. The proposed indicator to estimate the socio-economic effectiveness of state investments in domestic health care guarantees the most objective and clear assessment, conducted on the basis of standard methods of mathematical statistics, ensuring a high accuracy of the calculations. The rate of rise in life expectancy, depending on the volume of public investment in health care, can be used for the scientific justification, for example, of the degree of Federal budget participation in the regional programs to promote national health

  7. Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Yun, Sung-Cheol

    2014-06-05

    Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriaga's decomposition method. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23 years in men and 7.69 years in women. Young adult groups aged 35-49 in men and aged 25-39 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 25-29 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy

  8. When Things Do Not Go as Expected: Scenario Life Savers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Lippert, A.; Glavin, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss scenario life savers - interventions before and during simulation scenarios that allow to create and use relevant learning opportunities, even if unexpected events happen during the conduction of the scenario. Scenario life savers are needed, when the comprehension or acc...

  9. The Crossover between Life Expectancies at Birth and at Age One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Becker, S

    2011-01-01

    The single most used demographic measure to describe population health is life expectancy at birth, but life expectancies at ages other than zero are also used in the study of human longevity. Our intuition tells us that the longest life expectancy is that of a newborn. However, historically, the...... years. Subpopulation comparisons for the US show that black Americans are near to transitioning out of the imbalanced life table situation while the white population has already done so.......The single most used demographic measure to describe population health is life expectancy at birth, but life expectancies at ages other than zero are also used in the study of human longevity. Our intuition tells us that the longest life expectancy is that of a newborn. However, historically......, the expectation of life at age one (e1) has exceeded the expectation of life at birth (e0). The crossover between e0 and e1 only occurred in the developed world in the second half of the twentieth century. Life tables for populations that have not achieved this crossing between life expectancy at birth and at age...

  10. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. Life at High Temperatures. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 23-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/09/0023-0036. Keywords.

  11. Life Expectancy at Birth in Milwaukee County: A Zip Code-Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. LeCounte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Life expectancy at birth is used as a barometer of the health and well-being of a population. Life expectancies vary widely across Wisconsin counties. While much of the analysis of life expectancy in Wisconsin has focused on counties, there may be important differences in life expectancy within counties by zip code. Methods: To calculate life expectancy, death count data and population estimates were entered into an abridged life table using the Chiang methodology. Data were linked with measures from the American Community Survey to examine the relationship between life expectancy and zip code characteristics. Results: Life expectancy varies greatly across zip codes in Milwaukee County. Overall, there was a 12-year difference in the life expectancy of children born into zip codes with the lowest and highest life expectancy: 53206 (71.3 years and 53217 (83.2 years. There was a strong positive correlation between life expectancy and median household income (r = 0.784, P < 0.0001, educational attainment of a bachelor’s degree or higher (r = 0.741, P < 0.0001 and the socioeconomic index combining education and income (r = 0.819, P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Disparities in life expectancy within Milwaukee County are stark and correlate with differences in social and economic factors. To improve health outcomes such as life expectancy, health care practitioners and health care systems must become more involved in activities at the social and policy levels to improve social and economic conditions that would allow their patients to live healthier and longer lives.

  12. Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy among Canadian Adults with and without Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Loukine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension can lead to cardiovascular diseases and other chronic conditions. While the impact of hypertension on premature death and life expectancy has been published, the impact on health-adjusted life expectancy has not, and constitutes the research objective of this study. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE is the number of expected years of life equivalent to years lived in full health. Data were obtained from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (mortality data 2004–2006 and the Canadian Community Health Survey (Health Utilities Index data 2000–2005 for people with and without hypertension. Life table analysis was applied to calculate life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy and their confidence intervals. Our results show that for Canadians 20 years of age, without hypertension, life expectancy is 65.4 years and 61.0 years, for females and males, respectively. HALE is 55.0 years and 52.8 years for the two sexes at age 20; and 24.7 years and 22.9 years at age 55. For Canadians with hypertension, HALE is only 48.9 years and 47.1 years for the two sexes at age 20; and 22.7 years and 20.2 years at age 55. Hypertension is associated with a significant loss in health-adjusted life expectancy compared to life expectancy.

  13. The crossover between life expectancies at birth and at age one: The imbalance in the life table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The single most used demographic measure to describe population health is life expectancy at birth, but life expectancies at ages other than zero are also used in the study of human longevity. Our intuition tells us that the longest life expectancy is that of a newborn. However, historically, the expectation of life at age one (e1 has exceeded the expectation of life at birth (e0. The crossover between e0 and e1 only occurred in the developed world in the second half of the twentieth century. Life tables for populations that have not achieved this crossing between life expectancy at birth and at age one are referred to here as imbalanced. This crossover occurs when infant mortality is equal to the inverse of life expectancy at age one. This simple relation between mortality at age zero and mortality after age one divides the world into countries that have achieved the crossover in life expectancies and those that have not. It is a within-population comparison of mortality at infancy and after age one. However, results of these within-population comparisons can be used for comparison between populations. For countries that have already achieved this crossing in life expectancies, the sex differential in the timing of the crossing is marked: Females attain the crossing before males for every single population and in some cases by up to 18 years earlier. However, for most developing countries, life expectancy at age one is still higher than life expectancy at birth, in some cases by several years. Subpopulation comparisons for the US show how black Americans are near to transitioning out of the imbalanced life table situation while the white population has already done so.

  14. A Second Look at "School-Life Expectancy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Bilal Fouad

    2012-01-01

    The number of years a child of school-entry age can expect to remain in school is of great interest both as a measure of individual human capital and of the performance of an education system. An approximate indicator of this concept is the sum of age-specific enrolment rates. The relatively low data demands of this indicator that are feasible to…

  15. Gender, educational and ethnic differences in active life expectancy among older Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angelique; Malhotra, Rahul; Matchar, David B; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compute total life expectancy (TLE), active life expectancy (ALE) and inactive life expectancy among older Singaporeans by gender, education and ethnicity. Data from a longitudinal survey of older Singaporeans were used. No difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living was considered as "active." Transition probabilities across health states (active/inactive/dead) were assessed to develop multistate life tables, which estimated TLE, ALE and inactive life expectancy. At age 60 years, women, versus men, had significantly higher TLE (25.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.0-27.8 vs 21.6, 95% CI 20.1-23.1), but similar ALE (18.1, 95% CI 17.0-19.2 vs 18.9, 95% CI 17.7-20.2). Those with high (secondary or higher), versus low (primary or less), education had significantly higher TLE (28.5, 95% CI 25.0-32.0 vs 22.5, 95% CI 21.1-23.9) and ALE (23.5, 95% CI 21.2-25.7 vs 17.1, 95% CI 16.1-18.0) at age 60 years. Those of Chinese, versus non-Chinese, ethnicity had significantly higher ALE at age 60 years (19.4, 95% CI 18.4-20.3 vs 15.0, 95% CI 13.4-16.7). Unlike Western nations, there was no gender difference in ALE among older adults in Singapore. However, difference in ALE by education among older Singaporeans was similar to that observed in Western societies. Policies focusing specifically on improving women's health at all ages, in addition to policies that increase population education levels, are promising approaches to improving ALE. Recognizing ethnic differences in ALE will help target policies that increase ALE in multicultural societies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Assessing the direct effects of the ebola outbreak on life expectancy in liberia, sierra leone and Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stephane; Noymer, Andrew

    2015-02-19

    An EVD outbreak may reduce life expectancy directly (due to high mortality among EVD cases) and indirectly (e.g., due to lower utilization of healthcare and subsequent increases in non-EVD mortality). In this paper, we investigated the direct effects of EVD on life expectancy in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea (LSLG thereafter). We used data on EVD cases and deaths published in situation reports by the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as data on the age of EVD cases reported from patient datasets. We used data on non-EVD mortality from the most recent life tables published prior to the EVD outbreak. We then formulated three scenarios based on hypotheses about a) the extent of under-reporting of EVD cases and b) the EVD case fatality ratio. For each scenario, we re-estimated the number of EVD deaths in LSLG and we applied standard life table techniques to calculate life expectancy. In Liberia, possible reductions in life expectancy resulting from EVD deaths ranged from 1.63 year (low EVD scenario) to 5.56 years (high EVD scenario), whereas in Sierra Leone, possible life expectancy declines ranged from 1.38 to 5.10 years. In Guinea, the direct effects of EVD on life expectancy were more limited (life expectancy may have declined in Liberia and Sierra Leone to levels these two countries had not experienced since 2001-2003, i.e., approximately the end of their civil wars. The total effects of EVD on life expectancy may however be larger due to possible concomitant increases in non-EVD mortality during the outbreak.

  17. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banda, Richard; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Fylkesnes, Knut; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    .... We used associated single decrement life tables, assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths to estimate the potential gains in female life expectancy at birth, at age 15, and over the ages 15-49...

  18. Double impact of sterilizing pathogens: added value of increased life expectancy on pest control effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Luděk; Maxin, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sterilizing pathogens are commonly assumed not to affect longevity of infected individuals, and if they do then negatively. Examples abound, however, of species in which the absence of reproduction actually increases life expectancy. This happens because by decreasing the energy outlay on reproduction individuals with lowered reproduction can live longer. Alternatively, fertile individuals are more susceptible to predators or parasitoids if the latter can capitalize on mating signals of the former. Here we develop and analyze an SI epidemiological model to explore whether and to what extent does such a life expectancy prolongation due to sterilizing pathogens affect host dynamics. In particular, we are interested in an added value of increased life expectancy on the possibility of successful pest control, that is, the effect of increased lifespan and hence increased potential of the infected individuals to spread the disease on pest control effectiveness. We show that although the parameter range in which we observe an effect of increased lifespan of the sterilized individuals is not large, the effect itself can be significant. In particular, the increase in pest control effectiveness can be very dramatic when disease transmission efficiency is close to birth rate, mortality rate of susceptibles is relatively high (i.e., the species is relatively short-lived), and sterilization efficiency is relatively high. Our results thus characterize pathogens that are promising candidates for an effective pest control and that might possibly be engineered if not occurring naturally.

  19. When Things Do Not Go as Expected: Scenario Life Savers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Lippert, A.; Glavin, R.

    2010-01-01

    or acceptance of the scenario by the participants is at stake, thus compromising learning opportunities. Scenario life savers can principally work by bringing participants back on track of the planned scenario or by adapting the conduction to their actions on the fly. Interventions can be within the logic...... of the scenario or from the "outside," not being part of the scenario itself. Scenario life savers should be anticipated during the design of scenarios and used carefully during their conduction, aiming to maximize the learning for participants. (Sim Healthcare 5: 219-225, 2010)...

  20. Trends Over 4 Decades in Disability-Free Life Expectancy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Eileen M; Zhang, Yuan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    To examine changes over 40 years (1970-2010) in life expectancy, life expectancy with disability, and disability-free life expectancy for American men and women of all ages. We used mortality rates from US Vital Statistics and data on disability prevalence in the community-dwelling population from the National Health Interview Survey; for the institutional population, we computed disability prevalence from the US Census. We used the Sullivan method to estimate disabled and disability-free life expectancy for 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Over the 40 years, there was a steady increase in both disability-free life expectancy and disabled life expectancy. At birth, increases in disabled life and nondisabled life were equal for men (4.5 years); for women, at birth the increase in life with disability (3.6 years) exceeded the increase in life free of disability (2.7 years). At age 65 years, the increase in disability-free life was greater than the increase in disabled life. Across the life cycle, there was no compression of morbidity, but at age 65 years some compression occurred.

  1. Trends Over 4 Decades in Disability-Free Life Expectancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes over 40 years (1970–2010) in life expectancy, life expectancy with disability, and disability-free life expectancy for American men and women of all ages. Methods. We used mortality rates from US Vital Statistics and data on disability prevalence in the community-dwelling population from the National Health Interview Survey; for the institutional population, we computed disability prevalence from the US Census. We used the Sullivan method to estimate disabled and disability-free life expectancy for 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Results. Over the 40 years, there was a steady increase in both disability-free life expectancy and disabled life expectancy. At birth, increases in disabled life and nondisabled life were equal for men (4.5 years); for women, at birth the increase in life with disability (3.6 years) exceeded the increase in life free of disability (2.7 years). At age 65 years, the increase in disability-free life was greater than the increase in disabled life. Conclusions. Across the life cycle, there was no compression of morbidity, but at age 65 years some compression occurred. PMID:27077352

  2. Decomposing changes in life expectancy: Compression versus shifting mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Ebeling, Marcus; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Shifting and compression of mortality have been studied through two components of mortality: modal age at death and variability of the age at death. These two components inform us about the timing and age patterns of mortality respectively. The aim of this study is to decompose changes in life...

  3. Expectations Lead to Performance: The Transformative Power of High Expectations in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Engler, Karen S.; Oetting, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the preschool program at Missouri State University where deaf and hard of hearing children with all communication modalities and all styles of personal assistive listening devices are served. The job of the early intervention providers is to model for parents what high expectations look like and how to translate those…

  4. Happier countries, longer lives: an ecological study on the relationship between subjective sense of well-being and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Grahame F; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between sense of well-being and longevity is not well-established across populations of varying levels of socioeconomic status. We sought to examine the relationship between happiness, or subjective sense of well-being and life expectancy using data from 151 countries. This analysis is based on the 2012 Happy Planet Index project conducted by the Center of Well-Being of the New Economics Foundation, based in the United Kingdom. Well-being data for each country were taken from responses to the 'Ladder of Life' question in the 2012 Gallup World Poll in which participants were asked to rate their quality of life on a scale from 1 (worst possible life) to 10 (best possible life). Life expectancy and gross domestic product data were taken from the 2011 United Nations records. Ecological footprint data were taken from Global Footprint Network records. Subjective sense of well-being was highly correlated with life expectancy (Pearson correlation r = 0.71, p ecological footprint, and population, each 1 unit of the well-being scale was associated with an increase in life expectancy of 4.0 years (95% confidence interval = 2.7-5.3). In conclusion, better sense of well-being has a strong relationship with life expectancy regardless of economic status or population size, suggesting that governments should foster happiness in order to support long-living populations.

  5. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  6. Use of Surveillance Mammography Among Older Breast Cancer Survivors by Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A; Keating, Nancy L; Pace, Lydia E; Lii, Joyce; McCarthy, Ellen P; Schonberg, Mara A

    2017-09-20

    Purpose The benefits of annual surveillance mammography in older breast cancer survivors with limited life expectancy are not known, and there are important risks; however, little is known about mammography use among these women. Materials and Methods We used National Health Interview Study data from 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2013, and 2015 to examine surveillance mammography use among women age ≥ 65 years who reported a history of breast cancer. Using multivariable logistic regression, we assessed the probability of mammography within the last 12 months by 5- and 10-year life expectancy (using the validated Schonberg index), adjusting for survey year, region, age, marital status, insurance, educational attainment, and indicators of access to care. Results Of 1,040 respondents, 33.7% were age ≥ 80 years and 88.6% were white. Approximately 8.6% and 35.1% had an estimated life expectancy of ≤ 5 and ≤ 10 years, respectively. Overall, 78.9% reported having routine surveillance mammography in the last 12 months. Receipt of mammography decreased with decreasing life expectancy ( P life expectancy, respectively, reported mammography in the last year. Conversely, 14.1% of those with life expectancy > 10 years did not report mammography. In adjusted analyses, lower ( v higher) life expectancy was significantly associated with lower odds of mammography (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.8 for ≤ 5-year life expectancy and OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.6 for ≤ 10-year life expectancy). Conclusion Many (57%) older breast cancer survivors with an estimated short life expectancy (life expectancy > 10 years did not report mammography. Practice guidelines are needed to optimize and tailor follow-up care for older patients.

  7. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  8. Inequalities in Life Expectancy Among US Counties, 1980 to 2014: Temporal Trends and Key Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Stubbs, Rebecca W; Morozoff, Chloe; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mokdad, Ali H; Murray, Christopher J L

    2017-07-01

    Examining life expectancy by county allows for tracking geographic disparities over time and assessing factors related to these disparities. This information is potentially useful for policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to reduce disparities and increase longevity. To estimate annual life tables by county from 1980 to 2014; describe trends in geographic inequalities in life expectancy and age-specific risk of death; and assess the proportion of variation in life expectancy explained by variation in socioeconomic and race/ethnicity factors, behavioral and metabolic risk factors, and health care factors. Annual county-level life tables were constructed using small area estimation methods from deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and population counts from the US Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database. Measures of geographic inequality in life expectancy and age-specific mortality risk were calculated. Principal component analysis and ordinary least squares regression were used to examine the county-level association between life expectancy and socioeconomic and race/ethnicity factors, behavioral and metabolic risk factors, and health care factors. County of residence. Life expectancy at birth and age-specific mortality risk. Counties were combined as needed to create stable units of analysis over the period 1980 to 2014, reducing the number of areas analyzed from 3142 to 3110. In 2014, life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 79.1 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 79.0-79.1) years overall, but differed by 20.1 (95% UI, 19.1-21.3) years between the counties with the lowest and highest life expectancy. Absolute geographic inequality in life expectancy increased between 1980 and 2014. Over the same period, absolute geographic inequality in the risk of death decreased among children and adolescents, but increased among older adults. Socioeconomic and race/ethnicity factors, behavioral

  9. Educational differentials in life expectancy with cognitive impairment among the elderly in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lièvre, Agnès; Alley, Dawn; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2008-06-01

    This article provides estimates of education differentials in life expectancy with and without cognitive impairment for the noninstitutionalized population aged 70 years and older in the United States. Life expectancy with cognitive impairment was calculated using multistate models, allowing transitions between cognitively intact and cognitively impaired states and from each of these states to death and allowing transition rates to vary across age and education. Four waves of the Assets and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old survey were used. Those with low levels of education are more likely to become cognitively impaired and do so at an earlier age. After age 70, persons with low educational levels can expect to live 11.6 years, and persons with high education 14.1 years, without cognitive impairment. Length of life with cognitive impairment differs by education (1.6 years and 1.0 years at age 70, respectively) but differs little by age. Although those with higher education have lower rates of both cognitive impairment and mortality, those who do become cognitively impaired appear to be in poorer health, leading to a reduced probability of improved cognition and increased probability of mortality relative to those with lower educational levels.

  10. Life Expectancy With and Without Pain in the U.S. Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study contributes to dialogue on quality versus quantity of life by examining years older persons can expect to live in various states of pain. Methods: Data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study; N = 26,896; age 55+. Estimations using the Interpolative Markov Chain approach apply probability transitions to multistate life table functions. Two estimates are interpreted: (i) population-based, which provide population averages aggregated across baseline states and (ii) status-based, which provide independent estimates by baseline state. Age- and sex-specific years with no pain, milder nonlimiting, and severe or limiting pain are reported as is percent of life in states of pain. Results: Females have higher life expectancy than males but similar expectations of pain-free life. Total life expectancy varies only slightly by baseline pain states but pain-free life expectancy varies greatly. For example, an 85-year-old female pain-free at baseline expects 7.04 more years, 5.28 being pain-free. An 85-year-old female with severe pain at baseline expects 6.42 years with only 2.66 pain-free. Percent of life with pain decreases by age for those pain-free at baseline and increases for those with pain at baseline. Conclusion: Pain is moderately associated with quantity of or total life but substantially and importantly associated with quality of or pain-free life. PMID:26988661

  11. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia : Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, Richard; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Fylkesnes, Knut; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy

  12. A Comparative Study of Handicap-Free Life Expectancy of China in 1987 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dejian

    2009-01-01

    After the first large scale national sampling survey on handicapped persons in 1987, China conducted its second national sampling survey in 2006. Using the data from these two surveys and the national life tables, we computed and compared the expected years of life free of handicapped condition by the Sullivan method. The expected years of life…

  13. Dementia-free life expectancy (demFLE) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R.J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Alewijn, O.; Water, H.P.A. van de

    1996-01-01

    To gain an insight into the burden of dementia in an aging society, life expectancy with dementia and its counterpart dementia-free life expectancy (DemFLE) in The Netherlands are presented. Sullivan's method was used to calculate DemFLE. For elderly living either independently or in homes for the

  14. Impact of homicide and traffic crashes on life expectancy in the largest Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rasella, Davide; Aquino, Rosana; Barreto, Maurício L

    2016-09-01

    Brazil and Canada are on opposite poles of the spectrum for life expectancy in America. We identified factors underlying Brazil's lower life expectancy relative to Canada, with emphasis on the role of injury compared with other major causes. We computed life expectancy at birth in Brazil and Canada in 2010 and identified the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between both countries. The main outcome measure was the contribution of homicide and traffic accidents to the gap, compared with other causes of death. Relative to Canada, life expectancy was lower in Brazil by 8.2 years (men) and 5.2 years (women). Injury lowered life expectancy of men in Brazil by 2.2 years, or more than a quarter of the gap, mainly due to homicide and traffic accidents between ages 20 and 64 years. Homicide and traffic accidents contributed more than all circulatory diseases combined. In women, circulatory disease was the most important cause of lower life expectancy. In 2010, homicides and traffic accidents were the principal cause for short life expectancy of men in Brazil. Improving life expectancy in Brazil requires addressing the root causes of inequalities that drive illicit drug trade, violence and accidents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. People with Intellectual Disability: What Do We Know about Adulthood and Life Expectancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppus, A. M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the life expectancy of people with Intellectual Disability have followed similar trends to those found in the general population. With the exception of people with severe and multiple disabilities or Down syndrome, the life expectancy of this group now closely approximates with that of the general population. Middle and old age, which…

  16. Lack of improvement of life expectancy at advanced ages in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several countries have reported an increase in life expectancy at advanced ages. This paper analyses recent changes in life expectancy at age 60 and 85 in The Netherlands, a low mortality country with reliable mortality data. METHODS: We used

  17. Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Maternal Mortality Declines. NBER Working Paper No. 13947

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Seema; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Longer life expectancy should encourage human capital accumulation, since a longer time horizon increases the value of investments that pay out over time. Previous work has been unable to determine the empirical importance of this life-expectancy effect due to the difficulty of isolating it from other effects of health on education. We examine a…

  18. Violence deaths and its impact on life expectancy: a comparison between Mexico and Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez-Guillermo Julian Perez; Vega-Maria Guadalupe Lopez; Edinilsa Ramos deSouza; Liana Wernersbach Pinto

    2017-01-01

    ...) in Brazil and Mexico in the three-year periods 2002-2004 and 2012-14, the impact of these causes of death on life expectancy in both countries and the role of the different age groups in years of life expectancy lost (YLEL...

  19. The Life Expectancy of Medical Professionals in the Netherlands : Sixteenth to Twentieth Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieburg, F.A.; van Poppel, Frans; Bijwaard, Govert; Hoekstra, Rik; van Lieburg, Mart; Verkade, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Rising life expectancy has been suggested as a determining factor behind the start of modern economic growth. On the basis of information relating to elite groups, economic historians have thus questioned the idea, prevalent among most demographers, that life expectancy remained quite stable until

  20. Recent insights into life expectancy with and without dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Jane O; Da Silva-Gane, Maria; Germain, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Elderly patients comprise the fastest growing population initiating dialysis and also experience the worst outcomes, including increased mortality, loss of functional status, and impaired quality of life. Nephrologists are often challenged with how best to engage in dialysis decision-making discussions within this population. Prognostication tools can assist nephrologists in engaging in these discussions, especially in patients for whom survival benefits may be outweighed by the burdens of treatment. This review includes the latest research in the survival of elderly patients with and without dialysis; prognostic factors associated with renal progression and survival; and integrative prognostic models to predict both short-term and long-term prognosis. The concept of kidney illness disease trajectory is defined with important outcomes including survival, health-related quality of life, and symptoms with and without dialysis. This prognostic information will then be integrated into an individualized approach to shared decision-making regarding treatment decision-making.(Figure is included in full-text article.) Treatment decision-making for elderly patients with advanced kidney disease necessitates an active process between nephrologist and patient, incorporating medical information as well as patient preferences. Prognostic information and observational data can facilitate nephrologists' ability to foresee and foretell the illness trajectory both with and without dialysis, further guiding these conversations.

  1. National independence, women's political participation, and life expectancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women's political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women's political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cumulative Childhood Adversity, Educational Attainment, and Active Life Expectancy Among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998–2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50–100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels. PMID:24281740

  3. Educational differences in life expectancy over five decades among the oldest old in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Jonas Minet; Steingrímsdóttir, Ólöf Anna; Moe, Joakim Oliu; Skirbekk, Vegard; Næss, Øyvind; Strand, Bjørn Heine

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy have been shown among the middle aged and the youngest of the old individuals, but the situation in the oldest old is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in life expectancy at ages 85, 90 and 95 years by education in Norway in the period 1961-2009. This was a register-based population study including all residents in Norway aged 85 and over. Individual-level data were provided by the Central Population Register and the National Education Database. For each decade during 1961-2009, death rates by 1-year age groups were calculated separately for each sex and three educational categories. Annual life tables were used to calculate life expectancy at ages 85 (e85), 90 (e90) and 95 (e95). Educational differentials in life expectancy at each age were non-significant in the early decades, but became significant over time. For example, for the decade 2000-9, a man aged 90 years with primary education had a life expectancy of 3.4 years, while a man with tertiary education could expect to live for 3.8 years. Similar numbers in women were 4.1 and 4.5 years, respectively. Even among 95-year-old men, statistically significant differences in life expectancy were found by education in the two last decades. Education matters regarding remaining life expectancy also for the oldest old in Norway. Life expectancy at these ages is low, so a growth of 0.5 years in the life expectancy differential is sizeable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob; Rosen, Sydney; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Haber, Noah; Herbst, Kobus; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-11-01

    men, HIV-related mortality declined from 1.71 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.55, 1.88) to 0.76 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.67, 0.87) in the same period. The female-to-male rate ratio for HIV mortality declined from 0.93 (95% CI 0.82-1.07) in 2003 to 0.73 (95% CI 0.60-0.89) in 2011, a statistically significant decline (p = 0.046). In 2011, 57% and 41% of HIV-related deaths occurred among men and women, respectively, who had never sought care for HIV in spite of the widespread availability of free HIV treatment. The results presented here come from a poor rural setting in southern Africa with high HIV prevalence and high HIV treatment coverage; broader generalizability is unknown. Additionally, factors other than HIV treatment scale-up may have influenced population mortality trends. Mass HIV treatment has been accompanied by faster declines in HIV mortality among women than men and a growing female-male disparity in adult life expectancy at the population level. In 2011, over half of male HIV deaths occurred in men who had never sought clinical HIV care. Interventions to increase HIV testing and linkage to care among men are urgently needed.

  5. Longevity in Slovenia: Past and potential gains in life expectancy by age and causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrič Dolinar, Aleša; Došenović Bonča, Petra; Sambt, Jože

    2017-06-01

    In Slovenia, longevity is increasing rapidly. From 1997 to 2014, life expectancy at birth increased by 7 and 5 years for men and women, respectively. This paper explores how this gain in life expectancy at birth can be attributed to reduced mortality from five major groups of causes of death by 5-year age groups. It also estimates potential future gains in life expectancy at birth. The importance of the five major causes of death was analysed by cause-elimination life tables. The total elimination of individual causes of death and a partial hypothetical adjustment of mortality to Spanish levels were analysed, along with age and cause decomposition (Pollard). During the 1997-2014 period, the increase in life expectancy at birth was due to lower mortality from circulatory diseases (ages above 60, both genders), as well as from lower mortality from neoplasms (ages above 50 years) and external causes (between 20 and 50 years) for men. However, considering the potential future gains in life expectancy at birth, by far the strongest effect can be attributed to lower mortality due to circulatory diseases for both genders. If Spanish mortality rates were reached, life expectancy at birth would increase by more than 2 years, again mainly because of lower mortality from circulatory diseases in very old ages. Life expectancy analyses can improve evidence-based decision-making and allocation of resources among different prevention programmes and measures for more effective disease management that can also reduce the economic burden of chronic diseases.

  6. Population-Based Estimates of Life Expectancy After HIV Diagnosis. United States 2008 – 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Irene Hall, H.; Hu, Xiaohong; Song, Ruiguang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Using National HIV surveillance system data we estimated life expectancy and average years of life lost among person diagnosed with HIV infection during 2008–2011. Methods Population-based surveillance data, restricted to persons with diagnosed HIV infection age 13 years or older, from all 50 states and D.C. were used to estimate life expectancy after HIV diagnosis using the life table method. Generated estimates were compared with life expectancy in the general population in the same calendar year to calculate average years of life lost (AYLL). Life expectancy and average years of life lost were also estimated for subgroups by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The overall life expectancy after HIV diagnosis in the United States, increased 3.43 years from 25.43 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 25.37–25.49) in 2008, to 28.86 (95% CI 28.80–28.92) in 2011. Improvements were observed irrespective of sex, race/ethnicity, transmission category and stage of disease at diagnosis, though the extent of improvement varied by different characteristics. Based on the life expectancy in the general population, in 2010 the AYLL, were 12.8 years for males and 16.5 years for females. By race/ethnicity, on average blacks (13.3 years) and whites (13.4 years) had fewer AYLL than Hispanic/Latinos (14.7). Conclusions Despite improvements in life expectancy among people diagnosed with an HIV infection during 2008–2011, disparities by sex and by race/ethnicity persist. Targeted efforts should continue to further reduce disparities and improve life expectancy after HIV diagnosis. PMID:26890283

  7. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-04-26

    The relationship between income and life expectancy is well established but remains poorly understood. To measure the level, time trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy and to identify factors related to small area variation. Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion deidentified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Pretax household earnings as a measure of income. Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. The sample consisted of 1,408,287,218 person-year observations for individuals aged 40 to 76 years (mean age, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61,175 per year). There were 4,114,380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100,000) and 2,694,808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100,000). The analysis yielded 4 results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for women in the bottom 5% (P life expectancy for low-income individuals varied substantially across local areas. In

  8. Decennial trends and inequalities in healthy life expectancy: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Siri H; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar; Sund, Erik R

    2017-03-01

    Norway is experiencing a rising life expectancy combined with an increasing dependency ratio - the ratio of those outside over those within the working force. To provide data relevant for future health policy we wanted to study trends in total and healthy life expectancy in a Norwegian population over three decades (1980s, 1990s and 2000s), both overall and across gender and educational groups. Data were obtained from the HUNT Study, and the Norwegian Educational Database. We calculated total life expectancy and used the Sullivan method to calculate healthy life expectancies based on self-rated health and self-reported longstanding limiting illness. The change in health expectancies was decomposed into mortality and disability effects. During three consecutive decades we found an increase in life expectancy for 30-year-olds (~7 years) and expected lifetime in self-rated good health (~6 years), but time without longstanding limiting illness increased less (1.5 years). Women could expect to live longer than men, but the extra life years for females were spent in poor self-rated health and with longstanding limiting illness. Differences in total life expectancy between educational groups decreased, whereas differences in expected lifetime in self-rated good health and lifetime without longstanding limiting illness increased. The increase in total life expectancy was accompanied by an increasing number of years spent in good self-rated health but more years with longstanding limiting illness. This suggests increasing health care needs for people with chronic diseases, given an increasing number of elderly. Socioeconomic health inequalities remain a challenge for increasing pensioning age.

  9. Adult life expectancy trends in the era of antiretroviral treatment in rural Uganda (1991-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiki, Gershim; Reniers, Georges; Newton, Robert; Baisley, Kathy; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Slaymaker, Emma; Kasamba, Ivan; Seeley, Janet; Todd, Jim; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kamali, Anatoli

    2016-01-28

    To estimate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on population-wide adult life expectancy. A population-based open cohort study with repeated HIV status measurements and registration of vital events in Southwestern Uganda (1991-2012). Nonparametric survival analysis techniques are used for estimating trends in the adult life expectancy of the general population (aged 15 and above), the adult life expectancy by HIV status, and the adult life expectancy deficit. The life expectancy deficit is estimated as the difference between overall life expectancy and life expectancy of the HIV-negative population. All estimates are disaggregated by sex. Between 1991-1993 and 2009-2012, population-wide adult life expectancy increased from 39.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 35.9-42.8] to 56.1 years (95% CI: 54.0-58.5) in women, and from 38.6 (95% CI: 35.4-42.1) to 51.4 years (95% CI: 49.2-53.7) in men. Most of the adult life expectancy gains coincide with the introduction of ART in 2004; as evidenced by an increase in the adult life expectancy of people living with HIV between 2000-2002 and 2009-2012 of 22.9 and 20.0 years for women and men, respectively. Over the whole period of observation, the adult life expectancy deficit associated with HIV decreased from 16.1 (95% CI: 12.7-19.8) to 6.0 years (95% CI: 4.1-7.8) among women, and from 16.0 (95% CI: 12.1-19.9) to 2.8 years (95% CI: 1.2-4.6) among men. Population-wide life expectancy increased substantially, largely driven by reductions in HIV-related mortality. Women have gained more adult life years than men since the introduction of ART, but the burden of HIV in terms of the life years lost is still larger for women than it is for men.

  10. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  11. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century...... and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Methods: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current...... mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys...

  12. Happy life expectancy among older adults: differences by sex and functional limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth G Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate if the happy life expectancy in older adults differs according to sex and functional limitations. METHODS Life expectancy was estimated by Chiang method, and happy life expectancy was estimated by Sullivan method, combining mortality data with the prevalence of happiness. The questions on happiness and limitations came from a health survey, which interviewed 1,514 non-institutionalized older adults living in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The happy life expectancy was estimated by sex, age, and functional limitations. Based on the variance and standard error of the happy life expectancy, we estimated 95% confidence intervals, which allowed us to compare the statistical differences of the number of happy years lived among men and women. RESULTS Differences by sex in happy life expectancy were significant at ages 60, 65, and 70. In absolute terms, women live more years happily. But, in relative terms, older men could expect to live proportionally more years with happiness. Happy life expectancy decreased significantly with increasing age in both men and women. Among older people living without functional limitation, differences by sex were statistically significant in all age groups, except at age 80. In the group with limitations, no significant differences by sex were found. Significant differences between the group without and with functional limitations were seen in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS Older men could expect to live a greater proportion of their lives happily in comparison to same-aged women, but women show more years with happiness than men. Functional limitations have a significant impact on happy life expectancy for both sexes.

  13. Happy life expectancy among older adults: differences by sex and functional limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Margareth G; Belon, Ana Paula; Barros, Marilisa Ba

    2016-11-10

    To evaluate if the happy life expectancy in older adults differs according to sex and functional limitations. Life expectancy was estimated by Chiang method, and happy life expectancy was estimated by Sullivan method, combining mortality data with the prevalence of happiness. The questions on happiness and limitations came from a health survey, which interviewed 1,514 non-institutionalized older adults living in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The happy life expectancy was estimated by sex, age, and functional limitations. Based on the variance and standard error of the happy life expectancy, we estimated 95% confidence intervals, which allowed us to compare the statistical differences of the number of happy years lived among men and women. Differences by sex in happy life expectancy were significant at ages 60, 65, and 70. In absolute terms, women live more years happily. But, in relative terms, older men could expect to live proportionally more years with happiness. Happy life expectancy decreased significantly with increasing age in both men and women. Among older people living without functional limitation, differences by sex were statistically significant in all age groups, except at age 80. In the group with limitations, no significant differences by sex were found. Significant differences between the group without and with functional limitations were seen in both men and women. Older men could expect to live a greater proportion of their lives happily in comparison to same-aged women, but women show more years with happiness than men. Functional limitations have a significant impact on happy life expectancy for both sexes.

  14. Bayesian projection of life expectancy accounting for the HIV/AIDS epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godwin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While probabilistic projection methods for projecting life expectancy exist, few account for covariates related to life expectancy. Generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics have a large, immediate negative impact on the life expectancy in a country, but this impact can be mitigated by widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART. Thus, projection methods for countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics could be improved by accounting for HIV prevalence, the future course of the epidemic, and ART coverage. Methods: We extend the current Bayesian probabilistic life expectancy projection methods of Raftery et al. (2013 to account for HIV prevalence and adult ART coverage in countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics. Results: We evaluate our method using out-of-sample validation. We find that the proposed method performs better than the method that does not account for HIV prevalence or ART coverage for projections of life expectancy in countries with a generalized epidemic, while projections for countries without an epidemic remain essentially unchanged. Conclusions: In general, our projections show rapid recovery to pre-epidemic life expectancy levels in the presence of widespread ART coverage. After the initial life expectancy recovery, we project a steady rise in life expectancy until the end of the century. Contribution: We develop a simple Bayesian hierarchical model for long-term projections of life expectancy while accounting for HIV/AIDS prevalence and coverage of ART. The method produces well-calibrated projections for countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics up to 2100 while having limited data demands.

  15. Healthy life expectancy of Thai elderly: did it improve during the soap-bubble economic period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitapunkul, S; Chayovan, N

    2000-08-01

    Healthy life expectancy (HLE) of Thai elderly was studied to clarify the health benefit for the elderly population in Thailand during the soap-bubble economic period by comparing their HLE and life expectancy (LE) in 1986 and 1995. The information on the perceived health status of Thai elderly, aged 60 and over, from two national surveys in 1986 and 1995 and the life tables of correspondent years were used for calculating healthy life expectancy. Both life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) of Thai elderly have markedly increased between 1986 and 1995. Regardless of sex, the HLE-LE ratios of nearly all age groups increased from 1986 to 1995. This suggests that the unhealthy life duration had been compressed. Women spend more years than men both active and inactive at every age; however, the proportion of life that is expected to be active is less for women. In conclusion, health and well-being of Thai elderly population significantly improved during the soap-bubble economic period (1989-1996) of Thailand.

  16. Population-Based Estimates of Life Expectancy After HIV Diagnosis: United States 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Hall, H Irene; Hu, Xiaohong; Song, Ruiguang

    2016-06-01

    Using National HIV surveillance system data, we estimated life expectancy and average years of life lost (AYLL) among persons diagnosed with HIV infection during 2008-2011. Population-based surveillance data, restricted to persons with diagnosed HIV infection aged 13 years or older, from all 50 states and Washington, D.C. were used to estimate life expectancy after HIV diagnosis using the life table method. Generated estimates were compared with life expectancy in the general population in the same calendar year to calculate AYLL. Life expectancy and AYLL were also estimated for subgroups by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The overall life expectancy after HIV diagnosis in the United States increased by 3.43 years from 25.43 (95% CI: 25.37 to 25.49) in 2008 to 28.86 (95% CI: 28.80 to 28.92) in 2011. Improvements were observed irrespective of sex, race/ethnicity, transmission category, and stage of disease at diagnosis, though the extent of improvement varied by different characteristics. Based on the life expectancy in the general population, in 2010, the AYLL were 12.8 years for males and 16.5 years for females. By race/ethnicity, on average, blacks (13.3 years) and whites (13.4 years) had fewer AYLL than Hispanics/Latinos (14.7). Despite improvements in life expectancy among people diagnosed with an HIV infection during 2008-2011, disparities by sex and by race/ethnicity persist. Targeted efforts should continue to further reduce disparities and improve life expectancy after HIV diagnosis.

  17. Estimated Life Expectancy in a Scottish Cohort With Type 1 Diabetes, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Shona J.; Levin, Daniel; Looker, Helen C.; Lindsay, Robert S.; Wild, Sarah H.; Joss, Nicola; Leese, Graham; Leslie, Peter; McCrimmon, Rory J.; Metcalfe, Wendy; McKnight, John A.; Morris, Andrew D.; Pearson, Donald W. M.; Petrie, John R.; Philip, Sam; Sattar, Naveed A.; Traynor, Jamie P.; Colhoun, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Type 1 diabetes has historically been associated with a significant reduction in life expectancy. Major advances in treatment of type 1 diabetes have occurred in the past 3 decades. Contemporary estimates of the effect of type 1 diabetes on life expectancy are needed. OBJECTIVE To examine current life expectancy in people with and without type 1 diabetes in Scotland. We also examined whether any loss of life expectancy in patients with type 1 diabetes is confined to those who develop kidney disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective cohort of all individuals alive in Scotland with type 1 diabetes who were aged 20 years or older from 2008 through 2010 and were in a nationwide register (n=24 691 contributing 67 712 person-years and 1043 deaths). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Differences in life expectancy between those with and those without type 1 diabetes and the percentage of the difference due to various causes. RESULTS Life expectancy at an attained age of 20 years was an additional 46.2 years among men with type 1 diabetes and 57.3 years among men without it, an estimated loss in life expectancy with diabetes of 11.1 years (95% CI, 10.1-12.1). Life expectancy from age 20 years was an additional 48.1 years among women with type 1 diabetes and 61.0 years among women without it, an estimated loss with diabetes of 12.9 years (95% CI, 11.7-14.1). Even among those with type 1 diabetes with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 90 mL/min/1.73m2 or higher, life expectancy was reduced (49.0 years in men, 53.1 years in women) giving an estimated loss from age 20 years of 8.3 years (95% CI, 6.5-10.1) for men and 7.9 years (95% CI, 5.5-10.3) for women. Overall, the largest percentage of the estimated loss in life expectancy was related to ischemic heart disease (36% in men, 31% in women) but death from diabetic coma or ketoacidosis was associated with the largest percentage of the estimated loss occurring before age 50 years (29.4% in men, 21.7% in

  18. The Rise in Life Expectancy and Economic Growth in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; lønstrup, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This research exploits conditional exogenous variation in mortality from the diffusion of modern medicine to study the effect of growth in life expectancy on the growth in GDP per capita. The empirical analysis establishes that countries that obtained higher growth rates of life expectancy due...... to this shock to mortality in the mid-twentieth century experienced lower growth rates of GDP per capita in the second half of the twentieth century. In addition, a negative relationship between initial level of life expectancy and the subsequent growth rate of GDP per capita is found....

  19. Trends in Education-Specific Life Expectancy, Data Quality, and Shifting Education Distributions: A Note on Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-06-01

    Several recent articles have reported conflicting conclusions about educational differences in life expectancy, and this is partly due to the use of unreliable data subject to a numerator-denominator bias previously reported as ranging from 20 % to 40 %. This article presents estimates of life expectancy and lifespan variation by education in the United States using more reliable data from the National Health Interview Survey. Contrary to prior conclusions in the literature, I find that life expectancy increased or stagnated since 1990 among all education-race-sex groups except for non-Hispanic white women with less than a high school education; there has been a robust increase in life expectancy among white high school graduates and a smaller increase among black female high school graduates; lifespan variation did not increase appreciably among high school graduates; and lifespan variation plays a very limited role in explaining educational gradients in mortality. I also discuss the key role that educational expansion may play in driving future changes in mortality gradients. Because of shifting education distributions, within an education-specific synthetic cohort, older age groups are less negatively selected than younger age groups. We could thus expect a greater concentration of mortality at younger ages among people with a high school education or less, which would be reflected in increasing lifespan variability for this group. Future studies of educational gradients in mortality should use more reliable data and should be mindful of the effects of shifting education distributions.

  20. Health inequalities in the Netherlands: trends in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) by educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Maria; Wubulihasimu, Parida; Peters, Frederik; Nusselder, Wilma; Van Baal, Pieter H M

    2016-10-01

    Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) has been proposed as a summary measure of population health because it encompasses multiple health domains as well as length of life. However, trends in QALE by education or other socio-economic measure have not yet been reported. This study investigates changes in QALE stratified by educational level for the Dutch population in the period 2001-2011. Using data from multiple sources, we estimated mortality rates and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as functions of age, gender, calendar year and educational level. Subsequently, predictions from these regressions were combined for calculating QALE at ages 25 and 65. QALE changes were decomposed into effects of mortality and HRQoL. In 2001-2011, QALE increased for men and women at all educational levels, the largest increases being for highly educated resulting in a widening gap by education. In 2001, at age 25, the absolute QALE difference between the low and the highly educated was 7.4 healthy years (36.7 vs. 44.1) for men and 6.3 healthy years (39.5 vs. 45.8) for women. By 2011, the QALE difference increased to 8.1 healthy years (38.8 vs. 46.9) for men and to 7.1 healthy years (41.3 vs. 48.4) for women. Similar results were observed at age 65. Although the gap was largely attributable to widening inequalities in mortality, widening inequalities in HRQoL were also substantial. In the Netherlands, population health as measured by QALE has improved, but QALE inequalities have widened more than inequalities in life expectancy alone. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential years lost and life expectancy in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granbichler, Claudia A; Zimmermann, Georg; Oberaigner, Willi; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Taylor, Alexandra; Luef, Gerhard; Bathke, Arne C; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-11-01

    Studies using relative measures, such as standardized mortality ratios, have shown that patients with epilepsy have an increased mortality. Reports on more direct and absolute measure such as life expectancy are sparse. We report potential years lost and how life expectancy has changed over 40 years in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We analyzed life expectancy in a cohort of adult patients diagnosed with definite epilepsy between 1970 and 2010. Those with brain tumor as cause of epilepsy were excluded. By retrospective probabilistic record linkage, living or death status was derived from the national death registry. We estimated life expectancy by a Weibull regression model using gender, age at diagnosis, epilepsy etiology, and year of diagnosis as covariates at time of epilepsy diagnosis, and 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after diagnosis. Results were compared to the general population, and 95% confidence intervals are given. There were 249 deaths (105 women, age at death 19.0-104.0 years) in 1,112 patients (11,978.4 person-years, 474 women, 638 men). A substantial decrease in life expectancy was observed for only a few subgroups, strongly depending on epilepsy etiology and time of diagnosis: time of life lost was highest in patients with symptomatic epilepsy diagnosed between 1970 and 1980; the impact declined with increasing time from diagnosis. Over half of the analyzed subgroups did not differ significantly from the general population. This effect was reversed in the later decades, and life expectancy was prolonged in some subgroups, reaching a maximum in those with newly diagnosed idiopathic and cryptogenic epilepsy between 2001 and 2010. Life expectancy is reduced in symptomatic epilepsies. However, in other subgroups, a prolonged life expectancy was found, which has not been reported previously. Reasons may be manifold and call for further study. © 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International

  3. Life Expectancy With and Without Pain in the U.S. Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Rubin, Sara

    2016-09-01

    This study contributes to dialogue on quality versus quantity of life by examining years older persons can expect to live in various states of pain. Data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study; N = 26,896; age 55+. Estimations using the Interpolative Markov Chain approach apply probability transitions to multistate life table functions. Two estimates are interpreted: (i) population-based, which provide population averages aggregated across baseline states and (ii) status-based, which provide independent estimates by baseline state. Age- and sex-specific years with no pain, milder nonlimiting, and severe or limiting pain are reported as is percent of life in states of pain. Females have higher life expectancy than males but similar expectations of pain-free life. Total life expectancy varies only slightly by baseline pain states but pain-free life expectancy varies greatly. For example, an 85-year-old female pain-free at baseline expects 7.04 more years, 5.28 being pain-free. An 85-year-old female with severe pain at baseline expects 6.42 years with only 2.66 pain-free. Percent of life with pain decreases by age for those pain-free at baseline and increases for those with pain at baseline. Pain is moderately associated with quantity of or total life but substantially and importantly associated with quality of or pain-free life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Banda; Ingvild Fossgard Sandøy; Knut Fylkesnes; Fanny Janssen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related mortality in Zambia. Methods: We used data on all-cause and pregnancy-related deaths of females aged 15–49 reported in the Zambia 2010 census, a...

  5. Comparison of bayesian random-effects and traditional life expectancy estimations in small-area applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Jonker (Marcel); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); P.D. Congdon (Peter); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas); A. Burdorf (Alex); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are several measures that summarize the mortality experience of a population. Of these measures, life expectancies are generally preferred based on their simpler interpretation and direct age standardization, which makes them directly comparable between different populations.

  6. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases...

  7. The AIDS epidemic in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark: potential years of life lost and impact on life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Smith, Else; Juel, Knud

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to describe the impact of AIDS on the city of Copenhagen by estimating potential years of life lost (PYLL) before the age of 65 years and to estimate the impact of AIDS deaths on life expectancy for males and females. METHODS: All AIDS cases reported to the national AIDS...... cancer were the leading causes of PYLL in women. It was shown that AIDS deaths at the top of the epidemic in 1991-95 were responsible for a loss of 0.76 years in life expectancy for men and 0.08 years for women. CONCLUSIONS: AIDS has had a considerable impact on potential years of life lost....... A significant decline in AIDS deaths has been seen since 1995 with an effect on life expectancy for men in the city of Copenhagen....

  8. Evaluating compression or expansion of morbidity in Canada: trends in life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy from 1994 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Colin; Loukine, Lidia; Choi, Bernard C

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether morbidity in Canada, at the national and provincial levels, is compressing or expanding by tracking trends in life expectancy (LE) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) from 1994 to 2010. "Compression" refers to a decrease in the proportion of life spent in an unhealthy state over time. It happens when HALE increases faster than LE. "Expansion" refers to an increase in the proportion of life spent in an unhealthy state that happens when HALE is stable or increases more slowly than LE. We estimated LE using mortality and population data from Statistics Canada. We took health-related quality of life (i.e. morbidity) data used to calculate HALE from the National Population Health Survey (1994-1999) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (2000-2010). We built abridged life tables for seven time intervals, covering the period 1994 to 2010 and corresponding to the year of each available survey cycle, for females and males, and for each of the 10 Canadian provinces. National and provincial trends were assessed at birth, and at ages 20 years and 65 years. We observed an overall average annual increase in HALE that was statistically significant in both Canadian females and males at each of the three ages assessed, with the exception of females at birth. At birth, HALE increased an average of 0.2% (p = .08) and 0.3% (p morbidity from 1994 to 2010 at the national level in Canada. However, our results suggested an expansion of morbidity in NL and PEI. Our study indicates the importance of continued tracking of the secular trends of life expectancy and HALE in Canada in order to verify the presence of compression or expansion of morbidity. Further study should be undertaken to understand what is driving the observed expansion of morbidity in NL and in PEI.

  9. Life Expectancy and Variation in Treatment for Early Stage Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Timothy J; Tan, Hung-Jui; Litwin, Mark S; Hu, Jim C

    2016-09-01

    Patients with limited life expectancy are at risk for overtreatment of T1a kidney cancer. We sought to determine patterns of treatment for T1a kidney cancer in a nationally representative sample of patients with life expectancy less than 10 and less than 5 years. We sampled 9,825 patients older than 65 years with clinical T1a kidney cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-Medicare database. We performed competing risks regression to model survival by age/comorbidity and identified patients with life expectancy less than 10 and less than 5 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the probability of aggressive treatment with surgery or ablation among those with limited life expectancy. Life expectancy was less than 10 years in patients 66 to 80 years old with a Charlson score of 3+, in those 80 to 84 years old with a Charlson score of 1+ and in all patients 85 years old or older. Among those with life expectancy less than 10 years the multivariate probability of aggressive treatment was 85%, 84%, 82%, 75% and 50% in those 66 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84 and 85 years old or older, respectively. In those with life expectancy less than 10 years who were treated aggressively treatment was radical nephrectomy in 61%, partial nephrectomy in 24% and ablation in 14%. Among those with life expectancy less than 5 years (age 85 years or greater with a Charlson score of 3+) the multivariate probability of aggressive treatment was 41% and more often surgery than ablation (68% vs 32% of patients). The majority of patients with life expectancy less than 10 years and a significant minority with life expectancy less than 5 years were treated with surgery or ablation for T1a kidney cancer. Life expectancy should be better incorporated into treatment decision making for early stage kidney cancer. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  10. Outcomes of Nordic mental health systems: life expectancy of patients with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; Westman, Jeanette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.......People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision....

  11. Arts and ageing; life expectancy of historical artists in the Low Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzada, Fereshta; Schimberg, Anouk S; Engelaer, Frouke M; Bijwaard, Govert E; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J; van Poppel, Frans W A

    2014-01-01

    Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50), in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary and visual artists, who were born between 1700 and 1899 in the Low Countries. We compared the life expectancy at age 50 of the various artists with the elite and middle class of that time. In the birth cohorts before 1850, acoustic (LE50:14.5-19.5) and literary artists (LE50:17.8-20.8) had a similar life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite (LE50:18.0-19.0). Only visual artists (LE50:15.5-17.1) had a lower life expectancy at age 50 compared to the elite at that time. For the most recent birth cohorts from 1850 through 1899, the comparison between artists and the elite reversed and acoustic and literary artist had a lower life expectancy at age 50, while visual artists enjoyed a similar life expectancy at age 50. Although artists belonged to the middle socioeconomic class and lived predominantly in urban areas with poor living conditions, they had a life expectancy similar to the elite population. This is in line with observed favourable effects of practicing arts on health in the short-term. From our historical analysis, we hypothesize several mechanisms through which artistic creativity could influence the ageing process and life expectancy. These hypotheses, however, should be formally tested before any definite conclusions on effects of arts on ageing can be drawn.

  12. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in the Aged - Does It Impact Life Expectancy? A Decision Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Maor

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs in patients over 70 is similar to that of younger age groups. Evidence continues to mount that life expectancy (LE increases with successful treatment of hepatitis C (HCV patients with advanced fibrosis. The evidence in older people is more limited. Our aim was to estimate the life year (LY and quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained by treatment of naïve patients with HCV as a function of patient's age and fibrosis stage.We constructed a Markov model of HCV progression toward advanced liver disease. The primary outcome was LY and QALY saved. The model and the sustained virological response of HCV infected subjects treated with a fixed-dose combination of the NS5B polymerase inhibitor Sofosbuvir and the NS5A replication complex inhibitor Ledipasvir were based on the published literature and expert opinion.Generally, both the number of LY gained and QALY gained gradually decreased with advancing age but the rate of decline was slower with more advanced fibrosis stage. For patients with fibrosis stage F1, F2 and F3, LY gained dropped below six months if treated by the age of 55, 65 or 70 years, respectively, while for a patient with fibrosis stage F4, the gain was one LY if treated by the age of 75. The QALY gained for treated over untreated elderly were reasonably high even for those treated at early fibrosis stage.There is a significant life expectancy benefit to HCV treatment in patients up to age 75 with advanced-stage fibrosis.

  13. Smoking and the Reduced Life Expectancy of Individuals With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jamie; Warner, Kenneth E; Meza, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    People with serious mental illness experience substantially reduced life expectancy, likely due in part to their higher smoking rates relative to the general population. However, the extent to which smoking affects their life expectancy, independent of mental illness, is unknown. This study quantifies the potential contribution of smoking to reduced life expectancy among individuals with serious psychological distress (SPD), a measure that screens for serious mental illness in national surveys. A cohort of 328,110 U.S. adults was examined using the 1997-2009 National Health Interview Surveys linked to the 2011 National Death Index. Cox models were used to estimate mortality hazard ratios for current smoking, former smoking, and SPD and construct life tables by smoking and SPD status. The smoking-attributable fraction of deaths by SPD status was calculated. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Among those with SPD, being a current smoker doubles the risk of death. Current smokers with SPD lose 14.9 years of life relative to never smokers without SPD. Among never smokers, having SPD reduces life expectancy by 5.3 years. Thus, smoking may account for up to two thirds of the difference in life expectancy between smokers with SPD and never smokers without SPD. One third of deaths among those with SPD can be attributed to smoking. The life expectancy difference between current smokers with SPD and never smokers without SPD is primarily due to smoking. Aiding individuals with serious mental illness to avoid smoking will translate into sizeable gains in life expectancy. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Why the racial gap in life expectancy is declining in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Firebaugh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blacks have lower life expectancy than whites in the United States. That disparity could be due to racial differences in the causes of death, with blacks being more likely to die of causes that affect the young, or it could be due to differences in the average ages of blacks and whites who die of the same cause. Prior studies fail to distinguish these two possibilities. Objective: In this study we determine how much of the 2000-10 reduction in the racial gap in life expectancy resulted from narrowing differences in the cause-specific mean age at death for blacks and whites, as opposed to changing cause-specific probabilities for blacks and whites. Methods: We introduce a method for separating the difference-in-probabilities and difference-in-age components of group disparities in life expectancy. Results: Based on the new method, we find that 60Š of the decline in the racial gap in life expectancy from 2000 to 2010 was attributable to reduction in the age component, largely because of declining differences in the age at which blacks and whites die of chronic diseases. Conclusions: Our findings shed light on the sources of the declining racial gap in life expectancy in the United States, and help to identify where advances need to be made to achieve the goal of eliminating racial disparities in life expectancy.

  15. Contributions of cardiovascular mortality to Spanish life expectancy from 1980 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Juan M

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the contribution of the decrease in cardiovascular mortality to the increase in life expectancy at birth in Spain from 1980 to 2009. We explain the demographic factors underlying the decrease in mortality from cardiovascular diseases at older ages and the effect of this decrease on lifespan. The contribution of these decreases to Spanish life expectancy at birth was calculated using decomposition methods for life expectancy. We calculated standardized mortality rates by sex and 3 causes of death (cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and other heart disease) for 3 age groups: 65 to 79 years, 80 to 89 years, and ≥ 90 years. From 1980 to 2009, life expectancy at birth in Spain increased by more than 6 years for both sexes. The contribution of the decrease in cardiovascular mortality to the total increase in life expectancy at birth was 63% among women and 53% among men. Among the ≥ 65-year-old age group, this contribution was 93% among women and 87% among men. The decrease in cardiovascular mortality, mainly at older ages, has been the main contributor to increased Spanish life expectancy at birth during the last 3 decades. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Why did Danish women's life expectancy stagnate? The influence of interwar generations' smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Oeppen, Jim; Rizzi, Silvia; Möller, Sören; Zarulli, Virginia; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2016-12-01

    The general health status of a population changes over time, generally in a positive direction. Some generations experience more unfavourable conditions than others. The health of Danish women in the interwar generations is an example of such a phenomenon. The stagnation in their life expectancy between 1977 and 1995 is thought to be related to their smoking behaviour. So far, no study has measured the absolute effect of smoking on the mortality of the interwar generations of Danish women and thus the stagnation in Danish women's life expectancy. We applied a method to estimate age-specific smoking-attributable number of deaths to examine the effect of smoking on the trends in partial life expectancy of Danish women between age 50 and 85 from 1950 to 2012. We compared these trends to those for women in Sweden, where there was no similar stagnation in life expectancy. When smoking-attributable mortality was excluded, the gap in partial life expectancy at age 50 between Swedish and Danish women diminished substantially. The effect was most pronounced in the interwar generations. The major reason for the stagnation in Danish women's partial life expectancy at age 50 was found to be smoking-related mortality in the interwar generations.

  17. Policy implications of marked reversals of population life expectancy caused by substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Anderson, Peter; Fischer, Benedikt; Gual, Antoni; Room, Robin

    2016-03-10

    Life expectancy has been increasing steadily over the past century in most countries, with only a few exceptions such as during wartimes. Marked reversal of life expectancy has been linked to substance use and related policies. Three such examples are discussed herein, namely the double reversal of life expectancy trends (first to positive, then to negative) associated with reducing alcohol supply in the then Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), followed by a rapid increase in availability; the impact of the rapid increase of prescription opioids on white non-Hispanics in the US; and the systemic impact of the violence accompanying the drug war in Mexico on the life expectancy of men. Alcohol policies were crucial to initiate the positive reversal in the USSR, and different substance use policies could have avoided the negative impacts on life expectancy of the described large groups or nations. Substance use policies can be responsible for abrupt negative changes in life expectancies. An orientation of such policies towards the goals of public health and societal well-being can help avoid such changes.

  18. The Changing Gender Differences in Life Expectancy in Chinese Cities 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Li, Tong; Zhang, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the gender difference in life expectancy in Chinese urban people and explore the age-specific and cause-specific contributions to the changing gender differences in life expectancy. Methods Data of life expectancy and mortality were obtained from “Annual statistics of public health in China.” The gender difference was analyzed by decomposition method, including age-specific decomposition and cause-specific decomposition. Results Women lived much longer than men in Chinese urban areas, with remarkable gains in life expectancy since 2005, respectively. The gender difference reached a peak in 2007. Mortality difference between men and women in the 60–79 age group made the largest contributions to the gender gap in life expectancy in all 6 years. Among causes of death, cancers, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases made the largest contributions to the gender gap. 33–38% of the gender gap were caused by cancers, among which lung cancer contributed 0.6 years of the overall gap. The contribution of cancers to the gender gap reduced over time, mostly influenced by the narrowing effect of liver cancer on gender gap. Traffic accidents and suicide were the external causes influencing the gender gap, contributing 10–16% of the overall difference. Conclusion Public health efforts to reduce excess mortalities for cancers, circulatory disease, respiratory diseases, and suicide among men in particular might further narrow the gender gap in life expectancy in Chinese cities. PMID:25875494

  19. Why the racial gap in life expectancy is declining in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firebaugh, Glenn; Acciai, Francesco; Noah, Aggie J.; Prather, Christopher; Nau, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blacks have lower life expectancy than whites in the United States. That disparity could be due to racial differences in the causes of death, with blacks being more likely to die of causes that affect the young, or it could be due to differences in the average ages of blacks and whites who die of the same cause. Prior studies fail to distinguish these two possibilities. OBJECTIVE In this study we determine how much of the 2000–10 reduction in the racial gap in life expectancy resulted from narrowing differences in the cause-specific mean age at death for blacks and whites, as opposed to changing cause-specific probabilities for blacks and whites. METHOD We introduce a method for separating the difference-in-probabilities and difference-inage components of group disparities in life expectancy. RESULTS Based on the new method, we find that 60% of the decline in the racial gap in life expectancy from 2000 to 2010 was attributable to reduction in the age component, largely because of declining differences in the age at which blacks and whites die of chronic diseases. CONCLUSION Our findings shed light on the sources of the declining racial gap in life expectancy in the United States, and help to identify where advances need to be made to achieve the goal of eliminating racial disparities in life expectancy. PMID:25580083

  20. Closing the Gaps: competing estimates of Indigenous Australian life expectancy in the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Amanda; Mukandi, Bryan; Zwi, Anthony B; Hill, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Closing the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and other Australians within a generation is central to national Indigenous reform policy (Closing the Gap). Over time, various methods of estimating Indigenous life expectancy and with that, the life expectancy gap, have been adopted with differing, albeit non-comparable results. We present data on the extent of the gap and elucidate the pattern of use and interpretations of the different estimates of the gap, between 2007 and 2012. Methods: An extensive search was conducted for all peer-reviewed health publications citing estimates of and/or discussing the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians, for the period 2007–2012. Results: Five predominant patterns of citation of the gap estimates were identified: 20 years, 17 years, 15–20 years, 13 years, and 11.5 years for males and 9.7 years for females. Some authors misinterpret the most recent estimates as reflecting improvement from the 17-year figure, rather than the result of different methods of estimation. Support for the direct methods used to calculate Indigenous life expectancy is indicated. Conclusions and Implications: A specific estimate of the life expectancy gap has not been established among stakeholders in Indigenous health. Agreement on the magnitude of the gap is arguably needed in order to evaluate strategies aimed at improving health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. Moreover, measuring progress towards ‘closing the gap’ depends on the availability of comparable estimates, using the same techniques of measurement to assess changes over time. PMID:23895479

  1. Perceived Life Expectancy Is Associated with Colorectal Cancer Screening in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; von Wagner, Christian; Wardle, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Cancer screening is a behavior that represents investment in future health. Such investment may depend on how much 'future' a person expects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospective association between perceived personal life expectancy and participation in fecal occult blood test screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in a national program. Data were from interviews with 3975 men and women in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) within the eligible age range for the national screening program (60 to 74 years). Perceived life expectancy was indexed as the individual's estimate of their chance of living another 10-15 years (exact time varied by age), assessed in 2008/2009. Participation in CRC screening from 2010 to 2012/2013 was assessed in 2012/2013. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between perceived life expectancy and screening participation, adjusted for numeracy and known mortality risk factors. Overall, 71% of respondents (2817/3975) reported completing at least one fecal occult blood test (FOBt) during the follow-up. Screening uptake was 76% (1272/1683) among those who estimated their 10-15-year life expectancy as 75-100%, compared with 52% (126/243) among those who estimated theirs as 0-25% (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.29-2.34). A longer perceived life expectancy is associated with greater likelihood of participating in CRC screening in England. However, half of people with a low perceived life expectancy still participated in screening. Given that CRC screening is recommended for adults with a remaining life expectancy of ≥10 years, future research should investigate how to communicate the aims of screening more effectively.

  2. Widening Disparities In Infant Mortality And Life Expectancy Between Appalachia And The Rest Of The United States, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Kogan, Michael D; Slifkin, Rebecca T

    2017-08-01

    Appalachia-a region that stretches from Mississippi to New York-has historically been recognized as a socially and economically disadvantaged part of the United States, and growing evidence suggests that health disparities between it and the rest of the country are widening. We compared infant mortality and life expectancy disparities in Appalachia to those outside the region during the period 1990-2013. We found that infant mortality disparities widened for both whites and blacks, with infant mortality 16 percent higher in Appalachia in 2009-13, and the region's deficit in life expectancy increased from 0.6 years in 1990-92 to 2.4 years in 2009-13. The association between area poverty and life expectancy was stronger in Appalachia than in the rest of the United States. We found wide health disparities, including a thirteen-year gap in life expectancy among black men in high-poverty areas of Appalachia, compared to white women in low-poverty areas elsewhere. Higher mortality in Appalachia from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, nephritis or kidney diseases, suicide, unintentional injuries, and drug overdose contributed to lower life expectancy in the region, compared to the rest of the country. Widening health disparities were also due to slower mortality improvements in Appalachia. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Why did life expectancy decline in the United States in 2015? A gender-specific analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciai, Francesco; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    In 2015, age-adjusted mortality rates increased for 8 of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States. As a result, life expectancy declined by 0.17 years for both women and men. The decline could be just an anomaly, or it could represent the start of a new trend of stagnation or decline in life expectancy, as some scholars have warned. The first step is to determine the sources of the decline. In this study we analyze the contribution of specific causes of death to the decline in men's versus women's life expectancy, as well as the mechanisms that generated the decline. With regard to mechanisms, we examine whether the decline in life expectancy resulted from reductions in the average age at death for most causes of death, or from a greater risk of dying of causes that disproportionately affect the young and middle-aged. Using CDC mortality data, we construct life tables for men and women separately, based on 20 different underlying causes of death. We find that men's reduction in life expectancy was attributable primarily to changes in midlife mortality, with a greater risk of dying of causes such as accidental poisoning or homicide. The reduction in women's life expectancy, on the other hand, was attributable primarily to changes in old-age mortality, where the mean age at death for most causes (such as heart disease and mental illnesses) was lower in 2015 than it was in 2014. These gender-specific mechanisms that contributed to the decline in life expectancy are common to the major racial/ethnic groups, but the magnitude of the decline differs greatly across racial/ethnic groups. Future research can use the tools provided here to investigate in more detail how the gender-specific mechanisms of the 2015 decline differ by race. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Education, Life Expectancy and Family Bargaining: The Ben-Porath Effect Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leker, Laura; Ponthiere, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Following Ben-Porath [1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life-Cycle of Earnings." "Journal of Political Economy" 75 (3): 352-365], the influence of life expectancy on education and on human capital has attracted much attention among growth theorists. Whereas existing growth models rely on an education decision made…

  5. Older people who are 'weary of life': their expectations for the future and perceived hopelessness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, M.L.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    Older people who are 'weary of life': their expectations for the future and perceived hopelessness There has been a debate for over a decade in the Netherlands about whether physicians should be allowed to provide assistance with suicide to older people who are 'weary of life'. Actual knowledge

  6. [Estimates of life expectancy for individuals with chronic spinal diseases in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos

    2014-06-01

    Chronic spinal diseases, including deformities and muscular pain, are significant causes of morbidity among adults and the elderly. The scope of this study is to assess the life expectancy of Brazilians with chronic spinal diseases by sex and age between 2003 and 2008. The Sullivan method was used, combining the mortality/actuarial table with the prevalence of chronic spinal diseases. The mortality/actuarial tables published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) were used and the prevalence of chronic spinal diseases was taken from the Brazilian Household Sample Survey (PNAD) for the years under scrutiny. The main results indicate that a man born in Brazil in 2008 could expect to live for 69.1 years, of which 15% with chronic spinal diseases. However, women born in the same year had a life expectancy of 76.7 years and could expect to live a fifth of their lives with chronic spinal diseases. Over the period under analysis, concurrently with gains in life expectancy, there was an increase in healthy life expectancy, or length of life lived without chronic spinal diseases, both in absolute and relative terms.

  7. Gains in disability-free life expectancy from elimination of diseases and injuries in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Yamada, Hiroya; Seko, Rumi; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Masayuki; Kato, Masahiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Masato; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Although disability-free life expectancy has been investigated in Japan, gains from elimination of diseases and injuries have not been examined. We used data from the 2007 Japanese national health statistics to calculate the number of years with and without activity limitation that could be expected from eliminating 6 selected diseases and injuries. At birth, the number of expected years of life without and with activity limitation was 70.8 and 8.4, respectively, in males and 74.2 and 11.8 in females. More than 1.0 expected years without activity limitation were gained from eliminating malignant neoplasms and cerebrovascular diseases; smaller gains were observed after eliminating other diseases and injuries. Elimination of cerebrovascular diseases, dementia, and fracture decreased expected years with activities of daily living (ADL) limitation, and elimination of shoulder lesions/low back pain decreased expected years with non-ADL limitation. Elimination of diseases and injuries increased expected years with and without activity limitation among Japanese, which suggests that improved prevention of those diseases and injuries-including cerebrovascular diseases and dementia-would result in longer disability-free life expectancy and fewer years of severe disability.

  8. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: Influence of stress and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandra, A.; Ryu, J.J.; Karra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy...... views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given...... mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient...

  9. Long-Term Survival After Traumatic Brain Injury Part II: Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jordan C; Shavelle, Robert M; Strauss, David J; Hammond, Flora M; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L

    2015-06-01

    To compute the life expectancy of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on validated prognostic models from 2 cohorts, to compare mortality and life expectancy of persons with TBI with those of the U.S. general population, and to investigate trends toward improved survival over the last 2 decades. Survival analysis. Postdischarge from rehabilitation units and long-term follow-up at regional centers. Two cohorts of long-term survivors of TBI (N=12,481): the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) cohort comprised 7365 persons who were admitted to a TBIMS facility with moderate to severe TBI and were assessed at ≥1 years postinjury, and the California Department of Developmental Services (CDDS) cohort comprised 5116 persons who sustained a TBI and received long-term services from the CDDS. Not applicable. Life expectancy. The estimates of age-, sex-, and disability-specific life expectancy of persons with TBI derived from the CDDS and TBIMS were similar. The estimates of age- and sex-specific life expectancy were lower than those of the U.S. general population. Mortality rates of persons with TBI were higher than those of the U.S. general population. Mortality rates did not improve and the standardized mortality ratio increased over the study period from 1988 to 2010. Life expectancy of persons with TBI is lower than that of the general population and depends on age, sex, and severity of disability. When compared, the survival outcomes in the TBIMS and CDDS cohorts are remarkably similar. Because there have been no marked trends in the last 20 years, the life expectancies presented in this article may remain valid in the future. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Active life expectancy of Americans with diabetes: risks of heart disease, obesity, and inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2015-01-01

    Few researchers have studied whether diabetes itself is responsible for high rates of disability or mortality, or if factors associated with diabetes contribute importantly. We estimated associations of diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and physical inactivity with life expectancy (LE), the proportion of life with disability (DLE), and disability in the last year of life. Data were from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1999-2011 and 1986, African American and white women and men ages 55+, n=1,980, 17,352 person-years). Activities of daily living defined disability. Multinomial logistic Markov models estimated disability transition probabilities adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and the health factors. Microsimulation measured outcomes. White women and men exemplify results. LE was, for women: 3.5 years less with diabetes than without (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.0), 11.1 less (10.3-12.0) adding heart disease, 21.9 less with all factors (15.3-28.5), all pheart disease, 52.9% (38.9-66.8) with all factors, all pheart disease, obesity, and inactivity, risks that can be modified by health behaviors and medical care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthy life expectancy of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients aged 75years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Hiroshi; Tomioka, Takahiro; Ohta, Ryousuke; Yoshimura, Nobuhiko; Nishimaki, Fumihiro; Koyama, Yoshihito; Kondo, Eiji; Kamata, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Healthy life expectancy, an extension of the concept of life expectancy, is a summary measure of population health that takes into account the mortality and morbidity of a population. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the self-reliance survival times of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. One hundred and twelve patients aged 75years or older with primary OSCC were included and examined at Shinshu University Hospital. To investigate healthy life expectancy, OSCC patients older than 75years were divided into 3 groups: 75-79, 80-84, and older than 85years. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the median times of healthy life expectancy. The Log-rank test was used to test significant differences between actual curves. The median self-reliance survival times of patients aged 75-79, 80-84, and older than 85years were 5.7, 1.6, and 1.4years, respectively. Most patients with early stage cancers underwent curative treatments and showed a health expectancy of more than 5years. In patients with advanced cancers, health expectancy was poor (less than one year), except among patients aged 75-79years who underwent standard treatments. It seems that in patients with advanced cancers, health expectancy was poor (less than 1year), except among patients aged 75-79years who underwent standard treatments. In elderly patients, healthy life expectancy (self-reliance survival time) may be one of the measures of patient prognosis as well as overall survival times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diverging Life Expectancies and Voting Patterns in the 2016 US Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election were correlated with long-run trends in county life expectancy. I examined county-level voting data from the 2008 and 2016 presidential elections and assessed Donald Trump's share of the 2016 vote, change in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016, and changes in absolute numbers of Democratic and Republican votes. County-level estimates of life expectancy at birth were obtained for 1980 and 2014 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Changes in county life expectancy from 1980 to 2014 were strongly negatively associated with Trump's vote share, with less support for Trump in counties experiencing greater survival gains. Counties in which life expectancy stagnated or declined saw a 10-percentage-point increase in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016. Residents of counties left out from broader life expectancy gains abandoned the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election. Since coming to power, the Trump administration has proposed cuts to health insurance for the poor, social programs, health research, and environmental and worker protections, which are key determinants of population health. Health gaps likely will continue to widen without significant public investment in population health.

  13. Life expectancy with cognitive impairment in the older population of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Kristen; Kim, Jung Ki; Crimmins, Eileen

    2003-05-01

    This article provides estimates of the prevalence of cognitive impairment by age and sex for a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population aged 70 and over. From these estimates, years of life with and without cognitive impairment are calculated. Using data from the Assets and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, the prevalence of cognitive impairment is estimated for a sample representing both the community-dwelling and institutionalized older American population. Sullivan's method is used to calculate the average number of years an elderly person can expect to live with and without cognitive impairment. The prevalence of moderate to severe cognitive impairment in the total U.S. population aged 70 and over is 9.5%. At age 70, the average American can expect 1.5 years with cognitive impairment. Expected length of life with cognitive impairment is longer for women than men because of their longer life expectancy. As total life expectancy continues to increase, the length of life with cognitive impairment for the American population will increase unless age-specific prevalence is reduced. There is great potential for improvement in future early treatment and diagnosis of this condition.

  14. [Deaths attributable to alcohol use and its impact on life expectancy in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Y; Liu, S W; Ji, N; Zeng, X Y; Liu, Y N; Zhang, M; Wang, L M; Li, Y C; Zhou, M G

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To analyze the deaths attributable to alcohol use and its impact on people's life expectancy in China in 2013. Methods: The mortality data from the Disease Surveillance Points System and alcohol use data from China Chronic Disease Surveillance (2013) were used. The deaths attributed to alcohol use and its impact on the life expectancy of Chinese residents were estimated based on the principle of comparative risk assessment by calculating population attributable fraction. Results: In 2013, alcohol use resulted in 381 200 deaths, including 97 100 hemorrhagic stroke deaths, 88 200 liver cancer deaths, 61 400 liver cirrhosis deaths and 48 700 esophageal cancer deaths, and prevented 76 500 deaths, including 68 500, 4 900 and 3 100 deaths which might be caused by ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke and diabetes respectively. If risk factor of alcohol use is removed, the people's life expectancy would rise by an average of 0.43 years, especially in western China by 0.52 years, which was 0.12 years higher than that in eastern and central China, and the life expectancy of the population in rural and urban areas would rise by 0.48 years and 0.31 years respectively. Conclusions: Although alcohol has a protective effect on reducing ischemic heart disease, stroke and diabetes deaths, alcohol use is still a risk factor influencing the mortality and life expectancy of residents in China. It is necessary to take targeted measures to reduce the health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol.

  15. Population Well-Being Measures Help Explain Geographic Disparities In Life Expectancy At The County Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Anita; Spatz, Erica; Herrin, Jeph; Riley, Carley; Roy, Brita; Kell, Kenneth; Coberley, Carter; Rula, Elizabeth; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparities in life expectancy are substantial and not fully explained by differences in race and socioeconomic status. To develop policies that address these inequalities, it is essential to identify other factors that account for this variation. In this study we investigated whether population well-being—a comprehensive measure of physical, mental, and social health—helps explain geographic variation in life expectancy. At the county level, we found that for every 1-standarddeviation (4.2-point) increase in the well-being score, life expectancy was 1.9 years higher for females and 2.6 years higher for males. Life expectancy and well-being remained positively associated, even after race, poverty, and education were controlled for. In addition, well-being partially mediated the established associations of race, poverty, and education with life expectancy. These findings highlight well-being as an important metric of a population’s health and longevity and as a promising focus for intervention. PMID:27834249

  16. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M; Gissler, M; Nordentoft, M; Hällgren, J; Arffman, M; Ösby, U

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Method A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Results Life expectancy was 24–28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (−0.8 years) and Sweden (−1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0–5.2), all diseases and medical conditions (2.3–4.8), and suicide (9.3–35.9). Conclusion People hospitalized with alcohol use disorder have an average life expectancy of 47–53 years (men) and 50–58 years (women) and die 24–28 years earlier than people in the general population. PMID:25243359

  17. Changes in Life Expectancy by Race and Hispanic Origin in the United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality •Between 2013 and 2014, life expectancy at birth for the total U.S. population (78.8 years), males (76.4), or females (81.2) did not change. •Life expectancy at birth increased by 0.4 years for non-Hispanic black males and by 0.1 years for Hispanic males. It remained unchanged for non-Hispanic white males. •Life expectancy at birth increased by 0.2 years for Hispanic females, remained unchanged for non-Hispanic black females, and declined by 0.1 years for non-Hispanic white females. •Hispanic males experienced the greatest increase in life expectancy at age 65 (0.3 years), followed by Hispanic females (0.2), and all other groups experienced a 0.1 year increase in life expectancy at age 65. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. Measuring and managing patient expectations for breast reconstruction: impact on quality of life and patient satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Andrea L; Klassen, Anne F; Snell, Laura; Cano, Stefan J; McCarthy, Colleen; Scott, Amie; Cemal, Yeliz; Rubin, Lisa R; Cordeiro, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of postmastectomy breast reconstruction is to restore a woman’s body image and to satisfy her personal expectations regarding the results of surgery. Studies in other surgical areas have shown that unrecognized or unfulfilled expectations may predict dissatisfaction more strongly than even the technical success of the surgery. Patient expectations play an especially critical role in elective procedures, such as cancer reconstruction, where the patient’s primary motivation is improved health-related quality of life. In breast reconstruction, assessment of patient expectations is therefore vital to optimal patient care. This report summarizes the existing literature on patient expectations regarding breast reconstruction, and provides a viewpoint on how this field can evolve. Specifically, we consider how systematic measurement and management of patient expectations may improve patient education, shared medical decision-making and patient perception of outcomes. PMID:22458616

  19. [We are living longer, but in good health? Inequality in quality-adjusted life expectancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, P; Gheorghe, M

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying trends in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) by level of education in the Netherlands 2001-2011. Retrospective study. For this study we used data from several sources. Using regression models we estimated mortality rates and quality of life as functions of age, gender, calendar year and educational level. Quality of life was measured using the SF-6D questionnaire. In order to calculate QALE we combined estimates of mortality rates and quality of life into Sullivan's life tables. Over the period 2001-2011 quality of life and survival increased at all educational levels. This resulted in an increase of QALE varying from 1.5 to 3 years depending on gender and education. QALE increased less strongly in people with lower education than in those with higher education, which to a large extent was due to widening inequalities in mortality. The Dutch are living longer and have a better quality of life but inequalities in QALE have increased.

  20. Change in life expectancy with type 2 diabetes: a study using claims data from lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschik, Denise; Tetzlaff, Juliane; Lange, Karin; Epping, Jelena; Eberhard, Sveja; Geyer, Siegfried

    2017-02-13

    This study estimates life expectancy with and without type 2 diabetes for individuals in Lower Saxony, Germany in order to detect a trend in population health. Morbidity and mortality data derived from German administrative claims data (statutory health insurance, AOK Niedersachsen, N = 2,900,065) were used covering 10 years from 2005 to 2014. Life table analysis was applied for calculating life expectancy, life expectancy free of type 2 diabetes, life expectancy with type 2 diabetes, and the proportion of life expectancy free of diabetes to total life expectancy using the Sullivan method. The total life expectancy increase is stronger in men than in women: At the age of 20, total life expectancy was 55.0 years in 2005 and 56.3 years in 2014 for men, whereas it was 61.7 years in 2005 and 62.5 years in 2014 for women. Decreases in life expectancy without type 2 diabetes were more pronounced in women than in men. Accordingly, life expectancy with type 2 diabetes increased in both women and in men. The proportion of life expectancy without diabetes to total life expectancy decreased, indicating a similar development in both. For example, at the age of 60, the proportion of life expectancy without diabetes to total life expectancy decreased from 0.75 in 2005 to 0.66 in 2014 for men, while it decreased from 0.77 in 2005 to 0.70 in 2014 for women. Against the background of increasing total life expectancy, the time spent in morbidity increased for the case of type 2 diabetes in Lower Saxony, Germany.

  1. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob; Rosen, Sydney; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Haber, Noah; Herbst, Kobus; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    -years (95% CI 0.48, 0.65) in 2011. For men, HIV-related mortality declined from 1.71 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.55, 1.88) to 0.76 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.67, 0.87) in the same period. The female-to-male rate ratio for HIV mortality declined from 0.93 (95% CI 0.82–1.07) in 2003 to 0.73 (95% CI 0.60–0.89) in 2011, a statistically significant decline (p = 0.046). In 2011, 57% and 41% of HIV-related deaths occurred among men and women, respectively, who had never sought care for HIV in spite of the widespread availability of free HIV treatment. The results presented here come from a poor rural setting in southern Africa with high HIV prevalence and high HIV treatment coverage; broader generalizability is unknown. Additionally, factors other than HIV treatment scale-up may have influenced population mortality trends. Conclusions Mass HIV treatment has been accompanied by faster declines in HIV mortality among women than men and a growing female–male disparity in adult life expectancy at the population level. In 2011, over half of male HIV deaths occurred in men who had never sought clinical HIV care. Interventions to increase HIV testing and linkage to care among men are urgently needed. PMID:26599699

  2. Health-related quality of life and expectations of patients before surgical treatment of lumbar stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pacola, Lílian Maria; Nepomuceno, Eliane; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Costa, Herton Rodrigo Tavares; Cunha, Débora Cristine Previdé Teixeira da; Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira da Silva; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expectations of patients awaiting surgical treatment of lumbar canal stenosis and the association of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) with symptoms of anxiety and depression. METHODS: The sample included 49 patients from a university hospital. HRQoL was assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and 36-item Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form (SF-36) and symptoms of anxiety and depression by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Expectations ...

  3. [Analysis on cancer deaths and cause-eliminated-life-expectancy among residents of Tianjin, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z L; Zhang, H; Wang, D Z; Song, G D; Shen, C F; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Jiang, G H

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To explore the causes of cancer deaths and cause-eliminated-life-expectancy among residents of Tianjin. Methods: Data from the death registry system of Tianjin residents in 2015 were collected and cancers were grouped according to the classification of Global Burden of Disease. Specific cancer crude death rate and cause eliminated life expectancy (CELE) were calculated. Results: In 2015, 17 641 Tianjin residents died of cancer, with the crude death rate as 171.79 per 100 thousand and the standardized rate according to the Chinese population in 2000 as 86.32 per 100 thousand. The cancer deaths among men was 10 165, with crude death rate of 197.39 per 100 thousand and standardized rate was 95.41 per 100 thousand. While among females the cancer deaths was 7 476, with crude death rate as 146.04 per 100 thousand and standardized rate as 76.65 per 100 thousand. The top five leading deaths on cancers among men were lung, liver, stomach, "colon, rectum and anal" , pancreas, while lung, breast, liver, "colon, rectum and anal" , stomach were in women. The life expectancy increased 3.53 and 2.88 years among men and women respectively after the exclusion of cancer deaths. When lung cancer death was excluded, the life expectancy increased 1.25 and 0.97 years respectively among men and women. Lung cancer was the main reason of life expectancy lost than cancer of other locations. Conclusion: Cancers, with lung cancer in particular, were the major diseases causing death and life expectancy lost in the Tianjin residents which called for urgent effective intervention programs to develop.

  4. Impact of bariatric surgery on life expectancy in severely obese patients with diabetes: A Decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Daniel P.; Arterburn, David E.; Livingston, Edward H.; Coleman, Karen J.; Sidney, Steve; Fisher, David; O'Connor, Patrick; Fischer, David; Eckman, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create a decision analytic model to estimate the balance between treatment risks and benefits for severely obese patients with diabetes. Summary Background Data Bariatric surgery leads to many desirable metabolic changes, but long-term impact of bariatric surgery on life expectancy in patients with diabetes has not yet been quantified. Methods We developed a Markov state transition model with multiple Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models as inputs to compare bariatric surgery versus no surgical treatment for severely obese diabetic patients. The model is informed by data from three large cohorts: 1) 159,000 severely obese diabetic patients (4,185 had bariatric surgery) from 3 HMO Research Network sites, 2) 23,000 subjects from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), and 3) 18,000 subjects from the National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index. Results In our main analyses, we found that a 45 year-old female with diabetes and a BMI of 45 kg/m2 gained an additional 6.7 years of life expectancy with bariatric surgery (38.4 years with surgery vs. 31.7 without). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the gain in life expectancy decreased with increasing BMI, until a BMI of 62 kg/m2 is reached, at which point nonsurgical treatment was associated with greater life expectancy. Similar results were seen for both men and women in all age groups. Conclusions For most severely obese patients with diabetes, bariatric surgery appears to improve life expectancy; however, surgery may reduce life expectancy for the super obese with BMIs over 62 kg/m2. PMID:25844968

  5. Real time capable control design with increased life expectancy for research purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing more powerful output signals at 230V AC than conventional control units. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole system runs independently of a personal computer. The two on-board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units to use more sensors or actuators or to connect other laboratory equipment, as required. To allow usage for long-time experiments, systematically electronic components with low failure-in-time (FIT) rate have been chosen in order to achieve high life expectancy. This paper describes the third prototype, which now provides stable measurements, and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. A rough estimation about the expected mean time between failures is given. As test case, a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The hardware design proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.

  6. An examination of the association between premature mortality and life expectancy among men in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Alan; McKee, Martin; de Sousa, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    A feature of the health of men across Europe is their higher rates of premature mortality and shorter life expectancy at birth than women. Following the publication of the first State of Men's Health in Europe report, we sought to explore possible reasons.......A feature of the health of men across Europe is their higher rates of premature mortality and shorter life expectancy at birth than women. Following the publication of the first State of Men's Health in Europe report, we sought to explore possible reasons....

  7. RELATION BETWEEN QUALITY OF LIFE, CHOICE MAKING, AND FUTURE EXPECTATIONS IN ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of life of individuals depends significantly on the ability to have control over everyday life, realized through the freedom to make choices from available options and self-determination. Objective: To determine the correlation between possibilities for making choices and expectations for the future with the quality of life in adults with intellectual disabilities according self-assessment and assessment by others. Methods: Descriptive, method of correlation and comparative analysis ware applied. From techniques, analysis of documents, surveys with the Quality of life questionnaire by Schalock and Keith and Questionnaire for expectations for the future by Speck, and scaling with the Scale for assessment of the opportunities for making choices by Kishi et al. Sample consisted of 130 intellectually disabled adults and 130 proxies. For establishing connection between the examined phenomena Pearson correlation coefficient (r was used, at p<0,01. Results: There is a strong correlation between the results obtained from the questionnaires about quality of life and opportunities for making choices, self-assessment r(130=0,497, p<0,01, assessment by others r(130=0,482, p<0,01. There is a correlation between the results obtained from the questionnaires about quality of life and expectations for the future, but not very strong, self-assessment r(130=0,233, p=0,008<0,01, assessment by others r(130=0,305, p<0,01. Conclusion: There is a correlation between opportunities for making choices and expectations for the future with the quality of life in adults with intellectual disabilities. To improve the quality of life in these individuals, it is necessary to design programs that will develop self-concept, abilities for self-determination and making personal choices.

  8. Estimation of life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy in non-metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chia-Hsuan; Chen, Miao-Fen; Fang, Fu-Min; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to estimate the life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) in non-metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. Patients were eligible for the present study if they were diagnosed with NPC and had been treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010. The quality of life (QOL) data were collected using the questionnaires of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35. The LE of NPC patients was obtained using linear extrapolation of a logit-transformed curve and was adjusted by the corresponding QOL function to calculate the QALE. During the study period, 110 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53 of these completed questionnaires. The median follow-up was 65.2 months (range 4.0-117.3 months). The average LE and QALE were estimated to be 20.6 years and 11.6 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for NPC patients and 24.4 years and 24.4 QALYs for the reference population, respectively. Compared to the reference population, the loss of LE and QALE for NPC patients were 3.8 years and 12.8 QALYs, respectively. This study offers a quick overview of the LE and the QALE of NPC patients treated with IMRT. Moreover, the results appear more understandable than the 5 year survival outcomes when communicating with patients or the general population regarding cancer risk. In the future, evaluating the robustness of comparative assessments for the outcome of NPC patients undergoing different treatment protocols will be possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential gains in life expectancy by improving road safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Ma, S; Bishai, D; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTI) cause a significant number of injuries and deaths in China every year; the World Health Organization estimated 261,367 deaths due to RTI in 2013. As a result of the ongoing growth of China's economy, road construction and motorisation, RTI are expected to impose a heavy health burden in the future. However, the public and policy makers have not widely perceived RTI as a public health issue commensurate with its consequences, in part, due to a lack of intuitive indicator measuring the health impact. Employs the cause-eliminating life table technique to provide a measure of the burden of RTI based on data from a nationally representative surveillance system in China. Previous studies have used indicators such as event counts, rates and disability-adjusted life years to measure the health impact of RTI; but this study uses potential gains in life expectancy to measure this impact. Eliminating RTI could lead to a gain of 0.52 years in life expectancy in 2012, meaning that on average Chinese people could live a half year more than they would in the presence of RTI. Males have a substantially higher RTI death rate and consequently could have a gain in life expectancy more than twice as large as females (male 0.72 years vs female 0.28 years). The gain in rural areas (0.65 years) is twice that in urban areas (0.32 years). The significant gain in life expectancy signals the urgency for public actions to improve road safety; the disparity in the burden across regions and sexes indicate a great opportunity for targeted interventions to protect health and save lives. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Active Life Expectancy and Functional Health Transition among Filipino Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace T. Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a baseline information on the functional health transition patterns of older people and computes for the Active Life Expectancy (ALE using a multistate life table method. Findings on ALE demonstrate that females and urban residents live longer and have a greater proportion of their remaining life in active state compared to their counterparts. Health transition analysis indicates a significant proportion experiencing recovery. Age, sex, place of residence and health status/behavior indicators (self-assessed health, drinking and exercise display a significant influence on future health and mortality trajectories although surprisingly, education did not show any significant effect.

  11. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY OF WORKING WOMEN THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES/ YOGIC EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanavee Ichchhaporia

    2017-01-01

    In today’s fast and globalized life style Women hold a key position in the shaping of the next generation, plays such an important part in the life of the family. Their value is beyond measure. The changing life style demands more financial steadiness, that’s why the percentage of women in the active work population has increased rapidly in many countries around the world, including ours. As a consequence, we have seen the proliferation of dual-income families where role expectations toward m...

  12. Comparative study of disability-free life expectancy across six low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinda, Witness; Chen, He

    2017-04-01

    There is a knowledge gap about the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to compute and compare DFLE in six such countries, and examine sex differences in DFLE in each country. Based on data from the World Health Organization Study on Global Aging and Adult Health wave 1 survey, we used the Sullivan method to estimate DFLE among persons aged years 50 years and older. Disability was divided into moderate disability and severe disability during the calculation. Of the six countries, China had the highest DFLE and lowest expected average lifetime with disability. India had the lowest DFLE and highest life years with moderate and severe disability. In each country, women live longer than men, but with more disabilities in both absolute and proportional terms. The huge sex difference in Russia requires special attention. In addition, most of the life expectancy lived with disability was spent with severe disability, rather than moderate disability. The study has shed some light on the disparities across the six countries with regard to DFLE at old ages. The low percentage of DFLE in life expectancy in some countries, such as India, calls for effective policies on healthy aging. The "sex disability-survival paradox" in DFLE is supported by our results. To differentiate the severity of disability should be routine in calculating DFLE. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 637-644. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. How Important Are Health Care Expenditures for Life Expectancy? A Comparative, European Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den Wim; Olaroiu, Marinela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between health care expenditures and health care outcomes, such as life expectancy and mortality, is complex. Research outcomes show different and contradictory results on this relationship. How and why health care expenditures affect health outcomes is not clear. A

  14. The contribution of specific diseases to educational disparities in disability-free life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusselder, Wilma J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Huisman, Martijn; van Oyen, Herman; Deboosere, Patrick; Gadeyne, Sylvie; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the contribution that specific diseases, as causes of both death and disability, make to educational disparities in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). METHODS: We used disability data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (1997) and mortality data from the National

  15. Measuring Longevity Achievements under Welfare Interdependencies: A Case for Joint Life Expectancy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthiere, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Whereas period life expectancy constitutes an intuitive indicator of the survival conditions prevailing at a particular period, this paper argues that, given the existence of welfare interdependencies, that widespread indicator is nonetheless an incomplete measure of the longevity achievements relevant for human well-being. The central importance…

  16. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women’s life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects’ relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975–2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915–1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects. PMID:27035998

  17. The Influence of Subjective Life Expectancy on Retirement Transition and Planning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl; Loh, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the construct of subjective life expectancy (SLE), or the estimation of one's probable age of death. Drawing on the tenets of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), we propose that SLE provides individuals with their own unique mental model of remaining time that is likely to affect their…

  18. How life expectancy varies with perturbations in age-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrycza, Tomasz F.; Baudisch, Annette

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A naturally arising question in demography is how a given change in mortality affects life expectancy. Scholars have targeted this question with different aims and from different perspectives. OBJECTIVE: We present and prove the central relationship between change in mortality...

  19. Arts and ageing; Life expectancy of historical artists in the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzada, F.; Schimberg, A.S.; Engelaer, F.M.; Bijwaard, G.E.; van Bodegom, D.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Practising arts has been linked to lowering stress, anxiety and blood pressure. These mechanisms are all known to affect the ageing process. Therefore, we examine the relation between long-term involvement in arts and life expectancy at age 50 (LE50), in a cohort of 12,159 male acoustic, literary

  20. Life Expectancy as an Objective Factor of a Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavlassopulos, Nikolas; Keppler, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper has two parts. In the first part we offer a definition of well-being which makes life expectancy an explicit variable. We recognize the importance of happiness as a significant aspect of any definition of well-being, but we side-step the issue of what determines its level or how to measure it, and concentrate instead on the consequences…

  1. Increasing disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Palestine from 2006 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The population of Palestine comprises almost 200 000 Palestinians aged 60 or older. The purpose of the study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and to evaluate changes from 2006 to 2010. METHODS: The study combined...... mortality data and prevalence of activity limitation derived from the Palestinian Family Health Surveys carried out in 2006 and 2010. Based on questions about the ability to perform five basic daily activities, disability-free life expectancy was estimated. Changes between 2006 and 2010 were decomposed...... into contributions from changes in mortality and disability. RESULTS: Life expectancy at age 60 increased from 17.1 years in 2006 to 17.3 years in 2010 for men and from 18.7 years to 19.0 years for women. Disability-free life expectancy increased significantly, by 1.3 years for 60-year-old men (from 12.8 years to 14...

  2. Life expectancy of artists in the Low Countries from the fifteenth to the twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, F.W.A.; van de Kaa, D.J.; Bijwaard, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role that urbanization and plague may have played in changes in life expectancy amongst artists in the Low Countries who were born between 1450 and 1909. Artists can be considered to be representative of a middle-class population living mostly in urban areas. The dataset was

  3. Solvency II Solvency Capital Requirement for life insurance companies based on Expected Shortfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences for a life annuity insurance company if the solvency II solvency capital requirements (SCR) are calibrated based on expected shortfall (ES) instead of value-at-risk (VaR). We focus on the risk modules of the SCRs for the three risk classes equity risk, interest

  4. How do Major, Violent and Nonviolent Opposition Campaigns, Impact Predicted Life Expectancy at birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stoddard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of major violent and nonviolent opposition campaigns for regime change, on predicted life expectancy at birth. The study measured life expectancy five and ten years after the campaign ended, so that deaths which occurred during the campaign would not be included in the metric, and thus enabling the study of changes made in the state on the social determinants affecting longevity, after the campaign was over. Life expectancy is one of the best reported World Development Indicators and is considered to be a good indication of the overall health and general living conditions of the state and therefore is an ideal indicator to reflect the changes made in the state following a major campaign. The results of this analysis showed that states have a hard time recovering from a major opposition campaign and initially drop behind the growth trend in the world average for predicted life expectancy at birth. But, the type of campaign that was waged and whether it was successful, greatly affects the state’s ability to recover. Encouragingly by a decade after the campaign ends, states that experienced a nonviolent campaign that was successful had caught up to the world average and inched ahead of it. This shows that on this important development indicator, new governments that were ushered into power by nonviolent social movements, had made positive changes in the state that enabled it to surpass world averages.

  5. Earnings implications of person years lost life expectancy among Canada's aboriginal peoples

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    Paul S. Maxim

    2003-12-01

    life expectancy approximately seven years less than the general population. The Aboriginal population also differs in that it has a higher fertility rate and higher mortality rates among infants and young adults. One of the consequences of the mortality differential is that the number of person years of lost life (PYLL expectancy is large for the Aboriginal community in comparison to the general population. While several studies have focused on the causes of differential mortality, this study examines some of the socio-economic consequences of differences in PYLL. Examining wage labor income, for example, we determine that the PYLL differential translates into an expected wage and salary loss of approximately $1.56 billion.

  6. Life expectancy among elderly Brazilians in 2003 according to different levels of functional disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; Rodrigues, Roberto Nascimento

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for the Brazilian elderly in 2003, by gender and age, based on different concepts of functional disability. The Sullivan method is used to combine the period life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, 2003) and the prevalence of functional disability according to the 2003 National Sample Household Survey (PNAD 2003). The main results of the study indicate that at age 60, Brazilian men can expect to live 19 years, 39% with mild, 21% with moderate, and 14% with severe functional disability, respectively. At the same age, Brazilian women can expect to live 22 years: 56% with mild, 32% with moderate, and 18% with severe functional disability.

  7. Age at migration and disability-free life expectancy among the elder Mexican-origin population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration selectivity is thought to shape the health profiles of Mexican immigrants. Objective: This study examines how the experience of Mexican migration to the United States affects the health process and the quality of life in old age by age at migration, specific to sex. Methods: We use 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent disability-free prior to death across eight subgroups by sex, nativity, and age at migration among Mexican-origin elderly in the United States. Results: Female migrants are at a significant disadvantage in terms of IADL disability-free life expectancy relative to US-born women, particularly late-life migrants. Conversely, mid- and late-life male migrants exhibit an advantage in ADL disability-free life expectancy compared to their US-born counterparts. Conclusions: Foreign-born Mexican elders are not a homogeneous group. This issue merits special attention in the development of community-based long-term care programs in order to appropriately target the specific needs of different subgroups of older Mexican individuals entering their last decades of life. Contribution: This study contributes to immigrant health literature by providing a more comprehensive documentation of nativity differentials, by distinguishing subgroups of Mexican elderly by sex, nativity, and age at migration.

  8. Age at migration and disability-free life expectancy among the elder Mexican-origin population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marc A; Chiu, Chi-Tsun

    2016-01-01

    Migration selectivity is thought to shape the health profiles of Mexican immigrants. This study examines how the experience of Mexican migration to the United States affects the health process and the quality of life in old age by age at migration, specific to sex. We use 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent disability-free prior to death across eight subgroups by sex, nativity, and age at migration among Mexican-origin elderly in the United States. Female migrants are at a significant disadvantage in terms of IADL disability-free life expectancy relative to US-born women, particularly late-life migrants. Conversely, mid- and late-life male migrants exhibit an advantage in ADL disability-free life expectancy compared to their US-born counterparts. Foreign-born Mexican elders are not a homogeneous group. This issue merits special attention in the development of community-based long-term care programs in order to appropriately target the specific needs of different subgroups of older Mexican individuals entering their last decades of life. This study contributes to immigrant health literature by providing a more comprehensive documentation of nativity differentials, by distinguishing subgroups of Mexican elderly by sex, nativity, and age at migration.

  9. Increasing socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy and QALYs in Sweden 1980-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Kristina; Johannesson, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the change in socio-economic differences in life expectancy and in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), for men and women at different ages, in Sweden 1980 to 1997. We used data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (the ULF survey), which is linked...... to mortality data, to estimate the life expectancy in different socio-economic groups in 1980 and 1997 (n=100 868). Health state scores were obtained by mapping responses to selected ULF survey interview questions into the generic health-related quality of life measure EQ-5D, using the UK EQ-5D index tariff (n......=34 447). For 20-year-old men the difference in life expectancy between the highest (higher non-manual) and the lowest socio-economic group (unskilled manual) was 2.11 years in 1980 and 3.79 years in 1997. The corresponding figures for 20-year-old women were 1.56 in 1980 and 2.15 in 1997...

  10. The association between income and life expectancy revisited: deindustrialization, incarceration and the widening health gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Elias; Ash, Michael; Marmot, Michael; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence P

    2017-11-22

    The health gap between the top and the bottom of the income distribution is widening rapidly in the USA, but the lifespan of America's poor depends substantially on where they live. We ask whether two major developments in American society, deindustrialization and incarceration, can explain variation among states in life expectancy of those in the lowest income quartile. Life expectancy estimates at age 40 of those in the bottom income quartile were used to fit panel data models examining the relationship with deindustrialization and incarceration between 2001 and 2014 for all US states. A one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in deindustrialization (mean = 11.2, s.d. = 3.5) reduces life expectancy for the poor by 0.255 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.090-0.419] and each additional prisoner per 1000 residents (mean = 4.0, s.d. = 1.5) is associated with a loss of 0.468 years (95% CI: 0.213-0.723). Our predictors explain over 20% of the state-level variation in life expectancy among the poor and virtually the entire increase in the life expectancy gap between the top and the bottom income quartiles since the turn of the century. In the USA between 2001 and 2014, deindustrialization and incarceration subtracted roughly 2.5 years from the lifespan of the poor, pointing to their role as major health determinants. Future research must remain conscious of the upstream determinants and the political economy of public health. If public policy responses to growing health inequalities are to be effective, they must consider strengthening industrial policy and ending hyper-incarceration.

  11. Future healthy life expectancy among older adults in the US: a forecast based on cohort smoking and obesity history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bochen

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, the elderly population in the United States experienced increase in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (LE(ND)), but decrease in life expectancy with disability (LE(D)). Smoking and obesity are two major risk factors that had negative impacts on these trends. While smoking prevalence continues to decline in recent decades, obesity prevalence has been growing and is currently at a high level. This study aims to forecast the healthy life expectancy for older adults aged 55 to 85 in the US from 2011 to 2040, in relation to their smoking and obesity history. First, population-level mortality data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD) and individual-level disability data from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the transition rates between different health states from 1982 to 2010, using a multi-state life table (MSLT) model. Second, the estimated transition rates were fitted and projected up to 2040, using a modified Lee-Carter model that incorporates cohort smoking and obesity history from NHIS. Mortality and morbidity for both sexes will continue to decline in the next decades. Relative to 2010, men are expected to have 3.2 years gain in LE(ND) and 0.8 years loss in LE(D). For women, there will be 1.8 years gain in LE(ND) and 0.8 years loss in LE(D). By 2040, men and women are expected to spend respectively 80 % and 75 % of their remaining life expectancy between 55 and 85 disability-free. Smoking and obesity have independent negative impacts on both the survival and disability of the US older population in the coming decades, and are responsible for the present and future gender disparity in mortality and morbidity. Overall, the US older population is expected to enjoy sustained health improvements and compression of disability, largely due to decline in smoking.

  12. The life course in the making: gender and the development of adolescents' expected timing of adult role transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J; Beal, Sarah J

    2012-11-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' anticipated ages of school completion, job entry, marriage, and parenthood over the high school years, focusing on gender differences. Latent growth curve analysis of data from 411 rural youths followed from Grades 9 through 12 (age at Grade 9: M = 14.35, SD = 0.77) indicated a significant increase in adolescents' anticipated ages of entry into work and parenthood as well as gender differences in the trajectory of the expected age of marriage. Gender role attitudes, school performance, romantic relationships, and expected educational and occupational attainment were associated with the anticipated timing of role transitions, with significant variations by gender. Adolescents' expected ages of entry into adult family roles predicted their educational attainment and family role transitions in early adulthood. The findings provide insights into the process through which adolescent boys and girls construct their expectations regarding the transition to adulthood and, in turn, their future life course.

  13. Long-term medical costs and life expectancy of acute myeloid leukemia: a probabilistic decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-I; Aas, Eline; Howell, Debra; Roman, Eve; Patmore, Russell; Jack, Andrew; Smith, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be diagnosed at any age and treatment, which can be given with supportive and/or curative intent, is considered expensive compared with that for other cancers. Despite this, no long-term predictive models have been developed for AML, mainly because of the complexities associated with this disease. The objective of the current study was to develop a model (based on a UK cohort) to predict cost and life expectancy at a population level. The model developed in this study combined a decision tree with several Markov models to reflect the complexity of the prognostic factors and treatments of AML. The model was simulated with a cycle length of 1 month for a time period of 5 years and further simulated until age 100 years or death. Results were compared for two age groups and five different initial treatment intents and responses. Transition probabilities, life expectancies, and costs were derived from a UK population-based specialist registry-the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (www.hmrn.org). Overall, expected 5-year medical costs and life expectancy ranged from £8,170 to £81,636 and 3.03 to 34.74 months, respectively. The economic and health outcomes varied with initial treatment intent, age at diagnosis, trial participation, and study time horizon. The model was validated by using face, internal, and external validation methods. The results show that the model captured more than 90% of the empirical costs, and it demonstrated good fit with the empirical overall survival. Costs and life expectancy of AML varied with patient characteristics and initial treatment intent. The robust AML model developed in this study could be used to evaluate new diagnostic tools/treatments, as well as enable policy makers to make informed decisions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual and spousal education, mortality and life expectancy in Switzerland: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Adrian; Schmidlin, Kurt; Richter, Matthias; Egger, Matthias; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2014-09-01

    Household measures of socioeconomic position may better account for the shared nature of material resources, lifestyle, and social position of cohabiting persons, but household measures of education are rarely used. We aimed to evaluate the association of combined educational attainment of married couples on mortality and life expectancy in Switzerland. The study included 3,496,163 ever-married persons aged ≥30 years. The 2000 census was linked to mortality records through 2008. Mortality by combined educational attainment was assessed by gender-age-specific HRs, with 95% CIs from adjusted models, life expectancy was derived using abridged life tables. Having a less educated partner was associated with increased mortality. For example, the HR comparing men aged 50-64 years with tertiary education married to women with tertiary education to men with compulsory education married to women with compulsory education was 2.05 (1.92-2.18). The estimated remaining life expectancy in tertiary educated men aged 30 years married to women with tertiary education was 4.6 years longer than in men with compulsory education married to women with compulsory education. The gradient based on individual education was less steep: the HR comparing men aged 50-64 years with tertiary education with men with compulsory education was 1.74 (1.67-1.81). Using individual educational attainment of married persons is common in epidemiological research, but may underestimate the combined effect of education on mortality and life expectancy. These findings are relevant to epidemiologic studies examining socio-demographic characteristics or aiming to adjust results for these characteristics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual's current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  16. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Regina Nepomuceno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years and 2003-2008 (19.4 years. However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  17. Can We Really (All Work Longer?Trends in Healthy Life Expectancy According to Social Stratum in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Unger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of raising the retirement age to 67 years and the associated lengthening of working lifetimes in higher age groups, this article examines the question of the extent to which this political objective is covered by the health assets of the population. Here, we will first trace trends in “healthy” life expectancy among the total population for different points in time 1989, 1999 and 2009 on the basis of the data from the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP and analyse these against the background of social strata indicators such as income and educational levels. Among others, one significant result is the fact that social differences have a far greater effect on healthy life expectancy than on general life expectancy and that these differences increase further over the course of time. This effect can be found particularly in men. One mandatory uniform working lifetime for all persons would however not do justice to these findings of socially highly unequally distributed life opportunities. Instead, the findings support a flexible arrangement of retirement age limits.

  18. Increasing inequality in age of death at shared levels of life expectancy: A comparative study of Scotland and England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Rosie; Leyland, Alastair H; Popham, Frank

    2016-12-01

    There is a strong negative correlation between increasing life expectancy and decreasing lifespan variation, a measure of inequality. Previous research suggests that countries achieving a high level of life expectancy later in time generally do so with lower lifespan variation than forerunner countries. This may be because they are able to capitalise on lessons already learnt. However, a few countries achieve a high level of life expectancy later in time with higher inequality. Scotland appears to be such a country and presents an interesting case study because it previously experienced lower inequality when reaching the same level of life expectancy as its closest comparator England and Wales. We calculated life expectancy and lifespan variation for Scotland and England and Wales for the years 1950 to 2012, comparing Scotland to England and Wales when it reached the same level of life expectancy later on in time, and assessed the difference in the level of lifespan variation. The lifespan variation difference between the two countries was then decomposed into age-specific components. Analysis was carried out for males and females separately. Since the 1950s Scotland has achieved the same level of life expectancy at least ten years later in time than England and Wales. Initially it did so with lower lifespan variation. Following the 1980s Scotland has been achieving the same level of life expectancy later in time than England and Wales and with higher inequality, particularly for males. Decomposition revealed that higher inequality is partly explained by lower older age mortality rates but primarily by higher premature adult age mortality rates when life expectancy is the same. Existing studies suggest that premature adult mortality rates are strongly associated with the social determinants of health and may be amenable to social and economic policies. So addressing these policy areas may have benefits for both inequality and population health in Scotland.

  19. Obesidad y Esperanza de Vida en México Obesity and life expectancy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Malena; Novak, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The high and increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in Latin American and the Caribbean and the increasing prevalence of some obesity-related chronic diseases could be changing the current mortality patterns and the improvements in life expectancy of this population. The main objective of this study is to measure the effect of overweight and obesity on mortality in Mexico among elderly people (60 years and older). We use the Mexican Health and Ageing Study (MHAS, 2001 and 2003) that is a panel nationally-representative study of the population 50 years and older in Mexico. Our results show that excess body weight (defined by the two highest quintiles of Body Mass Index-BMI-) increases the risk of mortality at 60 years and older in Mexico. As much as 11% of the deaths among elderly that occurred during the period 2001-2003 in Mexico would have been avoided if overweight and obese people (individuals belonging to the highest two quintiles of BMI) had had the "ideal" weight (defined by the middle quintile, or third quintile, of BMI). At individual level, we estimate that individuals 60 years old with excess body weight (fourth and fifth quintiles of BMI) survive four years less, in average, than individuals with normal body weight (third quintile of BMI).

  20. Ages of origin and destination for a difference in life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwood Carlson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of a difference in life expectancies may identify ages at which the difference originates in mortality differences, or may identify age at which the difference results in different values of person-years lived (life table population. This study shows that the two approaches are orthogonally related to each other, and derives an origin-destination decomposition matrix in which summing in one direction produces Andreev's origin-decomposition results, while summing in the other direction produces destination-decomposition corresponding to directly-observed differences in nLx values.

  1. Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro J. Idrovo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1, urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2, ecological resilience (FC3, and free-plague environments (FC4. Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.

  2. The Effect of Economic Variables on Life Expectancy of Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek TEKER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between life expectancy of men and women in Turkey and socio-economic variables are examined. The effect of demographic and economic factors such as the ratio of health expenditures to GDP, the ratio of elderly to employable population, the number of hospital beds per thousand people, the number of doctors per thousand patients are analyzed for a period of 1975-2009. In this study, the unit root test is initialy applied to each data set and then the cointegration test results is interpreted to determine whether a meaningful relationship exists between indicators in the long-term. Finally, the effects of the underlying factors on men and women were examined by vector error correction model. These results support that each factor has a significant effect on the life expectancy of men and women in Turkey.

  3. Donepezil and life expectancy in Alzheimer’s disease: A retrospective analysis in the Tajiri Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) such as donepezil have the effect of delaying progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but their effect on life expectancy is unclear. We analyzed the influence of donepezil on life expectancy after onset of AD, together with the effects of antipsychotic drugs and residency in a nursing home. Methods All outpatients at the Tajiri Clinic from 1999–2012 with available medical records and death certificates were included in a retrospective analysis. The entry criteria were a dementia diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria and diagnosis of AD using NINCDS-ADRDA criteria; medical treatment for more than 3 months; and follow up until less than 1 year before death. Results We identified 390 subjects with medical records and death certificates, of whom 275 had a diagnosis of dementia that met the entry criteria. Of 100 patients diagnosed with AD, 52 had taken donepezil and 48 patients had not received the drug due to treatment prior to the introduction of donepezil in 1999 in Japan. The lifetime expectancies after onset were 7.9 years in the donepezil group and 5.3 years in the non-donepezil group. There was a significant drug effect with a significant covariate effect of nursing home residency. Other covariates did not reach a significant level. Conclusions Although this report has the limitation of all retrospective analyses: the lack of randomization, we found a positive effect of donepezil on lifetime expectancy after onset of AD. This may be due to a decreased mortality rate caused by reduction of concomitant diseases such as pneumonia. The similar life expectancies in patients taking donepezil at home and those not taking donepezil in a nursing home indicated a positive health economic effect of the drug. PMID:24720852

  4. Gender differences in life expectancy with and without disability among older adults in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez-Guevara, Pilar; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on disability's impact among older women and men in Ecuador is limited. This paper provides gender-specific estimates of disability prevalence, life expectancy with and without disability, and the factors associated with gender differences in disability at older age in Ecuador (2009-2010). Data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging Survey (SABE) Ecuador 2009 was used. Participants were 4480 men and women aged 60 and over. Life expectancy with and without disability was calculated using the Sullivan method. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore gender differences in disability prevalence. Two disability measures, indicating limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), were used. 60-year-old women in Ecuador can expect to live 16.3 years without ADL limitations compared to 16.9 years for men. Life expectancy without IADL limitations was 12.5 years for women and 15.5 years for men. At age 60, women's length of life with ADL and IADL disability was higher (7.9 years for women vs. 4.9 years for men with ADL, and 11.7 years for women vs. 6.3 years for men with IADL). After controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, chronic conditions and lifestyle factors, gender differences in ADL disability were not statistically significant. However, older women were 58% more likely (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.27, 1.95) to report having IADL limitations than men, even after including control variables. Interventions should tackle chronic disease, physical inactivity, and socioeconomic differences to reduce women's vulnerability to disability in older age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mortality and life expectancy in Poland 10 years before the end of the century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J; Kowaleski, J T

    1993-01-01

    "In the article we discuss the mortality rates in Poland by [voivodship] at the end of the 80's. In the comparative analysis, we employed general standardized rates of deaths for men and women, and coefficients presenting the levels of mortality resulting from...circulatory system diseases and malignant neoplasms.... In the second part of the paper, we examine the differences in...life expectancy by sex and administrative provinces." excerpt

  6. Trends in life expectancy of HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy across the globe: comparisons with general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, Gilles; Johnson, Leigh F; Egger, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Improved virological and immunological outcomes and reduced toxicity of antiretroviral combination therapy (ART) raise the hope that life expectancy of HIV-positive persons on ART will approach that of the general population. We systematically review the literature and summarize published estimates of life expectancy of HIV-positive populations on ART. We compare their life expectancy with the life expectancy of the general or, in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-negative populations, by time period and gender. Ten relevant studies were published from 2006 to 2015. Three studies were from Canada, two from European countries, three from sub-Saharan Africa and two were multicountry studies. Life expectancy increased over time in all studies and regions. Expressed as the percentage of life expectancy in the HIV-negative or general population, estimated life expectancy at age 20 years in HIV-positive people on ART ranged from 60.3% (95% CI 58.0-62.6%) in Rwanda (2008-2011) to 89.1% (95% CI 84.7-93.6%) in Canada (2008-2012). The percentage of life expectancy in the HIV-negative or general population achieved was higher in HIV-positive women than in HIV-positive men in all countries, except for Canada wherein the opposite was the case. Life expectancy in HIV-positive people on ART has improved worldwide in recent years, but important gaps remain compared with the general and HIV-negative population, and between regions and genders.

  7. [Diabetes mellitus: Contribution to changes in the life expectancy in Mexico 1990, 2000, and 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio A; Pardo Montaño, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the level and trend of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Mexico, and its contribution to the changes in temporary life expectancy between 20 and 100 years of age, in the period 1990-2010. Data comes from National Mortality Vital Statistics and from the Population Census from the Mexican National Institute of Geography and Statistics (INEGI). We calculated standardized mortality rates. To analyze the impact of DM on the temporary life expectancy (80e20) we used Pollard’s method. Between 1990 and 2010, the standardized mortality rate for people 20 years and older increased by 224 %. The contribution of DM for men to the change in life expectancy during 1990-2000 was a reduction of 0.31 years; for women was a reduction of 0.32 years; in the period 2000-2010 the reduction continued for both men and women (0.34 and 0.12 years respectively). Mortality from DM continues to increase, especially for men, but for women a modest reduction was observed. It is essential to apply health services and programs aimed at reducing mortality from this cause, focused on prevention, early detection and timely treatment, with concrete actions on vulnerable groups.

  8. Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE) in Korea: 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Yong; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Seung Hoon; Go, Dun Sol; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Min Woo

    2016-11-01

    Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE) is a summary measurement that estimates the average number of years that a person at a given age can expect to live an equivalent of full health. HALE has not been previously reported at national or regional levels in Korea. This study aimed to measure HALE from 2005 to 2011 in Korea at both the national and regional levels as part of the Korean National Burden Study of 2012. To measure life expectancy (LE) and HALE, we used the life table method and an approach proposed by Sullivan. We used three main data sets to estimate HALE: probability of death, prevalence of disease, and disability weights. Overall, LE and HALE have increased from 2005 to 2011. For example, in 2011, LE and HALE at birth in males were 77.6 and 65.8 years, respectively, and 84.4 and 68.9 in females. It might be assumed that the overall health status of Korean population has been increasing. However, we confirmed that a gap between LE and HALE still exists. Additionally, we found out that there was a significant difference between LE and HALE among various sub-regions. This study is the first to measure HALE using our own database, including disability weight that reflected Korean preferences. Finally, the Korean government and society should make an effort to reduce the gap between LE and HALE and to reduce regional differences.

  9. STUDENTS’ EXPECTATIONS ABOUT THE STUDY OF GEOGRAPHY IN HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA VASILESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research emerged from the idea that the education system in Romania would achieve efficiency and applicability if it acknowledged the needs of students, who are in fact the ones who benefit from the system. The research was based on the scientific implementation of the methodology of designing and administering questionnaires, which were devised bearing in mind the importance of their purpose and role as instruments of inquiry. The aim of this study is that of identifying and reporting the students’ views on Geography as a subject, with a view to materializing its findings, particularly at this stage when the education system is redefining itself. In this context,after designing the questionnaire, we administered it to 120 12th grade students from three high schools in Baia Mare. The interpretation of the results enabled us to draw some conclusions which reflected a significant gap between students’ expectations and what we considered to be in line with the requirements of a society based on knowledge, globalization, and what they were offered by the education system in terms of Geography.

  10. Willingness to Pay for Environmental Health Risk Reductions When There are Varying Degrees of Life Expectancy: A White Paper (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of existing value of statistical life (VSL) estimates in benefit-cost analysis relates to relatively short changes in life expectancy. The authors' strategy for addressing this question is to briefly survey the existing economics literature.

  11. Increasing socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy and QALYs in Sweden 1980-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Kristina; Johannesson, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the change in socio-economic differences in life expectancy and in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), for men and women at different ages, in Sweden 1980 to 1997. We used data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (the ULF survey), which is linked to mortality data, to estimate the life expectancy in different socio-economic groups in 1980 and 1997 (n=100 868). Health state scores were obtained by mapping responses to selected ULF survey interview questions into the generic health-related quality of life measure EQ-5D, using the UK EQ-5D index tariff (n=34 447). For 20-year-old men the difference in life expectancy between the highest (higher non-manual) and the lowest socio-economic group (unskilled manual) was 2.11 years in 1980 and 3.79 years in 1997. The corresponding figures for 20-year-old women were 1.56 in 1980 and 2.15 in 1997. The difference in QALYs between the highest and the lowest socio-economic group increased from 5.76 QALYs in 1980 to 7.06 QALYs in 1997 for 20-year-old men, and from 4.14 QALYs in 1980 to 5.66 QALYs in 1997 for 20-year-old women. The widening socio-economic inequalities over time were more stable for men than for women. We conclude that our results suggest that the socio-economic inequality in health has increased between 1980 and 1997 in Sweden. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Favorable ecological circumstances promote life expectancy in chimpanzees similar to that of human hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian M; Watts, David P; Mitani, John C; Langergraber, Kevin E

    2017-04-01

    Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified. We used a novel method to address age estimation error by calculating stochastic survivorship curves. We compared Ngogo life expectancy, survivorship, and mortality rates to those from other chimpanzee communities and human hunter-gatherers. Life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 32.8 years, far exceeding estimates of chimpanzee life expectancy in other communities, and falling within the range of human hunter-gatherers (i.e., 27-37 years). Overall, the pattern of survivorship at Ngogo was more similar to that of human hunter-gatherers than to other chimpanzee communities. Maximum lifespan for the Ngogo chimpanzees, however, was similar to that reported at other chimpanzee research sites and was less than that of human-hunter gatherers. The absence of predation by large carnivores may contribute to some of the higher survivorship at Ngogo, but this cannot explain the much higher survivorship at Ngogo than at Kanyawara, another chimpanzee community in the same forest, which also lacks large carnivores. Higher survivorship at Ngogo appears to be an adaptive response to a food supply that is more abundant and varies less than that of Kanyawara. Future analyses of hominin life history evolution should take these results into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia:Squamata:Varanidae) in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendyk, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In zoos, life expectancy-the average lifespan of individuals within a population, and longevity-the maximum lifespan within a population, can be useful parameters for evaluating captive husbandry and animal welfare. Using life history and demographic data derived from regional studbooks, this study examined life expectancy and longevity in a total of 782 wild-caught (WC) and captive-bred (CB) varanid lizards of seven species maintained in North American zoos since 1926. The average lifespans for WC and CB animals were 6.3 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.4 years, respectively, with CB males living significantly longer than females (P = 0.009). A total of 26.4% of WC and 22.5% of CB animals experienced mortality during their first 2 years in captivity, with mortality during this period greatest among Varanus rudicollis and V. prasinus. A positive correlation was observed between life expectancy and adult body mass in captive-bred individuals (r = 0.981; P = 0.002). Wild-caught females with a history of successful reproduction had a significantly greater average lifespan than non-reproducing females (P zoos. In light of these findings, several husbandry-related factors which may be affecting the welfare and lifespans of varanids in zoos are identified and discussed. This study also highlights the utility of demographic and life history data in captive animal management, and offers a general framework for future herpetological studies of a similar nature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Favorable ecological circumstances promote life expectancy in chimpanzees similar to that of human hunter-gatherers☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian M.; Watts, David P.; Mitani, John C.; Langergraber, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified. We used a novel method to address age estimation error by calculating stochastic survivorship curves. We compared Ngogo life expectancy, survivorship, and mortality rates to those from other chimpanzee communities and human hunter-gatherers. Life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 32.8 years, far exceeding estimates of chimpanzee life expectancy in other communities, and falling within the range of human hunter-gatherers (i.e., 27–37 years). Overall, the pattern of survivorship at Ngogo was more similar to that of human hunter-gatherers than to other chimpanzee communities. Maximum lifespan for the Ngogo chimpanzees, however, was similar to that reported at other chimpanzee research sites and was less than that of human-hunter gatherers. The absence of predation by large carnivores may contribute to some of the higher survivorship at Ngogo, but this cannot explain the much higher survivorship at Ngogo than at Kanyawara, another chimpanzee community in the same forest, which also lacks large carnivores. Higher survivorship at Ngogo appears to be an adaptive response to a food supply that is more abundant and varies less than that of Kanyawara. Future analyses of hominin life history evolution should take these results into account. PMID:28366199

  15. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active life expectancy for 10,000 Caucasian men and women in three communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, L G; Guralnik, J M; Foley, D J; Kohout, F J; Wetle, T T; Ostfeld, A; Katz, S

    1991-07-01

    Active life expectancies (ALEs) were calculated using increment-decrement life table techniques for 10,000 Caucasian men and women from three geographic areas. This technique is more appropriate than the single decrement model originally used, and resulting ALE was substantially greater among initially independent men and women aged 65 years: from 9.3 for men and 10.6 for women to 11.3 to 13.0 for men and 15.5 to 17.1 for women. These increases may be attributable to factors other than the change of method, however, including the change in time from 1975 to 1982 and the change from one state to three communities. The sex differences suggest that the added years of life that women have enjoyed over men are neither solely added years of vigor nor solely added years of disability, but added years with the same mix of independence/dependence that the shorter-lived males experience. The age patterns suggest that at any age the future presents a relatively constant expectation of the total duration of dependency, and concordantly, as one ages, there is a relatively uniform decrease in the proportion of active life to remaining years.

  17. Crosslinking of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides to modulate the expected half-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, L; Madaghiele, M; Parisi, C; Gatti, F; Sannino, A

    2014-12-01

    The microstructural, mechanical, compositional, and degradative properties of a nerve conduit are known to strongly affect the regenerative process of the injured peripheral nerve. Starting from the fabrication of micropatterned collagen-based nerve guides, according to a spin-casting process reported in the literature, this study further investigates the possibility to modulate the degradation rate of the scaffolds over a wide time frame, in an attempt to match different rates of nerve regeneration that might be encountered in vivo. To this aim, three different crosslinking methods, that is, dehydrothermal (DHT), carbodiimide-based (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde-based (GTA) crosslinking, were selected. The elastically effective degree of crosslinking, attained by each method and evaluated according to the classical rubber elasticity theory, was found to significantly tune the in vitro half-life (t1/2 ) of the matrices, with an exponential dependence of the latter on the crosslink density. The high crosslinking efficacy of EDAC and GTA treatments, respectively threefold and fourfold when compared to the one attained by DHT, led to a sharp increase of the corresponding in vitro half-lives (ca., 10, 172, and 690 h, for DHT, EDAC, and GTA treated matrices, respectively). As shown by cell viability assays, the cytocompatibility of both DHT and EDAC treatments, as opposed to the toxicity of GTA, suggests that such methods are suitable to crosslink collagen-based scaffolds conceived for clinical use. In particular, nerve guides with expected high residence times in vivo might be produced by finely controlling the biocompatible reaction(s) adopted for crosslinking. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Expectations of the Educational Reform of High School Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladeva, Rositsa

    2017-03-01

    The study is an attempt to present the latest developments in legislation for implementation of the reform in geographic education in secondary school. Through conducted survey has been taken into account the views and expectations of teachers of Geography and Economics in terms of the new law, a framework curriculum, State educational standards and curricula. Expectations of educational reform are formulated as positive and negative sides. Referred to a recommendation for overcoming some of the problems were identified.

  19. Impact of injury-related mortality on life expectancy in Zhejiang, China based on death and population surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fang-Rong; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Yu, Min; Gong, Wei-Wei; Wang, Meng; Pan, Jin; Wu, Hai-Bin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2017-07-17

    Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of injury-related mortality on life expectancy in Zhejiang Province. Our study used standard life tables to calculate life expectancy and cause-removed life expectancy based on mortality data from the Zhejiang Chronic Disease Surveillance System. Life expectancy of residents in Zhejiang was 77.83 years in 2013, with females having a higher life expectancy than males. The decrease in life expectancy caused by injury-related deaths was 1.19 years, the effect of which was reduced for females and urban residents compared with males and rural residents. The greatest impact on life expectancy was road traffic injuries (RTIs), (0.29 years lost overall, 0.36 for men vs. 0.21 for women and 0.26 for urban residents vs. 0.31 for rural residents). The main causes were falls (0.29 years lost overall, 0.30 for men vs. 0.28 for women and 0.28 for urban residents vs. 0.30 for rural residents), followed by drowning (0.15 years lost), suicide (0.11 years lost), and poisoning (0.04 years). For children less than 5 years old and elders aged over 65, drowning had a greater impact than falls. Our findings indicate that injury deaths had a major impact on life expectancy in Zhejiang. More attention should be paid to road traffic injury, and preventive action should be taken to reduce injury-related deaths to increase life expectancy, especially in children under five years of age and the elders over 65 years of age.

  20. Labor force participation and secondary education of gender inequality index (GII) associated with healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2014-11-18

    What is the factor that affects healthy life expectancy? Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth may be influenced by components of the gender inequality index (GII). Notably, this claim is not tested on the between components of the GII, such as population at least secondary education (PLSE) with ages 25 and older, labor force participation rate (LFPR) with ages 15 and older, and the HLE in the world's countries. Thus, this study estimates the associations between the PLSE, LFPR of components of the GII and the HLE. The data for the analysis of HLE in 148 countries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Information regarding the GII indicators for this study was obtained from the United Nations database. Associations between these factors and HLE were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Although significant negative correlations were found between HLE and the LFPR, positive correlations were found between HLE and PLSE. Finally, the HLE predictors were used to form a model of the components of the GII, with higher PLSE as secondary education and lower LFPR as labor force (R(2) = 0.552, P secondary education and labor force participation seems to have an important latent effect on healthy life expectancy at birth. Therefore, in populations with high HLE, the gender inequalities in HLE are smaller because of a combination of a larger secondary education advantage and a smaller labor force disadvantage in male-females.

  1. Decrease of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia: Chance to increase anticipated life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level and structure of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia with an aim to determine the intensity of realized changes and to provide an answer to how much they are significant and to approach the positive trends noted in developed countries in the latest period. Although it was insufficiently represented in the demographic analysis, the analysis of mortality in old people is gaining importance in the world. Apart from the reasons which result from the increase in the number of old people and thus their greater participation in the total number of deceased, enviable results have been achieved in decreasing old age mortality, which are more and more in focus of interest. While earlier research reported on the dominant influence of the decrease of younger age mortality to the increase of the expectation of life at birth, recent analysis precisely confirm the importance of decreasing mortality in old people. In mortality conditions from 1997/98, an additional 13.4 years of life in average is expected for men in Yugoslavia, and 15.2 for women. During more than five decades, the anticipated life expectancy for people over the age of 65 increased for only 1.2 years for men and 1.9 years for women. Out of that, the greatest increase was realized in the period 1950/51 - 1960/61 in both sexes. A small decrease in the average life expectancy was marked with men in the period 1960/61 - 1970/71, and with women in the latest period. Otherwise, all up to the eighties, the annual rate of increase was considerably lower than the rate of increase for zero year. It was only in the period 1980/81-1990/91 that faster growth had an anticipated life expectancy for the 65 years old. However, during the nineties unfavorable changes continued with the older, especially, female population. When comparing the values of the average life expectancy for people over 65 in Yugoslavia with corresponding values in developed countries, the lagging in

  2. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  3. Impact of Pregnancy-Related Deaths on Female Life Expectancy in Zambia: Application of Life Table Techniques to Census Data: e0141689

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard Banda; Ingvild Fossgard Sandøy; Knut Fylkesnes; Fanny Janssen

    2015-01-01

    .... We used associated single decrement life tables, assuming complete elimination of pregnancy-related deaths to estimate the potential gains in female life expectancy at birth, at age 15, and over the ages 15-49...

  4. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 1.117 years in life expectancy for black males. Lower death rates for black males due to suicide, unintentional ... of 0.995 years in life expectancy for black females. Lower death rates for black females due to Chronic lower ...

  5. Impact of pregnancy-related deaths on female life expectancy in Zambia: application of lifetable techniques to census data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banda, R.; Fossgard Sandøy, I.; Fylkesnes, K.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2000, the world has been coalesced around efforts to reduce maternal mortality. However, few studies have estimated the significance of eliminating maternal deaths on female life expectancy. We estimated, based on census data, the potential gains in female life expectancy assuming

  6. Closing the gap: increases in life expectancy among treated HIV-positive individuals in the United States and Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samji, Hasina; Cescon, Angela; Hogg, Robert S; Modur, Sharada P; Althoff, Keri N; Buchacz, Kate; Burchell, Ann N; Cohen, Mardge; Gebo, Kelly A; Gill, M John; Justice, Amy; Kirk, Gregory; Klein, Marina B; Korthuis, P Todd; Martin, Jeff; Napravnik, Sonia; Rourke, Sean B; Sterling, Timothy R; Silverberg, Michael J; Deeks, Stephen; Jacobson, Lisa P; Bosch, Ronald J; Kitahata, Mari M; Goedert, James J; Moore, Richard; Gange, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    ....) and Canada, but gains in life expectancy for this region have not been well characterized. We aim to estimate temporal changes in life expectancy among HIV-positive adults on ART from 2000-2007 in the U.S. and Canada...

  7. Relative Importance of Demographic, Socioeconomic and Health Factors on Life Expectancy in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md. Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2014-01-01

    Background We attempted to identify the pathways by which demographic changes, socioeconomic inequalities, and availability of health factors influence life expectancy in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Methods Data for 91 countries were obtained from United Nations agencies. The response variable was life expectancy, and the determinant factors were demographic events (total fertility rate and adolescent fertility rate), socioeconomic status (mean years of schooling and gross national income per capita), and health factors (physician density and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] prevalence rate). Path analysis was used to determine the direct, indirect, and total effects of these factors on life expectancy. Results All determinant factors were significantly correlated with life expectancy. Mean years of schooling, total fertility rate, and HIV prevalence rate had significant direct and indirect effects on life expectancy. The total effect of higher physician density was to increase life expectancy. Conclusions We identified several direct and indirect pathways that predict life expectancy. The findings suggest that policies should concentrate on improving reproductive decisions, increasing education, and reducing HIV transmission. In addition, special attention should be paid to the emerging need to increase life expectancy by increasing physician density. PMID:24390415

  8. Decomposing change in life expectancy : A bouquet of formulas in honor of Nathan Keyfitz's 90th birthday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaupel, JW; Romo, VC

    We extend Nathan Keyfitz research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates at

  9. Increased Life Expectancy in New York City, 2001-2010: An Exploration by Cause of Death and Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Maduro, Gil A; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    New York City's (NYC's) life expectancy gains have been greater than those seen nationally. We examined life-expectancy changes over the past decade in selected NYC subpopulations and explored which age groups and causes of death contributed most to the increases. We calculated life expectancy with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 2001-2010 by sex and race/ethnicity. Life expectancy was decomposed by age group and cause of death. Logistic regressions were conducted to reinforce the results from decomposition by controlling confounders. Overall, NYC residents' life expectancy at birth increased from 77.9 years (95% CI, 77.8-78.0) in 2001 to 80.9 years (95% CI, 80.8-81.0) in 2010. Decreases in deaths from heart disease, cancer, and HIV disease accounted for 50%, 16%, and 11%, respectively, of the gains. Decreased mortality in older age groups (≥65 years) accounted for 45.6% of the overall change. Life expectancy increased for both sexes, across all racial/ethnic groups, and for both the US-born and the foreign-born. Disparities in life expectancy decreased as overall life expectancy increased. Decreased mortality among older adults and from heart disease, cancer, and HIV infection accounted for most of the increases.

  10. Modeling predicted that tobacco control policies targeted at lower educated will reduce the differences in life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Lenthe, F. van; Hoogenveen, R.; Kunst, A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objective: To estimate the effects of reducing the prevalence of smoking in lower educated groups on educational differences in life expectancy. Methods: A dynamic Markov-type multistate transition model estimated the effects on life expectancy of two scenarios. A "maximum scenario"

  11. Use of Preventive Medication in Patients With Limited Life Expectancy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Arjun; Yates, Patsy; Rowett, Debra; Nissen, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    Optimal prescribing in patients with limited life expectancy (LLE) remains unclear. This study systematically reviews the published literature regarding the use of preventive medication in patients with reduced life expectancy. A systematic literature search was conducted using three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL). Articles published in English from January 1995 to December 2015 were retrieved for analysis to identify peer-reviewed, observational studies assessing use of preventive medications in patients with LLE. Inclusion criteria were: patients with a LLE (less than or equal to two years); prescribed/used preventive medications. Of the 15 studies meeting our eligibility criteria, six were from inpatient hospital settings, five in palliative care, three in nursing homes, and one in community settings. The most common life-limiting illnesses described in the studies were cancer (n = 6), cardiovascular diseases (n = 4), dementia and cognitive impairment (n = 2), and other life-limiting illnesses (n = 3). Lipid-lowering medications, especially the statins were frequently prescribed preventive medication followed by antiplatelets, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, anti-osteoporosis medications, and calcium channel blockers. Only four studies reported the instances of medication withdrawal. Patients continue to receive medications that are not prescribed as symptomatic treatment despite having a LLE. Very few rigorous studies have been conducted on minimizing preventive medications in patients with LLE, and expert opinion varies on medication optimization at the end of life. A consensus guideline that addresses this gap is of paramount importance. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Health-related quality of life and expectations of patients before surgical treatment of lumbar stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Maria Pacola

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expectations of patients awaiting surgical treatment of lumbar canal stenosis and the association of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL with symptoms of anxiety and depression. METHODS: The sample included 49 patients from a university hospital. HRQoL was assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and 36-item Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form (SF-36 and symptoms of anxiety and depression by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Expectations were investigated by means of questions used in international studies. Data were analyzed descriptively and by Student's t test. RESULTS: The mean time of disease progression was 34.5 months, the mean age was 58.8 years and 55.1% of the patients were women. Most patients had the expectation of improving with surgical treatment and 46.9% expected to be "much better" with regard to leg pain, walking ability, independence in activities and mental well being. The scores of anxiety and depression were respectively, 34.7% and 12.2%. We observed statistically significant differences between the groups with and without anxiety in the domains: General Health, Mental Health, and Vitality. Between the groups with and without depression there were statistically significant differences in the General Health and Mental Health domains. CONCLUSION: Patients showed great expectation to surgical treatment and the symptoms of anxiety and depression were related to some domains of HRQoL. Thus, the study contributes to broaden our knowledge and we can therefore guide the patients as to their expectations with respect to the real possibilities arising from surgery.

  13. Life expectancy and health expenditure evolution in Eastern Europe-DiD and DEA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Vukovic, Mira; Fontanesi, John

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of long-term health expenditure and longevity trends across three major sub-regions of Eastern Europe since 1989. 24 countries were classified as EU 2004, CIS, or SEE. European Health for All Database (HFA-DB) 1989-2012 data were processed using difference-in-difference (DiD) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The strongest expenditure growth was recorded in EU 2004 followed by SEE and the CIS. A surprisingly similar longevity increase was present in SEE and EU 2004. In 1989, countries that joined EU in 2004 were relatively inefficient in the number of life-years gained yet had a lower life expectancy than the SEE region and was only slightly higher than the CIS region (DEA). By 2012 the revenue spent was roughly linear to additional life-year expectancies. EU 2004 members were the best performers in terms of balanced longevity increase followed by health expenditure growth. The SEE economies' longevity gains were lagging slightly behind at a far lower cost. An extrapolated CIS expenditure to longevity increase ratio has the fastest-growing long-term promise.

  14. Biases in Individualized Cost-effectiveness Analysis: Influence of Choices in Modeling Short-Term, Trial-Based, Mortality Risk Reduction and Post-Trial Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klaveren, David; Wong, John B; Kent, David M; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2017-10-01

    The benefits and costs of a treatment are typically heterogeneous across individual patients. Randomized clinical trials permit the examination of individualized treatment benefits over the trial horizon but extrapolation to lifetime horizon usually involves combining trial-based individualized estimates of short-term risk reduction with less detailed (less granular) population life tables. However, the underlying assumption of equal post-trial life expectancy for low- and high-risk patients of the same sex and age is unrealistic. We aimed to study the influence of unequal granularity between models of short-term risk reduction and life expectancy on individualized estimates of cost-effectiveness of aggressive thrombolysis for patients with an acute myocardial infarction. To estimate life years gained, we multiplied individualized estimates of short-term risk reduction either with less granular and with equally granular post-trial life expectancy estimates. Estimates of short-term risk reduction were obtained from GUSTO trial data (30,510 patients) using logistic regression analysis with treatment, sex, and age as predictor variables. Life expectancy estimates were derived from sex- and age-specific US life tables. Based on sex- and age-specific, short-term risk reductions but average population life expectancy (less granularity), we found that aggressive thrombolysis was cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below $50,000) for women above age 49 y and men above age 53 y (92% and 69% of the population, respectively). Considering sex- and age-specific short-term mortality risk reduction and correspondingly sex- and age-specific life expectancy (equal granularity), aggressive thrombolysis was cost-effective for men above age 45 y and women above age 50 y (95% and 76% of the population, respectively). Failure to model short-term risk reduction and life expectancy at an equal level of granularity may bias our estimates of individualized cost

  15. Trends in infant/child mortality and life expectancy in Indigenous populations in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianghong; Luo, Chun; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-06-01

    The 2000 Census in China registered 55 groups of Indigenous population, including 104.49 million people, making up 8.1% of China's total population. Yunnan Province, located in Southwest China, is the only province where all 55 Indigenous nationalities are represented (14.15 million), making up 33.4% of Yunnan's total population. This study aimed to examine trends in infant and child mortality and life expectancy at birth of the 22 largest Indigenous nationalities and compared these trends with those of the majority Han Chinese in Yunnan and China as a whole. Data sources of mortality and socioeconomic status came from the population censuses of China (1953, 1964, 1982, 1990, and 2000) and Yunnan (1990-2000) and from the Provincial Health Department (1990, 1995, 1996 and 2000). Weighted linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between infant/child mortality and life expectancy at birth, socioeconomic indicators and the use of preventive health services. In 2000, the infant mortality rate was 26.90 for China and 53.64 for Han Chinese in Yunnan per 1,000 live birth versus 77.75 for the 22 largest minority nationalities in Yunnan, despite improvements in health status indicators since 1990. The inequalities in life expectancy at birth between China as a whole and some minority nationalities remained striking in 2000 (57.18 versus 71.40). Literacy, prenatal examination, hospital deliveries, economic development were important predictors of these health indicators. Efforts to continue to improve these intermediate proximate determinants and to target the most disadvantaged Indigenous groups are likely to further reduce health disparities between the Chinese and Indigenous populations.

  16. Convergence in male and female life expectancy: Direction, age pattern, and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Seligman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cornerstone of mortality- and life-expectancy forecasting in developed nations, the Lee-Carter model relies on assumptions of there being a dominant singular value that captures most of the variance within a matrix of age-specific mortality rates over time and that the time trend captured by this lead singular value is constant. We revisit the model's predictive ability and trends in mortality decline among developed nations since the end of the Cold War. Objective: To understand the predictive power of the Lee-Carter model with mortality trends since 1990. Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database. Forecasts were made using R with random walk forecasts using the package forecast. Results: While Lee-Carter forecasts of life expectancy for combined sexes were accurate, sex-specific forecasts tended to somewhat overestimate for females and significantly underestimate for males. Further investigation of the trend for males shows that the first singular value continues to capture the majority of the variation in mortality since 1990, with progress along this dimension moving at a constant rate. Conclusions: Lee-Carter forecasts have significantly underestimated gains inmale life expectancy without major changes to the model's assumptions. We believe this represents more rapid progress in tackling male mortality in the G7 countries without major changes to the age pattern of these gains. Curiously, this has not affected combined-sex forecasts, potentially being offset by slight overestimation of female mortality progress. Contribution: We show that the Lee-Carter model has made inaccurate forecasts of mortality rates unrelated to violations of its underlying assumptions.

  17. Exploring the Life Expectancy Increase in Poland in the Context of CVD Mortality Fall

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    Joanna Kobza PhD, MA, MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy at birth is considered the best mortality-based summary indicator of the health status of the population and is useful for measuring long-term health changes. The objective of this article was to present the concept of the bottom-up policy risk assessment approach, developed to identify challenges involved in analyzing risk factor reduction policies and in assessing how the related health indicators have changed over time. This article focuses on the reasons of the significant life expectancy prolongation in Poland over the past 2 decades, thus includes policy context. The methodology details a bottom-up risk assessment approach, a chain of relations between the health outcome, risk factors, and health policy, based on Risk Assessment From Policy to Impact Dimension project guidance. A decline in cardiovascular disease mortality was a key factor that followed life expectancy prolongation. Among basic factors, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, and new treatment technologies were identified. Poor health outcomes of the Polish population at the beginning of 1990s highlighted the need of the implementation of various health promotion programs, legal acts, and more effective public health policies. Evidence-based public health policy needs translating scientific research into policy and practice. The bottom-up case study template can be one of the focal tools in this process. Accountability for the health impact of policies and programs and legitimization of the decisions of policy makers has become one of the key questions nowadays in European countries’ decision-making process and in EU public health strategy.

  18. Coordinator Role Mobility Method for Increasing the Life Expectancy of Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Jurenoks Aleksejs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of wireless sensor network nodes is the low-power batteries that significantly limit the life expectancy of a network. Nowadays the technical solutions related to energy resource management are being rapidly developed and integrated into the daily lives of people. The energy resource management systems use sensor networks for receiving and processing information during the realia time. The present paper proposes using a coordinator role mobility method for controlling the routing processes for energy balancing in nodes, which provides dynamic network reconfiguration possibilities. The method is designed to operate fully in the background and can be integrated into any exiting working system.

  19. [Mortality due to traffic injuries and its impact on life expectancy: a comparison between Mexico and Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique

    2015-09-01

    To determine the impact of mortality due to motor vehicle traffic injuries (MVTI) compared with other causes of death on life expectancy in Mexico and Spain during the three-year periods 2000-2002 and 2010-2012 and the weight of the different age groups in years of life expectancy lost (YLEL) due to this cause. Based on official death and population data, abridged life tables in Mexico and Spain were constructed for the three-year periods studied. Temporary life expectancy and YLEL for persons aged 15 to 75 years were calculated by selected causes (MVTI, diabetes mellitus, malignant neoplasms and ischemic heart diseases) and age groups in each three-year period. In Spain, YLEL decreased in both sexes from all the causes studied, especially MVTI; this reduction was greater in the younger ages. In addition, temporary life expectancy increased. In Mexico, YLEL due to MVTI increased in men, mainly in young people, and remained unchanged among women. Temporary life expectancy declined in men but increased slightly among women. The reduction in YLEL due to MVTI in Spain has contributed to increased life expectancy. By contrast, the increase in YLEL due to MVTI among Mexican men has contributed to the decline in male life expectancy. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The problem of genotype and sex differences in life expectancy in transgenic AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Eric A; Brown, Richard E

    2015-10-01

    The lifespan of mice shows genotype, sex and laboratory effects, but little is known about genotype or sex differences in life expectancy of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper examines the lifespan of males and females of different mouse models of AD and their wildtype strains. Genotype and sex dependent differences in longevity have important implications for designing experiments with Alzheimer's mouse models, comparing genotype and sex differences in aging mouse models, designing drug treatment regimes and the translation of mouse data to human clinical studies. We conclude that the concept of aging and age-related disorders in mice must be reconsidered based on genotype and sex differences in mouse life expectancy data. Use of concepts such as relative age, prospective lifespan and proportion of lifespan remaining should be included in studies of age-related changes in mouse brains and behavior. Finally, measures such as the Frailty Index, which is independent of chronological age might be used to determine a common scale of aging for all mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

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    Evans DGR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA, or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors.Keywords: mortality, survival, life expectancy, early-onset, tumors

  2. Investigating the Life Expectancy and Proteolytic Degradation of Engineered Skeletal Muscle Biological Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Caroline; Ferrall-Fairbanks, Meghan C; Ko, Eunkyung; Grant, Lauren; Kong, Hyunjoon; Platt, Manu O; Bashir, Rashid

    2017-06-19

    A combination of techniques from 3D printing, tissue engineering and biomaterials has yielded a new class of engineered biological robots that could be reliably controlled via applied signals. These machines are powered by a muscle strip composed of differentiated skeletal myofibers in a matrix of natural proteins, including fibrin, that provide physical support and cues to the cells as an engineered basement membrane. However, maintaining consistent results becomes challenging when sustaining a living system in vitro. Skeletal muscle must be preserved in a differentiated state and the system is subject to degradation by proteolytic enzymes that can break down its mechanical integrity. Here we examine the life expectancy, breakdown, and device failure of engineered skeletal muscle bio-bots as a result of degradation by three classes of proteases: plasmin, cathepsin L, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9). We also demonstrate the use of gelatin zymography to determine the effects of differentiation and inhibitor concentration on protease expression. With this knowledge, we are poised to design the next generation of complex biological machines with controllable function, specific life expectancy and greater consistency. These results could also prove useful for the study of disease-specific models, treatments of myopathies, and other tissue engineering applications.

  3. Trends in life expectancy of HIV-positive adults on ART across the globe: comparisons with general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, Gilles; Johnson, Leigh F.; Egger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Improved virological and immunological outcomes and reduced toxicity of antiretroviral combination therapy (ART) raise the hope that life expectancy of HIV-positive persons on ART will approach that of the general population. We systematically review the literature and summarize published estimates of life expectancy of HIV-positive populations on ART. We compare their life expectancy with the life expectancy of the general or, in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-negative populations, by time period and gender. Recent findings Ten relevant studies were published from 2006 to 2015. Three studies were from Canada, two from European countries, three from sub-Saharan Africa and two were multi-country studies. Life expectancy increased over time in all studies and regions. Expressed as the percentage of life expectancy in the HIV-negative or general population, estimated life expectancy at age 20 years in HIV-positive people on ART ranged from 60.3% (95% CI 58.0–62.6) in Rwanda (2008–2011) to 89.1% (95% CI 84.7–93.6) in Canada (2008–2012). The percentage of the life expectancy in the HIV-negative or general population achieved was higher in HIV-positive women than in HIV-positive men in all countries, except for Canada where the opposite was the case. Summary Life expectancy in HIV-positive people on ART has improved worldwide in recent years, but important gaps remain compared to the general and HIV-negative population, and between regions and genders. PMID:27254748

  4. THE PRACTEAM MODEL REGARDING SCHOOL TO ACTIVE LIFE TRANSITION. STUDENTS’ EXPECTANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca Otilia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The project “Practical training of economist’s students. Inter-regional partnership in the labor market between universities and the business environment” focuses on student’s transition from school to labor market. Concretely, it tries to highlight the general role of practical training – specifically the field related practical training set as a mandatory discipline in the curriculum, by identifying possibilities of interventions from supervisors. Starting with literature review regarding determinants of school to active life transition, the present contribution discusses the outline of the practical training set as a mandatory discipline in the curriculum. Within PRACTeam project the practical training itself is accompanied with a series of supplementary services (aptitude testing, counseling, career guidance, mentoring by a trained tutor, granting financial aid, awarding excellence over contests and internships. It represents an active partnership on the labor market meant to address directly students’ expectations regarding practical training, work, and entrepreneurship. At least two main benefits may be derived from the training and tutoring. First, as a dual type model of transition from school to active life, allowing students to become insiders in the labor market. Secondly, changes in supervisor’ patterns of interactions and behavior/attitudes toward work and employees may also occur, which in turn may improve the work. A pretest-posttest non-experimental design was applied for the PRACTeam evaluation. Using administered questionnaires and focus group method to students before and after they completed their practical stages we examined their attitudes and behavior towards elements of the dual model of transition. The paper concludes that a dual type model of transition from school to active life - that implies the education and practice occur simultaneously, successfully meets students’ expectancies and may be

  5. BMI and healthy life expectancy in old and very old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, L; Byles, J E; Jagger, C

    2016-08-01

    There is conflicting evidence for the effect of BMI on mortality at older ages, and little information on its effect on healthy life expectancy (HLE). Longitudinal data were from the 1921-1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n 11 119), over 18 years of follow-up. Self-rated health status was measured at each survey, and BMI was measured at baseline. Multi-state models were fitted to estimate the effect of BMI on total life expectancy (TLE) and HLE. Compared with women of normal weight, overweight women at the age of 75 years had similar TLE but fewer years healthy (-0·79; 95 % CI -1·21, -0·37) and more years unhealthy (0·99; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·42). Obese women at the age of 75 years lived fewer years in total than normal-weight women (-1·09; 95 % CI -1·77, -0·41), and had more unhealthy years (1·46; 95 % CI 0·97, 1·95 years). Underweight women had the lowest TLE and the fewest years of healthy life. Women should aim to enter old age at a normal weight and in good health, as the slight benefit on mortality of being overweight is offset by spending fewer years healthy. All outcomes were better for those who began in good health. The relationship between weight and HLE has important implications for nutrition for older people, particularly maintenance of lean body mass and prevention of obesity. The benefit of weight loss in obese older women remains unclear, but we support the recommendation that weight-loss advice be individualised, as any benefits may not outweigh the risks in healthy obese older adults.

  6. Exploring life expectancy limits: First exit time modeling, parameter analysis and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadas, Christos H.; Skiadas, Charilaos

    In this paper we explore the life expectancy limits by based on the stochastic modeling of mortality and applying the first exit or hitting time theory of a stochastic process. The main assumption is that the health state or the "vitality", according to Strehler and Mildvan, of an individual is a stochastic variable and thus it was introduced and applied a first exit time density function to mortality data. The model is used to estimate the development of mortality rates in the late stages of the human life span, to make better fitting to population mortality data including the infant mortality, to compare it with the classical Gompertz curve, and to make comparisons between the Carey medfly data and the population mortality data estimating the health state or "vitality" functions. Furthermore, we apply the model to the life table data of Italy, France, USA, Canada, Sweden, Norway and Japan, and we analyze the characteristic parameters of the model and make forecasts. The case of female mortality in Sweden is extensively studied and forecasts to 2025 and 2050 are presented.

  7. Preventive health screenings and health consultations in primary care increase life expectancy without increasing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne R; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Kilsmark, Janni

    2007-01-01

    were given fixed appointments for health consultations. The follow-up period was six years. Analysis was carried out on the "intention to treat" principle. Outcome parameters were life years gained, and direct and total health costs (including productivity costs), discounted by 3% annually. Costs were......AIMS: The intention was to investigate whether preventive health checks and health discussions are cost effective. METHODS: In a randomized trial the authors compared two intervention groups (A and B) and one control group. In 1991 2,000 30- to 49-year-old persons were invited and those who...... based on register data. Univariate sensitivity analysis was carried out. RESULTS: Both intervention groups have significantly better life expectancy than the control group (no intervention). Group B and (A) significantly gain 0.14 (0.08) life years more than the control group. There were no differences...

  8. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  9. [Prediction of life expectancy for prostate cancer patients based on the kinetic theory of aging of living systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorov, A A; Zharinov, G M; Neklasova, N Ju; Morozova, E E

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a methodical approach for prediction of life expectancy for people diagnosed with prostate cancer based on the kinetic theory of aging of living systems. The life expectancy is calculated by solving the differential equation for the rate of aging for three different stage of life - «normal» life, life with prostate cancer and life after combination therapy for prostate cancer. The mathematical model of aging for each stage of life has its own parameters identified by the statistical analysis of healthcare data from the Zharinov's databank and Rosstat CDR NES databank. The core of the methodical approach is the statistical correlation between growth rate of the prostate specific antigen level (PSA-level) or the PSA doubling time (PSA DT) before therapy, and lifespan: the higher the PSA DT is, the greater lifespan. The patients were grouped under the «fast PSA DT» and «slow PSA DT» categories. The satisfactory matching between calculations and experiment is shown. The prediction error of group life expectancy is due to the completeness and reliability of the main data source. A detailed monitoring of the basic health indicators throughout the each person life in each analyzed group is required. The absence of this particular information makes it impossible to predict the individual life expectancy.

  10. Discontinuation of Preventive Medicines in Older People with Limited Life Expectancy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sujita W; Nishtala, Prasad S

    2017-10-01

    In the presence of multimorbidity and limited life expectancy (LLE), the need for continued use of preventive medicines becomes uncertain as they may neither improve health nor confer continued health benefits. Our objective was to systematically review the literature to examine the discontinuation of preventive medicines in older people with LLE. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Central Register databases. Studies investigating discontinuation of preventive medicines in older individuals (mean age ≥65 years) with LLE (≤12 months) published between 1 January 1997 and 28 February 2017 were included. The Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the quality of the studies. Ten studies-a randomized controlled trial (RCT), two case-control studies, and seven cohort studies-involving 26,854 participants with a mean age ranging from 66.0 to 85.0 years were included in this review. The studies were primarily conducted in palliative care (n = 3), residential facility (n = 2), and community (n = 1) settings, and the remainder were pharmacoepidemiological studies (n = 4). The most common life-limiting illnesses were cancer (n = 5), followed by other unspecified illnesses (n = 4) and advanced dementia (n = 1). The most common preventive medicine discontinued was statins, followed by warfarin and aspirin. LLE potentially prompted discontinuation; however, some individuals continued to receive preventive medicines until they died. The review found that withdrawal of preventive medicines at the end of life is challenging. Decisions about the discontinuation of preventive medicines for individuals approaching the end of life are increasingly complicated by the lack of clear deprescribing guidelines for these medicines.

  11. Life Expectancy in Germany Based on the 2011 Census: Was the Healthy Migrant Effect Merely an Artefact?

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    Felix zur Nieden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Statistical Office’s 2010/12 general life table is the first to provide results on life expectancy based on census data for reunified Germany. This article therefore examines the question of how the revisions of the population figures from the 2011 census affected the measured life expectancy. To do so, we analysed both the official life tables based on the old intercensal population updates before the census and those based on the population data from the 2011 census. The method used to calculate the census-adjusted 2010/12 general life table was also transferred to separate life tables drawn up for the German and the foreign population. In this way, findings on the so-called “healthy migrant effect” can be discussed, ruling out possible errors in the intercensal population updates. These errors had previously been cited as the main causes for a distinctly longer life expectancy among the foreign population compared with the German population. As expected, a census-based calculation for the total population and for the German population resulted in only minor revisions to the life expectancy figures. The use of the census results does, however, distinctly alter the life expectancy of foreign women and men. An advantage of over 5 years in life expectancy at birth, measured on the basis of the old population data, needs to be revised to about 2.9 years for men and 2.1 years for women based on the 2011 census. The healthy migrant effect therefore cannot be traced back solely to data artefacts from the old intercensal population updates – even with revised data, the foreign population shows marked survival advantages.

  12. Hospitality Major Vocational High School Students' Expectations on University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ya-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Hospitality is not a new industry in Asia, but high quality hospitality industry has become more and more important in the trend of questing service-based economy and the increasing number of tourists in Asia. Thus there are more universities opened hospitality degree programs in Asia, Taiwan is no exception. In this context, why high school…

  13. Years off Your Life? The Effects of Homicide on Life Expectancy by Neighborhood and Race/Ethnicity in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001–2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates for Los Angeles County. Cause elimination techniques were used to estimate the impact of homicide on life expectancy. Homicide was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 0.4 years for Los Angeles County residents and by 2.1 years for black males. The impact of homicide on life expectancy was higher in low-income neighborhoods. In some low-income urban neighborhoods, homicide was estimated to decrease life expectancy in black males by nearly 5 years. Homicide causes substantial reductions in life expectancy in Los Angeles County. Its impact is magnified among black males and in low-income urban areas, underscoring the need for homicide reduction in urban centers. PMID:20556528

  14. A comparison of the efficiency of health systems in providing life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenart, Adam; Zarulli, Virginia

    The role of the national health systems is to provide health for their citizens but each country achieves it up to a different degree. The health systems are heterogeneous not only in their efficiency but in their funding, organization and management too. As it is difficult to measure their effic......The role of the national health systems is to provide health for their citizens but each country achieves it up to a different degree. The health systems are heterogeneous not only in their efficiency but in their funding, organization and management too. As it is difficult to measure...... their efficiency in absolute terms, the countries can be compared with each other. The relative efficiency of health systems can be measured by the life expectancy that they provide by taking education level and their funding structure into account. Based on data coming from the HMD, GGS, OECD and WHO, data...

  15. End-of-life expectations and experiences among nursing home patients and their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Anette; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase; Ruths, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Synthesize research about patients' and relatives' expectations and experiences on how doctors can improve end-of-life care in nursing homes. METHODS: We systematically searched qualitative studies in English in seven databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Ageline, Cochrane...... Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Trials). We included 14 publications in the analysis with meta-ethnography. RESULTS: Patients and families emphasized the importance of health personnel anticipating illness trajectories and recognizing the information and palliation needed. Family members who became proxy...... decision-makers reported uncertainty and distress when guidance from health personnel was lacking. They worried about staff shortage and emphasized doctor availability. Relatives and health personnel seldom recognized patients' ability to consent, and patients' preferences were not always recognized...

  16. Sociodemographic and Health Determinants of Inequalities in Life Expectancy in Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam Mondal, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life expectancy (LE at birth, a widely used indicator of the overall development of a country. Therefore, we attempted to build up the relationships between sociodemographic and health factors with LE in the least developed countries (LDCs. Methods: Data and necessary information of 48 LDCs were obtained from the United Nations agencies. LE was the response variable and determinant factors were sociodemographic and health related variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to extract the main factors. Results: All predictors were found significantly correlated with LE. Finally, crude death rate, infant mortality rate, physicians density, and gross national income per capita were identified as the significant predicators of LE. Conclusions: The findings suggest that international efforts should be aimed at increasing LE by decreasing mortality rates, and increasing physicians density and national income in the LDCs.

  17. A Poisson common factor model for projecting mortality and life expectancy jointly for females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    We examine the application of a Poisson common factor model for the projection of mortality jointly for females and males. The model structure is an extension of the classical Lee-Carter method in which there is a common factor for the aggregate population, while a number of additional sex-specific factors can also be incorporated. The Poisson distribution is a natural choice for modelling the number of deaths, and its use provides a formal statistical framework for model selection, parameter estimation, and data analysis. Our results for Australian data show that this model leads to projected life expectancy values similar to those produced by the separate projection of mortality for females and males, but possesses the additional advantage of ensuring that the projected male-to-female ratio for death rates at each age converges to a constant. Moreover, the randomness of the corresponding residuals indicates that the model fit is satisfactory.

  18. Targeting screening mammography according to life expectancy among women undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Louise C; Lindquist, Karla; O'Hare, Ann M; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2006-06-12

    Screening guidelines recommend that mammography be targeted to women likely to live longer than 5 years. Because women undergoing dialysis have a reduced but variable life expectancy, their appropriate use of screening is controversial. Therefore, we conducted this study to describe national mammography rates among women undergoing dialysis with differing prognostic factors and to determine whether screening is targeted to healthier women who live longer. Using the US Renal Data System, we identified 17,090 women aged 50 years or older who started dialysis in 1997. We tracked women for 5 years to ascertain their use of screening mammography or death. The 5-year survival rate was 25%. The biennial screening mammography rate was 25%, ranging from 12% for women aged 80 years or older to 69% for women who were ever on the transplant list. Women who were screened in the past year had a lower death rate than those who were not (hazards ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.59). Yet, 2198 women (13%) who died within 5 years underwent screening, and 2004 women (12%) who lived more than 5 years while receiving dialysis did not undergo screening. Screening mammography rates are appropriately low among women undergoing dialysis because the 5-year survival rate is low. Screening is being targeted to women who are healthier and live longer. However, targeting could be improved by increasing screening in the few women undergoing dialysis with substantial life expectancies while decreasing screening in most women undergoing dialysis who live less than 5 years.

  19. Against all odds: genocidal trauma is associated with longer life-expectancy of the survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Sagi-Schwartz

    Full Text Available Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220, 4-20 years old when the World War II started (1939, immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust. Hazard of death - a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma - was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95% = 0.910-0.960, suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10-15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95% = 0.842-0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months or 16-20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95% = 0.782-0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months. We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and "Posttraumatic Growth" associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II.

  20. The effect of urban green on small-area (healthy) life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, M F; van Lenthe, F J; Donkers, B; Mackenbach, J P; Burdorf, A

    2014-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the effect of the quantity of green space on health outcomes such as self-rated health, morbidity and mortality ratios. These studies have consistently found positive associations between the quantity of green and health. However, the impact of other aspects, such as the perceived quality and average distance to public green, and the effect of urban green on population health are still largely unknown. Linear regression models were used to investigate the impact of three different measures of urban green on small-area life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) in The Netherlands. All regressions corrected for average neighbourhood household income, accommodated spatial autocorrelation, and took measurement uncertainty of LE, HLE as well as the quality of urban green into account. Both the quantity and the perceived quality of urban green are modestly related to small-area LE and HLE: an increase of 1 SD in the percentage of urban green space is associated with a 0.1-year higher LE, and, in the case of quality of green, with an approximately 0.3-year higher LE and HLE. The average distance to the nearest public green is unrelated to population health. The quantity and particularly quality of urban green are positively associated with small-area LE and HLE. This concurs with a growing body of evidence that urban green reduces stress, stimulates physical activity, improves the microclimate and reduces ambient air pollution. Accordingly, urban green development deserves a more prominent place in urban regeneration and neighbourhood renewal programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The influence of smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity on cognitive impairment-free life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin Jane; Kingston, Andrew; Kiely, Kim Matthew; Luszcz, Mary Alice; Mitchell, Paul; Jagger, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity are risk factors for mortality and dementia. However, their impact on cognitive impairment-free life expectancy (CIFLE)has not previously been estimated. Data were drawn from the DYNOPTA dataset which was derived by harmonizing and pooling common measures from five longitudinal ageing studies. Participants for whom the Mini-Mental State Examination was available were included (N¼8111,48.6% men). Data on education, sex, body mass index, smoking and sedentary lifestyle were collected and mortality data were obtained from Government Records via data linkage.Total life expectancy (LE), CIFLE and years spent with cognitive impairment (CILE)were estimated for each risk factor and total burden of risk factors. CILE was approximately 2 years for men and 3 years for women, regardless of age. For men and women respectively, reduced LE associated with smoking was 3.82and 5.88 years, associated with obesity was 0.62 and 1.72 years and associated with being sedentary was 2.50 and 2.89 years. Absence of each risk factor was associated with longer LE and CIFLE, but also longer CILE for smoking in women and being sedentary in both sexes. Compared with participants with no risk factors, those with 2þ had shorter CIFLE of up to 3.5 years depending on gender and education level. Population level reductions in smoking, sedentary lifestyle and obesity increase longevity and number of years lived without cognitive impairment. Years lived with cognitive impairment may also increase.

  2. Closing the gap: increases in life expectancy among treated HIV-positive individuals in the United States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Samji

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART has significantly increased survival among HIV-positive adults in the United States (U.S. and Canada, but gains in life expectancy for this region have not been well characterized. We aim to estimate temporal changes in life expectancy among HIV-positive adults on ART from 2000-2007 in the U.S. and Canada.Participants were from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD, aged ≥20 years and on ART. Mortality rates were calculated using participants' person-time from January 1, 2000 or ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, or administrative censoring December 31, 2007. Life expectancy at age 20, defined as the average number of additional years that a person of a specific age will live, provided the current age-specific mortality rates remain constant, was estimated using abridged life tables.The crude mortality rate was 19.8/1,000 person-years, among 22,937 individuals contributing 82,022 person-years and 1,622 deaths. Life expectancy increased from 36.1 [standard error (SE 0.5] to 51.4 [SE 0.5] years from 2000-2002 to 2006-2007. Men and women had comparable life expectancies in all periods except the last (2006-2007. Life expectancy was lower for individuals with a history of injection drug use, non-whites, and in patients with baseline CD4 counts <350 cells/mm(3.A 20-year-old HIV-positive adult on ART in the U.S. or Canada is expected to live into their early 70 s, a life expectancy approaching that of the general population. Differences by sex, race, HIV transmission risk group, and CD4 count remain.

  3. Type 2 diabetes, socioeconomic status and life expectancy in Scotland (2012-2014): a population-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jeremy; Colhoun, Helen; Livingstone, Shona; McCrimmon, Rory; Petrie, John; Sattar, Naveed; Wild, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in the associations between type 2 diabetes and life expectancy in a complete national population. An observational population-based cohort study was performed using the Scottish Care Information - Diabetes database. Age-specific life expectancy (stratified by SES) was calculated for all individuals with type 2 diabetes in the age range 40-89 during the period 2012-2014, and for the remaining population of Scotland aged 40-89 without type 2 diabetes. Differences in life expectancy between the two groups were calculated. Results were based on 272,597 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 2.75 million people without type 2 diabetes (total for 2013, the middle calendar year of the study period). With the exception of deprived men aged 80-89, life expectancy in people with type 2 diabetes was significantly reduced (relative to the type 2 diabetes-free population) at all ages and levels of SES. Differences in life expectancy ranged from -5.5 years (95% CI -6.2, -4.8) for women aged 40-44 in the second most-deprived quintile of SES, to 0.1 years (95% CI -0.2, 0.4) for men aged 85-89 in the most-deprived quintile of SES. Observed life-expectancy deficits in those with type 2 diabetes were generally greater in women than in men. Type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced life expectancy at almost all ages and levels of SES. Elimination of life-expectancy deficits in individuals with type 2 diabetes will require prevention and management strategies targeted at all social strata (not just deprived groups).

  4. Variations in life expectancy in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries--1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Hossein; Gaskin, Darrell J; Anderson, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    We examined the impact of different behavioral factors of health on the variations in the levels and rate of increase in life expectancy in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries between 1985 and 2010. Using the World Health Organization's conceptual framework of socio-economic determinants of health, we incorporated Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Bank and United Nations data to estimate the impact of these variables on life expectancy for 30 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. We used a random effect model to control the fixed effect of year and each country. Results show that the level of health care spending is the most important factor predicting life expectancy. Other important factors are gross domestic product per capita, labor productivity, years of schooling and percentage of gross domestic product spending allocated for public services. Life expectancy was reduced by smoking and higher daily calorie consumption. Countries that were previously part of the Soviet Union had lower life expectancies. Political factors had only a minor impact on life expectancy. Life expectancy increased an average of 5.1 years in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries between 1985 and 2010, but there was wide variation. Health spending per capita, economic factors and two behavioral factors - smoking and caloric intake - explained most of the variation and suggest where increased policy attention could have the greatest impact on life expectancy. Policymakers who consider our estimates recognize that they may see greater or less impact depending on the characteristics of their nation. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Patients' perception of chemotherapy side effects: Expectations, doctor-patient communication and impact on quality of life - An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Domenica; Bria, Emilio; Costantini, Anna; Di Maio, Massimo; Rosti, Giovanni; Mancuso, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy side effects (CSE) have a strong impact on patients' quality of life (QOL). To assess patient perceptions of CSE, their impact on QOL and doctor-patient communication regarding these aspects, a survey was conducted among Italian cancer patients. Patients at least 18 years of age, who received chemotherapy, were administered a dedicated questionnaire to assess their point of view on five domains: expectations about CSE and impact on QOL; doctor-patient communication about CSE; treatments to reduce the impact of CSE; sexual life; family relationships/activities and employment. A total of 761 patients participated. CSE had a considerable impact on patient QOL. Nausea/vomiting was the most feared adverse effect before initiating chemotherapy and the one most commonly experienced during treatment. Patients generally reported good doctor-patient communication regarding information about CSE. In almost all cases, the oncologists prescribed an antiemetic treatment, but the incidence of nausea/vomiting was high. Cancer and CSE severely affected sexual life, daily activities and employment. CSE had a strong negative impact on QOL. Good doctor-patient communication is essential. Improving antiemetic strategies may improve QOL. Doctors' ability to inform patients about delicate issues, such as the impact of CSE on sexual life, needs to be improved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mood regulation and quality of life in social anxiety disorder: An examination of generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sharon C.; Porter, Eliora; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Marks, Elizabeth H.; Marques, Luana M.; Otto, Michael W.; Pollack, Mark H.; Simon, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined negative mood regulation expectancies, anxiety symptom severity, and quality of life in a sample of 167 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 165 healthy controls with no DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Participants completed the Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMR), the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. SAD symptom severity was assessed using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Individuals with SAD scored significantly lower than controls on the NMR. Among SAD participants, NMR scores were negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms and SAD severity, and positively correlated with quality of life. NMR expectancies positively predicted quality of life even after controlling for demographic variables, comorbid diagnoses, anxiety symptoms, and SAD severity. Individuals with SAD may be less likely to engage in emotion regulating strategies due to negative beliefs regarding their effectiveness, thereby contributing to poorer quality of life. PMID:22343166

  7. The Scandinavian Advantage: A Comparative Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth in four European Countries during the 19th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Catalina

    As a result of the health transition, there have been sustained gains in the average length of life (Vallin and Meslé 2009), starting as far as more than 150 years ago in some human populations. For instance, the maximum recorded levels of life expectancy at birth illustrate a linear increase since...... 1840 (Oeppen and Vaupel 2002). During the 19th century, some few countries occupied the top 1 and 2 positions in terms of life expectancy at birth (Fig. 1). In some of these countries, such as Norway and Sweden, the average length of life was longer compared to most other European populations, despite...... lower levels of living standards and a later introduction of improvements in medicine and sanitation. This study aims to illustrate the evolution of life expectancy at birth in four different countries (England and Wales 1841-1905, France 1816-1905, Norway 1846-1905, and Sweden 1800-1905) and in the 2nd...

  8. Impact of demographic change, socioeconomics, and health care resources on life expectancy in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Taylor, Beverly Joan

    2013-05-01

    Demographic and socioeconomic changes and the availability of health care resources were collected to examine the impacts on life expectancy in Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. An ecological design collecting 29 years (1980-2008) data for three Southeast Asian countries. Life expectancy, demographics, socioeconomic status, and health care resources were collected. The structural equation model indicates that more available health care resources and socioeconomic advantages were more likely to increase life expectancy. By contrast, demographic change was more likely to increase life expectancy by way of health care resources. Results show that factors that had direct impacts on life expectancy in all three countries were socioeconomic status and health care resources. Demographic changes had an indirect influence on life expectancy via health care resources. These findings suggest that policymakers should be focusing on how to remove the barriers that impede access to health care services during economic downturns. In addition, how to increase preventive care for the populations that have less access to health care in communities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 'Futureless persons': shifting life expectancies and the vicissitudes of progressive illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Zitzelsberger, Hilde; McKeever, Patricia

    2009-05-01

    Medical technological advances can have profound effects on people's lives by extending the life course and creating uncertain futures. This is the case for a number of persons with 'diseases of childhood' who can now survive well into adulthood with technological support. This paper draws on a Canadian qualitative study of young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)which examined the effects of a shifting life expectancy on personal identities. Engaging with Pierre Bourdieu's central concept of habitus, we discuss the temporal dimensions of social exclusion and marginalised identities. Participants' narrative accounts revealed how their dispositions were orientated to a shortened lifespan that exerted damaging effects regardless of actual lifespan. Compounding their material, social and symbolic isolation was a temporal isolation whereby the men had lived every day anticipating that it could be their last for as much as a decade. The findings suggest a need to re-orient medical and social discourses to serve and include adults with DMD and other conditions previously limited to childhood in their communities.

  10. Acculturation, Gender, and Active Life Expectancy in the Mexican-Origin Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marc A; Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Melvin, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the potential effects of nativity and acculturation on active life expectancy (ALE) among Mexican-origin elders. We employ 17 years of data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to calculate ALE at age 65 with and without disabilities. Native-born males and foreign-born females spend a larger fraction of their elderly years with activities of daily living (ADL) disability. Conversely, both foreign-born males and females spend a larger fraction of their remaining years with instrumental activities of daily life (IADL) disability than the native-born. In descriptive analysis, women with low acculturation report higher ADL and IADL disability. Men manifest similar patterns for IADLs. Although foreign-born elders live slightly longer lives, they do so with more years spent in a disabled state. Given the rapid aging of the Mexican-origin population, the prevention and treatment of disabilities, particularly among the foreign born, should be a major public health priority. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children's High School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhagen, Nicole S.

    2013-01-01

    This research used prospective longitudinal data to examine the associations between first-grade teachers' over- and underestimation of their students' math abilities, basic reading abilities, and language skills and the students' high school academic performance, with special attention to the subject area and moderating effects of student…

  12. Earnings implications of person years lost life expectancy among Canada's aboriginal peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White, Jerry P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishOverall, Canada has one of the world's highest national life expectancies.This benefit is not shared by Canada's aboriginal population, however, which has a life expectancyapproximately seven years less than the general population. The Aboriginal population also differs inthat it has a higher fertility rate and higher mortality rates among infants and young adults. One ofthe consequences of the mortality differential is that the number of person years of lost life (PYLLexpectancy is large for the Aboriginal community in comparison to the general population. Whileseveral studies have focused on the causes of differential mortality, this study examines some of thesocioeconomic consequences of differences in PYLL. Examining wage labor income, for example, wedetermine that the PYLL differential translates into an expected wage and salary loss of approximately$1.56 billion.FrenchDans l’ensemble, l’espérance de vie au Canada est une des plus longues aumonde. Cependant, la population autochtone du Canada ne partage pas cetavantage, son espérance de vie étant d’environ sept ans inférieure à celle de lapopulation générale. La population autochtone se distingue aussi par le faitqu’elle a un taux de fertilité supérieur et un taux de mortalité supérieur chez lesenfants et les jeunes adultes. En conséquence, l’espérance du nombre d’annéespotentielles de vie perdues (APVP est considérable pour la communautéautochtone par rapport à la population générale. Alors qu’il existe déjà plusieursétudes sur les causes de la différence du taux de mortalité, cette étude enexamine certaines des conséquences socio-économiques. En examinant lerevenu provenant d’un salaire par exemple, nous pouvons établir que ladifférence en APVP se traduit en une perte salariale prévue d’environ 1,56million $.

  13. Active Life Expectancy and Functional Health Transition among Filipino Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe study provides a baseline information on the functional health transitionpatterns of older people and computes for the Active Life Expectancy (ALEusing a multistate life table method. Findings on ALE demonstrate that femalesand urban residents live longer and have a greater proportion of theirremaining life in active state compared to their counterparts. Health transitionanalysis indicates a significant proportion experiencing recovery. Age, sex,place of residence and health status/behavior indicators (self-assessed health,drinking and exercise display a significant influence on future health andmortality trajectories although surprisingly, education did not show anysignificant effect.FrenchCette étude présente une base de données sur les tendances fonctionnelles deschangements d’état de santé chez les personnes âgées et analyse l’espérance devie active (EVA en utilisant une méthode de table de survie multiple. Lesrésultats de l’EVA démontrent que les femmes et les résidents urbains viventplus longtemps et passent une plus grande proportion de la fin de leur vie dansun état d’activité que leurs homologues. L’analyse des changements d’état desanté indique qu’une proportion importante d’entre eux se rétablit suite à unemaladie. L’âge, le sexe, le lieu de résidence, l’état et les habitudes de santé(auto-évaluation de la santé, consommation d’alcool et exercice ont uneinfluence importante sur l’état de santé futur et la trajectoire de mortalité bienque, et ceci est surprenant, le niveau d’éducation semble ne pas avoir d’impactimportant.

  14. Age of Migration Differentials in Life Expectancy with Cognitive Impairment: 20-Year Findings From the Hispanic-EPESE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marc A; Saenz, Joseph L; Downer, Brian; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Rote, Sunshine; Wong, Rebeca

    2017-05-09

    To examine differences in life expectancy with cognitive impairment among older Mexican adults according to nativity (U.S.-born/foreign-born) and among immigrants, age of migration to the United States. This study employs 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent cognitively healthy and cognitively impaired prior to death among older Mexican adults residing in the southwestern United States. We combine age-specific mortality rates with age-specific prevalence of cognitive impairment, defined as a Mini-Mental Status Exam score of less than 21 points to calculate Sullivan-based life table models with and without cognitive impairment in later life. Foreign-born Mexican immigrants have longer total life expectancy and comparable cognitive healthy life expectancy regardless of gender compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans. However, the foreign-born spend a greater number of years after age 65 with cognitive impairment relative to their U.S.-born counterparts. Furthermore, we document an advantage in life expectancy with cognitive impairment and proportion of years after age 65 cognitively healthy among mid-life immigrant men and women relative to early- and late-life migrants. The relationship between nativity, age of migration, and life expectancy with cognitive impairment means that the foreign-born are in more need of support and time-intensive care in late life. This issue merits special attention to develop appropriate and targeted screening efforts that reduce cognitive decline for diverse subgroups of older Mexican-origin adults as they age.

  15. Life Disparity before, during and after Stagnation of Danish Female Life Expectancy. a Cause of Death Analysis and a Comparison with Their Scandinavian Counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aburto, José Manuel; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    cancers and non-infectious respiratory diseases, offsetting continuous improvement in cardiovascular mortality. Before and after stagnation, life expectancy increased as disparity decreased, as the cardiovascular revolution unfolded. Comparing Denmark and its Scandinavian counterparts, we find...

  16. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Ischemic Stroke Increases Disability-Free Survival, Quality of Life, and Life Expectancy and Reduces Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. V. Campbell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEndovascular thrombectomy improves functional outcome in large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke. We examined disability, quality of life, survival and acute care costs in the EXTEND-IA trial, which used CT-perfusion imaging selection.MethodsLarge vessel ischemic stroke patients with favorable CT-perfusion were randomized to endovascular thrombectomy after alteplase versus alteplase-only. Clinical outcome was prospectively measured using 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS. Individual patient expected survival and net difference in Disability/Quality-adjusted life years (DALY/QALY up to 15 years from stroke were modeled using age, sex, 90-day mRS, and utility scores. Level of care within the first 90 days was prospectively measured and used to estimate procedure and inpatient care costs (US$ reference year 2014.ResultsThere were 70 patients, 35 in each arm, mean age 69, median NIHSS 15 (IQR 12–19. The median (IQR disability-weighted utility score at 90 days was 0.65 (0.00–0.91 in the alteplase-only versus 0.91 (0.65–1.00 in the endovascular group (p = 0.005. Modeled life expectancy was greater in the endovascular versus alteplase-only group (median 15.6 versus 11.2 years, p = 0.02. The endovascular thrombectomy group had fewer simulated DALYs lost over 15 years [median (IQR 5.5 (3.2–8.7 versus 8.9 (4.7–13.8, p = 0.02] and more QALY gained [median (IQR 9.3 (4.2–13.1 versus 4.9 (0.3–8.5, p = 0.03]. Endovascular patients spent less time in hospital [median (IQR 5 (3–11 days versus 8 (5–14 days, p = 0.04] and rehabilitation [median (IQR 0 (0–28 versus 27 (0–65 days, p = 0.03]. The estimated inpatient costs in the first 90 days were less in the thrombectomy group (average US$15,689 versus US$30,569, p = 0.008 offsetting the costs of interhospital transport and the thrombectomy procedure (average US$10,515. The average saving per patient treated with thrombectomy was US$4

  17. The Contribution of Drug Overdose to Educational Gradients in Life Expectancy in the United States, 1992-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2017-06-01

    Since the mid-1990s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic rise in drug overdose mortality. Educational gradients in life expectancy widened over the same period, and drug overdose likely plays a role in this widening, particularly for non-Hispanic whites. The contemporary drug epidemic is distinctive in terms of its scope, the nature of the substances involved, and its geographic patterning, which influence how it impacts different education groups. I use vital statistics and National Health Interview Survey data to examine the contribution of drug overdose to educational gradients in life expectancy from 1992-2011. I find that over this period, years of life lost due to drug overdose increased for all education groups and for both males and females. The contribution of drug overdose to educational gradients in life expectancy has increased over time and is greater for non-Hispanic whites than for the population as a whole. Drug overdose accounts for a sizable proportion of the increases in educational gradients in life expectancy, particularly at the prime adult ages (ages 30-60), where it accounts for 25 % to 100 % of the widening in educational gradients between 1992 and 2011. Drug overdose mortality has increased more rapidly for females than for males, leading to a gender convergence. These findings shed light on the processes driving recent changes in educational gradients in life expectancy and suggest that effective measures to address the drug overdose epidemic should take into account its differential burden across education groups.

  18. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Dubey

    Full Text Available Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover.We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011. Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover.India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women.For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  19. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manisha; Ram, Usha; Ram, Faujdar

    2015-01-01

    Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  20. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. Methods We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981–2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India’s 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. Findings India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). Conclusions For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1–59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early. PMID:26683617

  1. Trends in life expectancy with care needs based on long-term care insurance data in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Rumi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Masayuki; Kato, Masahiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Masato; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Using a previously developed method for calculating expected years of life with care needs based on data from the Japanese long-term care insurance system, we examined recent trends in expected years of life with care needs by age group and prefecture. Information on care needs was available from the long-term care insurance system of Japan. Expected years of life with care needs by age group and prefecture in 2005-2009 were calculated. Expected years of life with care needs at age 65 increased from 1.43 years in 2005 to 1.62 years in 2009 for men, and from 2.99 to 3.44 years for women. As a proportion of total life expectancy, these values show an increase from 7.9% to 8.6% in men and from 12.9% to 14.4% in women. Expected years with care needs did not increase in the age groups of 65 to 69 and 70 to 74 years but markedly increased in the age group of 85 years or older. Expected years with care needs increased in every prefecture during the period studied. The difference in 2005 between the 25th and 75th percentiles in prefectural distributions was 0.16 years for men and 0.35 years for women. The difference remained nearly constant between 2005 and 2009. Expected number of years of life with care needs increased among Japanese from 2005 to 2009, and there was a wide range in distribution among prefectures. Further studies on coverage of care needs under the long-term insurance program are necessary.

  2. Life expectancy with and without cognitive impairment in seven Latin American and Caribbean countries.

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    Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of cognitive impairment is an increasing challenge with the ageing of our populations but little is known about the burden in low- and middle- income Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC that are aging more rapidly than their developed counterparts. We examined life expectancies with cognitive impairment (CILE and free of cognitive impairment (CIFLE in seven developing LAC countries.Data from The Survey on Health, Well-being and Ageing in LAC (N = 10,597 was utilised and cognitive status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. The Sullivan Method was applied to estimate CILE and CIFLE. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of age, gender and education on cognitive outcome. Meta-regression models were fitted for all 7 countries together to investigate the relationship between CIFLE and education in men and women at age 60.The prevalence of CI increased with age in all countries except Uruguay and with a significant gender effect observed only in Mexico where men had lower odds of CI compared to women [OR = 0.464 95% CInt (0.268 - 0.806]. Low education was associated with increased prevalence of CI in Brazil [OR = 4.848 (1.173-20.044], Chile [OR = 3.107 (1.098-8.793, Cuba [OR = 2.295 (1.247-4.225] and Mexico [OR = 3.838 (1.368-10.765. For males, total life expectancy (TLE at age 60 was highest in Cuba (19.7 years and lowest in Brazil and Uruguay (17.6 years. TLE for females at age 60 was highest for Chileans (22.8 years and lowest for Brazilians (20.2 years. CIFLE for men was greatest in Cuba (19.0 years and least in Brazil (16.7 years. These differences did not appear to be explained by educational level (Men: p = 0.408, women: p = 0.695.Increasing age, female sex and low education were associated with higher CI in LAC reflecting patterns found in other countries.

  3. Spiritual Well-Being for Increasing Life Expectancy in Palliative Radiotherapy Patients: A Questionnaire-Based Study.

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    Hematti, Simin; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Khajooei-Fard, Rasha; Mohammadi-Bertiani, Zohreh

    2015-10-01

    Spiritual well-being in patients with an advanced cancer has been found to positively correlate with subjective well-being, lower pain levels, hope and positive mood states, high self-esteem, social competence, purpose in life, and overall quality of life. In this regard, Quran recitation is stated to be an efficient way to increase patient spirituality and also to handle life's everyday challenges. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of listening, reading, and watching the text of the Holy Quran, called (in this study) Quran recitation, for increasing life expectancy (LE) in palliative radiotherapy patients admitted to Radiotherapy Department of Seyed alshohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A questionnaire-based study was carried out on a total of 89 palliative radiotherapy patients between March 2012 and June 2012. Informed consent was obtained. The patients were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire which was designed based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer C30 Scale Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC C30 Scale QLQ). A computer program (SPSS version 16.0, Chicago, IL, USA) was used, and data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test and Spearman's rank correlation. All hypotheses were tested using a criterion level of P = 0.05. There was a significant difference for frequency and duration of Quran recitation among patients, before and after the diagnosis of their cancer (P = 0.03). Using the Spearman's rank correlation, it was found that there was a correlation between Quran recitation and subjective well-being (r = 0.352, P Quran recitation and increasing LE (r = 0.311, P Quran are useful for increasing LE in palliative radiotherapy patients admitted to Radiotherapy Department. In other words, a benefit of Quran recitation on outcome of radiotherapy for palliative radiotherapy patients was found.

  4. Classroom Interactions: Exploring the Practices of High- and Low-Expectation Teachers

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    Rubie-Davies, Christine M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Early research exploring teacher expectations concentrated on the dyadic classroom interactions of teachers with individual students. More recent studies have shown whole class factors to have more significance in portraying teachers' expectations. Recently teachers having high or low expectations for all their students have been…

  5. Epidemiology of the Mortality, Calculation of Life Expectancy and Years of Lost Life: The Case of Bane, North West of Iran

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    Jamshid Yazdani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Mortality Statistics and rates show the development of a country in the world. These statistics are very important for determining the distribution of risk factors of mortality (in age and gender groups, ethnicity and so on and they are useful for improving health and preventing from important diseases in future planning of countries in societies. Materials and Methods: This article is a longitudinal descriptive study. All registered deaths in Bane which occurred during 2006-2010, regardless of the cause, were collected from the department of health in Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, and they were assigned into 21 categories based on Disease Category (ICD10 of WHO. Then the life table for every year was prepared and Life expectancy was computed for each age and sex and total lost years of life for all chapters of ICD10 were calculated. Results: Based on the ICD10, four chapters with the highest frequencies include circulatory diseases by 1008 cases (32.5%, external causes of death by 522 cases (16.7%, cancers by 480 cases (15.3%, and prenatal death by 382 cases (12.2%. Overall, these chapters include 76.4% of total death. The most years of lost life were reported for prenatal period, external causes, diseases of the circulatory system and cancers. Conclusion: Cardiovascular diseases, incidents and accidents, and cancers are the most important causes of death. Among the main reasons of death in the first group are high blood pressures, lack of movement, smoking, not consuming enough fruits, vegetables. In the second group the reasons include not obeying the traffic rules, high speed and so on. Since the sum years of lost life were the highest in the prenatal period, it is necessary to improve pregnancy care and teach mothers prior to pregnancy.

  6. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

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    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  7. Excess weight confers an increased risk of premature death and shorter life expectancy; a bibliographic survey

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    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease considered a global epidemic by the World Health Organization (WHO. The body mass index (BMI is used internationally for diagnosis and classification, a BMI> 30kg/m2 is a diagnosis of obesity and it correlates positively with the relative risk of general and cardiovascular mortality. Objectives: The main objective of this work is to make known the impact of this disease through a systematic review of the most recent publications. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing alarmingly worldwide, affecting more than 50% of the adult population in the European Union and tripling the number of obese over the last twenty years. Due to this large increase, obesity has become a major threat for the whole world, being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and causal factor of other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipemias, thus increasing morbidity and mortality of these people. It also has association with alterations to other levels such as OSAS, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increased risk of complications during gestation, association with osteoarthrosis and cancer, among others. Conclusions: Excess weight confers an increased risk of premature death and shorter life expectancy so, a multidisciplinary approach focused on weight loss is first needed. Prevention is the key to its control.

  8. The Contribution of Specific Diseases to Educational Disparities in Disability-Free Life Expectancy

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    Nusselder, Wilma J.; Looman, Caspar W.N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Huisman, Martijn; van Oyen, Herman; Deboosere, Patrick; Gadeyne, Sylvie; Kunst, Anton E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution that specific diseases, as causes of both death and disability, make to educational disparities in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). Methods. We used disability data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (1997) and mortality data from the National Mortality Follow-Up Study (1991–1996) to assess education-related disparities in DFLE and to partition these differences into additive contributions of specific diseases. Results. The DFLE advantage of higher-educated compared with lower-educated persons was 8.0 years for men and 5.9 years for women. Arthritis (men, 1.3 years; women, 2.2 years), back complaints (men, 2.1 years), heart disease/stroke (men, 1.5 years; women, 1.6 years), asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (men, 1.2 years; women, 1.5 years), and “other diseases” (men, 2.4 years) contributed the most to this difference. Conclusions. Disabling diseases, such as arthritis, back complaints, and asthma/COPD, contribute substantially to differences in DFLE by education. Public health policy aiming to reduce existing disparities in the DFLE and to improve population health should not only focus on fatal diseases but also on these nonfatal diseases. PMID:16195519

  9. The Contribution of Smoking to Educational Gradients in U.S. Life Expectancy*

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    Ho, Jessica Y.; Fenelon, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have documented widening educational gradients in mortality in the United States since the 1970s. While smoking has been proposed as a key explanation for this trend, no prior study has quantified the contribution of smoking to increasing education gaps in longevity. We estimate the contribution of smoking to educational gradients in life expectancy using data on white men and women aged 50 and above from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (N=283,430; 68,644 deaths) and the National Health Interview Survey (N=584,811; 127,226 deaths) in five periods covering the 1980s to 2006. In each period, smoking makes an important contribution to education gaps in longevity for white men and women. Smoking accounts for half the increase in the gap for white women but does not explain the widening gap for white men in the most recent period. Addressing greater initiation and continued smoking among the less educated may reduce mortality inequalities. PMID:26199287

  10. The effect of regional politics on regional life expectancy in Italy (1980-2010).

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    Jonker, Marcel F; D'Ippolito, Edoardo; Eikemo, Terje A; Congdon, Peter D; Nante, Nicola; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2017-03-01

    The evidence on the association between politics and health is scarce considering the importance of this topic for population health. Studies that investigated the effect of different political regimes on health outcomes show inconsistent results. Bayesian time-series cross-section analyses are used to examine the overall impact of regional politics on variations in Italian regional life expectancy (LE) at birth during the period 1980-2010. Our analyses control for trends in and unobserved determinants of regional LE, correct for temporal as well as spatial autocorrelation, and employ a flexible specification for the timing of the political effects. In the period from 1980 to 1995, we find no evidence that the communist, left-oriented coalitions and Christian Democratic, centre-oriented coalitions have had an effect on regional LE. In the period from 1995 onwards, after a major reconfiguration of Italy's political regimes and a major healthcare reform, we again find no evidence that the Centre-Left and Centre-Right coalitions have had a significant impact on regional LE. The presented results provide no support for the notion that different regional political regimes in Italy have had a differential effect on regional LE, even though Italian regions have had considerable and increasing autonomy over healthcare and health-related policies and expenditures.

  11. Spatial inequalities in life expectancy within postindustrial regions of Europe: a cross-sectional observational study.

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    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; Parcell, Sophie; Hartmann, Anja; Poirier, Gilles; Strniskova, Dana; Hanlon, Phil

    2014-06-02

    To compare spatial inequalities in life expectancy (LE) in West Central Scotland (WCS) with nine other postindustrial European regions. A cross-sectional observational study. WCS and nine other postindustrial regions across Europe. Data for WCS and nine other comparably deindustrialised European regions were analysed. Male and female LEs at birth were obtained or calculated for the mid-2000s for 160 districts within selected regions. Districts were stratified into two groups: small (populations of between 141 000 and 185 000 people) and large (populations between 224 000 and 352 000). The range and IQR in LE were used to describe within-region disparities. In small districts, the male LE range was widest in WCS and Merseyside, while the IQR was widest in WCS and Northern Ireland. For women, the LE range was widest in WCS, though the IQR was widest in Northern Ireland and Merseyside. In large districts, the range and IQR in LE was widest in WCS and Wallonia for both sexes. Subregional spatial inequalities in LE in WCS are wide compared with other postindustrial mainland European regions, especially for men. Future research could explore the contribution of economic, social and political factors in reducing these inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000–10

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    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000–10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform—the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population—and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service—those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes—by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. PMID:26733705

  13. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

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    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Reduced tobacco consumption, improved diet and life expectancy for 1988-1998: analysis of New Zealand and OECD data.

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    Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-06-02

    We compared changes in tobacco consumption and diet in relation to changes in life expectancy in 1988-1998 in 22 OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. Between 1985 and 1995 using regression analysis we estimated differences in tobacco consumption per adult and the differences in the sum of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices against life expectancy. Each index was derived from the various fats per gram of food from standard texts, and from the annual measurements of fat in the food balance sheets of each country. In 1985-1995, New Zealand showed the largest decrease in tobacco consumption per adult (41%) and the greatest decrease (except for Switzerland) in the sum of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (17%) as a measure of diet. New Zealand ranked first for life expectancy increases from 1988-1998 for men (3.2 years), women (2.8 years) and both sexes combined. Regression analyses revealed that increases in life expectancy across the OECD for males, but not females, were strongly associated with decreases in tobacco consumption, with a weaker effect of diet improvement. These results suggest that reduced tobacco consumption in 1985-1995 likely contributed to New Zealand's gains in life expectancy from 1988-1998.

  15. How did national life expectation related to school years in developing countries - an approach using panel data mining.

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    Jian, Wen-Shan; Huang, Chen-Ling; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Hsiao, George; Li, Hsien-Chang

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to probe into the changes in life expectancy associated with schooling years found by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The study was based on the OECD database from the period 2000 to 2006. The data of thirty countries were constructed to allow comparisons over time and across these countries. Panel data analysis was used to estimate the relationship of national education, as defined as school years, with life expectancy. The control factors considered were numbers of practicing physicians, practicing nurses, hospital beds, and GDP. We used fixed effects of both country and time through linear regression, the coefficient of school years in relation to life expectancy was statistically significant but negative. This finding is not in accord with the hypothesis that investing in human capital through education stimulates better health outcomes. Within developing countries, educational attainment is no longer keeping the same pace with life expectancy as before. Therefore, we suggest that an effective education policy should cover diverse topics, for example, balancing economic growth and mental hygiene, to improve national life expectancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The contribution of alcohol to the East-West life expectancy gap in Europe from 1990 onward.

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    Trias-Llimós, Sergi; Kunst, Anton E; Jasilionis, Domantas; Janssen, Fanny

    2017-12-08

    Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have lower life expectancies and higher alcohol-attributable mortality than Western European countries. We examine the contribution of alcohol consumption to mortality across Europe, and specifically to the East-West life expectancy gap from 1990 onward. We retrieved alcohol-attributable mortality rates (GBD Study 2013) and all-cause mortality rates (Human Mortality Database) by age and sex for nine CEE countries and for the EU-15 countries. We assessed country-specific potential gains in life expectancy (PGLE) by eliminating alcohol-attributable mortality using associated single decrement life tables. We decomposed the life expectancy differences between each CEE country and the EU-15 population-weighted average for 1990-2012/13 into alcohol-attributable and non-alcohol-attributable mortality. In 2012/13, the PGLE for men and women were, respectively, 2.15 and 1.00 years in the CEE region and 0.90 and 0.44 years in the EU-15 region. The contribution of alcohol to the East-West gap in life expectancy was largest among men in Russia {2.88 years [uncertainty interval (UI): 1.57-4.06]}, Belarus [3.70 years (UI: 1.75-5.45)] and Ukraine [2.47 years (UI: 0.90-3.88)]. The relative contributions increased in most of the countries between 1990 and 2005 (on average, from 17.0% to 25.4% for men, and from 14.7% to 22.5% for women), and declined thereafter (20.2% for men and 20.5% for women in 2012/13). Alcohol contributed substantially to the East-West life expectancy gap in Europe, and to its increase (1990-2005) and decline (2005 onward). Diminishing alcohol consumption in CEE countries to Western European levels can contribute to mortality convergence across Europe.

  17. Skin Cancer in U.S. Elderly Adults: Does Life Expectancy Play a Role in Treatment Decisions?

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    Linos, Eleni; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Stijacic Cenzer, Irena; Covinsky, Kenneth E

    2016-08-01

    To examine whether life expectancy influences treatment pattern of nonmelanoma skin cancer, or keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), the most common malignancy and the fifth most costly cancer to Medicare. Nationally representative cross-sectional study. Nationally representative Health and Retirement Study linked to Medicare claims. Treatments (N = 9,653) from individuals aged 65 and older treated for basal or squamous cell carcinoma between 1992 and 2012 (N = 2,702) were included. Limited life expectancy defined according to aged 85 and older, medical comorbidities, Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 3 or greater, difficulty in at least one activity of daily living (ADL), and a Lee index of 13 or greater. Treatment type (Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) (most intensive, highest cost), excision, or electrodesiccation and curettage (ED&C) (least intensive, lowest cost)), according to procedure code. Most KCs (61%) were treated surgically. Rates of MMS (19%), excision (42%), and ED&C (39%) were no different in participants with limited life expectancy and those with normal life expectancy. For example, 19% of participants with difficulty or dependence in ADLs, 20% of those with a Charlson comorbidity score greater than 3, and 15% of those in their last year of life underwent MMS; participants who died within 1 year of diagnosis were treated in the same way as those who lived longer. A one-size-fits-all approach in which advanced age, health status, functional status, and prognosis are not associated with intensiveness of treatment appears to guide treatment for KC, a generally nonfatal condition. Although intensive treatment of skin cancer when it causes symptoms may be indicated regardless of life expectancy, persons with limited life expectancy should be given choices to ensure that the treatment matches their goals and preferences. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics

  18. Life expectancy of type 1 diabetic patients during 1997-2010: a national Australian registry-based cohort study.

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    Huo, Lili; Harding, Jessica L; Peeters, Anna; Shaw, Jonathan E; Magliano, Dianna J

    2016-06-01

    There is limited information about the impact of type 1 diabetes on life expectancy in a contemporary population. We examined the life expectancy of type 1 diabetic patients and explored the contribution of mortality at different ages and of different causes of death to years of life lost (YLL) compared with the general population. We derived mortality rates of Australians with type 1 diabetes listed on the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) between 1997 and 2010 (n = 85,547) by linking the NDSS to the National Death Index. The Chiang method was used to estimate life expectancy and Arriaga's method was used to estimate the contributions of age-specific and cause-specific mortality to the YLL. A total of 5,981 deaths were identified during the 902,136 person-years of follow up. Type 1 diabetic patients had an estimated life expectancy at birth of 68.6 years (95% CI 68.1, 69.1), which was 12.2 years (95% CI 11.8, 12.7) less than that in the general population. The improvement in life expectancy at birth in 2004-2010 compared with 1997-2003 was similar for both type 1 diabetic patients (men, 1.9 years [95% CI 0.4, 3.3]; women, 1.5 years [95% CI 0.0, 3.2]) and the general population (men, 2.2 years; women, 1.4 years). Deaths at age life expectancy at birth of 12.2 years compared with the general population.

  19. Cardiovascular Diseases and Life Expectancy in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Korean National Sample Cohort Study.

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    Kang, Yu Mi; Cho, Yun Kyung; Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Ye-Jee; Jung, Chang Hee

    2017-09-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, information on its association with mortality and life expectancy according to cardiovascular comorbidities is limited, especially in Asia. Thus, this study assessed mortality and reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. A total of 569,831 participants older than 30 years from Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort were enrolled between 2002 and 2006 and followed for a median of 12.0 years. They were categorized into five mutually exclusive groups according to baseline disease status, as follows: none (reference group); diabetes only; diabetes and stroke; diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI); and diabetes, stroke, and MI. Mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs), reductions of life expectancy, and age-specific contributions to life expectancy were calculated by constructing life tables. The mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 6.85, 19.86, 67.17, 66.34, and 115.52 in the reference, diabetes only; diabetes and stroke; diabetes and MI; and diabetes, stroke, and MI groups, respectively. The corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.66 to 1.75], 3.66 (95% CI, 3.32 to 4.03), 3.56 (95% CI, 3.06 to 4.14), and 4.79 (95% CI, 3.05 to 7.50) compared with the reference group. The estimated reductions in life expectancy were greater at younger ages and markedly increased with more cardiometabolic comorbidities. Young Asians with type 2 diabetes, especially those with cardiovascular comorbidity, did not live as long than their nondiabetic equivalents. Thus, these individuals require special attention to prevent further reductions in life expectancy.

  20. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

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    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE. Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. METHODS: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. FINDINGS: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  1. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, Li; Zimmerman, Linnea; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Tsui, Amy

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  2. Narrowing sex differences in life expectancy: regional variations, 1971-1991

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    Trovato, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishA number of industrialized nations have recently experienced some degrees ofconstriction in their long-standing sex differentials in life expectancy at birth. In this study weexamine this phenomenon in the context of Canada's regions between 1971 and 1991: Atlantic(Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island; Quebec, Ontario, and the West(Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories. Decompositionanalysis based on multiple decrement life tables is applied to address three questions: (1 Are thereregional differentials in the degree of narrowing in the sex gap in life expectancy? (2 What is therelative contribution of major causes of death to observed sex differences in average length of lifewithin and across regions? (3 How do the contributions of cause-of-death components vary acrossregions to either widen or narrow the sex gap in survival? It is shown that the magnitude of the sexgap is not uniform across the regions, though the differences are not large. The most importantcontributors to a narrowing of the sex gap in life expectancy are heart disease and external types ofmortality (i.e., accidents, violence, and suicide, followed by lung cancer and other types of chronicconditions. In substantive terms these results indicate that over time men have been making sufficientgains in these causes of death as to narrow some of the gender gap in overall survival. Regions showsimilarity in these effects.FrenchCertains pays industrialisés viennent de vivre quelques constrictions dans ladifférentielle sexuelle de l'espérance de vie à la naissance. Dans cette étude,nous examinons ce phénomène dans le contexte des régions canadiennes entre1971 et 1991 : région atlantique (Terre-Neuve, Nouvelle-Écosse, Nouveau-Brunswick, île du Prince-Édouard ; le Québec, l'Ontario et l'Ouest (Manitoba,Saskatchewan, Alberta, Colombie-Britannique, Yukon et les Territoires duNord-Ouest. L'analyse de

  3. Quality of Life, Self-Esteem, and Future Expectations of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Kareen N; Ow, Rosaleen

    2017-12-13

    Significant advancements in treatment modalities over the past few decades have significantly improved the survival rates of many types of childhood cancer, directing attention to the psychosocial consequences of successful treatment and subsequent survival. This study assesses quality of life (QoL) among survivors of childhood cancer. Data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire. Participants were assured of confidentiality and of the voluntary nature of participation. Participants ranged in age from 12 to 24 years (mean age = 17.2); 62 percent were male; 45.6 percent were in secondary grades (middle school or high school). Results showed that among the QoL domains, spiritual subscale ranked highest, and physical domain showed the lowest mean score. Self-esteem emerged as an important predictor for social domain of QoL. Cancer-specific worry emerged as a significant predictor for overall QoL. The findings suggest that survivors rated high on positive life changes and sense of purpose, which are associated with positive QoL. However, this was tempered by worries and uncertainty. This study provides seminal information on the psychosocial needs of childhood cancer survivors in an Asian context that can be used by health care professionals and providers to further promote support and health care following treatment. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  4. Life expectancy and years of life lost in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Findings from the NHANES III Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavelle, Robert M; Paculdo, David R; Kush, Scott J; Mannino, David M; Strauss, David J

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes increased mortality in the general population. But life expectancy and the years of life lost have not been reported. Objectives To quantify mortality, examine how it varies with age, sex, and other risk factors, and determine how life expectancy is affected. Methods We constructed mortality models using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, adjusting for age, sex, race, and major medical conditions. We used these to compute life expectancy and the years of life lost. Measurements and main results Pulmonary function testing classified patients as having Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 COPD or restriction. COPD is associated with only a modest reduction in life expectancy for never smokers, but with a very large reduction for current and former smokers. At age 65, the reductions in male life expectancy for stage 1, stage 2, and stages 3 or 4 disease in current smokers are 0.3 years, 2.2 years, and 5.8 years. These are in addition to the 3.5 years lost due to smoking. In former smokers the reductions are 1.4 years and 5.6 years for stage 2 and stages 3 or 4 disease, and in never smokers they are 0.7 and 1.3 years. Conclusions Persons with COPD have an increased risk of mortality compared to those who do not, with consequent reduction in life expectancy. The effect is most marked in current smokers, and this is further reason for smokers to quit. PMID:19436692

  5. Income gaps in self-rated poor health and its association with life expectancy in 245 districts of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ikhan; Bahk, Jinwook; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-01-01

    To examine the income gaps associated with self-rated poor health at the district level in Korea and to identify the geographical correlations between self-rated poor health, life expectancy, and the associated income gaps. We analyzed data for 1,578,189 participants from the Community Health Survey of Korea collected between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of self-rated poor health and the associated income gaps were calculated. Previously released data on life expectancy and the associated income gaps were also used. We performed correlation and regression analyses for self-rated poor health, life expectancy, and associated income gaps. Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of self-rated poor health was 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6 to 16.8%), with interquartile range (IQR) of 3.1 percentage points (%p). The median interquintile gaps in the prevalence of self-rated poor health was 11.1%p (95% CI, 8.1 to 14.5%p), with IQR of 3.6%p. Pro-rich inequalities in self-rated health were observed across all 245 districts of Korea. The correlation coefficients for the association between self-rated poor health and the associated income gaps, self-rated poor health and life expectancy, and income gaps associated with self-rated poor health and life expectancy were 0.59, 0.78 and 0.55 respectively. Income gaps associated with self-rated poor health were evident across all districts in Korea. The magnitude of income gaps associated with self-rated poor health was larger in the districts with greater prevalence of self-rated poor health. A strong correlation between self-rated poor health and life expectancy was also observed.

  6. Encouraging early discussion of life expectancy and end-of-life care: A randomised controlled trial of a nurse-led communication support program for patients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Adam; Butow, Phyllis N; Tattersall, Martin H N; Davidson, Patricia M; Young, Jane; Epstein, Ronald M; Costa, Daniel S J; Clayton, Josephine M

    2017-02-01

    information or shared decision-making preferences would be met. Satisfaction with the communication support program was high. Given the importance of clarifying prognostic expectations and end-of-life care wishes in the advanced cancer context, the communication support program appears to be an effective and well-received solution to encourage early information seeking related to these issues though, its long-term impact remains unclear. The manualised nature of the intervention, designed with existing clinical staff in mind, may make it suited for implementation in a clinical setting, though additional work is needed to identify why question asking was unaffected and establish its impact later in the illness trajectory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Association between Peace and Life Expectancy: An Empirical Study of the World Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Aminian, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient -0.039; 95% CI: -0.058, -0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (-0.019; 95% CI: -0.035, -0.003), GNI (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.055, -0.015), and both EI and GNI (-0.017; 95% CI: -0.033, -0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries.

  8. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock.

  9. [The changing gaps of life expectancy on genders in urban cities of China, from 2005 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the gender difference of life expectancy in urban people of China and to explore both age-specific and cause-specific contributions to the changing differences in life expectancy on genders. Data on life expectancy (male and female) and mortality were obtained from the"Annual Statistics of public health in China". Male-female gender difference was analyzed by decomposition methodologies, including age-specific decomposition and the cause-specific decomposition. Women had lived much longer than men in the Chinese urban citizens, with remarkable gains in life expectancy since 2005. Difference in gender reached a peak in 2007, with the gap of 5.3 years. Differences on mortality between men and women in the 60-79 age groups made the largest contribution (42%-47%) to the gap of 6 years on life expectancy in genders. With the widening of the gaps in gender on life expectancy between 2005 and 2007, faster declining of mortality among groups of women in age 0-1 age and over 75 years old groups made the largest contributions. Between 2007 and 2008, along with the reduction of gaps in gender, all the age groups except the 1-15 and 50-55 year-olds showed negative efforts. In 2009-2010, the widening gaps in gender on life expectancy were caused by the positive effect in the 60-70 age group. Among all the causes of death, cancer (1.638-2.019 years), circulatory diseases (1.271-1.606 years), respiratory diseases (0.551-0.800 years) made the largest contributions to the gender gap. 33%-38% of the gaps in gender were caused by cancer and among all the cancers, among which lung cancer contributed 0.6 years to the overall gap. Contribution of cancers to the gender gap was reducing, but when time went on it was mostly influenced by the narrowing effect caused by liver cancer on the gap in gender. Traffic accidents and suicidal issues were the external causes that influencing the gender gap and contributing 10.60%-15.78% to the overall differentials. Public health efforts

  10. Psychiatric Comorbidity, Social Aspects and Quality of Life in a Population-Based Cohort of Expecting Fathers with Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Frizell Reiter

    Full Text Available To investigate psychiatric disorders, adverse social aspects and quality of life in men with epilepsy during partner's pregnancy.We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 76,335 men with pregnant partners. Men with epilepsy were compared to men without epilepsy, and to men with non-neurological chronic diseases.Expecting fathers in 658 pregnancies (mean age 31.8 years reported a history of epilepsy, 36.9% using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs at the onset of pregnancy. Symptoms of anxiety or depression were increased in epilepsy (7.0% and 3.9%, respectively vs. non-epilepsy (4.6% and 2.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.023, and so were new onset symptoms of depression (2.0% vs. 1.0%, p < 0.031 and anxiety (4.3% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.023. Low self-esteem (2.5% and low satisfaction with life (1.7% were more frequent among fathers with epilepsy compared to fathers without epilepsy (1.3% and 0.7%, respectively, p = 0.01 and 0.010. Adverse social aspects and life events were associated with epilepsy vs. both reference groups. Self-reported diagnoses of ADHD (2.2% and bipolar disorder (1.8% were more common in epilepsy vs. non-epilepsy (0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, p = 0.002 and 0.003 and non-neurological chronic disorders (0.5% and 0.5%, respectively, p = 0.004 and 0.018. A screening tool for ADHD symptoms revealed a higher rate compared to self-reported ADHD (9.5% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001.Expecting fathers with epilepsy are at high risk of depression and anxiety, adverse socioeconomic aspects, low self-esteem, and low satisfaction with life. Focus on mental health in fathers with epilepsy during and after pregnancy is important. The use of screening tools can be particularly useful to identify those at risk.

  11. Analysis of Potentials to Increase Iranian life Expectancy with Removing the Leading Causes of Mortality in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sasanipour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies on Iranian mortality clearly underscore the role of cardiovascular diseases, unintentional injuries, and cancers as three leading causes of reduced life expectancy during the last three decades. The purpose of current study is to measure the effect of these causes on 2010 life table for Iran. Materials & Method:The number of registered death by age and sex and death distribution by cause for Iran in 2010 are obtained from death registration system operated by the Ministry of Health and to know more about the population at risk population forecast information of the Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI is used. The obtained data are analyzed using Multiple Decrement Life Table and Kitagava analysis method. Results: The results show that three leading causes of death are account for 13 years potential lost life of Iranian men and women. More detailed results indicate that cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and unintentional injuries play larger roles in this regard while men are more likely to die by unintentional injuries than women. Life expectancy of middle aged men are more affected by unintentional injuries while old aged women are more affected by cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: Particular consideration of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases of both sexes and males death by unintentional injuries is of utmost importance in reducing mortality rate and increasing life expectancy as a result.

  12. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60) data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60) and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each group. Results Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care. PMID:27814777

  13. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60) data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE 60 ) and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each group. Overall, LE 60 and QALE 60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE 60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE 60 and QALY lost was -0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care.

  14. The stagnation of the Mexican male life expectancy in the first decade of the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; García-Guerrero, Víctor Manuel; Echarri-Cánovas, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the first decade of the 21st century, the Mexican life expectancy changed from a long trend of increase to stagnation. These changes concur with an increase in deaths by homicides that the country experienced in that decade, and an obesity epidemic that had developed over the last ...

  15. Mortality and life expectancy in relation to long-term cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking: The Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Ocké, M.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Study objective: To study the effect of long-term smoking on all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and to estimate the effects of cigarette and cigar or pipe smoking on life expectancy. Design: A long-term prospective cohort study. Setting: Zutphen, The Netherlands. Participants: 1373 men from the

  16. Differences in healthy life expectancy between older migrants and non-migrants in three European countries over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus Pons, Matias; Kibele, Eva; Janssen, Fanny

    OBJECTIVES: We analysed differences in healthy life expectancy at age 50 (HLE50) between migrants and non-migrants in Belgium , the Netherlands, and England and Wales, and their trends over time between 2001 and 2011 in the latter two countries. METHODS: Population, mortality and health data were

  17. Differences in healthy life expectancy between older migrants and non-migrants in three European countries over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus Pons, M.; Kibele, E.U.B.; Janssen, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We analysed differences in healthy life expectancy at age 50 (HLE50) between migrants and non-migrants in Belgium , the Netherlands, and England and Wales, and their trends over time between 2001 and 2011 in the latter two countries. Methods Population, mortality and health data were

  18. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.M. Otten; M.J.M. Broeders (Mireille); G.J. den Heeten (Gerard); R. Holland (Roland); J. Fracheboud (Jacques); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.L.M. Verbeek (Andre)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in

  19. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Johannes D. M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Holland, Roland; Fracheboud, Jacques; de Koning, Harry J.; Verbeek, André L. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in Nijmegen, the

  20. [The changing sex differences in life expectancy in Spain (1980-2012): decomposition by age and cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Juan Manuel; Grande, Rafael

    2017-05-19

    To calculate and analyse the contributions of changes in mortality by age groups and selected causes of death to sex differences in life expectancy at birth in Spain from 1980 to 2012. Cross-sectional study with three time points (1980, 1995, and 2012). We used data from Human Cause-of-Death Database and Human Mortality Database. We use a decomposition method of the differences in life expectancy and gender differences in life expectancy from changes in mortality by 5-year age groups and causes of death between women and men. From 1980 to 1995, the lower mortality of women from 25 years old, and the differences in mortality by HIV/AIDS, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases contributed to the gap increase. From 1995 to 2012, greatest improvement in mortality of males under 74 years of age, and in improving male mortality from HIV/AIDS, acute myocardial infarction and traffic accidents contributed to the narrowing. The difference in life expectancy at birth between men and women has decreased since 1995 due to a greater improvement in mortality from causes of death associated with risky behaviours and habits of the working age male population. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Family Background, Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students' Career and Life Success Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  2. Approximations for Estimating Change in Life Expectancy Attributable to Air Pollution in Relation to Multiple Causes of Death Using a Cause Modified Life Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, David M; Judek, Stan; Brand, Kevin; Burnett, Richard T; Shin, Hwashin H

    2015-08-01

    There is considerable debate as to the most appropriate metric for characterizing the mortality impacts of air pollution. Life expectancy has been advocated as an informative measure. Although the life-table calculus is relatively straightforward, it becomes increasingly cumbersome when repeated over large numbers of geographic areas and for multiple causes of death. Two simplifying assumptions were evaluated: linearity of the relation between excess rate ratio and change in life expectancy, and additivity of cause-specific life-table calculations. We employed excess rate ratios linking PM2.5 and mortality from cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, and lung cancer derived from a meta-analysis of worldwide cohort studies. As a sensitivity analysis, we employed an integrated exposure response function based on the observed risk of PM2.5 over a wide range of concentrations from ambient exposure, indoor exposure, second-hand smoke, and personal smoking. Impacts were estimated in relation to a change in PM2.5 from 19.5 μg/m(3) estimated for Toronto to an estimated natural background concentration of 1.8 μg/m(3) . Estimated changes in life expectancy varied linearly with excess rate ratios, but at higher values the relationship was more accurately represented as a nonlinear function. Changes in life expectancy attributed to specific causes of death were additive with maximum error of 10%. Results were sensitive to assumptions about the air pollution concentration below which effects on mortality were not quantified. We have demonstrated valid approximations comprising expression of change in life expectancy as a function of excess mortality and summation across multiple causes of death. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Determining the Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on Life Expectancy and Anxiety Among Bereaved Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Tayebeh; Jafari, Hedayat; Ramezanalzadeh, Zahra; Heydari, Jabbar

    2017-12-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy tries to increase one's psychological acceptance regarding subjective experiences (thoughts, feelings, etc.,) and in turn, decrease ineffective control actions. The current study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on the amount of life expectancy and anxiety among bereaved patients. This research was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-post-test control group design. The statistical population included all bereaved patients aged between 20-40 who referred to counseling and treatment centers and psychiatric clinics in Tehran in 2015. Bereaved patients were identified through convenient random sampling method amongst patients and based on clinical diagnosis of psychiatrist treating patients. Thirty four persons were chosen and were randomly assigned in two 17- persons experimental and control groups. Both groups were evaluated at two stages of pre-test and post-test through anxiety scale (Spielberger STAI-y 1970) and life expectancy (Schneider, 1991). Conducted investigation shows that the average life expectancy in the experimental group has increased from 12.40 to 23.30 after acceptance and commitment therapy. Moreover, the average of anxiety scores in the experimental group has decreased in post-test from 121.20 to 79.10 after acceptance and commitment therapy. Results of covariance analysis revealed that the experimental group subjects experienced a significant lower level of anxiety than those in control group (plife expectancy has significantly increased in the experimental group (plife expectancy has increased. The acceptance and commitment therapy has led to the anxiety reduction and caused an increase in bereaved patients' life expectancy.

  4. The Relationship between Career Variables and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations for Australian High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study surveyed 925 Australian high school students enrolled in grades 8 through 12 on measures of occupational aspirations, occupational expectations, career status aspirations, and career status expectations; it tested the association between these variables and career maturity, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy, and…

  5. Promoting High Expectations for Postschool Success by Family Members: A "To-Do" List for Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleet-Odle, Amy; Aspel, Nellie; Leuchovius, Deborah; Roy, Sean; Hawkins, Connie; Jennings, Debra; Turnbull, Ann; Test, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Parental expectations (having high expectations for their children) and parental involvement (having parents as active and knowledgeable participants in transition planning) have been identified as evidence-based predictors of improved postschool outcomes for students with disabilities. However, little is known about how education professionals…

  6. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.

  7. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Tessema, Solomon; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015). We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health)). We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015). Interventions are scaled-up to 1) government target levels, 2) 90% coverage and 3) 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health)). Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health)) substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health)).

  8. The association of air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain: A small-area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Carmen; Agis, David; Ambrós, Albert; Arévalo, Gustavo; Baldasano, Jose M; Bande, Stefano; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Benach, Joan; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Ghigo, Stefania; Martinez-Solanas, Èrica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Cadum, Ennio; Basagaña, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain. Mortality data from 2148 small areas (average population of 20,750 inhabitants, and median population of 7672 inhabitants) covering Spain for years 2009-2013 were obtained. Average annual levels of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO 2 and O 3 were derived from an air quality forecasting system at 4×4km resolution. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to assess greenness in each small area. Air pollution and greenness were linked to standardized mortality rates (SMRs) using Poisson regression and to life expectancy using linear regression. The models were adjusted for socioeconomic status and lung cancer mortality rates (as a proxy for smoking), and accounted for spatial autocorrelation. The increase of 5μg/m 3 in PM 10 , NO 2 and O 3 or of 2μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 concentration resulted in a loss of life in years of 0.90 (95% credibility interval CI: 0.83, 0.98), 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17), 0.20years (95% CI: 0.16, 0.24) and 0.64 (0.59, 0.70), respectively. Similar associations were found in the SMR analysis, with stronger associations for PM 2.5 and PM 10 , which were associated with an increased mortality risk of 3.7% (95% CI: 3.5%, 4.0%) and 5.7% (95% CI: 5.4%, 6.1%). For greenness, a protective effect on mortality and longer life expectancy was only found in areas with lower socioeconomic status. Air pollution concentrations were associated to important reductions in life expectancy. The reduction of air pollution should be a priority for public health

  9. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  10. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Positive Expectations Regarding Aging Linked to More New Friends in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkin, Josephine A; Robles, Theodore F; Gruenewald, Tara L; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Seeman, Teresa E

    2017-09-01

    Negative perceptions of aging can be self-fulfilling prophecies, predicting worse cognitive and physical outcomes. Although older adults are portrayed as either lonely curmudgeons or perfect grandparents, little research addresses how perceptions of aging relate to social outcomes. We considered whether more positive expectations about aging encourage older adults to maintain or bolster their social network connections and support. This study examined baseline, 12-, and 24-month questionnaire data from the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial, a longitudinal randomized volunteer intervention for adults aged 60 years and older. The associations between expectations regarding aging and different types of social support were tested using negative binomial and multiple regression models controlling for relevant covariates such as baseline levels of perceived support availability. Participants with more positive expectations at baseline made more new friends 2 years later and had greater overall perceived support availability 12 months later. Notably, only participants with at least average perceived support availability at baseline showed an association between expectations and later support availability. These results are the first to link overall expectations regarding aging to the social domain and suggest that the influence of perceptions of aging is not limited to physical or cognitive function.

  12. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Self-Representation and Cultural Expectations: Yogi Chen and Religious Practices of Life-Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Explores the differences in self-representation as found in the autobiographical writings of Yogi Chen, Billy Graham, and the Dalai Lama. While the latter two are widely recognized in American popular religious culture, the former is virtually invisible outside the immigrant Chinese American community. This invisibility is consistent with fact that the religious praxes of immigrant communities remain largely under-studied. However, one additional factor appears to be the mismatch between the expectations of the dominant religious culture and the immigrant culture in terms of the ways in which religious leaders represent themselves. Both Billy Graham and the Dalai Lama present themselves in very humble terms, consistent with the expectations of the Pietist background to American popular religion. Yogi Chen on the contrary tends toward a self-aggrandizing style, which although consistent with the competitive nature of premodern Tibetan religious culture is not congruent with the expectations of American popular religion.

  14. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  15. Computer-assisted predictive formulas expressing survival probability and life expectancy in US adults, men and women, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung J

    2007-06-01

    The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reported the United States life tables, 2001 for US total, male and female populations on the basis of 2001 mortality statistics, the 2000 decennial census and the data from the Medicare program [E. Arias, United State life tables, 2001, Natl. Vital Stat. Rep. 52 (2004) 1-40]. The life tables show life expectancy, survival and death rate at each year between birth and 100 years of age. In this study formulas expressing survival probability and life expectancy in US adults, men and women are constructed from the data of the NCHS. A model of the 'probacent'-probability equation previously published by the author is employed in the study. Analysis of the formula-predicted values and the NCHS-reported data indicates that the formulas are accurate and reliable with a close agreement. The formula representing a generalized lognormal distribution might be useful for biomedical investigation, and epidemiological and demographic studies in US adults, men and women.

  16. Changes in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) at birth between 2000 and 2010 across Japanese prefectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuka Minagawa; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-09-01

    The second phase of Healthy Japan 21 seeks to increase disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) more than life expectancy (LE) between 2013 and 2022. In the face of the rising incidence of disability, the feasibility of achieving this goal remains unclear. We examine changes in DFLE at birth between 2000 and 2010 across 47 prefectures, with particular attention given to changes in the absolute number of years and in the proportion of disability-free life years. Although LE increased across all prefectures, there is a variation in DFLE. While the number of disability-free life years increased in many parts of the country, some prefectures had decreases in DFLE. Downturns become particularly evident when DFLE is interpreted in relative terms. The proportion of life spent without disability declined in the majority of prefectures. Results from subnational level analyses suggest that the rate of increase in DFLE lagged behind that in LE across Japanese prefectures during the past decade. More policy attention should be devoted to health-promotion initiatives at the prefecture level to achieve the nationwide health agenda.

  17. Laboratory Experiments as a Tool in the Empirical Economic Analysis of High-Expectation Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Martin; Formica, Piero

    2008-01-01

    High-expectation start-ups are firms launched by entrepreneurs with high ambitions for growth. The encounter between new technology and entrepreneurship that characterizes such new ventures has a significant impact on the nature and speed of economic development, driving the growth of high-technology industries and helping to make the economic…

  18. Groundwater age, life expectancy and transit time distributions in advective-dispersive systems: 1. Generalized reservoir theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cornaton, F; 10.1016/j.advwatres.2005.10.009

    2011-01-01

    We present a methodology for determining reservoir groundwater age and transit time probability distributions in a deterministic manner, considering advective-dispersive transport in steady velocity fields. In a first step, we propose to model the statistical distribution of groundwater age at aquifer scale by means of the classical advection-dispersion equation for a conservative and nonreactive tracer, associated to proper boundary conditions. The evaluated function corresponds to the density of probability of the random variable age, age being defined as the time elapsed since the water particles entered the aquifer. An adjoint backward model is introduced to characterize the life expectancy distribution, life expectancy being the time remaining before leaving the aquifer. By convolution of these two distributions, groundwater transit time distributions, from inlet to outlet, are fully defined for the entire aquifer domain. In a second step, an accurate and efficient method is introduced to simulate the tr...

  19. Deficiency of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 or 4 extends life expectancy in Huntington’s disease mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Griffioen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive striatal and cortical atrophy, has been strongly linked with neuroinflammation. Toll-like receptors, a family of innate immune receptors, are a major pathway for neuroinflammation with pleiotropic effects on neuronal plasticity and neurodevelopment. We assessed whether deficiency for TLRs 2, 3 or 4 affects life expectancy in the N171-82Q mouse model of HD. Our data indicate that homozygous TLRs 2 and 3 as well as heterozygous TLR4 deficiency significantly extends the life expectancy of HD mice. Our data suggest that multiple TLR pathways may be involved in the neuroinflammatory and degenerative processes during HD.

  20. Work-life Balance by Area, Actual Situation and Expectations – the Overlapping Opinions of Employers and Employees in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kozjek Tatjana; Tomaževič Nina; Stare Janez

    2014-01-01

    Background: The question of work-life balance (WLB) is an area where increasing attention is being paid nowadays. States, organisations and employees all have responsibility and a role to play in WLB. This article presents the important areas of the WLB by key players in this field. Purpose: The purpose of the research was to compare and analyse the differences between the actual situation and the expectations of employers and employees with regard to specific areas of WLB in Slovenia. Method...

  1. Effectiveness of Group Logotherapy on Death Anxiety and Life Expectancy of the Elderly Living in Boarding Houses in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Hajiazizi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion Overall, based on the results of this research, group therapy was found to reduce death anxiety and life expectancy in elderly people living in boarding houses and subsequently, improve their mental health. Due to the special emphasis of logotherapy on the present and the meaning of suffering for the elderly, it is important to use it for promoting social well-being of older people.

  2. Are age-related trends in suicide rates associated with life expectancy and socio-economic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination.

  3. Impact of smoking and other lifestyle factors on life expectancy among japanese: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kawado, Miyuki; Ozasa, Kotaro; Tamakoshi, Koji; Lin, Yingsong; Yagyu, Kiyoko; Kikuchi, Shogo; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2010-01-01

    A number of lifestyle factors, including smoking and drinking, are known to be independently associated with all-cause mortality. However, it might be more effective in motivating the public to adopt a healthier lifestyle if the combined effect of several lifestyle factors on all-cause mortality could be demonstrated in a straightforward manner. We examined the combined effects of 6 healthy lifestyle behaviors on all-cause mortality by estimating life expectancies at 40 and 60 years of age among 62 106 participants in a prospective cohort study with a 14.5-year follow-up. The healthy behaviors selected were current nonsmoking, not heavily drinking, walking 1 hour or more per day, sleeping 6.5 to 7.4 hours per day, eating green leafy vegetables almost daily, and having a BMI between 18.5 to 24.9. At age 40, we found a 10.3-year increase in life expectancy for men and a 8.3-year increase for women who had all 6 healthy behaviors, as compared with those who had only 0 to 2 healthy behaviors. Increases of 9.6 and 8.2 years were observed for men and women, respectively, at age 60 with all 6 healthy behaviors. When comparing currently nonsmoking individuals with 0 to 1 healthy behaviors, the life expectancy of smokers was shorter in both men and women, even if they maintained all 5 other healthy behaviors. Among individuals aged 40 and 60 years, maintaining all 6 healthy lifestyle factors was associated with longer life expectancy. Smokers should be encouraged to quit smoking first and then to maintain or adopt the other 5 lifestyle factors.

  4. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment based treatment on social competence and life expectancy of patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ghadampour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Multiple Sclerosis is a neurological disability disorders, which creates many physical and mental differences. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on social competence and life expectancy of patients with multiple sclerosis.  Methods: The present study design was experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up and control group. Statistical population of this study consisted of all female patients admitted to the multiple sclerosis (MS society of Kermanshah cityt to purpose of implement a screening test. At the begening a number of 220 people completed the Felner-social competence and Miler-life expectancy questionnaires. Among them the 30 persons through purposeful sampling that in the abnormal situation (on standard deviation lower group average were selected. Then the selected 30 persons were randomly divided into two equal groups of experimental and control. In the experimental group the acceptance and commitment therapy were conducted for 8 sessions 90 minutes. After completing the session, post-test and three months after the intervention, follow-up was conducted on two groups. Analyzed of the data was done using spss19, descriptive test (mean and Standard deviation, and ANOVA with repeated measure. Results: Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that acceptance and commitment therapy based on increasing social competence and life expectancy of patients with multiple sclerosis had significant effect. Findings were also preserved in the follow-up phase. Conclusion: According to the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on increase social competence and life expectancy suffering and its effects, application of this method at all levels of prevention and treatment of physical illness among multiple sclerosis seems necessary.

  5. Ambitious mothers--successful daughters: mothers' early expectations for children's education and children's earnings and sense of control in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Hawkes, Denise

    2008-09-01

    Mothers' expectations for their children's educational attainment are related to children's educational and occupational attainment. Studies have yet to establish, however, the long-term links between maternal expectations and offspring earnings, which are not always related to occupational attainment especially in women, or between maternal expectations and offspring sense of control and self-efficacy, which are pivotal factors in career choice and development. To explore the role of mothers' expectations for their children's educational attainment in children's earnings attainment and sense of control later in life. Data from sweeps of the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were used. The study sample was those cohort members with complete information on all the variables of interest. The study sample (N=3,285) was more educated and less disadvantaged than the whole sample. If cohort members of this type are more likely to have a mother who has high expectations, then our results are biased downwards, which suggests that we underestimate the effect of expectations on our two outcome variables. Mothers' expectations at the age of 10 were positively related to daughters' sense of control at the age of 30 even after controlling for ethnicity, educational attainment, and concurrent partner, parent, and labour market participation status, as well as the following confounding variables (measured at the ages of 0-10): general ability and general ability squared, locus of control, emotional and behavioural problems and emotional and behavioural problems squared, socio-economic disadvantage, parental social class, parental family structure, and mothers' education, child-rearing attitudes, and mental health. Mothers' expectations had no effect on sons' adult outcomes. Given that women are particularly at risk for poor psychological and economic outcomes in adulthood, and that this study likely underestimated the effect of expectations on these two outcomes, this is an

  6. Trends in Life Expectancy by Level of Education and Occupational Social Class in Finland 1981-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Valkonen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses trends in life expectancy by level of education and by occupational social class in Finland from 1981 to 2000 to assess to what extent these trends have been in accordance with the target of reducing socioeconomic differences in life expectancy set in the Government public health programme. The study is based on the census records for the population aged 35 or over, which have been linked to the death records for the years 1981 to 2000. The results show that, contrary to the public health target, the difference in the life expectancy between persons with tertiary and basic education and that between upper non-manual and manual occupational classes increased during the 1990s. Differences in the trends in mortality from alcohol-related causes of death and from other cancers than lung cancer accounted for most the increase in the socioeconomic gap among men. Different from the 1980s changes in cardiovascular mortality did not contribute to the increase in the socioeconomic gap. Among women the increase in the socioeconomic gap was mainly due to the heterogeneous group of other diseases and cancers other than lung and breast cancer

  7. Expectations Thwarted. Support and conflict in an urban later life family, Guanajuato, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalsen, Maria Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    This research thesis is based on participant observation conducted with and without a movie camera with a family consisting of 94 year old Dolores, 54 year old Leticia and 27 year old Rodrigo from Guanajuato City in Central Mexico. By carrying out fieldwork in the months of April to August 2012 I have explored care-dynamics in the family and how their relationships unfold within the ever changing and unstable characteristics of modernity. The three generations all experience expectations, nor...

  8. Buying a Beauty Standard or Dreaming of a New Life? Expectations Associated with Media Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This study explored college women's ideas regarding how their lives would change if their appearance were consistent with a media-supported female beauty ideal. Participants rated self-generated life changes they associated with looking like a media ideal in terms of likelihood and positivity. Women's tendency to link positive and likely life…

  9. Outcome Expectancies and the Interaction of Efficacy and Control Beliefs: Life, Work, and Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbig, D.

    2010-01-01

    In situations characterized by risk and uncertainty, people frequently base their decisions on beliefs concerning the likelihood of uncertain events. Such events can be as general as success in life or as specific as winning in a lottery, success in one's job or study, or even success with starting

  10. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  11. Outcome expectancies and the interaction of efficacy and control beliefs: Life, work, and entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbig, D.

    2010-01-01

    In situations characterized by risk and uncertainty, people frequently base their decisions on beliefs concerning the likelihood of uncertain events. Such events can be as general as success in life or as specific as winning in a lottery, success in one's job or study, or even success with starting

  12. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  13. The diversity of life expectancy in selected subregions of Silesia voivodeship and the quality of air between 2008 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Korczyńska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The studies of life expectancy diversity of subregions in Silesia voivodeship are complemented with an important information on health inequalities. Air quality impact can not be excluded from the potential determinants of this diversity. The aim of the study is to provide an answer whether diversity of life expectancy (LE in selected subregions in Silesia voivodeship at the time of birth (LE0+ and over 65 years of age (LE65+ corresponds with the data on air pollution recorded for the years between 2008 and 2012. Material and methods. Data was collected on life expectancy 0+ (LE0+ and life expectancy 65+ (LE65+ for 2012 for the population in three subregions (Central Statistical Office – CSO. The analysis included three subregions: the best (bielski subregion, average (katowicki, and the worst (rybnicki of air quality defined by annual average concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants (Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection – RIEP, between 2008 and 2012. Then the LE was correlated with the average area pollution levels between 2008 and 2012. Results. Results of the study show diversity of LE in subregions. The lowest values LE0+ and LE65+ in 2012 were for males (70.1 and 14.8 years and for females (78.7 and 18.6 years in katowicki subregion. The highest LE0+ and LE65+ was observed for males (73.2 and 15.4 years and females (80.9 and 19.5 years in bielski subregion. Annual average area concentrations of air pollutants in subregions bielski, rybnicki and katowicki were: for PM10 42.1, 64.1 and 51 µg/m3 respectively; for PM2.5 36.8, 39 and 32.3 µg/m3 respectively; for benzo(apyrene 7.4, 13.4 and 7.6 ng/m3respectively. Conclusions. The relationship between life expectancy and air quality doesn’t provide an unambiguous answer whether LE is structured by various factors, such as a level of income available medical infrastructure and lifestyle.

  14. Crude mortality and loss of life expectancy of patients diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Bettina K; Myklebust, Tor Å; Haug, Erik S

    2017-02-01

    Reports from cancer registries often lack clinically relevant information, which would be useful in estimating the prognosis of individual patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCB). This article presents estimates of crude probabilities of death due to UCB and the expected loss of lifetime stratified for patient characteristics. In Norway, 10,332 patients were diagnosed with UCB between 2001 and 2010. The crude probabilities of death due to UCB were estimated, stratified by gender, age and T stage, using flexible parametric survival models. Based on these models, the loss in expectation of lifetime due to UCB was also estimated for the different strata. There is large variation in the estimated crude probabilities of death due to UCB (from 0.03 to 0.76 within 10 years since diagnosis) depending on age, gender and T stage. Furthermore, the expected loss of life expectancy is more than a decade for younger patients with muscle-invasive UCB and between a few months and 5 years for nonmuscle-invasive UCB. The suggested framework leads to clinically relevant prognostic risk estimates for individual patients diagnosed with UCB and the consequence in terms of loss of lifetime expectation. The published probability tables can be used in clinical praxis for risk communication.

  15. Expecting a good quality of life in health: assessing people with diverse diseases and conditions using the WHOQOL‐BREF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skevington, Suzanne M.; McCrate, Farah M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives  Fulfilling patient expectations is central to defining a good quality of life (QoL) in health. The WHOQOL‐BREF was developed using novel, person‐centred methods and is a generic patient‐reported outcomes measure (PROM). However, without robust psychometric performance, PROMs cannot be relied upon to assess individuals. This study investigated the WHOQOL‐BREF (UK), with this use in mind. Design  Cross sectional with nested repeated measures. Setting and participants  Twenty‐seven disease groups or health conditions and healthy people were recruited at 38 UK sites, in a wide range of settings (n = 4628). Interventions  ‘Treatment as usual’; new and alternative interventions. Outcome measures  WHOQOL‐BREF (UK); SF‐36. Results  Respondent burden was low, as acceptability and feasibility were high. Internal consistency was excellent (0.92) and test–retest reliability good. Distinctive QoL profiles were found for diverse conditions. Musculoskeletal, psychiatric and cardiovascular patients reported the poorest QoL and also improved most during treatment. Overall, QoL was good, and best for healthy groups, supporting discriminant validity. Compared with the SF‐36, WHOQOL physical and psychological domains showed good concurrent validity, although social was weak. Small or moderate effect sizes confirmed responsiveness to change in specified domains for certain conditions and interventions. Age had a small impact on reporting QoL. Discussion and conclusion  The WHOQOL‐BREF is found to be a high quality patient‐centred generic tool suited to individual assessment in clinics, for research, and audit. PMID:21281412

  16. Transforming High School Counseling: Counselors' Roles, Practices, and Expectations for Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Wei-Cheng J.; Li, Jiaqi; Hoetmer, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the current roles and practices of American high school counselors in relation to the ASCA [American School Counselor Association] National Model. Expectations for student success by high school counselors were also examined and compared to those of teachers' and school administrators'. A nationally representative sample of 852…

  17. Forecasted trends in disability and life expectancy in England and Wales up to 2025: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Bandosz, Piotr; Capewell, Simon; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J; Brunner, Eric J; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Reliable estimation of future trends in life expectancy and the burden of disability is crucial for ageing societies. Previous forecasts have not considered the potential impact of trends in disease incidence. The present prediction model combines population trends in cardiovascular disease, dementia, disability, and mortality to forecast trends in life expectancy and the burden of disability in England and Wales up to 2025. We developed and validated the IMPACT-Better Ageing Model-a probabilistic model that tracks the population aged 35-100 years through ten health states characterised by the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease, dementia, disability (difficulty with one or more activities of daily living) or death up to 2025, by use of evidence-based age-specific, sex-specific, and year-specific transition probabilities. As shown in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we projected continuing declines in dementia incidence (2·7% per annum), cardiovascular incidence, and mortality. The model estimates disability prevalence and disabled and disability-free life expectancy by year. Between 2015 and 2025, the number of people aged 65 years and older will increase by 19·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 17·7-20·9), from 10·4 million (10·37-10·41 million) to 12·4 million (12·23-12·57 million). The number living with disability will increase by 25·0% (95% UI 21·3-28·2), from 2·25 million (2·24-2·27 million) to 2·81 million (2·72-2·89 million). The age-standardised prevalence of disability among this population will remain constant, at 21·7% (95% UI 21·5-21·8) in 2015 and 21·6% (21·3-21·8) in 2025. Total life expectancy at age 65 years will increase by 1·7 years (95% UI 0·1-3·6), from 20·1 years (19·9-20·3) to 21·8 years (20·2-23·6). Disability-free life expectancy at age 65 years will increase by 1·0 years (95% UI 0·1-1·9), from 15·4 years (15·3-15·5) to 16·4 years (15·5-17·3). However, life expectancy with

  18. Betting on a long life: The role of subjective life expectancy in the demand for private pension insurance of german households

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Katharina; Zirpel, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    With a view to investigating the presence of adverse selection in the private pension insurance market, we analyze determinants of private pension insurance uptake of German households. Using the SAVE 2005 survey data on savings and old-age provision, we estimate a probit model of insurance holdings. We find that subjective life expectancy is positively related with the probability of having supplementary private pension insurance. This indicates that the German private pension insurance mark...

  19. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A Babayan

    Full Text Available Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  20. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, Simon A; Read, Andrew F; Lawrence, Rachel A; Bain, Odile; Allen, Judith E

    2010-10-19

    Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  1. Purpose in Life among High Ability Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton; Finch, W. Holmes; Talib, Tasneem L.

    2010-01-01

    Leading high ability scholars have proposed theories that suggest a purpose in life may be particularly prevalent among high ability youth; however, the prevalence of purpose has not been empirically assessed among this population. Therefore using in-depth interviews the present study established the prevalence of purpose among a sample of high…

  2. Expected years of life lost through road traffic injuries in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Guzmán-Esquivel, José; Medina-González, Alfredo; Huerta, Miguel; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; Lugo-Radillo, Agustin

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of premature mortality, mainly in low- and middle-income countries Objective: To estimate the 2014 burden of RTIs in Mexico calculating years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to evaluate sex, age, and region-related differences in premature mortality. Mortality data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography and 14,637 deaths of individuals 15 years of age and older were analyzed. The YLL and ASYLL were computed. The overall burden of RTIs was 332,922 YLL and 82.4% of the deaths occurred in males. Males from 25 to 34 years of age and females from 15 to 24 years of age showed the highest age-adjusted YLL rates (933 and 158 YLL per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively). The national ASYLL rate was 416 per 100,000 inhabitants and the highest state-stratified mortality rates were observed in Tabasco (851), Sinaloa (709), Durango (656), Zacatecas (642), and Baja California Sur (570). RTIs contributed to the premature mortality rate in the study population. Our findings may be useful from a health policy perspective for designing and prioritizing interventions focused on the prevention of premature loss of life.

  3. Genetic contribution to aging: deleterious and helpful genes define life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, J I; Montoriol, C; Morer, I; Beyer, K

    2005-12-01

    For the best understanding of aging, we must consider a genetic pool in which genes with negative effects (deleterious genes that shorten the life span) interact with genes with positive effects (helpful genes that promote longevity) in a constant epistatic relationship that results in a modulation of the final expression under particular environmental influences. Examples of deleterious genes affecting aging (predisposition to early-life pathology and disease) are those that confer risk for developing vascular disease in the heart, brain, or peripheral vessels (APOE, ACE, MTFHR, and mutation at factor II and factor V genes), a gene associated with sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (APOE E4), a polymorphism (COLIA1 Sp1) associated with an increased fracture risk, and several genetic polymorphisms involved in hormonal metabolism that affect adverse reactions to estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women. In summary, the process of aging can be regarded as a multifactorial trait that results from an interaction between stochastic events and sets of epistatic alleles that have pleiotropic age-dependent effects. Lacking those alleles that predispose to disease and having the longevity-enabling genes (those beneficial genetic variants that confer disease resistance) are probably both important to such a remarkable survival advantage.

  4. [Expectancies of foreign exchange senior high school students towards advisors in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, S

    1990-04-01

    To contribute to the improvement of conditions for receiving exchange students from abroad, the present study was conducted to clarify the expectancies of such students towards their advisors and to explore possible changes in expectancy as the students gained greater familiarity with the Japanese culture. The types of response the exchange students expected from the advisors were classified into 12 categories including giving advice, acting on behalf, encouragement to be independent, listening, probing, interpretation, value judgment, empathy, clarification, support, confrontation, and others based on Ivey's (1980) microskills classification. An almost identical questionnaire was administered twice to 288 senior high school exchange students from 20 countries upon their arrival in Japan and ten months subsequent to their arrival. The results may be summarized as follows: (1) Although the subjects expected the same responding type from their advisors in Japan as they did from their parents, they were rather dependent on the advisors on their arrival; (2) as time passed and the subjects became more familiar with the Japanese culture, their expectancies towards the advisors became more similar to those in their home countries; and, (3) the longer the subjects stayed in Japan, the more independent the responding type they expected from the advisors.

  5. Evaluation of impact of major causes of death on life expectancy changes in China, 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Li, Li-Ming

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of major causes of death on changes of life expectancy in China. Life expectancy was calculated by standard life table techniques using mortality data from the national censuses in 1990 and 2000 and the 1% National Population Sampling Surveys in 1995 and 2005. Mortality data about the major causes of death from VR-MOH were used as reference values to estimate their death proportions of the specific age groups by sex and regions, as well as all-cause mortality and age-specific mortality rates of major causes of death. Decomposition method was used to quantitatively evaluate the impact. Three key findings were identified in our study. First, China's health challenge was shifted from diseases related to living conditions to those related to behavior and lifestyle, with rural areas relatively lagged behind urban areas. Second, the impacts of cardiovascular diseases and neoplasm on the middle aged and elderly population were stressed. Third, compared to the urban population, the rural population tended to have increasing mortality of neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases, especially in adults at the age of 15-39 years. Further efforts should be made to reduce the incidence of neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases, especially in rural areas, by promoting healthy behavior and lifestyle and providing appropriate therapies for all patients in need.

  6. How efficient are New Zealand's District Health Boards at producing life expectancy gains for Māori and Europeans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Peter; Consuelo, David Juan José Vivas; Rouse, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of New Zealand's District Health Boards (DHBs) at achieving gains in Māori and European life expectancy (LE). Using life tables for 2006 and 2013, a two-output DEA model established the production possibility frontier for Māori and European LE gain. Confidence limits were generated from a 10,000 replicate Monte Carlo simulation. Results support the use of LE change as an indicator of DHB efficiency. DHB mean income and education were related to initial LE but not to its rate of change. LE gains were unrelated to either the initial level of life expectancy or to the proportion of Māori in the population. DHB efficiency ranged from 79% to 100%. Efficiency was significantly correlated with DHB financial performance. Changes in LE did not depend on the social characteristics of the DHB. The statistically significant association between efficiency and financial performance supports its use as an indicator of managerial effectiveness. Implications for public health: Efficient health systems achieve better population health outcomes. DEA can be used to measure the relative efficiency of sub-national health authorities at achieving health gain and equity outcomes. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Effects of insufficient physical activity on mortality and life expectancy in Jiangxi province of China, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity remains an under-researched field in terms of studying burden of disease at provincial level, and no studies have examined the effects of inactivity on life expectancy (LE in China. The purpose of this study was to estimate mortality risk and LE effects associated with insufficient levels of physical activity in Jiangxi province. METHODS/FINDINGS: Prevalence of risk factors and mortality counts were extracted from Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey (CDRFSS and Disease Surveillance Points system (DSP, respectively. Insufficient physical activity (IPA was defined as less than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity or 60 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, accumulated across work, home, transport and discretionary domains. Population-attributable fractions (PAF were used to calculate the mortality attributable to risk factors, and life table methods were used to estimate the LE gains and LE shifts. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Overall, 5 885 (95% uncertainly interval (UI, 5 047-6 506 and 8 578 (95% UI, 8 227-9 789 deaths in Jiangxi province were attributable to IPA in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The LE gains for elimination of attributable deaths were 0.68 (95% UI, 0.61-076 in 2007, and increased to 0.91 (95% UI, 0.81-1.10 in 2010. If the prevalence of IPA in 2010 had been decreased by 50% or 30%, 3 678 (95% UI, 3 220-4 229 or 2 090 (95% UI, 1 771-2 533 deaths would be avoided, and 0.40 (95% UI, 0.34-0.53 or 0.23 (95% UI, 0.16-0.31 years of LE gained, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adults in Jiangxi province of China have a high and increasing prevalence of IPA. Due to the deaths and potential LE gains associated with IPA, there is an urgent need to promote physical activity, one of the most modifiable risk factors, within China's health care reform agenda.

  8. Smoking and life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Dabis, Francois; Reiss, Peter; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Costagliola, Dominique; d'Arminio, Antonella; Cavassini, Matthias; Smith, Colette; Justice, Amy C; Gill, John; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-14

    Cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS malignancies have become major causes of death among HIV-infected individuals. The relative impact of lifestyle and HIV-related factors are debated. We estimated associations of smoking with mortality more than 1 year after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in European and North American cohorts. IDUs were excluded. Causes of death were assigned using standardized procedures. We used abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies. Life-years lost to HIV were estimated by comparison with the French background population. Among 17,995 HIV-infected individuals followed for 79,760 person-years, the proportion of smokers was 60%. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) comparing smokers with nonsmokers was 1.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56-2.41]. The MRRs comparing current and previous smokers with never smokers were 1.70 (95% CI 1.23-2.34) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.64-1.34), respectively. Smokers had substantially higher mortality from cardiovascular disease, non-AIDS malignancies than nonsmokers [MRR 6.28 (95% CI 2.19-18.0) and 3.31 (95% CI 1.80-5.45), respectively]. [corrected]. Among 35-year-old HIV-infected men, the loss of life-years associated with smoking and HIV was 7.9 (95% CI 7.1-8.7) and 5.9 (95% CI 4.9-6.9), respectively. The life expectancy of virally suppressed, never-smokers was 43.5 years (95% CI 41.7-45.3), compared with 44.4 years among 35-year-old men in the background population. Excess MRRs/1000 person-years associated with smoking increased from 0.6 (95% CI -1.3 to 2.6) at age 35 to 43.6 (95% CI 37.9-49.3) at age at least 65 years. Well treated HIV-infected individuals may lose more life years through smoking than through HIV. Excess mortality associated with smoking increases markedly with age. Therefore, increases in smoking-related mortality can be expected as the treated HIV-infected population ages. Interventions for smoking cessation should be prioritized.

  9. The impact of diagnosis subject to reimbursement on life expectancy, the ability to work, and the quality of life: The experts’ assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araja D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ex-post retrospective analysis of the health care reform in Latvia has been performed by several authors; therefore in writing this paper, the author also considered it essential to try and predict its future prospects, specifically, to carry out an ex-ante analysis of reimbursement arrangements for medicines and medical devices in outpatient treatment (“reimbursement arrangements”. An ex-antepolicy impact analysis takes place at the beginning of the policy development process when policy planners and experts try to project, by means of various quantitative and qualitative methods, the various kinds of consequences that the society will face as a result of implementation of the policy. Taking into account the circumstances of limited state budget resources for the medicines reimbursement arrangements in Latvia, the aim of this research is to evaluate by the experts’ method the impact of the reimbursed diseases on the life expectancy, the ability to work, and the quality of life, to identify the priorities. According to the experts’ judgments the group of diagnoses “Neoplasms” gives the greatest common impact on the life expectancy, the ability to work, and quality of life, followed by the “Diseases of the circulatory system” and “Diseases of the blood and blood forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanisms”.

  10. National independence, women’s political participation, and life expectancy in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women’s political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measu