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Sample records for high intensity electric

  1. A Novel Dual-Electrode Plug to Achieve Intensive Electric Field for High Performance Ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of electric field is carried out so as to verify that a novel dual-electrode plug can build intensive electric field and can improve the main drawbacks of feeble electric field and low ignition efficiency of the traditional plug. With intensive electric field, the proposed novel plug can achieve high performance ignition, resulting in fuel saving and exhaust reduction. Gauss law is applied for electric field analysis to show that intensive electric field can be built by the novel plug. Then, according to Faraday law a lower-voltage ignition feature accomplished by the plug is discussed. Compared with traditional plug, the novel dual-electrode plug has the following advantages. (1 Much higher energy density is built between the plug electrodes, lowering ignition voltage requirement. (2 Electromagnetic interference (EMI problem caused by high ignition voltage is readily resolved. (3 Ignition time delay can be improved. (4 The feature to save fuel consuming is achieved. (5 The exhaust of CO and HC is reduced significantly. Practical measurements are fulfilled to validate the electric field analysis and to demonstrate the features of the proposed dual-electrode plug.

  2. Optimisation extraction of chondroitin sulfate from fish bone by high intensity pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guidan; Yin, Yongguang; Yan, Xiaoxia; Yu, Qingyu

    2014-12-01

    High intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) was used to extract chondroitin sulphate (CS) from fish bone. Results show that PEF extraction speed is much faster, and the content of CS is much higher compared with traditional methods. Variation of PEF parameters and the content of CS were determined by single factor experiments. The processing conditions were optimised by quadratic general rotary unitised design experiments. The maximum yield of 6.92 g/L was achieved under the following conditions: material-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/mL, electric field intensity of 16.88 kV/cm, pulse number of 9, and NaOH concentration of 3.24%. The purity of CS was analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. CS purity was high, and the extract did not contain any other glycosaminoglycans. PEF can be widely used to extract CS with non-thermal performance, high speed, and low pollution.

  3. Impact of high-intensity pulsed electric fields on carotenoids profile of tomato juice made of moderate-intensity pulsed electric field-treated tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2013-12-01

    The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the carotenoid content of tomato juices was studied. First, moderate-intensity PEF (MIPEF) was applied to raw tomatoes. Afterwards, MIPEF-treated and untreated tomatoes were immediately refrigerated at 4 °C for 24 h and then, they were separately ground to produce tomato juices. Juices were treated by heat treatments or by high-intensity PEF (HIPEF) and stored under refrigeration for 56 days. MIPEF treatment of tomatoes increased the content of carotenoid compounds in tomato juices. An enhancement of 63-65% in 15-cis-lycopene was observed in juices prepared with MIPEF-treated tomatoes. A slight increase in cis-lycopene isomers was observed over time, whereas other carotenoids slightly decreased. However, HIPEF treated tomato juices maintained higher carotenoid content (10-20%) through the storage time than thermally and untreated juices. The combination of MIPEF and HIPEF treatments could be used not only to produce tomato juices with high carotenoid content but also, to maintain higher the carotenoid content during storage time.

  4. High-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as treatment of pain after surgical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platon, B; Andréll, P; Raner, C; Rudolph, M; Dvoretsky, A; Mannheimer, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the pain-relieving effect and the time spent in the recovery ward after treatment with high-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or intravenous (IV) conventional pharmacological treatment after surgical abortion. Two-hundred women who underwent surgical abortion and postoperatively reported a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score3 were included. The patients were randomised to TENS or conventional pharmacological treatment for their postoperative pain. The TENS treatment was given with a stimulus intensity between 20 and 60 mA during 1 min and repeated once if insufficient pain relief (VAS3). In the conventional pharmacological treatment group, a maximum dose of 100 microg fentanyl was given IV. There was no difference between the groups with regard to pain relief according to the VAS pain score (TENS=VAS 1.3 vs. IV opioids=VAS 1.6; p=0.09) upon discharge from the recovery ward. However, the patients in the TENS group spent shorter time (44 min) in the recovery ward than the conventional pharmacological treatment group (62 min; p<0.0001). The number of patients who needed additional analgesics in the recovery ward was comparable in both groups, as was the reported VAS pain score upon leaving the hospital (TENS=2.0 vs. conventional pharmacological treatment=1.8, NS). These results suggest that the pain-relieving effect of TENS seems to be comparable to conventional pharmacological treatment with IV opioids. Hence, TENS may be a suitable alternative to conventional pain management with IV opioids after surgical abortion. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 HZ electric fields. Interim technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldstone, C.; Spiegel, R.J.; Winters, W.; Polonis, J.J.

    1980-03-01

    Progress is reported in studies of the effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields on baboon behavior - both individual performance (operant conditioning) and natural (social) behavior. The result of the study should be either a clear indication of the electric field intensity which produces deleterious effects in the baboon or an indication that the highest field intensity of practical interest (analogous to the highest intensity that can be encountered by man under power lines) produces no deleterious effects. The generalization of results to man will be futher aided by the development of models relating the physical effects of electric fields on man to the physical effects on the baboon. (LCL)

  6. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...... following stimulation as well as prickling and burning sensations occurring during tDCS at peak-to-baseline intensities of 1-2mA and during tACS at higher peak-to-peak intensities above 2mA. The prevalence of published AEs is different in studies specifically assessing AEs vs. those not assessing them......, being higher in the former. AEs are frequently reported by individuals receiving placebo stimulation. The profile of AEs in terms of frequency, magnitude and type is comparable in healthy and clinical populations, and this is also the case for more vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly...

  7. Impact of high-intensity pulsed electric fields on bioactive compounds in Mediterranean plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2009-05-01

    Novel non-thermal processing technologies such as high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments may be applied to pasteurize plant-based liquid foods as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in HIPEF as a way of preserving and extending the shelf-life of liquid products without the quality damage caused by heat treatments. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of HIPEF on minor constituents of these products, namely bioactive compounds. This review is a state-of-the-art update on the effects of HIPEF treatments on health-related compounds in plants of the Mediterranean diet such as fruit juices, and Spanish gazpacho. The relevance of HIPEF-processing parameters on retaining plant-based bioactive compounds will be discussed.

  8. Research on the preparation of antioxidant peptides derived from egg white with assisting of high-intensity pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Jin, Yan; Liu, Mingyuan; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Meishuo; Guo, Yang; Jones, Gregory; Liu, Jingbo; Yin, Yongguang

    2013-08-15

    Egg white protein powder, one of the main egg products, was hydrolysed by Alcalase, Trypsin, and Pepsin respectively to prepare antioxidant peptides. All hydrolysates were assayed by determination of reducing power (RP) ability. Three kinds of hydrolysates were prepared under optimal enzymatic parameters that were obtained from the preliminary one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM) experiments. The results showed that the Alcalase hydrolysates exerted the best RP ability. Thereafter, the Alcalase hydrolysates were sequentially fractionated by ultra filtration membranes in cut-off molecular weight (MW) of 30, 10, and 1 kDa, and tested their antioxidant activities in terms of RP ability, DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and FRAP assay. Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field treatment were further investigated on antioxidant peptides to improve their activities. The results showed that Alcalase hydrolysates possessed the strongest antioxidant ability compared with the other two hydrolysates, particularly for the Fraction-3 with MW <1 kDa. After PEF treatment, this fraction showed a significant improvement of RP ability within 5 h (P<0.05).

  9. Self-consistent analyses for potential conduction block in nerves by an ultrashort high-intensity electric pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R. P.; Mishra, A.; Hu, Q.; Schoenbach, K. H.; Pakhomov, A.

    2007-06-01

    Simulation studies are presented that probe the possibility of using high-field (>100kV/cm) , short-duration (˜50ns) electrical pulses for nonthermal and reversible cessation of biological electrical signaling pathways. This would have obvious applications in neurophysiology, clinical research, neuromuscular stimulation therapies, and even nonlethal bioweapons development. The concept is based on the creation of a sufficiently high density of pores on the nerve membrane by an electric pulse. This modulates membrane conductance and presents an effective “electrical short” to an incident voltage wave traveling across a nerve. Net blocking of action potential propagation can then result. A continuum approach based on the Smoluchowski equation is used to treat electroporation. This is self-consistently coupled with a distributed circuit representation of the nerve dynamics. Our results indicate that poration at a single neural segment would be sufficient to produce an observable, yet reversible, effect.

  10. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-intensity 60-Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldstone, C.S.

    1979-02-01

    This preliminary study develops and thoroughly tests the experimental protocols and apparatus that are planned for a major study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-intensity 60-Hz electric fields. The behavior of baboons will be observed before, during, and after exposure to the field at maximum intensity of 60 kV/m. Both individual performance (operant conditioning) and social behavior will be examined. The present report covers Week 25 through Week 36 of the project. Construction of the facility was nearly completed, the preliminary training of the individual behavior animals was brought close to completion, and the two sets of social animals were allowed to adapt to each other and to their environment. The report addresses the following major areas: the high-voltage exposure facility; the electric-field-probe accuracy; the holding cages for social-behavior subjects; the preliminary shaping facility; the shaping procedures; and the social-behavior subjects.

  11. Differential effects in cells exposed to ultra-short, high intensity electric fields: cell survival, DNA damage, and cell cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, M; Stickley, J; Fox, P; Statler, V; Schoenbach, K; Beebe, S J; Buescher, S

    2003-12-09

    High power, nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) effects have been focused on bacterial decontamination, but the impact on mammalian cells is now being revealed. During nsPEF applications, electrical pulses of 10, 60 or 300 ns durations were applied to cells using electric field amplitudes as high as 300 kV/cm. Because of the ultra-short pulse durations, the energy transferred to cells is negligible, and only non-thermal effects are observed. We investigated the genotoxicity of nsPEF on adherent and non-adherent cell lines including 10 human lines and one mouse cell line with different origin and growth characteristics. We present data examining the effects of nsPEF exposure on cell survival assessed by clonogenic formation or live cell count; DNA damage determined by the comet assay and chromosome aberrations; and cell cycle parameters by measuring the mitotic indices of exposed cells. Using each of these indicators, we observed differential effects among cell types with non-adherent cells being more sensitive to the genotoxic effects of nsPEF exposures than adherent cells. Non-adherent cultures showed a rapid decrease in cell viability (90%), induction of DNA damage, and a decrease in the number of cells reaching mitosis after one 60 ns pulse with an electric field intensity of 60 kV/cm. These effects were not observed in cells grown as adherent cultures, with the exception of the mouse 3T3 cell line, which showed survival characteristics similar to non-adherent cultures. These data suggest that nsPEF genotoxicity may be cell type specific, and therefore have potential applications in the selective removal of one cell type from another, for example, in diseased states.

  12. Intensity improvement of shock waves induced by liquid electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xian-Dong; Liu, Si-Wei; Zhou, Gu-Yue; Lin, Fu-Chang

    2017-04-01

    When shock waves induced by pulsed electrical discharges in dielectric liquids are widely applied in industrial fields, it is necessary to improve the energy transfer efficiency from electrical energy to mechanical energy to improve the shock wave intensity. In order to investigate the effect of the plasma channel length created by the liquid electrical discharge on the shock wave intensity, a test stand of dielectric liquid pulsed electrical discharge is designed and constructed. The main capacitor is 3 μF, and the charging voltage is 0-30 kV. Based on the needle-needle electrode geometry with different gap distances, the intensities of shock waves corresponding to the electrical parameters, the relationship between the plasma channel length and the deposited energy, and the time-resolved observation of the plasma channel development by a high speed camera are presented and compared. The shock wave intensity is closely related to the power and energy dissipated into the plasma channel. The longer plasma channel and the quicker arc expansion can lead to a higher power and energy deposited into the plasma channel, which can activate a stronger shock wave.

  13. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1. [Development and testing of experimental protocols and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    The major objective of this preliminary study is to develop and thoroughly test the experimental protocols and apparatus, which are planned for a major study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. The behavior of baboons will be observed before, during, and after exposure to 60 Hz electric fields at a maximum intensity of 60 kV/m. Both individual performance (operant conditioning) and social behavior will be examined. The preliminary study will differ from the planned major study as follows: subjects will be used as their own controls; a smaller number of subjects will be run; field intensity will not be varied; the electric field should be non-uniform; the preliminary study exposure facility will be basically an outdoor facility; to avoid deterioration of plastic materials, the high intensity fields will not be turned on during or just after rainfall; and in the preliminary study the biological work will be restricted to the clinical determination of the health of subjects before and after exposure. The present report is the first of three quarterly technical progress reports. It covers approximately the first two and one-half months of activity and, therefore, consists primarily of plans. The report addresses four major areas: the high intensity field exposure facility; the field measurement instrumentation; the operation conditioning equipment; and experimental methods including experimental design and data analysis.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao; CHEN Fu-Shen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive im-pulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The max-imal detectable electric field range (-75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation.

  15. Development of the experimental procedure to examine the response of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field and low-velocity impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J; Zhupanska, Olesya I

    2016-01-01

    A new fully automated experimental setup has been developed to study the response of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field and low-velocity impact. The experimental setup allows for real-time measurements of the pulsed electric current, voltage, impact load, and displacements on the CFRP composite specimens. The setup includes a new custom-built current pulse generator that utilizes a bank of capacitor modules capable of producing a 20 ms current pulse with an amplitude of up to 2500 A. The setup enabled application of the pulsed current and impact load and successfully achieved coordination between the peak of the current pulse and the peak of the impact load. A series of electrical, impact, and coordinated electrical-impact characterization tests were performed on 32-ply IM7/977-3 unidirectional CFRP composites to assess their ability to withstand application of a pulsed electric current and determine the effects of the pulsed current on the impact response. Experimental results revealed that the electrical resistance of CFRP composites decreased with an increase in the electric current magnitude. It was also found that the electrified CFRP specimens withstood higher average impact loads compared to the non-electrified specimens.

  16. Development of the experimental procedure to examine the response of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field and low-velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Zhupanska, Olesya I.

    2016-01-01

    A new fully automated experimental setup has been developed to study the response of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field and low-velocity impact. The experimental setup allows for real-time measurements of the pulsed electric current, voltage, impact load, and displacements on the CFRP composite specimens. The setup includes a new custom-built current pulse generator that utilizes a bank of capacitor modules capable of producing a 20 ms current pulse with an amplitude of up to 2500 A. The setup enabled application of the pulsed current and impact load and successfully achieved coordination between the peak of the current pulse and the peak of the impact load. A series of electrical, impact, and coordinated electrical-impact characterization tests were performed on 32-ply IM7/977-3 unidirectional CFRP composites to assess their ability to withstand application of a pulsed electric current and determine the effects of the pulsed current on the impact response. Experimental results revealed that the electrical resistance of CFRP composites decreased with an increase in the electric current magnitude. It was also found that the electrified CFRP specimens withstood higher average impact loads compared to the non-electrified specimens.

  17. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  18. Modulation Electric Field Intensity Sensor in a Conductive Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Miseyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirement to conduct measurements across the big water areas and in the ocean depths arises a problem of creating devices to measure an electric field, being either set on the high-speed mobile carriers, or implemented as the sounders, which investigate a vertical or horizontal structure of the electric field of ocean. Manufactured, designed, and hypothetical devices for measuring poor electric fields of the ocean were analyzed. The analysis allowed us to prove that there is a need in creation of modulation sensors (with modulation of a non-electric origin either with periodically changing capabilities of measuring bases, or with space-changing (and therefore, time-changing position of measuring base of primary converters, as the most effective in terms of allocation and measurement of the modulated signal from unmodulated noise.The paper considers the mathematical models of modulation sensors of electric field intensity in the ultralow-frequency range, which are set on the mobile carriers. It justifies a choice of two basic models of primary converters with a change of the measuring base in space, i.e. with the "changing" base and with the "rotating" base. A feature of the offered models with vertical sounding is the minimum value of noise because of rotation of measuring electrodes in a magnetic field of Earth, and hydrodynamic noise. The paper shows that noise caused by the relative movement of sensor and water completely disappears in two cases:1. for a vertical sounder in the autonomous mode or a horizontal sounder with zero buoyancy in the specified shape of water;2. in a case when the sensor has no component of measuring base in the considered area, for example, for the sensor with in-line array of electrodes located in the horizontal plane.The paper proves advantage of the model with "rotating" measuring base, which provides the maximum power transfer from the primary converter to loading for all relative positions of an external

  19. Intensive Plasmonic Flash Light Sintering of Copper Nanoinks Using a Band-Pass Light Filter for Highly Electrically Conductive Electrodes in Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeon-Taek; Chung, Wan-Ho; Jang, Yong-Rae; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-04-06

    In this work, an intensive plasmonic flash light sintering technique was developed by using a band-pass light filter matching the plasmonic wavelength of the copper nanoparticles. The sintering characteristics, such as resistivity and microstructure, of the copper nanoink films were studied as a function of the range of the wavelength employed in the flash white light sintering. The flash white light irradiation conditions (e.g., wavelength range, irradiation energy, pulse number, on-time, and off-time) were optimized to obtain a high conductivity of the copper nanoink films without causing damage to the polyimide substrate. The wavelength range corresponding to the plasmonic wavelength of the copper nanoparticles could efficiently sinter the copper nanoink and enhance its conductivity. Ultimately, the sintered copper nanoink films under optimal light sintering conditions showed the lowest resistivity (6.97 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.1 times higher than that of bulk copper films (1.68 μΩ·cm).

  20. High intensity specular reflectometry - first experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Stahn, J; Panzner, T

    2011-01-01

    Selene is the attempt to implement a new scheme for high-intensity specular reflectometry. Instead of a highly collimated beam one uses a convergent beam covering a large angular range. The angular resolution is then performed by a position-sensitive detector. Off-specular scattering in this set-up leads to some background, but for screening of wide parameter ranges (e.g. temperature, electric and magnetic fields) the intensity gain of at least one order of magnitude is essential. If necessary, the high precession measurements (even with off-specular components) then are performed with the conventional set-up. The heart of this new set-up is an elliptically focusing guide element of 2\\,m length. Though this guide is optimised for the use on the TOF reflectometer Amor at SINQ, it can be used as stand-alone device to check the possible application also for other neutron scattering techniques. The first measurements on AMOR confirmed the general concept and the various operation modes. A draw-back occurred due t...

  1. High intensity protons in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Drees, K. A.; Fischer, W.; Huang, H.; Minty, M.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2012-01-05

    During the 2012 summer shutdown a pair of electron lenses will be installed in RHIC, allowing the beam-beam parameter to be increased by roughly 50 percent. To realize the corresponding luminosity increase bunch intensities have to be increased by 50 percent, to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. We list the various RHIC subsystems that are most affected by this increase, and propose beam studies to ensure their readiness. The proton luminosity in RHIC is presently limited by the beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation, electron lenses will be installed in IR10. With the help of these devices, the headon beam-beam kick experienced during proton-proton collisions will be partially compensated, allowing for a larger beam-beam tuneshift at these collision points, and therefore increasing the luminosity. This will be accomplished by increasing the proton bunch intensity from the presently achieved 1.65 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 109 bunches per beam to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11}, thus roughly doubling the luminosity. In a further upgrade we aim for bunch intensities up to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. With RHIC originally being designed for a bunch intensity of 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 56 bunches, this six-fold increase in the total beam intensity by far exceeds the design parameters of the machine, and therefore potentially of its subsystems. In this note, we present a list of major subsystems that are of potential concern regarding this intensity upgrade, show their demonstrated performance at present intensities, and propose measures and beam experiments to study their readiness for the projected future intensities.

  2. High Intensity Tactical Power Sources for the 1990 Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    conceptual or physical study which may become feasible as high intensity power sources . These considerations include present state of the art of...requirements, energy and power output capabilities, and fixed costs. From these tables, it may be seen that a variety of electrical power sources would be...required to satisfy diverse requirements, but an attempt is made to categorize possible high intensity power sources into their areas of optimum

  3. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  4. On the occurrence and characteristics of intense low-altitude electric fields observed by Freja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marklund

    Full Text Available High-resolution measurements by the double probe electric field instrument on the Freja satellite are presented. The observations show that extremely intense (up to 1 V m–1 and fine-structured (<1 km electric fields exist at auroral latitudes within the altitude regime explored by Freja (up to 1700 km. The intense field events typically occur within the early morning sector of the auroral oval (01–07 MLT during times of geomagnetic activity. In contrast to the observations within the auroral acceleration region characterized by intense converging electric fields associated with electron precipitation, upward ion beams and upward field-aligned currents, the intense electric fields observed by Freja are often found to be diverging and located within regions of downward field-aligned currents outside the electron aurora. Moreover, the intense fields are observed in conjunction with precipitating and transversely energized ions of energies 0.5–1 keV and may play an important role in the ion heating. The observations suggest that the intense electric field events are associated with small-scale low-conductivity ionospheric regions void of auroral emissions such as east-west aligned dark filaments or vortex streets of black auroral curls located between or adjacent to auroral arcs within the morningside diffuse auroral region. We suggest that these intense fields also exist at ionospheric altitudes although no such observations have yet been made. This is possible since the height-integrated conductivity associated with the dark filaments may be as low as 0.1 S or less. In addition, Freja electric field data collected outside the auroral region are discussed with particular emphasis on subauroral electric fields which are observed within the 19–01 MLT sector between the equatorward edge of the auroral oval and the inner edge of the ring current.

  5. A statistical study of intense electric fields at 4−7 RE geocentric distance using Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-A. Lindqvist

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Intense high-latitude electric fields (>150 mV/m mapped to ionospheric altitude at 4–7 RE geocentric distance have been investigated in a statistical study, using data from the Cluster satellites. The orbit of the Cluster satellites limits the data collection at these altitudes to high latitudes, including the poleward part of the auroral oval. The occurrence and distribution of the selected events have been used to characterize the intense electric fields and to investigate their dependance on parameters such as MLT, CGLat, altitude, and also Kp. Peaks in the local time distribution are found in the evening to morning sectors but also in the noon sector, corresponding to cusp events. The electric field intensities decrease with increasing latitude in the region investigated (above 60 CGLat. A dependence on geomagnetic activity is indicated since the probability of finding an event increases up to Kp=5–6. The scales sizes are in the range up to 10 km (mapped to ionospheric altitude with a maximum around 4–5km, consistent with earlier findings at lower altitudes and Cluster event studies. The magnitudes of the electric fields are inversely proportional to the scale sizes. The type of electric field structure (convergent or divergent is consistent with the FAC direction for a subset of events with electric field intensities in the range 500–1000 mV/m and with clear bipolar signatures. The FAC directions are also consistent with the Region 1 and NBZ current systems, the latter of which prevail only during northward IMF conditions. For scale sizes less than 2 km the majority of the events were divergent electric field structures. Both converging and diverging electric fields were found throughout the investigated altitude range (4–7 RE geocentric distance. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Electric fields; Auroral phenomena; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  6. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply.

  7. High Intensity Secondary Beams Driven by Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Galambos, John; Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Intensity Frontier effort within the 2013 Community Summer Study, a workshop on the proton machine capabilities was held (High Intensity Secondary Beams Driven by Proton Beams) April 17-20, 2013 at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. Primary aims of the workshop were to understand: 1) the beam requirements for proposed high intensity proton beam based measurements; 2) the capabilities of existing world-wide high power proton machines; 3) proton facility upgrade plans and proposals for new facilities; 4) and to document the R&D needs for proton accelerators and target systems needed to support proposed intensity frontier measurements. These questions are addressed in this summary.

  8. High intensity polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1980-10-01

    The status of the polarized electron source development program at SLAC will be reviewed. Emission currents of 60 A, corresponding to a space charge limited current density of 180 A/cm/sup 2/, have been obtained from GaAs photocathodes. Electron beam polarization 20% greater than that obtainable from GaAs cathodes has been observed from multilayer GaAs-GaAlAs structures. Work in progress to produce high beam polarization from II-IV-V/sub 2/ chalcopyrite photocathodes will also be described.

  9. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  10. All-Optical Surface Micropatterning by Electric Field Intensity Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Gertners

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report an all-optical photo-induced formation of surface relief gratings is shown. For the surface patterning of As2S3 and As4S1.5Se4.5 films a direct holographic recording setup with a 532 nm wavelength Nd:YAG CW laser light was used. Our investigations have shown that the light-induced mass transfer process strongly depends on the material itself and on the polarization of the light. It has been shown that an electric field intensity gradient has to be obtained to achieve a direct patterning. The evolution of a surface relief in relation to recording parameters and thickness of the sample has been investigated in detail.

  11. High Intensity Interval Training: New Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin J.Gibala

    2008-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS ·High-intensity interval training(HIT)is characterized by repeated sessions of relatively brief,intermittent exercise.often performed with an“a11 out”effort or at an intensity close to that which elicits peak oxygen uptake(i.e.,≥90%of VO2 peak).

  12. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...

  13. High-intensity training in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F Marcello; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (> 85% HR(max)) leads to VO2(max) enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (approximately 2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

  14. 高压脉冲电场对鱼骨液物理状态变化的影响%Effect of high intensity pulsed electric fields on physical changes of fishbone liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫桂丹; 殷涌光; 闫晓侠; 于庆宇

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) is characterized by transfer uniformity, nonthermal performance, high efficiency, short processing time and low component pollution. PEF shows unique advantages in the processing of liquid foods and thus can be widely applied to sterilization, extraction and enzyme inactivation of foods. PEF is a key processing technique that is most promising for industrial application in the past decade. Nevertheless, the effects of PEF on the physical state changes of foods have never been reported. With the rapid development of fishery worldwide, the fishbone from the majority of fish products is treated as tailing, which is restricted by low price, low processing capacity, low technical content, few high-value-added products, and low level of comprehensive processing and utilization. Higher requirements have been raised for the effective utilization of fish resources along with the development of modern food science and technology, especially the aquatic product processing industry. In this study, a texture analyzer was used to clarify the rheological properties of fishbone liquid and investigate the effects of PEF on the physical state changes of fishbone liquid. The indices used included the first and second compression work, elasticity, cohesiveness and gumminess. The principal component analysis was used to comprehensively assess the physical states of fishbone liquid. This analytical process was simplified into a comprehensive index equation. Single-factor tests were used to clarify the effects of PEF parameters on the physical state changes. The Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effects of PEF on the electric field intensity, pulse number, and liquid-material ratio of fishbone liquid. Taking comprehensive index as the response value, we finished a 3-factor 3-level central composite design and acquired the optimal parameters of PEF:liquid-material ratio was 9.81 mL/g, field

  15. Intense transient electric field sensor based on the electro-optic effect of LiNbO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qing, E-mail: yangqing@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Shangpeng; Han, Rui; Sima, Wenxia; Liu, Tong [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400044 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Intense transient electric field measurements are widely applied in various research areas. An optical intense E-field sensor for time-domain measurements, based on the electro-optic effect of lithium niobate, has been studied in detail. Principles and key issues in the design of the sensor are presented. The sensor is insulated, small in size (65 mm × 15 mm × 15 mm), and suitable for high-intensity (<801 kV/m) electric field measurements over a wide frequency band (10 Hz–10 MHz). The input/output characteristics of the sensor were obtained and the sensor calibrated. Finally, an application using this sensor in testing laboratory lightning impulses and in measuring transient electric fields during switch-on of a disconnector confirmed that the sensor is expected to find widespread use in transient intense electric field measurement applications.

  16. Photoproduction at High Energy and High Intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  17. Cell-stimulation therapy of lateral epicondylitis with frequency-modulated low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, R M; Geiger, G

    2012-03-01

    In addition to the routine therapy, the patients with lateral epicondylitis included into experimental group were subjected to a 12-week cell-stimulation therapy with low-intensity frequency-modulated electric current. The control group received the same routine therapy and sham stimulation (the therapeutic apparatus was not energized). The efficiency of this microcurrent therapy was estimated by comparing medical indices before therapy and at the end of a 12-week therapeutic course using a 10-point pain severity numeric rating scale (NRS) and Roles-Maudsley pain score. The study revealed high therapeutic efficiency of cell-stimulation with low-intensity electric current resulting probably from up-regulation of intracellular transmitters, interleukins, and prostaglandins playing the key role in the regulation of inflammation.

  18. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A.; Jovanovic, M.

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  19. High-intensity, focused ultrasonic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1988-01-01

    distribution, etc. involving nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption in the high-intensity focused ultrasonic fields produced by an ellipsoid as well as a spherical cap focusing geometry. Data from the development of an ESWL of the piezoelectric disk type are reported including demands to transducers...

  20. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Palmieri, V G; Borer, K; Casagrande, L; Da Vià, C; Devine, S R H; Dezillie, B; Esposito, A; Granata, V; Hauler, F; Jungermann, L; Li, Z; Lourenço, C; Niinikoski, T O; O'Shea, V

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux.

  1. Intelligent Controller of Digital High Intensity Discharge Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include these types of electrical lamps: mercury vapor, metal halide (also HQI), high-pressure sodium, low-pressure sodium and less commonly, xenon short-arc lamps. The light-producing element of these lamp types is a well-stabilized arc discharge contained within a refractory envelope (arc tube) with wall loading in excess of 3 W/cm (19.4 W/in.). Compared to fluorescent and incandescent lamps, HID lamps produce a much larger quantity of light in a relatively small package. With tests made by the National Quality Supervision and

  2. Effect of High Intensity Pulsed Electric Field on Antioxidant Substances of Onion%高压脉冲电场对洋葱采后抗氧化物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟燕平; 殷涌光

    2011-01-01

    By means of quadratic general rotational combination design, the effect of high intensity pulsed electric field strength and operation time on antioxidant substances of onion was investigated experimentally. A quadric regression 'equation between antioxidant substances index Y and factors was established, and the optimum combination of parameters values was obtained subsequently. The results showed that the two factors had significant influence on antioxidant substances (p〈0.01), and the influence of field strength was more than that of operation time. The optimum parameters values are 7.12 kV/cm of field strength and 215 s of operation time respectively. The results showed that PEF could restrain the degradation of VC and total flavone, enhance the SOD activities, inhibit the enzymatic browning of onion to a certain extent, and well keep the quality of post harvest onion storage.%运用二元二次通用旋转组合设计方法研究了高压脉冲电场(PEF)的场强和时间对采后洋葱的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)、抗坏血酸(VC)和总黄酮等抗氧化指标的影响,得出了抗氧化综合指标Y和各个因素间的回归方程,确定了当场强为7.02kV·cm^-1,时间为215s时作用的效果最好。场强和时间对于抗氧化指标的影响均为极显著(p〈0.01),场强的影响大于时间。同时结果表明高压脉冲电场处理能够较好的保持洋葱采后的贮藏品质,减缓洋葱VC和总黄酮的降解速度,提高贮藏过程中SOD的活性,一定程度上抑制了洋葱的褐化,提高了洋葱贮藏品质。

  3. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  4. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-01-08

    The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereas the efficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  5. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-08

    I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  6. The high intensity neutron source FRANZ

    CERN Document Server

    Lederer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Frankfurt neutron source of Stern Gerlach Zentrum FRANZ is currently under construction at the University of Frankfurt. At FRANZ, a high intensity neutron beam in the keV energy region will be produced by bombarding a $^7$Li target with a proton beam of several mA. These unprecedented high neutron fluxes will allow a number of neutron induced cross section measurements for the first time. Measurements can be performed by the time-of-flight and by the activation technique.

  7. Axial electric wake field inside the induction gap exited by the intense electron beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai-Zhi; ZHANG Huang; LONG Ji-Dong; YANG Guo-Jun; HE Xiao-Zhong; WANG Hua-Cen

    2008-01-01

    While an intense electron beam passes through the accelerating gaps of a linear induction accelerator,a strong wake field will be excited.In this paper a relatively simple model is established based on the interaction between the transverse magnetic wake field and the electron beam,and the numerical calculation in succession generates a magnetic wake field distribution along the accelerator and along the beam pulse as well.The axial electric wake field is derived based on the relation between field components of a resonant mode.According to some principles in existence,the influence of this field on the high voltage properties of the induction gap is analyzed.The Dragon-I accelerator is taken as an example,and its maximum electric wake field is about 17 kV/cm,which means the effect of the wake field is noticeable.

  8. Tumour Cell Membrane Poration and Ablation by Pulsed Low-Intensity Electric Field with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroporation is a physical method to increase permeabilization of cell membrane by electrical pulses. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs can potentially act like “lighting rods” or exhibit direct physical force on cell membrane under alternating electromagnetic fields thus reducing the required field strength. A cell poration/ablation system was built for exploring these effects of CNTs in which two-electrode sets were constructed and two perpendicular electric fields could be generated sequentially. By applying this system to breast cancer cells in the presence of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs, the effective pulse amplitude was reduced to 50 V/cm (main field/15 V/cm (alignment field at the optimized pulse frequency (5 Hz of 500 pulses. Under these conditions instant cell membrane permeabilization was increased to 38.62%, 2.77-fold higher than that without CNTs. Moreover, we also observed irreversible electroporation occurred under these conditions, such that only 39.23% of the cells were viable 24 h post treatment, in contrast to 87.01% cell viability without presence of CNTs. These results indicate that CNT-enhanced electroporation has the potential for tumour cell ablation by significantly lower electric fields than that in conventional electroporation therapy thus avoiding potential risks associated with the use of high intensity electric pulses.

  9. High intensity ion beams in rf undulator linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Masunov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a radio frequency undulator field to accelerate a high intensity ion beam in a linac is discussed. Such an accelerator can be realized using the periodical interdigital H-type resonator structure. The accelerating force is produced by an electric field which is a combination of two or more spatial harmonics, none of them being synchronous with the ion beam. The value of this force is proportional to the squared charge. The equations of motion in Hamiltonian form are derived by means of smooth approximation. The analysis of the 3D effective potential function allows finding the conditions of the beam focusing and acceleration. Two ways to increase ion beam intensity are considered: (i to enlarge beam cross section; (ii to neutralize the beam space charge by accelerating ions with opposite charge signs within the same bunch. The basic results are confirmed by a numerical simulation.

  10. Evaluation of electric field intensity on atom diffusion of Cu/Ta/Si stacks during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. [Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Technology of Jiangsu Province, Zhenjiang (China); Nanjing University, Stomatology Department, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Command, Medical School, Nanjing (China); Jin, L. [Nanjing University, Stomatology Department, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Command, Medical School, Nanjing (China); Yu, L.H.; Dong, S.T.; Chen, J.; Xu, J.H. [Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Technology of Jiangsu Province, Zhenjiang (China)

    2016-01-15

    Cu/Ta/Si stacks were prepared and, subsequently, annealed at 650 C with different electric field intensity (0-4.0 kV/cm). The effect of electric field intensity on atomic diffusion was determined from cross-sectional TEM micrographs of Cu/Ta/Si stacks. The atomic diffusion as well as the growth of amorphous layer at Ta/Si interface tended to enhance with the increased electric field intensity at 650 C. The growth of amorphous layer obeyed a logarithmic law. The reduction in diffusion activation energy Q by increased electric field intensity will accelerate the atom diffusion, leading to significant barrier failure of Cu/Ta/Si stacks. (orig.)

  11. Electrical stimulation of abdominal muscles to produce cough in spinal cord injury: effect of stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Rachel A; Boswell-Ruys, Claire L; Lee, Bonsan B; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2015-05-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles, with electrodes placed in the posterolateral position, combined with a voluntary cough can assist clearance of airway secretions in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine whether an increase in stimulus intensity of the trains of electrical stimuli delivered to the expiratory muscles has an increasing effect on a stimulated voluntary cough and to determine at which stimulus intensity a plateau of cough peak expiratory flow occurs. In 7 healthy individuals with a SCI at and above C7, gastric pressure (P(ga)), esophageal pressure (P(es)), peak expiratory cough flow (PEF(cough)), and expiratory volume were measured as participants coughed voluntarily with simultaneous trains of electrical stimuli delivered over the abdominal muscles (50 Hz, 1-s duration). The intensity of the stimulation was increased incrementally. A plateau in PEF(cough) occurred in all 7 individuals at a mean of 211 ± 29 mA (range 120-360 mA). Peak values reached for P(ga), P(es), and PEF(cough) were 83.0 ± 8.0 cm H2O, 66.1 ± 5.6 cm H2O, and 4.0 ± 0.4 l/s respectively. The plateau in expiratory cough flow that was associated with increasing expiratory pressures is indicative of dynamic airway compression. This suggests that the evoked cough will be effective in creating more turbulent airflow to further assist in dislodging mucus and secretions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Bremsstrahlung production with high-intensity laser matter interactions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galy, J.; Maucec, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Edwards, R.; Magill, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade an evolution of experimental relativistic laser-plasma physics has led to highly sophisticated lasers, which are now able to generate ultra short pulses and can be focused to intensities in excess of 10(21) W cm(-2), with more than 500 J on target. In the intense electric field of

  13. Bremsstrahlung production with high-intensity laser matter interactions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galy, J.; Maucec, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Edwards, R.; Magill, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade an evolution of experimental relativistic laser-plasma physics has led to highly sophisticated lasers, which are now able to generate ultra short pulses and can be focused to intensities in excess of 10(21) W cm(-2), with more than 500 J on target. In the intense electric field of

  14. Effect of near-earth thunderstorms electric field on the intensity of ground cosmic ray positrons/electrons in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. X.; Wang, X. J.; Huang, D. H.; Jia, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (located at YangBaJing, Tibet, China, 4300 m a. s. l.). The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of intensity occurs in inclined showers within the range of 0-500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are analyzed, especially concerning those decreasing phenomena in positive electric fields. Our simulation results could be helpful in understanding the decreases observed in some ground-based experiments (such as the Carpet air shower array and ARGO-YBJ), and also be useful in understanding the acceleration mechanisms of secondary charged particles caused by an atmospheric electric field.

  15. 2-d Adaptive mesh refinement using 'floating nodes method ' and electric field intensity as a criterion

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The generation of suitable fine mesh divisions is essential to obtan two -dimensional electric field analysis solutions with desired accuracy. This process , however, requires considerable technical knowledge and experience. To solve this kind of problem, adaptive methods prove effective. In electric field problems, for example, researches are usually interested in the values of electric field intensity and its distributions. In this paper, we have developed an h-adaptive refinement procedure...

  16. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  17. Increased collection efficiency of LIFI high intensity electrodeless light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidi, Abdeslam; DeVincentis, Marc; Duelli, Markus; Gilliard, Richard

    2008-02-01

    Recently, RF driven electrodeless high intensity light sources have been implemented successfully in the projection display systems for HDTV and videowall applications. This paper presents advances made in the RF waveguide and electric field concentrator structures with the purpose of reducing effective arc size and increasing light collection. In addition, new optical designs are described that further improve system efficiency. The results of this work demonstrate that projection system light throughput is increased relative to previous implementations and performance is optimized for home theater and other front projector applications that maintain multi-year lifetime without re-lamping, complete spectral range, fast start times and high levels of dynamic contrast due to dimming flexibility in the light source system.

  18. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, T R; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Wildner, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hansen, C; Benedetto, E; Jensen, E; Kosmicki, A; Martini, M; Osborne, J; Prior, G; Stora, T; Melo-Mendonca, T; Vlachoudis, V; Waaijer, C; Cupial, P; Chancé, A; Longhin, A; Payet, J; Zito, M; Baussan, E; Bobeth, C; Bouquerel, E; Dracos, M; Gaudiot, G; Lepers, B; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Vassilopoulos, N; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V; Bielski, J; Kozien, M; Lacny, L; Skoczen, B; Szybinski, B; Ustrycka, A; Wroblewski, A; Marie-Jeanne, M; Balint, P; Fourel, C; Giraud, J; Jacob, J; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Mitrofanov, S; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, Th; Delbar, Th; Debray, F; Trophine, C; Veys, S; Daversin, C; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Skalyga, V; Burt, G; Dexter, A C; Kravchuk, V L; Marchi, T; Cinausero, M; Gramegna, F; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Collazuol, G; Laveder, M; Mazzocco, M; Mezzetto, M; Signorini, C; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Migliozzi, P; Moro, R; Palladino, V; Gelli, N; Berkovits, D; Hass, M; Hirsh, T Y; Schaumann, M; Stahl, A; Wehner, J; Bross, A; Kopp, J; Neuffer, D; Wands, R; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, P; Agarwalla, S K; Villanueva, A Cervera; Donini, A; Ghosh, T; Cadenas, J J Gómez; Hernández, P; Martín-Albo, J; Mena, O; Burguet-Castell, J; Agostino, L; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Marafini, M; Patzak, T; Tonazzo, A; Duchesneau, D; Mosca, L; Bogomilov, M; Karadzhov, Y; Matev, R; Tsenov, R; Akhmedov, E; Blennow, M; Lindner, M; Schwetz, T; Martinez, E Fernández; Maltoni, M; Menéndez, J; Giunti, C; García, M C González; Salvado, J; Coloma, P; Huber, P; Li, T; López-Pavón, J; Orme, C; Pascoli, S; Meloni, D; Tang, J; Winter, W; Ohlsson, T; Zhang, H; Scotto-Lavina, L; Terranova, F; Bonesini, M; Tortora, L; Alekou, A; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Kurup, A; Jenner, L J; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Pozimski, J; Back, J J; Harrison, P; Beard, K; Bogacz, A; Berg, J S; Stratakis, D; Witte, H; Snopok, P; Bliss, N; Cordwell, M; Moss, A; Pattalwar, S; Apollonio, M

    2013-01-01

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

  19. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, T.R.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo-Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrzycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T.Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López-Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L.J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J.J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J.S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

  20. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densam, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L. J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J. S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-01

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  1. High-intensity sweeteners and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E; Martin, Ashley A; Davidson, Terry L

    2010-04-26

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance.

  2. Molecular dynamics in high electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.; Cune, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Molecular rotation spectra, generated by the coupling of the molecular electric-dipole moments to an external time-dependent electric field, are discussed in a few particular conditions which can be of some experimental interest. First, the spherical-pendulum molecular model is reviewed, with the aim of introducing an approximate method which consists in the separation of the azimuthal and zenithal motions. Second, rotation spectra are considered in the presence of a static electric field. Two particular cases are analyzed, corresponding to strong and weak fields. In both cases the classical motion of the dipoles consists of rotations and vibrations about equilibrium positions; this motion may exhibit parametric resonances. For strong fields a large macroscopic electric polarization may appear. This situation may be relevant for polar matter (like pyroelectrics, ferroelectrics), or for heavy impurities embedded in a polar solid. The dipolar interaction is analyzed in polar condensed matter, where it is shown that new polarization modes appear for a spontaneous macroscopic electric polarization (these modes are tentatively called "dipolons"); one of the polarization modes is related to parametric resonances. The extension of these considerations to magnetic dipoles is briefly discussed. The treatment is extended to strong electric fields which oscillate with a high frequency, as those provided by high-power lasers. It is shown that the effect of such fields on molecular dynamics is governed by a much weaker, effective, renormalized, static electric field.

  3. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Edgecock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ^{+} and μ^{-} beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  4. High-Intensity, High Charge-State Heavy Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, J

    2004-01-01

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions will be reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. The benefits and limitations for these type sources will be described, for both dc and pulsed applications. Possible future improvements in these type sources will also be discussed.

  5. Sustainable high productivity electric steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, J.

    2005-06-01

    Badische Stahlwerke (BSW) operates a high productivity steelshop with two 90 t ac arc furnaces that produced 1.97 Mt billet in 2004, coupled with a wire rod and a bar mill. The company has evolved an integrated environmental protection strategy to fulfil the objective of economic operation while complying with legal emissions requirements and adapting an active approach to environmental issues more broadly. (author)

  6. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  7. Effect of electric intensity on the microbial degradation of petroleum pollutants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo; Li, Fengmei; Niu, Zhixin

    2010-01-01

    Electro-bioremediation is an innovative method to remedy organic-polluted soil. However, the principle of electrokinetic technology enhancing the function of microbes, especially the relationship of electric intensity and biodegradation efficiency, is poorly investigated. Petroleum was employed as a target organic pollutant at a level of 50 g/kg (mass of petroleum/mass of dry soil). A direct current power supply was used for tests with a constant direct current electric voltage (1.0 V/cm). The petroleum concentrations were measured at 3275-3285 nm after extraction using hexane, the group composition of crude oil was analyzed by column chromatography. The water content of soil was kept 25% (m/m). The results indicated the degradation process was divided into two periods: from day 1 to day 40, from day 41 to day 100. The treatment of soil with an appropriate electric field led the bacteria to have a persistent effect in the whole period of 100 days. The highest biodegradation efficiency of 45.5% was obtained after treatment with electric current and bacteria. The electric-bioremediation had a positive effect on alkane degradation. The degradation rate of alkane was 1.6 times higher in the soil exposed to electric current than that treated with bacteria for 100 days. A proper direct current could stimulate the microbial activities and accelerate the biodegradation of petroleum. There was a positive correlation between the electric intensities and the petroleum bioremediation efficiencies with a coefficient of 0.9599.

  8. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  9. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  10. Effect of near-earth thunderstorms electric field on the intensity of ground cosmic ray positrons/electrons in Tibet

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, X X; Huang, D H; Jia, H Y

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, China). The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of intensity occurs for inclined showers in positive fields less than 500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are discussed, especially concerning the decreases in posi...

  11. Effect of electric field on the photoluminescence intensity of single CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So-Jung; Link, Stephan; Miller, William L.; Gesquiere, Andre [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Barbara, Paul F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail: p.barbara@mail.utexas.edu

    2007-11-15

    An investigation of the effect of an applied electric field on the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of single CdSe nanocrystals has revealed a measurable field induced PL modulation for a large fraction of the nanocrystals studied. The field induced intensity modulation characteristics (i.e. modulation sign and depth) were observed to vary from particle to particle, and even for different time periods for the same particle in many cases. Simultaneous intensity and frequency resolved PL measurement show that the PL intensity modulation is in fact due to an electric field effect on the PL quantum yield. The results are consistent with a model in which the energies of surface charge trapping sites are modulated by the applied electric field, causing in turn a modulation of the rates of exciton quenching by these sites. The complex observed field effects can be explained by the superposition of the applied and internal electric fields due to deeply trapped charges on the surface of the nanoparticle.

  12. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  13. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Scalloped electrodes for highly sensitive electrical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce a novel out-of-plane electrode with pronounced scalloped surface and high aspect ratio for electrical recordings of brain tissue in vitro, with the aim to reduce significantly the impedance of the measuring system. The profile and height of the structures is tailored...... by means of silicon fabrication techniques that sharpen them progressively and in a controlled manner. We will show that the use of the scalloped area achieves a great decrease in impedance, which is very significant for a reduction of noise in electrical measurements. The measured impedance reflects...

  15. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  16. Multi-component electrode systems in geo-electric field intensity sensors for moving carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Miseyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an object of research, the electromagnetic field represents a set of parameters characterizing its electric and magnetic components. Methods and gages to measure the magnetic component of the Earth electromagnetic field are developed more explicitly than those for the electric one while an increasing need to measure the latter becomes of current importance when investigating the geodynamic activity in seismically dangerous regions by geo-electric methods. The experimental study of electric component of electromagnetic field in conducting media concerns the vector fields possessing E electric intensity. Generally, this is a three-dimensional field. The paper considers two- and three- component electrode systems in contact sensors of electric field intensity. The design of electrode systems most optimally meets requirements for devices to be set on mobile platforms for specific needs. It offers some designing aspects of evenly moved in conducting media sensors of alternating electric field for the frequencies in the range from units of Hz to tens of kHz. The feature of electrode systems is that the number of electrodes outnumbers the registered components of the electric field vector by one. Thus, nearly identical flow conditions in the vicinity of electrodes, geometric symmetry of the electrode system, and electric symmetry of measuring channels and, consequently, with no mutual influence of measuring channels at each other are provided. Using the task solutions of field theory the equivalent circuit parameters of primary converter of electrode sensor versus its geometrical sizes are defined. Optimum ratios of the geometrical sizes of primary converter are obtained. The offered criterion of optimization provides a maximum coefficient of transformation and sensitivity of measuring system. The paper considers an option of hardware implementation to measure the components of electric field intensity vector. The given results allow us to design

  17. Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, P. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Hogge, K. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Naffziger, C. [NSTec; Codova, S. R. [SNL; Ormond, E. U. [SNL

    2013-06-01

    Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide the expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.

  18. Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Hideki; Nagase, Hiroshi; Inaba, Hiromi

    This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the car in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

  19. Spatial filtering of electrical resistivity and slope intensity: Enhancement of spatial estimates of a soil property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourennane, Hocine; Hinschberger, Florent; Chartin, Caroline; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    To best utilize the electrical resistivity data and slope intensity derived from a Digital Elevation Model, the kriging spatial components technique was applied to separate the nuggets and small- and large-scale structures for both resistivity and slope intensity data. The spatial structures in the resistivity and slope intensity data, which are poorly correlated with soil thickness (ST), are then filtered out prior to integrating the resistivity data and slope intensity into soil thickness estimation over a 12 ha area located in the south-western Parisian Basin (France). ST was measured at 650 locations over the study area by manual augering. Twenty percent of the observations (131 points) were randomly selected to constitute the validation dataset. The remaining 80% of the dataset (519 points) was used as the prediction dataset. The resistivity data represent a set of 7394 measurement points for each of the three investigated depths over the study area. The methodology involves successively (1) a principal component analysis (PCA) on the electrical measurements and (2) a geostatistical filtering of the small-scale component and noise in the first component (PC1) of the PCA. The results show that the correlation between ST and PC1 is greatly improved when the small-scale component and noise are filtered out, and similarly, the correlation between ST and slope intensity is greatly improved once the geostatistical filtering is carried out on the slope data. Thus, the large scales of both slope intensity and the electrical resistivity's PC1 were used as external drifts to predict ST over the entire study area. This prediction was compared with ordinary kriging and kriging either with a large scale of slope intensity or with a large scale of the electrical resistivity's PC1 taken as an external drift. The first prediction of ST by ordinary kriging, which was considered as our reference, was also compared to those achieved by kriging using the raw secondary variables

  20. High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Architecture for Space and Terrestrial Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, Taysir; Fast, Brian; Raible, Daniel; Dinca, Dragos; Tollis, Nick; Jalics, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    High Intensity Laser Power Beaming (HILPB) has been developed as a technique to achieve Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) for both space and terrestrial applications. In this paper, the system architecture and hardware results for a terrestrial application of HILPB are presented. These results demonstrate continuous conversion of high intensity optical energy at near-IR wavelengths directly to electrical energy at output power levels as high as 6.24 W from the single cell 0.8 cm2 aperture receiver. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers. This type of system would enable long range optical refueling of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion.

  1. Is high-intensity exercise better than moderate-intensity exercise for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, P

    2013-11-01

    This viewpoint debates the state-of-the-art research focusing on the optimal intensity of the exercise programs for inducing a sustained weight or fat-mass loss in overweight/obese people. In our demanding society, the most attractive messages in the popular press are those promising the best results in a short time. This might explain the emphasis given by media to those scientific articles that report the efficacy on weight loss of exercise programs by their shorter duration and higher intensity. However, in the literature on overweight or obese people, there is little conclusive evidence for more favorable effects with high-intensity training than with continuous moderate-intensity exercise on body weight or fat mass loss. Since both exercise protocols have been demonstrated as useful to reduce body weight, the decision on the intensity of exercise prescription should be individualized and based on outcomes different from fat or weight loss. In this regard, there are pro and contra arguments for the prescription of high-intensity aerobic exercise in obese people. Among the pro arguments, is the demonstration that, in several studies, high-intensity training appears to induce superior improvements in aerobic fitness. Among the contra arguments to prescribe high-intensity exercise is the demonstration that prescribing a higher-intensity exercise decreases adherence and results in the completion of less exercise. Thus, a successful exercise program should be proposed at a moderate intensity and a low perceived effort because obese subjects who have low self-efficacy, poor mood status, and are not familiar with high-intensity workouts could easily drop out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High voltage electricity installations a planning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jay, Stephen Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The presence of high voltage power lines has provoked widespread concern for many years. High Voltage Electricity Installations presents an in-depth study of policy surrounding the planning of high voltage installations, discussing the manner in which they are percieved by the public, and the associated environmental issues. An analysis of these concerns, along with the geographical, environmental and political influences that shape their expression, is presented. Investigates local planning policy in an area of the energy sector that is of highly topical environmental and public concern Cover

  3. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be covered, insulated, or placed to prevent contact with low potential conductors....

  4. Reactor target from metal chromium for "pure" high-intensive artificial neutrino source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, V. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Logachev, A. V.; Logacheva, A. I.; Lednev, I. S.; Okunkova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of development of manufacturing technology of metallic chromium targets from highly enriched isotope 50Cr for irradiation in a high flux nuclear reactor to obtain a compact high intensity neutrino source with low content of radionuclide impurities and minimum losses of enriched isotope. The main technological stages are the hydrolysis of chromyl fluoride, the electrochemical reduction of metallic chromium, the hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and the electrical discharge machining of chromium bars. The technological stages of hot isostatic pressing of chromium powder and of electrical discharge machining of Cr rods have been tested.

  5. Effects of Ohmic Heating, Including Electric Field Intensity and Frequency, on Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Suguru; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    Methods for microbial inactivation are important in the food industry; however, conventional external heating (CH) reduces food quality. Accordingly, the nonthermal effects of ohmic heating (OH) on Bacillus subtilis spores in a sodium chloride aqueous solution at 101°C (i.e., the boiling point), as well as the effects of electric field intensity and frequency during OH, were investigated. Survival kinetics were compared between OH and external CH. The inactivation effect on B. subtilis was greater for all electric field conditions (5, 10, and 20 V/cm) than for CH. In particular, 20 V/cm showed a significantly higher inactivation effect (P 0.05) in survival kinetics between 20, 40, and 60 kHz; B. subtilis spores were inactivated more efficiently as the frequency increased. B. subtilis spores were almost completely inactivated at 14 to 16 min for the 60-kHz treatment, but spores were still alive at 20 and 40 kHz for the same treatment times. These results demonstrated that OH inactivates B. subtilis spores more effectively than CH. OH conditions with high electric field intensities and high frequencies resulted in efficient B. subtilis spore inactivation.

  6. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  7. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  8. A computational method for the detection of activation/deactivation patterns in biological signals with three levels of electric intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J A; Macías-Díaz, J E

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, we develop a computational technique to approximate the changes of phase in temporal series associated to electric signals of muscles which perform activities at three different levels of intensity. We suppose that the temporal series are samples of independent, normally distributed random variables with mean equal to zero, and variance equal to one of three possible values, each of them associated to a certain degree of electric intensity. For example, these intensity levels may represent a leg muscle at rest, or active during a light activity (walking), or active during a highly demanding performance (jogging). The model is presented as a maximum likelihood problem involving discrete variables. In turn, this problem is transformed into a continuous one via the introduction of continuous variables with penalization parameters, and it is solved recursively through an iterative numerical method. An a posteriori treatment of the results is used in order to avoid the detection of relatively short periods of silence or activity. We perform simulations with synthetic data in order to assess the validity of our technique. Our computational results show that the method approximates well the occurrence of the change points in synthetic temporal series, even in the presence of autocorrelated sequences. In the way, we show that a generalization of a computational technique for the change-point detection of electric signals with two phases of activity (Esquivel-Frausto et al., 2010 [40]), may be inapplicable in cases of temporal series with three levels of intensity. In this sense, the method proposed in the present manuscript improves previous efforts of the authors.

  9. High voltage and electrical insulation engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Ravindra

    2011-01-01

    "The book is written for students as well as for teachers and researchers in the field of High Voltage and Insulation Engineering. It is based on the advance level courses conducted at TU Dresden, Germany and Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India. The book has a novel approach describing the fundamental concept of field dependent behavior of dielectrics subjected to high voltage. There is no other book in the field of high voltage engineering following this new approach in describing the behavior of dielectrics. The contents begin with the description of fundamental terminology in the subject of high voltage engineering. It is followed by the classification of electric fields and the techniques of field estimation. Performance of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics under different field conditions is described in the subsequent chapters. Separate chapters on vacuum as insulation and the lightning phenomenon are included"--

  10. High Intensity Accelerator and Neutron Source in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xialing; Wei, J.; Loong, Chun

    2011-06-01

    High intensity Accelerator is being studied all over world for numerous applications, which includes the waste transmutation, spallation neutron source and material irradiation facilities. The R/D activities of the technology of High intensity accelerator are also developed in China for some year, and have some good facilities around China. This paper will reports the status of some high intensity accelerators and neutron source in China, which including ADS/RFQ; CARR; CSNS; PKUNIFTY & CPHS. This paper will emphatically report the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) led by the Department of Engineering Physics of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China.

  11. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  12. A Novel Hysteresis Model of Magnetic Field Strength Determined by Magnetic Induction Intensity for Fe-3% Si Electrical Steel Applied in Cigarette Making Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel were studied through the hysteresis loop. Existing hysteresis fitting simulation methods were summarized, and new Fe-3% Si grain-oriented electrical steel hysteresis loop model was proposed. Undetermined coefficients of the magnetic field intensity and magnetic flux density were determined by both the fixed angle method and the least squares method, and the hysteresis loop model was validated with high fitting degree by experimental data.

  13. High-efficiency electrical charger for nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, M., E-mail: malonso@cenim.csic.es [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC) (Spain); Huang, C. H. [Yuanpei University, Department of Environmental Engineering and Health (China)

    2015-08-15

    An electrical charger, based on a point-to-plate DC corona discharge, for the high-efficiency charging of aerosol particles with diameter of a few nanometers, has been designed, constructed, and evaluated. The discharge takes place between a needle and a perforated plate, and the results presented here have shown that this specific design allows reduction of electrostatic losses of charged particles within the charger in comparison with other typical designs. Besides, the small effective volume of the charger leads to a relatively small diffusion loss of particles. As a consequence of the reduced electrostatic and diffusion losses, the extrinsic charging efficiency attainable is higher than in similar devices.

  14. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  15. Stimulated recombination of antiproton and positron with ultra-short ultra-high intensity laser pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabinina, M V

    2003-01-01

    Ionization of hydrogen atom in the field of high-intense ultra-short femto-second laser pulse recently became the subject of comprehensive theoretical approaches. On the other hand, there exists experimental evidence that short electric pulses can effectively stimulate electron-proton (as well as antiproton-positron) recombination to high-level (Rydberg) state. In this paper we present the results of the theoretical estimations of antiproton-positron recombination cross-section in cold mixed plasmas in traps in the conditions of ATHENA/ATRAP experiments in CERN under the action of sub-fs laser pulse with TW intensity. (2 refs).

  16. High intensity ultrasound transducer used in gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kyle P.; Keilman, George W.; Noble, Misty L.; Brayman, Andrew A.; Miao, Carol H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a novel therapeutic high intensity non-focused ultrasound (HIU) transducer designed with uniform pressure distribution to aid in accelerated gene transfer in large animal liver tissues in vivo. The underlying HIU transducer was used to initiate homogeneous cavitation throughout the tissue while delivering up to 2.7 MPa at 1.1 MHz across its radiating surface. The HIU transducer was built into a 6 cm diameter x 1.3 cm tall housing ergonomically designed to avoid collateral damage to the surrounding anatomy during dynamic motion. The ultrasound (US) radiation was applied in a 'paintbrush-like' manner to the surface of the liver. The layers and geometry of the transducer were carefully selected to maximize the active diameter (5.74 cm), maximize the electrical to acoustic conversion efficiency (85%) to achieve 2.7 MPa of peak negative pressure, maximize the frequency operating band at the fundamental resonance to within a power transfer delta of 1 dB, and reduce the pressure delta to within 2 dB across the radiating surface. For maximum peak voltage into the transducer, a high performance piezoceramic was chosen and a DC bias circuit was built integral to the system. An apodized two element annular pattern was made from a single piezoceramic element, resulting in significant pressure uniformity enhancement. In addition to using apodization for pressure uniformity, a proprietary multi-layered structure was used to improve efficiency while sustaining an operating band from 900 kHz to 1.3 MHz. The resultant operating band allowed for dithering techniques using frequency modulation. The underlying HIU transducer for use in large animals enhances gene expression up to 6300-fold.

  17. Lightning Electric Field Intensity at Lower-Ionospheric Altitudes: Inferences for the Production of Elves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, V. A.; Tuni, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    AAbstract. As an extension of the work of Krider (1992, 1994), distant electric fields predicted by the transmission line (TL) model and by the modified transmission line model with exponential current decay with height (MTLE) for a typical negative first return stroke current are examined as a function of polar angle and return-stroke propagation speed. The lightning return-stroke current waveform was approximated by a step function, and for the MTLE model two values, 0.1 microseconds and 1 microseconds, of the retarded time (t - R/c), where R is the radial distance from the lightning channel base to the field point and c is the speed of light, were considered. While the fields radiated along the ground surface for the TL and MTLE models are similar, at smaller polar angles the exponential current attenuation with height in the MTLE model results in a considerable reduction in the electric field intensity (for higher propagation speeds) relative to that predicted by the TL model, in which there is no current attenuation with height. This field reduction is more pronounced at later times. Combinations of current and speed (as a function of polar angle) that are conducive to the production of transient optical emissions (elves) in the lower ionosphere are examined. Any interaction of the lightning electromagnetic pulse with the ionosphere was neglected, so that the current values given below should be viewed as lower limits. For the TL model, an assumed minimum electric field of 15 V/m (Fernsler and Rowland, 1996) needed to produce elves at a height of 95 km, and typical return-stroke speeds of 0.3c and 0.5c, the return-stroke current as a function of polar angle exhibits minima, 151 and 82 kA, for polar angles of 44 and 41 degrees (at radial distances of 91 and 83 km from the causative lightning channel), respectively. For higher return-stroke speeds, the minimum current is smaller and occurs for smaller polar angles. For a relatively high speed of 0.9c, the

  18. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health.

  19. Numerical simulation of high voltage electric pulse comminution of phosphate ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Razavian Seyed Mohammad; Rezai Bahram; Irannajad Mehdi; Ravanji Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the electrical field distribution helps in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind the responses and the benefits of the high voltage pulse comminution. The COMSOL Multiphysics package was used to numerically simulate the effect of ore compositions in this study. Regarding phos-phate ore particles shape and composition, the effects of mineral composition, particle size, particle shape and electrodes distance were investigated on the electrical field intensity and distribution. The results show that the induced electrical field is significantly dependent on the electrical properties of minerals, the feed particle size and the location of conductive minerals in ores. The angle of material contact sur-face with the discharge electrode is also an important factor in the intensity of electrical field. Moreover, it is found that the specific liberation effect at the disintegration of phosphate ore by electrical pulses is due to the locality of the electrical field at the interface of mineral components of the phosphate ore aggregates with different permittivities. However, the intensity of the electrical field increases with shar-pening the contact angle. Besides, the electrical discharge in the samples is converted to the elec-trohydraulic discharge across the surrounding water by changing the distance between the discharge electrode and sample surface.

  20. Electric Field Measurement of the Living Human Body for Biomedical Applications: Phase Measurement of the Electric Field Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hieda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors are developing a technique for conducting measurements inside the human body by applying a weak electric field at a radio frequency (RF. Low RF power is fed to a small antenna, and a similar antenna located 15–50 cm away measures the electric field intensity. Although the resolution of the method is low, it is simple, safe, cost-effective, and able to be used for biomedical applications. One of the technical issues suggested by the authors' previous studies was that the signal pattern acquired from measurement of a human body was essentially different from that acquired from a phantom. To trace the causes of this difference, the accuracy of the phase measurements was improved. This paper describes the new experimental system that can measure the signal phase and amplitude and reports the results of experiments measuring a human body and a phantom. The results were analyzed and then discussed in terms of their contribution to the phase measurement.

  1. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011... § 56.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be covered, insulated, or placed to prevent contact with low potential conductors....

  2. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound's effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp.

  3. Measurements of Electric and Magnetic Field Intensities at 50 Hz Mains Frequency and Comparison of Measurement Results to ICNIRP's Reference Levels for General Public Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cansız

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP accepted by many countries as well as Turkey is a commission which determines reference levels for general public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and has intensive works on these issues. ICNIRP has published separately a low frequency band (0-100 kHz and a high frequency band (100 kHz-300 GHz guidelines which investigate the biological and potential health hazard effects of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. In this study, measurements of low frequency electric and magnetic fields were taken in 30 different locations in the city center of Diyarbakir. Some locations exceeding the reference levels for general public exposure specified by ICNIRP were determined in the measurements of low frequency electric and magnetic fields and then some assessments were made about them. Low frequency electric and magnetic field meter device which is named EHP-50C was used in the measurements. The measurement results were calculated as an average value of 6 minute measurements. In addition, under a high voltage power line during 60 minutes, electric and magnetic field intensity values were recorded in the same manner. As a result of recordings, changes in the electric and magnetic field intensity values were observed, and then these changes were shown on the charts.

  4. [Polish regulations on maximum admissible intensities for electric and magnetic frequencies of 60 Hz and the European Union recommendations for electrical power engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszko, Marian

    2003-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields of 50 Hz from electric power devices affect not only workers, but also the general population, as these devices are also located in populated areas, hence the duality of regulations on maximum admissible intensities. This paper presents these regulations and discusses in detail the changes of 2001. Based on the Polish regulations, hygienic evaluation of electric power devices has been attempted. The Polish regulations on the 50 Hz electromagnetic fields were compared with relevant international regulations of CENELEC and the European Union recommendations. Our maximum admissible intensities have been found to conform with the international standards.

  5. Neutral wind acceleration in the polar lower E-region during an intense electric-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takuo T.; Buchert, Stephan C.; Nozawa, Satonori; Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Fujii, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    The Joule heating and ion drag effects are considered as important factors in the neutral wind dynamics in the polar E-region. However, quantitative evaluations for these effects are insufficient for correct understanding, particularly, in the lower E-region (100-110 km heights) where the anomalous heating effect, related with the electron Pedersen currents, can occur during the intense electric field. In the present study, using EISCAT Svalbard radar data, we have investigated, for the first time, the normal and anomalous heating effects to the neutral wind acceleration in the lower E-region.

  6. Plasma oscillations in two-dimensional semiconductor superstructures in the presence of a high electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Glazov, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the high permanent electric field on plasma oscillations in the two-dimensional electron gas with the superstructure and taking into account the transfer processes is investigated. The dispersions omega(k) is obtained for the case of high temperature T (DELTA << T, where DELTA is the width of the conductivity miniband). It is shown that the frequency of plasmons in the high electric field depends on the value of the electric field intensity and the wave number k as the oscillating function. The spectrum is periodic with the period equal to 2 pi/d for arbitrary values of k. The numerical estimation shown that the oscillations can be manifested at the electric field intensity more than 3 x 10 sup 3 V/cm

  7. Solar electric energy supply at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaupp, W.; Mundschau, E. [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Ulm (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies regarding electrical performance was quantified at some examples for the aspect of spectral distribution with the help of the introduced spectral height factor. The main attention during analysis of the whole solar-hydrogen energy system was directed to characteristics of current or near term available technology. Specific power weight of photovoltaic system, electrolyzer, fuel cell and gas tanks and their dependence on operation mode and power range were assessed. A pre-design of a solar-hydrogen energy system was carried out for an airship (volume 580,000 m3) withstanding continuous wind speeds up to {approx} 130 km/h. The calculated coverage ratio of photovoltaic and load share of energy system mark the frame of usability. Depending on the airship size, shape and other external boundary conditions the total electrical energy demand could be covered by a solar-hydrogen energy system of current or near term technology for full year operation. However further investigations are necessary regarding e.g. further mass reductions. (author)

  8. The effects of intense laser field and applied electric and magnetic fields on optical properties of an asymmetric quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: pfrire@eia.edu.co [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Envigado (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonóma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the results of the theoretical study of the effects of non-resonant intense laser field and electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties (the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficients) in an asymmetric quantum well. The electric field and intense laser field are applied along the growth direction of the asymmetric quantum well and the magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly. To calculate the energy and the wave functions of the electron in the asymmetric quantum well, the effective mass approximation and the method of envelope wave function are used. The asymmetric quantum well is constructed by using different aluminium concentrations in both right and left barriers. The confinement in the quantum well is changed drastically by either the effect of electric and magnetic fields or by the application of intense laser field. The optical properties are calculated using the compact density matrix approach. The results show that the effect of the intense laser field competes with the effects of the electric and magnetic fields. Consequently, peak position shifts to lower photon energies due to the effect of the intense laser field and it shifts to higher photon energies by the effects of electric and magnetic fields. In general, it is found that the concentration of aluminum, electric and magnetic fields and intense laser field are external agents that modify the optical responses in the asymmetric quantum well.

  9. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  10. Review of High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Mizoguchi, Tatsuya; Saeki, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    For the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is required. This involves optimal medical therapy, education on nutrition and exercise therapy, and smoking cessation. Of these, efficient exercise therapy is a key factor. A highly effective training protocol is therefore warranted, which requires a high rate of compliance. Although moderate-intensity continuous training has been the main training regimen recommended in cardiac rehabilitation guidelines, high-intensity interval training has been reported to be more effective in the clinical and experimental setting from the standpoint of peak oxygen uptake and central and peripheral adaptations. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence for high-intensity interval training. We then verify this evidence and discuss its significance and the remaining issues.

  11. Benefits of High-Intensity Intensive Care Unit Physician Staffing under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Logani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform.

  12. High-Intensity Discharge Industrial Lighting Design Strategies for the Minimization of Energy Usage and Life-Cycle Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Flory IV, Isaac L.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, the electrical energy consumed by artificial lighting is second only to the amount consumed by electric machinery. Of the energy usage attributed to lighting in North America, approximately fifteen percent is consumed by those lighting products that are classified as High-Intensity Discharge (HID). These lighting products, which are dominated by Metal-Halide and High-Pressure Sodium technologies, range in power levels from 35 to 2000 watts and are used in both indoor and outdoor ...

  13. The generation of high-quality, intense ion beams by ultra-intense lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, M; Audebert, Patrick; Blazevic, A; Brambrink, E; Cowan, T E; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, J C; Geissel, M; Hegelich, M; Karsch, S; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J; Ruhl, H; Schlegel, T; Stephens, R B

    2002-01-01

    Intense beams of protons and heavy ions have been observed in ultra-intense laser-solid interaction experiments. Thereby, a considerable fraction of the laser energy is transferred to collimated beams of energetic ions (e.g. up to 50 MeV protons; 100 MeV fluorine), which makes these beams highly interesting for various applications. Experimental results indicate a very short-pulse duration and an excellent beam quality, leading to beam intensities in the TW range. To characterize the beam quality and its dependence on laser parameters and target conditions we performed experiments using the 100 TW laser system at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses at the Ecole Polytechnique, France, with focused intensities exceeding 10 sup 1 sup 9 W cm sup - sup 2. We found a strong dependence on the target rear surface conditions allowing to tailor the ion beam by an appropriate target design. We also succeeded in the generation of heavy ion beams by suppressing the proton amount at the target surface. We wi...

  14. High-intensity light-emitting diode vs fluorescent tubes for intensive phototherapy in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbiny, Hanan S; Youssef, Doaa M; Sherbini, Ahmad S; El-Behedy, Rabab; Sherief, Laila M

    2016-05-01

    Special blue fluorescent tubes are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) as the most effective light source for lowering serum bilirubin. A high-intensity light-emitting diode ('super LED') could render intensive phototherapy more effective than the above conventional methods. This study compared the efficacy and safety of a high-intensity light-emitting diode bed vs conventional intensive phototherapy with triple fluorescent tube units as a rescue treatment for severe unconjugated neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. This was a randomised, prospective trial. Two hundred jaundiced neonates ≥ 35 weeks gestation who met the criteria for intensive phototherapy as per AAP guidelines were randomly assigned to be treated either with triple fluorescent tube units (group 1, n = 100) or a super LED bed (group 2, n = 100). The outcome was the avoidance of exchange transfusion by successful control of hyperbilirubinaemia. Statistically significant higher success rates of intensive phototherapy were achieved among neonates treated with super LED (group 2) than in those treated conventionally (group 1) (87% vs 64%, P = 0.003). Significantly higher 'bilirubin decline' rates were reported in both haemolytic and non-haemolytic subgroups treated with the super LED bed compared with a similar sub-population in the conventionally treated group. Comparable numbers of neonates in both groups developed rebound jaundice (8% vs 10% of groups 1 and 2, respectively). Side-effects were mild in both groups, but higher rates of hyperthermia (12% vs 0%, P = 0.03), dehydration (8% vs 2%, P = 0.26) and skin rash (39% vs 1%, P = 0.002) were reported in the fluorescent tubes-treated group compared with the LED group. Super LED is a safe rescue treatment for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and its implementation may reduce the need for exchange transfusion.

  15. Simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we report the results of simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector. The aim of the simulation study is to transport high bunch charge with low emittance evolution. The simulation result shows that 7nC bunch with rms emittance 22.3 {pi} mm mrad can be outputted at the exit of photoinjector. (author)

  16. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, J E; Scott, I R; Wood, S J; Nettell, J J; Bevir, M K; Wang, Z; Somasiri, N P; Chen, X

    2001-06-15

    Slices of rat hippocampus were exposed to 700 MHz continuous wave radiofrequency (RF) fields (25.2-71.0 V m(-1), 5-15 min exposure) in a stripline waveguide. At low field intensities, the predominant effect on the electrically evoked field potential in CA1 was a potentiation of the amplitude of the population spike by up to 20%, but higher intensity fields could produce either increases or decreases of up to 120 and 80%, respectively, in the amplitude of the population spike. To eliminate the possibility of RF-induced artefacts due to the metal stimulating electrode, the effect of RF exposure on spontaneous epileptiform activity induced in CA3 by 4-aminopyridine (50-100 microM) was investigated. Exposure to RF fields (50.0 V m(-1)) reduced or abolished epileptiform bursting in 36% of slices tested. The maximum field intensity used in these experiments, 71.0 V m(-1), was calculated to produce a specific absorption rate (SAR) of between 0.0016 and 0.0044 W kg(-1) in the slices. Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/- 0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields.

  17. Influence of a single lightning on the intensity of an air electric field and acoustic emission of near surface rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Smirnov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a single lightning discharge on electric field intensity in the near ground atmosphere was investigated. The effect appeared as a sharp fall of electric field potential gradient from 80 V m−1 up to −21 V m−1. The process of intensity recovery is described by flat capacitor model with characteristic time of recovery of 17 c. Simultaneously with electric field, the acoustic emission response in the near surface rocks on lightning discharge was registered in the frequency range of 6.5–11 kHz.

  18. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M

    2013-10-01

    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts.

  19. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  20. Generation of Intense High-Order Vortex Harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the method for the first time to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region. In three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, both the reflected and transmitted light beams include high-order harmonics of the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode when a linearly polarized LG laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The mode of the generated LG harmonic scales with its order, in good agreement with our theoretical analysis. The intensity of the generated high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, and the pulse duration can be in attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. Thus, the obtained intense vortex beam may have extraordinarily promising applications for high-capacity quantum information and for high-resolution dete...

  1. The Design and Construction of a Battery Electric Vehicle Propulsion System - High Performance Electric Kart Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Mark; Alahakoon, Sanath

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an electric propulsion system designed specifically to meet the performance specification for a competition racing kart application. The paper presents the procedure for the engineering design, construction and testing of the electric powertrain of the vehicle. High performance electric Go-Kart is not an established technology within Australia. It is expected that this work will provide design guidelines for a high performance electric propulsion system with the capability of forming the basis of a competitive electric kart racing formula for Australian conditions.

  2. Growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan HUA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field(PEF in vitro.Methods HeLa cells cultured in vitro were divided into experimental group and control group(with or without intense picosecond PEF.With constant pulse width,frequency and voltage,the cells in experimental group were divided into 6 sub-groups according to the number of pulse(100,200,500,1000,1500,2000,the growth inhibition of HeLa cells by PEF and the dose-effect relationship were analyzed by MTT.Caspase 3 protein activity was detected in the cells in 500,1000 and 2000 sub-groups.Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was detected by rhodamine 123 staining with the cells in 2000 sub-groups.Results MTT assay demonstrated that intense picosecond PEF significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner.The survival rates of cells declined along with the increase in pulse number,and were 96.23%±0.76%,94.11%±2.42%,90.31%±1.77%,64.59%±1.59%,32.95%±0.73%,23.85%±2.38% and 100%,respectively,in 100,200,500,1000,1500,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.01.The Caspase 3 protein activity was significantly enhanced by intense picosecond PEF,and the absorbancy indexes(A were 0.174±0.012,0.232±0.017,0.365±0.016 and 0.122±0.011,respectively,in 500,1000,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.05.The mitochondrial transmembrane potential of HeLa cells was significantly inhibited by intense picosecond PEF,and the fluorescence intensity in 2000 sub-group(76.66±13.38 was much lower than that in control group(155.81±2.33,P < 0.05.Conclusion Intense picosecond PEF may significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa cells,and induce cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

  3. High Intensity Particle Physics at PW-class laser facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Stepan; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Esirkepov, Timur; Kando, Masaki; Rosanov, Nikolay; Korn, Georg; Bulanov, Sergey V.; Leemans, Wim P.

    2015-11-01

    The processes typical for high intensity particle physics, i.e., the interactions of charged particles with strong electromagnetic fields, have attracted considerable interest recently. Some of these processes, previously believed to be of theoretical interest only, are now becoming experimentally accessible. High intensity electromagnetic (EM) fields significantly modify the interactions of particles and EM fields, giving rise to the phenomena that are not encountered either in classical or perturbative quantum theory of these interactions. One of such phenomena is the radiation reaction, which radically influences the electron motion in an electromagnetic standing wave formed by two super-intense counter-propagating laser pulses. Depending on the laser intensity and wavelength, either classical or quantum mode of radiation reaction prevail, or both are strong. When radiation reaction dominates, electron motion evolves to limit cycles and strange attractors. This creates a new framework for high energy physics experiments on an interaction of energetic charged particle beams and colliding super-intense laser pulses. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  5. Thomson scattering in high-intensity chirped laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holkundkar, Amol R., E-mail: amol.holkundkar@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Harvey, Chris, E-mail: christopher.harvey@chalmers.se; Marklund, Mattias, E-mail: mattias.marklund@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    We consider the Thomson scattering of an electron in an ultra-intense laser pulse. It is well known that at high laser intensities, the frequency and brilliance of the emitted radiation will be greatly reduced due to the electron losing energy before it reaches the peak field. In this work, we investigate the use of a small frequency chirp in the laser pulse in order to mitigate this effect of radiation reaction. It is found that the introduction of a negative chirp means the electron enters a high frequency region of the field while it still has a large proportion of its original energy. This results in a significant enhancement of the frequency and intensity of the emitted radiation as compared to the case without chirping.

  6. Plasma-based polarization modulator for high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Manipulation of laser pulses at high intensities is an important yet challenging issue. New types of plasma-based optical devices are promising alternatives to achieve this goal. Here we propose to modulate the polarization state of intense lasers based on oblique reflection from solid-plasma surfaces. A new analytical description is presented considering the plasma as an uniaxial medium that causes birefringence effect. Particle-in-cell simulation results numerically demonstrate that such a scheme can provide a tunable polarization control of the laser pulses even in the relativistic regime. The results are thus relevant for the design of compact, easy to use, and versatile polarization modulators for high-intensity laser pulses.

  7. Self-trapping of intensities changing under SHG and SWG for high intensive femtosecond laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Kharitonov, Dmitry M.; Fedotov, Mikhail V.

    2017-05-01

    SHG and SFG (SWG) and THG are used widely in many practical applications such as a substance diagnostics, and imaging of various physical, chemical and biological processes as well as for laser radiation frequency conversion. One of very interesting phenomena under the frequency conversion takes place if a basic wave incident intensity is enough high: a synchronic mode of the laser pulse intensities changing along a propagation coordinate appears under certain conditions. First of all, we investigate this phenomenon using the frame-work of long pulse duration approximation and plane wave approximation without applying the basic wave energy non-depletion approximation. Applying an original approach we derive the solution of Schr¨odinger equations describing the THG via a SHG process and summary frequency wave generation (SFG) process for femtosecond pulses. Among many modes of the frequency conversion process under consideration we found out analytically the mode corresponding to synchronous intensities changing for the interacting waves. We derive conditions of such mode realization in dependence of the problem parameters. After that we verify our analytical consideration using a computer simulation of the problem on the base of the corresponding Schr¨odinger equations. Computer simulation shown also a new phenomenon at three-wave interaction: interacting wave intensities changing with two (or more) oscillation periods.

  8. The tzero electric sports car : how electric vehicles can achieve both high performance and high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.N.; Gage, T.B. [AC Propulsion, San Dimas, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The development of a high-performance electric sports car by AC Propulsion was described along with a status report on the progress in developing the product-certified version. The development of the tzero car began in 1996. In-use testing and safety certification of prototypes is currently underway. The tzero is powered by a high-performance induction motor operated at 37 per cent higher peak current than allowed in a standard system since periods of peak power are limited to only a few seconds. The car, which can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 4.1 seconds, is considered to be one of the most energy-efficient cars on the road. Since the tzero will likely be sold without subsidy and since the market size for the tzero is expected to be small, in the order of 1000 units per year, it will have to be sold at a high enough price to cover the costs of small-volume production. AC Propulsion is hopeful that it may even be the first electric vehicle to be sold at a profit. Its technology and image are expected to present examples for other electric vehicles. The paper also included a comprehensive technical description of the car and its systems, such as the power electronics unit, traction converter, charger, auxiliary power supply, 12V battery, recharge interface, battery pack, battery modules and powertrain control. 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  9. Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2013-01-01

    We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  11. Nonlinear Behavior in High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Bernd; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behaves very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  12. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  13. Parallel Beam Dynamics Code Development for High Intensity Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1 Parallel PIC algorithm Self field solver is the key part of a high intensity beam dynamic PIC code which usually adopts the P-M (Particle-Mesh) method to solve the space charge. The P-M method is composed of four major

  14. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  15. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  16. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  17. Static Electricity as Part of Electromagnetic Environment on High-Voltage Electrical Substation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fursanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of occurrences electrostatic discharges (ESD on high-voltage electric substation were investigated and dependences values ESD’s on parameters interaction structures, humidity of air were found. Experimental research values ESD’s on high-voltage electric substation and in man-made conditions was fulfilled. Uncertainty measurement’s was taken into consideration by research results analyze. Matching with research of other authors was made. Danger ESD’s for electric devises was established.

  18. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S

    2013-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  19. Towards optical intensity interferometry for high angular resolution stellar astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nunez, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Most neighboring stars are still detected as point sources and are beyond the angular resolution reach of current observatories. Methods to improve our understanding of stars at high angular resolution are investigated. Air Cherenkov telescopes (ACTs), primarily used for Gamma-ray astronomy, enable us to increase our understanding of the circumstellar environment of a particular system. When used as optical intensity interferometers, future ACT arrays will allow us to detect stars as extended objects and image their surfaces at high angular resolution. Optical stellar intensity interferometry (SII) with ACT arrays, composed of nearly 100 telescopes, will provide means to measure fundamental stellar parameters and also open the possibility of model-independent imaging. A data analysis algorithm is developed and permits the reconstruction of high angular resolution images from simulated SII data. The capabilities and limitations of future ACT arrays used for high angular resolution imaging are investigated via ...

  20. An electron of helium atom under a high-intensity laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Adepoju, Adenike Grace; Liman, Muhammed S.; Oyewumi, K. J.; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2017-02-01

    We scrutinize the behavior of eigenvalues of an electron in a helium (He) atom as it interacts with electric field directed along the z-axis and is exposed to linearly polarized intense laser field radiation. To achieve this, we freeze one electron of the He atom at its ionic ground state and the motion of the second electron in the ion core is treated via a more general case of screened Coulomb potential model. Using the Kramers-Henneberger (KH) unitary transformation, which is the semiclassical counterpart of the Block-Nordsieck transformation in the quantized field formalism, the squared vector potential that appears in the equation of motion is eliminated and the resultant equation is expressed in the KH frame. Within this frame, the resulting potential and the corresponding wave function are expanded in Fourier series and using Ehlotzky’s approximation, we obtain a laser-dressed potential to simulate intense laser field. By fitting the more general case of screened Coulomb potential model into the laser-dressed potential, and then expanding it in Taylor series up to O≤ft({{r}4},α 09\\right) , we obtain the solution (eigenvalues and wave function) of an electron in a He atom under the influence of external electric field and high-intensity laser field, within the framework of perturbation theory formalism. We found that the variation in frequency of laser radiation has no effect on the eigenvalues of a He electron for a particular electric field intensity directed along z-axis. Also, for a very strong external electric field and an infinitesimal screening parameter, the system is strongly bound. This work has potential application in the areas of atomic and molecular processes in external fields including interactions with strong fields and short pulses.

  1. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable

  2. Land-Use Intensity of Electricity Production: Comparison Across Multiple Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M.; Lovering, J.; Blomqvist, L.; Nordhaus, T.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Land is an increasingly scarce global resource that is subject to competing pressures from agriculture, human settlement, and energy development. As countries concerned about climate change seek to decarbonize their power sectors, renewable energy sources like wind and solar offer obvious advantages. However, the land needed for new energy infrastructure is also an important environmental consideration. The land requirement of different electricity sources varies considerably, but there are very few studies that offer a normalized comparison. In this paper, we use meta-analysis to calculate the land-use intensity (LUI) of the following electricity generation sources: wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower, geothermal, nuclear, biomass, natural gas, and coal. We used data from existing studies as well as original data gathered from public records and geospatial analysis. Our land-use metric includes land needed for the generation facility (e.g., power plant or wind farm) as well as the area needed to mine fuel for natural gas, coal, and nuclear power plants. Our results found the lowest total LUI for nuclear power (115 ha/TWh/y) and the highest LUI for biomass (114,817 ha/TWh/y). Solar PV and CSP had a considerably lower LUI than wind power, but both were an order of magnitude higher than fossil fuels (which ranged from 435 ha/TWh/y for natural gas to 579 ha/TWh/y for coal). Our results suggest that a large build-out of renewable electricity, though it would offer many environmental advantages over fossil fuel power sources, would require considerable land area. Among low-carbon energy sources, relatively compact sources like nuclear and solar have the potential to reduce land requirements.

  3. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable

  4. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    /conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential......This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable...

  5. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    OpenAIRE

    S. GamminoINFN, LNS, Catania

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyc...

  6. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, C; Makino, K; Snopok, P

    2012-01-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS) and many HEP programs (Muon Collider). These high-intensity GeV-range proton drivers are particularly challenging, encountering duty cycle and space-charge limits in the synchrotron and machine size concerns in the weaker-focusing cyclotrons; a 10-20 MW proton driver is not presently considered technically achievable with conventional re-circulating accelerators. One, as-yet, unexplored re-circulating accelerator, the Fixed-field Alternating Gradient, or FFAG, is an attractive alternative to the cyclotron. Its strong foc...

  7. Ultra High Performance, Highly Reliable, Numeric Intensive Processors and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    to design high-performance DSP/IP systems using either off-the-shelf components or application specific integrated circuitry [ ASIC ]. -9 - HSDAL . ARO...are the chirp-z transform ( CZT ) [13] and (Rader’s) Prime Factor Transform (PFT) [11]. The RNS/ CZT is being studied by a group a MITRE [14] and is given...PFT RNS/CRNS/QRNS implementation has dynamic range requirements on the order of NQ2 (vs NQ4 for the CZT and much higher for the FFT). Therefore, the

  8. Generation of Ultra-high Intensity Laser Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.J. Fisch; V.M. Malkin

    2003-06-10

    Mainly due to the method of chirped pulse amplification, laser intensities have grown remarkably during recent years. However, the attaining of very much higher powers is limited by the material properties of gratings. These limitations might be overcome through the use of plasma, which is an ideal medium for processing very high power and very high total energy. A plasma can be irradiated by a long pump laser pulse, carrying significant energy, which is then quickly depleted in the plasma by a short counterpropagating pulse. This counterpropagating wave effect has already been employed in Raman amplifiers using gases or plasmas at low laser power. Of particular interest here are the new effects which enter in high power regimes. These new effects can be employed so that one high-energy optical system can be used like a flashlamp in what amounts to pumping the plasma, and a second low-power optical system can be used to extract quickly the energy from the plasma and focus it precisely. The combined system can be very compact. Thus, focused intensities more than 10{sup 25} W/cm{sup 2} can be contemplated using existing optical elements. These intensities are several orders of magnitude higher than what is currently available through chirped pump amplifiers.

  9. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  10. Energy levels and far-infrared optical absorption of impurity doped semiconductor nanorings: Intense laser and electric fields effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of electron-impurity interaction on energy levels and far-infrared absorption in semiconductor nanoring under the action of intense laser and lateral electric fields have been investigated. Numerical calculations are performed using exact diagonalization technique. It is found that the electron-impurity interaction and external fields change the energy spectrum dramatically, and also have significant influence on the absorption spectrum. Strong dependence on laser field intensity and electric field of lowest energy levels, also supported by the Coulomb interaction with impurity, is clearly revealed.

  11. Heat transparent high intensity high efficiency solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar cell design is described. A surface of each solar cell has a plurality of grooves. Each groove has a vertical face and a slanted face that is covered by a reflecting metal. Light rays are reflected from the slanted face through the vertical face where they traverse a photovoltaic junction. As the light rays travel to the slanted face of an adjacent groove, they again traverse the junction. The underside of the reflecting coating directs the light rays toward the opposite surface of solar cell as they traverse the junction again. When the light rays travel through the solar cell and reach the saw toothed grooves on the under side, the process of reflection and repeatedly traversing the junction again takes place. The light rays ultimately emerge from the solar cell. These solar cells are particularly useful at very high levels of insolation because the infrared or heat radiation passes through the cells without being appreciably absorbed to heat the cell.

  12. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  13. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy: an Overview for Radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choi, Dong Il [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Min Joo [College of Medicine, Cheju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy is a novel, emerging, therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves, propagated through tissue media, as carriers of energy. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation as well as hemostasis, thrombolysis and targeted drug/gene delivery. However, the application of this technology still has many drawbacks. It is expected that current obstacles to implementation will be resolved in the near future. In this review, we provide an overview of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy from the basic physics to recent clinical studies with an interventional radiologist's perspective for the purpose of improving the general understanding of this cutting-edge technology as well as speculating on future developments

  14. High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy: an overview for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Min Joo; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choi, Dongil

    2008-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy is a novel, emerging, therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves, propagated through tissue media, as carriers of energy. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation as well as hemostasis, thrombolysis and targeted drug/gene delivery. However, the application of this technology still has many drawbacks. It is expected that current obstacles to implementation will be resolved in the near future. In this review, we provide an overview of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy from the basic physics to recent clinical studies with an interventional radiologist's perspective for the purpose of improving the general understanding of this cutting-edge technology as well as speculating on future developments.

  15. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K.; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-07-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  16. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation: Safety, ethical, legal regulatory and application guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, A; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M; Brockmöller, J; Brunoni, A R; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Dowthwaite, G; Ellrich, J; Flöel, A; Fregni, F; George, M S; Hamilton, R; Haueisen, J; Herrmann, C S; Hummel, F C; Lefaucheur, J P; Liebetanz, D; Loo, C K; McCaig, C D; Miniussi, C; Miranda, P C; Moliadze, V; Nitsche, M A; Nowak, R; Padberg, F; Pascual-Leone, A; Poppendieck, W; Priori, A; Rossi, S; Rossini, P M; Rothwell, J; Rueger, M A; Ruffini, G; Schellhorn, K; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Wexler, A; Ziemann, U; Hallett, M; Paulus, W

    2017-09-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears to be safe. No serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported so far in over 18,000 sessions administered to healthy subjects, neurological and psychiatric patients, as summarized here. Moderate adverse events (AEs), as defined by the necessity to intervene, are rare, and include skin burns with tDCS due to suboptimal electrode-skin contact. Very rarely mania or hypomania was induced in patients with depression (11 documented cases), yet a causal relationship is difficult to prove because of the low incidence rate and limited numbers of subjects in controlled trials. Mild AEs (MAEs) include headache and fatigue following stimulation as well as prickling and burning sensations occurring during tDCS at peak-to-baseline intensities of 1-2mA and during tACS at higher peak-to-peak intensities above 2mA. The prevalence of published AEs is different in studies specifically assessing AEs vs. those not assessing them, being higher in the former. AEs are frequently reported by individuals receiving placebo stimulation. The profile of AEs in terms of frequency, magnitude and type is comparable in healthy and clinical populations, and this is also the case for more vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly persons, or pregnant women. Combined interventions (e.g., co-application of drugs, electrophysiological measurements, neuroimaging) were not associated with further safety issues. Safety is established for low-intensity 'conventional' TES defined as stimulation fewer AEs were reported compared to DC. In specific paradigms with amplitudes of up to 10mA, frequencies in the kHz range appear to be safe. In this paper we provide structured interviews and recommend their use in

  17. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  18. Low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training can prevent the increase of central arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Masuhara, M; Ikuta, K

    2013-05-01

    Although high-intensity resistance training increases arterial stiffness, low-intensity resistance training reduces arterial stiffness. The present study investigates the effect of low-intensity resistance training before and after high-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness. 30 young healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a group that performed low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training (BLRT, n=10), a group that performed low-intensity resistance training after high-intensity resistance training (ALRT, n=10) and a sedentary control group (n=10). The BLRT and ALRT groups performed resistance training at 80% and 50% of one repetition maximum twice each week for 10 wk. Arterial stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral and femoral-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV). One-repetition maximum strength in the both ALRT and BLRT significantly increased after the intervention (Ptraining in the ALRT group did not change from before training. In contrast, carotid-femoral PWV after combined training in the BLRT group increased from before training (P training in the both BLRT and ALRT groups did not change from before training. These results suggest that although arterial stiffness is increased by low-intensity resistance training before high-intensity resistance training, performing low-intensity resistance training thereafter can prevent the increase of arterial stiffness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiren Chou

    2003-02-06

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

  20. Entrepreneurship in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Patrizia V.; Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle

    development of new enterprises in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors are analysed in relation to the educational and professional background of the entrepreneur/entrepreneurial team, as well as the personal and professional social networks of the entrepreneurs. The analysis is based on a theoretical...... framework combining theories of human and social capital. Secondary aspects addressed in the research project are questions of male vs. female entrepreneurship, internationalisation-globalisation, and business success/failure....

  1. Metabolite profiling of phenolic and carotenoid contents in tomatoes after moderate-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    A metabolite profiling approach was used to study the effect of moderate-intensity pulsed electric field (MIPEF) treatments on the individual polyphenol and carotenoid contents of tomato fruit after refrigeration at 4°C for 24h. The MIPEF processing variables studied were electric field strength (from 0.4 to 2.0kV/cm) and number of pulses (from 5 to 30). Twenty four hours after MIPEF treatments, an increase was observed in hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanones, whereas flavonols, coumaric and ferulic acid-O-glucoside were not affected. Major changes were also observed for carotenoids, except for the 5-cis-lycopene isomer, which remain unchanged after 24h of MIPEF treatments. MIPEF treatments, conducted at 1.2kV/cm and 30 pulses, led to the greatest increases in chlorogenic (152%), caffeic acid-O-glucoside (170%) and caffeic (140%) acids. On the other hand, treatments at 1.2kV/cm and 5 pulses led to maximum increases of α-carotene, 9- and 13-cis-lycopene, which increased by 93%, 94% and 140%, respectively. Therefore, MIPEF could stimulate synthesis of secondary metabolites and contribute to production of tomatoes with high individual polyphenol and carotenoid contents.

  2. Treatment and follow-up results of children with electrical burn who observed in burn intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Aliosmanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns are infrequent relative to other injuries, but they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess management and follow-up results of pediatric patients’ who observed in intensive care unit and also review the precautions for preventing electrical burns.Materials and methods: Totally 22 patients aged under 17 years who were observed in the burn intensive care unit of Şanlıurfa Education and Research Hospital during the period between July 2009-October 2010. Cases were investigated retrospectively. The patients’ age, gender, total burn surface area, length of stay in hospital, musculo-skeletal system complication, cardiovascular system complication, kidney damage and attempts were recorded.Results: Of the 22 cases, 19 (86.3% were male and 3 (13.7% were female. The mean age of the patients was 11.5 years. In 10 (45.4% children burns were occurred in workplace and working area and 12 (54.6% were occurred in the home environment. Depth of burns were third degree in 10 (45.4% children and second degree in 12 (54.6%. The mean percentage of burn surface area was 25.9%. The mean length of stay in hospital was 17 days. Debridement and grafting were performed to 12 (54.6% cases and 10 (45.4% children were treated with dressings. No patient had increased creatinine kinase levels, oliguria, myoglobuinuria and arrhythmia. The mean hospitalization time was 17 days.Conclusion: Nearly half of patients underwent debridement plus grafting. None of our patients developed renal failure other severe system dysfunction.

  3. A New Scheme for High-Intensity Laser-Driven Electron Acceleration in a Plasma 2

    CERN Document Server

    Sadykova, S P; Samkharadze, T G

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to high-intensity relativistic laser-driven electron acceleration in a plasma. Here, we demonstrate that a plasma wave generated by a stimulated forward-scattering of an incident laser pulse can be in the longest acceleration phase with injected relativistic beam electrons. This is why the plasma wave has the maximum amplification coefficient which is determined by the acceleration time and the breakdown (overturn) electric field in which the acceleration of the injected beam electrons occurs. We must note that for the longest acceleration phase the relativity of the injected beam electrons plays a crucial role in our scheme. We estimate qualitatively the acceleration parameters of relativistic electrons in the field of a plasma wave generated at the stimulated forward-scattering of a high-intensity laser pulse in a plasma.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  6. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  7. Muscle fatigue during high-intensity exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, Sébastien; Duché, Pascale; Williams, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Children are able to resist fatigue better than adults during one or several repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. This finding has been reported by measuring mechanical force or power output profiles during sustained isometric maximal contractions or repeated bouts of high-intensity dynamic exercises. The ability of children to better maintain performance during repeated high-intensity exercise bouts could be related to their lower level of fatigue during exercise and/or faster recovery following exercise. This may be explained by muscle characteristics of children, which are quantitatively and qualitatively different to those of adults. Children have less muscle mass than adults and hence, generate lower absolute power during high-intensity exercise. Some researchers also showed that children were equipped better for oxidative than glycolytic pathways during exercise, which would lead to a lower accumulation of muscle by-products. Furthermore, some reports indicated that the lower ability of children to activate their type II muscle fibres would also explain their greater resistance to fatigue during sustained maximal contractions. The lower accumulation of muscle by-products observed in children may be suggestive of a reduced metabolic signal, which induces lower ratings of perceived exertion. Factors such as faster phosphocreatine resynthesis, greater oxidative capacity, better acid-base regulation, faster readjustment of initial cardiorespiratory parameters and higher removal of metabolic by-products in children could also explain their faster recovery following high-intensity exercise.From a clinical point of view, muscle fatigue profiles are different between healthy children and children with muscle and metabolic diseases. Studies of dystrophic muscles in children indicated contradictory findings of changes in contractile properties and the muscle fatigability. Some have found that the muscle of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) fatigued less

  8. Electric-field effects on the OH vibrational frequency and infrared absorption intensity for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansson, Kersti

    1993-07-01

    The variations of the anharmonic OH frequency and the infrared absorption intensity with field strength have been calculated for the uncoupled OH stretching vibration of a water molecule in a static, homogeneous electric field using ab initio methods at the MP4 level with a nearly saturated basis set. The OH frequency is found to be virtually independent of the field components perpendicular to the vibrating OH bond. For the parallel component, the frequency vs field curve is close to quadratic, with a maximum for a slightly negative (directed from H to O) field strength. The external field perturbation, defined as Vext(E∥,rOH)=Vtot(E∥, rOH)-Vfree(rOH), is found to be closely linear in rOH, except when the field strength E∥ is both large and negative. The linear external force constant is almost perfectly accounted for by the sum of two terms, -E∥ṡdμ∥free/drOH and -1/2ṡE∥ṡ∂μ∥induced/∂rOH. These derivatives are quite insensitive to the choice of basis-set. The ∂μ∥induced/∂rOH derivative is approximately proportional to E∥, and gives rise to the arclike shape of the frequency vs field curve. The frequency maximum occurs where ∂μ∥tot/∂rOH≊0. It is the sign of dμ∥free/drOH which determines that the frequency maximum occurs at a negative field strength for water (but at a positive field strength for OH-, for example), i.e., that a frequency red-shift (blue-shift for OH-) occurs when the molecule is bound. The linear relationship between the infrared absorption intensity and frequency of the water OH vibration is derived.

  9. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  10. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  11. Removing Known SPS Intensity Limitations for High Luminosity LHC Goals

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Bohl, Thomas; Cruikshank, Paul; Goddard, Brennan; Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Lasheen, Alexandre; Perez Espinos, Jaime; Repond, Joël; Salvant, Benoit; Vollinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In preparation of the SPS as an LHC injector its impedance was significantly reduced in 1999 - 2000. A new SPS impedance reduction campaign is planned now for the High Luminosity (HL)-LHC project, which requires bunch intensities twice as high as the nominal one. One of the known intensity limitations is a longitudinal multi-bunch instability with a threshold 3 times below this operational intensity. The instability is presently cured using the 4th harmonic RF system and controlled emittance blow-up, but reaching the HL-LHC parameters cannot be assured without improving the machine impedance. Recently the impedance sources responsible for this instability were identified and implementation of their shielding and damping is foreseen during the next long shutdown (2019 - 2020) in synergy with two other important upgrades: amorphous carbon coating of (part of) the vacuum chamber against the e-cloud effect and rearrangement of the 200 MHz RF system. In this paper the strategy of impedance reduction is presented t...

  12. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Golge, Serkan; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 10$^{10}$ e$^+$/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T$_+$ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of the beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effective...

  13. FNAL Proton Source High Intensity Operations and Beam Loss Control

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, F G

    2014-01-01

    The 40-year-old Fermilab Proton Source machines, constituted by the Pre-Injector, Linac and the synchrotron Booster, have been the workhorse of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). During this time, the High Energy Physics Program has demanded an increase in proton throughput, especially during the past decade with the beginning of the neutrino program at Fermilab. In order to achieve a successful program, major upgrades and changes were made in Booster. Once again, the Proton Source has been charged to double their beam throughput, while maintain the present residual activation levels, to meet the laboratory Intensity Frontier program goals until new machines are built and operational to replace the Proton Source machines. This paper discusses the present performance of Booster and the plans involved in reaching even higher intensities.

  14. Raman forward scattering of high-intensity chirped laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Leemans, W.P.

    2002-06-23

    Raman forward scattering of a high-intensity, short-duration, frequency-chirped laser pulse propagating in an underdense plasma is examined. The growth of the direct forward scattered light is calculated for a laser pulse with a linear frequency chirp in various spatio-temporal regimes. This includes a previously undescribed regime of strongly-coupled four-wave nonresonant interaction, which is important for relativistic laser intensities. In all regimes of forward scattering, it is shown that the growth rate increases (decreases) for positive (negative) frequency chirp. The effect of chirp on the growth rate is relatively minor, i.e., a few percent chirp yields few percent changes in the growth rates. Relation of these results to recent experiments is discussed.

  15. Short-pulse high intensity laser thin foil interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Patrick

    2003-10-01

    The technology of ultrashort pulse laser generation has progressed to the point that optical pulses larger than 10 J, 300 fs duration or shorter are routinely produced. Such pulses can be focused to intensities exceeding 10^18 W/cm^2. With high contrast pulses, these focused intensities can be used to heat solid matter to high temperatures with minimal hydrodynamic expansion, producing an extremely high energy-density state of matter for a short period of time. This high density, high temperature plasma can be studied by x-ray spectroscopy. We have performed experiments on thin foils of different elements under well controlled conditions at the 100 Terawatt laser at LULI to study the characteristics X-ray emission of laser heated solids. To suppress the ASE effect, the laser was frequency doubled. S-polarized light with a peak intensity of 10^19W/cm^2 was used to minimize resonance absorption. To decrease the effect of longitudinal temperature gradients very thin (800 μ) aluminum foil targets were used. We have also studied the effect of radial gradient by limiting the measured x-ray emission zone using 50μ or 100μ pinhole on target. The spectra, in the range 7-8Å, were recorded using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to a 800 fs resolution streak camera. A Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI) of the back of the foil was also performed providing a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion as function of time for each shot. To simulate the experiment, we used the 1D hydrodynamic code FILM with a given set of plasma parameter (ρ, Te) as initial conditions. The X-ray emission was calculated by post processing hydrodynamic results with a collisional-radiative model which uses super-configuration average atomic data. The simulation reproduces the main features of the experimental time resolved spectrum.

  16. The development of a high intensity dance performance fitness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Emma; Weller, Peter; Ehrenberg, Shantel; Irvine, Sarah; Quin, Edel; Rafferty, Sonia; Wyon, Matthew; Cox, Carol

    2009-01-01

    While there is currently a validated dance-specific exercise method of measuring aerobic fitness, no such test has been developed to measure high intensity capabilities in dance. The purpose of this study was to initiate an intermittent high intensity dance-specific fitness test. The test was designed to be able to observe changes in heart rate (HR), thereby allowing for a measurement of physical fitness at high intensities. Sixteen professional dancers (4 males and 12 females) volunteered to take part in this study. The fitness test protocol consists of movements that are representative of contemporary dance, and contains exercise and rest periods that mimic the intermittent nature of dance. The participants performed four trials. The physiological variables measured were HR (b.min(-1)) for each one minute bout of the four minute test for all trials, oxygen uptake (VO(2)) throughout the test, and end blood lactate (BLa mmol.L) for each trial. In addition, five of the participants undertook a maximal oxygen uptake treadmill test, and the scores obtained were compared with those from the dance test. Results show HR consistency across each one minute bout of the test and across each of the four trials of testing for all participants, indicating that the test is reliable. There was good reliability between bouts of each trial (typical error as % of CV = 1.5), intraclass "r" = 0.8, and good reliability between the four trials (typical error as % of CV = 2.1), intraclass "r" = 0.82. There were no significant differences between the maximal VO(2) and BLa scores established in the treadmill and dance tests, demonstrating validity. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the high intensity dance-specific test is a reliable and valid means of assessing and monitoring the cardiovascular fitness of dancers. The test allows dancers to be assessed within an environment that they are accustomed to (the studio), using a mode of exercise that is relevant (dance), and it is

  17. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  18. High Performance Human Face Recognition using Independent High Intensity Gabor Wavelet Responses: A Statistical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kar, Arindam; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Nasipuri, Mita; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique by which high-intensity feature vectors extracted from the Gabor wavelet transformation of frontal face images, is combined together with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for enhanced face recognition. Firstly, the high-intensity feature vectors are automatically extracted using the local characteristics of each individual face from the Gabor transformed images. Then ICA is applied on these locally extracted high-intensity feature vectors of the facial images to obtain the independent high intensity feature (IHIF) vectors. These IHIF forms the basis of the work. Finally, the image classification is done using these IHIF vectors, which are considered as representatives of the images. The importance behind implementing ICA along with the high-intensity features of Gabor wavelet transformation is twofold. On the one hand, selecting peaks of the Gabor transformed face images exhibit strong characteristics of spatial locality, scale, and orientation selectivity. Thus these...

  19. HIGH VOLTAGE SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the drivability and energy efficiency of electric vehicle (EV), more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage which makes it necessary to monitor the electric parameters of high voltage system (HVS) to ensure the high voltage safety. A high voltage safety management system is developed to solve this critical issue. Several key electric parameters including pre-charge, contact resistance, insulation resistance and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the presented equivalent models. An electronic unit called high voltage safety controller is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated and the on-line electric parameters monitor strategy is discussed. The real vehicle experiment results indicate that the high voltage safety management system designed is suitable for EV application.

  20. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ju-hyeon; Kim, Nan-soo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle tra...

  1. Interest of Monitoring Diaphragmatic Electrical Activity in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ducharme-Crevier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi is a new minimally invasive bedside technology that was developed for the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA mode of ventilation. In addition to its role in NAVA ventilation, this technology provides the clinician with previously unavailable and essential information on diaphragm activity. In this paper, we review the clinical interests of EAdi in the pediatric intensive care setting. Firstly, the monitoring of EAdi allows the clinician to tailor the ventilatory settings on an individual basis, avoiding frequent overassistance leading potentially to diaphragmatic atrophy. Increased inspiratory EAdi levels can also suggest insufficient support, while a strong tonic activity may reflect the patient efforts to increase its lung volume. EAdi monitoring also allows detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony. It can play a role in evaluation of extubation readiness. Finally, EAdi monitoring provides the clinician with better understanding of the ventilatory capacity of patients with acute neuromuscular disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of these potential benefits.

  2. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) Versus Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation On Microcirculation In Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battecha, Kadria H.; Atya, Azza M.

    2011-09-01

    Reduced microcirculation is a morbid element of neuropathy and one of the most common complications of uncontrolled diabetes. Many physical modalities have gained a considerable attention for enhancing cutaneous microcirculation in diabetic patients and prevent its serious complications. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to compare between the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on microcirculation in diabetic neuropathy. Thirty diabetic polyneuropathic patients ranged in age from 45-60 years participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal number; patients in group (A) received LILT on plantar surface of foot with a dose of 3 J/cm2 and wavelength (904 nm), while those in group (B) received TENS on lower leg for 30 minutes with frequency (2 HZ). Treatment was conducted 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The cutaneous microcirculation was evaluated by Laser Doppler flowmetry at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results revealed that group (A) showed statistically significant increase in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with group (B). So, it was concluded that LILT has to be more efficient than TENS in increasing cutaneous microcirculation in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  3. A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about Electric Potential, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of electric potential and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.…

  4. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  5. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

  6. Plasma instabilities in high electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1994-01-01

    We analyze nonequilibrium screening with nonequilibrium Green function techniques. By employing the generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz to relate the correlation function to the nonequilibrium distribution function, the latter of which is assumed to be a shifted Maxwellian, an analytically tractable...... expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....

  7. Extremely high-intensity laser interactions with fundamental quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A; Hatsagortsyan, K Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-01

    The field of laser-matter interaction traditionally deals with the response of atoms, molecules and plasmas to an external light wave. However, the recent sustained technological progress is opening the possibility of employing intense laser radiation to prompt or substantially influence physical processes beyond atomic-physics energy scales. Available optical laser intensities exceeding $10^{22}\\;\\text{W/cm$^2$}$ can push the fundamental light-electron interaction to the extreme limit where radiation-reaction effects dominate the electron dynamics, can shed light on the structure of the quantum vacuum and can prime the creation of particles like electrons, muons and pions and the corresponding antiparticles. Also, novel sources of intense coherent high-energy photons and laser-based particle colliders can pave the way to nuclear quantum optics and can even allow for potential discovery of new particles beyond the Standard Model. These are the main topics of the present article, which is devoted to a review o...

  8. Estimates of U.S. Commercial Building Electricity Intensity Trends: Issues Related to End-Use and Supply Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2004-09-04

    This report examines measurement issues related to the amount of electricity used by the commercial sector in the U.S. and the implications for historical trends of commercial building electricity intensity (kWh/sq. ft. of floor space). The report compares two (Energy Information Administration) sources of data related to commercial buildings: the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the reporting by utilities of sales to commercial customers (survey Form-861). Over past two decades these sources suggest significantly different trend rates of growth of electricity intensity, with the supply (utility)-based estimate growing much faster than that based only upon the CBECS. The report undertakes various data adjustments in an attempt to rationalize the differences between these two sources. These adjustments deal with: 1) periodic reclassifications of industrial vs. commercial electricity usage at the state level and 2) the amount of electricity used by non-enclosed equipment (non-building use) that is classified as commercial electricity sales. In part, after applying these adjustments, there is a good correspondence between the two sources over the the past four CBECS (beginning with 1992). However, as yet, there is no satisfactory explanation of the differences between the two sources for longer periods that include the 1980s.

  9. Electron cloud instability in high intensity proton rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ohmi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An e^{-}p instability has been observed in some proton rings. The instability, which causes beam loss, limits the performance of the ring. The instability may be serious for 3 and 50 GeV proton storage rings in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. We study the e^{-}p instability in several high intensity proton storage rings operated in the world. This work informs J-PARC of the necessity to cure the instability, for example, by applying a TiN coating on the chamber surface.

  10. Beam instrumentation for future high intense hadron accelerators at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, M.; Hu, M.; Tassotto, G.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Scarpine, V.; Shin, S.; Zagel, J.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    High intensity hadron beams of up to 2 MW beam power are a key element of new proposed experimental facilities at Fermilab. Project X, which includes a SCRF 8 GeV H{sup -} linac, will be the centerpiece of future HEP activities in the neutrino sector. After a short overview of this, and other proposed projects, we present the current status of the beam instrumentation activities at Fermilab with a few examples. With upgrades and improvements they can meet the requirements of the new beam facilities, however design and development of new instruments is needed, as shown by the prototype and conceptual examples in the last section.

  11. Development of High Intensity Beam Emittance Measurement Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Three sets of High Intensity Beam Emittance Measurement Units (HIBEMUs) are being developed at Peking University. They are HIBEMU-2 (slit-wire type, one direction), HIBEMU-3 (Allison scanner type, one direction) and HIBEMU-4 (slit-wire type, two directions). For HIBEMU-2 and HIBEMU-3, more recent work has been done on software redesign in order to measure beam emittance and to draw phase diagram more efficiently and precisely. Software for control and data processing of them were developed in Labveiw environment, trying to improve calculation rationality and to offer user-friendly interface. Mechanical modification was also done for HIBEMU-3, mainly concentrating on the protection of Faraday cups from being overheated by the high intensity beam and also from interference of secondary electrons. This paper will also cover the mechanical structure as well as the software development of HIBEMU-4, which is a two-direction emittance scanner newly designed and manufactured for the high energy beam transport (HEBT) of Peking University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY (PKUNIFTY). At the end of this paper, comparison and analysis of the three HIBEMUs are given to draw forth better design of the future emittance measurement facility.

  12. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapy System and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fucheng; He, Ye; Li, Rui

    2007-05-01

    At the end of last century, a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) tumor therapy system was successfully developed and manufactured in China, which has been already applied to clinical therapy. This article aims to discuss the HIFU therapy system and its application. Detailed research includes the following: power amplifiers for high-power ultrasound, ultrasound transducers with large apertures, accurate 3-D mechanical drives, a software control system (both high-voltage control and low-voltage control), and the B-mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment used for treatment monitoring. Research on the dosage of ultrasound required for tumour therapy in multiple human cases has made it possible to relate a dosage formula, presented in this paper, to other significant parameters such as the volume of thermal tumor solidification, the acoustic intensity (I), and the ultrasound emission time (tn). Moreover, the HIFU therapy system can be applied to the clinical treatment of both benign and malignant tumors in the pelvic and abdominal cavity, such as uterine fibroids, liver cancer and pancreatic carcinoma.

  13. Determinants of electricity consumption intensity in China: analysis of cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, X H; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor; Astorino, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.

  15. High electric field phenomena in insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, J. R.; Sarjeant, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The present study extends previous work to include electron radiation-induced changes in monoisopropyl biphenyl (MIPB)-impregnated polypropylene film as well as the effects of neutron/gamma radiation on dry polypropylene films. Effects that were quite similar were induced by both electron and neutron radiation on the properties of interest of the polypropylene films. Impregnation of the film with MIPB had a mitigatory effect on the degradation of the properties. This report also contains the results of a simultaneous electrical and thermal aging study of a capacitor-grade polypropylene film. The data obtained in this study was fitted to models that will enable realistic prediction of lifetimes under operating conditions.

  16. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  17. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S; Sommer, Toby J; Zimmerman, Julie B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco toxicants. This study is the first to quantify high

  18. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Methods: Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Results: All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Discussion: Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Implications: Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco

  19. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  1. Use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Treating Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenzhiChen; ZhibiaoWang; FengWu; JinBai; HuiZhu; JianzhongZou; KequanLi; FanglinXie; ZhilongWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and side effects of high intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU) in the treatment of malignant solid tumors. METHODS Thirty patients who refused surgery and/or were refractory to chemotherapy were treated by HIFU alone, with the efficacy and side effects monitored as follows: observation of vital organ signs; functional assay of important organs; imaging examinations including: digital subtraction angiography (DSA), CT, MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), large core needle biopsy, complications and metastasis. RESULTS After HIFU therapy, the vital signs remained stable and the functions of the heart, lung, kidney and liver were also normal. DSA images showed that small or larger arteries were not damaged. After a follow-up of 10-38 months(mean 23.1 months), 26 patients(87%) were alive. The volume of the tumor underwent complete regression in 10 patients. Shrinkage of the tumor volume ≥50% was observed in 13 patients. Eight of 13 patients were examined by large core needle biopsy, all showing necrosis and/or fibrosis though 3 patients(10%) had local recurrence. Two of these were retreated again by HIFU and the locally recurrent tumors were controlled. New metastases developed in 5 patients after H IFU. Two patients suffered from peripheral nerve injuriy and they have recovered during the follow-up. One patient developed skin injury. CONCLUSION High intensity focused ultrasound is effective and safe in the treatment of malignant solid tumors.

  2. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  3. High Alumina Refractory Bricks for Electric Arc Furnace Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the sort, technical requirement, test method, inspection rules, marking, packing, transportation, storage and quality certification of high alumina refractory bricks for electric arc furnace roofs.

  4. Control of the Earth's electric field intensity through solar wind modulation of galactic cosmic radiation: Support for a proposed atmospheric electrical sun-weather mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ionospheric potential and galactic cosmic radiation, found to be inversely correlated with the solar wind velocity are examined as being germane to weather modification. Since the ionospheric potential is proportional to the fair weather electric field intensity and cosmic radiation is the dominant source of atmospheric ionization, it is concluded that the Earth's overall electric field varies in phase with atmospheric ionization and that the latter is modulated by the solar wind. A proposed mechanism, in which solar control of ionizing radiation influences atmospheric electrification and thus possibly cloud physical processes is discussed. An experimental approach to critically test the proposed mechanism through comparison of the temporal variation of the Earth's electric field with conditions in the interplanetary medium is outlined.

  5. Efficacy of high intensity atorvastatin versus moderate intensity atorvastatin for acute coronary syndrome patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Xu, Yueqiao; Hao, Hengjian; Yin, Chunlin; Xu, Ji; Li, Jing; Wang, Yanling; Xu, Dong

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether more benefits can be achieved through high intensity atorvastatin compared with moderate intensity atorvastatin in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This was a randomized controlled trail. Total 591 ACS patients with DM who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled, 297 in high intensity atorvastatin group (40mg/day) and 294 in moderate intensity atorvastatin group (20mg/day). The primary end point was one-year incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, including cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularization). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the association between clinical endpoints and atorvastatin treatment. At the end of one-year, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was lower in high intensity group than in moderate group (1.6±0.6 vs 1.8±0.6, p=0.041). MACE in high intensity group decreased 44.5% than moderate group (8.4% vs. 14.6%, p=0.018). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for MACE in patients with atorvastatin 40mg/d was lower compared to patients with atorvastatin 20mg/d (HR [95% CI] 0.61 [0.36 to 0.91], p=0.026). The rates of adverse events were no significantly different between the two groups. For ACS patients with DM, high intensity atorvastatin induced better long-term outcomes compared with moderate intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation And Measurement Of High Contrast Ultrashort Intense Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Konoplev, O A

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, the generation and measurement of high contrast, intense, ultrashort pulses have been studied. Various factors affecting the contrast and pulse shape of ultrashort light pulses from a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system are identified. The level of contrast resulting from influence of these factors is estimated. Methods for improving and controlling the pulse shape and increasing the contrast are discussed. Ultrahigh contrast, 1-ps pulses were generated from a CPA system with no temporal structure up to eleven orders of magnitude. This is eight orders of magnitude higher contrast than the original pulse. This contrast boost was achieved using two techniques. One is the optical pulse cleaning based on the nonlinear birefringence of the chirping fiber and applied to the pulses before amplification. The other is the fast saturable absorber. The fast saturable absorber was placed after amplification and compression of the pulse. The measurements of high-contrast, ultrashort pulse with h...

  7. High-tension Electrical Burns: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, A.D.; Dabkana, T.M.; Tahir, C.; Naaya, H.U.

    2009-01-01

    High-tension electrical burns are a rare but devastating form of injury. The objective of this case report is to bring to the fore the severity of this rare form of injury and highlight the benefits of active surgical management of such a condition. We report the cases of two patients who were managed for high-tension electrical burns and highlight the main features of their presentation and management. Both patients needed urgent resuscitation and subsequent multiple amputations and disartic...

  8. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging, maximal speed training in professional team sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-05-01

    During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ{sup 2}, where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  10. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Application of High Intensity THz Pulses for Gas High Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Emeric; Hebling, János; Dombi, Péter; Farkas, Győző; Varjú, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    The main effects of an intense THz pulse on gas high harmonic generation are studied via trajectory analysis on the single atom level. Spectral and temporal modifications to the generated radiation are highlighted.

  12. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-04-28

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  13. Semicircular Canal Pressure Changes During High-intensity Acoustic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Anne K; Banakis Hartl, Renee M; Greene, Nathaniel T; Benichoux, Victor; Mattingly, Jameson K; Cass, Stephen P; Tollin, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Acoustic stimulation generates measurable sound pressure levels in the semicircular canals. High-intensity acoustic stimuli can cause hearing loss and balance disruptions. To examine the propagation of acoustic stimuli to the vestibular end-organs, we simultaneously measured fluid pressure in the cochlea and semicircular canals during both air- and bone-conducted sound presentation. Five full-cephalic human cadaveric heads were prepared bilaterally with a mastoidectomy and extended facial recess. Vestibular pressures were measured within the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, and referenced to intracochlear pressure within the scala vestibuli with fiber-optic pressure probes. Pressures were measured concurrently with laser Doppler vibrometry measurements of stapes velocity during stimulation with both air- and bone-conduction. Stimuli were pure tones between 100 Hz and 14 kHz presented with custom closed-field loudspeakers for air-conducted sounds and via commercially available bone-anchored device for bone-conducted sounds. Pressures recorded in the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals in response to sound stimulation were equal to or greater in magnitude than those recorded in the scala vestibuli (up to 20 dB higher). The pressure magnitudes varied across canals in a frequency-dependent manner. High sound pressure levels were recorded in the semicircular canals with sound stimulation, suggesting that similar acoustical energy is transmitted to the semicircular canals and the cochlea. Since these intralabyrinthine pressures exceed intracochlear pressure levels, our results suggest that the vestibular end-organs may also be at risk for injury during exposure to high-intensity acoustic stimuli known to cause trauma in the auditory system.

  14. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, T.

    1997-11-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs.

  15. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, T.

    1997-11-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs.

  16. Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-03-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

  17. High-intensity molecular harmonic generation without ionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Chen Gao; Guo Fu-Ming; Li Su-Yu; Chen Ji-Gen; Yang Yu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation from H2+ in an infrared laser field.Our numerical simulations show that a highly efficient plateau structure exists in the molecular harmonic spectrum.Under the action of the infrared laser pulse,the bound electronic wave packet in a potential well has enough time to tunnel through the effective potential barrier,which is formed by the molecular potential and the infrared laser field,and then recombine with the neighboring nucleus emitting a harmonic photon.During the entire dynamic process,because the wave packet is mainly located in the effective potential,the diffusion effect is of no significance,and thus a highly efficient harmonic plateau can be achieved.Specifically,the cut-off frequency of the plateau is linearly scaled with the peak amplitude of the infrared laser electric field,which may open another route to examine the internuclear distance of the molecule.Furthermore,one may detect the molecular bond lengths using the harmonic plateau.

  18. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  19. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such devices. Fundamentally,...

  20. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    , such as muscle fibre type composition and power reserve, relate to endurance time. Twenty males underwent testing to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), power output corresponding to 90% of VO(2max) at 80 rpm (W90), FCPR at W90, percentage of slow twitch muscle fibres (% MHC I), maximal leg power...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables......The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables...

  1. Vortex dynamics and shear layer instability in high intensity cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Cerfon, Antoine J

    2016-01-01

    We show that the space charge dynamics of high intensity beams in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field in cyclotrons is described by the two-dimensional Euler equations for an incompressible fluid. This analogy with fluid dynamics gives a unified and intuitive framework to explain the beam spiraling and beam break up behavior observed in experiments and in simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that beam break up is the result of a classical instability occurring in fluids subject to a sheared flow. We give scaling laws for the instability and predict the nonlinear evolution of beams subject to it. Our work suggests that cyclotrons may be uniquely suited for the experimental study of shear layers and vortex distributions that are not achievable in Penning-Malmberg traps.

  2. Simplified shielding calculation system for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumura, Tomomi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A simplified shielding calculation system is developed for applying conceptual shielding design of facilities in the joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators. The system is composed of neutron transmission calculation part for bulk shielding using simplified formulas: Moyer model and Tesch's formula, and neutron skyshine calculation part using an empirical formula: Stapleton's formula. The system is made with the Microsoft Excel software for user's convenience. This report provides a manual for the system as well as calculation conditions used in the calculation such as Moyer model's parameters. In this report preliminary results based on data at December 8, 1999, are also shown as an example. (author)

  3. Repeated high-intensity exercise in a professional rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien J; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David J

    2011-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe the frequency and duration of repeated high-intensity exercise (RHIE) bouts in Australian professional rugby league (National Rugby League) and whether these occurred at critical times during a game. Time motion analysis was used during 5 competition matches; 1 player from 3 positional groups (hit-up forward, adjustable, and outside back) was analyzed in each match. The ranges of RHIE bouts for the 3 positional groups were hit-up forwards 9-17, adjustables 2-8, and outside backs 3-7. Hit-up forwards were involved in a significantly greater number of RHIE bouts (p rugby league players are likely to encounter.

  4. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Variale

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  5. New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Ian Craig; Vine, Sarah Anne; Blacker, Sam David; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effect of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on high-intensity intermittent running and postrunning lactate responses. Thirteen active males (age: 25 ± 4 yrs, height: 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 81 ± 14 kg, VO2max: 56 ± 4 ml·kg-1·min-1, vVO2max: 17.6 ± 0.8 km·h-1) performed a treadmill running protocol to exhaustion, which consisted of stages with 6 × 19 s of sprints with 15 s of low-intensity running between sprints. Interstage rest time was 1 min and stages were repeated with increasing sprint speeds. Subjects consumed capsuled NZBC extract (300 mg·day-1 CurraNZ; containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo for 7 days (double-blind, randomized, crossover design, wash-out at least 14 days). Blood lactate was collected for 30 min postexhaustion. NZBC increased total running distance by 10.6% (NZBC: 4282 ± 833 m, placebo: 3871 ± 622 m, p = .02), with the distance during sprints increased by 10.8% (p = .02). Heart rate, oxygen uptake, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were not different between conditions for the first 4 stages completed by all subjects. At exhaustion, blood lactate tended to be higher for NZBC (NZBC: 6.01 ± 1.07 mmol·L-1, placebo: 5.22 ± 1.52 mmol·L-1, p = .07). There was a trend for larger changes in lactate following 15 min (NZBC: -2.89 ± 0.51 mmol·L-1, placebo: -2.46 ± 0.39 mmol·L-1, p = .07) of passive recovery. New Zealand blackcurrant extract (CurraNZ) may enhance performance in sports characterized by high-intensity intermittent exercise as greater distances were covered with repeated sprints, there was higher lactate at exhaustion, and larger changes in lactate during early recovery after repeated sprints to exhaustion.

  6. Comparison of Square and Radial Geometries for High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Fast, Brian R.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.; Jalics, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to further advance a realizable form of wireless power transmission (WPT), high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) has been developed for both space and terrestrial applications. Unique optical-to-electrical receivers are employed with near infrared (IR-A) continuous-wave (CW) semiconductor lasers to experimentally investigate the HILPB system. In this paper, parasitic feedback, uneven illumination and the implications of receiver array geometries are considered and experimental hardware results for HILPB are presented. The TEM00 Gaussian energy profile of the laser beam presents a challenge to the effectiveness of the receiver to perform efficient photoelectric conversion, due to the resulting non-uniform illumination of the photovoltaic cell arrays. In this investigation, the geometry of the receiver is considered as a technique to tailor the receiver design to accommodate the Gaussian beam profile, and in doing so it is demonstrated that such a methodology is successful in generating bulk receiver output power levels reaching 25 W from 7.2 sq cm of photovoltaic cells. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers to achieve a 1.0 sq m receiver capable of generating over 30 kW of electrical power. This type of system would enable long range optical "refueling" of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion. In addition, a smaller HILPB receiver aperture size could be utilized to establish a robust optical communications link within environments containing high levels of background radiance, to achieve high signal to noise ratios.

  7. Electric rail gun projectile acceleration to high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D. P.; Mccormick, T. J.; Barber, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electric rail accelerators are being investigated for application in electric propulsion systems. Several electric propulsion applications require that the rail accelerator be capable of launching projectiles at velocities above 10 km/s. An experimental program was conducted to develop rail accelerator technology for high velocity projectile launch. Several 6 mm bore, 3 m long rail accelerators were fabricated. Projectiles with a mass of 0.2 g were accelerated by plasmas, carrying currents up to 150 kA. Experimental design and results are described. Results indicate that the accelerator performed as predicted for a fraction of the total projectile acceleration. The disparity between predicted and measured results are discussed.

  8. High Dynamic Range Electric Field Sensor for Electromagnetic Pulse Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Che-Yun; Lee, Beom Suk; Zhang, Xingyu; Chen, Ray T

    2014-01-01

    We design a high dynamic range electric field sensor based on domain inverted electro-optic (E-O) polymer Y-fed directional coupler for electromagnetic wave detection. This electrode-less, all optical, wideband electrical field sensor is fabricated using standard processing for E-O polymer photonic devices. Experimental results demonstrate effective detection of electric field from 16.7V/m to 750KV/m at a frequency of 1GHz, and spurious free measurement range of 70dB.

  9. Fabrication of highly conductive carbon nanotube fibers for electrical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengmei; Li, Can; Wei, Jinquan; Xu, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Zelin; Cui, Xian; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential for use as electrical wires because of their outstanding electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we fabricate lightweight CNT fibers with electrical conductivity as high as that of stainless steel from macroscopic CNT films by drawing them through diamond wire-drawing dies. The entangled CNT bundles are straightened by suffering tension, which improves the alignment of the fibers. The loose fibers are squeezed by the diamond wire-drawing dies, which reduces the intertube space and contact resistance. The CNT fibers prepared by drawing have an electrical conductivity as high as 1.6 × 106 s m-1. The fibers are very stable when kept in the air and under cyclic tensile test. A prototype of CNT motor is demonstrated by replacing the copper wires with the CNT fibers.

  10. Nanobiotechnology promotes noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasound cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-01-07

    The successful cancer eradication in a noninvasive manner is the ultimate objective in the fight against cancer. As a "bloodless scalpel," high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is regarded as one of the most promising and representative noninvasive therapeutic modalities for cancer surgery. However, large-scale clinical applications of HIFU are still in their infancy because of critical efficiency and safety issues which remain to be solved. Fortunately, recently developed nanobiotechnology provides an alternative efficient approach to improve such important issues in HIFU, especially for cancer therapy. This Research News presents the very recent exciting progresses on the elaborate design and fabrication of organic, inorganic, and organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles for enhancing the HIFU ablation efficiency against tumor tissues. It is highly expected that this Research News can arouse more extensive research enthusiasm on the development of functional nanomaterials for highly efficient HIFU-based synergistic therapy, which will give a promising noninvasive therapeutic modality for the successful cancer therapy with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues, due to the noninvasive and site-specific therapeutic features of HIFU.

  11. Bunching high intensity proton beams with a CH-DTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Malte; Claessens, Christine; Heilmann, Manuel; Hinrichs, Ole; Koser, Daniel; Meusel, Oliver; Noll, Daniel; Podlech, Holger; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Seibel, Anja [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) will provide ultra short neutron pulses at high intensities and repetition rates. The facility is under construction with an expected first beam by the end of 2014. A 5-Gap CH rebuncher is installed behind a coupled RFQ/IH-DTL combination at the end of the LINAC section between two magnetic quadrupole triplets. It will be used for varying the final energy between 1.8 and 2.2 MeV, as well as for focusing the proton beam bunch longitudinally, to compensate RF defocusing effects and huge space charge forces at currents up to 200 mA at the final stage of extension. Therefore high current beam dynamic simulations are in progress. They include benchmarking of different beam dynamic codes like LORASR, TraceWin and Bender (a new PIC tracking code developed at IAP), as well as validating the results by measurements. Detailed error tolerance studies, thermal simulations and examination of multipole field impact, due to the cavity geometry, are also done. Furthermore, this CH rebuncher serves as prototype for CH cavity operation at MYRRHA (Belgium), an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation of high level nuclear waste. After copper-plating the cavity, RF conditioning will start in spring 2014.

  12. Influence of illumination intensity on the electrical characteristics and photoresponsivity of the Ag/ZnO Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, RuiJuan; Zhang, XinAn, E-mail: xinanzhang@henu.edu.cn; Zhao, JunWei; Li, RuoPing; Zhang, WeiFeng

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO Schottky diodes were fabricated. • The electrical parameters of the diodes were obtained and analyzed. • The electrical properties under UV illuminations were discussed. - Abstract: In this article, the ZnO thin films were grown by RF-magnetron sputtering on ITO glass substrates. The Schottky diodes with the configuration of Ag/ZnO/ITO have been fabricated and it has been observed that the diodes exhibit a good rectification. The structural and optical properties of the ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and spectrophotometry. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the Ag/ZnO diode were measured under various illuminations. We use the forward bias current–voltage measurements to determine the electrical parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance of the diode. The Ag/ZnO Schottky diode exhibits a non-ideal behavior due to the interfacial layer, the interface states and the series resistance. It is found that the barrier height and ideality factor values are strong functions of illumination intensity. The results show that the ideality factor and the barrier height decrease with increasing illumination intensity. The values of R{sub s} obtained from Cheung and Norde methods are decreased with increasing illumination intensity. Photoresponse characteristics of the diode have been analyzed and it is clear that the diode shows a fast response. It is evaluated that the prepared diodes can be used as optoelectronic devices.

  13. Observation of fine particle aggregating behavior induced by high intensity conditioning using high speed CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aggregating behavior between bubbles and particles induced by high intensity conditioning (HIC) was studied using high speed CCD technique. Bubble size measurement was conducted, and the attachment behavior between bubbles and particles in HIC cell and flotation cell were observed. The results show that in HIC cell, high intensity conditioning creates an advantage environment for the formation of small size bubble due to hydrodynamic cavitations, and these fine bubbles have high probability of bubble-particle collision,which will enhance fine particle flotation. The bubble-particle attachment experiments indicate that in high intensity conditioning cell, a lot of fine bubbles are produced in situ on the surface of fine particles, and most of fine particles are aggregated under the bridging action of fine bubbles. The observation of bubble-particle interaction in flotation cell illustrates that aggregates created by HIC can be loaded more easily by big air bubble in flotation cell than those created by normal conditioning.

  14. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  15. High-order harmonic generation at high laser intensities beyond the tunnel regime

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Hernández, J A; Lewenstein, M; Zaïr, A; Roso, L

    2014-01-01

    We present studies of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) at laser intensities well above saturation. We use driving laser pulses which present a particular electron dynamics in the turn-on stage. Our results predict an increasing on the harmonic yield, after an initial dropping, when the laser intensity is increased. This fact contradicts the general belief of a progressive degradation of the harmonic emission at ultrahigh intensities. We have identified a particular set of trajectories which emerges in the turn-on stage of these singular laser pulses, responsible of the unexpected growth on the harmonic efficiency at this high intensity regime. Our study combines two complementary approaches: classical analysis and full quantum mechanical calculations resulting from the numerical integration of the 3-dimensional time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation complemented with the time-frequency analysis.

  16. Echinococcus granulosus: protoscolicidal effect of high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Junan; Zhao, Hailong; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Weihua; Ye, Bin

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a new non-invasive technique which can cause cell death and tissue necrosis by focusing high-energy ultrasonic waves on a single location. The aim of our work is to investigate the damaging effect of HIFU on Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices, as well as its inhibitory effect on growth of hydatid cysts derived from protoscolices. The damaging effect of HIFU on protoscolices was investigated by following parasite mortality after irradiation, while the inhibitory effect was investigated by infection experiments in vivo. The results demonstrated that HIFU was able to damage protoscolices and the protoscolicidal effect was dose-dependent and showed late-onset. The growth of protoscolices that survived the exposure to HIFU was obviously suppressed in vitro, and the mean weight of hydatid cysts resulting from such protoscolices in the experimental group was less than that in controls. Evidences including the protoscolicidal effect, fragmentized protoscolices and low post exposure temperatures, suggest that cavitation may contribute to the protoscolicidal effect of HIFU. In addition, the structure of the germinal membrane in cysts developing from the irradiated protoscolices was not as normal or intact as that from non-irradiated ones, and morphological changes related to degeneration were observed, suggesting that HIFU could prevent protoscolices from developing normal germinal membrane and consequently stop the proliferation of secondary hydatid cysts. HIFU demonstrated damaging effect on protoscolices, inhibited the growth of protoscolices in vitro and in vivo, and could be a possible therapeutic option for cystic echinococcosis.

  17. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Shvets

    2008-10-03

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  18. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika;

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance...... in sedentary women with mild hypertension. Adaptations are similar with high- and moderate-intensity training, despite markedly less total time spent and distance covered in the high-intensity group....

  19. High school students' representations and understandings of electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields postinstruction as indicated by students' performance on textbook-style questions. It has, however, inadequately captured student ideas expressed in other situations yet informative to educational research. In this study, we explore students' ideas of electric fields preinstruction as shown by students' representations produced in open-ended activities. 92 participant students completed a worksheet that involved drawing comic strips about electric charges as characters of a cartoon series. Three students who had spontaneously produced arrow diagrams were interviewed individually after class. We identified nine ideas related to electric fields that these three students spontaneously leveraged in the comic strip activity. In this paper, we describe in detail each idea and its situated context. As most research in the literature has understood students as having relatively fixed conceptions and mostly identified divergences in those conceptions from canonical targets, this study shows students' reasoning to be more variable in particular moments, and that variability includes common sense resources that can be productive for learning about electric fields.

  20. A 3 GHz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Dehler, M; Godot, J C

    1996-01-01

    For the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) at CERN a new rf gun with a laser driven photocathode is under construction. The new rf gun will replace the present 11/2 cell gun and will consist of 21/2 cells accelerating the beam to a momentum of 7.0 MeV/c with an electric field strength of 100 MV/m. The strong space-charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches are contained by radial and longitudinal rf focusing in the gun. The rf gun under construction has been optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating rf structure and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 21/2 cell gun. The beam loading of the rf gun, by a train of 48 bunches with 21 nC charge each, causes a strong energy decay accompanied by an increase of the flight time for the bunches with lower energy. These effects can be corrected by slightly shifting the acceleration frequency of the gun. The experimental results...

  1. Effects of high external electric fields on protein conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bramanti, Alessandro; Maruccio, Giuseppe; del Mercato, Loretta Laureana; Chiuri, Rocco; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross

    2005-06-01

    Resistance of biomolecules to high electric fields is a main concern for nanobioelectronics/nanobiosensing applications, and it is also a relevant issue from a fundamental perspective, to understand the dielectric properties and structural dynamics of proteins. In nanoscale devices, biomolecules may experience electric fields as high as 107 V/m in order to elicit charge transport/transfer. Understanding the effects of such fields on their structural integrity is thus crucial to assess the reliability of biomolecular devices. In this study, we show experimental evidence for the retention of native-like fold pattern by proteins embedded in high electric fields. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, deposited onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying high static electric fields (up to 106-107 V/m). The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. This behavior is also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the intrinsic intra-protein electric fields. As the general features of such inner fields are not peculiar of azurin, the conclusions presented here should have general validity.

  2. Electrical Resistivity and Thermodynamic Properties of Iron Under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Ho Khac; Hai, Tran Thi; Hong, Nguyen Thi; Sang, Ngo Dinh; Tuyen, Nguyen Viet

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the electrical resistivity and thermodynamic properties of iron under high pressure have been investigated by using the semi-empirical approach. The recently well-established Grüneisen parameter expressions have been applied to derive the Debye frequency and temperature under compression. Using these results combined with the Bloch-Grüneisen law, the resistivity of iron has also been determined up to Earth's core pressures. We show that the electrical resistivity diminished gradually with pressure and saturates at high pressure. Our model gives low electrical resistivity values which are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The low resistivity may be attributed to the well-known resistivity saturation effect at high temperature, which was not considered in earlier models of core conductivity.

  3. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  4. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  5. How do electricity consumption excluding power intensive manufacturing, react on changes in the spot price?; Hvordan reagerer stroemforbruket i alminnelig forsyning paa endringer i spotpris?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, Magne; Pettersen, Finn Erik L.

    2011-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to analyse how electricity consumption excluding power intensive manufacturing will react on changes in the spot price on the basis of monthly data of the period 1996-2010 and an econometric error correction model. General consumption accounts for approximately 70 percent of the total net consumption of electricity in Norway. Households, services and other manufacturing than the power intensive account for the majority of this consumption. In order to estimate the net effect of the spot price on general electricity consumption, it is important to control for other variables that also affect the consumption. Since much of the electricity in general consumption is used for heating, one obvious and important explanatory variable is temperature. In addition to electricity price and temperature we assume that general consumption also depends on economic activity, price on light heating oil, the share of working days in the current month and a summer holiday dummy. In the consumption equation price can not be considered as an exogenous explanatory variable, since consumption affects price and vice versa. Hence, we have added a price equation that can be considered as an inverted supply equation. Both the consumption and the supply equation are specified dynamically in order to allow for slow adjustment of supply and consumption. The two equations of the model are estimated by two stage least square (2SLS). Full information maximum likelihood (FIML) is the most efficient estimation method in large samples, but a crucial assumption for consistent FIML-estimation is that the disturbance terms are normally distributed. A Jarque-Bera test of the error terms does not support this assumption in our data. R2 in the consumption equation is high. 96 per cent of the variation in the relative change in consumption is explained. In the price equation R2 is considerably lower. We find that if the spot price for Norway increases by 1 percent from one month

  6. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    S Hussain; Macaluso, A; Pearson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged into the clinical environment has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superi...

  7. Electric Insulation Detection Method for High-voltage Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiajun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle of partial discharge detection is that through partial bridged discharge under high voltage electric field, it detects the inner air-filled cavity of high-voltage insulators. And it is a nondestructive detection method based on discharge magnitude to judge the insulation quality. The detecting system that adopts the partial discharge detection is more rigorous than testing system for electricity products, which must have small discharge capacity and higher sensitivity. This paper describes the principles of partial discharge detection and analysis insulation detection.

  8. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  9. High intensity ultrasound modified ovalbumin: Structure, interface and gelation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenfei; Wang, Yuntao; Zhang, Chunlan; Wan, Jiawei; Shah, Bakht Ramin; Pei, Yaqiong; Zhou, Bin; Li, Jin; Li, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Influence of high intensity ultrasound (HIUS) on the structure and properties of ovalbumin (OVA) were investigated. It was found that the subunits and secondary structure of OVA did not change significantly with HIUS treatment from the electrophoretic patterns and circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. The amount of free sulfhydryl groups increased and intrinsic fluorescence spectra analysis indicated changes in the tertiary structure and partial unfold of OVA after sonication increased. Compared with the untreated OVA, HIUS treatment increased the emulsifying activity and foaming ability, and decreased interface tension (oil-water and air-water interface), which due to the increased surface hydrophobicity and decreased the surface net charge in OVA, while the emulsifying and foaming stability had no remarkable differences. The increased particle size may be attributed to formation of protein aggregates. Moreover, the gelation temperatures of HIUS-treated samples were higher than the untreated OVA according to the temperature sweep model rheology, and this effect was consistent with the increased in surface hydrophobicity for ultrasound treated OVA. These changes in functional properties of OVA would promote its application in food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of glaucoma with high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Lafon, Cyril

    2015-05-01

    Glaucoma is a common disease mainly due to an increase in pressure inside the eye, leading to a progressive destruction of the optic nerve, potentially to blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the result of a balance between production of liquid that fills the eye--aqueous humour--and its resorption. All treatments for glaucoma aim to reduce IOP and can therefore have two mechanisms of action: reducing aqueous humour production by the partial destruction or medical inhibition of the ciliary body--the anatomical structure responsible for production of aqueous humour--or facilitating the evacuation of aqueous humour from the eye. Several physical methods can be used to destroy the ciliary body, e.g. laser, cryotherapy, microwave. All these methods have two major drawbacks: they are non-selective for the organ to be treated and they have an unpredictable dose–effect relationship. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be used to coagulate the ciliary body and avoid these drawbacks. A commercially available device was marketed in the 1980s, but later abandoned, essentially for technical reasons. A smaller circular device using miniaturised transducers was recently developed and proposed for clinical practice. Experimental studies have shown selective coagulation necrosis of the treated ciliary body. The first three clinical trials in humans have shown that this device was well tolerated and allowed a significant, predictable and sustained reduction of IOP. The aim of this contribution is to present a summary of the work concerning the use of HIFU to treat glaucoma.

  11. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Telis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months’ follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon.

  12. Electric propulsion - A high energy capability for solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of spacecraft electric (ion thruster) propulsion are briefly reviewed. Attention is given to the inner and outer planet applications of electric (and solar electric) propulsion. Electric propulsion is considered as a stepping stone to nuclear electric propulsion.

  13. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS{sub 2}, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support.

  14. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS{sub 2}, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support.

  15. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND CASTRATION FOR BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书文; 和新盈; 石景森; 赵东利; 李明众; 王诚; 薛文华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of external high-intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU) castration for breast cancerous patients after mastectomy if they are at a high risk of recurrence. Methods: We recruited 52 consecutive patients with primary operable breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with excision of regional lymph nodes. Patients were positive for ER and PR immuno- cytochemical staining, node-positive, un-menopause, over 40 years old and were divided into two groups randomly. For castration, 26 patients received one or two times of HIFU treatment within five days, and the other patients received radiotherapy with DT 18Gy/9 f/11days. During and after the treatment, local changes and systemic response of the patients were observed. Results: After 1 month treatment, levels of serum E1 and E2 were significantly decreased compared to before treatment in HIFU groups (P<0.01 and P<0.001). The same changes were occurred in radiotherapy(RT) groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The levels of serum E1 or E2 in RT groups were higher than in HIFU groups (P<0.05). The symptom distribution of 'climacteric syndrome' of HIFU groups were significantly different from RT groups (P<0.01). The follow-up time was 4 months. The incidence of amenorrhea was 100% in all patients. No serious complications were seen. The temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and respiratory rate of the patients were almost normal. Conclusion: We have shown that the use of HIFU in the castrating of patients with breast cancer is feasible, safe and effective. This technology may provide a rapid noninvasive alterative to conventional bilateral oophorectomy or RT castration.

  16. Magnetospheric effects in atmospheric electricity at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilov, O. I.; Kasatkina, E. A.; Frank-Kamenetsky, A. V.; Raspopov, O. M.; Vasiljev, A. N.; Struev, A. G.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the vertical atmospheric electric field (Ez) made at auroral station Apatity (geomagnetic latitude: 63.8) and polar cap station Vostok, Antarctica (geomagnetic latitude: -89.3) in 2001-2002 have been analyzed. The measurements were made by a high-latitude computer-aided complex installed at Apatity in 2001. It consists of three spatially placed microbarographs for measurements of atmospheric waves, a device for air conductivity measurement and a device for measurement of vertical component of the atmospheric electric field. The computer-aided system permits to get information with a frequency of five times per second. The ground level atmospheric electric field was found to have systematic local diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal variations of atmospheric potential gradient were found to have a departure from the Carnegie curve. A distinct difference in the diurnal variation of atmospheric electric field has been observed also between disturbed (Kp>30) and extremely quiet (Kplatitude electric field variations appear to be the result of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Besides, we have found the similarity between the diurnal course of the atmospheric electric field under the quiet geomagnetic conditions and the diurnal variation of galactic cosmic rays. These results have been explained in terms of calculated effective Bz component of the interpalnetary magnetic field arising due to variation of the geomagnetic dipole axis inclination during the Earth's rotation. The results of analysis of the influence of extreme weather conditions (rain, snow, snowstorm, stormclouds, thunderstorms, lightning) on atmospheric electricity (electric field and conductivity) are also discussed. This work was supported by EC (grant INTAS 97-31008) and RFBR (grant 01-05-64850).

  17. Effects of the structure asymmetry on optical responses in GaAs double quantum dots under intense laser and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Doina

    2016-10-01

    The effects of the potential shape asymmetry on the nonlinear optical absorption and optical rectification in GaAs double quantum dots under intense non-resonant laser field and static electric field were investigated comparatively using the effective mass approximation and the compact density-matrix formalism under steady state conditions. The obtained results show that: (i) for both systems, the optical spectra are redshifted with the increase of the laser intensity only in the presence of the electric field, exceptions appearing at the highest considered laser intensity for both systems and at low laser field intensity for the asymmetric system; (ii) the augment of the static field intensity blueshifts the optical spectra of both systems; (iii) the spectra of the asymmetric system are displaced toward higher energies and show a shoulder-like feature at a given electric field value; (iv) the optical rectification spectra are more intense for the symmetric system.

  18. High School Students' Understandings and Representations of the Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the understandings and representations of the electric field expressed by Chinese high school students ages 15 to 16 who have not yet received high school-level physics instruction. The literature has reported students' ideas of the electric field post-instruction as indicated by their performance on textbook-style questionnaires. However, by relying on measures such as questionnaires, previous research has inadequately captured the thinking process that led students to answer questions in the ways that they did. The present study portrays the beginning of this process by closely examining students' understandings pre-instruction. The participants in this study were asked to engage in a lesson that included informal group tasks that involved playing a Web-based hockey game that replicated an electric field and drawing comic strips that used charges as characters. The lesson was videotaped, students' work was collected, and three students were interviewed afterward to ascertain more det...

  19. LCA of electricity systems with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; O' Dwyer, C. O.; Flynn, D.

    Electricity systems are shifting from being based on fossil fuels towards renewable sources to enhance energy security and mitigate climate change. However, by introducing high shares of variable renewables - such as wind and solar - dispatchable power plants are required to vary their output...... to fulfill the remaining electrical demand, potentially increasing their environmental impacts [1,2]. In this study the environmental impacts of potential short-term future electricity systems in Ireland with high shares of wind power (35-50% of total installed capacity) were evaluated using life cycle...... considered: while not outweighing the benefits from increasing wind energy, cycling emissions are not negligible and should thus be systematically included (i.e. by using emission factors per unit of fuel input rather than per unit of power generated). Cycling emissions increased with the installed wind...

  20. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C., E-mail: rodriguez@ganil.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Caamaño, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Farget, F.; Grinyer, G.F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Ramos, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Suzuki, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2014-12-21

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a {sup 136}Xe beam are presented.

  1. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M.; Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Grinyer, G. F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Ramos, D.; Suzuki, D.

    2014-12-01

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a 136Xe beam are presented.

  2. High-speed operation of optical exclusive OR circuit based on balanced detection and intensity modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Takiguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the evaluated results of an optical exclusive OR (XOR circuit for high-speed binary signals, which operates based on balanced detection and intensity modulation. This circuit partly adopts simple electronics in order to achieve simple configuration and operation. Two input optical binary signals into a balanced photo detector produce an electrical signal for directly driving a modulator. The modulator modulates the lightwave from a laser diode and generates optical XOR output of the two input optical signals. After briefly explaining its configuration and operating principle, We demonstrate some experimental results to show its potential. We show its successful operation at 40 Gbit/s binary signals including bit error rate measurement.

  3. New type high-index dielectric nanosensors based on the scattering intensity shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiahao; Liu, Pu; Lin, Zhaoyong; Yang, Guowei

    2016-03-01

    Sensing is regarded as one of the most important applications of noble metal-based nanoplasmonics. However, all previous designs have been based on the wavelength-shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance, in which the sensitivity is intrinsically limited by the low quality factors induced by metal losses, and meanwhile the large ohmic loss, high cost and inevitable toxicity and biofouling for detection in vivo greatly hinder their further applications in biosensors. Beyond noble metals, high-refractive index dielectric materials (HRDMs) like silicon with low-loss and strong magnetic response have drawn more attention. Here, for the first time, we proposed a HRDM nanosphere as a new nanosensor for biomolecule detection, and experimentally demonstrated a HRDM sensor working on the intensity-shift but not wavelength-shift of the scattering. The sensing mechanism based on the synergistic effect of the broadening electric mode shift of HRDMs and the Kerker's scattering intensity-shift is beneficial to achieve higher sensitivity. We validated the efficacy of our sensor to detect refractive index changes and trace amounts of streptavidin molecules, and the sensitivity can reach 27 times as high as the highest sensitivity reported to date for nanoplasmonic structures. These findings showed that monitoring the change of the scattering intensity of HRDM nanostructures is superior to monitoring the wavelength-shift of nanoplasmonic structures, as is widely used in nanoplasmonic sensors, for biosensing, meaning HRDM nanosensors could be an important tool in biomolecule detection.Sensing is regarded as one of the most important applications of noble metal-based nanoplasmonics. However, all previous designs have been based on the wavelength-shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance, in which the sensitivity is intrinsically limited by the low quality factors induced by metal losses, and meanwhile the large ohmic loss, high cost and inevitable toxicity and

  4. Behavior of Rubber Materials under Exposure to High Electric Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, M,

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high electrical stress on rubber materials is investigated by performing breakdown tests and tracking resistance tests on selected samples. The study is focused on the relationship between the dielectric strength and the thickness of the samples, as well as the influence of the inte...

  5. Atmospheric Electric Field Measurements at 100 Hz and High Frequency Electric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Ricardo; Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Matthews, James; Bennett, Alec; Chubb, John

    2016-04-01

    Spectral response of Atmospheric Electric Potential Gradient (PG), symmetric to the Atmospheric Electric Field, gives important information about phenomena affecting these measurements with characteristic time-scales that appear in the spectra as specific periodicities. This is the case of urban pollution that has a clear weekly dependence and reveals itself on PG measurements by a ~7 day periodicity (Silva et al., 2014). While long-term time-scales (low frequencies) have been exhaustively explored in literature, short-term time-scales (high frequencies), above 1 Hz, have comparatively received much less attention (Anisimov et al., 1999). This is mainly because of the technical difficulties related with the storage of such a huge amount of data (for 100 Hz sampling two days of data uses a ~1 Gb file) and the response degradation of the field-meters at such frequencies. Nevertheless, important Electric Phenomena occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz that are worth pursuing, e.g. the Schumann Resonances have a signature of worldwide thunderstorm activity at frequencies that go from ~8 up to ~40 Hz. To that end the present work shows preliminary results on PG measurements at 100 Hz that took place on two clear-sky days (17th and 18th June 2015) on the South of Portugal, Évora (38.50° N, 7.91° W). The field-mill used is a JCI 131F installed in the University of Évora campus (at 2 m height) with a few trees and two buildings in its surroundings (~50 m away). This device was developed by John Chubb (Chubb, 2014) and manufactured by Chilworth (UK). It was calibrated in December 2013 and recent work by the author (who is honored in this study for his overwhelming contribution to atmospheric electricity) reveals basically a flat spectral response of the device up to frequencies of 100 Hz (Chubb, 2015). This makes this device suitable for the study of High Frequency Electric Phenomena. Anisimov, S.V., et al. (1999). On the generation and evolution of aeroelectric structures

  6. High-frequency electric field amplification in a magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, Aleksandr V [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-30

    In the investigation of cyclotron ion heating in systems designed for plasma isotope separation, the high-frequency (HF) electric field amplification effect was found to occur in equilibrium plasma. In the present article this effect is treated as a result of the interaction of the plasma placed in a constant external magnetic field with the HF modes of the vacuum chamber. Consistent elaboration of this approach allowed obtaining a clear interpretation of the HF electric field amplification effect and constructing a simple model of HF field excitation in a plasma column embedded in the external magnetic field. (methodological notes)

  7. Energy resource management under the influence of the weekend transition considering an intensive use of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, T.; Morais, Hugo; Pinto, T.

    2015-01-01

    Energy resource scheduling is becoming increasingly important, as the use of distributed resources is intensified and of massive electric vehicle is envisaged. The present paper proposes a methodology for day-ahead energy resource scheduling for smart grids considering the intensive use...... of distributed generation and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G). This method considers that the energy resources are managed by a Virtual Power Player (VPP) which established contracts with their owners. It takes into account these contracts, the users' requirements subjected to the VPP, and several discharge price steps...

  8. High-Intensity Training and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Responses in Professional Top-Level Soccer Players: Effect of Training Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Dunlop, Gordon; Groussard, Carole; Kebsi, Wiem; Dellal, Alexandre; Morgans, Ryland; Zouhal, Hassane

    2016-09-01

    Owen, AL, Wong, DP, Dunlop, G, Groussard, C, Kebsi, W, Dellal, A, Morgans, R, and Zouhal, H. High-intensity training and salivary immunoglobulin A responses in professional top-level soccer players: Effect of training intensity. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2460-2469, 2016-This study aimed (a) to test the hypothesis that salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) would vary with training intensity sessions (low-intensity [LI] vs. high-intensity sessions [HI]) during a traditional training program divided into 4 training periods and (b) to identify key variables (e.g., GPS data, rating of perceived exertion [RPE], and training duration), which could affect s-IgA. Saliva samples of 10 elite professional soccer players were collected (a) before the investigation started to establish the baseline level and (b) before and after each 4 training sessions (LI vs. HI). Training intensity was monitored as internal (through heart rate responses and RPE) and external (through GPS) loads. High-intensity sessions were associated with higher external load (GPS) and with higher RPE. Baseline and pretraining s-IgA did not differ between the 4 training sessions both for HI and LI. Post-training s-IgA were not different (in absolute value and in percentage of change) between HI and LI sessions at the first 3 periods. However, at the fourth period, s-IgA concentration for HI session was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than the LI session. The percentage change between s-IgA post-training and s-IgA baseline concentrations differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05) between HI and LI training sessions. Significant correlations between s-IgA and training intensity were also noted. High-intensity soccer training sessions might cause a significant decrease in s-IgA values during the postexercise window as compared with LI sessions. This study encourages coaches to monitor s-IgA in routine, particularly during HI training periods, to take precautions to avoid upper respiratory tract infection in highly trained

  9. Electrical conductivity of rigid polyurethane foam at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. T., Jr.

    1982-08-01

    The electrical conductivity of rigid polyurethane foam, used for electronic encapsulation, was measured during thermal decomposition to 3400 C. At higher temperatures the conductance continues to increase. With pressure loaded electrical leads, sample softening results in eventual contact between electrodes which produces electrical shorting. Air and nitrogen environments show no significant dependence of the conductivity on the atmosphere over the temperature range. The insulating characteristics of polyurethane foam below approx. 2700 C are similar to those for silicone based materials used for electronic case housings and are better than those for phenolics. At higher temperatures (greater than or equal to 2700 C) the phenolics appear to be better insulators to approx. 5000 C and the silicones to approx. 6000 C. It is concluded that the Sylgard 184/GMB encapsulant is a significantly better insulator at high temperature than the rigid polyurethane foam.

  10. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  11. High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Interaction with Rare Gas Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亚风; 钟钦; 曾淳; 陈哲

    2001-01-01

    With a 45 fs multiterawatt 790 nm laser system and jets of argon and krypton atomic clusters, a study of the interaction of fs intense laser pulses with large size rare gas dusters was conducted. The maximum laser intensity of about 7 × 1016 W/cm2 and dusters composed of thousands of atoms which were determined through Rayleigh scattering measurements were involved inthe experiments. On the one hand, the results indicate that the interaction is strongly cluster size dependent. The stronger the interaction, the larger the clusters are. On the other hand, a saturation followed by a drop of the energy of ions ejected from the interaction will occur when the laser intensity exceeds a definite value for clusters of a certain size.

  12. Climate change is projected to have severe impacts on the frequency and intensity of peak electricity demand across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Baylis, Patrick; Hausman, Catherine H

    2017-02-21

    It has been suggested that climate change impacts on the electric sector will account for the majority of global economic damages by the end of the current century and beyond [Rose S, et al. (2014) Understanding the Social Cost of Carbon: A Technical Assessment]. The empirical literature has shown significant increases in climate-driven impacts on overall consumption, yet has not focused on the cost implications of the increased intensity and frequency of extreme events driving peak demand, which is the highest load observed in a period. We use comprehensive, high-frequency data at the level of load balancing authorities to parameterize the relationship between average or peak electricity demand and temperature for a major economy. Using statistical models, we analyze multiyear data from 166 load balancing authorities in the United States. We couple the estimated temperature response functions for total daily consumption and daily peak load with 18 downscaled global climate models (GCMs) to simulate climate change-driven impacts on both outcomes. We show moderate and heterogeneous changes in consumption, with an average increase of 2.8% by end of century. The results of our peak load simulations, however, suggest significant increases in the intensity and frequency of peak events throughout the United States, assuming today's technology and electricity market fundamentals. As the electricity grid is built to endure maximum load, our findings have significant implications for the construction of costly peak generating capacity, suggesting additional peak capacity costs of up to 180 billion dollars by the end of the century under business-as-usual.

  13. Climate change is projected to have severe impacts on the frequency and intensity of peak electricity demand across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Baylis, Patrick; Hausman, Catherine H.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that climate change impacts on the electric sector will account for the majority of global economic damages by the end of the current century and beyond [Rose S, et al. (2014) Understanding the Social Cost of Carbon: A Technical Assessment]. The empirical literature has shown significant increases in climate-driven impacts on overall consumption, yet has not focused on the cost implications of the increased intensity and frequency of extreme events driving peak demand, which is the highest load observed in a period. We use comprehensive, high-frequency data at the level of load balancing authorities to parameterize the relationship between average or peak electricity demand and temperature for a major economy. Using statistical models, we analyze multiyear data from 166 load balancing authorities in the United States. We couple the estimated temperature response functions for total daily consumption and daily peak load with 18 downscaled global climate models (GCMs) to simulate climate change-driven impacts on both outcomes. We show moderate and heterogeneous changes in consumption, with an average increase of 2.8% by end of century. The results of our peak load simulations, however, suggest significant increases in the intensity and frequency of peak events throughout the United States, assuming today’s technology and electricity market fundamentals. As the electricity grid is built to endure maximum load, our findings have significant implications for the construction of costly peak generating capacity, suggesting additional peak capacity costs of up to 180 billion dollars by the end of the century under business-as-usual. PMID:28167756

  14. The High Luminosity Challenge: potential and limitations of High Intensity High Brightness in the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    De Maria, R; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Bartosik, H; Benedetto, E; Bruce, R; Brüning, O; Calaga, R; Cerutti, F; Damerau, H; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Fitterer, M; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gorini, B; Hanke, K; Iadarola, G; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Métral, E; Mikulec, B; Mounet, N; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Redaelli, S; Rossi, L; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Sterbini, G; Todesco, E; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F; Valishev, A

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity and high-brightness beams are key ingredients to maximize the LHC integrated luminosity and to exploit its full potential. This contribution describes the optimization of beam and machine parameters to maximize the integrated luminosity as seen by the LHC experiments, by taking into account the expected intensity and brightness reach of LHC itself and its injector chain as well as the capabilities of the detectors for next run and foreseen upgrade scenarios.

  15. Potential for steel industry energy intensity improvements: Electricity use in minimills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.; Neifer, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Karlson, S. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb (United States). Dept. of Economics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ross, M. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-09-01

    US steel manufacturing has experienced an extended episode of creative destruction in the past twenty years. The creative destruction has been the closure of over fifty million tons worth of annual capacity in iron-ore based steel plants concurrent with the construction of nearly thirty million tons of productive capacity in scrap-based steel plants. Our focus is on the effects of the creative destruction in steel on the use of electricity in steel manufacture. This paper utilizes the plant level data at the Center for Economic Studies at the Census to analyze the energy and technical efficiency of minimills from 1972 to 1988. We examine the potential for improvements in energy (electricity) use within the minimills segment of the industry. Since the role of this segment of the industry has changed so dramatically in the last 20 years we examine in detail the role that the plant age and vintage plays in determining energy and technical efficiency.

  16. Does Changes in the Electrical Resistance of an Acupuncture Meridian Predict Pain Intensity Following Orthopedic Surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvani, Mehran; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud-Reza; Imani, Farnad; Entezary, Saeid Reza; Mohseni, Masood

    2013-01-01

    Background Several methods for assessment of severity of pain have been proposed but all of them are subjective. Objectives This study evaluated the association concerning changes in electrical resistance (ER) between two acupuncture points and severity of postoperative pain in order to define an objective measurement of pain. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 50 patients undergoing lower extremity orthopedic surgery with postoperative moderate to severe pain (VAS > 4,) were co...

  17. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  18. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  19. Design of a 200kW electric powertrain for a high performance electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Martinez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of designing the electric powertrain of a high performance electric vehicle capable of running a quarter mile in 10 seconds, firstly it is necessary to calculate the required energy, torque, and power in order to size and select the suitable storage components and electric motors. Secondly, an assessment of the powertrain arrangement is needed to choose the best internal configuration of the vehicle and guarantee the highest efficiency possible. Finally, a design of the power conversion stages, specifically the DC-DC converter that interfaces the storage unit with the electric motors, is required as well. This paper shows the energy calculation procedure based on a longitudinal dynamic model of the vehicle and the selection method of the storage components and motors needed for this application, as well as the design of two 100kW interleaved boost converters with coupled inductors. In addition, a novel operation of the interleaved boost converter is proposed in order to increase the efficiency of the converter. As a result, the designed converter achieved a power density of 24,2kW/kg with an efficiency of 98 %, which was validated by experimental tests of a low power prototype.

  20. Evaluation of High-Performance Space Nuclear Electric Generators for Electric Propulsion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion applications are enhanced by high power-to-mass ratios for their electric power sources. At multi-megawatt levels, we can expect thrust production systems to be less than 5 kg/kWe. Application of nuclear electric propulsion to human Mars missions becomes an attractive alternative to nuclear thermal propulsion if the propulsion system is less than about 10 kg/kWe. Recent references have projected megawatt-plus nuclear electric sources at specific mass values from less than 1 kg/kWe to about 5 kg/kWe. Various assumptions are made regarding power generation cycle (turbogenerator; MHD (magnetohydrodynamics)) and reactor heat source design. The present paper compares heat source and power generation options on the basis of a parametric model that emphasizes heat transfer design and realizable hardware concept. Pressure drop (important!) is included in the power cycle analysis, and MHD and turbogenerator cycles are compared. Results indicate that power source specific mass less than 5 kg/kWe is attainable, even if peak temperatures achievable are limited to 1500 K. Projections of specific mass less than 1 kg/kWe are unrealistic, even at the highest peak temperatures considered.

  1. Proton Acceleration Drived by High-intensity Ultraviolet Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The generation of energetic protons from a solid thin-foil by the interactions of ultra-short and intense laser pulses is investigated in numerous experiments in the last decade. The energetic proton beams are promising candidates for proton fast ignitor (PFI)

  2. Overview of novel photovoltaic conversion techniques at high intensity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes several photovoltaic devices currently under development that can operate under light intensities considerably higher than can silicon solar cells. The technologies discussed include GaAs heteroface solar cells, multi-color systems, thermophotovoltaics, and laser energy conversion. Array costs for the GaAs and multi-color elements are estimated.

  3. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  4. High-throughput electrical characterization for robust overlay lithography control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devender, Devender; Shen, Xumin; Duggan, Mark; Singh, Sunil; Rullan, Jonathan; Choo, Jae; Mehta, Sohan; Tang, Teck Jung; Reidy, Sean; Holt, Jonathan; Kim, Hyung Woo; Fox, Robert; Sohn, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    Realizing sensitive, high throughput and robust overlay measurement is a challenge in current 14nm and advanced upcoming nodes with transition to 300mm and upcoming 450mm semiconductor manufacturing, where slight deviation in overlay has significant impact on reliability and yield1). Exponentially increasing number of critical masks in multi-patterning lithoetch, litho-etch (LELE) and subsequent LELELE semiconductor processes require even tighter overlay specification2). Here, we discuss limitations of current image- and diffraction- based overlay measurement techniques to meet these stringent processing requirements due to sensitivity, throughput and low contrast3). We demonstrate a new electrical measurement based technique where resistance is measured for a macro with intentional misalignment between two layers. Overlay is quantified by a parabolic fitting model to resistance where minima and inflection points are extracted to characterize overlay control and process window, respectively. Analyses using transmission electron microscopy show good correlation between actual overlay performance and overlay obtained from fitting. Additionally, excellent correlation of overlay from electrical measurements to existing image- and diffraction- based techniques is found. We also discuss challenges of integrating electrical measurement based approach in semiconductor manufacturing from Back End of Line (BEOL) perspective. Our findings open up a new pathway for accessing simultaneous overlay as well as process window and margins from a robust, high throughput and electrical measurement approach.

  5. High performance computation on beam dynamics problems in high intensity compact cyclotrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADELMANN; Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the research progress in the beam dynamics problems for future high intensity compact cyclotrons by utilizing the state-of-the-art high performance computation technology. A "Start-to-Stop" model, which includes both the interaction of the internal particles of a single bunch and the mutual interaction of neighboring multiple bunches in the radial direction, is established for compact cyclotrons with multi-turn extraction. This model is then implemented in OPAL-CYCL, which is a 3D object-oriented parallel code for large scale particle simulations in cyclotrons. In addition, to meet the running requirement of parallel computation, we have constructed a small scale HPC cluster system and tested its performance. Finally, the high intensity beam dynamics problems in the 100 MeV compact cyclotron, which is being constructed at CIAE, are studied using this code and some conclusions are drawn.

  6. Hard magnetization direction and its relation with magnetic permeability of highly grain-oriented electrical steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Chang-sheng Li; Tao Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties of highly grain-oriented electrical steel vary along different directions. In order to investigate these prop-erties, standard Epstein samples were cut at different angles to the rolling direction. The hard magnetization direction was found at an angle of 60° to the rolling direction. To compare the measured and fitting curves, when the magnetic field intensity is higher than 7000 A/m, it is appropriate to simulate the relation of magnetic permeability and magnetization angle using the conventional elliptical model. When the magnetic field intensity is less than 3000 A/m, parabolic fitting models should be used; but when the magnetic field intensity is between 3000 and 7000 A/m, hybrid models with high accuracy, as proposed in this paper, should be applied. Piecewise relation models of magnetic per-meability and magnetization angle are significant for improving the accuracy of electromagnetic engineering calculations of electrical steel, and these new models could be applied in further industrial applications.

  7. Intense picosecond pulsed electric fields inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Xiong, Zheng-Ai; Chen, Wen-Juan; Yao, Cheng-Guo; Zhao, Zhong-Yong; Hua, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    A picosecond pulsed electric field (psPEF) is a localized physical therapy for tumors that has been developed in recent years, and that may in the future be utilized as a targeted non‑invasive treatment. However, there are limited studies regarding the biological effects of psPEF on cells. Electric field amplitude and pulse number are the main parameters of psPEF that influence its biological effects. In this study, we exposed HeLa cells to a psPEF with a variety of electric field amplitudes, from 100 to 600 kV/cm, and various pulse numbers, from 1,000 to 3,000. An MTT assay was used to detect the growth inhibition, while flow cytometry was used to determine the occurrence of apoptosis and the cell cycle of the HeLa cells following treatment. The morphological changes during cell apoptosis were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results demonstrated that the cell growth inhibition rate gradually increased, in correlation with the increasing electric field amplitude and pulse number, and achieved a plateau of maximum cell inhibition 12 h following the pulses. In addition, typical characteristics of HeLa cell apoptosis in the experimental groups were observed by TEM. The results demonstrated that the rate of apoptosis in the experimental groups was significantly elevated in comparison with the untreated group. In the treatment groups, the rate of apoptosis was greater in the higher amplitude groups than in the lower amplitude groups. The same results were obtained when the variable was the pulse number. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the cell cycle of the HeLa cells was arrested at the G2/M phase following psPEF treatment. Overall, our results indicated that psPEF inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis, and that these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the results demonstrated that the growth of the HeLa cells was arrested at the G2/M phase following treatment. This study may provide a

  8. Impedance spectroscopy analysis on electrical properties of serpentine at high pressure and high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱茂旭; 谢鸿森; 郭捷; 许祖鸣; 白武明

    2001-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of serpentine is measured and the microscopic conductance mechanisms are investigated with impedance spectroscopy at 2.5-4.0 GPa and 220-780℃. The results show that the electrical conductivity is strongly dependent on the frequencies used, and that only arcⅠ, which reflects grain interior conductance, occurs and dominates the whole conductance processes over 12-105 Hz at high pressure before dehydration. The arcⅡ, which indicates the grain boundary process, begins to occur at the initial stage of dehydration. After dehydration, due to the presence of highly conductive networks of free water, the electrical conductivity is not depen-dent on frequencies any longer and the total electrical conductivity is dominated by process of ionic conductance of free water in interconnected networks. Dehydration of serpentine enhances pro-nouncedly the total electrical conductivity, through which highly conductive layers (HCL) may be formed in the earth's interior.

  9. Understanding laser-solid interactions at ultra-high intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C. D.; Gray, R. J.; Carroll, D. C.; MacLellan, D. A.; Powell, H.; Scott, G. G.; Ridgers, C. P.; Brady, C. S.; Neely, D.; Green, J. S.; Booth, N.; McKenna, P.

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of matter with lasers is a subject which has progressed rapidly over the last two decades as higher intensity lasers have opened the door to nonlinear and then relativistic interactions such that applications in ion acceleration and x-ray backlighting sources have become a clear possibility. Until recently, lasers capable of reaching the highest intensities (˜10^21 Wcm-2) have been glass-based systems with a low shot rate making detailed studies prohibitively time consuming. The development of petawatt-class Ti:Sapphire lasers such as Astra Gemini at STFC - Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, has made the systematic studies required to understand such interaction physics feasible. One such experiment on the Astra Gemini laser will be presented. The photon and particle diagnostics used will be explained and their results presented.

  10. Ionization Chambers for Monitoring in High-Intensity Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, J; Velissaris, C; Erwin, A R; Ping, H; Viren, B M; Diwan, M V

    2002-01-01

    Radiation-hard ionization chambers were tested using an intense electron beam from the accelerator test facility (ATF) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The detectors were designed to be used as the basic element for monitoring muons in the Main Injector Neutrino beamline (NuMI) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). Measurements of linearity of response, voltage dependence, and the onset of ionization saturation as a function of gap voltage were performed.

  11. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 11: Electrical characteristics of 2 ohm-cm, 228 micron wraparound solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation. [for solar electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric characterization data on Spectrolab 2 by 4 cm, 2 ohm/cm, 228 micron thick wraparound cell, a candidate for the Solar Electric Propulsion Mission, are presented. These data consist of the electrical characteristics of the solar cell under a wide range of temperature and illumination intensity combinations of the type encountered in space applications.

  12. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  13. Efficacy of pulsed low-intensity electric neuromuscular stimulation in reducing pain and disability in patients with myofascial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, P; Lessiani, G; Franzone, G; Pezzulo, G

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by chronic pain in multiple myofascial trigger points and fascial constrictions. In recent years, the scientific literature has recognized the need to include the patient with MPS in a multidimensional rehabilitation project. At the moment, the most widely recognized therapeutic methods for the treatment of myofascial syndrome include the stretch and spray pressure massage. Microcurrent electric neuromuscular stimulation was proposed in pain management for its effects on normalizing bioelectricity of cells and for its sub-sensory application. In this study, we tested the efficacy of low-intensity pulsed electric neuromuscular stimulus (PENS) on pain in patients with MPS of cervical spine muscles. We carried out a prospective-analytic longitudinal study at an outpatient clinic during two weeks. Forty subjects (mean age 42±13 years) were divided into two groups: treatment (TrGr, n=20) and control group (CtrlGr, n=20). Visual-analog scale (VAS) values, concerning the spontaneous and movement-related pain in the cervical-dorsal region at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T1), showed a reduction from 7 to 3.81 (p < 0.001) in TrGr. In the CtrlGr, VAS was reduced from 8.2 to 7.2 (n.s.). Moreover, the pressure pain threshold at T0 was 2.1 vs 4.2 at T1 (p < 0.001) in TrG. In the CtrlGR we observed no significant changes. Modulated low-intensity PENS is an innovative therapy permitting to act on the transmission of pain and on the restoration of tissue homeostasis. It seems to affect the transmission of pain through the stimulation of A-beta fibers. The above results show that low-intensity PENS can be considered as an effective treatment to reduce pain and disability in patients with MPS.

  14. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration ...... as examples. Finally, it is concluded that the VIP-2 process is suitable technology for creating circuits for 100 Gb/s communication networks. Keywords: Indium Phosphide (InP), DHBT, VCO, Colpitt, Static Divider, CDR, PLL, Transceiver...... represents the avant-garde of InP technology, with ft and fmax well above 300 GHz. Principles of high speed design are presented and described as a useful background before proceeding to circuits. A static divider is used as an example to illustrate many of the design principles. Theory and fundamentals...

  15. Study on High Efficient Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. X.; Liu, Z. Z.; Zeng, H.; Qu, X. D.; Hou, Y. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electric and unmanned is a new trend in the development of automobile, cable charging pile can not meet the demand of unmanned electric vehicle. Wireless charging system for electric vehicle has a high level of automation, which can be realized by unmanned operation, and the wireless charging technology has been paid more and more attention. This paper first analyses the differences in S-S (series-series) and S-P (series-parallel) type resonant wireless power supply system, combined with the load characteristics of electric vehicle, S-S type resonant structure was used in this system. This paper analyses the coupling coefficient of several common coil structure changes with the moving distance of Maxwell Ansys software, the performance of disc type coil structure is better. Then the simulation model is established by Simulink toolbox in Matlab, to analyse the power and efficiency characteristics of the whole system. Finally, the experiment platform is set up to verify the feasibility of the whole system and optimize the system. Based on the theoretical and simulation analysis, the higher charging efficiency is obtained by optimizing the magnetic coupling mechanism.

  16. High Specific Energy Pulsed Electric Discharge Laser Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    drop out excess water, filtered, dried, filtered again, and then pumped up to the storage bottle pressure (Fig. 47). At the exit of the high...pressure pump, an oil filter was used to remove any oil that may have been introduced by the compressor. Bottles were pumped up to 2000 psig...Lowder, R. S. , "Air-Combustion Product N2-C02 Electric Laser, " J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 373 (1975). 5. Miller, D. J. and Millikan , R. C

  17. Application of the speed-duration relationship to normalize the intensity of high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ferguson

    Full Text Available The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8 then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4, 6 min (WR6 and 8 min (WR8, interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min. A sub-group of subjects (n = 6 also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (P0.050. However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m, 3 (136.9±38.9 m, and 4 (136.7±39.3 m, compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050. These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols.

  18. Application of the speed-duration relationship to normalize the intensity of high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M; Kemi, Ole J

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols.

  19. Causative factors of high intensity areas identified by MRI in the pontine base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa

    1994-08-01

    High intensity areas in the pontine base were found more frequently in patients of group A who had multiple supratentorial high intensity areas smaller than 15 mm in size and of group B whose vertebral arteries were asymmetric on MR angiography, as compared to those who had none of the above findings of MRI and MR angiography. The high intensity areas of group A were often found bilaterally in the upper pons and those of group B were present unilaterally in the lower pons. Pontine high intensity areas were found frequently on the same side as the smaller vertebral artery in group B. Periventricular hyperintensity was more severe in group A than than in group B. These results suggest that high intensity lesions in the pontine base may conform with the following conditions: (1) multiple small high intensity areas in the supratentorium due to diffuse arteriosclerosis, and (2) asymmetry of the vertebral arteries inducing hemodynamic disorders. (author).

  20. Design and Experiments of the High Voltage Pulsed Electric Fields Sterilization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xihai; FANG Junlong; SHEN Weizheng

    2008-01-01

    This experiment designed the pulsed electric fields (PEF) of high intensity of 100 kV. cml sterilization system. Fluorescent pseudomonas as target cell was operated 180 s in the PEF. By observing the difference of the bacteria before and after the disposal by TEM, it is found that the cell wails of the treated bacteria were broken. Irreversible perforations were formed on the cell membrane. The cell inclusions and cell fragments were leaked. The cell died as a result. The results showed that the PEF sterilization system designed can be used for liquid food sterilization experiments.

  1. Fiber optic vibration sensor for high-power electric machines realized using 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igrec, Bojan; Bosiljevac, Marko; Sipus, Zvonimir; Babic, Dubravko; Rudan, Smiljko

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a lightweight and inexpensive fiber-optic vibration sensor, built using 3D printing technology, for high-power electric machines and similar applications. The working principle is based on modulating the light intensity using a blade attached to a bendable membrane. The sensor prototype was manufactured using PolyJet Matrix technology with DM 8515 Grey 35 Polymer. The sensor shows linear response, expected bandwidth (< 150 Hz), and from our measurements we estimated the damping ratio for used polymer to be ζ ≍ 0.019. The developed prototype is simple to assemble, adjust, calibrate and repair.

  2. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  3. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Nan-Soo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 20 minutes, three times weekly, for 6 weeks. After each session, diaphragm thickness was measured using ultrasonography. The diaphragm asymmetry ratio and diaphragm thickening ratio were standardized using a formula. [Results] After intervention, the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly differed among the three groups, and the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly increased in the control group. A significant increase was identified in the diaphragm thickening ratio within the progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training groups. [Conclusion] Progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training decreased the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients; this effect, in turn, increased the diaphragm thickening ratio in stroke patients. The two interventions examined here should be selectively applied to individuals in the clinical field.

  4. High sensitive space electric field sensing based on micro fiber interferometer with field force driven gold nanofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jingdong; Shi, Leilei

    2015-10-01

    The traditional electrical field sensing can be realized by utilizing electro-optic materials or liquid crystals, and has limitations of easy breakdown, free assembly and difficult measurement of low-frequency. Here, we propose a new method to realize safe measurement of spatial dynamic electric field by using a micro fiber interferometer integrated with gold nanofilm. The energy of the electric charge received through antenna forms the intrinsic electric field with two micro electrodes, one of which is the 120 nm gold film vibration beam micromachined by femtosecond lasers and integrated with the micro fiber. The change of the intrinsic electric field force due to the spatial electric field will cause the vibration of the film beam. By demodulating the output signal of the micro fiber interferometer, the electric field can be measured. We demonstrate the detectable frequency ranges from tens of Hz to tens of KHz, and the minimum electric field intensity is ~200 V/m at 1 KHz. Our electric field measurement technology combining optical fiber interference with gold nanostructures shows the advantages of security, high sensitivity, compact size, and multiplexed multi-point and remote detection.

  5. Intensity ratio measurements for density sensitive lines of highly charged Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Safdar, E-mail: safdaruetian@gmail.com; Shimizu, Erina [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University (Japan); Hara, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Tetsuya [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI) (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: n-nakamu@ils.uec.ac.jp [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Intensity ratio of density sensitive emission lines emitted from Fe ions in the extreme ultraviolet region is important for astrophysics applications. We report high-resolution intensity ratio measurements for Fe ions performed at Tokyo EBIT laboratory by employing a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer. The experimental intensity ratios of Fe X and Fe XII are plotted as a function of electron density for different electron beam currents. The experimental results are compared with the predicted intensity ratios from the model calculations.

  6. Acoustic power measurement of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer using a pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-03-01

    The acoustic power of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an important parameter that should be measured prior to each treatment to guarantee effective and safe outcomes. A new calibration technique was developed that involves estimating the pressure distribution, calculating the acoustic power using an underwater pressure blast sensor, and compensating the contribution of harmonics to the acoustic power. The output of a clinical extracorporeal HIFU system (center frequency of ~1 MHz, p+ = 2.5-57.2 MPa, p(-) = -1.8 to -13.9 MPa, I(SPPA) = 513-22,940 W/cm(2), -6 dB size of 1.6 × 10 mm: lateral × axial) was measured using this approach and then compared with that obtained using a radiation force balance. Similarities were found between each method at acoustic power ranging from 18.2 W to 912 W with an electrical-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of ~42%. The proposed method has advantages of low weight, smaller size, high sensitivity, quick response, high signal-to-noise ratio (especially at low power output), robust performance, and easy operation of HIFU exposimetry measurement.

  7. Intensity dependence in high-level facial expression adaptation aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Wook; Yoon, K Lira

    2017-06-14

    Perception of a facial expression can be altered or biased by a prolonged viewing of other facial expressions, known as the facial expression adaptation aftereffect (FEAA). Recent studies using antiexpressions have demonstrated a monotonic relation between the magnitude of the FEAA and adaptor extremity, suggesting that facial expressions are opponent coded and represented continuously from one expression to its antiexpression. However, it is unclear whether the opponent-coding scheme can account for the FEAA between two facial expressions. In the current study, we demonstrated that the magnitude of the FEAA between two facial expressions increased monotonically as a function of the intensity of adapting facial expressions, consistent with the predictions based on the opponent-coding model. Further, the monotonic increase in the FEAA occurred even when the intensity of an adapting face was too weak for its expression to be recognized. These results together suggest that multiple facial expressions are encoded and represented by balanced activity of neural populations tuned to different facial expressions.

  8. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    is absorbed into said plasma (104), and where a sound pressure level of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) is at least substantially 140 dB and where an acoustic power of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102); is at least......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...... of acoustic energy by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power gas-jet acoustic wave generator (101), where said ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said plasma (104) so that at least a part of said predetermined amount of acoustic energy...

  9. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear...

  10. Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal lesions induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound induces focalized tissue coagulation by increasing the tissue temperature in a tight focal region. Several methods have been proposed to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Currently, ultrasound imaging techniques that are clinically used for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment are standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging, ultrasound temperature estimation, and elastography-based methods. On the contrary, the efficacy of two-dimensional Nakagami parametric imaging based on the distribution of the ultrasound backscattered signals to quantify properties of soft tissue has recently been evaluated. In this study, ultrasound radio frequency echo signals from ex vivo tissue samples were acquired before and after high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures and then their Nakagami parameter and scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution were estimated. These parameters were used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Also, the effects of changing the acoustic power of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer on the Nakagami parameters were studied. The results obtained suggest that the Nakagami distribution's scaling and Nakagami parameters can effectively be used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in tissue ex vivo. These parameters can also be used to understand the degree of change in tissue caused by high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures, which could be interpreted as a measure of degree of variability in scatterer concentration in various parts of the high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion.

  11. Pulsed high voltage electric discharge disinfection of microbially contaminated liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anpilov, A M; Barkhudarov, E M; Christofi, N; Kop'ev, V A; Kossyi, I A; Taktakishvili, M I; Zadiraka, Y

    2002-01-01

    To examine the use of a novel multielectrode slipping surface discharge (SSD) treatment system, capable of pulsed plasma discharge directly in water, in killing micro-organisms. Potable water containing Escherichia coli and somatic coliphages was treated with pulsed electric discharges generated by the SSD. The SSD system was highly efficient in the microbial disinfection of water with a low energy utilization (eta approximately 10-4 kW h l-1). The SSD treatment was effective in the destruction of E. coli and its coliphages through the generation of u.v. radiation, ozone and free radicals. The non-thermal treatment method can be used for the eradication of micro-organisms in a range of contaminated liquids, including milk, negating the use of pasteurization. The method utilizes multipoint electric discharges capable of treating large volumes of liquid under static and flowing regimes.

  12. Electrical Impact of SiC Structural Crystal Defects on High Electric Field Devices (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1999-01-01

    As illustrated by the invited paper at this conference and other works, SiC wafers and epilayers contain a variety of crystallographic imperfections, including micropipes, closed-core screw dislocations, grain boundaries, basal plane dislocations, heteropolytypic inclusions, and surfaces that are often damaged and contain atomically rough features like step bunching and growth pits or hillocks. Present understanding of the operational impact of various crystal imperfections on SiC electrical devices is reviewed, with an emphasis placed on high-field SiC power devices and circuits.

  13. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  14. The risk of retina damage from high intensity light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, V A; Romanchuk, K G

    1980-05-01

    The risk of thermal damage to the retina of the eye by exposure to excessive light intensities from continuous and pulsed man-made sources is discussed. The probability of injury increases, the larger the radiant power absorbed by the retina and the smaller the size of the retinal image of the source. A mehtod of estimating the temperature increase of the immediately affected area of the retina is presented. The time constants involved are also briefly considered. Using numerical values from literature for the relevant parameters of the eye, threshold values for a variety of conditions can be established. Below these values little risk of retina damage should exist. The degree of hazard when these values are exceeded depends upon the circumstances. A case study of a welding accident showed good agreement between the conclusions of the theoretical analysis and clinical findings.

  15. Transverse feedback: high intensity operation, AGC, IGC, lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    The transverse damper system (ADT) plays an important role in the preservation of the beam transverse emittance and for damping of oscillations driven by the coupled bunch instability. An overview of the ADT system will be presented with an emphasis on the important feedback loop parameters as they change from injection through the ramp into collision. The dedicated setting - up procedure required for the different bunch intensities and bunch spacings will be explained. During the 2011 run the injection and abort gap cleaning became operational at injection energy. Preparations for cleaning at 3.5 TeV as well as batch selective transverse blow - up were completed and preliminarily tested. Plans for 2012 include study and potential improvement of the system impulse response to improve the 'selectivity' of the cleaning and blow - up facility. The ADT also provides bunch - by - bunch observation, which was extensively used during the run and MDs, and will be further upgraded during the next year.

  16. Electrical Impact of SiC Structural Crystal Defects on High Electric Field Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial epilayers are known to contain a variety of crystallographic imperfections. including micropipes, closed core screw dislocations. low-angle boundaries, basal plane dislocations, heteropolytypic inclusions, and non-ideal surface features like step bunching and pits. This paper reviews the limited present understanding of the operational impact of various crystal defects on SiC electrical devices. Aside from micropipes and triangular inclusions whose densities have been shrinking towards manageably small values in recent years, many of these defects appear to have little adverse operational and/or yield impact on SiC-based sensors, high-frequency RF, and signal conditioning electronics. However high-power switching devices used in power management and distribution circuits have historically (in silicon experience) demanded the highest material quality for prolonged safe operation, and are thus more susceptible to operational reliability problems that arise from electrical property nonuniformities likely to occur at extended crystal defects. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of closed-core screw dislocations on high-power switching devices, because these difficult to observe defects are present in densities of thousands per cm,in commercial SiC epilayers. and their reduction to acceptable levels seems the most problematic at the present time.

  17. High-intensity training reduces CD8+ T-cell redistribution in response to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackman, S.R.; Tipton, K.D.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Kies, A.K.; Bosch, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether exercise-induced lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia are impaired with high-intensity training. Methods: Eight trained cyclists (V·O2max = 64.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) undertook 1 wk of normal-intensity training and a second week of high-intensity training. On day 7 of each w

  18. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Improving NASICON Sinterability through Crystallization under High Frequency Electrical Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya eLisenker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high frequency (HF electric fields on the crystallization and sintering rates of a lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP ion conducting ceramic was investigated. LAGP with the nominal composition Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO43 was crystallized and sintered, both conventionally and under effect of electrical field. Electrical field application, of 300V/cm at 1MHz, produced up to a 40% improvement in sintering rate of LAGP that was crystallized and sintered under the HF field. Heat sink effect of the electrodes appears to arrest thermal runaway and subsequent flash behavior. Sintered pellets were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and EIS to compare conventionally and field sintered processes. The as-sintered structure appears largely unaffected by the field as the sintering curves tend to converge beyond initial stages of sintering. Differences in densities and microstructure after 1 hour of sintering were minor with measured sintering strains of 31% vs. 26% with and without field, respectively . Ionic conductivity of the sintered pellets was evaluated and no deterioration due to the use of HF field was noted, though capacitance of grain boundaries due to secondary phases was significantly increased.

  20. Analysis of highly-efficient electric residential HPWHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    A scoping level analysis was conducted to identify electric HPWH concepts that have the potential to achieve or exceed 30% source energy savings compared to a gas tankless water heater (GTWH) representative of the type represented in version 0.9.5.2 beta of the BEopt software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis was limited to evaluation of options to improve the energy efficiency of electric HPWH product designs currently on the market in the US. The report first defines the baseline GTWH system and determines its efficiency (source-energy-based adjusted or derated EF of ~0.71). High efficiency components (compressors, pumps, fans, heat exchangers, etc.) were identified and applied to current US HPWH products and analyzed to determine the viability of reaching the target EF. The target site-based energy factor (EF) required for an electric HPWH necessary to provide 30% source energy savings compared to the GTWH baseline unit is then determined to be ~3.19.

  1. Nucleon Electric Dipole Moments in High-Scale Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hisano, Junji; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are the promising probe of the new physics. In the generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we estimated the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in these scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron EDM in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  2. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Junji; Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi

    2015-11-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP -violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  3. Magnetic field intensity and graphene concentration effects on electrical and rheological properties of MREs-based membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, I.; Anitas, E. M.

    2017-10-01

    Electric capacitors are manufactured having as dielectric materials cotton fabric-based membranes reinforced with silicone oil (20 % {{vol}}), carbonyl iron (20 % {{vol}}), graphene nanoparticles (nGr; {{Φ }}=0 % ,4 % ,8 % ,12 % ,16 % and respectively 20 % {{vol}}) and silicone rubber (60 % ,56 % ,52 % ,48 % ,44 % and respectively 40 % {{vol}}). The equivalent capacitance (C p ) and resistance (R p ) of the capacitors are measured using an RLC bridge at a frequency of 10 {kHz} and for magnetic field intensities 0≤slant H({{kA}} {{{m}}}-1)≤slant 200. From the functions {C}p={C}p{(H)}{{Φ }} and {R}p={R}p{(H)}{{Φ }} we obtain the real ({ε }r{\\prime }) and imaginary ({ε }r{\\prime\\prime }) components of the complex relative dielectric permittivity {ε }r* , the electrical conductivity σ, and viscosity η of the membranes. We show that {ε }r{\\prime }, {ε }r{\\prime\\prime }, σ and η increase with H and they are sensibly influenced by Φ. We present and discuss the obtained results.

  4. Self-balancing dynamic scheduling of electrical energy for energy-intensive enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunlong; Gao, Feng; Zhai, Qiaozhu; Guan, Xiaohong

    2013-06-01

    Balancing production and consumption with self-generation capacity in energy-intensive enterprises has huge economic and environmental benefits. However, balancing production and consumption with self-generation capacity is a challenging task since the energy production and consumption must be balanced in real time with the criteria specified by power grid. In this article, a mathematical model for minimising the production cost with exactly realisable energy delivery schedule is formulated. And a dynamic programming (DP)-based self-balancing dynamic scheduling algorithm is developed to obtain the complete solution set for such a multiple optimal solutions problem. For each stage, a set of conditions are established to determine whether a feasible control trajectory exists. The state space under these conditions is partitioned into subsets and each subset is viewed as an aggregate state, the cost-to-go function is then expressed as a function of initial and terminal generation levels of each stage and is proved to be a staircase function with finite steps. This avoids the calculation of the cost-to-go of every state to resolve the issue of dimensionality in DP algorithm. In the backward sweep process of the algorithm, an optimal policy is determined to maximise the realisability of energy delivery schedule across the entire time horizon. And then in the forward sweep process, the feasible region of the optimal policy with the initial and terminal state at each stage is identified. Different feasible control trajectories can be identified based on the region; therefore, optimising for the feasible control trajectory is performed based on the region with economic and reliability objectives taken into account.

  5. Moderate intensity, but not high intensity, treadmill exercise training alters power output properties in myocardium from aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Diffee, Gary M

    2012-11-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in cardiac function, but endurance exercise training has been shown to retard a number of deleterious effects of aging. However, underlying mechanisms by which exercise training improves age-related decrements in myocardial contractile function are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on power output properties in permeablized (skinned) myocytes of old rats. Thirty-month-old rats were divided into sedentary control (C) and groups undergoing 11 weeks of treadmill exercise training at moderate intensity (MI) and at high intensity (HI). Peak power output normalized to maximal force was significantly increased in MI but not in HI compared to C with significant increases in atrial myosin light chain 1 in ventricle. These results suggest that MI exercise training is beneficial as a significant increase was seen in the ability of the myocardium to do work, but this effect was not seen with HI training.

  6. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  7. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  8. [Reflected high-intensity motion signals as markers of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, E S

    2013-01-01

    Reflected high-intensity signals of left ventricular motion can be used for assessment of diastolic function of left ventricle. There are many correlations between reflected high-intensity signals, transmitral flow, and tissue Doppler imaging parameters. Diagnostic criteria of LV diastolic dysfunction based on measurement of LV motion are suggested.

  9. The influence of basketball dribbling on repeated high-intensity intermittent runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the Yo-Yo IE2 test could reflect the repeatability of high-intensity intermittent basketball dribbling performance, while dribbling skills may have different influences on high-intensity intermittent exercise capacity in adolescent players at different ages.

  10. Refinement of Eutectic Silicon Phase of Aluminum A356 Alloy Using High-Intensity Ultrasonic Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, Xiaogang [ORNL; Han, Qingyou [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The eutectic silicon in A356 alloy can be refined and modified using either chemical, quench, or superheating modification. We observed, for the first time, that the eutectic silicon can also be significantly refined using high-intensity ultrasonic vibration. Rosette-like eutectic silicon is formed during solidification of specimen treated with high-intensity ultrasonic vibration.

  11. Effects of an intensive hog farming operation on groundwater in east Mediterranean (I): a study on electrical conductivity, as well as nitrogen and sulfur nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Liodakis, Stylianos

    2014-12-01

    The discharge of treated animal wastewater produced in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on surface soil (within CAFOs borders) leads to groundwater degradation. In this research, groundwater degradation effects of an intensive hog farming operation, located in a Mediterranean area, were investigated. Treated animal wastewater was discharged on a small plot (~10.8 ha) with a geologic fault. Groundwater samples were taken from seven groundwater monitoring wells close to the farm. These wells were affected by the subsurface flow of waters, due to the presence of the geologic fault. In the summer, a significant increase of electrical conductivity values was noted in and attributed to falling water table levels. During the winter, significant increases in concentrations of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and sulfate were noted and attributed to high precipitation, which assisted in the leaching of nitrogen and sulfur to groundwater.

  12. Review of the Dynamics of Coalescence and Demulsification by High-Voltage Pulsed Electric Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Peng; Tao Liu; Haifeng Gong; Xianming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The coalescence of droplets in oil can be implemented rapidly by high-voltage pulse electric field, which is an effective demulsification dehydration technological method. At present, it is widely believed that the main reason of pulse electric field promoting droplets coalescence is the dipole coalescence and oscillation coalescence in pulse electric field, and the optimal coalescence pulse electric field parameters exist. Around the above content, the dynamics of high-voltage pulse electric...

  13. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  14. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  15. High thermal power density heat transfer apparatus providing electrical isolation at high temperature using heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention is directed to transferring heat from an extremely high temperature source to an electrically isolated lower temperature receiver. The invention is particularly concerned with supplying thermal power to a thermionic converter from a nuclear reactor with electric isolation. Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. If the receiver requires gratr thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparative low thermal power densities through the electrically nonconducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  16. A High-power Electric Propulsion Test Platform in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew J.; Reed, Brian; Chavers, D. Greg; Sarmiento, Charles; Cenci, Susanna; Lemmons, Neil

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe the results of the preliminary phase of a NASA design study for a facility to test high-power electric propulsion systems in space. The results of this design study are intended to provide a firm foundation for subsequent detailed design and development activities leading to the deployment of a valuable space facility. The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate is sponsoring this design project. A team from the NASA Johnson Space Center, Glenn Research Center, the Marshall Space Flight Center and the International Space Station Program Office is conducting the project. The test facility is intended for a broad range of users including government, industry and universities. International participation is encouraged. The objectives for human and robotic exploration of space can be accomplished affordably, safely and effectively with high-power electric propulsion systems. But, as thruster power levels rise to the hundreds of kilowatts and up to megawatts, their testing will pose stringent and expensive demands on existing Earth-based vacuum facilities. These considerations and the human access to near-Earth space provided by the International Space Station (ISS) have led to a renewed interest in space testing. The ISS could provide an excellent platform for a space-based test facility with the continuous vacuum conditions of the natural space environment and no chamber walls to modify the open boundary conditions of the propulsion system exhaust. The test platform could take advantage of the continuous vacuum conditions of the natural space environment. Space testing would provide open boundary conditions without walls, micro-gravity and a realistic thermal environment. Testing on the ISS would allow for direct observation of the test unit, exhaust plume and space-plasma interactions. When necessary, intervention by on-board personnel and post-test inspection would be possible. The ISS can provide electrical power, a location for

  17. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  18. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but i...

  19. High temperature electrical energy storage: advances, challenges, and frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinrong; Salari, Maryam; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-24

    With the ongoing global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emission and dependence on oil, electrical energy storage (EES) devices such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become ubiquitous. Today, EES devices are entering the broader energy use arena and playing key roles in energy storage, transfer, and delivery within, for example, electric vehicles, large-scale grid storage, and sensors located in harsh environmental conditions, where performance at temperatures greater than 25 °C are required. The safety and high temperature durability are as critical or more so than other essential characteristics (e.g., capacity, energy and power density) for safe power output and long lifespan. Consequently, significant efforts are underway to design, fabricate, and evaluate EES devices along with characterization of device performance limitations such as thermal runaway and aging. Energy storage under extreme conditions is limited by the material properties of electrolytes, electrodes, and their synergetic interactions, and thus significant opportunities exist for chemical advancements and technological improvements. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of different applications associated with high temperature use (40-200 °C), recent advances in the development of reformulated or novel materials (including ionic liquids, solid polymer electrolytes, ceramics, and Si, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4 electrodes) with high thermal stability, and their demonstrative use in EES devices. Finally, we present a critical overview of the limitations of current high temperature systems and evaluate the future outlook of high temperature batteries with well-controlled safety, high energy/power density, and operation over a wide temperature range.

  20. High intensity electromagnetic field gerenation using a transportable reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A reverberation chamber can create very high field strength with moderate input power. Existing chambers are making use of a paddle wheel to change the resonant modes in the chamber. A transportable reverberation chamber with vibrating walls will be presented. Inside this Vibrating Intrinsic Reverbe

  1. STATUS REPORT ON DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-SPEED HIGH-INTENSITY MOLECULAR BEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Eldon L.

    1963-07-15

    Status of a high-speed high-intensity molecular beam under development is described. Bases for designs of the several components are presented. Using an arc-heated source and a hypersonic jet, molecular energies exceeding 1 ev and beam intensities of the order of 10/sup 16/ molecules/ cm/sup 2/ sec are anticipated. A two-disk beam chopper and speed selector provides a means for analyzing the speed distribution in the generated beam, for chopping the beam into bursts of nearly monoenergetic molecules suitable for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique, and for modulating the beam in order to facilitate detection. A through-flow ionization detector possesses the versatility required for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique. A sorption pump and a turbo pump serve as central components of alternative pumping systems for the collimating chamber. Using the arc-heated source, the converging nozzle, the conduction-radiation-cooled skimmer, the turbo pump (turning at 3400 rpm), the chopperselector (acting only as a chopper), and the detector, an arc-heated beam is generated and detected. (auth)

  2. Achieving deep cuts in the carbon intensity of U.S. Automobile transportation by 2050: Complementary roles for electricity and biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Scown, CD; Taptich, M; Horvath, A; McKone, TE; Nazaroff, WW

    2013-01-01

    Passenger cars in the United States (U.S.) rely primarily on petroleum-derived fuels and contribute the majority of U.S. transportation- related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity and biofuels are two promising alternatives for reducing both the carbon intensity of automotive transportation and U.S. reliance on imported oil. However, as standalone solutions, the biofuels option is limited by land availability and the electricity option is limited by market adoption rates and technica...

  3. Effect of high-intensity intermittent cycling sprints on neuromuscular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, F; Basset, F A; Giacomoni, M; Lemaître, F; Tricot, V; Falgairette, G

    2006-01-01

    High-intensity intermittent sprints induce changes in metabolic and mechanical parameters. However, very few data are available about electrical manifestations of muscle fatigue following such sprints. In this study, quadriceps electromyographic (EMG) responses to repeated all-out exercise bouts of short duration were assessed from maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) performed before and after sprints. Twelve men performed ten 6-s maximal cycling sprints, separated by 30-s rest. The MVC were performed pre-sprints ( pre), post-sprints ( post), and 5 min post-sprints ( post5). Values of root-mean-square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) of vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) were recorded during each MVC. During sprints, PPO decreased significantly in sprints 8, 9, and 10, compared to sprint 1 (- 8 %, - 10 %, and - 11 %, respectively, p MVC post (- 13 %, p MVC post5 (- 10.5 %, p MVC pre. The RMS value of VL muscle increased significantly after sprints (RMS pre vs. RMS post: + 15 %, p pattern of muscle fiber recruitment, and a decrease in conduction velocity of active fibers.

  4. Longitudinal Ion Acceleration from High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Underdense Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Willingale, L; Nilson, P M; Clarke, R J; Dangor, A E; Kaluza, M C; Karsch, S; Lancaster, K L; Mori, W B; Schreiber, J; Thomas, A G R; Wei, M S; Krushelnick, K; Najmudin, Z

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal ion acceleration from high-intensity (I ~ 10^20 Wcm^-2) laser interactions with helium gas jet targets (n_e ~ 0.04 n_c) have been observed. The ion beam has a maximum energy for He^2+ of approximately 40 MeV and was directional along the laser propagation path, with the highest energy ions being collimated to a cone of less than 10 degrees. 2D particle-in-cell simulations have been used to investigate the acceleration mechanism. The time varying magnetic field associated with the fast electron current provides a contribution to the accelerating electric field as well as providing a collimating field for the ions. A strong correlation between the plasma density and the ion acceleration was found. A short plasma scale-length at the vacuum interface was observed to be beneficial for the maximum ion energies, but the collimation appears to be improved with longer scale-lengths due to enhanced magnetic fields in the ramp acceleration region.

  5. Electric field effect on the impurity-related electromagnetically induced transparency in a quantum disk under non-resonant, intense laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, E. C.

    2017-04-01

    By considering a three-level ladder-type system under electromagnetically induced transparency, the absorption and dispersion of the probe field in a GaAs disk-like quantum dot under simultaneous action of the electric field and non-resonant, intense laser radiation are investigated. We found that some characteristics such as the width of the transmission window and group velocity can be efficiently manipulated by tuning the control field intensity, non-resonant radiation amplitude and electric field strength. Our results may be relevant for future investigations of the optical process in semiconductor quantum structures and for the technological applications in solid- state optoelectronics.

  6. Intense high-quality medical proton beams via laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Galow, Benjamin J; Keitel, Christoph H

    2010-01-01

    Simulations based on the coupled relativistic equations of motion show that protons stemming from laserplasma processes can be efficiently post-accelerated employing crossed pulsed laser beams focused to spot radii on the order of the laser wavelength. We demonstrate that the crossed beams produce quasi-monoenergetic accelerated protons with kinetic energies exceeding 200 MeV, small energy spreads of about 1% and high densities as required for hadron cancer therapy.

  7. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  8. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10{sup 8} muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  9. Electrical properties of deuteron irradiated high resistivity silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Jerzy, E-mail: krupka@imio.pw.edu.pl [Insitute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Karcz, Waldemar [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Science, Cracow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Avdeyev, Sergej P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kamiński, Paweł; Kozłowski, Roman [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated resistivity changes introduced on the high-resistivity p-type silicon wafer by the irradiation with deuteron beam with an energy of 4.4 GeV performed in the NUCLOTRON superconducting accelerator. Two contactless techniques were used for the measurements of resistivity changes: namely the microwave split post dielectric resonator (SPDR) technique and capacitance measurements in the frequency domain. The first technique allows resistivity measurements in the plane of the wafer, while the second one in the direction perpendicular to the wafer. The resistivity map obtained with the SPDR technique enabled us to obtain a permanent fingerprint of the accelerator beam intensity profile. It has been shown that after the irradiation, the material resistivity increased to ∼3.9 × 10{sup 5} Ω cm in the wafer region exposed to the maximum beam intensity. Complementary studies of the properties and concentrations of radiation deep-level defects were performed by the high-resolution photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (HRPITS). These studies have shown that the irradiation of the high resistivity silicon with 4.4-GeV deuterons results in the formation of several types of deep-level defects responsible for the charge compensation.

  10. Why Electricity Demand Is Highly Income-Elastic in Spain: A Cross-Country Comparison Based on an Index-Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez-García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, Spain has had one of the highest elasticities of electricity demand in the European Union. We provide an in-depth analysis into the causes of this high elasticity, and we examine how these same causes influence electricity demand in other European countries. To this end, we present an index-decomposition analysis of growth in electricity demand which allows us to identify three key factors in the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP and electricity demand: (i structural change; (ii GDP growth; and (iii intensity of electricity use. Our findings show that the main differences in electricity demand elasticities across countries and time are accounted for by the fast convergence in residential per capita electricity consumption. This convergence has almost concluded, and we expect the Spanish energy demand elasticity to converge to European standards in the near future.

  11. Pair-Wise, Deformable Mirror, Image Plane-Based Diversity Electric Field Estimation for High Contrast Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Give'on, Amir; Kern, Brian D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements for high contrast coronagraphic imaging. A deformable mirror (DM) surface is modied with pairs of complementary shapes to create diversity in the image plane of the science camera where the intensity of the light is measured. Along with the Electric Field Conjugation correction algorithm, this estimation method has been used in various high contrast imaging testbeds to achieve the best contrasts to date both in narrow and in broad band light. We present the basic methodology of estimation in easy to follow list of steps, present results from HCIT and raise several open quations we are confronted with using this method.

  12. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  13. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  14. Data Intensive High Energy Physics Analysis in a Distributed Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Sobie, R J; Anderson, M; Armstrong, P; Fransham, K; Gable, I; Harris, D; Leavett-Brown, C; Paterson, M; Penfold-Brown, D; Vliet, M; Charbonneau, A; Impey, R; Podaima, W

    2011-01-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  15. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Buchheit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1 was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 km·h-1 and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1 were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen’s d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8 and D>14.4 km·h-1 (+0.5 ± 0.8 in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8. Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7; conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2. In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in ‘fitness’ do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity.

  16. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  17. High-protein diet induces oxidative stress in rat brain: protective action of high-intensity exercise against lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Camiletti-Moir??n, Daniel; Aparicio Garc??a-Molina, Virginia A.; Nebot Valenzuela, Elena; Medina, Gerardo; Mart??nez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Andrade, Ana; Porres-Foulquie, Jes??s; L??pez-Jurado, Mar??a; Aranda Ram??rez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    diets as well as aerobic exercise could promote antioxidant capacity and consequently reduce free radicals overproduction on brain. However, little is know regarding to the high-protein diets and high intensity exercise on oxidative stress production. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of high-protein diets and high-intensity exercise (HIE) on brain oxidative stress markers. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed i...

  18. Tools and techniques for estimating high intensity RF effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Richard L.; Pennock, Steve T.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Ray, Scott L.

    1992-01-01

    Tools and techniques for estimating and measuring coupling and component disturbance for avionics and electronic controls are described. A finite-difference-time-domain (FD-TD) modeling code, TSAR, used to predict coupling is described. This code can quickly generate a mesh model to represent the test object. Some recent applications as well as the advantages and limitations of using such a code are described. Facilities and techniques for making low-power coupling measurements and for making direct injection test measurements of device disturbance are also described. Some scaling laws for coupling and device effects are presented. A method for extrapolating these low-power test results to high-power full-system effects are presented.

  19. Generating long sequences of high-intensity femtosecond pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Bitter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to create pulse sequences extending beyond 150~picoseconds in duration, comprised of $100~\\mu$J femtosecond pulses. A quarter of the pulse train is produced by a high-resolution pulse shaper, which allows full controllability over the timing of each pulse. Two nested Michelson interferometers follow to quadruple the pulse number and the sequence duration. To boost the pulse energy, the long train is sent through a multi-pass Ti:Sapphire amplifier, followed by an external compressor. A periodic sequence of 84~pulses of 120~fs width and an average pulse energy of 107~$\\mu$J, separated by 2~ps, is demonstrated as a proof of principle.

  20. Study of a final focus system for high intensity beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Shuman, Derek B.; Waldron, William L.

    2004-06-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final focus scenario in an HIF driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r{sub s}) at a given distance (f) from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  1. Impact of High-intensity Intermittent and Moderate-intensity Continuous Exercise on Autonomic Modulation in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, C; Giacon, T R; Campos, E Z; Gerosa-Neto, J; Rodrigues, B; Vanderlei, L C M; Lira, F S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) recovery after two iso-volume (5 km) exercises performed at different intensities. 14 subjects volunteered (25.17±5.08 years; 74.7±6.28 kg; 175±0.05 cm; 59.56±5.15 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed associated with VO2Peak (sVO2Peak), the subjects completed 2 random experimental trials: high-intensity exercise (HIE - 1:1 at 100% sVO2Peak), and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MIE - 70% sVO2Peak). HRV and RR intervals were monitored before, during and after the exercise sessions together with, the HRV analysis in the frequency domains (high-frequency - HF: 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and low-frequency - LF: 0.04 to 0.15 Hz components) and the ratio between them (LF/HF). Statistical analysis comparisons between moments and between HIE and MIE were performed using a mixed model. Both exercise sessions modified LFlog, HFlog, and LF/HF (F=16.54, F=19.32 and F=5.17, p<0.05, respectively). A group effect was also found for LFlog (F=23.91, p<0.05), and HFlog (F=57.55, p< 0.05). LF/HF returned to resting value 15 min after MIE exercise and 20 min after HIE exercise. This means that the heavy domain (aerobic and anaerobic threshold) induces dissimilar autonomic modification in physically active subjects. Both HIE and MIE modify HRV, and generally HIE delays parasympathetic autonomic modulation recovery after iso-volume exercise.

  2. Effect of preseason concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity interval training in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent muscular strength and high-intensity running interval training on professional soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance. Thirty-nine players participated in the study, where both the experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 19) participated in 8 weeks of regular soccer training, with the EG receiving additional muscular strength and high-intensity interval training twice per week throughout. Muscular strength training consisted of 4 sets of 6RM (repetition maximum) of high-pull, jump squat, bench press, back half squat, and chin-up exercises. The high-intensity interval training consisted of 16 intervals each of 15-second sprints at 120% of individual maximal aerobic speed interspersed with 15 seconds of rest. EG significantly increased (p aerobic speed test, and maximal aerobic speed. High-intensity interval running can be concurrently performed with high load muscular strength training to enhance soccer players' explosive performances and aerobic endurance.

  3. Improvement of high-voltage staircase drive circuit waveform for high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Jimbo, Hayato; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, noninvasive or low-invasive modality, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), has been put into practice as an alternative to open surgery. HIFU induces thermal ablation of the target tissue to be treated. To improve the efficiency of HIFU, we have proposed a “triggered-HIFU” technique, which uses the combination of a short-duration, high-voltage transmission and a long-duration, medium-voltage transmission. In this method, the transmission device must endure high peak voltage for the former and the high time-average power for the latter. The triggered-HIFU sequence requires electronic scanning of the HIFU focus to maximize its thermal efficiency. Therefore, the transmission device must drive an array transducer with the number of elements on the order of a hundred or more, which requires that each part of the device that drives each element must be compact. The purpose of this work is to propose and construct such a transmission device by improving the staircase drive circuit, which we previously proposed. The main point of improvement is that both N and P MOSFETs are provided for each staircase voltage level instead of only one of them. Compared with the previous ultrasonic transmission circuit, high-voltage spikes were significantly reduced, the power consumption was decreased by 26.7%, and the transmission circuit temperature rise was decreased by 14.5 °C in the triggered-HIFU heating mode.

  4. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika;

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... performed 6-10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate intensity for a 15-week period completing in total 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 sessions, respectively. In CON, all measured variables were similar before and after the intervention period. Systolic BP...... swim (13 ± 3% and 22 ± 3%), interval swimming (23 ± 3% and 8 ± 3%), and Yo-Yo IE1 running performance (58 ± 5% and 45 ± 4%). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance...

  5. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review...... was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using...... the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate...

  6. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Pascal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction on productivity, RPE and upper trapezius activity and rest during computer work and a subsequent pause from computer work. Methods 18 female computer workers performed 2 sessions of 15 min standardized computer mouse work preceded by 1 min pause with and without prior high intensity contraction of shoulder elevation. RPE was reported, productivity (drawings per min measured, and bipolar surface electromyography (EMG recorded from the dominant upper trapezius during pauses and sessions of computer work. Repeated measure ANOVA with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc tests was applied for the statistical analyses. Results The main findings were that a high intensity shoulder elevation did not modify RPE, productivity or EMG activity of the upper trapezius during the subsequent pause and computer work. However, the high intensity contraction reduced the relative rest time of the uppermost (clavicular trapezius part during the subsequent pause from computer work (p Conclusion Since a preceding high intensity shoulder elevation did not impose a negative impact on perceived effort, productivity or upper trapezius activity during computer work, implementation of high intensity contraction during computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a

  7. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Liu, Yang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Deliang

    2017-08-23

    Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Age-matched sedentary mice with standard diet were used as a control (n=10). Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for 5days a week. Both modes of exercise ameliorated adiposity and related metabolic dysfunction induced by HFD and sedentary lifestyle, while mice following HIIT exhibited significantly lower body weight, percentage of fat mass and smaller adipocyte size. HIIT was more favorable in preventing liver lipid accumulation by restoring mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC1, FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα, CPT1a, HAD). In addition, HIIT was more efficient in mitigating adipose tissue inflammation and insulin insensitivity, partly dependent on abrogating phosphorylation of JNK/IRS1 (Ser307) pathway. Moreover, only HIIT led to pronounced beige adipocyte recruitment in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that HIIT contribute a more favorable regulation of metabolic dysfunctions in DIO mice compared with MICT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A High Intensity Linac for the National Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, A.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Schrage, D.; Kurennoy, S.; Krawczyk, F.; Lynch, M.; Nath, S.; Shafer, R.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Wangler, T.; Wood, R.; Young, L.; Grand, P.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.

    1997-05-01

    The National Spallation Neutron Source to be constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, requires a linac capable of delivering up to 5 MW of beam power to an accumulator ring with a nominal 6.2% duty factor and an energy of 1 GeV. Los Alamos, responsible for the linac design, has developed an appropriate room-temperature linac that consists of a drift-tube section from 2.5 to 20 MeV, a coupled-cavity drift-tube section to 100 MeV, and a coupled-cavity section to 1 GeV. The initial scenario requires an average 1.1-mA beam current with a corresponding 28 mA peak current and a 1.2-Mhz chopped time structure corresponding to the ring period. Upgrade to a 4.4 mA average current requires funneling with a peak current of 112 mA in the high-energy sections. Further parameters are presented along with beam dynamics and structure choices and mechanical and rf engineering considerations.

  9. Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britten, J

    2008-01-23

    The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

  10. High Performance Data Transfer for Distributed Data Intensive Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chin [Zettar Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Cottrell, R ' Les' A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hanushevsky, Andrew B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kroeger, Wilko [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yang, Wei [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We report on the development of ZX software providing high performance data transfer and encryption. The design scales in: computation power, network interfaces, and IOPS while carefully balancing the available resources. Two U.S. patent-pending algorithms help tackle data sets containing lots of small files and very large files, and provide insensitivity to network latency. It has a cluster-oriented architecture, using peer-to-peer technologies to ease deployment, operation, usage, and resource discovery. Its unique optimizations enable effective use of flash memory. Using a pair of existing data transfer nodes at SLAC and NERSC, we compared its performance to that of bbcp and GridFTP and determined that they were comparable. With a proof of concept created using two four-node clusters with multiple distributed multi-core CPUs, network interfaces and flash memory, we achieved 155Gbps memory-to-memory over a 2x100Gbps link aggregated channel and 70Gbps file-to-file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  11. Design of an Ultimate High Speed Electrical Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vishnu Kiran

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New emerging applications in the areas of portable power generation, small turbocompressors and spindles require the development of ultrahigh-speed, low power electrical drives. A 500 000 r/min, 100 W electrical drive system is presented. Because of the ultrahigh-speed requirements, standard machine design and power electronic topology choices no longer apply and the complete drive system has to be considered. A permanent magnet machine with a slotless litz-wire winding is used, which results in a low motor inductance and a high fundamental machine frequency. Three different combinations of power electronic topologies and commutation strategies have been experimentally investigated. A voltage source inverter with block commutation and an additional dc–dc converter is selected as the most optimal choice for the power electronics interface as it results in the lowest volume of the entire drive system due to lower switching losses, no heat sink cooling required, a small number of semiconductor devices, and relatively simple control implementation in a low cost digitalsignal processor.

  12. High precision measurement of electrical resistance across endothelial cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschugguel, W; Zhegu, Z; Gajdzik, L; Maier, M; Binder, B R; Graf, J

    1995-05-01

    Effects of vasoactive agonists on endothelial permeability was assessed by measurement of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) grown on porous polycarbonate supports. Because of the low values of TEER obtained in this preparation (< 5 omega cm2) a design of an Ussing type recording chamber was chosen that provided for a homogeneous electric field across the monolayer and for proper correction of series resistances. Precision current pulses and appropriate rates of sampling and averaging of the voltage signal allowed for measurement of < 0.1 omega resistance changes of the endothelium on top of a 21 omega series resistance of the support and bathing fluid layers. Histamine (10 microM) and thrombin (10 U/ml) induced an abrupt and substantial decrease of TEER, bradykinin (1 microM) was less effective, PAF (380 nM) and LTC4 (1 microM) had no effect. TEER was also reduced by the calcium ionophore A-23187 (10 microM). The technique allows for measurements of TEER in low resistance monolayer cultures with high precision and time resolution. The results obtained extend previous observations in providing quantitative data on the increase of permeability of HUVECs in response to vasoactive agonists.

  13. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This analysis provides a detailed national and regional description of the water-related impacts and constraints of high solar electricity penetration scenarios in the U.S. in 2030 and 2050. A modified version of the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that incorporates water resource availability and costs as a constraint in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions was utilized to explore national and regional differences in water use impacts and solar deployment locations under different solar energy cost and water availability scenarios (Macknick et al. 2015). Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013a). Scenarios analyzed include two business-as-usual solar energy cost cases, one with and one without considering available water resources, and four solar energy cost cases that meet the SunShot cost goals (i.e., $1/watt for utility-scale PV systems), with varying levels of water availability restrictions. This analysis provides insight into the role solar energy technologies have in the broader electricity sector under scenarios of water constraints.

  14. Scoring system for the selection of high-risk patients in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iapichino, G; Mistraletti, G; Corbella, D; Bassi, G; Borotto, E; Miranda, DR; Morabito, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit greatly differ in severity and intensity of care. We devised a system for selecting high-risk patients that reduces bias by excluding low-risk patients and patients with an early death irrespective of the treatment. Design: A posteriori analysi

  15. Is moderate intensity exercise training combined with high intensity interval training more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate intensity exercise training alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Brendon H; Nolan, Paul B; Weatherwax, Ryan M; Dalleck, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs) at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery), CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R)) and a sedentary control group (n = 7). Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control) in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control) in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). It was 'unclear' if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains 'unclear' whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart. Key PointsBoth continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone and CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (CMIET + HIIT) elicit 'possibly beneficial' clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory

  16. Electrical and hydrodynamic characterization of a high current pulsed arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Martins, R.; Chemartin, L.; Zaepffel, C.; Lalande, Ph; Soufiani, A.

    2016-05-01

    High current pulsed arcs are of significant industrial interest and, aiming to reduce time and cost, there is progressively more and more need for computation tools that describe and predict the behaviour of these arcs. These simulation codes need inputs and validations by experimental databases, but accurate data is missing for this category of electric discharges. The principal lack of understanding is with respect to the transient phase of the current, which can reach thousands of amperes in a few microseconds. In this paper, we present the work realized on an experimental setup that simulates in the laboratory an arc column subjected to five levels of high pulsed current, ranging from 10 kA to 100 kA, with the last one corresponding to the standard lightning current waveform used in aircraft certification processes. This device was instrumented by high speed video cameras to assess the characteristic sizes of the arc channel and to characterize the shock wave generated by the arc expansion. The arc channel radius was measured over time during the axisymmetric phase and reached 3.2 cm. The position and velocity of the shock wave was determined during the first 140 μs. The background-oriented schlieren method was used to study the shock wave and a model for the light deflection inside the shock wave was developed. The mass density profile of the shock wave was estimated and showed good agreement with Rankine-Hugoniot relations at the wave front. Electrical measurements were also used to estimate the time-dependent resistance and conductivity of the arc for times lasting up to 50 μs.

  17. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  18. Simultaneous tuning of electric field intensity and structural properties of ZnO: Graphene nanostructures for FOSPR based nicotine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2017-05-15

    We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied. The peak PL intensity was found to be highest for ZnO: graphene nanofibers. The optimized value of f in ZnO: graphene nanofiber was reconfirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments were performed on the fiber optic probe fabricated with Ag/ZnO: graphene layer and optimized parameters for in-situ detection of nicotine. The interaction of nicotine with ZnO: graphene nanostructures alters the dielectric function of ZnO: graphene nanostructure which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. From the sensing signal, the performance parameters were measured including sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, repeatability and selectivity. The real sample prepared using cigarette tobacco leaves and analyzed using the fabricated sensor makes it suitable for practical applications. The achieved values of LOD and LOQ are found to be unrivalled in comparison to the reported ones. The sensor possesses additional advantages such as, immunity to electromagnetic interference, low cost, capability of online monitoring, remote sensing.

  19. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields on milk composition and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonication and pulsed eletrcic fields (PEF belong to novel food processing methods which are mostly implemented in combination with moderate temperatures and/ or in combination with each other in order to provide adequate microbiological quality with minimal losses of nutritional value. All of three mentioned methods have been intensively investigated for the purpose of inactivation and reduction of foodborne microorganisms present in milk and dairy products. However, a large number of scientific researches have been dedicated to investigation of impact of these methods on changes in constituents like milk fat, milk proteins and lactose as well as changes in mechanisms like renneting properties and coagulation of milk. The aim of this research was to give an overview of changes in milk constituents induced by high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonification and pulsed electric field treatments as well as to suggest how these changes could improve conventional processes in the dairy industry.

  20. Improved highly accurate localized motion imaging for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Sugiyama, Ryusuke; Kanazawa, Kengo; Seki, Mika; Sasaki, Akira; Takeuchi, Hideki; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Tamano, Satoshi; Takagi, Shu; Sakuma, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-07-01

    Visualizing an area subjected to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is necessary for controlling the amount of HIFU exposure. One of the promising monitoring methods is localized motion imaging (LMI), which estimates coagulation length by detecting the change in stiffness. In this study, we improved the accuracy of our previous LMI by dynamic cross-correlation window (DCCW) and maximum vibration amount (MVA) methods. The DCCW method was used to increase the accuracy of estimating vibration amplitude, and the MVA method was employed to increase signal-noise ratio of the decrease ratio at the coagulated area. The qualitative comparison of results indicated that the two proposed methods could suppress the effect of noise. Regarding the results of the quantitative comparison, coagulation length was estimated with higher accuracy by the improved LMI method, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) was reduced from 2.51 to 1.69 mm.

  1. ELECTROLYTE-PLASMA TREATMENT UNDER NON-STATIONARY MODE IN A HIGH-GRADIENT ELECTRIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Aliakseyeu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyte-plasma treatment has become widespread in the industry as an alternative to traditional chemical, electrochemical and mechanical methods of improving the surface quality of products made of metallic materials. Advantages ofelectrolyte-plasma treatment are a high intensity of microroughness smoothing, the use of low concentration salts solutions as electrolytes, the possibility of processing products of complex shape. The main disadvantage of this method is high power consumption, so the method can be considered in its classical form to the power-consuming. A possible way of reducing power consumption is treatment in unsteady modes that arise in the transition zone between a switching and stable electrolyte-plasma treatment process and is characterized by the periodic formation of a stable vapor-gas shell and a transition to an electrochemical process. The paper presents the results of a study of the influence of a high-gradient electric field under unsteady electrolyte-plasma treatment modes on the energy parameters of the process and the characteristics of the surface being treated. It is established that a high-gradient electric field has a significant effect on the decrease in specific power consumption, which is explained by a decrease in losses in the electrolyte and the influence of the field on the formation and maintenance of the vapor-gas shell. As a result of the study of the effect of a high-gradient electric field in unsteady EPT modes on characteristics of the surface layer was established that a significant impulse current density in the zone of predominantly electrochemical treatment leads to a selective etching of the surface and the formation of a characteristic micro relief of the surface with a developed porous microstructure with pore sizes from 0.3 to 2.5 microns. The most pronounced porous microstructure is provided at a voltage of 270–300 V and an additional inductance of 3.2 mH.

  2. The effect of high density electric pulses on sintered aluminum 201AB silicon carbide MMC PM compacts during plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariavach, Nader Guseinovich

    The effect of high-density electrical pulses on mechanical and structural properties of sintered aluminum SiC metal-matrix composites, fabricated by standard powder-metallurgy compaction and sintering, was investigated. Three types of phenomena where investigated during transverse rupture testing of the samples: a consolidation effect (increasing of the transverse rupture strength (TRS)), an electroplastic effect (decreasing of the flow stresses), and an increasing of the stress intensity factor by electric pulse application. It was observed, that an increase in the TRS strength of sintered powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum and aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) compacts is a result of the electric pulse consolidation effect due to non-uniform temperature distribution around the grain boundaries. Three analytical models of the thermal effect of electric pulses on aluminum samples where considered: total temperature change of the sample due to a one electric pulse, one-dimensional steady state model and transient 2D thermal analysis of the temperature distribution around the grain boundary. The 2D transient analysis shows that the temperature rise in the grain boundary of a sintered PM aluminum sample due to an electric pulse can exceed the melting point. At the same time the temperature of the bulk material has an insignificant (melt the crack tip and increase the strength of the damaged material. The experimental study shows an increase in the stress intensity factor up to 76% for sintered aluminum PM compacts and up to 116% for sintered aluminum MMC PM compacts due to application of high-density electric pulses during transverse rapture testing.

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE HIGH-VOLTAGE BATTERY IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of hybrid electric vehicle NiMH high-voltage battery is obtained. This model allows to explore the interaction of vehicle tractive electric drive and high-voltage battery at the electric motive power motion and in the process of recuperation of braking kinetic energy.

  4. Relaxor behavior and electrical properties of high dielectric constant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Several typical high dielectric constant materials are reviewed to study the electrical properties and relaxation mechanism. It is found that a Lorenz-type law can be used to describe the dielectric permit- tivity of either the normal ferroelectrics with or without diffuse phase transitions (DPT) or the typical ferroelectric relaxors. The ferroelectric DPT can be well described by just one fitting process using the Lorenz-type law, while the relaxor ferroelectric transition needs two independent fitting processes. The Lorenz-type law fails at the low temperature side of the dielectric maximum of a first-order ferroelectric phase transition. Above the transition temperature, the dielectric curves of all the studied materials can be well described by a Lorenz-type law.

  5. Relaxor behavior and electrical properties of high dielectric constant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN HuiQing; KE ShanMing

    2009-01-01

    Several typical high dielectric constant materials are reviewed to study the electrical properties and relaxation mechanism.It is found that a Lorenz-type law can be used to describe the dielectric permitUvity of either the normal ferroelectrics with or without diffuse phase transitions(DPT)or the typical ferroelectric relaxors.The ferroelectric DPT can be well described by just one fitting process using the Lorenz-type law,while the relaxor ferroelectric transition needs two independent fitting processes.The Lorenz-type law fails at the low temperature side of the dielectric maximum of a first-order ferroelectric phase transition.Above the transition temperature,the dielectric curves of all the studied materials can be well described by a Lorenz-type law.

  6. Meeting standards of high-quality intensive care unit palliative care: clinical performance and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, Joan D; Pronovost, Peter J; Livote, Elayne E; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Walker, Amy S; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Mercado, Alice F; Swoboda, Sandra M; Ilaoa, Debra; Thompson, David A; Nelson, Judith E

    2012-04-01

    High-quality care for intensive care unit patients and families includes palliative care. To promote performance improvement, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National Quality Measures Clearinghouse identified nine evidence-based processes of intensive care unit palliative care (Care and Communication Bundle) that are measured through review of medical record documentation. We conducted this study to examine how frequently the Care and Communication Bundle processes were performed in diverse intensive care units and to understand patient factors that are associated with such performance. Prospective, multisite, observational study of performance of key intensive care unit palliative care processes. A surgical intensive care unit and a medical intensive care unit in two different large academic health centers and a medical-surgical intensive care unit in a medium-sized community hospital. Consecutive adult patients with length of intensive care unit stay ≥5 days. None. Between November 2007 and December 2009, we measured performance by specified day after intensive care unit admission on nine care process measures: Identify medical decision-maker, advance directive and resuscitation preference, distribute family information leaflet, assess and manage pain, offer social work and spiritual support, and conduct interdisciplinary family meeting. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine predictors of performance of five care processes. We enrolled 518 (94.9%) patients and 336 (83.6%) family members. Performances on pain assessment and management measures were high. In contrast, interdisciplinary family meetings were documented for <20% of patients by intensive care unit day 5. Performance on other measures ranged from 8% to 43%, with substantial variation across and within sites. Chronic comorbidity burden and site were the most consistent predictors of care process performance. Across three intensive care units in this study, performance

  7. Sessile multidroplets and salt droplets under high tangential electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxin; He, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Si, Lina; Guo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction behaviors between sessile droplets under imposed high voltages is very important in many practical situations, e.g., microfluidic devices and the degradation/aging problems of outdoor high-power applications. In the present work, the droplet coalescence, the discharge activity and the surface thermal distribution response between sessile multidroplets and chloride salt droplets under high tangential electric fields have been investigated with infrared thermography, high-speed photography and pulse current measurement. Obvious polarity effects on the discharge path direction and the temperature change in the droplets in the initial stage after discharge initiation were observed due to the anodic dissolution of metal ions from the electrode. In the case of sessile aligned multidroplets, the discharge path direction could affect the location of initial droplet coalescence. The smaller unmerged droplet would be drained into the merged large droplet as a result from the pressure difference inside the droplets rather than the asymmetric temperature change due to discharge. The discharge inception voltages and the temperature variations for two salt droplets closely correlated with the ionization degree of the salt, as well as the interfacial electrochemical reactions near the electrodes. Mechanisms of these observed phenomena were discussed. PMID:27121926

  8. DNA electrophoretic migration patterns change after exposure of Jurkat cells to a single intense nanosecond electric pulse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Romeo

    Full Text Available Intense nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs interact with cellular membranes and intracellular structures. Investigating how cells respond to nanosecond pulses is essential for a development of biomedical applications of nsPEFs, including cancer therapy, and b better understanding of the mechanisms underlying such bioelectrical effects. In this work, we explored relatively mild exposure conditions to provide insight into weak, reversible effects, laying a foundation for a better understanding of the interaction mechanisms and kinetics underlying nsPEF bio-effects. In particular, we report changes in the nucleus of Jurkat cells (human lymphoblastoid T cells exposed to single pulses of 60 ns duration and 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 MV/m amplitudes, which do not affect cell growth and viability. A dose-dependent reduction in alkaline comet-assayed DNA migration is observed immediately after nsPEF exposure, accompanied by permeabilization of the plasma membrane (YO-PRO-1 uptake. Comet assay profiles return to normal within 60 minutes after pulse delivery at the highest pulse amplitude tested, indicating that our exposure protocol affects the nucleus, modifying DNA electrophoretic migration patterns.

  9. Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption with nonlinear effects of high laser intensity and non-Maxwellian distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption and evolution of the electron distribution function (EDF) in a wide laser intensity range (10;{12}-10;{17} W/cm;{2}) have been studied systematically by a two velocity-dimension Fokker-Planck code. It is found that Langdon's IB operator overestimates the absorption rate at high laser intensity, consequently with an overdistorted non-Maxwellian EDF. According to the small anisotropy of EDF in the oscillation frame, we introduce an IB operator which is similar to Langdon's but without the low laser intensity limit. This operator is appropriate for self-consistently tackling the nonlinear effects of high laser intensity as well as non-Maxwellian EDF. Particularly, our operator is capable of treating IB absorption properly in the indirect and direct-drive inertial confinement fusion schemes with the National Ignition Facility and Laser MegaJoule laser parameters at focused laser intensity beyond 10;{15} W/cm;{2} .

  10. The ‘thirsty’ water-electricity nexus: field data on the scale and seasonality of thermoelectric power generation’s water intensity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Daqian; Ramaswami, Anuradha

    2015-02-01

    There is a lack of field data on the water withdrawal and consumption intensity of thermoelectric power plants in China. With China’s ambitious electricity capacity expansion and ever-growing water deficit, the overlooked water dimension of thermoelectric power generation could soon have significant water sustainability implications, and field data on water intensity of thermoelectric power plants will be essential to further our understanding of China’s water-electricity nexus. To address this knowledge gap, this paper presents field data on the water withdrawal intensity and water balance of 19 coal-fired power plants in Shandong, China, categorized by different generator capacities (600 MW) and boiler technologies (subcritical, supercritical and ultra supercritical). This paper suggests that the annual average water withdrawal intensity of coal-fired power plants in Shandong (1.50-3.75 L kWh-1) is within the range of values reported for other countries, and that the distinction between water withdrawal and water consumption effectively vanishes since very little water is returned from withdrawal. This paper also suggests that there is quite significant seasonality in power plants’ water intensity whereby the water intensity in July can be approximately 15-28% higher than the annual average. The seasonality is on a similar scale across all generator capacities, except for a small co-generation plant (water intensity in January when a heat exchanger was used to provide heating.

  11. High-density operation of the Proto-MPEX High Intensity Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Caneses, J.; Diem, S. J.; Martin, E. H.; Parish, C. M.; Rapp, J.; Ray, H. B.; Shaw, G. C.; Showers, M. A.; Donovan, D.; Piotrowicz, P. A.; Martin, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    The Prototype Materials Plasma Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear high-intensity RF plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with ion and electron heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration with the goal of delivering a plasma heat flux of 10 MW/m2 at a target. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz RF power at levels of >100 kW. A 30 kW ion cyclotron antenna has recently been installed, and microwaves at 28 GHz ( 150 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW). High plasma densities near the target have been produced in D ( 5 x1019/m3) , and electron temperatures range from 3 to >10 eV, depending on the source parameters. IR camera images of the target plate indicate plasma heat depositions >10 MW/m2 for some operating conditions. Details of the experimental results of the operational domain with respect to Te and ne as well as results from initial plasma material interaction tests will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  13. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2-3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  14. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J; Collett, J; Howells, K; Morris, M G

    2017-02-16

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue; however, the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8×5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pretraining 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the "new" post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively) (P≤.019). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively, P=.023) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively, P=.047) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of abnormal vaginal bleeding secondary to uterine myoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lim, Young Tec; Cho, Sae Hyun; Lee, Jae Mun; Hahn, Seong-Tae

    2011-03-01

    We describe the use of high-intensity focused ultrasound for acute vaginal bleeding secondary to uterine myoma in 2 young female patients. Both patients had episodes of abnormal vaginal bleeding with severe dysmenorrhea that was not efficiently controlled by medical treatment. After high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, both vaginal bleeding control and symptom relief were achieved without postinterventional complications. The patients remained free of symptoms during 2 months of follow-up and regained normal menstruation after high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment is one of the least invasive options for dysfunctional vaginal bleeding and may be an effective and safe alternative to other procedures in women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal bleeding secondary to uterine myoma.

  16. High speed traveling wave electrooptic intensity modulator with a doped PIN semiconductor junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vawter, G.A.; Hietala, V.M.; Wendt, J.R.; Fuchs, B.A.; Hafich, M.; Housel, M.; Armendariz, M.; Sullivan, C.T.

    1996-02-01

    A high-electrooptic-efficiency Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator is demonstrated with a bandwidth exceeding 40 GHZ. The 1 mm-long modulator has a switching voltage comparable to undoped semiconductor designs of much greater length.

  17. Effect of low-intensity extremely high frequency radiation on reproductive function in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, T I; Tereshkina, O V; Khadartsev, A A; Yashin, A A

    2006-08-01

    The exposure to low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation during spermatogenesis was accompanied by pathological changes, which resulted in degeneration and polymorphism of spermatozoa. The number of newborn rats increased in the progeny of irradiated animals.

  18. Enhancement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Heating by Short-Pulse Generated Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshizawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A target tissue can be thermally coagulated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU treatment noninvasively. HIFU thermal treatments have been clinically applied to various solid tumors. One of the problems in HIFU treatments is a long treatment time. Acoustically driven microbubbles can accelerate the ultrasonic heating, resulting in the significant reduction of the treatment time. In this paper, a method named “trigger HIFU exposure” which employs cavitation microbubbles is introduced and its results are reviewed. A trigger HIFU sequence consists of high-intensity short pulses followed by moderate-intensity long bursts. Cavitation bubbles induced in a multiple focal regions by rapidly scanning the focus of high-intensity pulses enhanced the temperature increase significantly and produced a large coagulation region with high efficiency.

  19. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect on Young People's Cardiometabolic Health and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    With only a quarter of young people currently meeting physical activity guidelines, two key areas of concern are the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health and cognition. Despite the fact that physical activity in young people is typically high intensity and intermittent in nature, much of the literature examines traditional endurance-type exercise. This review provides an update on the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on young people's cardiometabolic health and cognition. High-intensity intermittent exercise has acute beneficial effects on endothelial function and postprandial lipemia and chronic positive effects on weight management. In addition, there is emerging evidence regarding chronic benefits on the blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests beneficial acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on cognition. However, further research is required in both cardiometabolic health and cognition, particularly regarding the impact of school-based interventions in adolescents.

  20. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  1. Design and implementation of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for high intensity focused ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaner, Yalçın Feysel; Yamaner, Yalcin Feysel

    2011-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a medical procedure for noninvasive treatment of cancers. High intensity focused ultrasound is used to heat and destroy the diseased tissue. Piezoelectricity has been the core mechanism for generation of ultrasound waves in the treatment. Focusing can be done by using spherically curved transducers or using a lens or electronically steering sound waves by using phased arrays. Current research in HIFU technology targets the development of MR-guided m...

  2. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Y; Harada, Y; Ikeno, K

    2002-01-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics.

  3. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stephanie M; Taryn M. Hand; D. Enette Larson-Meyer; Kathleen J. Austin; Alexander, Brenda M.; Melinda M. Manore

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity ...

  4. Significance of High-frequency Electrical Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Agari, Takashi; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Shibata, Takashi; Hanaoka, Yoshiyuki; Akiyama, Mari; Endoh, Fumika; Oka, Makio; Date, Isao

    2017-06-01

     Electroencephalogram (EEG) data include broadband electrical brain activity ranging from infra-slow bands (frequency bands (e.g., the approx. 10 Hz alpha rhythm) to high-frequency bands of up to 500 Hz. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) including ripple and fast ripple oscillations (80-200 Hz and>200 / 250 Hz, respectively) are particularly of note due to their very close relationship to epileptogenicity, with the possibility that they could function as a surrogate biomarker of epileptogenicity. In contrast, physiological high-frequency activity plays an important role in higher brain functions, and the differentiation between pathological / epileptic and physiological HFOs is a critical issue, especially in epilepsy surgery. HFOs were initially recorded with intracranial electrodes in patients with intractable epilepsy as part of a long-term invasive seizure monitoring study. However, fast oscillations (FOs) in the ripple and gamma bands (40-80 Hz) are now noninvasively detected by scalp EEG and magnetoencephalography, and thus the scope of studies on HFOs /FOs is rapidly expanding.

  5. Associations of Low- and High-Intensity Light Activity with Cardiometabolic Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bethany; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Sethi, Parneet; Carson, Valerie; Ridgers, Nicola D; Salmon, J O; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2015-10-01

    Light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) accounts for much of adults' waking hours (≈40%) and substantially contributes to overall daily energy expenditure. Encompassing activity behaviors of low intensity (standing with little movement) to those of higher intensity (slow walking), LIPA is ubiquitous, yet little is known about how associations with health may vary depending on its intensity. We examined the associations of objectively assessed LIPA (categorized as either low LIPA [LLPA] or high LIPA [HLPA]) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured in 4614 US adults (47 ± 17 yr) who participated in the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles. Multiple linear regression analyses examined the associations of three accelerometer-derived physical activity (SD increment per day) intensity categories (LLPA, 100-761 counts per minute; HLPA, 762-1951 counts per minute; moderate-intensity physical activity [MPA], 1952-5724 counts per minute; vigorous-intensity physical activity [VPA], ≥5725 counts per minute) with cardiometabolic biomarkers, adjusting for potential sociodemographic, behavioral, and medical confounders. All intensities of physical activity were beneficially associated with waist circumference, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, fasting insulin, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity (P activity intensities showed significant associations with systolic blood pressure (LLPA), body mass index, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, and 2-h plasma glucose (HLPA, MPA, and VPA). Generally, effect size increased with intensity of physical activity. Overall, further adjustment for waist circumference attenuated associations with MPA and VPA to a greater extent than associations with LLPA and HLPA. The cross-sectional findings provide novel evidence for the potential benefits of increasing both LLPA and HLPA. They further reinforce the

  6. Electric heating provides a high level of home comfort - economically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M.

    1997-11-01

    Research and development at IVO in the area of electric heating boasts a tradition going back almost thirty years. Research aimed at further progress is continuing. IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically heated houses of the century` project four years ago. The first results show that electric heating continues to be very competitive with other heating systems. It is an economical way of heating the home and it also increases the comfort of those living there

  7. High-intensity exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and markers of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Brendan; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Patrick; Frenneaux, Michael P; Gray, Stuart R

    2012-09-01

    Regular exercise can reduce the risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). Although moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate postprandial TAG (triacylglycerol), high-intensity intermittent exercise might be a more effective method to improve health. We compared the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise and 30 min of brisk walking on postprandial TAG, soluble adhesion molecules and markers of oxidative stress. Nine men each completed three 2-day trials. On day 1, subjects rested (control), walked briskly for 30 min (walking) or performed 5×30 s maximal sprints (high-intensity). On day 2, subjects consumed a high-fat meal for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TAG, glucose, insulin, ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular adhesion molecule-1), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances), protein carbonyls and β-hydroxybutyrate. On day 2 of the high-intensity trial, there was a lower (Phigh-intensity trial (14.13±2.83 mmol/l per 7 h) compared with control (17.18±3.92 mmol/l per 7 h), walking showed no difference (16.33±3.51 mmol/l per 7 h). On day 2 of the high-intensity trial plasma TBARS and protein carbonyls were also reduced (Phigh-intensity intermittent exercise attenuates postprandial TAG and markers of oxidative stress after the consumption of a high-fat meal.

  8. Direct Generation of Intense Compression Waves in Molten Metals by Using a High Static Magnetic Field and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Compression waves propagating through molten metals are contributed to degassing, accelerating reaction rate,removing exclusions from molten metals and refining solidification structures during metallurgical processing of ma-terials. In the present study, two electromagnetic methods are proposed to generate intense compression wavesdirectly in liquid metals. One is the simultaneous imposition of a high frequency electrical current field and a staticmagnetic field; the other is that of a high frequency magnetic field and a static magnetic field. A mathematical modelbased on compressible fluid dynamics and electromagnetic fields theory has been developed to derive pressure distri-butions of the generated waves in a metal. It shows that the intensity of compression waves is proportional to thatof the high frequency electromagnetic force. And the frequency is the same as that of the imposed electromagneticforce. On the basis of theoretical analyses, pressure change in liquid gallium was examined by a pressure transducerunder various conditions. The observed results approximately agreed with the predictions derived from the theoreticalanalyses and calculations. Moreover, the effect of the generated waves on improvement of solidification structureswas also examined. It shows that the generated compression waves can refine solidification structures when they wereapplied to solidification process of Sn-Pb alloy. This study indicates a new method to generate compression wavesby imposing high frequency electromagnetic force locally on molten metals and this kind of compression waves canprobably overcome the difficulties when waves are excited by mechanical vibration in high temperature environments.

  9. Research on High-efficient Remanufacturing Technologies and Application of Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Yang, Xu; Wang, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The energy conservation of electric motor system is the key of industrial energy conservation. With the implementation and acceleration of electric motor energy efficiency improvement plan, more and more electric motors are knocked out. High-efficient remanufacturing of electric motor refers to improving the efficiency of electric motor and recycling the resources by replacing the winding, iron core and other components of electric motor on the basis of the low-efficient/outdated electric motors, which conforms to China’s policy of circular economy and resource recovery. The remanufacturing of electric motor not only maximizes the use of resources, but also reduces the energy consumption generated by reprocessing of cast iron, silicon steel sheet and other materials in dismantling of electric motor. However, structures and iron core materials used in design and manufacture of electric motors are different, and the degrees of wear of electric motors are also different under different operating conditions, which further result in diversified design schemes, increased remanufacturing cost and reduced remanufacturing efficiency. This paper analyzes the key process technologies for remanufacturing of electric motors are researched by analyzing the remanufacturing technologies of electric motors, and presents the feasibility to replace the cast-aluminum rotor with cast-copper rotor in high-efficient remanufacturing process of electric motor.

  10. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  11. Dynamics of corticospinal changes during and after high-intensity quadriceps exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Mathieu; Temesi, John; Rupp, Thomas; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2014-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that during fatiguing quadriceps exercise, supraspinal fatigue develops late, is associated with both increased corticospinal excitability and inhibition and recovers quickly. Eight subjects performed 20 s contractions [15 s at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 5 s MVC] separated by a 10 s rest period until task failure. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical femoral nerve stimulation (PNS) were delivered ∼ 2 s apart during 50% MVC, during MVC and after MVC in relaxed muscle. Voluntary activation was assessed by TMS (VATMS) immediately before and after exercise and then three times over a 6 min recovery period. During exercise, MVC and twitch force evoked by PNS in relaxed muscle decreased progressively to 48 ± 8 and 36 ± 16% of control values, respectively (both P MVC were observed during the last quarter of exercise only (from 96.4 ± 1.7 to 86 ± 13%, P = 0.03 and from 0.76 ± 0.8 to 4.9 ± 4.7% MVC, P = 0.02, from baseline to task failure, respectively). The TMS-induced silent period increased linearly during both MVC (by ∼ 79 ms) and 50% MVC (by ∼ 63 ms; both P MVC and twitch force evoked by PNS in relaxed muscle recovered to only 84 ± 9 and 73 ± 17% of control values 6 min after exercise, respectively. In conclusion, high-intensity single-joint quadriceps exercise induces supraspinal fatigue near task failure, with increased intracortical inhibition and, in contrast to previous upper-limb results, unchanged corticospinal excitability. These changes recover rapidly after task failure, emphasizing the need to measure corticospinal adaptations immediately at task failure to avoid underestimation of exercise-induced corticospinal changes.

  12. Study in Parkinson Disease of Exercise (SPARX): Translating high-intensity exercise from animals to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charity G.; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Delitto, Anthony; Hall, Deborah A.; Corcos, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning literature suggests that exercise has a therapeutic benefit in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and in animal models of PD, especially when animals exercise at high intensity. If exercise is to be prescribed as “first-line” or “add-on” therapy in patients with PD, we must demonstrate its efficacy and dose-response effects through testing phases similar to those used in the testing of pharmacologic agents. The SPARX Trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, Phase II study that we designed to test the feasibility of using high-intensity exercise to modify symptoms of PD and to simultaneously test the nonfutility of achieving a prespecified change in patients’ motor scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The trial began in May 2102 and is in the process of screening, enrolling, and randomly assigning 126 patients with early-stage PD to 1 of 3 groups: usual care (wait-listed controls), moderate-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 60%–65% maximal heart rate [HRmax]), or high-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 80%–85% HRmax). At 6-month follow-up, the trial is randomly reassigning usual care participants to a moderate-intensity or high-intensity exercise group for the remaining 6 months. The goals of the Phase II trial are to determine if participants can exercise at moderate and high intensities; to determine if either exercise yields benefits consistent with meaningful clinical change (nonfutility); and to document safety and attrition. The advantage of using a non-futility approach allows us to efficiently determine if moderate- or high-intensity exercise warrants further large-scale investigation in PD. PMID:23770108

  13. High-intensity erotic visual stimuli de-activate the primary visual cortex in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu K; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Holstege, Gert

    2012-06-01

    The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the pictures or movies. However, in case the volunteers perform demanding non-visual tasks, the primary visual cortex becomes de-activated, although the amount of incoming visual sensory information is the same. Do low- and high-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies, produce similar de-activation of the primary visual cortex? Brain activation/de-activation was studied by Positron Emission Tomography scanning of the brains of 12 healthy heterosexual premenopausal women, aged 18-47, who watched neutral, low- and high-intensity erotic film segments. We measured differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the primary visual cortex during watching neutral, low-intensity erotic, and high-intensity erotic film segments. Watching high-intensity erotic, but not low-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies resulted in strong de-activation of the primary (BA 17) and adjoining parts of the secondary visual cortex. The strong de-activation during watching high-intensity erotic film might represent compensation for the increased blood supply in the brain regions involved in sexual arousal, also because high-intensity erotic movies do not require precise scanning of the visual field, because the impact is clear to the observer. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. High intensity polarization entangled source with a 2D nonlinear photonic crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin

    2009-01-01

    We gave a proposal on how to use a piece of two-dimension (2D) nonlinear photonic crystal to generate a polarization entangled source. It provides not only has a high stability, but also a high entangled quality and a high intensity. Moreover, our scheme involves only practical experimental...

  15. Highly Electrically Conducting Glass-Graphene Nanoplatelets Hybrid Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E; Nistal, A; Khalifa, A; Essa, Y; Martín de la Escalera, F; Osendi, M I; Miranzo, P

    2015-08-19

    Hybrid coatings consisting of a heat resistant Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (YAS) glass containing 2.3 wt % of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were developed by flame spraying homogeneous ceramic powders-GNP granules. Around 40% of the GNPs survived the high spraying temperatures and were distributed along the splat-interfaces, forming a percolated network. These YAS-GNP coatings are potentially interesting in thermal protection systems and electromagnetic interference shields for aerospace applications; therefore silicon carbide (SiC) materials at the forefront of those applications were employed as substrates. Whereas the YAS coatings are nonconductive, the YAS-GNP coatings showed in-plane electrical conductivity (∼10(2) S·m(-1)) for which a low percolation limit (below 3.6 vol %) is inferred. Indentation tests revealed the formation of a highly damaged indentation zone showing multiple shear displacements between adjacent splats probably favored by the graphene sheets location. The indentation radial cracks typically found in brittle glass coatings are not detected in the hybrid coatings that are also more compliant.

  16. Training Load Monitoring Algorithms on Highly Sub-Metered Home Electricity Consumption Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Berges; Ethan Goldman; H. Scott Matthews; Lucio Soibelman

    2008-01-01

    The growing interest in energy-efficient buildings is driving changes in investment, design, and occupant behavior. To better focus cost and resource conservation efforts, electricity consumption feedback can be used to provide motivation, guidance, and verification. Disaggregating by end-use helps both con-sumers and producers to identify targets for conservation. While hardware-based sub-metering is costly and labor-intensive, non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) is capable of gathering detailed energy-use data with minimal equipment cost and installation time. However, variations in measurements between metering de-vices complicate the process of compiling the necessary appliance profiles. Future work involves the devel-opment of NILM algorithms using sensor fusion and detailed appliance-level data gathered from a highly-sensed house currently being constructed near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  17. Two weeks of moderate intensity continuous training, but not high intensity interval training increases insulin-stimulated intestinal glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiani, Kumail Kumar; Savolainen, Anna M; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Toivanen, Jussi; Ishizu, Tamiko; Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Parkkola, Riitta; Kapanen, Jukka; Gronroos, Tove J; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof; Savisto, Nina; Ahotupa, Markku; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-02-09

    Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy middle-aged sedentary men were randomized for two weeks of HIIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and fasting free fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography and [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FTHA. In addition, effects of HIIT and MICT on intestinal Glut2 and CD36 protein expression were studied in rats. Training improved aerobic capacity (p=0.001) and whole-body insulin sensitivity (p=0.04), but not differently between HIIT and MICT. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased only after the MICT in the colon [HIIT=0%; MICT=37%] (p=0.02 for time*training) and tended to increase in the jejunum [HIIT=-4%; MICT=13%] (p=0.08 for time*training). Fasting free fatty acid uptake decreased in the duodenum in both groups [HIIT=-6%; MICT=-48%] (p=0.001 time) and tended to decrease in the colon in the MICT group [HIIT=0%; MICT=-38%] (p=0.08 for time*training). In rats, both training groups had higher Glut2 and CD36 expression compared to control animals. This study shows that already two weeks of MICT enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake while both training modes reduce fasting free fatty acid uptake in the intestine in healthy middle-aged men, providing an additional mechanism by which exercise training can improve whole body metabolism.

  18. Metabolic and hormonal responses to isoenergetic high-intensity interval exercise and continuous moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Tan, Sok Joo; Markworth, James F; Broadbent, James A; Skinner, Tina L; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. work-matched moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MOD) on metabolism and counterregulatory stress hormones. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 10 well-trained male cyclists and triathletes completed a HIIT session [81.6 ± 3.7% maximum oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max); 72.0 ± 3.2% peak power output; 792 ± 95 kJ] and a MOD session (66.7 ± 3.5% V̇o2 max; 48.5 ± 3.1% peak power output; 797 ± 95 kJ). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 and 2 h postexercise. Carbohydrate oxidation was higher (P = 0.037; 20%), whereas fat oxidation was lower (P = 0.037; -47%) during HIIT vs. MOD. Immediately after exercise, plasma glucose (P = 0.024; 20%) and lactate (P HIIT vs. MOD, whereas total serum free fatty acid concentration was not significantly different (P = 0.33). Targeted gas chromatography-mass spectromtery metabolomics analysis identified and quantified 49 metabolites in plasma, among which 11 changed after both HIIT and MOD, 13 changed only after HIIT, and 5 changed only after MOD. Notable changes included substantial increases in tricarboxylic acid intermediates and monounsaturated fatty acids after HIIT and marked decreases in amino acids during recovery from both trials. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (P = 0.019), cortisol (P HIIT. Plasma norepinephrine (P = 0.11) and interleukin-6 (P = 0.20) immediately after exercise were not significantly different between trials. Plasma insulin decreased during recovery from both HIIT and MOD (P HIIT vs. MOD and highlight the value of targeted metabolomic analysis to provide more detailed insights into the metabolic demands of exercise.

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  20. [Effects of high pulsed electric field on the secondary and tertiary structure of lipoxygenase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kui; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun

    2009-03-01

    The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) on the secondary and tertiary structure of lipoxygenase (LOX) in a buffer solution was analyzed using far UV-circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectrophotometry, respectively. The secondary and tertiary structure of LOX changed after PEF treatment. The CD spectra of LOX also changed, with the intensity of two negative peaks and the content of alpha-helix significantly decreased (p electric field strength. The fluorescence intensity of LOX increased, and the relative fluorescence intensity of the two characteristic peaks of LOX emission spectra at 337 nm and 583 nm also showed a good linear correlation with the electric field strength. These results showed that the activity inactivation of LOX may be due to the alteration in secondary structure, and both had a good relation.

  1. Hot electron generation and energy coupling in planar experiments with shock ignition high intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, M. S.; Krauland, C.; Alexander, N.; Zhang, S.; Peebles, J.; Beg, F. N.; Theobald, W.; Borwick, E.; Ren, C.; Yan, R.; Haberberger, D.; Betti, R.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Hot electrons produced in nonlinear laser plasma interactions are critical issues for shock ignition (SI) laser fusion. We conducted planar target experiments to characterize hot electron and energy coupling using the high energy OMEGA EP laser system at SI high intensities. Targets were multilayered foils consisting of an ablator (either plastic or lithium) and a Cu layer to facilitate hot electron detection via fluorescence and bremsstrahlung measurements. The target was first irradiated by multi-kJ, low-intensity UV beams to produce a SI-relevant mm-scale hot ( 1 keV) preformed plasma. The main interaction pulse, either a kJ 1-ns UV pulse with intensity 1.6x1016 Wcm-2 or a kJ 0.1-ns IR pulse with intensity up to 2x1017 Wcm-2was injected at varied timing delays. The high intensity IR beam was found to strongly interact with underdense plasmas breaking into many filaments near the quarter critical density region followed by propagation of those filaments to critical density, producing hot electrons with Thot 70 keV in a well-contained beam. While the high intensity UV beam showed poor energy coupling. Details of the experiments and the complementary PIC modeling results will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE under contracts DE-NA0002730 (NLUF) and DE-SC0014666 (HEDLP).

  2. Anthropometric, Sprint, and High-Intensity Running Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players by Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running profiles of English academy rugby union players by playing positions, and to investigate the relationships between anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running characteristics. Data were collected from 67 academy players after the off-season period and consisted of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 8 skinfolds [∑SF]), 40-m linear sprint (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m splits), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IRTL-1), and the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). Forwards displayed greater stature, body mass, and ∑SF; sprint times and sprint momentum, with lower high-intensity running ability and sprint velocities than backs. Comparisons between age categories demonstrated body mass and sprint momentum to have the largest differences at consecutive age categories for forwards and backs; whereas 20-40-m sprint velocity was discriminate for forwards between under 16s, 18s, and 21s. Relationships between anthropometric, sprint velocity, momentum, and high-intensity running ability demonstrated body mass to negatively impact on sprint velocity (10 m; r = -0.34 to -0.46) and positively affect sprint momentum (e.g., 5 m; r = 0.85-0.93), with large to very large negative relationships with the Yo-Yo IRTL-1 (r = -0.65 to -0.74) and 30-15 IFT (r = -0.59 to -0.79). These findings suggest that there are distinct anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running ability differences between and within positions in junior rugby union players. The development of sprint and high-intensity running ability may be impacted by continued increases in body mass as there seems to be a trade-off between momentum, velocity, and the ability to complete high-intensity running.

  3. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of human brain in pain-related areas induced by electrical stimulation with different intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain-related studies have mainly been performed through traditional methods, which lack the rigorous analysis of anatomical locations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a noninvasive method detecting neural activity, and has the ability to precisely locate related activations in vivo. Moreover, few studies have used painful stimulation of changed intensity to investigate relevant functioning nuclei in the human brain. Aim: This study mainly focused on the pain-related activations induced by electrical stimulation with different intensities using fMRI. Furthermore, the electrophysiological characteristics of different pain-susceptible-neurons were analyzed to construct the pain modulatory network, which was corresponding to painful stimulus of changed intensity. Materials and Methods: Twelve volunteers underwent functional scanning receiving different electrical stimulation. The data were collected and analyzed to generate the corresponding functional activation maps and response time curves related to pain. Results: The common activations were mainly located in several specific regions, including the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, thalamus, and other cerebral regions. Moreover, innocuous electrical stimulation primarily activated the lateral portions of SII and thalamus, as well as the posterior insula, anterior ACC, whereas noxious electrical stimulation primarily activated the medial portions of SII and thalamus, as well as the anterior insula, the posterior ACC, with larger extensions and greater intensities. Conclusion: Several specified cerebral regions displayed different response patterns during electrical stimulation by means of fMRI, which implied that the corresponding pain-susceptible-neurons might process specific aspects of pain. Elucidation of functions on pain-related regions will help to understand the delicate pain modulation of human brain.

  4. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. METHODS: This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese......, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even......PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous...

  5. Absolute intensity, high resolution spectrum of the Vortek arc lamp and its spectral match to Nd:YAG bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, L.E.; Pertica, A.J.

    1989-12-28

    A high resolution (1{angstrom}), absolute intensity spectrum from 300 to 900 nm was obtained for a high average power (100 kWe) argon arc-lamp. The high average power is obtained due to innovative technology that cools the inside surface of the lamp envelope by means of a spiraling water jet. The optical output between 200 and 2000 nm was measured by using a calibrated pyroelectric detector and glass color filters, and accounted for 54% of the electrical input. The argon arc-lamp radiated 35% of the electrical power input in the 400 to 900 nm spectral region when a cerium doped quartz envelope was used; furthermore, 37% of this optical power was emitted as line output between 730 and 830 nm, a region well tuned to Nd{sup 3+}:YAG absorption bands. Lower resolution spectra and fluorescence/transmission measurements of YAG samples were obtained for mixtures of Ar/Kr and Ar/Xe with up to 14% by volume of the heavier species. When the Ar/14%-Kr mixture was used, increased absorption (115%) and net fluorescence (120%) were measured relative to the pure argon arc-lamp. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Impact of the dipole-moment representation on the intensity of high overtones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Emile S.; Meshkov, Vladimir V.; Stolyarov, Andrey V.; Ushakov, Vladimir G.; Gordon, Iouli E.

    2016-12-01

    Calculating intensities of ro-vibrational transitions is particularly challenging for transitions from a given vibrational state to all upper states up to the dissociation limit because their probabilities decrease exponentially with increasing Δn , the change in the vibrational quantum number. The experimental intensities available for low- Δn values are well reproduced by a variety of models but the models can greatly diverge in predicting the intensities of unobserved high-overtone transitions, the divergence rapidly increasing with the overtone number. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the dipole-moment function (DMF) representation on the high-overtone intensity simulation of the CO molecule. We tested various DMF forms including pointwise representation combined with cubic-spline interpolation, power and trigonometric expansions, and Padé approximants. Numerical calculations were performed with the highly accurate empirical potential-energy function (PEF) of Coxon and Hajigeorgiou (2004) using quadruple-precision arithmetic. Most calculated intensities fall off in the entire range of transitions according to the Normal Intensity Distribution Law (NIDL) (Medvedev, 2012). The slope of the NIDL trend line varies little between different analytical DMFs for a given PEF since the slope is basically associated with the PEF. Based on the NIDL, the limits within which the simulated intensities fall off up to the dissociation limit can be established. We claim that DMFs represented by analytical functions yield best results for all transitions. The pointwise functions (interpolated, in particular, by the conventional cubic splines) result in an unphysical flattening of the intensities at high- Δn transitions, Δn > 7 for CO.

  7. Experimental Study on High Electrical Breakdown of Water Dielectric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhang Jiande; Yang Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    By means of a coaxial apparatus, pressurized water breakdown experiments with microsecond charging have been carried out with different surface roughness of electrodes and different ethylene glycol concentrations of ethylene glycol/water mixture. The experimental results about the breakdown stress and the effective time are presented. The breakdown stress is normalized to the situation that the effective time is transformed to 1 μs and analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: (1) the breakdown stress formula is modified to E = 0.561MA-1/10t-1eff/NP1/8; (2)the coefficient M is significantly increased by surface polishing and ethylene glycol additive; (3) it is accumulative for the capacity of improving electrical breakdown strength for surface polishing,ethylene glycol additive, and pressurization, of which pressurization is the most effective method;(4) the highest stress of 235.5 kV/cm is observed in ethylene glycol/water mixture with an ethylene glycol concentration of 80% at a hydrostatic pressure of 1215.9 kPa and is about one time greater than that in pure water at constant pressure; (5) for pressurization and surface pohshing,the primary mechanism to improve the breakdown strength of water dielectric is the increase in the breakdown time delay. Research results indicate great potential in the application of the high power pulse conditioning system of water dielectric.

  8. Nutritional strategies to support adaptation to high-intensity interval training in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are characterized by intermittent high-intensity activity patterns. Typically, play consists of short periods of very intense or all-out efforts interspersed with longer periods of low-intensity activity. Fatigue is a complex, multi-factorial process, but intense intermittent exercise performance can potentially be limited by reduced availability of substrates stored in skeletal muscle and/or metabolic by-products associated with fuel breakdown. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that enhance the capacity for both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Nutrient availability is a potent modulator of many acute physiological responses to exercise, including various molecular signaling pathways that are believed to regulate cellular adaptation to training. Several nutritional strategies have also been reported to acutely alter metabolism and enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise performance. However, relatively little is known regarding the effect of chronic interventions, and whether supplementation over a period of weeks or months augments HIT-induced physiological remodeling and promotes greater performance adaptations. Theoretically, a nutritional intervention could augment HIT adaptation by improving energy metabolism during exercise, which could facilitate greater total work and an enhanced chronic training stimulus, or promoting some aspect of the adaptive response during recovery, which could lead to enhanced physiological adaptations over time.

  9. High signal intensity of the septum pellucidum at MR imaging; Significance in hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Ha; Chung, Chun Phil; Kim, Chang Soo [Maryknoll Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To evaluate the significance of high signal intensity of the septum pellucidum in hydrocephalus on proton density-weighted brain MR images. Authors reviewed the MR images of 418 cases of patients with normal (175 case), hydrocephalic(35 cases), atrophic(58 cases), and other groups(150 cases) retrospectively. We analyzed the signal intensity of the septum pellucidum in the normal group and the incidences of high signal intensities of periventricular area of frontal horn of lateral ventricle(area 1), periventricular area except area 1 (area 2), callososeptal area(area 3), and septum pellucidum(area 4) in the normal and abnormal groups. In the normal group, the septum pellucidum was isointense to the head of caudate nucleus on proton density-weighted image. High signal intensity of the septum pellucidum was seen in 31 cases (22 cases of hydrocephalus, 5 cases of brain atrophy, and 4 cases of others), and showed high specificity(91.4%) for hydrocephalus in spite of low sensitivity(62.9%), as compared with periventricular hyperintensities of other areas. High signal intensity of the septum pellucidum on proton density- weighted image may be caused by transependymal CSF migration in the patients with hydrocephalus, and considered as an additional finding of hydrocephalus in the cases of ventriculomegaly.

  10. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  11. Review of Adult Electrical Burn Injury Outcomes Worldwide: An Analysis of Low-Voltage vs High-Voltage Electrical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jessica G; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Jeschke, Marc G

    The aims of this article are to review low-voltage vs high-voltage electrical burn complications in adults and to identify novel areas that are not recognized to improve outcomes. An extensive literature search on electrical burn injuries was performed using OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases from 1946 to 2015. Studies relating to outcomes of electrical injury in the adult population (≥18 years of age) were included in the study. Forty-one single-institution publications with a total of 5485 electrical injury patients were identified and included in the present study. Fourty-four percent of these patients were low-voltage injuries (LVIs), 38.3% high-voltage injuries (HVIs), and 43.7% with voltage not otherwise specified. Forty-four percentage of studies did not characterize outcomes according to LHIs vs HVIs. Reported outcomes include surgical, medical, posttraumatic, and others (long-term/psychological/rehabilitative), all of which report greater incidence rates in HVI than in LVI. Only two studies report on psychological outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Mortality rates from electrical injuries are 2.6% in LVI, 5.2% in HVI, and 3.7% in not otherwise specified. Coroner's reports revealed a ratio of 2.4:1 for deaths caused by LVI compared with HVI. HVIs lead to greater morbidity and mortality than LVIs. However, the results of the coroner's reports suggest that immediate mortality from LVI may be underestimated. Furthermore, on the basis of this analysis, we conclude that the majority of studies report electrical injury outcomes; however, the majority of them do not analyze complications by low vs high voltage and often lack long-term psychological and rehabilitation outcomes after electrical injury indicating that a variety of central aspects are not being evaluated or assessed.

  12. High-Intensity Intermittent Swimming Improves Cardiovascular Health Status for Women with Mild Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magni Mohr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n=21; HIT, moderate-intensity (n=21; MOD, and control groups (n=20; CON. HIT performed 6–10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate intensity for a 15-week period completing in total 44±1 and 43±1 sessions, respectively. In CON, all measured variables were similar before and after the intervention period. Systolic BP decreased (P<0.05 by 6±1 and 4±1 mmHg in HIT and MOD; respectively. Resting heart rate declined (P<0.05 by 5±1 bpm both in HIT and MOD, fat mass decreased (P<0.05 by 1.1±0.2 and 2.2±0.3 kg, respectively, while the blood lipid profile was unaltered. In HIT and MOD, performance improved (P<0.05 for a maximal 10 min swim (13±3% and 22±3%, interval swimming (23±3% and 8±3%, and Yo-Yo IE1 running performance (58±5% and 45±4%. In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance in sedentary women with mild hypertension. Adaptations are similar with high- and moderate-intensity training, despite markedly less total time spent and distance covered in the high-intensity group.

  13. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  14. Analysis of Electric Vehicle DC High Current Conversion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Jing-fen; Lin, Fan-tao; Lu, Da

    2017-05-01

    Based on the background of electric vehicles, it is elaborated the necessity about electric energy accurate metering of electric vehicle power batteries, and it is analyzed about the charging and discharging characteristics of power batteries. It is needed a DC large current converter to realize accurate calibration of power batteries electric energy metering. Several kinds of measuring methods are analyzed based on shunts and magnetic induction principle in detail. It is put forward power batteries charge and discharge calibration system principle, and it is simulated and analyzed ripple waves containing rate and harmonic waves containing rate of power batteries AC side and DC side. It is put forward suitable DC large current measurement methods of power batteries by comparing different measurement principles and it is looked forward the DC large current measurement techniques.

  15. High-altitude electrical discharges associated with thunderstorms and lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; McHarg, Matthew G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce electrical discharge phenomena known as transient luminous events above thunderstorms to the lightning protection community. Transient luminous events include the upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms known as starters, jets, and gigantic jets, and electrical discharges initiated in the lower ionosphere such as sprites, halos, and elves. We give an overview of these phenomena with a focus on starters, jets, gigantic jets, and sprites, because similar to ordinary lightning, streamers and leaders are basic components of these four types of transient luminous events. We present a few recent observations to illustrate their main properties and briefly review the theories. The research in transient luminous events has not only advanced our understanding of the effects of thunderstorms and lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere, but also improved our knowledge of basic electrical discharge processes critical for sparks and lightning.

  16. Scandate Cathode for High Power Long Life Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scandate cathodes are proposed as a way to boost performance and life for electric space propulsion systems. This company has recently demonstrated breakthrough...

  17. High Power Electric Propulsion for Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2003-01-01

    Focused technology trade studies for Nuclear Electric Propulsion vehicle concepts for outer planet missions are presented; representative mission, vehicle and technology characterizations illustrate samples of work done under the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center-Boeing-SAIC In-Space Technology Assessment (ISTA) contract. An objective of ISTA is to identify and present sound technical and programtic options for the formulation and implementation of advanced electric and chemical propulsion solar system exploration missions. Investigations to date include a variety of outer planet destinations, trip times, science payload allotments, orbital capture techniques, all conducted to illustrate how advanced technology would maximize mission benefits. Architecture wide optimizations that facilitate good propulsion technology investments for advanced electric and chemical propulsion systems were conducted, including those relevant to the nuclear system initiative. Representative analyses of vehicles utilizing fission reactors with advanced power generation, Conversion, processing and electric propulsion systems, which would enable scientifically rich robotic exploration missions, are presented.

  18. Electrical conductivity of rocks at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, E. I.; Bondarenko, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The results of studies of the electrical conductivity in the most widely distributed types of igneous rocks, at temperatures of up to 1200 C, at atmospheric pressure, and also at temperatures of up to 700 C and at pressures of up to 20,000 kg/sq cm are described. The figures of electrical conductivity, of activaation energy and of the preexponential coefficient are presented and the dependence of these parameters on the petrochemical parameters of the rocks are reviewed. The possible electrical conductivities for the depository, granite and basalt layers of the Earth's crust and of the upper mantle are presented, as well as the electrical conductivity distribution to the depth of 200 to 240 km for different geological structures.

  19. Dynamics of cavitation clouds within a high-intensity focused ultrasonic beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this experimental study, we generate a 500 kHz high-intensity focused ultrasonic beam, with pressure amplitude in the focal zone of up to 1.9 MPa, in initially quiescent water. The resulting pressure field and behavior of the cavitation bubbles are measured using high-speed digital in-line hologr

  20. Optimizing Planning and Delivery of High-Precision Robotic Radiotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van de Water (Steven)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ High-precision robotic radiotherapy and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) are two relatively new radiotherapy techniques that particularly aim at a highly localized delivery of a curative dose to the tumor, while achieving excellent sparing of the surrounding

  1. A High School Intensive Summer Mandarin Course: Program Model and Learner Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte; Masuda, Norman

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a STARTALK intensive summer high school Mandarin language and culture program that was conducted for three summers. Participants across the three years included 40 Mandarin Level II and 53 Mandarin Level III high school students. Quantitative and qualitative data are presented to show the effectiveness of the program.…

  2. Optimizing Planning and Delivery of High-Precision Robotic Radiotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van de Water (Steven)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ High-precision robotic radiotherapy and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) are two relatively new radiotherapy techniques that particularly aim at a highly localized delivery of a curative dose to the tumor, while achieving excellent sparing of the surrounding he

  3. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  4. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rijn Clementina M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal plasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate HFS-induced central plasticity of sensory processing at the level of the brain using the electroencephalogram (EEG. To this end we measured evoked potentials in response to noxious electrical pinprick-like stimuli applied in the heterotopic skin area before, directly after and 30 minutes after HFS. Results We observed potential cortical electrophysiological correlates of heterotopic facilitation. Two different cortical correlates were found; the first one was a lateralized effect, i.e. a larger N100 amplitude on the conditioned arm than the control arm 30 minutes after end of HFS. This was comparable with the observed lateralized effect of visual analogue scale (VAS scores as response to the mechanical punctate stimuli. The second correlate seems to be a more general (non-lateralized effect, because the result affects both arms. On average for both arms the P200 amplitude increased significantly 30 minutes after end of HFS with respect to baseline. Conclusions We suggest that for studying heterotopic nociceptive facilitation the evoked brain response is suitable and relevant for investigating plasticity at the level of the brain and is perhaps a more sensitive and reliable marker than the perceived pain intensity (e.g. VAS.

  5. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography with High-Contrast Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) system has been designed to complement the tools created to sense the presence of water in nonconductive spacecraft materials, by helping to not only find the approximate location of moisture but also its quantity and depth. The ECVT system has been created for use with a new image reconstruction algorithm capable of imaging high-contrast dielectric distributions. Rather than relying solely on mutual capacitance readings as is done in traditional electrical capacitance tomography applications, this method reconstructs high-resolution images using only the self-capacitance measurements. The image reconstruction method assumes that the material under inspection consists of a binary dielectric distribution, with either a high relative dielectric value representing the water or a low dielectric value for the background material. By constraining the unknown dielectric material to one of two values, the inverse math problem that must be solved to generate the image is no longer ill-determined. The image resolution becomes limited only by the accuracy and resolution of the measurement circuitry. Images were reconstructed using this method with both synthetic and real data acquired using an aluminum structure inserted at different positions within the sensing region. The cuboid geometry of the system has two parallel planes of 16 conductors arranged in a 4 4 pattern. The electrode geometry consists of parallel planes of copper conductors, connected through custom-built switch electronics, to a commercially available capacitance to digital converter. The figure shows two 4 4 arrays of electrodes milled from square sections of copper-clad circuit-board material and mounted on two pieces of glass-filled plastic backing, which were cut to approximately square shapes, 10 cm on a side. Each electrode is placed on 2.0-cm centers. The parallel arrays were mounted with the electrode arrays approximately 3 cm apart. The open ends

  6. The Electrical Conductivity of Gabbro at High Temperature and High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The electric conductivity of gabbro has been measured at 1.0-2.0 Gpa and 320-700℃,and the conduction mechanism has been analyzed in terms of the impedance spectra.Experimental results indicated that the electric conductivity depends on the frequency of alter-native current.Impedance arcs representing the conduction mechanism of grain interiors are displayed in the complex impedance plane ,and the mechanism is dominated at high pressure.These arcs occur over the range of 102-k×105Hz(k is the positive integer from 1 to 9) .On the basis of our results and previous work,it is concluded that gabbro cannot form any high conductivity layer (HCL) in the middle-lower crust.

  7. The Electrical Conductivity of Gabbro at High Temperature and High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王多君; 李和平; 易丽; 张卫刚; 刘丛强; 苏根利; 丁东业

    2002-01-01

    The electric conductivity of gabbro has been measured at 1.0 - 2.0 GPa and 320-700℃, and the conduction mechanism has been analyzed in terms of the impedance spectra.Experimental results indicated that the electric conductivity depends on the frequency of alternative current. Impedance arcs representing the conduction mechanism of grain interiors are displayed in the complex impedance plane, and the mechanism is dominated at high pressure.These arcs occur over the range of 102 - k× 105 Hz (k is the positive integer from 1 to 9). On the basis of our results and previous work, it is concluded that gabbro cannot form any high conductivity layer (HCL) in the middle-lower crust.

  8. High speed electric motors based on high performance novel soft magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveyra, J. M.; Leary, A. M.; DeGeorge, V.; Simizu, S.; McHenry, M. E.

    2014-05-01

    Novel Co-based soft magnetic materials are presented as a potential substitute for electrical steels in high speed motors for current industry applications. The low losses, high permeabilities, and good mechanical strength of these materials enable application in high rotational speed induction machines. Here, we present a finite element analysis of Parallel Path Magnetic Technology rotating motors constructed with both silicon steel and Co-based nanocomposite. The later achieved a 70% size reduction and an 83% reduction on NdFeB magnet volume with respect to a similar Si-steel design.

  9. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  10. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these

  11. Meeting standards of high-quality intensive care unit palliative care: Clinical performance and predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, Joan D.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Livote, Elayne E.; Puntillo, Kathleen A.; Walker, Amy S.; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Mercado, Alice F.; Swoboda, Sandra M.; Ilaoa, Debra; Thompson, David A.; Nelson, Judith E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives High-quality care for intensive care unit patients and families includes palliative care. To promote performance improvement, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s National Quality Measures Clearinghouse identified nine evidence-based processes of intensive care unit palliative care (Care and Communication Bundle) that are measured through review of medical record documentation. We conducted this study to examine how frequently the Care and Communication Bundle processes were performed in diverse intensive care units and to understand patient factors that are associated with such performance. Design Prospective, multisite, observational study of performance of key intensive care unit palliative care processes. Settings A surgical intensive care unit and a medical intensive care unit in two different large academic health centers and a medical-surgical intensive care unit in a medium-sized community hospital. Patients Consecutive adult patients with length of intensive care unit stay ≥5 days. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Between November 2007 and December 2009, we measured performance by specified day after intensive care unit admission on nine care process measures: identify medical decision-maker, advance directive and resuscitation preference, distribute family information leaflet, assess and manage pain, offer social work and spiritual support, and conduct interdisciplinary family meeting. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine predictors of performance of five care processes. We enrolled 518 (94.9%) patients and 336 (83.6%) family members. Performances on pain assessment and management measures were high. In contrast, interdisciplinary family meetings were documented for <20% of patients by intensive care unit day 5. Performance on other measures ranged from 8% to 43%, with substantial variation across and within sites. Chronic comorbidity burden and site were the most consistent predictors of care

  12. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (PTaekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  13. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables and the VO2 response. METHODS: Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2-max: 72.4±8.0·mL/min/kg, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO): 432±31 W......; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...... to HI20 (7.85±0.82 L; P=0.008) and MOD6 (7.90±0.74 L; P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Warm-up exercise including race-pace and sprint intervals combined with short recovery can reduce subsequent performance in a 4-min maximal test in highly trained cyclists. Thus, a reduced time at high exercise intensity...

  14. Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Oketa, Takatsugu; Masuda, Shinichi; Koga, James K.; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Matoba, Toru; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2002-10-01

    We investigate a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 1018 cm-3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results agree with the simulation results and linear theory. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D particle in cell simulation we obtain results of high quality intense electron beam generation.

  15. High-quality binary fringe generation via joint optimization on intensity and phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Li, Youfu

    2017-10-01

    There have been active studies on optimized dithering techniques to improve 3D shape measurement quality with defocused projectors. These techniques optimize the fringe quality in either phase domain or intensity domain according to their objective functions. Phase based optimization is direct and effective, but is sensitive to projector defocus levels. Intensity based optimization is robust to projector defocus levels, but it does not fully improve the phase quality. This paper presents a joint optimization technique to combine the merits of both the intensity and phase based optimization, which includes a pre-intensity optimization and a further optimization based on the synthesized error function. Then this technique is implemented in two frameworks, the whole-fringe optimization and the best-patch optimization, to generate binary fringe patterns. Both simulations and experiments show that the proposed technique can generate binary fringe patterns with high phase quality and robustness to projector defocus levels.

  16. A comparison of the economics of materials processing with solar furnaces and high-intensity arc lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    The cost and performance of treating materials with a solar furnace were compared to similar treatment with high-intensity electric-arc lamps. Qualitative results indicate that because of the long focal length of the solar furnace, it is capable of performing much dirtier materials processing tasks than the arc lamp. Quantitative results indicate that if the furnace is located in a good solar region, the solar furnace can beat the economics of the lamp by as much as a factor of three under certain operating scenarios. In other scenarios, the lamp is more cost effective. The scenario that appears most promising for the furnace is batch processing that employs flux levels near 500 W/sq cm or greater. At lower flux levels, or in assembly-line-type processing tasks, the arc lamp is preferred.

  17. Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Indrani; Ahmad, Saima; Carvalho, Daniel; Singh, Prashant; Lad, Amit D.; Narayanan, V.; Ayyub, Pushan; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Zheng, J.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a 43-fold enhancement in the hard x-ray emission (in the 150-300 keV range) from copper nanorod arrays (compared to a polished Cu surface) when excited by 30-fs, 800-nm laser pulses with an intensity of 1016 W/cm2. The temperature of the hot electrons that emit the x rays is 11 times higher. Significantly, the x-ray yield enhancement is found to depend on both the aspect ratio as well as the cluster size of the nanorods. We show that the higher yield arises from enhanced laser absorption owing to the extremely high local electric fields around the nanorod tips. Particle-in-cell plasma simulations reproduce these observations and provide pointers to further optimization of the x-ray emission.

  18. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, L.L.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm{sup 2}) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols. (author)

  19. Investigation of electrical and photovoltaic properties of Au/poly(propylene glycol)-b-polystyrene/n-Si diode at various illumination intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, M.; Allı, A.

    2014-03-01

    Electrical and photovoltaic properties of Au/poly(propylene glycol)-b-polystyrene/n-Si diode were investigated under various illumination intensities. Field emission scanning electron microscope micrographs of the interfacial polymer layer were provided for verification of the nano-fibre pattern. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the diode in the dark and under various illumination intensities (50-250 mW/cm2) were carried out and the main electrical parameters of the diode such as leakage current (I0), ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (ΦB0), series and shunt resistance (Rs and Rsh), density of surface states (Nss), open circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current (Isc) were obtained in these conditions.

  20. High-intensity exercise training produces morphological and biochemical changes in adrenal gland of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalucci, A; Ferrucci, M; Fulceri, F; Lazzeri, G; Lenzi, P; Toti, L; Serpiello, F R; La Torre, A; Gesi, M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of training are dependent on complex, adaptive changes which are induced by acute physical exercise at different levels. In particular, evidence shows that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, as well as the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, is mainly involved in mediating the physiological effects of physical exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate, through a morphological and biochemical approach, the effects of training on the adrenal gland of mice, following two different protocols consisting of either low- or high-intensity training. Mice were run daily on a motorised treadmill for 8 weeks, at a velocity corresponding to 60% (low-intensity exercise) or 90% (high-intensity exercise) of the maximal running velocity previously determined by an incremental exercise test. We found that physical exercise produced an increase in the adrenal gland size compared with the control (sedentary) mice. The increase was 31.04% for mice that underwent high-intensity exercise and 10.08% for mice that underwent low intensity exercise, and this appeared to be the result of an increase in the area of both the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. Morphological analysis of the adrenal cortex showed that both types of exercise produced an increase in cytoplasmic vacuoles in steroidogenic cells, appearing more abundant after high-intensity exercise. No change was found in the reticulate zone. In the adrenal medulla, despite the absence of morphological changes, immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase and phenyl-ethanolamine-N-methyltransferase demonstrated an increased immunopositivity for these cathecolamine-synthesizing enzymes after intense exercise. These results were confirmed by immunoblot accompanied by densitometric analysis.

  1. Formation of Nanoscale Intermetallic Phases in Ni Surface Layer at High Intensity Implantation of Al Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.A.Bozhko; S.V.Fortuna; I.A.Kurzina; I.B.Stepanov; E.V.Kozlov; Yu.P. Sharkeev

    2004-01-01

    The results of experimental study of nanoscale intermetallic formation in surface layer of a metal target at ion implantation are presented. To increase the thickness of the ion implanted surface layer the high intensive ion implantation is used. Compared with the ordinary ion implantation, the high intensive ion implantation allows a much thicker modified surface layer. Pure polycrystalline nickel was chosen as a target. Nickel samples were irradiated with Al ions on the vacuum-arc ion beam and plasma flow source "Raduga-5". It was shown that at the high intensity ion implantation the fine dispersed particles of Ni3Al, NiAl intermetallic compounds and solid solution Al in Ni are formed in the nickel surface layer of 200 nm and thicker. The formation of phases takes place in complete correspondence with the Ni-Al phase diagram.

  2. The high intensity solar cell - Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with conventional solar cells at high intensities and presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell which appears to eliminate the major problems. Test data obtained at greater than 250 AM1 suns gave a peak output power density of 2 W per sq cm at an efficiency exceeding 6% with an unoptimized cell operating at over 100 C. It appears that operation at 1000 AM1 suns at efficiencies greater than 10% is possible. At 1000 AM1 suns and 10% efficiency, the HI cell manufacturing cost is estimated to be $0.25/watt, with multi-megawatt annual production capability already existing within the industrial sector. A high intensity solar system was also analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency.

  3. The clinical study on high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging using Scolopendrid Aquacupuncture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-a Lim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to find out the effect of scolopendrid aquacupuncture on low back pain with or without sciatica showing high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging. Methods : The 30 patients who had a diagnosis of high intensity zone by lumbar-MRI and admitted to Gwangju oriental medical hospital in wonkwang university from January 2005 to August 2004 were observed. The symptom of inpatients is low back pain with or without sciatica. We treated 30 patients by scolopendrid aquacupuncture besides the general conservative treatment of oriental medicine. Results and Conclusion : The scolopendrid aquacupuncture treatment led to improvement in the pain and symptom of disability as determined by all efficacy measures. After scolopendrid aquacupuncture treatment, there was improvement in VAS, ROM and SLRT. This results suggest that scolopendrid aquacupuncture is good method for treatment of low back pain with or without sciatica showing high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    desmin or dystrophin, were not observed, and hence did not appear to induce the expression of either N-CAM or FA1. We therefore propose that satellite cells can be induced to re-enter the cell growth cycle after a single bout of unaccustomed high intensity exercise. However, a single bout of exercise......No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant...... increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined...

  5. Repeated high-intensity exercise modulates Ca(2+) sensitivity of human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, K D; Hvid, L G; Willis, S J;

    2016-01-01

    The effects of short-term high-intensity exercise on single fiber contractile function in humans are unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (a) to access the acute effects of repeated high-intensity exercise on human single muscle fiber contractile function; and (b) to examine whether...... the fourth sprint with respect to Ca(2+) sensitivity and maximal Ca(2+) -activated force. To investigate the oxidative effects of exercise on single fiber contractile function, a subset of fibers was incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT) before analysis. Ca(2+) sensitivity was enhanced by exercise in both MHC...... I (17%, P exercise. In conclusion, repeated high-intensity exercise increased Ca(2+) sensitivity in both MHC I and MHC II...

  6. The intensity dependence of surface recombination in high concentration solar cells with charge induced passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Nasby, R. D.

    High intensity solar cells which are designed to minimize series resistance and shadowing losses, frequently employ an illuminated surface which is relatively far removed from the collecting junctions. This requires that the surface be well passivated to minimize surface recombination. One technique frequently employed to minimize surface recombination is to incorporate a fixed charge in the passivating oxide. This work shows that at sufficiently high intensities the surface recombination can increase dramatically. This results in a reduction in the high intensity collection efficiency. A comparison of the collection efficiency of interdigitated back contact cells and etched multiple vertical junction cells is given which shows that EMVJ cells are less sensitive to this effect than IBC cells.

  7. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were.......01), attackers (2341 m, s=575, P game, high-intensity running distance was approximately 20% less than in the first 15-min period for wide midfielders (467 m, s=104 vs. 589 m, s=134, P ....01) and without ball possession (229 m, s=85 vs. 278 m, s=97, P game. Mean recovery time between very high-intensity running bouts was 72 s (s=28), with a 28% longer recovery time during the last 15 min than the first 15 min of the game (83 s, s=26 vs...

  8. AN ASSESSMENT OF HIGH-VOLTAGE DC ELECTRICAL POWER IN AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    If the presently installed three-phase ac transmission system on aircraft were replaced by a higher voltage dc ( HVDC ) transmission using a ground...from one- to two-thirds of the total electrical system weight. HVDC may have some disadvantages such as higher short-circuit currents, some increase in

  9. A Novel, High Energy-Density Electrical Storage Device for Electric Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-25

    18 I. Task Objectives The primary object of the Phase I effort was to design a Million...field, which drives current at the voltage needed to power a variety of electric weapons such railguns, coilguns , and directed energy devices. Three... inductive , double ring circuit. Tremendous repulsion forces are exerted on the rings when the current circulation reaches Meg-Amp current levels. One

  10. Combined application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and functional electrical stimulation accelerates bone-tendon junction healing in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Qu, Jin; Xu, Daqi; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Ling; Lu, Hongbin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the combined use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) on patella-patellar tendon (PPT) junction healing using a partial patellectomy model in rabbits. LIPUS was delivered continuously starting day 3 postoperative until week 6. FES was applied on quadriceps muscles to induce tensile force to the repaired PPT junction 5 days per week for 6 weeks since week 7 postoperatively. Forty rabbits with partial patellectomy were randomly divided into four groups: control, LIPUS alone, FES alone, and LIPUS + FES groups. At week 12, the PPT complexes were harvested for histology, radiographs, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and biomechanical testing. There was better remodeling of newly formed bone and fibrocartilage zone in the three treatment groups compared with the control group. LIPUS and/or FES treatments significantly increased the area and bone mineral content of new bone. The failure load and ultimate strength of PPT complex were also highly improved in the three treatment groups. More new bone formed and higher tensile properties were showed in the LIPUS + FES group compared with the LIPUS or FES alone groups. Early LIPUS treatment and later FES treatment showed the additive effects of accelerating PPT junction healing.

  11. Ultrahigh Oxidation Resistance and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper-Silver Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaxiang; Li, Yunping; Wang, Zhongchang; Bian, Huakang; Hou, Yuhang; Wang, Fenglin; Xu, Guofu; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of pure Cu powder is typically deteriorated at elevated temperatures due to the oxidation by forming non-conducting oxides on surface, while enhancing oxidation resistance via alloying is often accompanied by a drastic decline of electrical conductivity. Obtaining Cu powder with both a high electrical conductivity and a high oxidation resistance represents one of the key challenges in developing next-generation electrical transferring powder. Here, we fabricate a Cu-Ag powder with a continuous Ag network along grain boundaries of Cu particles and demonstrate that this new structure can inhibit the preferential oxidation in grain boundaries at elevated temperatures. As a result, the Cu-Ag powder displays considerably high electrical conductivity and high oxidation resistance up to approximately 300 °C, which are markedly higher than that of pure Cu powder. This study paves a new pathway for developing novel Cu powders with much enhanced electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance in service.

  12. Threshold Stress Intensity of Hydrogen-Induced Cracking and Stress Corrosion Cracking of High Strength Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The threshold stress intensity of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for 40CrMo steel in 3.5 % NaCl solution decreased exponentially with the increase of yield strength. The threshold stress intensity of hydrogen-induced cracking during dynamical charging for 40CrMo steel decreased linearly with the logarithm of the concentration of diffusible hydrogen. This equation was also applicable to SCC of high strength steel in aqueous solution. The critical hydrogen enrichment concentration necessary for SCC of high strength steel in water decreased exponentially with the increase of yield strength. Based on the results, the relationship between KISCC and σys could be deduced.

  13. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  14. Rapid response of soil fungal communities to low and high intensity fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jane E.; Cowan, Ariel D.; Reazin, Chris; Jumpponen, Ari

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary fires have created high-severity burn areas exceeding historical distributions in forests in the western United States. Until recently, the response of soil ecosystems to high intensity burns has been largely unknown. In complementary studies, we investigated the environmental effect of extreme soil heating, such that occurs with the complete combustion of large down wood during wildfires, on soil fungi and nutrients. We used TRFLP and next generation sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) to investigate the fungal communities. During the burning of large down wood, temperatures lethal to fungi were detected at 0-cm, 5-cm, and 10-cm depths in soils compared to 0-cm depth in soils receiving low intensity broadcast burns. We compared the soil fungal diversity in ten high intensity burned plots paired with adjacent low intensity burned plots before and one week after at 0-10 cm soil depth. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) ordinations and analyses of taxon frequencies reveal a substantial community turnover and corresponding near complete replacement of the dominant basidiomycetes by ascomycetes in high intensity burns. These coarse-level taxonomic responses were primarily attributable to a few fire-responsive (phoenicoid) fungi, particularly Pyronema sp. and Morchella sp., whose frequencies increased more than 100-fold following high intensity burns. Pinus ponderosa seedlings planted one week post-burn were harvested after four months for EMF root tip analysis. We found: a) greater differences in soil properties and nutrients in high intensity burned soils compared to low intensity burned and unburned soils; b) no differences in EMF richness and diversity; and c) weak differences in community composition based on relative abundance between unburned and either burn treatments. These results confirm the combustion of large downed wood can alter the soil environment directly beneath it. However, an EMF community similar to low burned soils recolonized high

  15. [Metabolic response to high intensity exercise training in sedentary hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez L, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Flores O, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Campos J, Christian; Carrasco, Vanesa; Martínez S, Cristian; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    High intensity training could be an effective way of improving health on individuals at high metabolic risk. To investigate the effects of a high intensity training intervention on metabolic-related markers in sedentary women at high metabolic risk. Forty six sedentary women with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m² were assigned to four groups, according to their metabolic profile; hyperglycemia (H, n = 12), hyperglycemia/hypercholesterolemia (HH, n = 13), normoglycemia (N, n = 10) and normoglycemia/hypercholesterolemia (NH, n = 11). For 12 weeks and five days per week, subjects performed seven intervals of high intensity training (20 to 30 seconds) during a training session of 20 minutes. Anthropometric (body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference) and metabolic variables (glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and TG) were measured at baseline, at 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. BMI and waist circumference decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention. Similarly, glucose decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention in all groups. The reduction was of higher magnitude in those groups with hyperglycemia (H = -16%, HH = -22%, N = -7,5%, NH = -9,6%). However, lipid profile (TG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) improved significantly only in the hypercholesterolemic groups. Physical activity programs incorporating high intensity training can improve glucose and lipid profile in women with metabolic disorders. Moreover, this benefit is greatest in those individuals with highest metabolic burden.

  16. Ab initio study of the circular intensity difference in electric-field-induced second harmonic generation of chiral natural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Agren, Hans

    2013-01-28

    We present a systematic computational study of circular intensity difference (CID) in electric-field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) of some representative chiral natural amino acids (Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Cysteine and Tryptophan), taking into account the electric-dipole, electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions. The calculations are performed by applying cubic response theory at both Hartree-Fock and Density Functional theory levels, the latter with the popular Becke-three parameters, Lee, Yang and Parr (B3LYP) functional. Special focus is given to the basis set, electron correlation and origin dependence of the properties. The full set of molecular parameters defined by Lam and Thirunamachandran in their reference theoretical paper published in 1982 [J. Chem. Phys., 1982, 77, 3810] is obtained and discussed. This permits the prediction of the CID observable for different possible experimental setups.

  17. The effect of electrical muscle stimulation on the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy in patients with consciousness disturbance in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Tomoya; Shiozaki, Tadahiko; Shimizu, Kentaro; Mouri, Tomoyoshi; Noguchi, Kazuo; Ohnishi, Mitsuo; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Disuse atrophy of the lower limbs of patients with consciousness disturbance has often been recognized as "an unavoidable consequence," such that the mechanism was not investigated diligently. In this study, we examined the preventive effects of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) against disuse atrophy of the lower limbs in patients in coma after stroke or traumatic brain injury in the intensive care unit. We evaluated changes in cross-sectional area of lower limb muscles weekly with computed tomography in 6 control group patients and 9 EMS group patients. Electrical muscle stimulation was performed daily from day 7 after admission. We evaluated the anterior thigh muscle compartment, posterior thigh muscle compartment, anterior leg muscle compartment, and posterior leg muscle compartment. In the control group, the decrease in cross-sectional area progressed in all compartments every week (P Electrical muscle stimulation is effective in the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy in patients with consciousness disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impedance spectroscopy analysis on electrical properties of serpentine at high pressure and high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Maoxu; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Stesky, R. M., Brace, W. F., Electrical conductivity of serpentinized rocks to 6 kilobar, J. Geophys. Res., 1973, 78 (32): 7614-7621.[2]Zhu Maoxu, Xie Hongsen, Experimental studies on electrical properties of materials in the earth's interior, Advancement in Geosciences (in Chinese), 1998, 13(5): 438-446.[3]Roberts, J. J., Tyburczy, J. A., Frequency dependent electrical properties of polycrystalline olivine compacts, J. Geophys. Res., 1991, 96 (B10): 16205-16222.[4]Roberts, J. J., Tyburczy, J. A., Frequency dependent electrical properties of minerals and partial-melts, Surv. Geophys., 1994, 15: 239-262.[5]Huebner, I. S., Dillenburg, R. G., Impedance spectra of hot, dry silicate minerals and rock: Qualitative interpretation of spectra, Amer. Mineral, 1995, 80: 46-64.[6]Kavner, A., Li, X-Y, Jeanloz, R., Electrical conductivity of a natural (Mg, Fe)SiO3 majorite garnet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1995, 22 (22): 3103-3106.[7]Hicks, T. L., Secco, R., Dehydration and decomposition of pyrophyllite at high pressure: Electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction studies to 5 Gpa, Can. J. Earth Sci., 1997, 34: 875-882.[8]Li, X-Y, Jeanloz, R., Effect of iron content on the electrical conductivity of perovskite and magnesiowustite assemblages at lower mantle condition, J. Geophys. Res., 1991, 96(B4): 6113-6120.[9]Xie Hongsen, Introduction to the Materials in the Earth's Interior (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1997, 42-53.[10] Tatsurmi, Y., Migration of fluid phase and genesis of basalt magmas in subduction zone, J. Geophys. Res., 1989, 94: 4697-4707.[11] Duba, A., Huenges, G., Nover, E. et al., Impedance of black shale from munsterland 1 borehole: An anomalously good conductor? Geophys. J., 1988, 94: 413-419.[12] Watanabe, T., Kurita, K., The relationship between electrical conductivity and melt fraction in a partially molten simple system: Archies's law behavior, Phys. Earth Planet Inter., 1993, 78: 9-17.[13] Macdonald

  19. Combined effects of intense laser field, electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of the step-like quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasapoglu, E., E-mail: ekasap@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Restrepo, R.L. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Department of Physics, Dokuz Eylül University, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    In the present work, the effects of the intense laser field on total optical absorption coefficient (the linear and third-order nonlinear) and total refractive index change for transition between two lower-lying electronic levels in the step-like GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As quantum well under external electric and magnetic fields are investigated. The calculations were performed within the compact density-matrix formalism with the use of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The obtained results show that both total absorption coefficient and refractive index change are sensitive to the well dimensions and the effects of external fields. By changing the intensities of the electric, magnetic and non-resonant intense laser fields together with the well dimensions, we can obtain the blue or red shift, without the need for the growth of many different samples. - Highlights: • Augmentation of laser-field results in red shift in total AC spectra. • Magnetic field induces a blue-shift in the resonant peak. • Resonant peak position shifts to red with effect of electric field. • Resonant peak of total AC shifts to the higher photon energies with increasing well width.

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval training on the VO2 response during severe exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Edge, Johann; Bishop, David

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of high-intensity interval training on the VO2 response during severe, constant-load exercise. Prior to, and following training, 10 females (V O2 peak 37.4+/-6.0 mL kg-1 min-1) performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2 peak and lactate threshold (LT) and a 6 min cycle test (CT) at the pre-training VO2 peak intensity. Training involved high-intensity intervals (2 min work, 1 min rest) performed 3x week for 8 weeks. Breath-by-breath data from 0 to 6 min during the CT were smoothed using 5s averages and fit to a bi-exponential model starting from 20s. Training resulted in significant improvements in VO2 max (2.34+/-0.37-2.78+/-0.30 L min-1), power at VO2 max (170+/-26-204+/-25 W) and power at LT (113+/-17-136+/-20 W) (pVO2 response showed a significant increase in the amplitude of the primary phase (A1) (1396+/-103-1695+/-100 mL min-1; pVO2 (VO2 EE), with no difference (p>0.05) in the time constants of either phase or the amplitude of the slow component (318+/-67-380+/-48 mL; p=0.15). In conjunction, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) (43.7+/-9.8-17.2+/-2.8 mL O2 eq kg-1) and anaerobic contribution to the CT (19.4+/-4.4-7.2+/-1.2%) were significantly reduced. In contrast to previous moderate-intensity research, a high-intensity interval training program increased A1 and VO2 EE for the same absolute exercise intensity, decreasing the AOD during a severe-intensity CT.

  1. Analysis of predictor factors of limb amputation in patients with high-voltage electrical burns

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limb amputation is considered one of the most devastating consequences of electrical injury. Any factors that correlate with the degree of muscle damage can be used to predict the necessity of limb amputation. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that can be used to predict limb amputation in high-voltage electrically injured patients. Methods: Eighty-two high-voltage electrically injured patients were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surg...

  2. Achieving deep cuts in the carbon intensity of U.S. automobile transportation by 2050: complementary roles for electricity and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Taptich, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E; Nazaroff, William W

    2013-08-20

    Passenger cars in the United States (U.S.) rely primarily on petroleum-derived fuels and contribute the majority of U.S. transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity and biofuels are two promising alternatives for reducing both the carbon intensity of automotive transportation and U.S. reliance on imported oil. However, as standalone solutions, the biofuels option is limited by land availability and the electricity option is limited by market adoption rates and technical challenges. This paper explores potential GHG emissions reductions attainable in the United States through 2050 with a county-level scenario analysis that combines ambitious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption rates with scale-up of cellulosic ethanol production. With PHEVs achieving a 58% share of the passenger car fleet by 2050, phasing out most corn ethanol and limiting cellulosic ethanol feedstocks to sustainably produced crop residues and dedicated crops, we project that the United States could supply the liquid fuels needed for the automobile fleet with an average blend of 80% ethanol (by volume) and 20% gasoline. If electricity for PHEV charging could be supplied by a combination of renewables and natural-gas combined-cycle power plants, the carbon intensity of automotive transport would be 79 g CO2e per vehicle-kilometer traveled, a 71% reduction relative to 2013.

  3. MR imaging findings of high-voltage electrical burns in the upper extremities: correlation with angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mi (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Suh, Kyung Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)), email: kyungjin.suh@gmail.com; Choi, Min Ho (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: A high-voltage electrical burn is often associated with deep muscle injuries. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, and this can lead to major amputations or sepsis. MRI has excellent soft tissue contrast and it may aid in differentiating the areas of viable deep muscle from the areas of non-viable deep muscle. Purpose: To describe the MR imaging findings of a high-voltage electrical burn in the upper extremity with emphasis on the usefulness of the gadolinium-enhanced MRI and to compare the MR imaging findings with angiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of six patients with high-voltage electrical burns who underwent both MRI and angiography at the burn center of our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The imaging features were evaluated for the involved locations, the MR signal intensity of the affected muscles, the MR enhancement pattern, the involved arteries and the angiographic findings (classified as normal, sluggish flow, stenosis or occlusion) of the angiography of the upper extremity. We assessed the relationship between the MR imaging findings and the angiographic findings. Results: The signal intensities of affected muscles were isointense or of slightly high signal intensity as compared with the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T1-weighted MR images. Affected muscles showed heterogenous high signal intensity relative to the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T2- weighted images. The gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse inhomogeneous enhancement or peripheral rim enhancement of the affected muscles. The angiographic findings of the arterial injuries showed complete occlusion in three patients, severe stenosis in two patients and sluggish flow in one patient. Of these, the five patients with complete occlusion or severe stenosis on angiography showed non-perfused and non-viable areas of edematous muscle on

  4. [Transient high frequency nodal rhythm after a high voltage electric shock. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supervía, August; Del Baño, Francisco; Aguirre, Alfons; Membrilla, Estela

    2013-09-01

    Electrical shock can cause a direct myocardial damage and different types of arrhythmias, which are uncommon and occur more often when there is a high voltage exposure. We report a 19-year-old male that received a high voltage shock, falling thereafter from an altitude of four meters. On admission to the emergency room, he had second and third degree burns in the right hand and the left thigh. The electrocardiogram showed a nodal rhythm of 72 beats per minute. After four hours of monitoring, sinus rhythm returned spontaneously.

  5. Rainfall intensity characteristics at coastal and high altitude stations in Kerala

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sasi Kumar; S Sampath; P V S S K Vinayak; R Harikumar

    2007-10-01

    Rainfall intensities measured at a few stations in Kerala during 2001 –2005 using a disdrometer were found to be in reasonable agreement with the total rainfall measured using a manual rain gauge. The temporal distributions of rainfall intensity at different places and during different months show that rainfall is of low intensity (> 10 mm/hr),65%to 90%of the time.This could be an indication of the relative prevalence of stratiform and cumuliform clouds.Rainfall was of intensity > 5 mm/hr for more than 95%of the time in Kochi in July 2002,which was a month seriously deficient in rainfall,indicating that the deficiency was probably due to the relative absence of cumuliform clouds.Cumulative distribution graphs are also plotted and fitted with the Weibull distribution.The fit parameters do not appear to have any consistent pattern. The higher intensities also contributed signi ficantly to total rainfall most of the time,except in Munnar (a hill station). In this analysis also,the rainfall in Kochi in July 2002 was found to have less presence of high intensities. This supports the hypothesis that the rainfall de ficiency was probably caused by the absence of conditions that favoured the formation of cumuliform clouds.

  6. Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, Wim P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Esarey, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schroeder, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-29

    In the framework of the project “Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas” we conducted the study of ion acceleration and “flying mirrors” with high intensity lasers in order to develop sources of ion beams and high frequency radiation for different applications. Since some schemes of laser ion acceleration are also considered a good source of “flying mirrors”, we proposed to investigate the mechanisms of “mirror” formation. As a result we were able to study the laser ion acceleration from thin foils and near critical density targets. We identified several fundamental factors limiting the acceleration in the RPA regime and proposed the target design to compensate these limitations. In the case of near critical density targets, we developed a concept for the laser driven ion source for the hadron therapy. Also we studied the mechanism of “flying mirror” generation during the intense laser interaction with thin solid density targets. As for the laser-based positron creation and capture we initially proposed to study different regimes of positron beam generation and positron beam cooling. Since the for some of these schemes a good quality electron beam is required, we studied the generation of ultra-low emittance electron beams. In order to understand the fundamental physics of high energy electron beam interaction with high intensity laser pulses, which may affect the efficient generation of positron beams, we studied the radiation reaction effects.

  7. Beam Dynamics Observations of the 2015 High Intensity Scrubbing Runs at the Cern Sps

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; Li, Kevin; Mether, Lotta; Romano, Annalisa; Rumolo, Giovanni; Schenk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Beam quality degradation caused by e-cloud effects has been identified as one of the main performance limitations for high intensity LHC beams with 25 ns bunch spacing in the SPS. In view of the beam parameters targeted with the LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project, about two weeks of SPS machine time in 2015 were devoted to dedicated scrubbing runs with high intensity LHC 25 ns and dedicated 'doublet' beams in order to study the achievable reduction of e-cloud effects and quantify the consequent beam performance improvements. This paper describes the main observations concerning the coherent instabilities and beam dynamics limitations encountered as well as a detailed characterisation of the performance reach with the highest beam intensity presently available from the pre-injectors.

  8. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II, from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper electrodeposition and current efficiency are revealed. The results showed that the increase in pH (provided not lead to the deposition of Cu(OH2, initial concentration of the copper and flow rate increased the electrodeposition of copper as well as improved current efficiency. However, increasing intensity of the applied electric current led to an increase in the electrodeposition of copper and decreased electrical efficiency. It was also observed that reducing the intensity of applied electric current with time during the electrolysis process while maintaining other operating variables constant led to a significant reduction in the consumption of electrical energy used in the process of copper removal by electrodeposition; a reduction of 41.6% could be achieved.

  9. Oral versus Nasal Breathing during Moderate to High Intensity Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase O. LaComb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When comparing oral breathing versus nasal breathing, a greater volume of air can be transported through the oral passageway but nasal breathing may also have benefits at submaximal exercise intensities. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine breathing efficiency during increasing levels of submaximal aerobic exercise. Methods: Nineteen individuals (males N=9, females N=10 completed a test for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and on separate days 4-min treadmill runs at increasing submaximal intensities (50%, 65%, and 80% of VO2max under conditions of oral breathing or nasal breathing. Respiratory (respiration rate [RR], pulmonary ventilation [VE], metabolic (oxygen consumption [VO2], carbon dioxide production [VCO2] and efficiency measures (ventilatory equivalents for oxygen [Veq×O2-1] and carbon dioxide [Veq×CO2-1] were obtained. Data were analyzed utilizing a 2 (sex x 2 (condition x3 (intensity repeated measures ANOVA with significance accepted at p≤0.05. Results: Significant interactions existed between breathing mode and intensity such that oral breathing resulted in greater RR, VE, VO2, and VCO2 at all three submaximal intensities (p<.05.  Veq×O2-1 and Veq×CO2-1 presented findings that nasal breathing was more efficient than oral breathing during the 65% and 80% VO2max intensities (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on this analysis, oral breathing provides greater respiratory and metabolic volumes during moderate and moderate-to-high submaximal exercise intensities, but may not translate to greater respiratory efficiency. However when all variables are considered together, it is likely that oral breathing represents the more efficient mode, particularly at higher exercise intensities.

  10. Predicting dynamic range and intensity discrimination for electrical pulse-train stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of stimulus noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifang; Collins, Leslie M

    2005-06-01

    This work investigates dynamic range and intensity discrimination for electrical pulse-train stimuli that are modulated by noise using a stochastic auditory nerve model. Based on a hypothesized monotonic relationship between loudness and the number of spikes elicited by a stimulus, theoretical prediction of the uncomfortable level has previously been determined by comparing spike counts to a fixed threshold, Nucl. However, no specific rule for determining Nucl has been suggested. Our work determines the uncomfortable level based on the excitation pattern of the neural response in a normal ear. The number of fibers corresponding to the portion of the basilar membrane driven by a stimulus at an uncomfortable level in a normal ear is related to Nucl at an uncomfortable level of the electrical stimulus. Intensity discrimination limens are predicted using signal detection theory via the probability mass function of the neural response and via experimental simulations. The results show that the uncomfortable level for pulse-train stimuli increases slightly as noise level increases. Combining this with our previous threshold predictions, we hypothesize that the dynamic range for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli should increase with additive noise. However, since our predictions indicate that intensity discrimination under noise degrades, overall intensity coding performance may not improve significantly.

  11. Review of the Dynamics of Coalescence and Demulsification by High-Voltage Pulsed Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coalescence of droplets in oil can be implemented rapidly by high-voltage pulse electric field, which is an effective demulsification dehydration technological method. At present, it is widely believed that the main reason of pulse electric field promoting droplets coalescence is the dipole coalescence and oscillation coalescence in pulse electric field, and the optimal coalescence pulse electric field parameters exist. Around the above content, the dynamics of high-voltage pulse electric field promoting the coalescence of emulsified droplets is studied by researchers domestically and abroad. By review, the progress of high-voltage pulse electric field demulsification technology can get a better understanding, which has an effect of throwing a sprat to catch a whale on promoting the industrial application.

  12. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  13. The effect of high and low exercise intensity periods on a simple memory recognition test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Rattray; Disa J. Smee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of variable intensities on a simple memory recognition task during exercise. Methods: Twenty active participants took part in initial testing, a familiarization trial and then four 60 min cycling interventions in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of no exercise (control), constant exercise at 90%ventilatory threshold (constant) and 2 trials that initially mimicked the constant trial, but then included periods of high (∼90%VO2peak) and low intensities (∼50%VO2peak). Cardiorespiratory measures and capillary blood samples were taken throughout. A short tablet-based cognitive task was completed prior to and during (50 and 55 min into exercise) each intervention. Results: The exercise conditions facilitated response time (p=0.009), although the extent of this effect was not as strong in the variable exercise conditions (p = 0.011–0.089). High intensity exercise periods resulted in some cognitive regression back towards control trial performance. Elevations in cardiorespiratory measures and periods of hypocapnia could not explain changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion: Changes in cognitive performance with variations in exercise intensity are likely to have implications for sport and occupational settings. The timing of cognitive tests to exercise intensity changes as well as use of short cognitive assessments will be important for future work.

  14. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leanna M. Ross; Ryan R. Porter; J. Larry Durstine

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual’s need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  15. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  16. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  17. The solar electric propulsion stage concept for high energy missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, C. H.; Gilbert, J.; Horio, S. P.; Richardson, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Definition of multimission and engine performance requirements for candidate solar electric propulsion stage configurations, considering launch vehicle compatibility, electric propulsion integration, payload requirements, and the effects of environmental extremes. Electric propulsion power options include two solar array power levels (15/22 kW), up to twelve electric thrustors of 30 cm diameter and 2.7 kW each, five to eight power conditioning units, and a maximum mercury propellant capacity of 1530 kg. In performance, the stage with a dry weight of 700 to 900 kg can deliver a net mass of 756 kg into Saturn orbit, 329 kg into a tight Mercury orbit, and 334 kg within 0.1 AU of the sun. The stage can also deliver a round trip payload of 3350 kg to geosynchronous orbit and return from an intermediate elliptical orbit using the Shuttle/Tug. Thus, a versatile stage is developed which competes effectively in performance with existing integrated spacecraft and promises considerable savings in total program costs.

  18. Moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna; Beyer, Nina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may modulate neuropathology and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a study of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in home-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: An uncontrolled preintervention...

  19. High Intensity Pressure Noise Transmission in Human Ear: A Three Dimensional Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Takumi; Gan, Rong; Leckness, Kegan

    2015-03-01

    High intensity pressure noise generated by explosions and jet engines causes auditory damage and hearing loss of the military service personals, which are the most common disabilities in the veterans. Authors have investigated the high intensity pressure noise transmission from the ear canal to middle ear cavity. A fluid-structure interaction with a viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane (TM) as well as the ossicular chain has been considered in the study. For the high intensity pressure simulation the geometry of the ear was based on a 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear reported by Gan et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 2004). The model consists of the ear canal, TM, ossicular chain, and the middle ear cavity. The numerical approach includes two steps: 1) FE based finite-volume method simulation to compute pressure distributions in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity using CFX; and 2) FE modeling of TM and middle ear ossicles in response to high intensity sound using multi-physics analysis in ANSYS. The simulations provide the displacement of the TM/ossicular chain and the pressure fields in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity. These results are compared with human temporal bone experimental data obtained in our group. This work was supported by DOD W81XWH-14-1-0228.

  20. Edward Teller medal lecture: high intensity lasers and the road to ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M.H.

    1997-06-02

    There has been much progress in the development of high intensity lasers and in the science of laser driven inertially confined fusion such that ignition is now a near term prospect. This lecture reviews the field with particular emphasis on areas of my own involvement.