WorldWideScience

Sample records for high indoor air

  1. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  2. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  3. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  4. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  5. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...

  6. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  7. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  8. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  9. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    . Usually, increasing the ventilation rate improves the air quality, however in the case of used ventilation filters the benefits from increasing the airflow are smaller than usual. Moreover, the ever-increasing pressure drop of bag filters tends to raise energy costs of ventilation systems......Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... quality (IAQ) unacceptable and suffer from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms (e.g. respiratory, headache, fatigue, etc.). In addition, prevalence of asthma and other respiratory and allergic diseases have increased during the past decades. The effect is most likely related to the environment. Without...

  10. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  11. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  12. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes ... and Guidance Regulations About EPA EPA Administrator Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results ...

  13. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  14. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  15. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High-Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mullen, Nasim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California.

  16. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  17. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Schierl, Rudolf; Diemer, Juergen; Koch, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Fromme, Hermann; Nowak, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load. In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques). In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m(3) for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m(3) for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m(3) and 9.6 ng/m(3), and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m(3) and 5.9 ng/m(3) for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m(3) for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m(3) for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m(3) for La with highest median levels in discotheques. The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein.

  19. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-06-20

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  20. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  1. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  2. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  3. Manual on indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  4. Quality and Indoor Air treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile HORT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, between 70% and 90% of the life time are spent in confined spaces (housing, transport, etc.. Air quality in these closed spaces is generally inferior than outside. Our lifestylesand the growing use of new products and materials create cocktails of chemicals compounds (COV, CIV... that can cause an increase of worrying diseases such as asthma, allergies or even cancer. These pollutants are particularly present in indoor air. These increasing public health problems gives rise to the development of devices for the treatment of indoor air. However, indoor air contains a lot of chemical substances showing very different physicochemical properties. The “Laboratoire de Thermique, Energétique et Procédés” (LaTEP studies the coupling of treatment processes, such as biofiltration coupled to adsorption.

  5. [Indoor air quality in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartieaux, E; Rzepka, M-A; Cuny, D

    2011-07-01

    Indoor air quality in schools has received particular attention over the past several years. Children are considered as one of the most sensitive groups to atmospheric pollution because their bodies are actively growing and they breathe higher volumes of air relative to their body weights than adults do. They also spend more time in school or group structures (preschools, day nurseries) than in any indoor environments other than the home. The analysis of children's exposure to air pollution at school requires the identification of the main pollutant sources present in these educational institutions. Both a strong contribution of outdoor pollution and a very specific pollution bound to school activities such as the use of paints, markers, glues, and manufactured ink eraser pens, exist. The ventilation in school buildings also plays an important role in air quality. A higher air exchange may improve thermal comfort and air quality. The cause of indoor air pollution is a combinatory effect of physical, chemical, and biological factors, and the adequacy of ventilation in the environment. Several pollutants have been reported to exist in classrooms such as bacteria, molds, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants and microparticles. There is a correlation between the concentrations of the pollutants and onset of health problems in schoolchildren. We observe predominantly respiratory symptoms as well as a prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. This study shows that poor indoor air quality affects children's health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  7. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  8. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tration in the indoor atmosphere. Tobacco smoking is responsible for approximately 3000 lung cancer deaths every year in non-smoking adults and causes respiratory infections in hundreds of thousands of children. Biological Contaminants. Biological contaminants include pollens, bacteria, mildew, fun- gal spores, etc.

  9. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  10. Indoor air quality in 24 California residences designed as high-performance homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mullen, Nasim [Gap, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California. Although the mechanically vented homes were six times as airtight as non-mechanically ventilated homes (medians of 1.1 and 6.1 ACH50, n=11 and n=8, respectively), their use of mechanical ventilation systems and possibly window operation meant their median air exchange rates were almost the same (0.30 versus 0.32 hr-1, n=8 and n=8, respectively). Pollutant levels were also similar in vented and unvented homes. In addition, these similarities were achieved despite numerous observed faults in complex mechanical ventilation systems. More rigorous commissioning is still recommended. Cooking exhaust systems were used inconsistently and several suffered from design flaws. Failure to follow best practices led to IAQ problems in some cases. Ambient nitrogen dioxide standards were exceeded or nearly so in four homes that either used gas ranges with standing pilots, or in Passive House-style homes that used gas cooking burners without venting range hoods. Homes without active particle filtration had particle count concentrations approximately double those in homes with enhanced filtration. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials; consistent with this, formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional, new CA homes built before 2008. Emissions of ultrafine particles (with diameters <100 nm) were dramatically lower on induction electric cooktops, compared with either gas or resistance electric models. These results indicate that high performance homes can achieve

  11. Indoor Air Quality and Ice Arenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    All recreational facilities including ice arenas should use good ventilation practices especially where children are present. It is critical that indoor air quality is protected particularly when using fuel-burning equipment indoors.

  12. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  13. Indoor air pollution and preventions in college libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zengzhang

    2017-05-01

    The college library is a place where it gets the comparatively high density of students often staying long time with it. Therefore, the indoor air quality will affect directly reading effect and physical health of teachers and students in colleges and universities. The paper analyzes the influenced factors in indoor air pollution of the library from the selection of green-environmental decorating materials and furniture, good ventilation maintaining, electromagnetic radiation reducing, regular disinfection, indoor green building and awareness of health and environmental protection strengthening etc. six aspects to put forward the ideas for preventions of indoor air pollution and construction of the green low-carbon library.

  14. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  15. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been used decoratively indoors for centuries. For the last 25-30 years, their beneficial abilities to reduce the levels of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the indoor air have also been investigated. Previous studies have shown that VOCs are removed by the plant itself......, but also by microorganisms in the soil. Furthermore, the rate of removal is dependent on the plant species and can be influenced by exogenous factors such as light intensity and VOC concentration. The research within this field is, however, limited by the fact that the knowledge gained from laboratory...... be an underestimation of the plants' real potential. The next step will be to use the new system to investigate the effects of the exogenous factors temperature, light intensity and CO2 concentration on VOC removal rates....

  16. Indoor air quality in primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Clean air is a basic requirement of life (World Health Organization, 2010). The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors (Franck et al., 2011; Canha et al., 2010; WHO, 2010; Environmental Protection Agency, 2010; Saliba et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2008; Fromme et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2004; ...

  17. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  18. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  19. Indoor airPLUS Videos, Podcasts, Webinars and Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Webinar presentations will help you discover how Indoor airPLUS homes are designed to improve indoor air quality and increase energy efficiency and learn about the key design and construction features included in Indoor airPLUS homes.

  20. Photocatalytic disinfection of indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Trivedi, D.M.; Block, S.S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The present study demonstrated the antibacterial effect of photocatalytic oxidation in indoor air using titanium dioxide as the catalyst. Through a series of experiments, it was determined that titanium dioxide did enhance the inactivation rate of the microorganisms under certain conditions. In these experiments the air velocity, relative humidity, UV intensity were varied. It was found that higher velocities retarded destruction rate, due to the low retention time in the reactor. It was also determined that TiO{sub 2} did not accelerate the reaction at low humidities (30%). At a relative humidity of 50%, there was complete inactivation of the organisms, but at higher humidities (85%), 10% of the organisms were still viable. The experiments showed that at higher UV intensities, most of the inactivation was being done by the UV photons. However, the photons were not able to completely inactivate the microorganisms. In the photocatalysis experiments, there was complete inactivation of the bacteria.

  1. Photocatalytic disinfection of indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Trivedi, D.M.; Block, S.S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The present study demonstrated the antibacterial effect of photocatalytic oxidation in indoor air using titanium dioxide as the catalyst. Through a series of experiments, it was determined that titanium dioxide did enhance the inactivation rate of the microorganisms under certain conditions. In these experiments the air velocity, relative humidity, and UV (350 nm) intensity were varied. It was found that higher velocities retarded the destruction rate due to the low retention time in the reactor. TiO{sub 2} also did not accelerate the reaction at low humidities (30%). At a relative humidity of 50%, there was complete inactivation of the organisms, but at higher humidities (85%), 10% of the organisms were still viable. The experiments showed that at higher UV intensities, most of the activation was done by the UV photons. However, the photons were not able to completely inactivate the microorganisms. In the photocatalysis experiments there was complete inactivation of the bacteria.

  2. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  3. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  4. Microanalysis of indoor aerosols and the impact of a compact high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, M E

    1999-03-01

    Aerosol particles in municipal atmospheres are of increasing public health concern; however, since most of our time is spent indoors, indoor aerosols must be researched in counterpart. Compact High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter systems are commonly employed in residences to alleviate airborne dust concentrations. In this study, a detailed and original methodology was used to determine concentrations and types of submicrometer aerosols, as well as of large (> 4 microns) dust particles. Scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify and characterize ambient aerosols collected from filtered and non-filtered rooms. Particle concentrations were significantly lower in samples collected in the presence of the filter system (mean 23 to 8 coarse particles liter-1, 63% reduction; 13 to 3 inorganic submicron particles cm-3, 76% reduction; 85 to 33 total submicron particles cm-3, 62% reduction; all P filter systems are effective at reducing submicron aerosol concentrations, they may improve the health of individuals such as asthmatics, who experience health problems caused by anthropogenic fine particles.

  5. Indoor air pollution and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Patrick N; Diette, Gregory B; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Butz, Arlene M; Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to review indoor air pollution factors that can modify asthma severity, particularly in inner-city environments. While there is a large literature linking ambient air pollution and asthma morbidity, less is known about the impact of indoor air pollution on asthma. Concentrating on the indoor environments is particularly important for children, since they can spend as much as 90% of their time indoors. This review focuses on studies conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment as well as other relevant epidemiologic studies. Analysis of exposure outcome relationships in the published literature demonstrates the importance of evaluating indoor home environmental air pollution sources as risk factors for asthma morbidity. Important indoor air pollution determinants of asthma morbidity in urban environments include particulate matter (particularly the coarse fraction), nitrogen dioxide, and airborne mouse allergen exposure. Avoidance of harmful environmental exposures is a key component of national and international guideline recommendations for management of asthma. This literature suggests that modifying the indoor environment to reduce particulate matter, NO(2), and mouse allergen may be an important asthma management strategy. More research documenting effectiveness of interventions to reduce those exposures and improve asthma outcomes is needed.

  6. Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA completed an extensive modeling study to assess the compatibilities and trade-offs between energy, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort objectives for HVAC systems and to formulate strategies for superior performance across all areas.

  7. Indoor Climate and Air Quality Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valbjørn, O.; Hagen, H.; Kukkonen, E.

    This report presents a stepwise method for the investigation of and remedial actions for indoor climate and air quality problems. The report gives the basis for evaluation of the prevalence and causes of building related symptoms like mucosal irritation and headache. The report adresses members...... of occupational health and safety organisations, consulting engineers and architects, and also the people responsible for the operation of buildings and installations which is essential for the indoor climate and air quality....

  8. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  9. Indoor Air Quality: Is Increased Ventilation the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Shirley

    1989-01-01

    Explains how indoor air quality is affected by pollutants in the air and also by temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Increased ventilation alone seldom solves the "sick building syndrome." Lists ways to improve indoor air quality and optimize energy efficiency. (MLF)

  10. High blood pressure and long-term exposure to indoor noise and air pollution from road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraster, Maria; Künzli, Nino; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Vila, Joan; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Basagaña, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Traffic noise has been associated with prevalence of hypertension, but reports are inconsistent for blood pressure (BP). To ascertain noise effects and to disentangle them from those suspected to be from traffic-related air pollution, it may be essential to estimate people's noise exposure indoors in bedrooms. We analyzed associations between long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise in bedrooms and prevalent hypertension and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, considering long-term exposure to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). We evaluated 1,926 cohort participants at baseline (years 2003-2006; Girona, Spain). Outdoor annual average levels of nighttime traffic noise (Lnight) and NO2 were estimated at postal addresses with a detailed traffic noise model and a land-use regression model, respectively. Individual indoor traffic Lnight levels were derived from outdoor Lnight with application of insulations provided by reported noise-reducing factors. We assessed associations for hypertension and BP with multi-exposure logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Median levels were 27.1 dB(A) (indoor Lnight), 56.7 dB(A) (outdoor Lnight), and 26.8 μg/m3 (NO2). Spearman correlations between outdoor and indoor Lnight with NO2 were 0.75 and 0.23, respectively. Indoor Lnight was associated both with hypertension (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.13) and SBP (β = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.15) per 5 dB(A); and NO2 was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.36), SBP (β = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.25), and DBP (β⊇= 0.56; 95% CI: -0.03, 1.14) per 10 μg/m3. In the outdoor noise model, Lnight was associated only with hypertension and NO2 with BP only. The indoor noise-SBP association was stronger and statistically significant with a threshold at 30 dB(A). Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP, independently of NO2. Associations were less consistent for outdoor traffic Lnight and likely affected by

  11. Air ion and pollution index variation for indoor and outdoor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    00:00–02:00 hours, the indoor pollution index is 1.55, which is very harmful to human health. 1. Introduction. Air ions ... as pollution index. Generally, such measurements are meagre over a rural station and this will envis- age us to understand the distribution of air ions in ... were produced on the highly flooded river Krishna.

  12. Mercury poisoning dentistry: high-level indoor air mercury contamination at selected dental sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Abbasi, Maryam Shabbir

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), also known as quick silver, is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported. The present report briefly describes and discusses our recent investigations carried out at 34 dental sites (teaching institutions, hospitals and private clinics) in Pakistan. It is evident from the data that at many sites the indoor mercury vapor levels exceed far above the permissible limit recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public in general and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. To minimize such risk, some of the recommendations are, best in-house environmental practices for occupational health and safety, mercury contaminated waste reduction at source, mercury specific legislation and ratification of Minamata convention on mercury by Pakistan and other world governments at the earliest time possible.

  13. Indoor air pollution and cognitive function among older Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Joseph L; Wong, Rebeca; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution may negatively affect cognitive functioning in older adults, but less is known about the link between indoor sources of air pollution and cognitive functioning. We examine the association between exposure to indoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults in Mexico, a developing country where combustion of biomass for domestic energy remains common. Data come from the 2012 Wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. The analytic sample consists of 13 023 Mexican adults over age 50. Indoor air pollution is assessed by the reported use of wood or coal as the household's primary cooking fuel. Cognitive function is measured with assessments of verbal learning, verbal recall, attention, orientation and verbal fluency. Ordinary least squares regression is used to examine cross-sectional differences in cognitive function according to indoor air pollution exposure while accounting for demographic, household, health and economic characteristics. Approximately 16% of the sample reported using wood or coal as their primary cooking fuel, but this was far more common among those residing in the most rural areas (53%). Exposure to indoor air pollution was associated with poorer cognitive performance across all assessments, with the exception of verbal recall, even in fully adjusted models. Indoor air pollution may be an important factor for the cognitive health of older Mexican adults. Public health efforts should continue to develop interventions to reduce exposure to indoor air pollution in rural Mexico. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  15. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  16. Microbiological quality of indoor air in university libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayleeyesus, Samuel Fekadu; Manaye, Abayneh Melaku

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the concentration of bacteria and fungi in the indoor environment of Jimma University libraries, so as to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control. The microbial quality of indoor air of eight libraries of Jimma University was determined. The settle plate method using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed to collect sample twice daily. Isolates were identified according to standard methods. The concentrations of bacteria and fungi aerosols in the indoor environment of the university libraries ranged between 367-2595 CFU/m(3). According to the sanitary standards classification of European Commission, almost all the libraries indoor air of Jimma University was heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. In spite of their major source difference, the average fungi density found in the indoor air of libraries did appear to follow the same trend with bacterial density (P=0.001). The bacteria isolates included Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus sp. and Neisseria sp. while Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the most isolated fungi. The indoor air of all libraries were in the range above highly contaminated according to European Commission classification and the most isolates are considered as potential candidates involved in the establishment of sick building syndromes and often associated with clinical manifestations like allergy, rhinitis, asthma and conjunctivitis. Thus, attention must be given to control those environmental factors which favor the growth and multiplication of microbes in indoor environment of libraries to safeguard the health of users and workers.

  17. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  18. Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), released in 2002, is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  19. Indoor airPLUS Sales and Marketing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented are useful materials to help you build homes that meet Indoor airPLUS specifications and to promote Indoor airPLUS qualified homes. These materials are FREE of charge and are available in PDF.

  20. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  1. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  2. Teacher's Guide to Indoor Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Safety Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Health Center.

    This guide, designed for fourth- through sixth-grade classrooms, contains information teachers will need to teach an educational unit on indoor air quality. It draws on a variety of students' skills, including science, vocabulary, reasoning, math, and basic biology. Each lesson comes with suggested activities that highlight and reinforce what is…

  3. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  4. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  5. Nitrogen Dioxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two most prevalent oxides of nitrogen are nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO). Both are toxic gases with NO2 being a highly reactive oxidant and corrosive. The primary sources indoors are combustion processes.

  6. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively high incidences of respiratory illness or symptoms were reported and the spirometry readings suggested impaired lung function in over 80% of respondents. Conclusion: Our results quantify that the use of biomass fuel can give rise to high levels of indoor air pollution. Given that poor lung function contributes to ...

  7. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  8. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  9. VOLATILIZATION RATES FROM WATER TO INDOOR AIR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated water can lead to volatilization of chemicals to residential indoor air. Previous research has focused on only one source (shower stalls) and has been limited to chemicals in which gas-phase resistance to mass transfer is of marginal significance. As a result, attempts to extrapolate chemical emissions from high-volatility chemicals to lower volatility chemicals, or to sources other than showers, have been difficult or impossible. This study involved the development of two-phase, dynamic mass balance models for estimating chemical emissions from washing machines, dishwashers, and bathtubs. An existing model was adopted for showers only. Each model required the use of source- and chemical-specific mass transfer coefficients. Air exchange (ventilation) rates were required for dishwashers and washing machines as well. These parameters were estimated based on a series of 113 experiments involving 5 tracer chemicals (acetone, ethyl acetate, toluene, ethylbenzene, and cyclohexane) and 4 sources (showers, bathtubs, washing machines, and dishwashers). Each set of experiments led to the determination of chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients (overall, liquid-phase, gas-phase), and to an assessment of the importance of gas- phase resistance to mass transfer. Stripping efficiencies ranged from 6.3% to 80% for showers, 2.6% to 69% for bathtubs, 18% to 100% for dishwashers, and 3.8% to 100% for washing machines. Acetone and cyclohexane al

  10. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that gas flames are burning blue. Examine your furniture to determine whether it is made of plywood, ... professional exterminator), and be sure to leave the house for the recommended period of time. Poor air ...

  11. Passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Mayer, Philipp

    PCBs were widely used in construction materials in the 1906s and 1970s, a period of high building activity in Denmark. The objective of this study was therefore to use passive sampling techniques to develop a simple and cost-effective screening tool for PCBs in indoor air. The study proceeded...... in three phases combining a literature review, laboratory experiments and measurements in buildings potentially containing PCBs in indoor air. The laboratory experiments showed a strong influence of air velocity on the PCB partitioning between air and the passive sampler. Based on the results of the first...... methods in their kinetic sampling phase. The methods were sensitive and precise, but tended to overestimate the concentration obtained by active sampling. More work will be needed to test the silicone-coated paper under equilibrium sampling conditions....

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Indoor Air Distribution in High-Performance Residential Buildings: Part I. General Descriptions and Qualification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalalzadeh, A. A.; Hancock, E.; Powell, D.

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this project is to experimentally characterize an air distribution system in heating mode during a period of recovery from setback. The specific air distribution system under evaluation incorporates a high sidewall supply-air register/diffuser and a near-floor wall return air grille directly below. With this arrangement, the highest temperature difference between the supply air and the room can occur during the recovery period and create a favorable condition for stratification. The experimental approach will provide realistic input data and results for verification of computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  13. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and health in homes undergoing weatherization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, P W; Jacobs, D E; Targos, L; Dixon, S L; Breysse, J; Rose, W; Cali, S

    2017-03-01

    Ventilation standards, health, and indoor air quality have not been adequately examined for residential weatherization. This randomized trial showed how ASHRAE 62-1989 (n=39 houses) and ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (n=42 houses) influenced ventilation rates, moisture balance, indoor air quality, and self-reported physical and mental health outcomes. Average total airflow was nearly twice as high for ASHRAE 62.2-2010 (79 vs. 39 cfm). Volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and carbon dioxide were all significantly reduced for the newer standard and first-floor radon was marginally lower, but for the older standard, only formaldehyde significantly decreased. Humidity in the ASHRAE 62.2-2010 group was only about half that of the ASHRAE 62-1989 group using the moisture balance metric. Radon was higher in the basement but lower on the first floor for ASHRAE 62.2-2010. Children in each group had fewer headaches, eczema, and skin allergies after weatherization and adults had improvements in psychological distress. Indoor air quality and health improve when weatherization is accompanied by an ASHRAE residential ventilation standard, and the 2010 ASHRAE standard has greater improvements in certain outcomes compared to the 1989 standard. Weatherization, home repair, and energy conservation projects should use the newer ASHRAE standard to improve indoor air quality and health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  15. Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

    2014-10-21

    Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources.

  16. There's Something in the Air: Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    Part 1 of this article, the first in a three-part series of articles that discuss indoor air quality (IAQ) issues affecting schools, provides a general overview of IAQ and discusses the three major health problems associated with IAQ: sick building syndrome, building-related illness, and multiple chemical sensitivity. (MLF)

  17. Indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in a multistorey shopping mall by high-spatial-resolution monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M; Dambruoso, P R; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, L; Loiotile, A Demarinis; Marzocca, A; Stasi, F; Trizio, L; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In order to assess indoor air quality (IAQ), two 1-week monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were performed in different areas of a multistorey shopping mall. High-spatial-resolution monitoring was conducted at 32 indoor sites located in two storehouses and in different departments of a supermarket. At the same time, VOC concentrations were monitored in the mall and parking lot area as well as outdoors. VOC were sampled at 48-h periods using diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption. The samples were then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data analysis and chromatic maps indicated that the two storehouses had the highest VOC concentrations consisting principally of terpenes. These higher TVOC concentrations could be a result of the low efficiency of the air exchange and intake systems, as well as the large quantity of articles stored in these small spaces. Instead, inside the supermarket, the food department was the most critical area for VOC concentrations. To identify potential emission sources in this department, a continuous VOC analyzer was used. The findings indicated that the highest total VOC concentrations were present during cleaning activities and that these activities were carried out frequently in the food department. The study highlights the importance of conducting both high-spatial-resolution monitoring and high-temporal-resolution monitoring. The former was able to identify critical issues in environments with a complex emission scenario while the latter was useful in interpreting the dynamics of each emission source.

  18. The right to healthy indoor air: Status by 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Krzyzanowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    One of the reasons for the inadequate quality of indoor air arises from the poor articulation, appreciation and understanding of basic principles underlying the policies and actions related to indoor air quality. A WHO Working Group derived nine statements on rights to healthy indoor air....... The discussions and statements are available as a WHO report. It informs the individuals and groups responsible for healthy indoor air about their rights and obligations, and empowers the general public by making people familiar with those rights. One year after their publication the statements have been adopted...

  19. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; Macintosh, David L

    2008-08-06

    Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30-55% lower cat allergen levels, 90-99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90-98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50-75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice.

  20. Indoor Air Quality in Central Appalachia Homes Impacted by Wood and Coal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Laura M; Williams, D'Ann; Oberweiser, Charles; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; McCormack, Meredith M; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger; Metts, Tricia A; Hansel, Nadia N

    2013-01-01

    Though the high prevalence of biomass fuel use in the developing world is widely known, the use of burning biomass for cooking and heating in the developed world is under-recognized. Combustion materials including coal and wood are also used for heating in some areas of the United States. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting indoor environmental monitoring in rural Appalachia. We sought to explore the type of biomass being used for home heating and its impact upon indoor air quality in non-heating and heating seasons. Residential indoor air monitoring for particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was conducted in Lee County, Virginia. Homes had evidence of poor indoor air quality with high concentrations of indoor PM and a large burden of cigarette smoking. Further characterization of indoor combustion material use in this region to determine the health impacts associated with such exposures is warranted.

  1. What is IAQ? [Indoor Air Quality]; Wat is IAQ? [Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanger, P.O. [International Centre for Inoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-07-15

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is often defined as the extent to which human requirements are met. The air should be fresh and pleasant, not have a negative impact on health, that it not effects productivity. Present ventilation standards and guidelines do not include productivity and only require that the indoor air must be 'acceptable'. With such a modest aim it is not surprising that comprehensive field studies in many countries in buildings in which ventilation standards are met show high percentages of dissatisfied persons and of those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome. Recent studies show that improvement of IAQ by a factor of 2-7 compared with existing standards increases office productivity and school learning significantly, while decreasing the risk of allergic symptoms and asthma in homes. To make indoor air acceptable, even for the most sensitive persons, an improvement of 1-2 orders of magnitude may be required. The paper will discuss the development of new methods that can provide such substantial improvements of IAQ while maintaining or even decreasing ventilation end energy usage. [Dutch] In ruimtes die bestemd zijn voor menselijke bezetting wordt de binnenluchtkwaliteit (indoor Air Quality - IAQ) vaak gedefinieerd als de mate waarin aan menselijke behoeften wordt voldaan. Maar welke behoeften hebben mensen van de binnenlucht? Het is wenselijk dat de lucht wordt ervaren als zuiver en aangenaam. Dit betekent dat de lucht geen negatieve invloed mag hebben op de gezondheid en dat de lucht het werken moet stimuleren. De binnenlucht zou de productiviteit van werknemers en de schoolprestaties van kinderen moeten verhogen. In de huidige normen en richtlijnen voor ventilatie worden deze laatste twee aspecten niet meegenomen, er wordt uitgegaan van de bescheiden eis dat de binnenluchtkwaliteit 'acceptabel' dient te zijn. Dit houdt in dat de meest gevoelige groep personen (doorgaans 20%) de lucht als onacceptabel zal beoordelen en dat de

  2. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  3. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, M. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low

  4. Indoor air quality: The hidden side of the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bluyssen, P.M.; Clausen, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The physical environment can be defined and understood in manv different ways, both from its nature, e.g., thermal, accoustic, etc., or its dimension, e.g., global, local, urban, indoors. The indoor environment is much more than the space or the light effects; it is the result of a complex

  5. Law and features of TVOC and Formaldehyde pollution in urban indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chenchen; Chen, Weidong; Guo, Min; Weng, Mili; Yan, Gang; Shen, Xueyou

    2016-05-01

    There are several categories of indoor air pollutants. Organic pollutants are the most common ones. This study chooses TVOC and Formaldehyde, two of the typical pollutants, as indicators of evaluating household indoor air pollution and improves the TVOC concentration prediction model through the samples of indoor air taken from 3122 households. This study also categorizes and explains the features of household indoor air pollution based on the TVOC and Formaldehyde models as well as a large amount of sample measurement. Moreover, this study combines the TVOC model with the Formaldehyde model to calculate and verify the critical values of each type of indoor air pollution. In this study, indoor air pollution is categorized into three types: decoration pollution, consumption pollution and transition pollution. During the first 12 months after decoration, decoration pollution is the primary pollution type, both TVOC and Formaldehyde are highly concentrated while sometimes seriously over the standard. Pollutants mainly come from volatile sources. After the first 12 month but before 24 months the indoor air pollution is transition pollution. Both decoration materials and human activates affect the indoor air quality. 24 months after decoration, it transits into consumption pollution. In this stage, the main pollutants come from combustion sources, and concentration of pollutants fluctuates with the appearance and disappearance of the sources.

  6. Fungi as contaminants in indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. David

    This article reviews the subject of contamination of indoor air with fungal spores. In the last few years there have been advances in several areas of research on this subject. A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted in the U.K., U.S.A. and Canada. These suggest that exposure to dampness and mold in homes is a significant risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms. Well-known illnesses caused by fungi include allergy and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. There is now evidence that other consequences of exposure to spores of some fungi may be important. In particular, exposure to low molecular weight compounds retained in spores of some molds such as mycotoxins and β 1,3 glucans appears to contribute to some symptoms reported. Fungal contamination of building air is almost always caused by poor design and/or maintenance. Home owners and building operators need to take evidence of fungal contamination seriously.

  7. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in indoor air quality investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, L.; Clausen, Geo; Berglund, B.

    1997-01-01

    The amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air, usually called TVOC (total volatile organic compounds), has been measured using different definitions and techniques which yield different results. This report recommends a definition of TVOC referring to a specified range of VOCs...... for characterizing indoor pollution and for improving source control as required from the points of view of health, comfort, energy efficiency and sustainability. (C) Indoor Air (1997)....

  8. Air ion and pollution index variation for indoor and outdoor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the observation of indoor air ion concentration at a rural site has been carried out for the first time. These indoor observations are compared with outdoor air ion concentration. Net charge can be introduced into the atmosphere by processes such as combustion, rainfall and ultraviolet radiation.

  9. School policies and practices that improve indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Smith, Alisa M; Wheeler, Lani S; McManus, Tim

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of school health programs and policies at the state, district, and school levels. Using chi-square analyses, the rates of policies and practices that promote indoor air quality were compared between schools with and schools without a formal indoor air quality program. The findings of this study show that 51.4% of schools had a formal indoor air quality management program, and that those schools were significantly more likely than were schools without a program to have policies and use strategies to promote superior indoor air quality. These findings suggest that schools with a formal indoor air quality program are more likely support policies and engage in practices that promote superior indoor air quality.

  10. Analysis of Indoor Air Pollution of Decoration and Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the human health is closely related to quality of indoor air. This article analyzes the main types of pollution to indoor air and their harms to human health, and on this basis, it sets forth the prevention measures comprehensively and proposes advices to normalize industry standards.

  11. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to biomass- related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of subjects; and ...

  12. Thoron, radon and air ions spatial distribution in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarž, Predrag; Vaupotič, Janja; Kobal, Ivan; Ujić, Predrag; Stojanovska, Zdenka; Žunić, Zora S

    2017-07-01

    Spatial distribution of radioactive gasses thoron (Tn) and radon (Rn) in indoor air of 9 houses mostly during winter period of 2013 has been studied. According to properties of alpha decay of both elements, air ionization was also measured. Simultaneous continual measurements using three Rn/Tn and three air-ion active instruments deployed on to three different distances from the wall surface have shown various outcomes. It has turned out that Tn and air ions concentrations decrease with the distance increase, while Rn remained uniformly distributed. Exponential fittings function for Tn variation with distance was used for the diffusion length and constant as well as the exhalation rate determination. The obtained values were similar with experimental data reported in the literature. Concentrations of air ions were found to be in relation with Rn and obvious, but to a lesser extent, with Tn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants on Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaKyoung; Kim, HyungJin; Lim, DaeHyun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2016-12-09

    The increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with variations in indoor environments. In Korea, many inner walls of homes are covered with wallpaper: such walls emit indoor air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. This randomized, double-blind study investigated the effects of wallpaper on indoor air quality and AD. Thirty-one children (aged three to eight years) with moderate AD were assigned to environmentally-friendly (EF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper groups. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs, natural VOCs (NVOCs), formaldehyde, and total suspended bacteria were measured before and two (W₂) and eight weeks (W₈) after wallpapering. Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) evaluations and blood tests were performed during the same period. The EF wallpaper and PVC wallpaper groups showed similar trends in the changes in total VOCs (TVOC) and formaldehyde content in the indoor air. However, the EF wallpaper group showed more improvement on the SCORAD at W₂ and W₈ than the PVC wallpaper group. The SCORAD index was positively correlated with several indoor air pollutants. Further, the SCORAD index and NVOC % were negatively correlated. Improved SCORAD index and effects of wallpapering on indoor air quality improvements occurred within a short period of time in both groups. We believe that NVOCs in indoor air after EF wallpapering have a beneficial effect on health.

  14. Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants on Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JaKyoung Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD is associated with variations in indoor environments. In Korea, many inner walls of homes are covered with wallpaper: such walls emit indoor air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs and formaldehyde. This randomized, double-blind study investigated the effects of wallpaper on indoor air quality and AD. Thirty-one children (aged three to eight years with moderate AD were assigned to environmentally-friendly (EF and polyvinyl chloride (PVC wallpaper groups. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs, natural VOCs (NVOCs, formaldehyde, and total suspended bacteria were measured before and two (W2 and eight weeks (W8 after wallpapering. Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD evaluations and blood tests were performed during the same period. The EF wallpaper and PVC wallpaper groups showed similar trends in the changes in total VOCs (TVOC and formaldehyde content in the indoor air. However, the EF wallpaper group showed more improvement on the SCORAD at W2 and W8 than the PVC wallpaper group. The SCORAD index was positively correlated with several indoor air pollutants. Further, the SCORAD index and NVOC % were negatively correlated. Improved SCORAD index and effects of wallpapering on indoor air quality improvements occurred within a short period of time in both groups. We believe that NVOCs in indoor air after EF wallpapering have a beneficial effect on health.

  15. Indoor air quality in Virginia waterpipe cafes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Caroline Oates; Vansickel, Andrea Rae; Blank, Melissa D; Jentink, Kade; Travers, Mark J; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A revised indoor air quality law has been implemented in Virginia to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure. This legislation contains exemptions that include allowances for smoking in a room that is structurally separated and separately ventilated. The objective of the current study was to examine the impact of this law on air quality in waterpipe cafés, as well as to compare the air quality in these cafés to restaurants that allow cigarette smoking and those where no smoking is permitted. Indoor air quality in 28 venues (17 waterpipe cafés, five cigarette smoking-permitted restaurants and six smoke-free restaurants (five with valid data)) in Virginia was assessed during 4 March to 27 May 2011. Real-time measurements of particulate matter (PM) with 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were obtained and occupant behaviour/venue characteristics were assessed. The highest mean PM2.5 concentration was observed for waterpipe café smoking rooms (374 μg/m(3), n=17) followed by waterpipe café non-smoking rooms (123 μg/m(3), n=11), cigarette smoking-permitted restaurant smoking rooms (119 μg/m(3), n=5), cigarette smoking-permitted restaurant non-smoking rooms (26 μg/m(3), n=5) and smoke-free restaurants (9 μg/m(3), n=5). Smoking density was positively correlated with PM2.5 across smoking rooms and the smoke-free restaurants. In addition, PM2.5 was positively correlated between smoking and non-smoking rooms of venues. The PM2.5 concentrations observed among the waterpipe cafés sampled here indicated air quality in the waterpipe café smoking rooms was worse than restaurant rooms in which cigarette smoking was permitted, and state-required non-smoking rooms in waterpipe cafés may expose patrons and employees to PM2.5 concentrations above national and international air quality standards. Reducing the health risks of secondhand smoke may require smoke-free establishments in which tobacco smoking sources such as water

  16. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  17. A comparative study on indoor air quality in a low cost and a green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    study related to indoor air quality on new buildings with the aim of the finish indoor classification to ... of use of high energy building materials such as glass, steel, etc. and reducing transportation energy. Use of ... artificial lighting using energy efficient equipments, controls and operation strategies. In this model house one ...

  18. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Indoor airborne bacterial communities are influenced by ventilation, occupancy, and outdoor air source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, J F; Altrichter, A E; Kembel, S W; Kline, J; Mhuireach, G; Moriyama, M; Northcutt, D; O'Connor, T K; Womack, A M; Brown, G Z; Green, J L; Bohannan, B J M

    2014-02-01

    Architects and engineers are beginning to consider a new dimension of indoor air: the structure and composition of airborne microbial communities. A first step in this emerging field is to understand the forces that shape the diversity of bioaerosols across space and time within the built environment. In an effort to elucidate the relative influences of three likely drivers of indoor bioaerosol diversity - variation in outdoor bioaerosols, ventilation strategy, and occupancy load - we conducted an intensive temporal study of indoor airborne bacterial communities in a high-traffic university building with a hybrid HVAC (mechanically and naturally ventilated) system. Indoor air communities closely tracked outdoor air communities, but human-associated bacterial genera were more than twice as abundant in indoor air compared with outdoor air. Ventilation had a demonstrated effect on indoor airborne bacterial community composition; changes in outdoor air communities were detected inside following a time lag associated with differing ventilation strategies relevant to modern building design. Our results indicate that both occupancy patterns and ventilation strategies are important for understanding airborne microbial community dynamics in the built environment. © 2013 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Respiratory Effects of Indoor Heat and the Interaction with Air Pollution in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Meredith C; Belli, Andrew J; Waugh, Darryn; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Williams, D'Ann L; Paulin, Laura; Saha, Anik; Aloe, Charles M; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Hansel, Nadia N

    2016-12-01

    There is limited evidence of the effect of exposure to heat on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, and the interactive effect between indoor heat and air pollution has not been established. To determine the effect of indoor and outdoor heat exposure on COPD morbidity and to determine whether air pollution concentrations modify the effect of temperature. Sixty-nine participants with COPD were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study, and data from the 601 participant days that occurred during the warm weather season were included in the analysis. Participants completed home environmental monitoring with measurement of temperature, relative humidity, and indoor air pollutants and simultaneous daily assessment of respiratory health with questionnaires and portable spirometry. Participants had moderate to severe COPD and spent the majority of their time indoors. Increases in maximal indoor temperature were associated with worsening of daily Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale scores and increases in rescue inhaler use. The effect was detected on the same day and lags of 1 and 2 days. The detrimental effect of temperature on these outcomes increased with higher concentrations of indoor fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (P pollution concentrations. For patients with COPD who spend the majority of their time indoors, indoor heat exposure during the warmer months represents a modifiable environmental exposure that may contribute to respiratory morbidity. In the context of climate change, adaptive strategies that include optimization of indoor environmental conditions are needed to protect this high-risk group from the adverse health effects of heat.

  1. Report. no. 20. Sensory evaluation of indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Birgitta; Bluyssen, Philomena; Clausen, Geo

    Human subjects are indispensable in the measurement of perceived indoor air quality. Chemical and physical methods of characterisation often are insensitive to odorous and sensory irritating air pollutants, or do not take account of combinations of singular pollutants in a biologically meaningful...... way. Therefore, sensory methods many times are the only or the preferred tool for evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. This report presents background to and advice on methodologies for sensory evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. It proposes methods which apply to source assessments...... as well as field investigations. The methods will assist in labelling of building materials, characterising air quality in indoor spaces, controlling ventilation performance, and measuring occupant responses in questionnaire field studies of the sick building syndrome. The proposed methods will enable...

  2. Uptake of chemicals from indoor air: Pathways and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Building occupants are exposed to manufactured chemicals. Exposure in the indoor environment can occur via non-dietary ingestion (e.g. indoor dust), inhalation and dermal absorption including dermal uptake directly from air. The extent of dermal uptake from air has been previously studied for vol...... depend on the pathway of exposure. However, studies that investigate the health consequences of dermal uptake of SVOCs from air are lacking.......Building occupants are exposed to manufactured chemicals. Exposure in the indoor environment can occur via non-dietary ingestion (e.g. indoor dust), inhalation and dermal absorption including dermal uptake directly from air. The extent of dermal uptake from air has been previously studied...... for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Not much is however known about its role for semivolatile organics (SVOC) and therefore this exposure pathway is often neglected in exposure assessments. Dermal uptake received attention with regards to contact transfer from contaminated surfaces. Recent modeling efforts...

  3. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  4. Indoor air quality analysis based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Wang; Yunhua, Sun; Song, Tian; Liang, Yu; Weihong, Cui

    2014-03-01

    The air of the office environment is our research object. The data of temperature, humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia are collected peer one to eight seconds by the sensor monitoring system. And all the data are stored in the Hbase database of Hadoop platform. With the help of HBase feature of column-oriented store and versioned (automatically add the time column), the time-series data sets are bulit based on the primary key Row-key and timestamp. The parallel computing programming model MapReduce is used to process millions of data collected by sensors. By analysing the changing trend of parameters' value at different time of the same day and at the same time of various dates, the impact of human factor and other factors on the room microenvironment is achieved according to the liquidity of the office staff. Moreover, the effective way to improve indoor air quality is proposed in the end of this paper.

  5. Indoor air quality and respiratory health effects in school children: The HITEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314101144

    2013-01-01

    A good air quality of the indoor environment is essential for human health; on average people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. The composition of indoor air is extremely complex and the quality can be influenced by several outdoor and indoor sources. In this thesis the effects of indoor

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  8. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality and the Identification of Influential Factors at Primary Schools in the North of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Peng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of a pupil’s school life is spent inside a classroom, and indoor air quality has a significant impact on students’ attendance and learning potential. Therefore, the indoor air quality in primary school buildings is highly important. This empirical study investigates the indoor air quality in four naturally ventilated schools in China, with a focus on four parameters: PM2.5, PM10, CO2, and temperature. The correlations between the indoor air quality and the ambient air pollution, building defects, and occupants’ activities have been identified and discussed. The results indicate that building defects and occupants’ activities have a significant impact on indoor air quality. Buildings with better air tightness have a relatively smaller ratio of indoor particulate matter (PM concentrations to outdoor PM concentrations when unoccupied. During occupied periods, the indoor/outdoor (I/O ratio could be larger than 1 due to internal students’ activities. The indoor air temperature in winter is mainly determined by occupants’ activities and the adiabatic ability of a building’s fabrics. CO2 can easily exceed 1000 ppm on average due to the closing of windows and doors to keep the inside air warmer in winter. It is concluded that improving air tightness might be a way of reducing outdoor air pollutants’ penetration in naturally ventilated school buildings. Mechanical ventilation with air purification could be also an option on severely polluted days.

  9. Indoor air quality, fungi, and health. How do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    King, Norman; Auger, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To equip medical practitioners with up-to-date scientific and medical information on the health effects of exposure to fungi in indoor air, clinical evaluation of these health problems, and possible preventive measures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from 1985 to 2000 using the MeSH words mould (mold), fungus, indoor air, and health effects. Nearly all studies were case reports, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies. Evidence of an association between respira...

  10. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  11. Very volatile organic compounds: an understudied class of indoor air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, T

    2016-02-01

    Very volatile organic compounds (VVOCs), as categorized by the WHO, are an important subgroup of indoor pollutants and cover a wide spectrum of chemical substances. Some VVOCs are components of products commonly used indoors, some result from chemical reactions and some are reactive precursors of secondary products. Nevertheless, there is still no clear and internationally accepted definition of VVOCs. Current approaches are based on the boiling point, and the saturation vapor pressure or refer to analytical procedures. A significant problem is that many airborne VVOCs cannot be routinely analyzed by the usually applied technique of sampling on Tenax TA® followed by thermal desorption GC/MS or by DNPH-sampling/HPLC/UV. Some VVOCs are therefore often neglected in indoor-related studies. However, VVOCs are of high significance for indoor air quality assessment and there is need for their broader consideration in measurement campaigns and material emission testing. © 2014 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) : Using Temporal Data and GIS to Visualize IAQ in Campus Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    N Li, Na

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that indoor air quality (IAQ) is essential for human health because of the long exposure time human has inside. But the legislation and relevant policy about indoor air are far behind outdoors. Recently indoor air quality has been paid attention, some relevant epidemiological studies were carried and WHO published indoor air quality guidelines ac-cordingly as the reference of policy-making. The demand and requirement of good indoor air quality is booming from legislation enf...

  13. The impact of sorption on perceived indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, W; Weschler, C J; Fanger, P O

    2006-04-01

    Sensory evaluations were used to investigate the impact of sorption processes on indoor air quality. Experiments were carried out in four similar, adjacent, unfurnished offices. Samples of carpet, linoleum, painted gypsum board, and Semia (a specially designed high-sorbing fabric) were tested individually and in combination. Additionally, to investigate the interaction between the pollutants emitted from the building materials and the test room surfaces themselves, air streams polluted by two different building materials were vented into an empty test office. Each experiment lasted for either 1 week (adsorption stage only) or 10 days (adsorption and desorption stages). Untrained panels assessed the air quality at specified times after moving the materials into or out of the rooms. The results showed that, in comparison with air in a room with carpet or linoleum alone, the presence of painted gypsum board improved the perceived air quality. This improvement persisted throughout the 168 h of the 'adsorption stage' of the experiments. A mass balance model was used to quantify the improvement. Calculated results indicate that, for the conditions used in these experiments, pollutant removal via sorption to the relatively inert office surfaces was equivalent to an extra 0.4 air change per hour (ACH) of ventilation air, while sorption to painted gypsum board surfaces was equivalent to an extra 1-7 ACH of ventilation air. In the case of Semia, sorption was equivalent to an extra 16 ACH of ventilation air. During the 'desorption stage' of the experiments, after carpet or linoleum were taken out of a room, approximately 3 days were required before the air in the test office, ventilated at 0.8 ACH, was judged to be free of the sorbed pollutants. Ventilation rates in non-industrial buildings are based largely on sensory pollution sources and a desired level of perceived air quality. This study documents that sorptive materials in a room influence the perceived air quality and

  14. Effects of traffic-related outdoor air pollution on respiratory illness and mortality in children, taking into account indoor air pollution, in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ibrahim, Juliani; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of outdoor air pollution, taking into account indoor air pollution, in Indonesia. The subjects were 15,242 children from 2002 to 2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. The odds ratios and their confidence intervals for adverse health effects were estimated. Proximity increased the prevalence of acute respiratory infection both in urban and rural areas after adjusting for indoor air pollution. In urban areas, the prevalence of acute upper respiratory infection increased by 1.012 (95% confidence intervals: 1.005 to 1.019) per 2 km proximity to a major road. Adjusted odds ratios tended to be higher in the high indoor air pollution group. Exposure to traffic-related outdoor air pollution would increase adverse health effects after adjusting for indoor air pollution. Furthermore, indoor air pollution could exacerbate the effects of outdoor air pollution.

  15. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  16. Indoor air pollution aggravates symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Gyo-Boong; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ahn, Kangmo

    2015-01-01

    Most of researches on the impact of indoor air pollutants on atopic dermatitis (AD) have been based upon animal models, in vitro experiments and case-control studies. However, human data to elucidate the role of indoor air pollution on worsening symptoms of pre-existing AD from a longitudinal study are scarce. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of indoor air pollution on AD symptoms in children. We surveyed 30 children with AD in a day-care centre, which moved to a new building during the study. These children stayed there for 8 hours a day Monday through Friday, and their daily symptom scores were recorded. Indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels were continuously measured 24 hours a day for 12 months (Period 1 to 4). Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Compared to the period before moving (Period 1), concentrations of indoor air pollutants mostly increased after moving (Period 2) and decreased by natural ventilation and bake-out (Periods 3 and 4). The rate of positive AD symptom increased from 32.8% (Period 1) up to 43.8% (Period 2) and 50.5% (Period 3), then decreased to 35.4% in Period 4 (P indoor air pollutants on AD symptoms 2 days later were evaluated, AD symptoms significantly increased by 12.7% (95% CI: -0.01 to 27.1) as toluene levels increased by 1 ppb (P = 0.05). In conclusion, indoor air pollutants increase the risk of AD aggravation in children and toluene in the indoor environment might act as an aggravating factor.

  17. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  18. Partial pit exhaust improves indoor air quality and effectiveness of air cleaning in livestock housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, B.; Zong, C.

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia and odor emissions from livestock production systems cause negative impact on atmospheric environment and local society. It is, therefore, important to develop cost-effective methods to reduce these emissions. Air cleaning technologies, including chemical and biological filters, have been...... proposed to clean the exhaust ventilation air from confined livestock buildings. However, it requires large capacity of the air cleaning unit for the total exhaust air and, consequently, results in high investment and operational costs of the livestock production system. Aiming at emission reduction...... and optimal indoor air quality of confined farm animal buildings, a concept of partial pit ventilation has been investigated in varied conditions in Denmark. Partial pit ventilation is based on the hypothesis that the most polluted air can be removed by a separate air exhaust near the pollution sources in pit...

  19. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  20. Effect of smoking and indoor air pollution on the risk of tuberculosis: smoking, indoor air pollution and tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Ayşe Bilge; Kiliçaslan, Zeki; Işsever, Halim

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies have reported an association between smoking and increases in tuberculosis, the relationship between indoor air pollution and risk of tuberculosis is not fully understood. A limited number of studies have suggested that smoking and indoor air pollution may play a role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of smoking and indoor air pollution on the risk of active tuberculosis. It is prospectively recorded age matched case-control study. Three hundred sixty two active tuberculosis cases and 409 healthy controls were included to the study. All participants were interviewed face to face by using a questionnaire including smoking habit, quantity and duration of smoking, number of room/person in the house, monthly income of the family, indoor heating system, and environmental tobacco smoke. Patients who smoke had a five fold (95% CI: 3.2-7.5, pindoor heating had a 1.6 fold (95% CI: 1.179-2.305, pindoor air pollution may increase the risk of tuberculosis. There is a complex interaction between smoking, socioeconomic conditions, indoor air quality and tuberculosis. Our results suggest that effective indoor air quality control could help to prevent tuberculosis risk.

  1. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  2. Indoor air quality in homes, offices and restaurants in Korean urban areas—indoor/outdoor relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Perry, Roger

    Air quality monitoring was carried out to collect data on the levels of various indoor and ambient air constituents in two cities in Korea (Seoul and Taegu). Sampling was conducted simultaneously indoors and outdoors at six residences, six offices and six restaurants in each city during summer 1994 and winter 1994-1995. Measured pollutants were respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, in order to evaluate the effect of smoking on indoor air quality, analyses of parameters associated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were undertaken, which are nicotine, ultraviolet (UVPM), fluorescence (FPM) and solanesol particulate matter (SolPM). The results of this study have confirmed the importance of ambient air in determining the quality of air indoors in two major Korean cities. The majority of VOCs measured in both indoor and outdoor environments were derived from outdoor sources, probably motor vehicles. Benzene and other VOC concentrations were much higher during the winter months than the summer months and were not significantly greater in the smoking sites examined. Heating and cooking practices, coupled with generally inadequate ventilation, also were shown to influence indoor air quality. In smoking sites, ETS appears to be a minor contributor to VOC levels as no statistically significant relationships were identified with ETS components and VOCs, whereas very strong correlations were found between indoor and outdoor levels of vehicle-related pollutants. The average contribution of ETS to total RSP concentrations was estimated to range from 10 to 20%.

  3. The Development of a Systematic Process for Enhancing the Awareness of the Potential for Indoor Air Pollution in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Roger William

    This paper developed methodology to assist school principals in determining the existence of potential indoor air pollution problems and how to alleviate them, as well as a procedure for pollution prevention. Site visits were conducted on 10 South Carolina elementary schools: five with high potential for indoor air pollution; five with low…

  4. Analyzing the Relationship between Human Behavior and Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiyu Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the coming decades, as we experience global population growth and global aging issues, there will be corresponding concerns about the quality of the air we experience inside and outside buildings. Because we can anticipate that there will be behavioral changes that accompany population growth and aging, we examine the relationship between home occupant behavior and indoor air quality. To do this, we collect both sensor-based behavior data and chemical indoor air quality measurements in smart home environments. We introduce a novel machine learning-based approach to quantify the correlation between smart home features and chemical measurements of air quality, and evaluate the approach using two smart homes. The findings may help us understand the types of behavior that measurably impact indoor air quality. This information could help us plan for the future by developing an automated building system that would be used as part of a smart city.

  5. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  6. Polyfluorinated telomers in indoor air of Japanese houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanyang; Takahashi, Satoshi; Sakuramachi, Yui; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

    2013-02-01

    The fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) have been detected in various environmental compartments, including indoor and outdoor air, in North America and Europe. In our previous studies, FTOHs were detected at a relative higher concentration in outdoor air in the Keihan (Kyoto-Osaka, one of the major industrial zones) area, Japan compared to reported data. The exposure level of FTOHs in indoor air in the Keihan area remains unclear. In the present study, indoor air FTOH concentrations were investigated using a passive air sampler containing activated carbon felts. The indoor air sampling was conducted in 49 households of the Keihan area, during winter and summer 2008. Most samples contained 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOAc. The median concentration of 8:2 FTOH (5.84 ng m(-3)) was highest among fluorotelomers, followed by those of 10:2 FTOH (1.12 ng m(-3)), 6:2 FTOH (0.29 ng m(-3)), and others. Significant correlations among fluorotelomers were observed in collected samples. The association between housing conditions and 8:2 FTOH concentrations showed that samples collected from bed rooms have higher 8:2 FTOH concentrations than those collected from other locations. In addition, samples collected in winter showed lower levels of 8:2 FTOH than those collected in summer. These findings suggest that 8:2 FTOH is the predominant component among fluorotelomers in indoor air, and that there are emission sources of fluorotelomers in indoor environments of the Keihan area. Further investigations into the origins of fluorotelomers are needed to evaluate indoor contamination with fluorotelomers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Barbara [Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Danish Building Research Institute (SBi), Department of Construction and Health, Dr Neergaards Vej 15, 2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Wargocki, Pawel [Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Skorek-Osikowska, Anna [Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wisthaler, Armin [Institute of Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The effect on indoor air quality of an air purifier based on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) was determined by different measuring techniques: sensory assessments of air quality made by human subjects, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and chromatographic methods (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h{sup -1}, 2.5 h{sup -1} and 6 h{sup -1}, in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate, additional measurements were made with no pollution sources present in the office. All conditions were tested with the photocatalytic air purifier turned on and off. The results show that operation of the air purifier in the presence of pollutants emitted by building materials and furniture improves indoor air quality, as documented by sensory assessments made by human subjects. It also reduces concentrations of many chemical compounds present in the air as documented by the PTR-MS technique. For the lowest ventilation, results from measurements using the chromatographic methods have similar tendency, however many of the 50 compounds that were targeted for analysis were not detected at all, independent of whether the purifier was on or off. For the two conditions with higher ventilation the results were inconclusive. (author)

  8. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  9. Inter-comparison of air pollutant concentrations in different indoor environments in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shun-Cheng; Guo, Hai; Li, Wai-Ming; Chan, Lo-Yin

    Indoor air quality in selected indoor environments in Hong Kong such as homes, offices, schools, shopping malls and restaurants were investigated. Average CO 2 levels and total bacteria counts in air-conditioned classrooms, shopping malls and restaurants were comparatively higher than those measured in occupied offices and homes. Elevated CO 2 levels exceeding 1000 ppm and total bacteria counts resulted from high occupancy combined with inadequate ventilation. Average PM 10 levels were usually higher indoors than outdoors in homes, shopping malls and restaurants. The highest indoor PM 10 levels were observed at investigated restaurants due to the presence of cigarette smoking and extensive use of gas stoves for cooking. The restaurants and shopping malls investigated had higher formaldehyde levels than other indoor environments when building material, smoking and internal renovation work were present. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both indoor and outdoor environments mainly resulted from vehicle exhaust emissions. It was observed that interior decoration work and the use of industrial solvents in an indoor environment could significantly increase the indoor levels of VOCs.

  10. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Wargocki, Pawel; Skorek-Osikowska, A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect on indoor air quality of an air purifier based on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) was determined by different measuring techniques: sensory assessments of air quality made by human subjects, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and chromatographic methods (Gas...... Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h(-1), 2.5 h(-1) and 6 h(-1), in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate...... air quality, as documented by sensory assessments made by human subjects. It also reduces concentrations of many chemical compounds present in the air as documented by the PTR-MS technique. For the lowest ventilation, results from measurements using the chromatographic methods have similar tendency...

  11. Partial pit exhaust improves indoor air quality and effectiveness of air cleaning in livestock housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, B.; Zong, C.

    2017-01-01

    approach to reduce emissions by combining an effective exhaust cleaner. The system can significantly improve the indoor air quality, because a considerable amount of the concentrated pollutants in the air are removed directly via PPAE. The pollutant removal via PPAE is influenced by airflow patterns......Ammonia and odor emissions from livestock production systems cause negative impact on atmospheric environment and local society. It is, therefore, important to develop cost-effective methods to reduce these emissions. Air cleaning technologies, including chemical and biological filters, have been...... proposed to clean the exhaust ventilation air from confined livestock buildings. However, it requires large capacity of the air cleaning unit for the total exhaust air and, consequently, results in high investment and operational costs of the livestock production system. Aiming at emission reduction...

  12. Dynamic behavior of semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loy, Michael David Van [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-09

    Exposures to a wide range of air pollutants are often dominated by those occurring in buildings because of three factors: 1) most people spend a large fraction of their time indoors, 2) many pollutants have strong indoor sources, and 3) the dilution volume in buildings is generally several orders of magnitude smaller than that of an urban airshed. Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCS) are emitted by numerous indoor sources, including tobacco combustion, cooking, carpets, paints, resins, and glues, so indoor gasphase concentrations of these compounds are likely to be elevated relative to ambient levels. The rates of uptake and release of reversibly sorbing SVOCS by indoor materials directly affect both peak concentrations and persistence of the pollutants indoors after source elimination. Thus, accurate predictions of SVOC dynamics in indoor air require an understanding of contaminant sorption on surface materials such as carpet and wallboard. The dynamic behaviors of gas-phase nicotine and phenanthrene were investigated in a 20 ms stainless steel chamber containing carpet and painted wallboard. Each compound was studied independently, first in the empty chamber, then with each sorbent individually, and finally with both sorbents in the chamber.

  13. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.

    2013-01-01

    effects of IAQ into different components: exposures to indoor and outdoor air pollutants, association with different morbidities and the way ventilation based approaches could minimise their impact. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs), a common metric to allow comparability of impacts on various types...... and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health-based ventilation rate should...

  14. Indoor Air Pollution and Health Risks among Rural Dwellers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    exposure duration (Smith, 2009). Indoor air pollution has diverse effects on people that are exposed, depending on body constitution, lifestyle, nutritional status and age. Generally speaking, older people and children are more sensitive to air pollutants. (Jones, 1999). Studies have shown that women and children, who are ...

  15. Indoor Air Bacterial Load and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection is the second most common health care associated infection. One of the risk factors for such infection is bacterial contamination of operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air. In view of that, the microbiological quality of air can be considered as a mirror of the hygienic condition of ...

  16. Original Article Microbiological Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Microbiological Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality of Two Major Hospitals in Benin City, Nigeria. Ekhaise Fred O* and Ogboghodo Blessing I. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Air contains large number of microorganisms ...

  17. Microbiological assessment of indoor air of teaching hospital wards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: The microbial quality of indoor air of seven wards of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was determined. Passive air sampling technique, using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media, was employed to collect sample twice daily. RESULTS: The concentrations of bacteria and fungi aerosols in ...

  18. Indoor air quality, fungi, and health. How do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Norman; Auger, Pierre

    2002-02-01

    To equip medical practitioners with up-to-date scientific and medical information on the health effects of exposure to fungi in indoor air, clinical evaluation of these health problems, and possible preventive measures. MEDLINE was searched from 1985 to 2000 using the MeSH words mould (mold), fungus, indoor air, and health effects. Nearly all studies were case reports, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies. Evidence of an association between respiratory problems and the presence of fungi and dampness is strong. Recent well designed studies and literature reviews indicate that exposure to dampness and fungi in indoor air brings on or exacerbates asthma and other respiratory complaints. More studies are required, however, before a definite conclusion on other potential effects of such exposure (such as systemic and long-term effects and pulmonary hemorrhage in infants) is possible. The various health problems that can result from exposure to dampness and fungi in indoor air make such exposure unacceptable from a public health perspective. Physicians are important in treating and preventing such problems; various resources are available to help them. Even though some scientific issues remain to be resolved concerning the health effects of exposure to dampness and fungi in indoor air, family physicians can identify potential problems and refer patients to appropriate resources.

  19. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, Malek; Simoni, Marzia; Norback, Dan; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Viegi, Giovanni; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Data on respiratory effects of indoor air pollution in elderly are scanty. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on adverse respiratory effects of indoor air pollution in individuals aged over 65 years, by presenting existing epidemiological evidence. Using MEDLINE database through PubMed, we identified relevant publications published between 1991 and 2011 in English on respiratory health effects of indoor air pollution in elderly (>65 years). A total of 61 studies were found and after application of the inclusion criteria: (i) epidemiologic studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 1991 and December 2011, (ii) study population with age over or equal 65 years, and (iii) outcome of respiratory symptoms and disease with the exclusion of lung cancer, 33 relevant publications were selected. Most of them showed significant relationships between exposure to major indoor air pollutants and various short-term and long-term respiratory health outcomes such as wheezing, breathlessness, cough, phlegm, asthma, COPD, lung cancer and more rarely lung function decline. The most consistent relationship is found between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Further studies in the elderly population are needed in order to define causal relationships between exposures to indoor air pollution and underlying mechanisms in this sub-population.

  20. Increased office productivity through improved indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    Control of indoor pollution sources and ventilation are both means of improving indoor air quality. Three independent experiments have recently documented that removing a pollution source or increasing the ventilation rate will improve perceived air quality, reduce the intensity of several Sick...... twofold decrease of pollution load in the range 0.3-2 olf/m2floor, and with increasing outdoor air supply rate by a 1.8% increase in performance for each twofold increase in the outdoor air supply rate in the range 0.8-5.3 L/s per olf. As these results clearly justify increased initial and operating costs......, future developments in HVCAC technology may include "personalized air ", new ways of improving the quality of supply air (e.g., by filtration), more extensive use of heat recovery from exhaust air and systematic selection of low-polluting building and furnishing materials....

  1. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  2. The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huey-Jen; Chao, Chung-Jen; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Wu, Pei-Chih

    Essential oils, predominantly comprised of a group of aromatic chemicals, have attracted increasing attention as they are introduced into indoor environments through various forms of consumer products via different venues. Our study aimed to characterize the profiles and concentrations of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when evaporating essential oils indoors. Three popular essential oils in the market, lavender, eucalyptus, and tea tree, based on a nation-wide questionnaire survey, were tested. Specific aromatic compounds of interest were sampled during evaporating the essential oils, and analyzed by GC-MS. Indoor carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and particulate matters (PM 10) were measured by real-time, continuous monitors, and duplicate samples for airborne fungi and bacteria were collected in different periods of the evaporation. Indoor CO (average concentration 1.48 vs. 0.47 ppm at test vs. background), CO 2 (543.21 vs. 435.47 ppm), and TVOCs (0.74 vs. 0.48 ppm) levels have increased significantly after evaporating essential oils, but not the PM 10 (2.45 vs. 2.42 ppm). The anti-microbial activity on airborne microbes, an effect claimed by the use of many essential oils, could only be found at the first 30-60 min after the evaporation began as the highest levels of volatile components in these essential oils appeared to emit into the air, especially in the case of tea tree oil. High emissions of linalool (0.092-0.787 mg m -3), eucalyptol (0.007-0.856 mg m -3), D-limonene (0.004-0.153 mg m -3), ρ-cymene (0.019-0.141 mg m -3), and terpinene-4-ol-1 (0.029-0.978 mg m -3), all from the family of terpenes, were observed, and warranted for further examination for their health implications, especially for their potential contribution to the increasing indoor levels of secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the presence of ozone.

  3. Improvement of atopic dermatitis severity after reducing indoor air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye One; Kim, Jin Hye; Cho, Soo Ick; Chung, Bo Young; Ahn, In Su; Lee, Cheol Heon; Park, Chun Wook

    2013-08-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that environmental contaminants such as air pollution and tobacco smoke play an important role in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of AD and indoor air pollution. The study population consisted of 425 children from 9 kindergartens, Korea. The authors surveyed the prevalence of AD and evaluated disease severity by the eczema area and severity index (EASI) score and investigator's global assessment (IGA). After measuring indoor air pollution, a program to improve indoor air quality was conducted in 9 kindergartens. Seven months later, the prevalence and disease severity were evaluated. The initial prevalence of AD was 8% and the mean EASI score was 2.37. The levels of particulate material 10 (PM10) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were higher in some kindergartens compared to the normal values. Subsequent to the completion of the indoor air quality improvement program, the mean PM10 level was significantly decreased from 182.7 to 73.4 µg/m(3). After the completion of the program, the prevalence of AD and the mean EASI were decreased, and the changes were both statistically significant. The mean number of hospital visits decreased from 1.3 per month during the first survey to 0.7 per month during the second survey, which was statistically significant. Indoor air pollution could be related to AD. The reduction of PM10 through improving indoor air quality should be considered in kindergartens and schools in order to prevent and relieve AD in children.

  4. Outdoor-indoor air pollution in urban environment: Challenges and opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Y.C. eLeung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continual improvement in our quality of life, indoor air quality has become an important area of concern in the 21st century. Indoor air quality is affected by many factors including the type and running conditions of indoor pollution sources, ventilation conditions, as well as indoor activities. Studies revealed that the outdoor environment is also an important factor that cannot be neglected for indoor air quality studies. In this review, the indoor and outdoor air pollution relationships obtained from different studies are discussed in order to identify the key factors affecting the indoor air quality. As climate change is recognized as imposing impacts on the environment, how it affects the indoor air quality and the health impacts to the occupants will be evaluated in this paper. The major challenges and opportunities in indoor/outdoor air pollution studies will be highlighted.

  5. Organic indoor air pollutants: occurrence, measurement, evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salthammer, Tunga; Uhde, Erik

    2009-01-01

    ... hand, organic chemical pollutants emitted from materials and appliances can adversely affect human health. People in developed countries spend more than 90% of their time indoors. In the light of this fact, the cleanliness of occupied spaces such as buildings, houses, and transportation systems becomes very important. In contemporary so...

  6. Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Weschler, C J; Lioy, P J

    2000-01-01

    Little information currently exists regarding the occurrence of secondary organic aerosol formation in indoor air. Smog chamber studies have demonstrated that high aerosol yields result from the reaction of ozone with terpenes, both of which commonly occur in indoor air. However, smog chambers are typically static systems, whereas indoor environments are dynamic. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the potential for secondary aerosol in indoor air as a result of the reaction of ozone with d-limonene, a compound commonly used in air fresheners. A dynamic chamber design was used in which a smaller chamber was nested inside a larger one, with air exchange occurring between the two. The inner chamber was used to represent a model indoor environment and was operated at an air exchange rate below 1 exchange/hr, while the outer chamber was operated at a high air exchange rate of approximately 45 exchanges/hr. Limonene was introduced into the inner chamber either by the evaporation of reagent-grade d-limonene or by inserting a lemon-scented, solid air freshener. A series of ozone injections were made into the inner chamber during the course of each experiment, and an optical particle counter was used to measure the particle concentration. Measurable particle formation and growth occurred almost exclusively in the 0.1-0.2 microm and 0.2-0.3 microm size fractions in all of the experiments. Particle formation in the 0.1-0.2 microm size range occurred as soon as ozone was introduced, but the formation of particles in the 0.2-0.3 microm size range did not occur until at least the second ozone injection occurred. The results of this study show a clear potential for significant particle concentrations to be produced in indoor environments as a result of secondary particle formation via the ozone-limonene reaction. Because people spend the majority of their time indoors, secondary particles formed in indoor environments may make a significant contribution to

  7. Impact of residential wood burning on indoor air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mandin, Corinne; Riberon, Jacques; Collet, Serge; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Pissot, Nicolas; Allemand, Nadine; Leoz-Garziandia, Eva

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This study aims at characterizing indoor air quality in single family dwellings burning wood regularly, studying the air change rate during wood burning and analyzing impact on outdoor air. Field investigations were performed, in February and November 2007, in six occupied houses located in rural areas (two equipped with an opened fireplace, two with respectively an old closed fireplace and a recent one, and two with respectively an old woodstove and a recent one). Con...

  8. Relationship Between Indoor Air Pollutant Levels and Residential Environment in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ho Seok; Park, Mi Ran; Lee, Sang Woon; Kim, Eun Hye; Cho, Joong Bum; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Sang Il

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between indoor air pollutant levels and residential environment in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) living in Seoul. Methods A total of 150 children with AD were included. Residential environment was assessed by questionnaires which were completed by their parents. To evaluate the level of exposure to the indoor air pollutants, concentrations of the indoor air pollutants including particulate matter with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10), formaldehyde, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC), benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylene, styrene, bacterial aerosols, and airborne fungi were measured. Results A significant difference was exhibited in the levels of PM10 in case of visible fungus on the walls (P=0.047). There was relationship between the construction year of the house, moving to a newly constructed building within 1 year and formaldehyde level. With the use of artificial air freshener, the differences were found in the concentrations of TVOC (P=0.003), benzene (P=0.015), toluene (P=0.012) and ethyl-benzene (P=0.027). The concentration of xylene was significantly high when oil was used as heating fuel (P=0.015). Styrene exhibited differences depending on building type and its concentrations were significantly high in a residential and commercial complex building (P=0.005). The indoor concentration of bacterial aerosols was significantly low with the use of air cleaner (P=0.045). High NO2, benzene concentrations were present in case of almost no ventilation (P=0.028 and P=0.028, respectively). Conclusions Individual residential environments are closely related with the levels of the indoor air pollutants. To alleviate AD symptoms, simple questions about residential environments such as visible fungus on the walls and the use of artificial air freshener are helpful to assess the possibility of increased indoor air pollutant levels

  9. Evaluation of Potential Indoor Air Impact of TCE in Groundwater on Building 864, Air Force Plant 44, Arizona

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, G

    1997-01-01

    .... The evaluation uses the Farmer model, as described in EPA guidance EPA-451/R-92-002, 'Assessing Potential Indoor Air Impacts for Superfund Sites', to predict potential indoor air concentration...

  10. Assessment of indoor air quality at an electronic cigarette (Vaping) convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Aherrera, Angela; Isichei, Chineye; Olmedo, Pablo; Jarmul, Stephanie; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Rule, Ana M

    2017-12-29

    E-cigarette (vaping) conventions are public events promoting electronic cigarettes, in which indoor use of e-cigarettes is allowed. The large concentration of people using e-cigarettes and poor air ventilation can result in indoor air pollution. In order to estimate this worst-case exposure to e-cigarettes, we evaluated indoor air quality in a vaping convention in Maryland (MD), USA. Real-time concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ) and real-time total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), CO 2 and NO 2 concentrations were measured. Integrated samples of air nicotine and PM 10 concentrations were also collected. The number of attendees was estimated to range from 75 to 600 at any single observation time. The estimated 24-h time-weighted average (TWA) PM 10 was 1800 μg/m 3 , 12-fold higher than the EPA 24-h regulation (150 μg/m 3 ). Median (range) indoor TVOCs concentration was 0.13 (0.04-0.3) ppm. PM 10 and TVOC concentrations were highly correlated with CO 2 concentrations, indicating the high number of people using e-cigarettes and poor indoor air quality. Air nicotine concentration was 125 μg/m 3 , equivalent to concentrations measured in bars and nightclubs. E-cigarette aerosol in a vaping convention that congregates many e-cigarette users is a major source of PM 10 , air nicotine and VOCs, impairing indoor air quality. These findings also raise occupational concerns for e-cigarette vendors and other venue staff workers.

  11. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Hult, Erin L.

    2013-02-26

    A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde in building materials and the concentration of the species in the indoor air. Storage buffering can decrease the effect of ventilation on the indoor concentration, compared to the inverse dependence of indoor concentration on the air exchange rate that is consistent with a constant emission rate source. If the exposure time of an occupant is long relative to the time scale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure will depend inversely on the air exchange rate. This lumped capacitance model is also applied to moisture buffering in the indoor environment, which occurs over much shorter depletion timescales of the order of days. This model provides a framework to interpret the impact of storage buffering on time-varying concentrations of chemical species and resulting occupant exposure. Pseudo-steady state behavior is validated using field measurements. Model behavior over longer times is consistent with formaldehyde and moisture concentration measurements in previous studies.

  12. [Bipolar ionisation of indoor air through ion generators mountable into inflow ventilation and conditioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, A A; Spichkin, G L; Denisikhina, D M; Burtsev, S I

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies and digital modelling of artificial indoor air ionisation through bipolar ionisers mountable into inflow ventilation and conditioning proved possible creation of continuous even bipolar ion background in indoor air, similar to the natural one.

  13. Links Related to the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  14. Bibliography for the Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

  15. Indoor Air Purification by Potted Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment and can affect human health negatively. Potted plants are a potential green technology solution for removal of VOCs. This PhD project aimed at reviewing current literature on VOC removal by potted plants, developing a dynamic...... on microorganisms in the soil of potted plants. The review of literature on indoor VOC removal by potted plants identified pathways for VOC removal to potentially be by aboveground and belowground plant parts as well microorganisms in the soil and the soil itself. The rate or efficiency of VOC removal by potted...... plants is dependent on plant species and can be affected by factors such as light intensity, temperature and VOC concentration. The literature review identified future research needs which led to the development of the dynamic chamber system. This system allows for an improved real-life simulation...

  16. Indoor air and respiratory health in preadolescent children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomzi, M.

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, particulate matter and parental tobacco smoke on respiratory health was studied over a period of six months in all second graders born and living in two area of continental Croatia 8-10 yr of age. The study group was divided into two sections corresponding to area of residence (industrial/rural). Information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. The mean values of concentrations of indoor air pollution that had been recorded in 24-h samples of air collected at schools were mostly below threshold limit for ambient pollution. In addition, information on parental smoking, the density of habitation and the type of fuel used for heating and/or cooking in the home was obtained by a questionnaire. In the investigated period the prevalence of respiratory illness was 22% in the children exposed to lower indoor air pollution and 25% in those exposed to higher indoor air pollution. Exposure to parental smoking was also associated with more respiratory symptoms (28 : 19%). The results indicate that the measured air pollutants only had a slight effect on the respiratory health of preadolescent children. However, the effect of exposure to parental smoking was more pronounced.

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic disinfection of indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vohra, Amit; Goswami, D.Y.; Deshpande, D.A.; Block, S.S. [Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-04-18

    A silver ion doped TiO{sub 2} based photocatalyst, with improved destruction of airborne microbes, has been developed. The performance of the silver ion doped photocatalyst is demonstrated using a catalyst coated filter in a recirculating air experimental facility. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and MS2 Bacteriophage have been used as indexes to demonstrate the high disinfection efficiency of the enhanced photocatalysis process. The microbial destruction performance of the enhanced photocatalyst is found to be an order of magnitude higher than that of a conventional TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. The process of enhanced photocatalysis can thus be used effectively against high concentrations of airborne microorganisms, making it an attractive option as a defense against bio-terrorism. (author)

  18. Indoor Air Pollution and Health Risks among Rural Dwellers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Indoor Air Pollution and Health Risks among Rural Dwellers in Odeda Area,. South-Western Nigeria. 1Oguntoke, O.; 2Opeolu B O. and 3Babatunde N. Abstract. This study monitored the concentration of five greenhouse gases and examined the health outcome among the exposed rural residents. A total of 15 villages were ...

  19. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    2010-09-21

    Sep 21, 2010 ... asthma collectively accounted for about 17% of all deaths in Addis Ababa (21). All are diseases which may have direct link with indoor or outdoor air quality. Another recent study reported tuberculosis and respiratory infections as the second (11%) and third (8%) causes of the deaths that occurred in public ...

  20. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of respiratory ill health in South African children and adults in 2000 from exposure to indoor air pollution associated with household use of solid fuels. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. The South African Census 2001 was ...

  1. Problem based teaching in indoor Air Science and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.

    1999-01-01

    a month achieving, evaluating literature, and using a strategic algorithm based on 1) problem analysis, 2) setting goals and target groups, 3) selecting intervention, 3) implementation of intervention, and 4) evaluation. An example has been childhood asthma and indoor air pollution. It is suggested...

  2. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels in South Africa in 2000. Rosana Norman, Brendon Barnes, Angela Mathee, Debbie Bradshaw and the South African Comparative Risk Assessment. Collaborating Group. Objectives. To estimate the burden of respiratory ill ...

  3. Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution in Homes with Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Anna Ruth; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Infants spend most of their indoor time at home; however, residential air quality is poorly understood. We investigated the air quality of infants’ homes in the New England area of the U.S. Participants (N = 53) were parents of infants (0–6 months) who completed telephone surveys to identify potential pollutant sources in their residence. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤0.5 µm (PM0.5), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were measured in 10 homes over 4–7 days, and levels were compared with health-based guidelines. Pollutant levels varied substantially across homes and within homes with overall levels for some homes up to 20 times higher than for other homes. Average levels were 0.85 ppm, 663.2 ppm, 18.7 µg/m3, and 1626 µg/m3 for CO, CO2, PM0.5, and TVOCs, respectively. CO2, TVOCs, and PM0.5 levels exceeded health-based indoor air quality guidelines. Survey results suggest that nursery renovations and related potential pollutant sources may be associated with differences in urbanicity, income, and presence of older children with respiratory ailments, which could potentially confound health studies. While there are no standards for indoor residential air quality, our findings suggest that additional research is needed to assess indoor pollution exposure for infants, which may be a vulnerable population. PMID:22408586

  4. Ventilation, good indoor air quality and rational use of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Fernandes, E. D. O.; DeGids, W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide information and advice to policy and decission makers, researchers, architects, designers, and manufacturers on strategies for achieving a good balance between good indoor air quality (IAQ) and the rational use of Energy in buildings, available guidelines...

  5. Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Hao, Jinliang

    2017-10-01

    The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can a photocatalytic air purifier be used to improve the perceived air quality indoors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Wargocki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on perceived air quality(PAQ) was examined in rooms polluted by typical sources of indoor pollution.The rooms were ventilated at three different outdoor air supply rates. The air quality was assessed by a sensory panel when the purifier was in operation...... that the photocatalytic air purifier can supplement ventilation when the indoor air is polluted by building- related sources, but should not be used in spaces where human bioeffluents constitute the main source of pollution....

  7. Organic compounds in indoor air—their relevance for perceived indoor air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Gunnar D.

    It is generally believed that indoor air pollution, one way or another may cause indoor air complaints. However, any association between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations and increase of indoor climate complaints, like the sick-building syndrome symptoms, is not straightforward. The reported symptom rates of, in particular, eye and upper airway irritation cannot generally be explained by our present knowledge of common chemically non-reactive VOCs measured indoors. Recently, experimental evidence has shown those chemical reactions between ozone (either with or without nitrogen dioxide) and unsaturated organic compounds (e.g. from citrus and pine oils) produce strong eye and airway irritating species. These have not yet been well characterised by conventional sampling and analytical techniques. The chemical reactions can occur indoors, and there is indirect evidence that they are associated with eye and airway irritation. However, many other volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have not generally been measured which could equally well have potent biological effects and cause an increase of complaint rates, and posses a health/comfort risk. As a consequence, it is recommended to use a broader analytical window of organic compounds than the classic VOC window as defined by the World Health Organisation. It may include hitherto not yet sampled or identified intermediary species (e.g., radicals, hydroperoxides and ionic compounds like detergents) as well as species deposited onto particles. Additionally, sampling strategies including emission testing of building products should carefully be linked to the measurement of organic compounds that are expected, based on the best available toxicological knowledge, to have biological effects at indoor concentrations.

  8. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  9. Indoor Air Quality Analysis Using Deep Learning with Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyun Ahn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality analysis is of interest to understand the abnormal atmospheric phenomena and external factors that affect air quality. By recording and analyzing quality measurements, we are able to observe patterns in the measurements and predict the air quality of near future. We designed a microchip made out of sensors that is capable of periodically recording measurements, and proposed a model that estimates atmospheric changes using deep learning. In addition, we developed an efficient algorithm to determine the optimal observation period for accurate air quality prediction. Experimental results with real-world data demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  10. Human perception, productivity and symptoms related to indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.

    1998-08-01

    Three objectives of the present study are formulated: (1) to investigate whether total sensory pollution load on the air in space can be estimated by adding sensory pollution loads from the individual pollution sources; (2) to develop alternative reference exposures which can be used to calibrate sensory evaluations of the air quality indoors made by trained subjects; and (3) to investigate whether decreasing the pollution loads on the air indoors is an effective measure for improving the perceived air quality, reducing the prevalence of health symptoms and increasing people`s productivity. Limited data exist on the addition of families of sensory pollution, sources, i.e., building materials, people and tobacco smoke (research was mainly performed on building materials), and that no field study on addition has been carried out previously. Consequently, laboratory and field experiments on the addition of families of sensory pollution sources were undertaken. Reducing the sensory pollution load on the air indoors proved to be an effective and energy-efficient measure to improve the perceived quality of air, to lower the prevalence of symptoms and to improve productivity. Suggestions for future experiments are made including, i.a., using other sub-populations of subjects stratified for age, sensitivity and type of work, other pollution sources, as well as the independent measures design and repeated exposures to the same environmental conditions. (EG) 209 refs.

  11. Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Comfort in School Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents results to thermal comfort and environment quality questions in 21 school building rooms. Results show that about 80% of the occupants expressed satisfaction with their thermal comfort in only 11% of the buildings surveyed. Air quality scores were somewhat higher, with 26% of buildings having 80% or occupant satisfaction. With respect to thermal comfort and air quality performance goals set out by standards, most buildings appear to be falling far short. Occupant surveys offer a means to systematically measure this performance, and also to provide diagnostic information for building designers and operators. The odours from building materials as well as human odours were studied by field measurement. The odour intensity and indoor air acceptability were assessed by a sensory panel. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide were measured. The odours from occupancy and building materials were studied under different air change rate. The case study of indoor air acceptability concerning to indoor odours and its effect on perceived air quality are also presented in this paper.

  12. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  13. Technical Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-24

    Readiness System ; updated smoking standards in accordance with Air Force Instruction 40-102, Tobacco Use in the Air Force; added reference to the...implementation of designated tobacco areas (DTAs) will help to ensure that cigarette smoke is not entering buildings through air intake units/vents...have characteristic odors and may cause respiratory system irritation as well as eye and mucous membrane irritations. When sampling for these

  14. Effect of using low-polluting building materials and increasing ventilation on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Zuczek, P. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The potential of improving perceived air quality indoors was quantified when low-polluting materials are used and when building ventilation is increased. This was done by studying the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality. A sensory panel assessed the air quality in test rooms ventilated with realistic outdoor air supply rates, where combinations of high- and low-polluting wall, floor and ceiling materials were set up. These materials were ranked as high- and low-polluting using sensory assessments of air quality in small-scale glass chambers, where they were tested individually. Substituting materials ranked as high-polluting with materials ranked as lower-polluting improved the perceived air quality in the test rooms. This improvement was greater than what was achieved by a realistic increase of the ventilation rate in the test rooms. Thus reducing pollution emitted from building materials that affects the perceived air quality has a considerable potential of limiting the energy for ventilation without compromising indoor air quality. (au)

  15. Indoor Air Pollution: An Old Problem with New Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Adamkiewicz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hazards in our indoor environments have been recognized since biblical times. The advice in Leviticus 14:33–48 for treating mold infested houses has contemporary meaning in the recent World Health Organization (WHO document on damp and moldy indoor spaces [1]. In the developed world, faulty combustion, carbon monoxide from coal gas, lead paint, poor ventilation of tenement housing and hospitals have been recognized for decades as unhealthy. Indoor air quality, however, was not appreciated as an important component of public health until the proliferation of sealed buildings, energy conservation programs (urea formaldehyde foam insulation, new products, and the recognition of the health effects of radon, asbestos and latex. [...

  16. Influence of relative humidity on VOC concentrations in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Pawel; Larsson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be emitted from surfaces indoors leading to compromised air quality. This study scrutinized the influence of relative humidity (RH) on VOC concentrations in a building that had been subjected to water damage. While air samplings in a damp room at low RH (21-22%) only revealed minor amounts of 2-ethylhexanol (3 μg/m(3)) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB, 8 μg/m(3)), measurements performed after a rapid increase of RH (to 58-75%) revealed an increase in VOC concentrations which was 3-fold for 2-ethylhexanol and 2-fold for TXIB. Similar VOC emission patterns were found in laboratory analyses of moisture-affected and laboratory-contaminated building materials. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring RH when sampling indoor air for VOCs in order to avoid misleading conclusions from the analytical results.

  17. Indoor air quality at the Correr Museum, Venice, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, D; Brimblecombe, P; Van Grieken, R; Busse, H J; Sturaro, G; Valentino, A; Bernardi, A; Blades, N; Shooter, D; De Bock, L; Gysels, K; Wieser, M; Kim, O

    1999-09-15

    Two multidisciplinary field surveys, one in winter and the other in summer have monitored the indoor microclimate, air pollution, deposition and origin of the suspended particulate matter and microorganisms of the Correr Museum, Venice. In addition, this study was focused to identify the problems caused by the heating and air conditioning system (HAC) and the effects due to the presence of carpets. Heating and air conditioning systems (HACs), when chiefly designed for human welfare, are not suitable for conservation and can cause dangerous temperature and humidity fluctuations. Improvements at the Correr Museum have been achieved with the assistance of environmental monitoring. The carpet has a negative influence as it retains particles and bacteria which are resuspended each time people walk on it. The indoor/outdoor pollutants ratio is greater in the summertime, when doors and windows are more frequently open to allow for better ventilation, illustrating that this ratio is mainly governed by the free exchange of the air masses. The chemical composition, size and origin of the suspended particulate matter have been identified, as well as the bacteria potentially dangerous to the paintings. Some general suggestions for improving indoor air quality are reported in the conclusions.

  18. Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality monitoring system consists of wireless sensor device, nRF24L01 wireless transceiver modules, C8051MCU, STM32103 remote monitoring platform, alarm device and data server. Distributed in the interior space of wireless sensors measure parameters of the local air quality, wireless transceiver module of the MCU to transmit data to the remote monitoring platform for analysis which displayed and stored field environment data or charts. The data collecting from wireless sensors to be send by wireless Access Point to the remote data server based on B/S architecture, intelligent terminals such as mobile phone, laptop, tablet PC on the Internet monitor indoor air quality in real-time. When site environment air quality index data exceeds the threshold in the monitoring device, the remote monitoring platform sends out the alarm SMS signal to inform user by GSM module. Indoor air quality monitoring system uses modular design method, has the portability and scalability has the low manufacture cost, real-time monitoring data and man-machine interaction.

  19. Physicochemical risk factors for building-related symptoms in air-conditioned office buildings: Ambient particles and combined exposure to indoor air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Osawa, Haruki

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study to examine the correlation between indoor air quality (IAQ) and building-related symptoms (BRSs) of office workers in air-conditioned office buildings. We investigated 11 offices during winter and 13 offices during summer in 17 buildings with air-conditioning systems in Tokyo, Osaka, and Fukuoka, and we included 107 office workers during winter and 207 office workers during summer. We conducted environmental sampling for evaluating IAQ and concurrently administered self-reported questionnaires to collect information regarding work-related symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed that upper respiratory symptoms showed a significant correlation with increased indoor temperature [odds ratio (OR), 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.18] and increased indoor concentration of suspended particles released from the ambient air pollution via air-conditioning systems (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59) during winter. In particular, smaller particles (particle size>0.3μm), which possibly penetrated through the filter media in air-conditioning systems from ambient air, were correlated with upper respiratory symptoms. The use of high-efficiency particulate air filters in air-conditioning systems and their adequate maintenance may be an urgent solution for reducing the indoor air concentration of submicron particles. Several irritating volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes) that were positively correlated with the indoor air concentration among their VOCs, were associated with upper respiratory symptoms, although their indoor air concentrations were lower than those specified by the indoor air quality guideline. A new approach and strategy for decreasing the potential combined health risks (i.e., additive effect of risks) associated with multiple low-level indoor pollutants that have similar hazardous properties are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  20. Indoor air pollution and asthma in children at Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Jitendra K; Goel, Nitin; Kumar, Pawan; Kushwah, Alka S; Gaur, Shailendra N

    2015-01-01

    Several studies in developed countries have shown association between indoor air pollution and asthma in children. The present research was undertaken to study this association at Delhi, India. This study took place at Delhi, capital of India. Eight locations based on the source of pollution such as industrial, residential and villages were included. Recording of the demographic profile and clinical examination of each child was conducted at their residence. Indoor SO₂, NO₂ and SPM (suspended particulate matter) levels were measured by using Handy Air Sampler (Low Volume Sampler). A total of 3104 children were examined of which 60.3% were male and 39.7% were female. 32.4% children were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. 31.5 % children's families were using biomass fuels for cooking. History of respiratory symptoms included cough (43.9%), phlegm production (21.9%), shortness of breath (19.3%) and wheezing (14.0%). 7.9% children were diagnosed as having asthma, which was highest in industrial areas (11.8%), followed by residential (7.5%) and village areas (3.9%). The mean indoor SO₂, NO₂ and SPM levels were 4.28 ± 4.61 mg/m³, 26.70 ± 17.72 mg/m³ and 722.0 ± 457.6 mg/m³ respectively. Indoor SPM was the highest in industrial area followed by residential area and urban village area. Indoor SPM level was significantly (p indoor suspended particulate matter and occurrence of asthma in children in developing countries like India.

  1. Seasonal variation of indoor air radon concentration in schools in Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtijari, M. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Stegnar, P. [Randon Center, Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljublajna (Slovenia); Shemsidini, Z. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Ajazaj, H. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Halimi, Y. [Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Vaupotic, J. [Randon Center, Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljublajna (Slovenia); Kobal, I. [Randon Center, Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljublajna (Slovenia)]. E-mail: ivan.kobal@ijs.si

    2007-02-15

    Indoor air radon (Rn222) concentrations were measured in March, May, August and December in 15 rooms of five elementary and in six rooms of one high school in Sharr, Kosovo, using alpha scintillation cells. Only in one room did the value exceed 200Bqm{sup -3}. Values decreased from December to August, and from basement to first floor.

  2. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  3. Guide for Indoor Air Quality Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Corynebacterium sp. Legionnaire’s disease is often a concern among occupants of a building with bioaerosol contamination. However, Legionnaire’s disease...the air intakes of an HVAC system. The final step required is that a person must be immuno-compromised to be susceptible to the disease. An example...increasing humidity (i.e., reduce recirculation and increase the fresh air flow). We have begun testing for the presence of VOCs and formaldehyde in IAO

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  5. Indoor air mycoflora of residential dwellings in Jos metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanbimpe, G M; Wapwera, S D; Kuchin, D

    2010-06-01

    The quality of air in the environment where one lives or works can have potential effects on human health. There are strong indications that in many parts of the world, our homes, schools and workplaces are heavily contaminated with air-borne molds and other biological contaminants. This study was carried out to assess the level of fungal contamination of indoor air, health related experiences of residents, and the prevalent fungi species in the homes. The investigation was done between May 2005 and January 2006, using structured questionnaires and the agar plate exposure. 150 houses from 14 locations were examined. 380 fungi belonging to 10 species were isolated, Chaetomium globosum (17%), Aspergillus fumigatus (14%), Stachybotrys alternans (14%) and Alternaria alternata (14%) being the predominant isolates. The indoor air quality of residential dwellings in Jos is poor. Rate of isolation of fungi was not significantly different in the wet and dry periods of the year and residential density affected the occurrence of fungal contaminants. Residents are displeased with fungal presence in their homes and the associated health implications. There is need for proper attention to the quality of the indoor environment.

  6. Analysis of feature selection with Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) to classify sources influencing indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    There are various sources influencing indoor air quality (IAQ) which could emit dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter. These gases are usually safe for us to breathe in if they are emitted in safe quantity but if the amount of these gases exceeded the safe level, they might be hazardous to human being especially children and people with asthmatic problem. Therefore, a smart indoor air quality monitoring system (IAQMS) is needed that able to tell the occupants about which sources that trigger the indoor air pollution. In this project, an IAQMS that able to classify sources influencing IAQ has been developed. This IAQMS applies a classification method based on Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). It is used to classify the sources of indoor air pollution based on five conditions: ambient air, human activity, presence of chemical products, presence of food and beverage, and presence of fragrance. In order to get good and best classification accuracy, an analysis of several feature selection based on data pre-processing method is done to discriminate among the sources. The output from each data pre-processing method has been used as the input for the neural network. The result shows that PNN analysis with the data pre-processing method give good classification accuracy of 99.89% and able to classify the sources influencing IAQ high classification rate.

  7. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...... the hygrothermal parameters, the chemical conditions, ventilation and the wellbeing of occupants. The project is divided into the five subtasks: 1. Defining the metrics. 2. Pollutant loads in residential buildings. 3. Modeling. 4. Strategies for design and control of buildings. 5. Field measurements and case...

  8. COMPARISON OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESTAURANT KITCHENS IN TEHRAN WITH AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemkhani, F. Naseri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor air quality of 131 restaurant kitchens in Tehran was investigated from May to September 2006. Gas stoves use in restaurant kitchens is a major source of indoor combustion, product carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. The study focused on one of the busy zones located in the southwest and central part of the city. Measurements were done for indoor and outdoor air pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; ambient temperature and relative humidity were also measured. Result indicated that the mean levels of CO and NO2 in restaurant kitchens were below the recommended limit of 25 and 3ppm, respectively. Correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed consequently. Results of the mean ambient temperature and relative humidity were above the guideline. In this study the mean levels of CO and NO2 gas cooking in restaurant kitchens were found to be lower compared with the similar studies.

  9. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Nazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR, E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling was recorded based on one sampling point and most suitable point for production. A comparison based on different ventilation using fan and air-conditioning were also taken and results is being compared based on OSHA and NIOSH standards. Besides that, the statistical analysis is being conducted in order to predict the effect on number of printers. From the result, the O3 concentrations show, 10% reduced for printing premise using fan ventilation compared to air-conditioning but remain the same value for PM2.5. The concentration of O3 increased when the number of printers decreased, while the concentration of PM2.5 increased the increase of printers number. Overall, the use of fan in printing premise is more suggested since the level is slightly lower than the printing premise using air-conditioning.

  10. Determining indoor air quality and identifying the origin of odour episodes in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Eva; Roca, Xavier; Perales, Jose Francisco; Guardino, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and determining air quality of indoor air has been developed. The air samples are collected using pump samplers by the inhabitants when they perceive odorous and/or discomfort episodes. Glass multi-sorbent tubes are connected to the pump samplers for the retention of VOC. The analysis is performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This methodology can be applied in cases of sick building syndrome (SBS) evaluation, in which building occupants experience a series of varied symptoms that appear to be linked to time spent in the building. Chemical pollutants concentrations (e.g., VOC) have been described to contribute to SBS. To exemplify the methodology, a qualitative determination and an evaluation of existing VOC were performed in a dwelling where the occupants experienced the SBS symptoms. Higher total VOC (TVOC) levels were detected during episodes in indoor air (1.33 +/- 1.53 mg/m3) compared to outdoor air (0.71 +/- 0.46 mg/m3). The concentrations of individual VOCs, such as ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, acetonitrile and 1-methoxy-2-propanol, were also higher than the expected for a standard dwelling. The external source of VOC was found to be an undeclared activity of storage and manipulation of solvents located at the bottom of a contiguous building.

  11. Indoor Air Pollution. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jane, Comp.

    Numerous scientific investigations show that air inside office buildings and residences can be contaminated by a large variety of toxic contaminants, some in concentrations sufficient to adversely affect the health of those exposed. The internal building environment of new or recently remodeled buildings may be responsible for illnesses sometimes…

  12. The Response of Phagocytes to Indoor Air Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Liisa K. Vilén; Janne Atosuo; Esa-Matti Lilius

    2017-01-01

    This perspective presents a viewpoint on potential methods assessing toxicity of indoor air. Until recently, the major techniques to document moldy environment have been microbial isolation using conventional culture techniques for fungi and bacteria as well as in some instances polymerase chain reaction to detect microbial genetic components. However, it has become increasingly evident that bacterial and fungal toxins, their metabolic products, and volatile organic substances emitted from co...

  13. Investigation of Indoor Air Quality in Houses of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilčeková, Silvia; Apostoloski, Ilija Zoran; Mečiarová, Ľudmila; Burdová, Eva Krídlová; Kiseľák, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    People who live in buildings are exposed to harmful effects of indoor air pollution for many years. Therefore, our research is aimed to investigate the indoor air quality in family houses. The measurements of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matters (PM) and sound pressure level were carried out in 25 houses in several cities of the Republic of Macedonia. Mean values of indoor air temperature and relative humidity ranged from 18.9 °C to 25.6 °C and from 34.1% to 68.0%, respectively. With regard to TVOC, it can be stated that excessive occurrence was recorded. Mean values ranged from 50 μg/m³ to 2610 μg/m³. Recommended value (200 μg/m³) for human exposure to TVOC was exceeded in 32% of houses. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particular matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (diameter less than 10 μm) are determined to be from 16.80 μg/m³ to 30.70 μg/m³ and from 38.30 μg/m³ to 74.60 μg/m³ individually. Mean values of sound pressure level ranged from 29.8 dB(A) to 50.6 dB(A). Dependence between characteristics of buildings (Year of construction, Year of renovation, Smoke and Heating system) and data from measurements (Temperature, Relative humidity, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) were analyzed using R software. Van der Waerden test shows dependence of Smoke on TVOC and PM2.5. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance shows the effect of interaction of Renovation and Smoke.

  14. Indoor air and human health revisited: A recent IAQ symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Indoor Air and Human Health Revisited was a speciality symposium examining the scientific underpinnings of sensory and sensitivity effects, allergy and respiratory disease, neurotoxicity and cancer. An organizing committee selected four persons to chain the sessions and invite experts to give state-of-the-art presentations that will be published as a book. A summary of the presentations is made and some critical issues identified.

  15. Indoor/Outdoor Air Quality Assessment at School near the Steel Plant in Taranto (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Gilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the air quality in primary school placed in district of Taranto (south of Italy, an area of high environmental risk because of closeness between large industrial complex and urban settlement. The chemical characterization of PM2.5 was performed to identify origin of pollutants detected inside school and the comparison between indoor and outdoor levels of PAHs and metals allowed evaluating intrusion of outdoor pollutants or the existence of specific indoor sources. The results showed that the indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5, BaP, Cd, Ni, As, and Pb never exceeded the target values issued by World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, high metals and PAHs concentrations were detected especially when school were downwind to the steel plant. The I/O ratio showed the impact of outdoor pollutants, especially of industrial markers as Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb, on indoor air quality. This result was confirmed by values of diagnostic ratio as B(aP/B(gP, IP/(IP + BgP, BaP/Chry, and BaP/(BaP + Chry, which showed range characteristics of coke and coal combustion. However, Ni and As showed I/O ratio of 2.5 and 1.4, respectively, suggesting the presence of indoor sources.

  16. Indoor air pollution from gas cooking and infant neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Aguilera, Inma; Bustamante, Mariona; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Mònica; Lertxundi, Nerea; Martinez, M Dolores; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Gas cooking is a main source of indoor air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particles. Because concerns are emerging for neurodevelopmental effects of air pollutants, we examined the relationship between indoor gas cooking during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnant mothers were recruited between 2004 and 2008 to a prospective birth cohort study (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) in Spain during the first trimester of pregnancy. Third-trimester questionnaires collected information about the use of gas appliances at home. At age 11 to 22 months, children were assessed for mental development using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression models examined the association of gas cooking and standardized mental development scores (n = 1887 mother-child pairs). Gas cookers were present in 44% of homes. Gas cooking was related to a small decrease in the mental development score compared with use of other cookers (-2.5 points [95% confidence interval = -4.0 to -0.9]) independent of social class, maternal education, and other measured potential confounders. This decrease was strongest in children tested after the age of 14 months (-3.1 points [-5.1 to -1.1]) and when gas cooking was combined with less frequent use of an extractor fan. The negative association with gas cooking was relatively consistent across strata defined by social class, education, and other covariates. This study suggests a small adverse effect of indoor air pollution from gas cookers on the mental development of young children.

  17. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  18. Indoor Air Quality in Selected Samples of Primary Schools in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuki Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found out that indoor air quality affects human especially children and the elderly more compared to ambient atmospheric air. This study aims to investigate indoor air pollutants concentration in selected vernacular schools with different surrounding human activities in Kuala Terengganu, the administrative and commercial center of Terengganu state. Failure to identify and establish indoor air pollution status can increase the chance of long-term and short-term health problems for...

  19. Exposure to Air Ions in Indoor Environments: Experimental Study with Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a scientific debate about the potential effects of air ions on biological tissues, wellbeing and health. Effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system as well as on mental health have been described. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this topic. In an experimental indoor setting we conducted a double-blind cross-over trial to determine if higher levels of air ions, generated by a special wall paint, affect cognitive performance, wellbeing, lung function, and cardiovascular function. Twenty healthy non-smoking volunteers (10 female, 10 male participated in the study. Levels of air ions, volatile organic compounds and indoor climate factors were determined by standardized measurement procedures. Air ions affected the autonomous nervous system (in terms of an increase of sympathetic activity accompanied by a small decrease of vagal efferent activity: In the test room with higher levels of air ions (2194/cm3 vs. 1038/cm3 a significantly higher low to high frequency ratio of the electrocardiography (ECG beat-to-beat interval spectrogram was found. Furthermore, six of nine subtests of a cognitive performance test were solved better, three of them statistically significant (verbal factor, reasoning, and perceptual speed, in the room with higher ion concentration. There was no influence of air ions on lung function and on wellbeing. Our results indicate slightly activating and cognitive performance enhancing effects of a short-term exposure to higher indoor air ion concentrations.

  20. Emerging developments in the standardized chemical characterization of indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, Sascha; Hösen, Elisabeth; Tanabe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the special characteristics of indoor air pollution make closed environments quite different from outdoor environments, the conceptual ideas for assessing air quality indoors and outdoors are similar. Therefore, the elaboration of International Standards for air quality characterization in view of controlling indoor air quality should resort to this common basis. In this short review we describe the possibilities of standardization of tools dedicated to indoor air quality characterization with a focus on the tools permitting to study the indoor air chemistry. The link between indoor exposure and health as well as the critical processes driving the indoor air quality are introduced. Available International Standards for the assessment of indoor air quality are depicted. The standards comprise requirements for the sampling on site, the analytical procedures, and the determination of material emissions. To date, these standardized procedures assure that indoor air, settled dust and material samples are analyzed in a comparable manner. However, existing International Standards exclusively specify conventional, event-driven target-screening using discontinuous measurement methods for long-lived pollutants. Therefore, this review draws a parallel between physico-chemical processes in indoor and outdoor environments. The achievements in atmospheric sciences also improve our understanding of indoor environments. The community of atmospheric scientists can be both ideal and supporter for researchers in the area of indoor air quality characterization. This short review concludes with propositions for future standardization activities for the chemical characterization of indoor air quality. Future standardization efforts should focus on: (i) the elaboration of standardized measurement methods and measurement strategies for online monitoring of long-lived and short-lived pollutants, (ii) the assessment of the potential and the limitations of non

  1. Perceived indoor air quality and its relationship to air pollutants in French dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S; Ramalho, O; Le Ponner, E; Derbez, M; Kirchner, S; Mandin, C

    2017-11-01

    Perception of indoor air quality (PIAQ) was evaluated in a nationwide survey of 567 French dwellings, and this survey was combined with measurements of gaseous and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) indoor air pollutants and indoor climate parameters. The perception was assessed on a nine-grade scale by both the occupants of the dwellings and the inspectors who performed the measurements. The occupants perceived the air quality in their homes as more pleasant than the inspectors. The inspectors perceived the air quality as more unpleasant in dwellings in which the residents smoked indoors. Significant associations between PIAQ and indoor air pollutant concentrations were observed for both the inspectors and, to a lesser extent, the occupants. Introducing confounding parameters, such as building and personal characteristics, into a multivariate model suppressed most of the observed bivariate correlations and identified the tenure status of the occupants and their occupation as the parameters that most influenced their PIAQ. For the inspectors, perceived air quality was affected by the presence of smokers, the season, the type of ventilation, retrofitting, and the concentrations of acetaldehyde and acrolein. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Indoor air pollution: a poverty-related cause of mortality among the children of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelin, Anders; Wall, Stig

    2007-11-01

    This article reviews the research on the relation between indoor air pollution exposure and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children in developing countries. ARI is a cause of death globally, causing approximately 19% of all deaths before the age of 5 years, according to a World Health Organization estimate. Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels, which is strongly poverty related, has long been regarded as an important risk factor for ARI morbidity and mortality. The empirical base for this view is comparatively narrow, with few empirical studies in relation to the magnitude of the global public health importance of the problem. Most existing reports consistently indicate that indoor air pollution is indeed a risk factor for ARI, but studies are generally small and use indirect indicators of pollution, such as use of biomass fuel or type of stove. Exposure assessment for indoor air pollution in developing countries is recognized as a major obstacle because of high cost and infrastructural limitations to chemical pollution sampling. Use of proxy indicators without measurement support may increase the risk of both misclassification of exposure and of confounding by other poverty-related factors. The issue of sufficient sample size further underlines the need for decisions to invest in this research field. Areas where further research is needed also include exploring qualitatively options for interventions that are culturally and economically acceptable to local communities.

  3. Risk factors for indoor air pollution in rural households in Mauche division, Molo district, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, N W

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million per year deaths in developing countries. In Kenya, it is among the factors linked to high morbidity, especially in children aged below five years. The survey was conducted in 2005 in 350 rural households to identify household factors that are likely to enhance indoor air pollution. Questionnaire, continuous and spot observations were used to collect data on household characteristics, type of primary building in homestead, number of rooms, type of ventilation present and type of fuel used by the household. State of housing and type of fuel used were found to be likely risk factors for indoor air pollution. Fifty two point six percent of those interviewed live in mud walled houses with iron sheet roofs. Ninety one percent live in either single or two roomed houses. Ventilation is provided both by small windows and a space left in between the wall and roof. Thirty seven percent of observed houses have no windows. In all households, fuel wood is used for cooking. State of housing and fuel used in sampled households encourage indoor air pollution, which has been associated with various diseases.

  4. [Indoor air quality and occupational health, past and present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, M

    2004-01-01

    The expression "indoor pollution" of residential, office and public buildings appeared for the first time in western societies toward the end of the '60s to indicate a complex phenomenon as important to public health as that of the "outdoor air pollution" or even more so. The demonstration of the toxic effects of passive smoking, radon, and other chemical and biological pollutants present in office and residential environments has prompted a wide spectrum of research into health risks, has led to position-taking by national and international authorities, and has given rise to a new scientific multi-disciplinary field of research, with respective international associations, scientific journals, and international conferences attended by thousands of participants. In Italy, since 1988, several scientific conferences have been organised and these have led to institutional initiatives such as the Commission set up in 1990 by the Italian Environment Ministry and the Commission set up in 1998 by the Italian Ministry of Health. The latter produced a Prevention Plan for Health Protection and Promotion in Indoor Environments which, for the first time, tackles indoor air pollution in a systematic way and provides an overall picture of the health and economic impact of the main illnesses related to indoor pollution on society. Decree 626/94 has also been affected, in some way, by these new scientific findings and in art. 33 has produced an update of the old art. 9 of the Decree 303/56. The attention to the subject of indoor air quality, in addition to that of offices and commercial buildings, has turned in more recent years to special environments such as schools and hospitals, resulting in the production of important publications. The modern frontier of research on indoor and outdoor air hazards is represented by fine air particulate matter. A large number of worldwide epidemiological studies have revealed that the daily variation in fine and ultra-fine particle air

  5. Indoor air quality in hairdressing salons in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C-J; Cheng, S-F; Chang, P-T; Tsai, S-W

    2018-01-01

    To improve indoor air quality and to protect public health, Taiwan has enacted the "Indoor Air Quality Act (IAQ Act)" in 2012. For the general public, the indoor air quality in hair salons is important because it is a popular location that people will often visit for hair treatments. However, only a few exposure assessments regarding air pollutants have previously been performed in hair salons. To assess the air quality of hairdressing environments in Taipei, ten hairdressing salons were included for a walk-through survey in this study. In addition, the airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO 2 , and phthalate esters were also determined in 5 salons. Charcoal, XAD-2, and OVS-Tenax tubes were used for the air sampling, while the samples were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometer. It was found that the products used in hair salons contained various chemicals. In fact, from the walk-through survey, a total of 387 different ingredients were found on 129 hair product labels. The hair salons were not well ventilated, with CO 2 levels of 600 to 3576 ppm. The formaldehyde concentrations determined in this study ranged from 12.40 to 1.04 × 10 3  μg m -3 , and the maximum level was above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA). Additionally, 83% of the samples were with levels higher than the standard regulated by Taiwan's IAQ Act. The concentrations of VOCs and phthalate esters were below the occupational exposure limits (OELs), but higher than what was found in general residential environments. The hair products were considered as the major source of air pollutants because significantly higher concentrations were found around the working areas. The number of perming treatments, the number of workers, and the frequency of using formaldehyde releasing products, were found to be associated with the levels of formaldehyde. This study indicates that efforts are

  6. Field study of exhaust fans for mitigating indoor air quality problems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Szydlowski, R.F.; Turk, B.H.

    1986-09-01

    Residential ventilation in the United States housing stock is provided primarily by infiltration, the natural leakage of outdoor air into a building through cracks and holes in the building shell. Since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for control of indoor pollutant concentrations, low infiltration rates caused fluctuation in weather conditions may lead to high indoor pollutant concentrations. Supplemental mechanical ventilation can be used to eliminate these periods of low infiltration. This study examined effects of small continuously-operating exhaust fan on pollutant concentrations and energy use in residences.

  7. A multidisciplinary approach to the air quality and health problems in indoor arenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Alm, S.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Husman, T.; Jantunen, M.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Eklund, T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lee, Kiyoung; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1995-12-31

    Most ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas have internal combustion engines. They use either propane or petrol as fuel. The main exhaust pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and fine particles. In general, propane engines emit more NO{sub x} than petrol engines, but their CO emissions are smaller. The levels of these pollutants in indoor air depend on total amount of emissions volume of arena and effectiveness of ventilation. However, due to large variations in engine emissions the air quality in any single arena cannot be estimated without direct measurements. High levels of CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) have been measured in indoor ice arenas of North America since 1960`s, and it is only recently that high NO{sub 2} levels have been measured also in Sweden. In health studies, attention has been paid mostly to epidemic acute poisonings among ice hockey players and spectators caused by large concentrations of CO. However, some cases of acute NO{sub 2} poisonings have also been described. The aims of this project are: (1) to examine the air quality in Finnish indoor ice arenas, (2) to study associations between the air quality and the major technical features of the arenas, (3) to assess personal exposures of ice hockey players, spectators and maintenance personnel to CO and NO{sub 2}, (4) to investigate short-term and longer-term health effects of CO and NO{sub 2} exposures on ice hockey players and maintenance personnel, (5) to inform the managers of ice arenas and the health authorities on the current air quality problems and health risks in Finnish indoor ice arenas. (author)

  8. Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in rooms with integrated personalized ventilation and under-floor air distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruixin; Sekhar ., S. C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study comprising physical measurements and human subject experiments was conducted to explore the potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) using a personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with an under-floor air distribution(UFAD) system....... The integrated PV-UFAD system, when operated at relatively high temperature of the air supplied from the UFAD system, provided comfortable cooling of the facial region, improved inhaled air quality, and decreased the risk of "cold feet," which is often reported in rooms with UFAD alone. This article explores...... with thermal sensation at the face region. The measured inhaled air quality indices (personalized exposure effectiveness and personalized exposure index) were improved by decreasing PV supply air temperature. The perceived inhaled air freshness increased with the decrease of the inhaled air temperature...

  9. ENVIE Co-ordination action on indoor air quality and health effects; WP3 Final report – Characterisation of spaces and source

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Gustafsson, Hans; SEPPANEN Olli; Crump, Derrick; Ventura Silva, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to environmental pollutants occurs via various pathways. For many pollutants, especially the volatile ones, air exposure is the dominant pathway. Exposure via air occurs both outdoors and indoors, with diverse types of indoor spaces playing a role, e.g., home, workplace, and passenger cabins of means of transportation. In average people spend over 90% of their time indoors, that percentage being particularly high for some specific groups as new-born, elderly, ...

  10. Sick building syndrome by indoor air pollution in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Piao, Fengyuan; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Khalequzzaman, Md; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Kitamura, Fumihiko

    2013-04-11

    This study assessed subjective symptoms related to indoor concentrations of chemicals among residents in a housing estate in Dalian, China, where indoor air pollution by interior decoration materials has recently become a major health problem. Fifty-nine males and 50 females were surveyed for their symptoms related to sick building syndrome. Formaldehyde (HCHO), NO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their dwellings were collected using a diffusion sampler and measured by GC/MS. For residents with one or more symptoms in the past, HCHO, butanol or 1,2-dichloroethane concentrations were significantly greater in their bedrooms or kitchens compared with those of subjects without previous symptoms. For residents with one or more symptoms at the time of the study, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylene, butanol, methyl isobutyl ketone, and styrene concentrations in their bedrooms or kitchens were significantly greater compared with those of residents without symptoms. HCHO, NO2, and VOCs were detected in all rooms, but their levels were lower than the guideline values except for HCHO in two rooms. Chemical substances from interior decoration materials at indoor air levels lower than their guideline values might have affected the health status of residents.

  11. Sick Building Syndrome by Indoor Air Pollution in Dalian, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Kitamura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed subjective symptoms related to indoor concentrations of chemicals among residents in a housing estate in Dalian, China, where indoor air pollution by interior decoration materials has recently become a major health problem. Fifty-nine males and 50 females were surveyed for their symptoms related to sick building syndrome. Formaldehyde (HCHO, NO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in their dwellings were collected using a diffusion sampler and measured by GC/MS. For residents with one or more symptoms in the past, HCHO, butanol or 1,2-dichloroethane concentrations were significantly greater in their bedrooms or kitchens compared with those of subjects without previous symptoms. For residents with one or more symptoms at the time of the study, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylene, butanol, methyl isobutyl ketone, and styrene concentrations in their bedrooms or kitchens were significantly greater compared with those of residents without symptoms. HCHO, NO2, and VOCs were detected in all rooms, but their levels were lower than the guideline values except for HCHO in two rooms. Chemical substances from interior decoration materials at indoor air levels lower than their guideline values might have affected the health status of residents.

  12. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of Elementary Schools in Curitiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, R. H. M., E-mail: ricardo.godoi@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Federal University of Parana, Department of Environmental Engineering (Brazil); Avigo, D. [Centro Universitario Positivo, UnicenP (Brazil); Campos, V. P.; Tavares, T. M. [Federal University of Bahia, Institute of Chemistry (Brazil); Marchi, M. R. R. de [Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, Analytical Chemistry Department (Brazil); Grieken, R. Van [University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry (Belgium); Godoi, A. F. L. [Federal University of Parana, Department of Environmental Engineering (Brazil)

    2009-08-15

    The promotion of good indoor air quality in schools is of particular public concern for two main reasons: (1) school-age children spend at least 30% of their time inside classrooms and (2) indoor air quality in urban areas is substantially influenced by the outdoor pollutants, exposing tenants to potentially toxic substances. Two schools in Curitiba, Brazil, were selected to characterize the gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the isomers xylenes (BTEX); NO{sub 2}; SO{sub 2}; O{sub 3}; acetic acid (HAc); and formic acid (HFor) were assessed using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. The concentration of NO{sub 2} varied between 9.5 and 23 {mu}g m{sup -3}, whereas SO{sub 2} showed an interval from 0.1 to 4.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}. Within the schools, BTEX concentrations were predominant. Formic and acetic acids inside the classrooms revealed intermediate concentrations of 1.5 {mu}g m{sup -3} and 1.2 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively.

  13. Effects of Indoor Air Pollution on Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Knöppel, H.

    1992-01-01

    categories of adverse health effects in separate chapters, and describe the relevant indoor exposures which may give rise to these health effects. The following groups of effects have been comdered: effects on the respiratory system; allergy and other effects on the immune system; cancer and effects...... on reproduction: effects on the skin and mucous membranes in the eyes, nose and throat; sensory effects and other effects on the nervous system; effects on the cardiovascular system; systemic effects on the liver, kidney and gastro-intestinal system. For each of these groups, effects associated with IAP...... these are respiratory disease (particularly among children), allergy (particularly to house dust mites) and mucous membrane irritation (particularly due to formaldehyde). Large numbers of people have been, and are still being affected. Many chemicals encountered in indoor air are known or suspected to cause sensory...

  14. Combating the 'Sick Building Syndrome' by Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchai Nimcharoenwon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that many of symptoms attributed to the Sick Building Syndrome in air-conditioned office buildings are a result of considerably reduced negative ions in the internal atmosphere and that replacing the depleted negative ions can improve indoor air quality. This paper describes a method used to develop a formula (DOF-NIL formula for calculating the amount of negative ions to be added to air-conditioned buildings, to improve air quality. The formula enables estimates to be made based on how negative ions in the air are reduced by three main factors namely, Video Display Terminals (VDT; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC and Building Contents (BC. Calculations for a typical air-conditioned office, are compared with an Air Ion Counter instrument. The results show that the formula, when applied to a typical air-conditioned office, provides an accurate estimate for design purposes. The typical rate of additional negative-ions (ion-generating for a negative ion condition is found to be approximately 12.0 billion ions/hr for at least 4 hour ion-generating.

  15. Indoor air pollution and risk of lung cancer among Chinese female non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lina; Liu, Li; Niu, Rungui; Zhao, Baoxing; Shi, Jianping; Li, Yanli; Swanson, Mya; Scheider, William; Su, Jia; Chang, Shen-Chih; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-03-01

    To investigate indoor particulate matter (PM) level and various indoor air pollution exposure, and to examine their relationships with risk of lung cancer in an urban Chinese population, with a focus on non-smoking women. We conducted a case-control study in Taiyuan, China, consisting of 399 lung cancer cases and 466 controls, of which 164 cases and 218 controls were female non-smokers. Indoor PM concentrations, including PM(1), PM(2.5), PM(7), PM(10), and TSP, were measured using a particle mass monitor. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals after adjusting for age, education, annual income, and smoking. Among non-smoking women, lung cancer was strongly associated with multiple sources of indoor air pollution 10 years ago, including heavy exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work (aOR = 3.65), high frequency of cooking (aOR = 3.30), and solid fuel usage for cooking (aOR = 4.08) and heating (aOR(coal stove) = 2.00). Housing characteristics related to poor ventilation, including single-story, less window area, no separate kitchen, no ventilator, and rarely having windows open, are associated with lung cancer. Indoor medium PM(2.5) concentration was 68 μg/m(3), and PM(10) was 230 μg/m(3). PM levels in winter are strongly correlated with solid fuel usage for cooking, heating, and ventilators. PM(1) levels in cases are more than 3 times higher than that in controls. Every 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM(1) is associated with 45 % increased risk of lung cancer. Indoor air pollution plays an important role in the development of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women.

  16. Composition of PM2.5 and PM1 on high and low pollution event days and its relation to indoor air quality in a home for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyńska, Anna J; Krata, Agnieszka; Van Grieken, Rene; Brown, Andrew; Polezer, Gabriela; De Wael, Karolien; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja

    2014-08-15

    Many studies probing the link between air quality and health have pointed towards associations between particulate matter (PM) exposure and decreased lung function, aggravation of respiratory diseases like asthma, premature death and increased hospitalisation admissions for the elderly and individuals with cardiopulmonary diseases. Of recent, it is believed that the chemical composition and physical properties of PM may contribute significantly to these adverse health effects. As part of a Belgian Science Policy project ("Health effects of particulate matter in relation to physical-chemical characteristics and meteorology"), the chemical composition (elemental and ionic compositions) and physical properties (PM mass concentrations) of PM were investigated, indoors and outdoors of old age homes in Antwerp. The case reported here specifically relates to high versus normal/low pollution event periods. PM mass concentrations for PM1 and PM2.5 fractions were determined gravimetrically after collection via impaction. These same samples were hence analysed by EDXRF spectrometry and IC for their elemental and ionic compositions, respectively. During high pollution event days, PM mass concentrations inside the old age home reached 53 μg m(-3) and 32 μg m(-3) whilst outside concentrations were 101 μg m(-3) and 46 μg m(-3) for PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The sum of nss-sulphate, nitrate and ammonium, dominate the composition of PM, and contribute the most towards an increase in the PM during the episode days constituting 64% of ambient PM2.5 (52 μg m(-3)) compared to 39% on non-episode days (10 μg m(-3)). Other PM components, such as mineral dust, sea salt or heavy metals were found to be considerably higher during PM episodes but relatively less important. Amongst heavy metals Zn and Pb were found at the highest concentrations in both PM2.5 and PM1. Acid-base ionic balance equations were calculated and point to acidic aerosols during event days and acidic to alkaline

  17. [Determination of trace ammonia in indoor air by ninhydrin spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yi; Sun, Cheng-jun

    2008-07-01

    To develop a new spectrophotometric method to detect trace ammonia in indoor air. Ammonia in the air was absorbed by 0.01 mol/L sulfuric acid in a bubbling absorption tube. With 95 degrees C of water bath and pH 5.5-6.0 of buffer solution of acetic acid-sodium acetate, the ammonium in the solution reacted with ninhydrin at the presence of ascorbic acid to form a royal purple product which has a maximum absorbance at 568 nm. This method produced a linear range of 0-8 microg/10 mL. The detection limit was 0.06 mg/m3. The recoveries of the method ranged from 96.2% to 102.3%, with 2.8%-6.8% of relative standard deviations. The method is simple, rapid and safe. The common coexisting substances in the air do not interfere with the determination. The precision and accuracy can satisfy the requirements of the determination of trace ammonia in indoor air.

  18. Houseplants, Indoor Air Pollutants, and Allergic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology of using houseplant leaves for reducing volatile organics inside closed facilities has been demonstrated with formaldehyde and benzene. Philodendrons are among the most effective plants tested to date. Philodendron domesticum had demonstrated the ability to remove formaldehyde from small experimental chambers at a rate of 4.31 micro-g/sq cm leaf surface area with initial starting concentrations of 22 ppm. At initial starting concentrations of 2.3 ppm a formaldehyde removal rate of 0.57 micro-g/sq cm was achieved during a 24 hour test. Aleo vera demonstrated a much higher formaldehyde efficiency removal rate than Philodendron domesticum at low formaldehyde concentrations. During a 24 hour exposure period 5 ppm of formaldehyde were reduced to 0.5 ppm demonstrating a removal efficiency rate of 3.27 micro-g/sq cm. Removal efficiency rates can be expected to decrease with concentration levels because fewer molecules of chemicals come in contact with the leaf surface area. Several centimeters of small washed gravel should be used to cover the surface of pot plants when large numbers of plants are kept in the home. The reason for this is to reduce the exposed area of damp potting soil which encourages the growth of molds (fungi). The leaves of Philodendron domesticum and golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) have also demonstrated their ability to remove benzene and carbon monoxide from closed chambers. A combination of activated carbon and plant roots have demonstrated the greatest potential for removing large volumes of volatile organics along with smoke and possible radon from closed systems. Although fewer plants are required for this concept a mechanical blower motor must be used to pull or push the air through the carbon-root filter. NASA studies on motor sizes and bioregeneration rates should be completed by 1988.

  19. A rights-based approach to indoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jamie; Petersen, Stephen; Schwarz, Dan; Schwarz, Ryan; Maru, Duncan

    2013-12-12

    Household indoor air pollution from open-fire cookstoves remains a public health and environmental hazard which impacts negatively on people's right to health. Technologically improved cookstoves designed to reduce air pollution have demonstrated their efficacy in laboratory studies. Despite the tremendous need for such stoves, in the field they have often failed to be effective, with low rates of long-term adoption by users, mainly due to poor maintenance of the stoves. In poor, rural, isolated communities, there is unlikely to be a single behavioral or technological "fix" to this problem. In this paper, we suggest that improved cookstoves are an important health intervention to which people have a right, as they do to family planning, vaccination, and essential primary care medicines. Like these other necessary elements in the fulfillment of the right to health, access to clean indoor air should be incorporated into state health strategies, policies, and plans. State infrastructure and health systems should support public and private sector delivery of improved cookstove services, and ensure that such services reach all communities, even those that are poor, located remotely, and likely not to be served by the market. We suggest that community health workers could play a critical role in creating demand for, implementing facilitation and delivery of, and monitoring these cookstoves and related services. Through this approach, improved cookstoves could become an appealing, available, and sustainable option for the rural poor. In this paper, we adopt a human rights-based approach to overcome the problem of indoor air pollution, and we use Nepal as an example. Copyright © 2013 Lim, Petersen, Schwarz, Schwarz, Maru. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any

  20. Measurement and improvement of indoor air quality in an information technology classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić Mladen A.; Milutinović Biljana B.; Živković Predrag M.; Đekić Petar S.; Boričić Aleksandra D.

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology equipment and its use in the teaching and learning activities, the working environment (especially indoor air quality) in which students and pupils spend a great deal of time in educational institutions has been changing. Therefore, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality and comfort. It is of great importance to maintain indoor air quality in an object, such as information technology classro...

  1. Indoor air pollution as an issue of nonattention in Nairobi's informal settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, N. S.; Dianati, K.; Milner, J.; Chege, M.; Csuvár, B.; Muindi, K; Mberu, B.; Kyobutungi, C; Fletcher, H; Wilkinson, P.; Davies, M.(Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel); UCCI, M.

    2017-01-01

    58 percent of Nairobi’s population live in slums under extremely poor and unhealthy condi-tions. In these settlements, pneumonia is one of the top causes of health issues and deaths among children and adults, for which indoor air pollution is a known contributor. Yet, the topic of indoor air pollution receives no attention. Regulatory frameworks and budgets for indoor air pollution do not exist and humanitarian organisations neglect the topic despite its drastic health effects. This paper add...

  2. Chemical Characterization of the Indoor Air Quality of a University Hospital: Penetration of Outdoor Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T. J.; Van Wel, Luuk; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob B. M.

    2017-01-01

    For healthcare centers, local outdoor sources of air pollution represent a potential threat to indoor air quality (IAQ). The aim of this study was to study the impact of local outdoor sources of air pollution on the IAQ of a university hospital. IAQ was characterized at thirteen indoor and two outdoor locations and source samples were collected from a helicopter and an emergency power supply. Volatile organic compounds (VOC), acrolein, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), respirable particulate matter (PM-4.0 and PM-2.5) and their respective benz(a)pyrene contents were determined over a period of two weeks. Time-weighted average concentrations of NO2 (4.9–17.4 μg/m3) and formaldehyde (2.5–6.4 μg/m3) were similar on all indoor and outdoor locations. The median concentration VOC in indoor air was 119 μg/m3 (range: 33.1–2450 μg/m3) and was fivefold higher in laboratories (316 μg/m3) compared to offices (57.0 μg/m3). PM-4.0 and benzo(a)pyrene concentration were lower in buildings serviced by a >99.95% efficiency particle filter, compared to buildings using a standard 80–90% efficiency filter (p combustion engines to any of the IAQ parameters measured in this study. Chemical IAQ was primarily driven by known indoor sources and activities. PMID:28481324

  3. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

  4. Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan1, B Mohd Rafee1, Juahir Hafizan2, AZF Azman1, AM Nizar3, Z Izwyn4, AA Muhaimin5, MA Syafiq Yunos6, AR Anita1, J Muhamad Hanafiah1, MS Shaharuddin1, A Mohd Ibthisham7, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail8, MN Mohamad Azhar1, HS Azizan1, I Zulfadhli9, J Othman101Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division (BTI, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Malaysia; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 8Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 10Department of Counsellor Education and Counselling Psychology (DCECP, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support

  5. Impact of the air filtration on indoor particle concentration by using combination filters in offices building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrein, H.; Hariri, A.; Leman, A. M.; Noraini, N. M. R.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Afandi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Heating ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC) is very important for offices building and human health. The combining filter method was used to reduce the air pollution indoor such as that particulate matter and gases pollution that affected in health and productivity. Using particle filters in industrial HVAC systems (factories and manufacturing process) does not enough to remove all the indoor pollution. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of combination filters for particle and gases removal efficiency. The combining method is by using two filters (particulate filter pre-filter and carbon filter) to reduce particle matter and gases respectively. The purpose of this study is to use minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV filter) rating 13 and activated carbon filter (ACF) to remove indoor air pollution and controlling the air change rate to enhance the air quality and energy saving. It was concluded that the combination filter showed good removal efficiency of particle up to 90.76% and 89.25% for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The pressure drop across the filters was small compared with the high-efficiency filters. The filtration efficiency of combination filters after three months’ was better than efficiency by the new MERV filter alone.

  6. Association of indoor air pollution with rhinitis symptoms, atopy and nitric oxide levels in exhaled air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) outdoors can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma in adults. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor PM. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of exposure to indoor sources of PM with rhini......Exposure to particulate matter (PM) outdoors can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma in adults. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor PM. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of exposure to indoor sources of PM...... with rhinitis symptoms, atopy and nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) as a measure of airway inflammation....

  7. New units for indoor air quality: decicarbdiox and decitvoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokl, M. V.

    Two new units are proposed for the evaluation of indoor air quality using the decibel concept, which give a much better approximation of the human perception of odour intensity, compared to the CO2 and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration scales: the decicarbdiox and the devitvoc. On the psychophysical scale according to Yaglou, the weakest odour that can be detected by the human smell sensors is equal to one, and corresponds to the lower limit of percentage dissatisfaction (PD) of 5.8%. It is equivalent to: (1) a CO2 threshold concentration of 485 ppm - 0 dB (odour CO2) - 0 dCd (decicarbdiox), and (2) a TVOC threshold concentration of 50 µg m-3- 0 dB (odour TVOC) - 0 dTv (decitvoc). The upper limit is determined by the initial value of toxicity: (1) CO2- 15,000 ppm - 134 dCd, and (2) TVOC - 25,000 g/m-3- 135 dTv. Optimal pollutant values (corresponding to PD=20%) and admissible values (PD=30%) for unadapted and adapted persons are calculated. Long-term tolerable values (determining the sick building syndrome range) and short-term tolerable values (the beginning of the toxic range) are also stated. The same system used to evaluate noise can be used to evaluate air quality. Additionally, the contribution of the individual constituents (at present acoustic and odour) to the overall quality of the environment can be ascertained. The new units dCd and dTv can express an increase or decrease in air contamination, e.g. by the use of air cleaners, new building materials etc. The proposed system of using dCd and dTv is compatible with BSR/ASHRAE 62-1989 R which can be used to determine the required volume of fresh air for ventilation by an improved method, which takes into account different levels of required indoor air quality.

  8. Indoor air quality in energy efficient buildings. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Judith; Berge, Magnar

    2012-07-01

    There is currently a major focus on measures to reduce global warming. Several international studies show that the energy efficiency of buildings is the easiest and most cost-effective climate action. Passive houses are characterized of that the buildings are more airtight, have more insulation and has balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. This report discusses about this one-sided focus on energy conservation, and if {sup c}hange{sup }in building methods can have a negative impact on indoor air quality and people's health. (Author)

  9. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications...... of the European Communities It is now well established that indoor air pollution contributes significantly to the global burden of disease of the population. Therefore, the knowledge of this contribution is essential in view of risk assessment and management. The ECA STRATEX report collates the respective...... information and describes the strategies to determine population exposure to indoor air pollutants. Its major goal is to emphasise the importance of the contribution of indoor air to total air exposure. Taking this contribution into account is a prerequisite for sound risk assessment of air pollution...

  10. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, Daniel [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  11. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  12. [Indoor air guide values for ethyl acetate. Communication of the German Ad Hoc Working Group on Indoor Air Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and the Supreme State Health Authorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The German Ad Hoc Working Group on Indoor Air Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and the Supreme State Health Authorities issues indoor air guide values to protect public health. No suitable human studies are available for health evaluation of ethyl acetate in indoor air. In a well-documented subchronic inhalation rat study, assessed as reliable, local effects were observed in nasal epithelia. The incidence and severity of degeneration of the nasal olfactory epithelium was dose-dependent. This study leads to a lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) of 1280 mg ethyl acetate/m(3) indoor air, corresponding to a LAEC for continuous exposure of 230 mg ethyl acetate/m(3), for the endpoint nasal epithelium degeneration. By applying an interspecies factor of 1, a factor of 10 for interindividual variability and a factor of 2 to account for the higher respiratory rate of children compared to adults, a health hazard guide value (RW II) of 6 mg ethyl acetate/m(3) is obtained. A health precaution guide value (RW I) of 0.6 mg ethyl acetate/m(3) indoor air is recommended.

  13. Association of Roadway Proximity with Indoor Air Pollution in a Peri-Urban Community in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, Lindsay J.; Sonali Bose; Williams, D’Ann L.; Romero, Karina M.; Gary Malpartida; Breysse, Patrick N.; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Combe, Juan M.; William Checkley; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon...

  14. [Level and characteristics of indoor air pollutants in a furniture mall in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuan-Jia; Li, Shen-Shen; Zhang, Peng-Yi; Wang, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds were measured in different sections of a furniture mall in Beijing. The overall indoor concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation) of formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, xylene, and TVOC were (0.37 +/- 0.08), (0.04 +/- 0.03), (0.19 +/- 0.16), (0.47 +/- 0.57), and (2.76 +/- 2.18) mg/m3, respectively. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, xylene and TVOC were 22, 46 and 34 times higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations respectively. Concentrations of formaldehyde, xylene and TVOC were much higher than the standard limits regulated in the national "indoor air quality standard" (GB/T 18883-2002), and the highest concentrations of formaldehyde and TVOC exceeded the standard limit 5.1 and 14.8 times respectively. Total concentration of carbonyl compounds was (689.3 +/- 94.8) microg/m3, which was 5 times higher than that outdoors. Of the carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the most abundant, together accounting for over 75% of the total carbonyl concentrations. Acetone, C4 carbonyls (methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone, butanal), and hexanal also occurred at relatively high concentrations. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is serious in the furniture mall.

  15. Indoor air quality measurements in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, B.H.; Brown, J.T.; Geisling-Sobotka, K.; Froehlich, D.A.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Harrison, J.; Revzan, K.L.

    1986-06-01

    A Bonneville Power Administration-funded study monitored ventilation rates and a variety of indoor air pollutants in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings. The buildings ranged in age from 6 months to 90 years, in size from 864 to 34,280 m/sup 2/, and occupancy from 25 to 2500 people. Building average formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were below the 20 ppB detection limit in 48% of the buildings. Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) concentration averages ranged from 5 ppB to 43 ppB and were lower than outdoor concentrations in 8 of 13 buildings. At only one site, an elementary school classroom, did carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) exceed 1000 ppM. Radon (Rn) levels were elevated in one building with an average concentration of 7.4 pCiL/sup -1/. Respirable particles (RSP) concentrations in smoking areas in 32 buildings had a geometric mean of 44 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and ranged up to 308 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ at one site. In non-smoking areas the geometric mean RSP was 15 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. Outside air ventilation rates did not appear to be the single dominant parameter in determining indoor pollutant concentrations. Measured pollutant concentrations in 2 ''complaint'' buildings were below accepted guidelines. The cause of the complaints was not identified.

  16. Guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriske, Heinz-Joern; Szewzyk, Regine (eds.)

    2008-08-15

    The new guidelines for indoor air hygiene in school buildings are intended as a response to current requirements in school practice. The recommendations aim to help to avoid mistakes in modernising school buildings and to provide hygiene-specific support in planning of new school buildings. The guidelines are laid out as follows: (a) In the general section the targets of the guidelines and the target groups are addressed. The current indoor hygiene situation in German schools is described, followed by the parameters with regard to peripheral issues which will not be dealt with further; (b) Part A deals with the hygiene requirements in the practical running of schools. Besides general requirements for maintenance and operation the important issues of cleaning and ventilation are considered, as well as minor building works; (c) Part B provides an overview of important chemical and biological contaminants in schools; (d) Part C looks at building and air conditioning requirements. The important issues of acoustic requirements is also addressed; (e) Part D shows how to deal practically with problem cases and list case studies with 'typical' procedures; (f) Part E provides a brief overview of existing renovation guidelines.

  17. A Study of Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Douglas, Willard L.; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Previously, preliminary data on the ability of a group of common indoor plants to remove organic chemical from indoor air was presented. The group of plants chosen for this study was determined by joint agreement between NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America. The chemicals chosen for study were benzene, trichloroethylene, and formaldehyde. The results show that plants can play a major role in removal of organic chemicals from indoor air.

  18. Monitoring indoor air; L'air interieur des locaux sous surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-08-01

    We all spend so much time inside buildings that it is essential to monitor the air quality in the premises, especially because of the hazards from indoor confinement and our lifestyles. This concern has prompted the creation of the Observatoire de la Qualite de l'Air Interieur (the observatory of Indoor air quality) that State Secretary in charge of Housing Marie-Noelle Lienemann officially launched on July 10, 2001. The Observatory will work nationwide to set up a core system to collect the data on air pollutants in various buildings and homes and on the features of the population's exposure to the pollutants. In 2002, the Ministry for Equipment, Transport and Housing, the Ministry for Regional Planning and the Environment, the Ministry in charge of Health, the ADEME and the CSTB will be allocating a 23-million franc budget to the Observatory. (author)

  19. Air-Sense: indoor environment monitoring evaluation system based on ZigBee network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Hu, Liang; Yang, Disheng; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    In the modern life, people spend most of their time indoors. However, indoor environmental quality problems have always been affecting people’s social activities. In general, indoor environmental quality is also related to our indoor activities. Since most of the organic irritants and volatile gases are colorless, odorless and too tiny to be seen, because we have been unconsciously overlooked indoor environment quality. Consequently, our body suffer a great health problem. In this work, we propose Air-Sense system which utilizes the platform of ZigBee Network to collect and detect the real-time indoor environment quality. What’s more, Air-Sense system can also provide data analysis, and visualizing the results of the indoor environment to the user.

  20. Microbial Air Contamination in Indoor and Outdoor Environment of Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring a good air quality in pig farms is important for the health of animals and human workers. The aim of this study was the assessment of the microbiological quality of the air inside the pig houses and outside of these. The study was accomplished in two pig-fattening farms in Cluj County. The microbiological air quality was assessed in the cold and warm season, by determination of the total counts of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The bacterial and fungal counts varied in the air of the investigated farms. In relation to the season the mean counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher (P 0.05 were found between the values of the parameters determined from the indoor air and those obtained outside, from a distance of 5 m from the pig houses. The numbers of the bacteria and fungi in the outdoor air lowered as the distance from the farms increased, the differences being significant at 25 and 50 m (P < 0.05. The results of the study show a high bacterial contamination of the indoor and outdoor air of the pig farms.

  1. Assessment of the impact of oxidation processes on indoor air pollution using the new time-resolved INCA-Indoor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Maxence; Blond, Nadège; Blondeau, Patrice; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Hauglustaine, Didier A.

    2015-12-01

    INCA-Indoor, a new indoor air quality (IAQ) model, has been developed to simulate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxidants considering indoor air specific processes such as: emission, ventilation, surface interactions (sorption, deposition, uptake). Based on the detailed version of SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism, INCA-Indoor is able to analyze the contribution of the production and loss pathways of key chemical species (VOCs, oxidants, radical species). The potential of this model has been tested through three complementary analyses: a comparison with the most detailed IAQ model found in the literature, focusing on oxidant species; realistic scenarios covering a large range of conditions, involving variable OH sources like HONO; and the investigation of alkenes ozonolysis under a large range of indoor conditions that can increase OH and HO2 concentrations. Simulations have been run changing nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations, NOx levels, photolysis rates and ventilation rates, showing that HONO can be the main source of indoor OH. Cleaning events using products containing D-limonene have been simulated at different periods of the day. These scenarios show that HOX concentrations can significantly increase in specific conditions. An assessment of the impact of indoor chemistry on the potential formation of secondary species such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) has been carried out under various room configuration scenarios and a study of the HOx budget for different realistic scenarios has been performed. It has been shown that, under the simulation conditions, formaldehyde can be affected by oxidant concentrations via chemical production which can account for more than 10% of the total production, representing 6.5 ppb/h. On the other hand, acetaldehyde production is affected more by oxidation processes. When the photolysis rates are high, chemical processes are responsible for about 50% of the total production of

  2. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND FURNITURE PROCUREMENT IN EPA'S NEW RESEARCH TRIANGLE CAMPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses various aspects of the EPA's new 1.2 million square foot building in Research Triangle Park that pertain to indoor air, with a particular focus on the process EPA used to select furniture to meet its indoor air guidelines. In keeping with its mission of protec...

  3. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution: Identifying Possible Target Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brendon R.; Mathee, Angela; Shafritz, Lonna B.; Krieger, Laurie; Zimicki, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution has been causally linked to acute lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5. The aim of this study was to identify target behaviors for a behavioral intervention to reduce child exposure to indoor air pollution by attempting to answer two research questions: Which behaviors are protective of child respiratory…

  5. Testing Selected Behaviors to Reduce Indoor Air Pollution Exposure in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, B. R.; Mathee, A.; Krieger, L.; Shafritz, L.; Favin, M.; Sherburne, L.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is responsible for the deaths and illness of millions of young children in developing countries. This study investigated the acceptability (willingness to try) and feasibility (ability to perform) of four indoor air pollution reduction behaviors (improve stove maintenance practices, child location practices, ventilation…

  6. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    in humidity by 10%, by 0.5 μg m -3 per increase in CO 2 indoor concentration by 100 ppm, and a decrease by 2.8 μg m -3 in 5-7th grade classes and by 7.3 μg m -3 in class 8-11 compared to 1-4th class. During the winter period, the associations were stronger regarding class level, reverse regarding humidity (a decrease by 6.4 μg m -3 per increase in 10% humidity) and absent regarding CO 2 indoor concentration. The median PNC measured in 36 classrooms ranged between 2622 and 12,145 particles cm -3 (median: 5660 particles cm -3). The results clearly show that exposure to particulate matter in school is high. The increased PM concentrations in winter and their correlation with high CO 2 concentrations indicate that inadequate ventilation plays a major role in the establishment of poor indoor air quality. Additionally, the increased PM concentration in low level classes and in rooms with high number of pupils suggest that the physical activity of pupils, which is assumed to be more pronounced in younger children, contributes to a constant process of resuspension of sedimented particles. Further investigations are necessary to increase knowledge on predictors of PM concentration, to assess the toxic potential of indoor particles and to develop and test strategies how to ensure improved indoor air quality in schools.

  7. Indoor air quality and thermal comfort in temporary houses occupied after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, N; Tokumura, M; Kazama, M; Yonemoto, Y; Yoshioka, M; Kagi, N; Hasegawa, K; Yoshino, H; Yanagi, U

    2014-08-01

    Thermal conditions and indoor concentrations of aldehydes, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and NO2 were investigated in 19 occupied temporary houses in 15 temporary housing estates constructed in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan. The data were collected in winter, spring, and summer in January to July 2012. Thermal conditions in temporary log houses in the summer were more comfortable than those in pre-fabricated houses. In the winter, the indoor temperature was uncomfortably low in all of the houses, particularly the temporary log houses. Indoor air concentrations for most aldehydes and VOCs were much lower than the indoor guidelines, except for those of p-dichlorobenzene, acetaldehyde, and total VOCs. The indoor p-dichlorobenzene concentrations exceeded the guideline (240 μg/m(3)) in 18% of the temporary houses, and the 10(-3) cancer risk level (91 μg/m(3)) was exceeded in winter in 21% due to use of moth repellents by the occupants. Indoor acetaldehyde concentrations exceeded the guideline (48 μg/m(3) ) in about half of the temporary houses, likely originating from the wooden building materials. Indoor NO2 concentrations in the temporary houses were significantly higher in houses where combustion heating appliances were used (0.17 ± 0.11 ppm) than in those where they were not used (0.0094 ± 0.0065 ppm). In the winter, log-house-type temporary houses are comfortable in terms of humidity, dew condensation, and fungi based on the results of questionnaires and measurements, whereas pre-fabricated temporary houses are more comfortable in terms of temperature. In the summer, log-house-type temporary houses are comfortable in terms of temperature and humidity. More comfortable temporary housing in terms of temperature and humidity year-round is needed. Indoor air concentrations of p-dichlorobenzene and NO2 were quite high in some temporary houses due to occupants’ activities, such as use of moth repellents and combustion heating appliances. The government

  8. Ozone and Limonene in Indoor Air: A Source of Submicron Particle Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Wainman; Junfeng Zhang; Charles J. Weschler; Paul J. Lioy

    2000-01-01

    .... We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the potential for secondary aerosol in indoor air as a result of the reaction of ozone with d-limonene, a compound commonly used in air fresheners...

  9. Indoor air pollution and neural tube defects: effect modification by maternal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Li, Zhiwen; Jin, Lei; Li, Kai; Yuan, Yue; Fu, Yunting; Zhang, Yali; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-09-01

    Gene-environment interactions have been implicated in the development of neural tube defects (NTDs). We conducted a case-control study to investigate (1) the association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) genetic variants and phase I metabolic enzymes with the risk of NTDs and (2) the interaction of these variants with maternal exposure to indoor air pollution from smoking and coal combustion or with placental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Blood samples were collected from 534 mothers of fetuses or newborns with NTDs and 534 control mothers who had healthy term newborns and were assayed for 12 polymorphisms in the AHR and cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Information on maternal exposure was collected, and placental levels of PAHs were analyzed. Maternal exposure to indoor air pollution was associated with an increased NTD risk. However, no increased NTD risk was observed for individual genetic variants. For mothers with the CYP1B1 rs2855658 GG variant, exposure to indoor air pollution led to a dose-response relationship for NTD risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 3.0 (95% confidence interval = 1.6-5.7) and 8.1 (3.8-17) for medium and high levels of exposure, respectively. For mothers with GA or AA genotypes, this trend was less apparent. Placental PAHs were associated with an increased risk of NTDs, with an OR of 16 (3.3-75) for high levels compared with low levels of exposure among mothers with the GG genotype; there was no association for mothers with GA or AA genotypes. The CYP1B1 variant modifies the effect of indoor air pollution on NTD risk.

  10. Indoor air pollution in rural China: Cooking fuels, stoves, and health status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, J.W.; Riddell, T.J.; Smith, K.R.; Liu, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.Y.; Gong, J.H.; Milet, M.; Sinton, J.E. [Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

    2005-03-15

    Solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in less developed countries the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. The authors conducted a large cross-sectional study of rural Chinese households to determine associations between individual health status and domestic cooking as a source of indoor air pollution. The study included measures of health status as well as measures of indoor air-pollution sources, such as solid cooking fuels and cooking stoves. Compared with other fuel types, coal was associated with a lower health status, including negative impacts on exhaled carbon monoxide level, forced vital capacity, lifetime prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and health care utilization. Decreasing household coal use, increasing use of improved stove technology, and increasing kitchen ventilation may decrease the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution.

  11. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  12. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  13. [European community guidelines and standards in indoor air quality: what proposals for Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimo, Gaetano; D'Alessandro, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality is an issue on which to focus because of the increasing number of exposed population and in view of the strong public feeling on this issue. This paper reports the rules of EU and several European countries about indoor air quality, focusing on the initiatives performed in Italy to respond to WHO recommendations. Several EU countries have introduced in their legislation rules relating to indoor air quality. At the moment, in Italy, a reference rule has not been issued. For this reason, up to date main informations concerning some guidelines or reference values in indoor air, to be used for a first comparison, are those obtained by the scientific literature, or by the guidelines issued by other European countries or, for analogy, by other standard values such as limit or reference values regarding outdoor air. Even the EU, while reaffirming the priority of energy efficiency measures, recommends healthier indoor environments and the development of a specific European strategy on the issue of indoor air quality. The National Study Group on indoor pollution of the Italian National Health Institute (ISS), is working for the development of shared technical and scientific documents, in order to provide greater uniformity of actions at national level, waiting for a legal framework for indoor air quality, in the light of the indication already produced by the WHO.

  14. Indoor Air Pollution by Methylsiloxane in Household and Automobile Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanyong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study examines characteristics of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution in indoor settings where interior renovation/redecoration is being undertaken, in addition to ordinary family homes and inside family cars. Concentrations of atmospheric methylsiloxane in these locations were approximately one order of magnitude higher than that in outdoor areas. The average indoor concentration of methylsiloxane where renovation was being undertaken was 9.4 μg/m3, which is slightly higher than that in an ordinary family home (7.88 μg/m3), while samples from family cars showed lower concentration (3.10 μg/m3). The indoor atmospheric concentration during renovation/redecoration work was significantly positively correlated with the duration of the work. The structure of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution is basically the same in these three venues. The concentration of annulus siloxane was much higher than that of linear compounds (85% of the total methylsiloxane concentrations). Household dust in average family homes showed total methylsiloxane concentration of 9.5 μg/m3 (average); the structure mainly consisted of linear siloxane (approximately 98% of total concentration), thereby differing from that of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution. The comparatively high concentration of methylsiloxane in these three venues indicates that interior renovation and decoration work, and even travelling in cars, can involve exposure to more serious siloxane contamination during everyday activities.

  15. Indoor Air Pollution by Methylsiloxane in Household and Automobile Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyong Meng

    Full Text Available This study examines characteristics of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution in indoor settings where interior renovation/redecoration is being undertaken, in addition to ordinary family homes and inside family cars. Concentrations of atmospheric methylsiloxane in these locations were approximately one order of magnitude higher than that in outdoor areas. The average indoor concentration of methylsiloxane where renovation was being undertaken was 9.4 μg/m3, which is slightly higher than that in an ordinary family home (7.88 μg/m3, while samples from family cars showed lower concentration (3.10 μg/m3. The indoor atmospheric concentration during renovation/redecoration work was significantly positively correlated with the duration of the work. The structure of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution is basically the same in these three venues. The concentration of annulus siloxane was much higher than that of linear compounds (85% of the total methylsiloxane concentrations. Household dust in average family homes showed total methylsiloxane concentration of 9.5 μg/m3 (average; the structure mainly consisted of linear siloxane (approximately 98% of total concentration, thereby differing from that of atmospheric methylsiloxane pollution. The comparatively high concentration of methylsiloxane in these three venues indicates that interior renovation and decoration work, and even travelling in cars, can involve exposure to more serious siloxane contamination during everyday activities.

  16. Quantitative assessment of microbes from samples of indoor air and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Hanna K; Täubel, Martin; Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Pasanen, Pertti; Hyvärinen, Anne

    2017-10-04

    Different types of house dust samples are widely used as surrogates of airborne inhalation exposure in studies assessing health effects of indoor microbes. Here we studied-in a quantitative assessment-the representativeness of different house dust samples of indoor air (IA) and investigated seasonality and reproducibility of indoor samples. Microbial exposure was measured five times over 1 year in four rural and five urban Finnish homes. Six sampling methods were used: button inhalable aerosol sampler (actively collected personal and indoor air sampling), settled dust, floor dust, mattress dust and vacuum cleaner dust bag dust; the latter three referred to herein as "reservoir dust samples". Using quantitative PCR, we quantified the fungal species Cladosporium herbarum, the fungal group Penicillium/Aspergillus/Paecilomyces variotii, total fungal DNA, and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We observed significant differences in microbial levels between rural and urban homes, most pronounced for personal air samples. Fungal species and groups but not total fungal DNA in indoor air correlated moderately to well with reservoir dust and with personal air samples. For bacterial groups, the correlations between air and dust were generally lower. Samples of indoor air and settled dust reflected similarly seasonal variation in microbial levels and were also similar compositionally, as assessed by ratios of qPCR markers. In general, determinations from mattress dust and other reservoir samples were better reproducible in repeated assessments over time than from indoor air or settled dust. This study indicates that settled dust reflects the microbial composition of indoor air and responds similarly to environmental determinants. Reservoir dusts tend to predict better microbial levels in indoor air and are more reproducible. Sampling strategies in indoor studies need to be developed based on the study questions and may need to rely on more than one type of sample

  17. Room air quality as a challenge. Interview mit Bjarne W. Olesen about the 2008 Indoor Air Congress in Copenhagen; Raumluftqualitaet als Aufgabenstellung. Interview mit Bjarne W. Olesen zum Indoor Air Kongress 2008 in Kopenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    2008-01-15

    The upcoming Indoor Air - Eleventh International Conference on Room Air Quality and Climate from 17 to 22 August 2008 in Copenhagen in Denmark will for the first time feature a one-day event dedicated especially to architects. Wolfgang Schmid, a freelance journalist specialising in technical building equipment, spoke with Professor Bjarne Olesen, President of the 2008 Indoor Air, about the Congress agenda as well as about important trends of development in the area of well-being, health and indoor climate.

  18. Survey of Indoor Air Quality in the University of Alaska

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Craven, Colin; Rode, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    In cold climates living inside the heated space requires considerable amounts of heat. With the intention to decrease the heating demand, people are insulating their homes and make them more air tight. With the natural infiltration being brought close to zero there has been an increase of a new p...... advanced controls of the HVAC systems, better defrosting strategy and moisture recovery from the exhaust air the IAQ can be improved with minimum extra energy demand....... problem which is poor indoor air quality (IAQ). During summer 2012 four student homes were built in Fairbanks, Alaska as a part of Sustainable Village project. The aim of this project is to promote sustainable ways of living in the Arctic and to study new technologies and their applicability in the cold......In cold climates living inside the heated space requires considerable amounts of heat. With the intention to decrease the heating demand, people are insulating their homes and make them more air tight. With the natural infiltration being brought close to zero there has been an increase of a new...

  19. [Electronic Shiazo waterpipes: a new source of indoor air pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Wolfgang; Matzen, Wolfgang; Szendrei, Katalin; Heitmann, Dieter; Schettgen, Thomas; Fromme, Hermann

    2017-09-04

    For some time, a new form of waterpipe smoking has been advertised, where steam stones moistened with aroma fluids (Shiazo) are heated electronically. Since there is no combustion of tobacco, it is often assumed that the produced vapor is not harmful to health. To clarify this issue, we performed a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment during the use of an electronic Shiazo waterpipe. Three volunteers smoked an electronic waterpipe operated with nicotine-free Shiazo stones in a thoroughly ventilated room for 2 h. In three smoking sessions, three fluids with different flavorings were vaporized. In parallel, emissions of particles, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and metals were measured in indoor air. Within a biomonitoring study, urinary metabolite profiles of air pollutants were checked. For comparison, the components of the Shiazo fluids were also analyzed. During the smoking sessions, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycerine, and propylene glycol rose significantly in the indoor environment. The content of putative carcinogenic PAH in indoor air increased by 42% to 174 ng/m(3). Particle number concentrations ranged from 39,968 to 65,610 particles/cm(3) (median), with peaks at diameters from 25 to 31 nm. 3‑HPMA, the mercapturic acid metabolite of the pyrolysis product acrolein, was strongly elevated in urine samples of the smokers. All fluids contained high amounts of contact allergens. Electronic Shiazo waterpipes release various harmful substances that considerably impact indoor air quality. Compared to conventional waterpipes, the release of pollutants is lower. Nevertheless, smoking with Shiazo waterpipes is a source of health risks for both users and bystanders.

  20. Plant leaves as indoor air passive samplers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Todd A; Doucette, William J

    2015-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enter indoor environments through internal and external sources. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs vary greatly but are generally higher than outdoors. Plants have been promoted as indoor air purifiers for decades, but reports of their effectiveness differ. However, while air-purifying applications may be questionable, the waxy cuticle coating on leaves may provide a simple, cost-effective approach to sampling indoor air for VOCs. To investigate the potential use of plants as indoor air VOC samplers, a static headspace approach was used to examine the relationship between leaf and air concentrations, leaf lipid contents and octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) for six VOCs and four plant species. The relationship between leaf and air concentrations was further examined in an actual residence after the introduction of several chlorinated VOC emission sources. Leaf-air concentration factors (LACFs), calculated from linear regressions of the laboratory headspace data, were found to increase as the solvent extractable leaf lipid content and Koa value of the VOC increased. In the studies conducted in the residence, leaf concentrations paralleled the changing air concentrations, indicating a relatively rapid air to leaf VOC exchange. Overall, the data from the laboratory and residential studies illustrate the potential for plant leaves to be used as cost effective, real-time indoor air VOC samplers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Outdoor and indoor air quality and cognitive ability in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Kokosi, Theodora; Flouri, Eirini

    2018-02-01

    This study examined outdoor and indoor air quality at ages 9 months and 3 years and their association with cognitive ability at age 3 in England and Wales. Data from 8198 Millennium Cohort Study children were analysed using multilevel regression. Outdoor air quality was assessed with mean annual estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels within a standard small area (ward). Indoor air quality was measured with parent-reports of damp or condensation in the home and exposure to secondhand smoke in the home. Cognitive ability was assessed with the British Ability Scales Naming Vocabulary subscale and the Bracken School Readiness Assessment. In adjusted models, consistent exposure to high levels of NO 2 at age 9 months and age 3 years was associated with lower verbal ability at age 3 years. Damp/condensation and secondhand smoke in the home at either age or at both ages were correlated with lower school readiness at age 3 years. Exposures to damp/condensation at age 3 years or at both ages and secondhand smoke at either age or at both ages were associated with lower verbal ability at age 3 years. Young children's exposures to indoor damp or condensation and secondhand smoke are likely to be detrimental for their cognitive outcomes. However, there do not appear to be any short-term effects of NO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adsorption of toluene onto activated carbon fibre cloths and felts: application to indoor air treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimier, C; Subrenat, A; Le Coq, L; Le Cloirec, P

    2005-11-01

    Due to their bad effects on human health, removing Volatile Organic Compounds from indoor air has become an issue of major interest. In this study, the potential use of six commercial activated carbon felts and cloths for indoor toluene removal was investigated. Both batch and dynamic adsorption studies were performed, at toluene concentrations ranging from 21 to 18160 mg m(-3), for an air velocity representative of indoor air treatment (0.37 m s(-1)). Batch measurements showed that felts exhibited higher adsorption capacities at equilibrium than cloths at high toluene concentrations, whereas this trend may be inverted at low concentrations. Experimental isotherms and kinetics were satisfactorily fitted by the Langmuir-Freundlich model and the Linear Driving Force model respectively. No main differences between the adsorption kinetics of felts and cloths were reported. Dynamic adsorption capacities at saturation appeared to be higher than 120 mg g(-1) for both cloths and felts, irrespective of relative humidity levels and toluene concentrations. The influence of relative humidity on the adsorption capacity of felts was not significant for the higher toluene concentration studied in dynamics (307 mg m(-3)), whereas an increase in relative humidity induced a decrease in adsorption capacity at the lower toluene concentration (38 mg m(-3)). Moreover, experimental curves of breakthrough time versus thickness of medium were satisfactorily fitted by the Adams-Bohart model, and the critical thickness determined by this model appeared to be below 1.3 mm, regardless of the medium or toluene concentration.

  3. Controlled human exposure to indoor air, dust, and ozone; XDOZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Bønløkke, Jakob; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2017-01-01

    of subjective symptoms and general perception of the indoor environment.Results: For most of the participants’ no symptom variation was seen with varied exposures. However for the FVC and the FEV1/FVC ratios a significant association with different chamber exposures were seen.Conclusion: The dust and ozone......Background: Modern citizens spend approximately 90 % of their time indoor. Several studies have indicated that airborne particulate matter and dust affect the comfort and health of occupants of normal non-industrial buildings.Aim: To test if the presence of ozone potentate the discomfort and health....... All participants were subjected to four different exposure scenarios in the climate chamber.Exp. 1: Dust (250 – 300 µg/m3)Exp. 2: Ozone (100 ppb)Exp. 3: Dust (250 – 300 µg/m3) + ozone (100 ppb)Exp. 4: Filtered air (<20µg/m3)The exposure time was 5½ hours for each session.The health effects were...

  4. A qualidade do ar de interiores e a química Indoor air quality and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila S. R. Brickus

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, very little experimental work on measurements of indoor air pollutant levels has been done. Nowadays, increasing attention is being given to indoor air quality and the health problems associated with buildings and the indoor work environment. The scope of this paper is to review the major pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality in Brazil and research needs.

  5. On the use of a risk ladder: Linking public perception of risks associated with indoor air with cognitive elements and attitudes toward risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Chang, P. E.

    In recent years a number of building managers have invested small amounts of money to measure indoor air quality in offices and other non-industrial buildings. Their objective is to reduce the number of occupant complaints, and not necessarily to reduce the risk associated with such complaints. Clearly, reduction of the risk would require greater investment of funds and effort. This paper focuses on individuals and the amount of money they are willing to invest in order to reduce risks associated with indoor air pollution in their home. Psychologists assert that lay judgement of risks are influenced by cognitive biases and attitudes. This study investigates the possibility that cognitive elements and general attitudes influence not only the perceived risk associated with exposures to indoor air pollutants, but also the willingness of individuals to invest in order to reduce the risk. A three-stage study was performed to determine some of the factors that influence public decisions to control the quality of the air inside their home. The study is focused on the design of a risk ladder, and the survey of 400 randomly selected individuals in the Chicago metropolitan area. The survey was designed to determine if demographics, smoking, education, or income influence the desire of individuals to invest in order to reduce indoor air pollution. The following conclusions were reached: (i) public awareness of indoor air pollution is high; (ii) media campaigns on indoor air pollution affect the determination of the specific pollutant the public perceives as important, but do not influence the public's desire to invest larger amounts of money to reduce risks from exposures to air pollutants in the residential environment; (iii) the public is not willing to spend large amounts of money to reduce indoor residential air pollution; (iv) education does not affect the level of awareness regarding indoor air pollution, but it increases the willingness to invest in an effort to reduce

  6. Quantifying the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2016-01-01

    Improper natural ventilation practices may deteriorate indoor air quality when in close proximity to roadways, although the intention is often to reduce energy consumption. In this study, we employed a CFD-based air quality model to quantify the impact of traffic-related air pollution on the indoor air quality of a naturally ventilated building. Our study found that the building envelope restricts dispersion and dilution of particulate matter. The indoor concentration in the baseline condition located 10m away from the roadway is roughly 16-21% greater than that at the edge of the roadway. The indoor flow recirculation creates a well-mixed zone with little variation in fine particle concentration (i.e., 253nm). For ultrafine particles (indoors with increasing distance from the road is observed due to Brownian and turbulent diffusion. In addition, the indoor concentration strongly depends on the distance between the roadway and building, particle size, wind condition, and window size and location. A break-even point is observed at D'~2.1 (normalized distance from the roadway by the width of the road). The indoor particle concentration is greater than that at the highway where D'air intakes are important to the indoor air quality of existing buildings adjacent to roadways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Indoor air quality in the 21st century: search for excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence: 1) better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; 2) unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; 3) the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; 4) "personalized air", i.e. a small amount of clean air...... are rather low, allowing a substantial group of people to become dissatisfied and to be adversely affected. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested...

  8. Impact of operating wood-burning stoves on indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Jensen, Ole Michael; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    A field study on the impact of operating and reloading wood-burning stoves on the indoor air quality was carried out during two consecutive winters. In contrast to the majority of recent studies, which focussed on the ambient air quality and the penetration of particles to the indoor air......, this study aims to understand to what extent the operation of a stove contributes to the generation of concentration of ultrafine particles in the indoor air. Therefore, different stoves were ignited in one session by the owner of the stove and in a subsequent session by an expert on wood-burning stoves...

  9. The Response of Phagocytes to Indoor Air Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilén, Liisa K; Atosuo, Janne; Lilius, Esa-Matti

    2017-01-01

    This perspective presents a viewpoint on potential methods assessing toxicity of indoor air. Until recently, the major techniques to document moldy environment have been microbial isolation using conventional culture techniques for fungi and bacteria as well as in some instances polymerase chain reaction to detect microbial genetic components. However, it has become increasingly evident that bacterial and fungal toxins, their metabolic products, and volatile organic substances emitted from corrupted constructions are the major health risks. Here, we illustrate how phagocytes, especially neutrophils can be used as a toxicological probe. Neutrophils can be used either in vitro as probe cells, directly exposed to the toxic agent studied, or they can act as in vivo indicators of the whole biological system exposed to the agent. There are two convenient methods assessing the responses, one is to measure chemiluminescence emission from activated phagocytes and the other is to measure quantitatively by flow cytometry the expression of complement and immunoglobulin receptors on the phagocyte surface.

  10. Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Normah; Jamaluddin, Farhana

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations. The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca(2+) (39.51 ± 5.01 mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-) were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of exposure for anions in outdoor air, such as highly congested traffic and motor vehicles emissions. In comparison, the concentration of NO3 (-) (29.72 ± 0.31 μg/g-32.00 ± 0.75 μg/g) was slightly higher than SO4 (2-). The concentrations of most of the parameters in this study, such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and Pb(2+), were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air at all sampling stations.

  11. Test results and methods: residential air-to-air heat exchangers for maintaining indoor air quality and saving money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Roseme, G.D.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    LBL has constructed a facility for testing various performance aspects of residential air-to-air heat exchangers. When used in conjunction with a mechanical ventilation system, a residential heat exchanger permits the adequate ventilation of a residence while recovering most of the energy normally lost during ventilation. By constructing or retrofitting a home so that it has low natural infiltration rates and by using a heat exchanger-ventilation system, a homeowner can save energy, reduce heating and cooling costs, and prevent the buildup of indoor-generated air contaminants. Results obtained on five different residential heat exchangers are presented. The performance criteria and the test facility are described. The performance parameters measured were heat exchanger effectiveness (a measure of heat transfer ability), airstream static pressure drop, and fan system performance. The performance of the five heat exchangers differed greatly. The ability to transfer heat ranged from 43% to 75% of the theoretical maximum. The resistance to air flow varied by a factor of two. One of the heat exchangers was highly susceptible to leakage between airstreams and one had an unstable performance. In the future, additional heat exchangers will be tested, a new test system will be used to measure cross-stream leakage, and the possibility and consequences of freeze-up within the heat exchangers will be investigated.

  12. Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesqu, B; Allaire, S; Gauvin, D; Koutrakis, P; Gingras, S; Rhainds, M; Prud'Homme, H; Duchesne, J F

    2001-12-17

    Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among occupants of wood-heated homes. One child attending primary school (median = 8 years old; range = 5-14 years old) and an adult (median = 37 years old; range = 23-52 years old) were recruited in each eligible house. Eligible houses were without known sources of combustion products (smokers, attached garage, oil or gas furnace, gas stove, etc.) except for wood-burning appliance. Out of the 89 houses included in the study, 59 had wood-burning appliances. Formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide were measured in a sub-set of 49 houses (41 with a wood-burning appliance and 8 without). The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases among participants were documented using a daily symptom diary. Concentrations of contaminants were low in most houses, both with or without a wood-burning appliance. Globally, there was no consistent relationship between the presence of a wood-burning appliance and respiratory morbidity in residents. Nevertheless, residents who mentioned being exposed to fumes emitted by such an appliance reported more respiratory illnesses and symptoms. The presence of animals or molds, and keeping windows closed most of the time in winter were other factors associated with respiratory problems. We conclude that wood burning appears to be a respiratory health risk for occupants if the appliance is not maintained and used properly.

  13. Association of Sick Building Syndrome with Indoor Air Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Khajevandi, Ali Asghar; Mousavi Najarkola, Seyed Ali; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Omidi, Leila; Kalantary, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis in 1973 led to smaller residential and office buildings with lower air changes. This resulted in development of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). The objective of this study was to assess the association of SBS with individual factors and indoor air pollutants among employees in two office buildings of Petroleum Industry Health Organization in Tehran city. The association between personal and environmental factors and SBS symptoms was examined by a reliable and valid combined questionnaire. Environmental parameters were measured using calibrated instruments. The results suggested that SBS symptoms were more common in women than men. Malaise and headache were the most common symptoms in women and men. Throat dryness, cough, sputum, and wheezing were less prevalent among employees in both offices. Light-intensity was significantly associated with some symptoms such as skin dryness (P = 0.049), eye pain (P = 0.026), and malaise (P = 0.043). There were no significant differences in prevalence of SBS symptoms between female workers of the two offices (P>0.05). The main causes of SBS among the employees were recycling of air in rooms using fan coils, traffic noise, poor lighting, and buildings located in a polluted metropolitan area.

  14. Impact of surface ozone interactions on indoor air chemistry: A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruza, M; Lewis, A C; Morrison, G C; Carslaw, N

    2017-09-01

    An INdoor air Detailed Chemical Model was developed to investigate the impact of ozone reactions with indoor surfaces (including occupants), on indoor air chemistry in simulated apartments subject to ambient air pollution. The results are consistent with experimental studies showing that approximately 80% of ozone indoors is lost through deposition to surfaces. The human body removes ozone most effectively from indoor air per square meter of surface, but the most significant surfaces for C6 -C10 aldehyde formation are soft furniture and painted walls owing to their large internal surfaces. Mixing ratios of between 8 and 11 ppb of C6 -C10 aldehydes are predicted to form in apartments in various locations in summer, the highest values are when ozone concentrations are enhanced outdoors. The most important aldehyde formed indoors is predicted to be nonanal (5-7 ppb), driven by oxidation-derived emissions from painted walls. In addition, ozone-derived emissions from human skin were estimated for a small bedroom at nighttime with concentrations of nonanal, decanal, and 4-oxopentanal predicted to be 0.5, 0.7, and 0.7 ppb, respectively. A detailed chemical analysis shows that ozone-derived surface aldehyde emissions from materials and people change chemical processing indoors, through enhanced formation of nitrated organic compounds and decreased levels of oxidants. © 2017 The Authors. Indoor Air Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Hyun Kim; Ji-Yeon Yang; Jae-Young Lee; Jung-Won Park; Kwang-Jin Kim; Byung-Seo Lim; Geon-Woo Lee; Si-Eun Lee; Dong-Chun Shin; Young-Wook Lim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with ind...

  16. Development of an England-wide indoor overheating and air pollution model using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Symonds, P. H.; Taylor, J.; Chalabi, Z.; Mavrogianni, A.; Davies, M.; Hamilton, I.; Vardoulakis, S.; Heaviside, C.; Macintyre, H.

    2016-01-01

    With the UK climate projected to warm in future decades, there is an increased research focus on the risks of indoor overheating. Energy-efficient building adaptations may modify a buildings risk of overheating and the infiltration of air pollution from outdoor sources. This paper presents the development of a national model of indoor overheating and air pollution, capable of modelling the existing and future building stocks, along with changes to the climate, outdoor air pollution levels, an...

  17. Design and Development of a Nearable Wireless System to Control Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Lighting Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Galanos, Theodore; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2017-05-04

    The article describes the results of the project "open source smart lamp" aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ), by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ), indoor lighting quality (ILQ) and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ.

  18. Design and Development of a Nearable Wireless System to Control Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Lighting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the project “open source smart lamp” aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ, indoor lighting quality (ILQ and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ.

  19. Design and Development of a Nearable Wireless System to Control Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Lighting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Galanos, Theodore; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the results of the project “open source smart lamp” aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ), by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ), indoor lighting quality (ILQ) and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ. PMID:28471398

  20. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  1. Global burden of disease as a result of indoor air pollution in Shaanxi, Hubei and Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestl, Heidi E S; Edwards, Rufus

    2011-03-15

    Indoor air pollution in developing countries is a major global health problem, yet estimates of the global burden of disease vary widely and are associated with large uncertainty. The World Health Organization uses the fuel based approach to estimate 1.6 million premature deaths globally each year associated with exposure to indoor air pollution, of which 420000 are in China. The fuel based approach uses a ventilation factor to account for differences in indoor air concentrations and exposures in different parts of the world based on regional differences in stove technology. In China this approach assumes that flues eliminate the majority of indoor air pollution, with a ventilation factor of 0.25. To account for historic exposure leading to current disease patterns the ventilation factor was adjusted to 0.5 for adult health endpoints. Measurements in three Chinese provinces, Shaanxi, Hubei and Zhejiang, however, show that high PM(4) concentrations are present in kitchens and living rooms even with stoves with flues as a result of multiple stove and flue use. Comparison of Indian and Chinese indoor air concentrations suggests more appropriate ventilation factors in the range 0.76-1.0 for women and children, and 1.0 for men. Premature mortality in the three provinces using these estimates would be closer to 60600, rather than current estimates of 46000. With the addition of cardiovascular diseases these estimates would increase by 92000. Pollutant based estimates using measured indoor air concentrations and combined with dose-response estimates would imply a burden of disease of 157800 premature deaths including cardiovascular diseases, a tripling of current estimates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of wood stove technology upgrades on indoor residential air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan W.; Leckie, Sara; Millar, Gail; Brauer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) air pollution has been linked to adverse health impacts, and combustion sources including residential wood-burning may play an important role in some regions. Recent evidence suggests that indoor air quality may improve in homes where older, non-certified wood stoves are exchanged for lower emissions EPA-certified alternatives. As part of a wood stove exchange program in northern British Columbia, Canada, we sampled outdoor and indoor air at 15 homes during 6-day sampling sessions both before and after non-certified wood stoves were exchanged. During each sampling session two consecutive 3-day PM 2.5 samples were collected onto Teflon filters, which were weighed and analyzed for the wood smoke tracer levoglucosan. Residential PM 2.5 infiltration efficiencies ( Finf) were estimated from continuous light scattering measurements made with nephelometers, and estimates of Finf were used to calculate the outdoor- and indoor-generated contributions to indoor air. There was not a consistent relationship between stove technology and outdoor or indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 or levoglucosan. Mean Finf estimates were low and similar during pre- and post-exchange periods (0.32 ± 0.17 and 0.33 ± 0.17, respectively). Indoor sources contributed the majority (˜65%) of the indoor PM 2.5 concentrations, independent of stove technology, although low indoor-outdoor levoglucosan ratios (median ≤ 0.19) and low indoor PM 2.5-levoglucosan correlations ( r ≤ 0.19) suggested that wood smoke was not a major indoor PM 2.5 source in most of these homes. In summary, despite the potential for extensive wood stove exchange programs to reduce outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations in wood smoke-impacted communities, we did not find a consistent relationship between stove technology upgrades and indoor air quality improvements in homes where stoves were exchanged.

  3. Feasibility of Carbonaceous Nanomaterial-Assisted Photocatalysts Calcined at Different Temperatures for Indoor Air Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kuen Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of multiwall carbon nanotube-assisted TiO2 (MWNT-TiO2 nanocomposites calcined at different temperatures to assess their potential indoor air applications. It was confirmed that the composites calcined at low temperatures (300 and 400°C contained TiO2 nanoparticles bound intimately to the MWNT networks. Meanwhile, almost no MWNTs were observed when the calcination temperature was increased to 500 and 600°C. The MWNT-TiO2 composites calcined at low temperatures showed higher photocatalytic decomposition efficiencies for aromatic hydrocarbons at indoor concentrations than those calcined at high temperatures. The mean efficiencies for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX by the composite calcined at 300°C were 32, 70, 79, and 79%, respectively, whereas they were 33, 71, 78, and 78% for the composite calcined at 400°C, respectively. In contrast, the efficiencies decreased to close to zero when the calcination temperature was increased to 600°C. Moreover, the MWNT-TiO2 exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the decomposition efficiencies compared to TiO2 under conventional UV-lamp irradiations. Consequently, these carbonaceous nanomaterial-assisted photocatalysts can be applied effectively to indoor air applications depending upon the calcination temperature.

  4. Investigation of an Indoor Air Quality Sensor for Asthma Management in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimini, Utkarshani; Banerjee, Tanvi; Romine, William; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit; Kalra, Maninder

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring indoor air quality is critical because Americans spend 93% of their life indoors, and around 6.3 million children suffer from asthma. We want to passively and unobtrusively monitor the asthma patient's environment to detect the presence of two asthma-exacerbating activities: smoking and cooking using the Foobot sensor. We propose a data-driven approach to develop a continuous monitoring-activity detection system aimed at understanding and improving indoor air quality in asthma management. In this study, we were successfully able to detect a high concentration of particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and carbon dioxide during cooking and smoking activities. We detected 1) smoking with an error rate of 1%; 2) cooking with an error rate of 11%; and 3) obtained an overall 95.7% percent accuracy classification across all events (control, cooking and smoking). Such a system will allow doctors and clinicians to correlate potential asthma symptoms and exacerbation reports from patients with environmental factors without having to personally be present.

  5. School buildings and indoor air quality: diagnostic procedures and criteria for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Lucarelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research - referred in this report - comes from a doctoral thesis entitled Indoor air quality control. Intervention criteria for environmental and technological restoration of school buildings; research that has shown the actual relationship between the degradation of school buildings, the levels of indoor air pollution and the effects on the health of the occupants. This study path is subsequently directed to the analysis of unavoidable dependencies that exist between the aspects of the healthiness of the indoor air and the energy performance of buildings in order to provide, through the use of a diagnostic protocol, useful information for the definition of redevelopment interventions.

  6. Indoor air quality assessment in the air traffic control tower of the Athens Airport, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmis, Costas G; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D; Flocas, Helena A; Stathopoulou, Ourania I; Sgouros, George; Hatzaki, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort in the Athens Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) offices of Hellinicon building complex, which is mechanically ventilated, is presented. Measurements of PM(10), PM(2.5), TVOCs and CO(2) concentrations were performed during three experimental cycles, while the Thom Discomfort Index was calculated to describe the employees' feeling of discomfort. The aim of the first cycle was to identify the IAQ status, the second to investigate the effectiveness of certain measures taken, and the third to continuously monitor and control IAQ. During the first two cycles, daily spot measurements of TVOCs and CO(2) were performed at various indoor locations and at the respective outdoor air intake positions, in addition with mean 24-h spot measurements of indoor PM(10) and PM(2.5). Results revealed that pollution levels vary according to the occupancy and the kind of activity. Following that, an automated system (IMAS) was designed and employed to continuously monitor indoor and outdoor CO(2), TVOCs, temperature and relative humidity. The ultimate scope was to control the IAQ and offer acceptable comfort conditions to the employees, whose work is of special nature and extremely demanding. Intervention scenarios were formulated and applied to the system to improve indoor conditions, when and where necessary. Regarding the third cycle, 1-year measurements collected from the system to examine its effectiveness. While it was shown that discomfort may be attributed to co-existence of unsatisfactory thermal comfort conditions and IAQ, usually the sole predominant factor of discomfort feeling is thermal comfort.

  7. [Indoor air quality and parents of asthmatic children practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larramendy Magnin, S; Desssome, B; Moret, L

    2017-09-01

    Indoor air pollution can worsen asthma in children. Better knowledge of factors determining parents' reception of recommendations to limit pollution of indoor air in the homes of asthmatic children would be helpful to improve implementation. A descriptive study evaluating practices known to have an impact on the quality of air in homes was conducted among parents of asthmatic children aged 3 to 16 years. From May to September 2013, parents answered anonymous self-administered questionnaires in waiting rooms of generalist practitioners, in the Nantes University pneumology pediatric outpatient clinic, and as part of therapeutic education sessions conducted by the Asthma-44 Network. There were 190 exploitable questionnaires: 88.2% of parents reported never smoking in the home; 48.4% used home fragrance in the living room at least once a week; 77.8% opened their children's bedroom windows more than 10minutes at least once a day; 32.6% used several cleaning products or bleach once or twice a week. Good practices concerning smoking in housing were applied less in homes where the child was monitored only by a general practitioner (OR=0.08; CI[0.02-0.34]). Good practices on the use of perfume were statistically linked to having an intermediate level occupation (OR=2.31; CI[1.01-5.32]) and being followed by the university hospital, by the asthma network or by a general practitioner if the child had already consulted a pneumo-pediatrician or an allergist (OR=0.24; CI[0.07-0.81]). Good ventilation practices forchildren's bedrooms were statistically linked to residing in a rural rather than urban setting (OR=4.72; CI[1.0-22.16]). Practices observed in parents of asthmatic children differ little from those of the general population. Recommendations on how to limit sources of chemical pollutants, with the exception of smoking, are still poorly applied. Specialist consultations and specific training for general practitioners should improve the penetration

  8. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr-1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 μg/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 μg/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  9. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in developing countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brendon R

    2014-04-25

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983-2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%-98% in laboratory settings and 31%-94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1) based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2) have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies) to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  10. A comparative study on indoor air quality in a low cost and a green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    components by providing tentative values for emissions and airborne concentrations of pollutants. “Green” or “sustainable” buildings use key resources like ..... Indoor air quality in homes, offices and restaurants in Korean urban areas – indoor/outdoor relation- ships, Atmos. Environ. 31: 529–544. Benson FB, Henderson JJ, ...

  11. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample ...

  12. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m-3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m-3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m-3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10-4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene

  13. Evaluating heterogeneity in indoor and outdoor air pollution using land-use regression and constrained factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan I; Clougherty, Jane E; Baxter, Lisa K; Houseman, E Andres; Paciorek, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic exposures and a variety of adverse health effects, but many of these studies relied on proximity measures rather than measured or modeled concentrations of specific air pollutants, complicating interpretability of the findings. An increasing number of studies have used land-use regression (LUR) or other techniques to model small-scale variability in concentrations of specific air pollutants. However, these studies have generally considered a limited number of pollutants, focused on outdoor concentrations (or indoor concentrations of ambient origin) when indoor concentrations are better proxies for personal exposures, and have not taken full advantage of statistical methods for source apportionment that may have provided insight about the structure of the LUR models and the interpretability of model results. Given these issues, the primary objective of our study was to determine predictors of indoor and outdoor residential concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within an urban area, based on a combination of central site monitoring data; geographic information system (GIS) covariates reflecting traffic and other outdoor sources; questionnaire data reflecting indoor sources and activities that affect ventilation rates; and factor-analytic methods to better infer source contributions. As part of a prospective birth cohort study assessing asthma etiology in urban Boston, we collected indoor and/or outdoor 3-to-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5) at 44 residences during multiple seasons of the year from 2003 through 2005. We performed reflectance analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on particle filters to estimate the concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), trace elements, and water-soluble metals, respectively. We derived

  14. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. [Impact of smoking ban at indoor public places on indoor air quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Nazmi; Özcebe, Hilal

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at evaluation of the effect of smoke-free policy at hospitality workplaces on indoor air quality. Study includes 151 hospitality venues (restaurants, cafes, bars and tea-houses) at eight provinces of Turkey. PM2.5 measurements were done at each of the venues three months prior to, and 4-5 months after the implementation of smoking ban at the same venues. Measurements were done using SidePak 2.5 by two engineers. During the 30 minutes of measurement, the device takes multiple samples, measures PM2.5 particles, and calculates the average value and standard deviation of the measurements. Using the measurement results two kinds of evaluation were done: in each province, increase/decrease after implementation for each of the venues included in the study was evaluated, and average PM2.5 values were calculated for provinces using the PM2.5 values of the venues in the province. The average PM2.5 values before the implementation were higher than the post implementation values in general. Nevertheless, in some provinces higher values were found during the second measurements, particularly at the restaurants. Therefore, there is need to enforce the smoking ban at the hospitality workplaces.

  16. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, Ai; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, Azf; Nizar, Am; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, Aa; Yunos, Ma Syafiq; Anita, Ar; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, Ms; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, Mn Mohamad; Azizan, Hs; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, Ft

    2012-01-01

    To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a categorizing method for further IAQ

  17. Emissions of two phthalate esters and BDE 209 to indoor air and their impact on urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Anna Palm; Holmgren, Tomas; Remberger, Mikael

    2014-02-01

    Estimated emissions of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE 209) and the two phthalate esters diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) to indoor air in the Stockholm conurbation, Sweden were used to assess the contribution of chemical outflows from the indoor environment to urban outdoor air pollution for these substances, by applying the recently developed Stockholm MUltimedia URban fate (SMURF) model. Emission rates of DINP from PVC materials were measured and published emission rates of DEHP were adapted to Swedish conditions. These were used as input to the model, as well as recently reported estimates of BDE 209 emissions to indoor air in Stockholm. Model predicted concentrations were compared to empirical monitoring data obtained from the literature and from additional measurements of phthalates in ventilation outlets and urban air performed in the current study. The predicted concentrations of the phthalates DINP and DEHP in indoor air and dust were within a factor of 1.5-10 of the measured concentrations. For BDE 209, predicted indoor concentrations were within the measured ranges, but measured concentrations showed a much larger variability. An adjusted emission scenario to better fit observed concentrations indoors was employed for DEHP and final outcomes resulted in estimated indoor emissions of 250 (50-1250), 2.9 (0.58-15), and 0.068 (0.014-0.34) kg year(-1) for DEHP, DINP and BDE 209. These emissions could not explain the observed concentrations in urban air of the phthalates, suggesting an underestimation of background inflow or existence of additional sources in the outdoor environment. For BDE 209, the assessment indicates that the Stockholm indoor environment contributes about 25% to the air pollution load in inflowing background air, but additional monitoring data in urban air are needed to confirm this conclusion. © 2013.

  18. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 μm), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds in large buildings: pollution levels and remaining issues after revision of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Michihiro; Shibata, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Tamie

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify indoor air pollution levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in large buildings after revising of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002. We measured indoor air VOC concentrations in 57 (97%) out of a total of 61 large buildings completed within one year in half of the area of Nagoya, Japan, from 2003 through 2007. Airborne concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were determined with diffusion samplers and high-performance liquid chromatography, and of the other 32 VOCs with diffusion samplers and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde was detected in all samples of indoor air but the concentrations were lower than the indoor air quality standard value set in Japan (100 microg/m3). Geometric mean concentrations of the other major VOCs, namely toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene and acetaldehyde were also low. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominating VOCs in indoor air of large buildings. A few rooms in a small number of buildings surveyed showed high concentrations of 2E1H, while low concentrations were observed in most rooms of those buildings as well as in other buildings. It was estimated that about 310 buildings had high indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H, with increase during the 5 years from 2003 in Japan. Indoor air pollution levels of VOCs in new large buildings are generally good, although a few rooms in a small number of buildings showed high concentrations in 2E1H, a possible causative chemical in sick building symptoms. Therefore, 2E1H needs particular attention as an important indoor air pollutant.

  20. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM 2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m 3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 µg/m 3 ). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO 2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM 10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of indoor air pollution and trends of

  1. Indoor Air Quality and Sick Building Syndrome Study at Two Selected Libraries in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the association between sick building syndrome (SBS and indoor air pollutants in two libraries. 101 workers in both libraries responded to the questionnaire, which was based on Malaysian Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality 2010 (MCPIAQ for the measurement of SBS occurrences. Measurements of indoor air quality were also performed according to the MCPIAQ methods. Higher prevalence of SBS recorded in Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah (PSZ, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, compared to Perpustakaan Sultan Ismail (PSI (X2 = 38.81, p = 0.000, Johor Bahru City. Significantly higher levels of indoor air pollutants were detected in PSZ compare to PSI for CO, CO2, temperature, bacteria, fungi and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC, while PSI indicated higher level of relative humidity (RH. The levels of CO2, temperature, humidity, TVOC and bacteria counts were the possible major factors contributing to SBS complaints among the workers of both libraries.

  2. FIAM-pwp-Formaldehyde Indoor Air Model – Pressed Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Formaldehyde Indoor Air Model-pressed wood products (FIAM-pwp) user guide contains information on the equations and defaults used to estimate exposure from formaldehye emitted from pressed wood products.

  3. Indoor air quality in an automotive assembly plant in Selangor, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edimansyah, B A; Rusli, B N; Naing, L; Azwan, B A; Aziah, B D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the indoor air quality (IAQ) status of an automotive assembly plant in Rawang, Selangor, Malaysia using selected IAQ parameters, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO...

  4. HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AND POTENTIAL INDOOR AIR POLLUTION ISSUES IN RURAL INDONESIAN COMMUNITIES USING FUELWOOD ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Setiyo Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two rural communities using fuel wood energy in mountainous and coastal areas of Java island in Indonesia have been surveyed to know their household characteristics and the related potential indoor air pollution issues. By random sampling, we characterized fuel wood users only. The fuel wood use was mainly due to economic reason since some of the users were categorized as low-income families. Communities in the mountainous area were exposed to higher risk of indoor air pollution than those in coastal area due to their house characteristics and behavior during cooking. Both communities, however, were aware of indoor air pollution issues and indicated the sources. They also prioritized the factors to be controlled, which they perceived as the main cause of indoor air pollution problem.

  5. Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged - An air filtration-based intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, E.V.; Forchhammer, L.; Moller, P.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Exposure to particulate matter is associated with risk of cardiovascular events, possibly through endothelial dysfunction, and indoor air may be most important. Objectives: We investigated effects of controlled exposure to indoor air particles on microvascular function (MVF...... factors, P-selectin, plasma amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, protein oxidation measured as 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in plasma, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha, and blood pressure. Indoor air filtration significantly improved MVF by 8.1% (95% confidence...... fraction. After Bonferroni correction, none of the secondary biomarkers changed significantly. Conclusions: Reduction of particle exposure by filtration of recirculated indoor air for only 48 hours improved MVF in healthy elderly citizens, suggesting that this may be a feasible way of reducing the risk...

  6. Indoor air pollution and lung function growth among children in four Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Chapman, R S; Hu, W; Wei, F; Liu, X; Zhang, J

    2012-02-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with decreased growth in lung function among children; but little is known about the impact of indoor air pollution. We examined relationships between indoor air pollution metrics and lung function growth, among children (n = 3273) aged 6-13 years living in four Chinese cities. Lung function parameters (FVC and FEV(1) ) were measured twice a year. Questionnaires were used to determine home coal burning and ventilation practices. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations. Use of coal as a household fuel was associated with 16.5 ml/year lower (33%, P indoor coal use impairs children's lung development but also point to the importance of improving ventilation conditions in reducing harmful effects of indoor air pollution sources. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. School Indoor Air Quality Assessments Go Mobile / EPA Launches School IAQ Assessment Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today launched a new mobile app to assist schools and school districts with performing comprehensive indoor air quality (IAQ) facility assessments to protect the health of children and sch

  8. Effect of Reducing Indoor Air Pollution on Women's Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function: The RESPIRE Randomized Trial, Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Díaz, Esperanza; Pope, Dan; Lie, Rolv T; Díaz, Anaite; McCracken, John; Bakke, Per; Arana, Byron; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    .... The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) is a randomized intervention trial evaluating the respiratory health effects of reducing indoor air pollution from open cooking fires...

  9. Removal of fine and ultrafine particles from indoor air environments by the unipolar ion emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uk Lee, Byung; Yermakov, Mikhail; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2004-09-01

    The continuous emission of unipolar ions was evaluated in order to determine its ability to remove fine and ultrafine particles from indoor air environments. The evolution of the indoor aerosol concentration and particle size distribution was measured in real time with the ELPI in a room-size (24.3 m3) test chamber where the ion emitter was operating. After the results were compared with the natural decay, the air cleaning factor was determined. The particle aerodynamic size range of ∼0.04-2 μm was targeted because it represents many bioaerosol agents that cause emerging diseases, as well as those that can be used for biological warfare or in the event of bioterrorism. The particle electric charge distribution (also measured in the test chamber with the ELPI) was rapidly affected by the ion emission. It was concluded that the corona discharge ion emitters (either positive or negative), which are capable of creating an ion density of 105-106 e± cm-3, can be efficient in controlling fine and ultrafine aerosol pollutants in indoor air environments, such as a typical office or residential room. At a high ion emission rate, the particle mobility becomes sufficient so that the particle migration results in their deposition on the walls and other indoor surfaces. Within the tested ranges of the particle size and ion density, the particles were charged primarily due to the diffusion charging mechanism. The particle removal efficiency was not significantly affected by the particle size, while it increased with increasing ion emission rate and the time of emission. The performance characteristics of three commercially available ionic air purifiers, which produce unipolar ions by corona discharge at relatively high emission rates, were evaluated. A 30-minute operation of the most powerful device among those tested resulted in the removal of about 97% of 0.1 μm particles and about 95% of 1 μm particles from the air in addition to the natural decay effect.

  10. Biomass fuel use and indoor air pollution in homes in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, D G; Semple, S; Kalambo, F; Suseno, A; Malamba, R; Henderson, G; Ayres, J G; Gordon, S B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from biomass fuels in Africa is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity both in adults and children. The work describes the nature and quantity of smoke exposure from biomass fuel in Malawian homes. Methods: Markers of indoor air quality were measured in 62 homes (31 rural and 31 urban) over a typical 24 h period. Four different devices were used (one gravimetric device, two photometric devices and a carbon monoxide (HOBO) monitor. Gravimetric samples were analysed for transition metal content. Data on cooking and lighting fuel type together with information on indicators of socioeconomic status were collected by questionnaire. Results: Respirable dust levels in both the urban and rural environment were high with the mean (SD) 24 h average levels being 226 μg/m3 (206 μg/m3). Data from real-time instruments indicated respirable dust concentrations were >250 μg/m3 for >1 h per day in 52% of rural homes and 17% of urban homes. Average carbon monoxide levels were significantly higher in urban compared with rural homes (6.14 ppm vs 1.87 ppm; pIndoor air pollution levels in Malawian homes are high. Further investigation is justified because the levels that we have demonstrated are hazardous and are likely to be damaging to health. Interventions should be sought to reduce exposure to concentrations less harmful to health. PMID:19671533

  11. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation for Indoor AirApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Sullivan, D.P.; Fisk, W.J.

    2006-02-01

    Acceptable indoor air quality in office buildings may be achieved with less energy by combining effective air cleaning systems for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with particle filtration then by relying solely on ventilation. For such applications, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) systems are being developed for VOC destruction. An experimental evaluation of a UVPCO system is reported. The evaluation was unique in that it employed complex mixtures of VOCs commonly found in office buildings at realistically low concentrations. VOC conversion efficiencies varied over a broad range, usually exceeded 20%, and were as high as {approx}80%. Conversion efficiency generally diminished with increased air flow rate. Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were produced due to incomplete mineralization. The results indicate that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde production rates may need to be reduced before such UVPCO systems can be deployed safely in occupied buildings.

  12. Long-term indoor air conditioner filtration and cardiovascular health: A randomized crossover intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Ho, Kin-Fai; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ma, Chi-Ming; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2017-09-01

    The association of short-term air pollution filtration with cardiovascular health has been documented. However, the effect of long-term indoor air conditioner filtration on the association between air pollution and cardiovascular health is still unclear. We recruited 200 homemakers from Taipei and randomly assigned 100 of them to air filtration or control intervention; six home visits were conducted per year from 2013 to 2014. The participants under air filtration intervention during 2013 were reassigned to control intervention in 2014. The air pollution measurements consisted of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ) and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs); blood pressure was monitored for each participant during each visit. The following morning, blood samples were collected after air pollution monitoring. The blood samples were used to analyze biological markers, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and fibrinogen. Household information, including cleaning, cooking, and air conditioning, was collected by a questionnaire. Mixed-effects models were used to investigate the associations among air pollution measurements, blood pressure and biological markers. The results showed that increased levels of PM 2.5 and total VOCs were associated with increased hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and blood pressure. The health variables were higher among participants in the control intervention phase than among those in the air filtration intervention phase. We concluded that air pollution exposure was associated with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and elevated blood pressure. The long-term filtration of air pollution with an air conditioner filter was associated with cardiovascular health of adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indoor air quality investigation according to age of the school buildings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jongryeul; Yang, Wonho; Kim, Jihwan; Son, Busoon; Park, Jinchul

    2009-01-01

    Since the majority of schools are housed in buildings dating from the 1960s and 1970s, a comprehensive construction and renovation program of school buildings has been carried out to improve the educational conditions in Korea. However, classrooms and computer rooms, with pressed wood desks, chairs and furnishings, as well as construction materials, might have negative effects on the indoor air quality. Furthermore, most schools have naturally ventilated classrooms. The purpose of this study was to characterize the concentrations of different indoor air pollutants within Korean schools and to compare their indoor levels within schools according to the age of school buildings. Indoor and outdoor air samples of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), particulate matter (PM(10)), total microbial count (TBC), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were obtained during summer, autumn and winter from three sites; a classroom, a laboratory and a computer classroom at 55 different schools. The selection of the schools was based on the number of years since the schools had been constructed. The problems causing indoor air pollution at the schools were chemicals emitted by building materials or furnishings, and insufficient ventilation rates. The I/O ratio for HCHO was 6.32 during the autumn, and the indoor HCHO concentrations (mean = 0.16 ppm) in schools constructed within 1 year were significantly higher than the Korean Indoor Air Standard, indicating that schools have indoor sources of HCHO. Therefore, increasing the ventilation rate by means of a mechanical system and the use of low-emission furnishings can play key roles in improving the indoor air quality within schools.

  14. Per- and polyfluorinated compounds in house dust and indoor air from northern Norway - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sandra; Haug, Line Småstuen; Schlabach, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are an extremely versatile class of compounds and are used in a variety of consumer applications and products. Recent studies have suggested that PFCs in indoor air and dust could act as sources of human exposure and outdoor air contamination. This study presents method development and analysis of a wide range of PFCs in dust and air using active sampling techniques with commercially available sampling equipment (forensic nozzles with filter housings for dust collection and polyurethane foam (PUF)-XAD(2)-PUF sandwich-tubes for air sampling) using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated and tested for applicability to analyze dust and air samples at both low and high concentrations (0.5 ng and 25 ng per analyte per air sample, respectively). Samples from private households and an office building were analyzed to explore differences in distribution patterns and concentrations. Perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorodecane sulfonate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate and perfluorononanoate were observed in all samples of dust from private households, in the range from 1 to 80.1 ng g(-1). Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were the predominant PFCs in indoor air samples with ∑FTOHs ranging between 4.7 and 17.9 ng m(-3). The concentrations found in the present study are generally lower than those previously reported. This variation may be due to differences associated with geographical locations and lifestyles. However, use of different sampling techniques and strategies among studies can introduce large variations in PFC concentration found, making direct comparisons challenging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Employment change for bars and restaurants following a statewide clean indoor air policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Forster, Jean L; Collins, Natalie M; Erickson, Darin J; Toomey, Traci L

    2010-12-01

    Clean indoor air policies have been adopted to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Despite numerous studies where no significant economic effects were associated with clean indoor air policies, concerns persist that such policies will have a severe, negative effect on alcohol-licensed businesses. This study examines the effect of a comprehensive, statewide clean indoor air law on bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota as a whole, as well as by region in the state. Interrupted time-series analyses were conducted separately on bar and restaurant employment between 2004 and 2008 using data reported by businesses to the Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. The statewide clean indoor air policy was implemented October 2007; analyses were conducted in 2009. After accounting for changes in employment in all other sectors for the state as a whole, there were no significant changes in statewide bar or restaurant employment associated with the state-level clean indoor air policy. Additionally, no significant changes were observed in regional bar or restaurant employment following enactment of the clean indoor air policy. Enactment of a comprehensive clean indoor air policy in Minnesota did not result in significant changes in bar or restaurant employment in rural or urban regions of the state or the state as a whole. In Minnesota, neither bars nor restaurants were associated with significant changes in employment following the enactment of a comprehensive, statewide clean indoor air policy. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Household Characteristics and Potential Indoor Air Pollution Issues in Rural Indonesian Communities Using Fuelwood Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Huboyo, Haryono Setiyo

    2015-01-01

    Two rural communities using fuel wood energy in mountainous and coastal areas of Java island in Indonesia have been surveyed to know their household characteristics and the related potential indoor air pollution issues. By random sampling, we characterized fuel wood users only. The fuel wood use was mainly due to economic reason since some of the users were categorized as low-income families. Communities in the mountainous area were exposed to higher risk of indoor air pollution than those in...

  17. THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDYING OF RADON INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION IN THE JEWISH AUTONOMOUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Surits

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An article presents the results of radon indoor air concentration estimations for dwellings and public buildings of the Jewish Autonomous region in 2000–2011. More than 15 000 measurements were carried out in all areas of the region during the entire observation period. Areas with an enhanced radon content in indoor air were revealed. The maximum values are registered in Obluchensky area, in separate buildings reaching 2 000 Bq/m3.

  18. Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged: an air filtration-based intervention study.

    OpenAIRE

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; Moller, Peter; Barregard, Lars; Gunnarsen, Lars; Afshari, Alireza; Wahlin, Peter; Glasius, Marianne; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Basu, Samar; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Comment in:Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Feb 15;177(4):366-367. RATIONALE: Exposure to particulate matter is associated with risk of cardiovascular events, possibly through endothelial dysfunction, and indoor air may be most important. OBJECTIVES: We investigated effects of controlled exposure to indoor air particles on microvascular function (MVF) as the primary endpoint and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress as secondary endpoints in a healthy elderly population. METHODS: ...

  19. Combustion Processes Indoors: a Source of High OH Radical Concentrations Through the Photolysis of Hono

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, V.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Glor, M.; Gligorovski, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Quivet, E.; Strekowski, R.; Zetzsch, C.; Held, A. B.; Wortham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) is one of the most important oxidant species in the atmosphere controlling its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are photolysis of ozone and photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO), among the others. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as the main OH formation pathway. The possibility for OH formation through photolytic pathways in the indoor environment has been, up to now, ignored (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2012). Models and indirect measurements to the present time predicted concentrations of OH radicals in the order of 104 -105 cm-3. Recently, by direct measurements we have detected high OH radical concentrations of 1.8 106 cm-3 in a classroom in Marseille and we demonstrated that its main source is the photolysis of HONO (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2013). The concentrations of HONO are quite high indoors, reaching levels in the order of a few tens of ppbV (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2013). This is mainly due to 1) direct combustion sources and 2) heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on the numerous surfaces present in the indoor environment. HONO levels of 30 ppb were measured in a previous campaign carried out in Bayreuth in July 2012 as direct emissions from the combustion of a candle. The combination between so high concentrations of HONO and higher than expected light transmissions indoors (or indoor artificial lighting) could have a significant impact on the OH concentrations indoors which could feasibly become considerably higher than we measured in our school campaign (Gomez Alvarez et al., 2013). In order to evaluate these upper limits under combustion conditions in the indoor environment, we have carried out a campaign in the LOTASC chamber (Bayreuth, Germany). For this aim, the exhaust fumes from the burning of a commonly used domestic candle have been introduced in the chamber. The chamber was irradiated under well research indoor lighting conditions. A thorough characterization of light intensities

  20. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhua; Li, Nianping; Lv, Yang; Liu, Jing; Xie, Jingchao; Zhang, Huibo

    2017-08-29

    Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO₂, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9-12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (70%), CO₂ concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM 2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in house dust. Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO₂ exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM 2.5 , Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children's allergies.

  1. Influence of a portable air treatment unit on health-related quality indicators of indoor air in a classroom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Hout, S.P. van; Anzion, R.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    During periods of two weeks in February and June 2010 the performance of portable air treatment units (PATUs) was evaluated in a primary school classroom using indicators of indoor air quality. Air samples were collected in an undisturbed setting on weekend days and in an occupied setting during

  2. Quantile regression of indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, Uwe; Thiem, Alexander; Kohajda, Tibor; Richter, Matthias; Strebel, Kathrin

    2010-08-15

    There are many factors determining the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. On the basis of 601 population-based measurements we develop an explicit exposure model that includes factors, such as renovation, furniture, flat size, smoking, and education level of the occupants. As a novel method for the evaluation of concentrations of indoor air pollutants we use quantile regression, which has the advantages of robustness against non-Gaussian distributions (and outliers) and can adjust for unbalanced frequencies of observations. The applied bi- and multivariate quantile regressions provide (1) the VOC burden that is representative for the population of Leipzig, Germany, and (2) an inter-comparison of the effects of the studied factors and their levels. As a result, we find strong evidence for factors of general impact on most VOC components, such as the season, flooring, the type of the room, and the size of the apartment. Other impact factors are very specific to the VOC components. For example, wooden flooring (parquet) and new furniture increase the concentration of terpenes as well as the modifying factors high education and sampling in the child's room. Smokers ventilate their flats in an extent that in general reduces the VOC concentrations, except for benzene (contained in tobacco smoke), which is still higher in smoking than in non-smoking flats. Very often dampness is associated with an increased VOC burden in indoor air. An investigation of mixtures emphasises a high burden of co-occurring terpenes in very small and very large apartments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes to indoor air quality as a result of relocating families from slums to public housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Soledad; Ruiz, Pablo; Koifman, Rosalina

    2013-05-01

    One largely unstudied benefit of relocating families from slums to public housing is the potential improvement in indoor air quality (IAQ). We compared families that moved from slums to public housing with those that remained living in slums in Santiago, Chile in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as main indicator of change. A cross-sectional study of 98 relocated families and 71 still living in slums was carried out, obtaining indoor and outdoor samples by a Personal Environmental Monitor. Home characteristics, including indoor air pollution sources were collected through questionnaires. Multivariate regression models included the intervention (public housing or slum), indoor pollution sources, outdoor PM2.5 and family characteristics as predictors. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were higher in slums (77.8 μg m-3 [SD = 35.7 μg m-3]) than in public housing (55.7 μg m-3 [SD = 34.6 μg m-3], p intervention significantly decreased indoor PM2.5 (10.4 μg m-3) after adjusting by the other predictors. Outdoor PM2.5 was the main predictor of indoor PM2.5. Other significant factors were water heating fuels and indoor smoking. Having infants 1-23 months was associated with a lowering of indoor PM2.5. Our results suggest that a public housing program that moves families from slums to public housing improves indoor air quality directly and also indirectly through air pollution sources.

  4. The Response of Phagocytes to Indoor Air Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa K. Vilén

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This perspective presents a viewpoint on potential methods assessing toxicity of indoor air. Until recently, the major techniques to document moldy environment have been microbial isolation using conventional culture techniques for fungi and bacteria as well as in some instances polymerase chain reaction to detect microbial genetic components. However, it has become increasingly evident that bacterial and fungal toxins, their metabolic products, and volatile organic substances emitted from corrupted constructions are the major health risks. Here, we illustrate how phagocytes, especially neutrophils can be used as a toxicological probe. Neutrophils can be used either in vitro as probe cells, directly exposed to the toxic agent studied, or they can act as in vivo indicators of the whole biological system exposed to the agent. There are two convenient methods assessing the responses, one is to measure chemiluminescence emission from activated phagocytes and the other is to measure quantitatively by flow cytometry the expression of complement and immunoglobulin receptors on the phagocyte surface.

  5. Indoor air quality of low and middle income urban households in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafta, Nkosana; Barregard, Lars; Jeena, Prakash M; Naidoo, Rajen N

    2017-07-01

    Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM 10 , NO 2 and SO 2 ) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study. Children younger than 15 years living within the eThekwini Municipality in South Africa were recruited for a childhood TB case control study. The homes of these children (n=246) were assessed using a walkthrough checklist, and in 114 of them monitoring of three indoor pollutants was also performed (sampling period: 24h for PM 10 , and 2-3 weeks for NO 2 and SO 2 ). Linear regression models were used to predict PM 10 and NO 2 concentrations from household characteristics, and these models were validated using leave out one cross validation (LOOCV). SO 2 concentrations were not modeled as concentrations were very low. Mean indoor concentrations of PM 10 (n=105) , NO 2 (n=82) and SO 2 (n=82) were 64μg/m 3 (range 6.6-241); 19μg/m 3 (range 4.5-55) and 0.6μg/m 3 (range 0.005-3.4) respectively with the distributions for all three pollutants being skewed to the right. Spearman correlations showed weak positive correlations between the three pollutants. The largest contributors to the PM 10 predictive model were type of housing structure (formal or informal), number of smokers in the household, and type of primary fuel used in the household. The NO 2 predictive model was influenced mostly by the primary fuel type and by distance from the major roadway. The coefficients of determination (R 2 ) for the models were 0.41 for PM 10 and 0.31 for NO 2

  6. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo

    2011-01-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some...... technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long......-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for comparing the performance of different air cleaning technologies. (4) To compare and select suitable indoor air cleaning devices...

  7. The role of volatile organic compounds in the assessment of indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Ingegerd [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry and Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1999-07-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to assess and evaluate the relevance of air pollutants, especially volatile organic compounds (VOC), for indoor air quality (IAQ) in non industrial environments. Another attempt is to find out whether indoor-air VOC may be linked to human health and sensory effects. The experiments included the development of a method to sample and analyze VOC in indoor air (adsorptive sampling/ gas chromatographic separation/mass spectrometric identification) as well as the application of this method in studies of adsorption/desorption of VOC in building materials and ventilation systems, and the occurrence and behavior of VOC in healthy and sick buildings. The method developed is well suited for indoor air VOC analysis, especially for the fine division in temporal intervals needed for the assessment of VOC in occupied rooms. The empirical results show that there is a continuous interplay, regarding VOC and semi volatile organic compounds (SVOC), between indoor materials and indoor air, between ventilation components and supply air, as well as among indoor materials. The results also show that there is an accumulation indoors of outdoor compounds, that are brought indoors by ventilation supply or by materials, such as clothes. Comparatively new statistical pattern analyses were applied to data obtained from indoor air VOC analyses in different locations in a sick and a healthy preschool. The results indicate that this approach may offer an opportunity to distinguish among different buildings and among different locations within buildings with regard to the indoor air composition of VOC. Although promising, further studies of the link between chemical pattern and sensory effects are needed. In a psychophysical experiment, it was shown that formaldehyde at the very low concentrations typical for indoor-air VOC could reliably be scaled with regard to perceived intensity and sensory detection thresholds be determined. Two methods of formaldehyde

  8. A review of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in indoor air environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qizhou; Min, Xia; Weng, Mili

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in industrial production due to the unique physical and chemical properties. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, the PCBs would lead to environment pollution and cause serious problems for human health. Thus, they have been banned since the 1980s due to the environment pollution in the past years. Indoor air is the most direct and important environment medium to human beings; thus, the PCBs pollution research in indoor air is important for the protection of human health. This paper introduces the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarizes the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compares the indoor air levels of urban areas with those of industrial areas in different countries according to various reports. This paper can provide a basic summary for PCBs pollution control in the indoor air environment. The review of PCBs pollution in indoor air in China is still limited. In this paper, we introduce the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarize the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compare the indoor air levels of urban areas with industrial areas in different countries according to various reports.

  9. Significant OH production under surface cleaning and air cleaning conditions: Impact on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, N; Fletcher, L; Heard, D; Ingham, T; Walker, H

    2017-11-01

    We report measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2 ) radicals made by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a computer classroom (i) in the absence of indoor activities (ii) during desk cleaning with a limonene-containing cleaner (iii) during operation of a commercially available "air cleaning" device. In the unmanipulated environment, the one-minute averaged OH concentration remained close to or below the limit of detection (6.5×105  molecule cm-3 ), whilst that of HO2 was 1.3×107  molecule cm-3 . These concentrations increased to ~4×106 and 4×108  molecule cm-3 , respectively during desk cleaning. During operation of the air cleaning device, OH and HO2 concentrations reached ~2×107 and ~6×108  molecule cm-3 respectively. The potential of these OH concentrations to initiate chemical processing is explored using a detailed chemical model for indoor air (the INDCM). The model can reproduce the measured OH and HO2 concentrations to within 50% and often within a few % and demonstrates that the resulting secondary chemistry varies with the cleaning activity. Whilst terpene reaction products dominate the product composition following surface cleaning, those from aromatics and other VOCs are much more important during the use of the air cleaning device. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA): part II. Analyses of concentrations of particulate matter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Barbara J; Weisel, Clifford P; Morandi, Maria; Colome, Steven; Stock, Thomas; Eisenreich, Steven; Buckley, Brian

    2007-08-01

    During the study Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA*), 48-hour integrated indoor, outdoor, and personal air samples were collected between summer 1999 and spring 2001 in three different areas of the United States: Elizabeth NJ, Houston TX, and Los Angeles County CA. Air samples suitable for analyzing particulate matter 2.5 microm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) were collected in 219 homes (twice in 169 homes). Indoor and outdoor air samples suitable for gas-phase and particle-phase organic analyses were collected in 152 homes (twice in 132 homes). Samples or subsets of samples were analyzed for PM2.5 mass, organic functional groups, elements, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), gas-phase and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlordanes. Air exchange rate (AER), temperature, and relative humidity were measured for each residence; questionnaire data and time-activity information were collected from the participants. Median indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 mass concentrations were 14.4, 15.5, and 31.4 microg/m3, respectively. Personal PM2.5 concentrations were significantly higher and more variable than indoor and outdoor concentrations. Several approaches were applied to quantify indoor PM2.5 of ambient (outdoor) and nonambient (indoor) origin, some using PM2.5 mass concentrations and others using PM2.5 species concentrations. PM of outdoor origin was estimated in three ways using increasingly accurate assumptions. Comparing estimates from the three approaches enabled us to quantify several types of errors that may be introduced when central-site PM concentrations are used as surrogate estimates for PM exposure. Estimates made using individual measurements produced broader distributions and higher means than those made using a single infiltration factor for all homes and days. The best estimate (produced by the robust regression approach) of the mean contribution of outdoor PM2.5 to the indoor

  11. Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution Relationship: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Ferris B.; And Others

    While extensive measurements have been and are being made of outdoor pollution, relatively few data have been gathered on indoor pollution. The data that are available are compiled and analyzed in the report. Based on a review of the literature, it was possible to infer relationships between indoor and outdoor pollution and to identify factors…

  12. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  13. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  14. Natural radioactivity content in soil and indoor air of Chellanam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, S; Rajagopalan, M; Abraham, J P; Balakrishnan, D; Umadevi, A G

    2012-11-01

    Contribution of terrestrial radiation due to the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil and air constitutes a significant component of the background radiation exposure to the population. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil and indoor air of Chellanam were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity level and radiation hazard to the population. Chellanam is in the suburbs of Cochin, with the Arabian Sea in the west and the Cochin backwaters in the east. Chellanam is situated at ∼25 km from the sites of these factories. The data obtained serve as a reference in documenting changes to the environmental radioactivity due to technical activities. Soil samples were collected from 30 locations of the study area. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in the samples were analysed using gamma spectrometry. The gamma dose rates were calculated using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR (2000)]. The ambient radiation exposure rates measured in the area ranged from 74 to 195 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1). The significant radionuclides being (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, their activities were used to arrive at the absorbed gamma dose rate with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1) and the radium equivalent activity with a mean value of 162 Bq kg(-1). The radon progeny levels varied from 0.21 to 1.4 mWL with a mean value of 0.6 mWL. The thoron progeny varied from 0.34 to 2.9 mWL with a mean value of 0.85 mWL. The ratio between thoron and radon progenies varied from 1.4 to 2.3 with a mean of 1.6. The details of the study, analysis and results are discussed.

  15. [Interaction between smoking and indoor air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D X; Qian, Y J; Wang, C M; Guo, Y; Bian, Z; Xie, K X; Chen, L L; Zhang, Y D; Li, Q Y

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in Tongxiang, Zhejiang province, and analyze the interaction between smoking and indoor air pollution on COPD. Methods: Townships of Chongfu, Zhouquan, Gaoqiao, Shimen, Wuzhen were randomly selected from Tongxiang. All the local people aged 30-79 years were asked to receive questionnaire survey, physical examination and pulmonary function testing. FEV 1 max/FVC max≤0.7 was the criterion of COPD diagnosis. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between smoking/indoor air pollution and COPD, multiplied interaction between smoking and indoor air pollution was evaluated, Excel table prepared by Andersson et al. was used to calculate the adding interaction. Results: The overall prevalence of COPD was 6.6%, and adjusted for age, educational level, occupation, marriage, income level, BMI, waist-to-hip and other factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that males who had quit smoking, started smoking at age of smoked every day smoke into mouth or throat had high risk of COPD. Interaction analysis showed that using fuel of firewood/charcoal/coal, briquettes for cooking and regular smoking had multiplied interaction on COPD. Use no chimney or exhaust system in cooking and regular smoking had adding interaction in females. Conclusion: The prevalence of COPD in Tongxiang was close to the national average level. Female smokers had higher risk for COPD than male smokers. Improving kitchen ventilation, using natural gas or fuel gas for cooking and active tobacco control would facilitate the prevention of COPD.

  16. Can ornamental potted plants remove volatile organic compounds from indoor air? - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found in indoor air, and many of these can affect human health (e.g. formaldehyde and benzene are carcinogenic). Plants affect the levels of VOCs in indoor environments, thus they represent a potential green solution for improving indoor air quality...... that at the same time can improve human health. This article reviews scientific studies of plants' ability to remove VOCs from indoor air. The focus of the review is on pathways of VOC removal by the plants and factors affecting the efficiency and rate of VOC removal by plants. Laboratory based studies indicate...... that plant induced removal of VOCs is a combination of direct (e.g. absorption) and indirect (e.g. biotransformation by microorganisms) mechanisms. They also demonstrate that plants' rate of reducing the level of VOCs is influenced by a number of factors such as plant species, light intensity and VOC...

  17. Survey of occupant behaviour, energy use and indoor air quality in Greenlandic dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin

    experience cold discomfort in their homes due to their window opening behaviour (to compensate the lack of ventilation) and the age and deficient construction of the buildings. On the basis of the survey responses, some 80 dwellings were selected for further investigation. Physical measurements of the indoor......, they provide their occupants with poor indoor air quality. A questionnaire survey was performed in the town of Sisimiut-Greenland, which with its location and population represents Greenlandic conditions quite well. The aim of the survey was to investigate the energy consumption and indoor air quality...... in arctic dwellings and to study the influence of occupant behaviour of people living in arctic climates on energy consumption and indoor air quality. The results have shown that the average electricity consumption is 20% higher than in DK, ventilation systems are insufficient and that the inhabitants often...

  18. A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI, which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead.

  19. Indoor air pollution, nighttime heart rate variability and coffee consumption among convenient store workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV) has been well-documented. Little is known about the association of HRV at night with indoor air pollution and coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HRV indices with indoor air pollution, working time and coffee consumption. We recruited 60 young healthy convenient store workers to monitor indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) exposures, coffee consumption (yes vs. no) and HRV indices during daytime (0700-1500 hours) and nighttime (2300-0700 hours). We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations of HRV indices with indoor PM2.5 exposures and coffee consumption. We observed the inverse association between indoor PM2.5 exposures and HRV indices, with a decrease in all HRV indices with increased indoor PM2.5 exposures. However, the decrease was most pronounced during nighttime, where a 1 interquartile range (IQR) increase in indoor PM2.5 at 4-hr time-weighted moving average was associated with a change of -4.78% 5-min standard deviation (SD) of normal-to-normal intervals for 5-min segment (SDNN) and -3.23% 5-min square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals for 5-min segment (r-MSSD). Effects of indoor PM2.5 were lowest for participants with coffee consumption during daytime. Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased 5-min SDNN and 5-min r-MSSD, especially during nighttime. The effect of indoor PM2.5 on HRV indices may be modified by coffee consumption in young healthy convenient store workers.

  20. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Lagercrantz, L.; Sundell, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled and aspirated nasal air was used to objectively assess human response to indoor air pollutants in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured before exposure, after 2, and 4.5 h of exposure, using a chemiluminescence...... NO analyzer. Sixteen healthy female subjects were exposed to two indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 h. Subjective assessments of the environment were obtained by questionnaires. After exposure (4.5 h) to the two polluted conditions a small increase in NO concentration in exhaled...... by the exposures. The results may indicate an association between polluted indoor air and subclinical inflammation.Measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air is a possible objective marker of subclinical inflammation in healthy adults....

  1. Indoor Air Quality in Selected Samples of Primary Schools in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzuki Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found out that indoor air quality affects human especially children and the elderly more compared to ambient atmospheric air. This study aims to investigate indoor air pollutants concentration in selected vernacular schools with different surrounding human activities in Kuala Terengganu, the administrative and commercial center of Terengganu state. Failure to identify and establish indoor air pollution status can increase the chance of long-term and short-term health problems for these young students and staff; reduction in productivity of teachers; and degrade the youngsters learning environment and comfort. Indoor air quality (IAQ parameters in three primary schools were conducted during the monsoon season of November 2008 for the purposes of assessing ventilation rates, levels of particulate matter (PM10 and air quality differences between schools. In each classroom, carbon monoxide (CO, CO2, air velocity, relative humidity and temperature were performed during school hours, and a complete walkthrough survey was completed. Results show a statistically significant difference for the five IAQ parameters between the three schools at the 95.0% confidence level. We conclude our findings by confirming the important influence of surrounding human activities on indoor concentrations of pollutants in selected vernacular schools in Kuala Terengganu.

  2. Long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Hermansen, M.N.; Loland, L.

    2010-01-01

    of an association between long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants, suggesting that indoor air pollution is not causally related to the underlying disease. Practical Implications Nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde and fine particles were measured in the air in infants' bedrooms......Long-term exposure to air pollution is suspected to cause recurrent wheeze in infants. The few previous studies have had ambiguous results. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of measured long-term exposure to indoor air pollution on wheezing symptoms in infants. We monitored...... wheezing symptoms in diaries for a birth cohort of 411 infants. We measured long-term exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), NO(2), formaldehyde, PM(2.5) and black smoke in the infants' bedrooms and analyzed risk associations during the first 18 months of life by logistic regression with the dichotomous end...

  3. Association between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not…

  4. Indoor Air Quality In Maine Schools: Report of the Task Force To Examine the Establishment and Implementation of State Standards for Indoor Air Quality in Maine Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Judith

    Asserting that in Maine and across the nation, school buildings are becoming increasingly plagued with indoor air quality (IAQ) problems which contribute to a variety of illnesses in children and adults, this report from a Maine state legislative task force identifies appropriate policies and identifies actions necessary for the prevention and…

  5. Improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort in office building by using combination filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrein, H.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Hariri, A.; Leman, A. M.; Afandi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Poor indoor air quality and thermal comfort condition in the workspace affected the occupants’ health and work productivity, especially when adapting the recirculation of air in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The recirculation of air was implemented in this study by mixing the circulated returned indoor air with the outdoor fresh air. The aims of this study are to assess the indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in the office buildings, equipped with combination filters. The air filtration technique consisting minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) filter and activated carbon fiber (ACF) filter, located before the fan coil units. The findings of the study show that the technique of mixing recirculation air with the fresh air through the combination filters met the recommended thermal comfort condition in the workspace. Furthermore, the result of the post-occupancy evaluation (POE) and the environmental measurements comply with the ASHRAE 55 standard. In addition, the level of CO2 concentration continued to decrease during the period of the measurement.

  6. Portable formaldehyde monitoring device using porous glass sensor and its applications in indoor air quality studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yasuko Yamada; Nakamura, Jiro

    2011-09-30

    We have developed a portable device for formaldehyde monitoring with both high sensitivity and high temporal resolution, and carried out indoor air formaldehyde concentration analysis. The absorbance difference of the sensor element was measured in the monitoring device at regular intervals of, for example, one hour or 30 min, and the result was converted into the formaldehyde concentration. This was possible because we found that the lutidine derivative that was formed as a yellow product of the reaction between 1-phenyl-1,3-butandione and formaldehyde was stable in porous glass for at least six months. We estimated the reaction rate and to be 0.049 min(-1) and the reaction occurred quickly enough for us to monitor hourly changes in the formaldehyde concentration. The detection limit was 5 μg m(-3) h. We achieved hourly formaldehyde monitoring using the developed device under several indoor conditions, and estimated the air exchange rate and formaldehyde adsorption rate, which we adopted as a new term in the mass balance equation for formaldehyde, in one office. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Proposed residential indoor air quality guidelines for formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, N.

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposed a set of revised residential indoor air quality guidelines for formaldehyde. In the earlier guidelines, target and action levels were set at 60 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 120 {mu}g/. However, epidemiological studies on the effects of chronic formaldehyde exposure have consistently found respiratory and allergic effects at levels below 123 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Formaldehyde levels in home have been associated with increased risk of atopy and have also been associated with the hospitalization of children. Summaries of various epidemiological studies were presented. A summary of critical effects and the derivation of the guidelines was provided. Based on clinical studies and animal experiments, the primary effects of acute exposure to formaldehyde are the irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and the eyes. The no observable adverse effects level (NOAEL) and lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) for this outcome are 615 and 1,230 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. It was noted that an association between low-level exposure to formaldehyde and the development of allergic sensitization and asthma is biologically plausible as it is consistent with observations in animals. It was concluded that short-term exposure to formaldehyde should be limited to 123{mu}g/m{sup 3}. It was recommended that long term exposure to formaldehyde be limited to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Although formaldehyde is carcinogenic to humans, the cancer risk associated with lifelong exposure at the recommended levels is estimated to be negligible. 73 refs., 9 tabs.

  8. A SURVEY OF INDOOR AIR CONTAMINATES USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in indoor areas in approximately 50 residences along the border between Arizona and Mexico to measure airborne contaminants. The results of the primary analyses and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation for org...

  9. Accumulative effects of indoor air pollution exposure on leukocyte telomere length among non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Mu, Xinlin; Wang, Guilian; Ren, Yu'ang; Su, Shu; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Bin; Tao, Shu

    2017-08-01

    Indoor air pollution is an important environmental factor that contributes to the burden of various diseases. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with telomere shortening. However, the association between chronic indoor air pollution from household fuel combustion and leukocyte telomere length has not been studied. In our study, 137 cancer-free non-smokers were recruited. Their exposure levels to indoor air pollution from 1985 to 2014 were assessed using a face-to-face interview questionnaire, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured using a monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method. Accumulative exposure to solid fuel usage for cooking was negatively correlated with LTL. The LTL of residents who were exposed to solid fuel combustion for three decades (LTL = 0.70 ± 0.17) was significantly shorter than that of other populations. In addition, education and occupation were related to both exposure to solid fuel and LTL. Sociodemographic factors may play a mediating role in the correlation between leukocyte telomere length and environmental exposure to indoor air pollution. In conclusion, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution may cause LTL dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of indoor and outdoor particulate air pollution at an urban background site in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Kloog, Itai; Abdul-Wahab, Sabah Ahmed; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Heibati, Behzad; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between indoor and outdoor particulate air pollution was investigated at an urban background site on the Payambar Azam Campus of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in Sari, Northern Iran. The concentration of particulate matter sized with a diameter less than 1 μm (PM 1.0 ), 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), and 10 μm (PM 10 ) was evaluated at 5 outdoor and 12 indoor locations. Indoor sites included classrooms, corridors, and office sites in four university buildings. Outdoor PM concentrations were characterized at five locations around the university campus. Indoor and outdoor PM measurements (1-min resolution) were conducted in parallel during weekday mornings and afternoons. No difference found between indoor PM 10 (50.1 ± 32.1 μg/m 3 ) and outdoor PM 10 concentrations (46.5 ± 26.0 μg/m 3 ), indoor PM 2.5 (22.6 ± 17.4 μg/m 3 ) and outdoor PM 2.5 concentration (22.2 ± 15.4 μg/m 3 ), or indoor PM 1.0 (14.5 ± 13.4 μg/m 3 ) and outdoor mean PM 1.0 concentrations (14.2 ± 12.3 μg/m 3 ). Despite these similar concentrations, no correlations were found between outdoor and indoor PM levels. The present findings are not only of importance for the potential health effects of particulate air pollution on people who spend their daytime over a period of several hours in closed and confined spaces located at a university campus but also can inform regulatory about the improvement of indoor air quality, especially in developing countries.

  11. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  12. Influence of combined dust reducing carpet and compact air filtration unit on the indoor air quality of a classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Hartog, J.J. de; Reijnaerts, J.; Beckmann, G.; Anzion, R.B.M.; Poels, K.; Godderis, L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary schools mostly rely on natural ventilation but also have an interest in affordable technology to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). Laboratory tests show promising results for dust reducing carpets and compact air filtration systems but there is no information available on the performance of

  13. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  14. Evaluation of an air-cleaning unit having photocatalytic sheets to remove acetaldehyde from indoor air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, M. [Department of Architecture, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kato, S. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kawanami, F. [ANDES ELECTRIC Co. Ltd., 1-3-1 Kiyono Kogyodanchi, Hachinohe, Aomori 039-2292 (Japan); Sudo, M. [SOGO SETSUBI Consultant Co. Ltd., 1-34-14 Hatagaya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-0072 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    A photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactor to which newly developed photocatalytic sheets were applied to decontaminate indoor air was considered in this study. Firstly, the PCO reactor was designed to achieve efficient ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then the rate at which acetaldehyde, as a representative indoor air contaminant, was removed by the PCO reactor was calculated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. In this process, some alternatives that achieved higher removal performance using obstacles at the inlet and outlet openings were introduced. The results of the CFD simulation showed that the obstacles installed in the middle of the inlet and outlet openings helped to improve the removal performance of the PCO reactor as the degree of contact by the acetaldehyde on the PCO sheets was increased. Furthermore, the results of these experiments also showed some improvement in removal performance when obstacles were installed. However, the overall experimental performances were far lower than as had been suggested by the CFD simulation, which inferred that the oxidation rate on the surface of the PCO sheets was not 100%, as had been assumed in the CFD simulation. Nevertheless, CFD simulations are assumed to be a good method for selecting the optimal option from many alternative PCO reactors. (author)

  15. Indoor air quality of public places in Mumbai, India in terms of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-10-01

    Indoor air quality at nine locations viz. food courts, restaurant, bar, conference room, office and theater, which can be classified as public places have been monitored for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) content. Forty VOCs have been identified and one fourth of these are classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants. Levels of most VOCs are observed to be below the guideline values for public places and offices, as adopted by Hong Kong. Consumer goods are found to be predominant source of chlorinated VOCs in indoor air. Levels of benzene and carbon tetrachlorides were observed to be above the guideline values at all the locations. Effect of ozonisation on Total VOC concentrations have also been studied.

  16. Socio-Economic Consequences of Improved Indoor Air Quality in Danish Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter; Eriksen, Kurt Emil

    2014-01-01

    are taken into consideration: a) increased PISA score increases productivity; b) increased PISA score reduces the duration of primary education; c) improved indoor air quality reduces absenteeism in teachers. The results show that improved air quality in Danish schools could result in an increase......This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects...

  17. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    2010-09-21

    Sep 21, 2010 ... authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Results: Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 ...

  18. Nature, sources and toxicity of pollutants of indoor air. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoeppel, H. [JRC`s Environment Institute, Ispra (Italy); Schlitt, C. [Indoor Pollution Unit of the Environmental Institute, Ispra (Italy); Bochicchio, F. [Specialisation School on Health Physics at the University of Rome, Rome (Italy); McLaughlin, J. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Department of Experimental Physics; Flannigan, B. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The main pollutants of indoor air will be presented and discussed in the chapters of Part 1. For each pollutant there will be a description of the physico-chemical nature, the occurrence and sources, the typical concentrations found indoors and the resulting human exposure. Finally, the most important toxicological properties will be discussed, together with the mechanisms by which these compounds may interfere with human tissues. 7 figs., 45 tabs., 444 refs.

  19. Efficiency of deodorant materials for ammonia reduction in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Mizutani, Chiyomi; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study about the removability of ammonia gas in the air by activated carbon fiber (ACF) felt chemically treated with acid and a cotton fabric processed with iron phthalocyanine with copper (Cu) was performed in small-scale experiments. The test rig consisted of a heated plate and its...... proved activated carbon fiber felt with acid to be highly efficient in removing ammonia gas. Air temperature did not have profound effect on ACF performance. However, efficiency of the carbon fiber felt decreased when relative humidity was raised from 20 to 80%....

  20. Indoor air pollution caused by wood-burning in Brazilian and Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; da Cruz Tarelho, Luís António

    2013-01-01

    Residential wood-burning is considered by the scientific community as the 4th major cause of deaths in the developing countries due to the indoor air contamination and a cause of regional air pollution in the northern countries. In the first case, wood is being used by low income people that stil...

  1. Chlorinated paraffins in indoor air and dust: concentrations, congener patterns, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridén, Ulrika E; McLachlan, Michael S; Berger, Urs

    2011-10-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are large production volume chemicals used in a wide variety of commercial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and humans. Human exposure via the indoor environment has, however, been barely investigated. In the present study 44 indoor air and six dust samples from apartments in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for CPs, and indoor air concentrations are reported for the first time. The sumCP concentration (short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs)) in air ranged from <5-210 ng m(-3) as quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). Congener group patterns were studied using GC with electron capture negative ionization MS (GC/ECNI-MS). The air samples were dominated by the more volatile SCCPs compared to MCCPs. SumCPs were quantified by GC/EI-MS/MS in the dust samples at low μg g(-1) levels, with a chromatographic pattern suggesting the prevalence of longer chain CPs compared to air. The median exposure to sumCPs via the indoor environment was estimated to be ~1 μg day(-1) for both adults and toddlers. Adult exposure was dominated by inhalation, while dust ingestion was suggested to be more important for toddlers. Comparing these results to literature data on dietary intake indicates that human exposure to CPs from the indoor environment is not negligible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    workplace setting.Design: A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia.Method: A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach.Result: Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint, which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort.Conclusion: This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a categorizing method for further IAQ investigations and complaints procedures.Keywords: office, indoor environment quality, indoor air quality assessor, Industry Code of Practice on

  3. Indoor air problems and experiences of injustice in the workplace: A quantitative and a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finell, E; Seppälä, T

    2017-07-25

    This study explores subjective injustice experiences of individuals suffering from suspected or observed indoor air problems in their workplaces in two studies. We focus on injustice experiences because they influence how individuals cope with and recover from health problems. The first study reports associations between the perceived harmfulness of the indoor environment (ie, mold/inadequate ventilation) and subjective injustice experiences in workplaces in a representative sample of Finnish working-aged people (N = 4633). Altogether, 37% of the respondents perceived their workplaces' indoor environments to be harmful. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the risks of reporting subjective injustice experiences (eg, information, attitudes, and remuneration) were significantly higher for those reporting harmful indoor environments compared to those who reported no such problems (OR 1.28-1.95 for different situations). The second study explored injustice experiences more closely by qualitatively analyzing the content of 23 essays. These essays were written by people who suffered from suspected or observed indoor air problems in their workplaces. The respondents reported multidimensional experiences of injustice, which related to conflicts, and moral exclusions. Awareness of these psychosocial effects is important for the prevention of unnecessary escalation of psychosocial problems in workplaces with observed and suspected indoor air problems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Control of Respirable Particles in Indoor Air with Portable AirCleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-10-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h{sup -1}. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner studied.

  5. Gender, airborne chemical monitoring, and physical work environment are related to indoor air symptoms among nonindustrial workers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aizat Ismail Syazwan,1 Juahir Hafizan,2 Mohd Rafee Baharudin,1 Ahmad Zaid Fattah Azman,1 Zulkapri Izwyn,3 Ismail Zulfadhli,4 Katis Syahidatussyakirah11Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science/Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Department of Biosciences and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; 4Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, MalaysiaObjectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of airborne chemicals and the physical work environment risk element on the indoor air symptoms of nonindustrial workers.Design: A cross-sectional study consisting of 200 office workers. A random selection of 200 buildings was analyzed for exposure and indoor air symptoms based on a pilot study in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.Methods: A set of modified published questionnaires by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH, Malaysia and a previous study (MM040NA questionnaire pertaining to indoor air symptoms was used in the evaluation process of the indoor air symptoms. Statistical analyses involving logistic regression and linear regression were used to determine the relationship between exposure and indoor air symptoms for use in the development of an indoor risk matrix.Results: The results indicate that some indoor air pollutants (carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compound, and dust are related to indoor air symptoms of men and women. Temperature and relative humidity showed a positive association with complaints related to the perceived indoor environmental condition (drafts and inconsistency of temperature. Men predominantly reported general symptoms when stratification of gender involved exposure to formaldehyde. Women reported high levels of complaints related to mucosal and general symptoms from exposure to the dust

  6. Indoor air quality and risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection in Inuit infants in Baffin Region, Nunavut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesi, T. [Children' s Hospital of Easterrn Ontario, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the indoor air quality in the houses of Inuit infants in Nunavut and the health implications. Inuit infants in the Baffin (Qikiqtani) Region of Nunavut have the highest reported rate in the world of severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including bronchiolitis and pneumonia requiring hospitalization. This population also has a high rate of long-term complications after severe LRTI. The houses in the region are small and crowded and tend to be kept warm and humid. Although the homes are heated with low-sulphur Arctic diesel, there is no evidence of leakage from furnaces, as nitrogen dioxide concentrations are low. Houses are generally clean, with very low levels of dust mites and generally low levels of indoor mould. However, indoor smoking is prevalent. According to measured ventilation of indoor carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations, most houses have ventilation rates below recommended standards. A controlled trial of installing heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) in the homes of the 68 young Inuit children in 3 communities in the Baffin Region has shown that active HRVs can significantly reduce mean indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations and increase occupant comfort. Health outcomes are currently undergoing analysis. 11 refs.

  7. Detection and quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, V Nahuel; Sleiman, Mohamad; Cohn, Sebastian; Litter, Marta I; Destaillats, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as free radicals and peroxides, are environmental trace pollutants potentially associated with asthma and airways inflammation. These compounds are often not detected in indoor air due to sampling and analytical limitations. This study developed and validated an experimental method to sample, identify and quantify ROS in indoor air using fluorescent probes. Tests were carried out simultaneously using three different probes: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to detect a broad range of ROS, Amplex ultra Red® (AuR) to detect peroxides, and terephthalic acid (TPA) to detect hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). For each test, air samples were collected using two impingers in series kept in an ice bath, containing each 10 mL of 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. In tests with TPA, that probe was also added to the buffer prior to sampling; in the other two tests, probes and additional reactants were added immediately after sampling. The concentration of fluorescent byproducts was determined fluorometrically. Calibration curves were developed by reacting DCFH and AuR with known amounts of H2O2, and using known amounts of 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid (HTPA) for TPA. Low detection limits (9-13 nM) and quantification limits (18-22 nM) were determined for all three probes, which presented a linear response in the range 10-500 nM for AuR and TPA, and 100-2000 nM for DCFH. High collection efficiency (CE) and recovery efficiency (RE) were observed for DCFH (CE=RE=100%) and AuR (CE=100%; RE=73%) by sampling from a laboratory-developed gas phase H2O2 generator. Interference of co-occurring ozone was evaluated and quantified for the three probes by sampling from the outlet of an ozone generator. The method was demonstrated by sampling air emitted by two portable air cleaners: a strong ozone generator (AC1) and a plasma generator (AC2). High ozone levels emitted by AC1 did not allow for simultaneous determination of ROS levels due to high background levels

  8. Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries--Part II: Gaseous pollutants' assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P T B S; Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2015-10-01

    This study, Part II of the larger study "Children's exposure to indoor air in urban nurseries", aimed to: (i) evaluate nursery schools' indoor concentrations of several air pollutants in class and lunch rooms; and (ii) analyse them according to guidelines and references. Indoor continuous measurements were performed, and outdoor concentrations were obtained to determine indoor/outdoor ratios. The influence of outdoor air seemed to be determinant on carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) indoor concentrations. The peak concentrations of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) registered (highest concentrations of 204 and 2320 µg m(-3) respectively), indicated the presence of specific indoor sources of these pollutants, namely materials emitting formaldehyde and products emitting VOC associated to cleaning and children's specific activities (like paints and glues). For formaldehyde, baseline constant concentrations along the day were also found in some of the studied rooms, which enhances the importance of detailing the study of children's short and long-term exposure to this indoor air pollutant. While CO, NO2 and O3 never exceeded the national and international reference values for IAQ and health protection, exceedances were found for formaldehyde and VOC. For this reason, a health risk assessment approach could be interesting for future research to assess children's health risks of exposure to formaldehyde and to VOC concentrations in nursery schools. Changing cleaning schedules and materials emitting formaldehyde, and more efficient ventilation while using products emitting VOC, with the correct amount and distribution of fresh air, would decrease children's exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF THE DAILY FLUCTUATIONS OF OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE ON THE INDOOR CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Zakharevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of indoor air temperature fluctuations within the occupied zone (habitable zone induced by the periodic changes of outdoor air temperature was carried out with the use of numerical simulation of heat transfer processes in the heated room. The developed and programme-implemented two-dimensional physical and mathematical model takes into account unsteady nature of the complex conjugate heat transfer in building envelopes and indoor air spaces when using different types of heating devices. The design features of building structures and windows are considered. The model includes the equations of radiative heat transfer between indoor surfaces, window panes and outdoor environment. In the study, the harmonic changes of outside temperature are specified by the cosine law with the twenty-four-hour period. Two types of heaters are examined: radiator and underfloor heating. Heating output of the devices is specified time-invariable according to the thermal balance defined by the traditional method. Simulations are performed for the three combinations of heat-transfer properties of building structures. The quantitative characteristics of the induced indoor air temperature fluctuations within the occupied zone depending on the building envelope thermal inertia and the type of used heater were found out. The analysis of results yielded the following conclusions. Reducing inertia of glazing leads to more rapid penetration of outdoor temperature wave into the room. While the amplitude of the indoor air temperature fluctuations within the occupied zone remains constant by reason of the unchanged thermal inertia of the main building structures. The significant increase in the amplitude of harmonic changes of indoor air temperature within the occupied zone is observed when reducing inertia of walls and floors whereas the delay with respect to outside air temperature fluctuations remains almost invariable.

  10. Indoor air quality and respiratory symptoms in Porto schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fraga

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the association between the indoor air quality in Porto schools and the prevalence of allergic and respiratory symptoms in adolescents. Material and methods: Temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2 and volatile organic compound (VOC concentrations were evaluated in nine Porto schools. Questionnaires were distributed to 9 classes of 7th , 8th and 9th year students in each school, total 1607 adolescents, with a mean age of 14.0 years (standard deviation = 0.3. Information was collected on participants’ socio-demographic and social characteristics, behaviour, and housing conditions. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire was used to evaluate respiratory symptoms. Results: 5.8% of participants stated they had had asthma, 9.2% wheezing, 22.0% sneezing and 6.6% itchy rash In the 12 months preceding the evaluation.After adjustment for parental educational attainment level, CO2 > 2100ppm values were associated with exercise-induced wheeze [OR = 1.86 (95%CI:1.20-2.89] and night cough [OR = 1.40 (4.20-2.89]. We observed an increasing odds ratio in wheezing symptoms over the last 12 months, in asthma ‘at some point’ and asthma over the last 12 months, and night cough at schools with higher VOC values. The association was not statistically significant, however. Conclusion: Lower indicators of indoor air quality, particularly CO2, were associated with a greater respiratory symptomatology. Resumo: Objectivo: Avaliar a associação entre a qualidade do ar interior em escolas da cidade do Porto e a prevalência de patologia alérgica e respiratória nos adolescentes que as frequentam. Participantes e métodos: Foi avaliada temperatura, humidade relativa, concentração de CO2 (dióxido de carbono e de COV (compostos orgânicos voláteis em nove escolas públicas da cidade do Porto. Em cada escola foram avaliados os alunos de nove

  11. Reducing burden of disease from residential indoor air exposures in Europe (HEALTHVENT project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Arja; Carrer, Paolo; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    ), approximately 90 % of EU citizens live in areas where the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for air quality of particulate matter sized PM2.5) are not met. Since sources of pollution reside in both indoor and outdoor air, selecting the most appropriate ventilation strategy is not a simple...... matter (PM2.5), outdoor bioaerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon oxide (CO) radon and dampness was estimated. The analysis was based on scenario comparison, using an outdoor-indoor mass-balance model and varying the ventilation rates. Health effects were estimated with burden of diseases (Bo...... air; and (iii) indoor source control, showed that all three approaches are able to provide substantial reductions in the health risks, varying from approximately 20 % to 44 %, corresponding to 400 000 and 900 000 saved healthy life years in EU-26. PM2.5 caused majority of the health effects in all...

  12. Indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment building before and after energy renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Földváry, Veronika; Langer, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    efficiency of these buildings and reduce their energy consumption. Since the impact of these measures on the indoor air quality is rarely considered, they often compromise indoor air quality due to decreased ventilation and infiltration rate. We compared the indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment......Buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of global energy consumption. Most of the multifamily residential buildings in central Europe built in the 20th century do not satisfy the current requirements on energy efficiency. Nationwide remedial measures are taken to improve the energy...... building in Slovakia before and after energy renovation, during two subsequent winters. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of CO2, formaldehyde, NO2, and volatile organic compounds were performed during one week in January 2015 in 20 apartments in one multifamily building...

  13. Effects of moisture controlled charcoal on indoor thermal and air environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yokogoshi, Midori; Nabeshima, Yuki

    2017-10-01

    It is crucial to remove and control indoor moisture in Japan, especially in hot and humid summers, in order to improve thermal comfort and save energy in buildings. Charcoal for moisture control made from the waste of wood material has attracted attention among many control strategies to control indoor moisture, and it is beginning to be used in houses. However, the basic characteristics of the charcoal to control moisture and remove chemical compounds in indoor air have not been investigated sufficiently. The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of moisture control charcoal on indoor thermal and air environments by a long-term field measurement using two housing scale models with/without charcoal in Toyohashi, Japan. The comparative experiments to investigate the effect of the charcoal on air temperature and humidity for two models with/without charcoal were conducted from 2015 to 2016. Also, the removal performance of volatile organic compound (VOCs) was investigated in the summer of 2015. Four bags of packed charcoal were set on the floor in the attic for one model during the experiment. As a result of the experiments, a significant effect of moisture control was observed in hot and humid season, and the efficient effect of moisture adsorption was obtained by the periodic humidification experiment using a humidifier. Furthermore, the charcoal showed a remarkable performance of VOC removal from indoor air by the injection experiment of formaldehyde.

  14. Indoor air quality : Tools for schools action kits for Canadian schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Few people realize that indoor air pollution can contribute to health effects like asthma. Several agencies, notably the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have indicated that levels of indoor pollutants can be significantly higher than those found outside. As such, poor indoor air quality (IAQ) could impact the health of students and staff, as well as the educational process and costs. Many factors can influence IAQ, including building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, pesticides, printing and copying devices, and more. Reduction in IAQ can also result from tighter buildings and reduced ventilation. This kit was developed by Health Canada in collaboration with the Indoor Air Quality Working Group of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH) to provide school officials with the tools to prevent, identify, assess, and address most indoor air problems while minimizing cost and involvement. It was suggested that trained professionals should perform the limited and well-defined set of operations and maintenance activities described in the kit.

  15. Chloroform in indoor swimming-pool air: monitoring and modeling coupled with the effects of environmental conditions and occupant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H T; Chen, M J; Lin, C H; Chou, W S; Chen, J H

    2009-08-01

    Human exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools has been recognized as a potential health concern. Although environmental monitoring is a useful technique to investigate chloroform concentrations in indoor swimming-pool air, in practice, the interpretations of measured data would inevitably run into difficulties due to the complex interactions among the numerous variables, including environmental conditions and occupant activities. Considering of the relevant variables of environmental conditions and occupant activities, a mathematical model was first proposed to predict the chloroform concentration in indoor swimming-pool air. The developed model provides a straightforward, conceptually simple way to predict the indoor air chloroform concentration by calculating the mass flux, J, and the Péclet number, Pe, and by using a heuristic value of the indoor airflow recycle ratio, R. The good agreement between model simulation and measured data demonstrates the feasibility of using the presented model for indoor air quality management, operational guidelines and health-related risk assessment.

  16. Association of Roadway Proximity with Indoor Air Pollution in a Peri-Urban Community in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Lindsay J; Bose, Sonali; Williams, D'Ann L; Romero, Karina M; Malpartida, Gary; Breysse, Patrick N; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Combe, Juan M; Checkley, William; Hansel, Nadia N

    2015-10-26

    The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM₂.₅), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and black carbon (BC) were measured during two seasons, and allergens were measured in bedroom dust. Allergen levels were highest for dust mite and mouse allergens, with concentrations above clinically relevant thresholds in over a quarter and half of all homes, respectively. Mean indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations were similar (PM₂.₅: 20.0 vs. 16.9 μg/m³, BC: 7.6 vs. 8.1 μg/m³, NO₂: 7.3 vs. 7.5 ppb), and tended to be higher in the summer compared to the winter. Road proximity was significantly correlated with overall concentrations of outdoor PM₂.₅ (rs = -0.42, p = 0.01) and NO₂ (rs = -0.36, p = 0.03), and outdoor BC concentrations in the winter (rs = -0.51, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that outdoor-sourced pollutants significantly influence indoor air quality in peri-urban Peruvian communities, and homes closer to roadways are particularly vulnerable.

  17. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M.L.; Bentley, A.J.; Dunkin, K.A.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Sextro, R.G.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    We report a field study of soil gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a slab-on-grade building found at a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high VOC concentrations (30-60 g m{sup -3}) measured in the soil gas at depths of 0.7 m below the building suggest a potential for high levels of indoor VOC, the measured indoor air concentrations were lower than those in the soil gas by approximately six orders of magnitude ({approx} 0.03 mg m{sup -3}). This large ratio is explained by (1) the expected dilution of soil gas entering the building via ambient building ventilation (a factor of {approx}1000), and (2) an unexpectedly sharp gradient in soil gas VOC concentration between the depths of 0.1 and 0.7 m (a factor of {approx}1000). Measurements of the soil physical and biological characteristics indicate that a partial physical barrier to vertical transport in combination with microbial degradation provides a likely explanation for this gradient. These factors are likely to be important to varying degrees at other sites.

  18. Effects of an ozone-generating air purifier on indoor secondary particles in three residential dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H F; Coleman, B K; Sarwar, G; Corsi, R L

    2005-12-01

    The use of indoor ozone generators as air purifiers has steadily increased over the past decade. Many ozone generators are marketed to consumers for their ability to eliminate odors and microbial agents and to improve health. In addition to the harmful effects of ozone, recent studies have shown that heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between ozone and some unsaturated hydrocarbons can be an important source of indoor secondary pollutants, including free radicals, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and fine particles. Experiments were conducted in one apartment and two detached single-family dwellings in Austin, TX, to assess the effects of an ozone generator on indoor secondary organic aerosol concentrations in actual residential settings. Ozone was generated using a commercial ozone generator marketed as an air purifier, and particle measurements were recorded before, during, and after the release of terpenes from a pine oil-based cleaning product. Particle number concentration, ozone concentration, and air exchange rate were measured during each experiment. Particle number and mass concentrations increased when both terpenes and ozone were present at elevated levels. Experimental results indicate that ozone generators in the presence of terpene sources facilitate the growth of indoor fine particles in residential indoor atmospheres. Human exposure to secondary organic particles can be reduced by minimizing the intentional release of ozone, particularly in the presence of terpene sources. Past studies have shown that ozone-initiated indoor chemistry can lead to elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter, but have generally been completed in controlled laboratory environments and office buildings. We explored the effects of an explicit ozone generator marketed as an air purifier on the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass in actual residential indoor settings. Results indicate significant increases in number and mass concentrations for particles

  19. The emerging role of outdoor and indoor air pollution in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Uzoigwe, Jacinta C.; Thavaleak Prum; Eric Bresnahan; Mahdi Garelnabi

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role o...

  20. Analysis of thermal comfort and indoor air quality in a mechanically ventilated theatre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavgic, M.; Mumovic, D.; Young, A. [The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, England (United Kingdom); Stevanovic, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences - Vinca, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (RS)

    2008-07-01

    Theatres are the most complex of all auditorium structures environmentally. They usually have high heat loads, which are of a transient nature as audiences come and go, and from lighting which changes from scene to scene, and they generally have full or nearly full occupancy. Theatres also need to perform well acoustically, both for the spoken word and for music, and as sound amplification is less used than in other auditoria, background noise control is critically important. All these factors place constraints on the ventilation design, and if this is poor, it can lead to the deterioration of indoor air quality and thermal comfort. To analyse the level of indoor air quality and thermal comfort in a typical medium-sized mechanically ventilated theatre, and to identify where improvements could typically be made, a comprehensive post-occupancy evaluation study was carried out on a theatre in Belgrade. The evaluation, based on the results of monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, CO{sub 2}, air speed and heat flux) and modelling (CFD), as well as the assessment of comfort and health as perceived by occupants, has shown that for most of the monitored period the environmental parameters were within the standard limits of thermal comfort and IAQ. However, two important issues were identified, which should be borne in mind by theatre designers in the future. First, the calculated ventilation rates showed that the theatre was over-ventilated, which will have serious consequences for its energy consumption, and secondly, the displacement ventilation arrangement employed led to higher than expected complaints of cold discomfort, probably due to cold draughts around the occupants' feet. (author)

  1. Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2014-04-01

    Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant׳s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN HOSPITALS - Verification of the physical parameters of comfort and the concentration of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In hospitals, the presence of pollutants in the indoor air creates conditions that may prejudice the recovery of patients and affect the productivity of employees. Thus, these places need air conditioning well designed, to provide adequate ventilation rates to ensure the comfort of its occupants and the aseptic of environments. The present study focused on evaluating the indoor air quality (IAQ in a surgical center and an intensive care unit, by checking the physical parameters of comfort and the concentrations of carbon dioxide, following the procedure recommended by Resolution No. 09 of the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and to propose an air conditioning system for each of the environments evaluated. The results showed that the IAQ in those environments may be improved, since some of the parameters showed values higher than those recommended by that resolution. High concentrations of CO2 obtained, for example, can be justified by the lack of renewal of air. It is suggested that the air conditioning systems must to be substituted for that allowed the renewal of the air at rates acceptable to the current legislation.

  3. Summary of Adsorption/Desorption Experiments for the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Tirkkonen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings.......Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings....

  4. Key Factors Determining Indoor Air PM10 Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Branislava; Rakic, Uros; Jovanovic, Verica; Dejanovic, Snezana; Djonovic, Nela

    2017-10-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is rated as a serious public health issue. Knowing children are accounted as more vulnerable to environmental health hazards, data are needed on air quality in schools. A project was conducted from 2007 until 2009 (SEARCH, School Environment and Respiratory Health of Children), aiming to verify links between IAQ and children's respiratory health. Study was conducted in ten primary schools on 735 children, in 44 classrooms. Children were randomly selected. Research tools and indicators used for children's exposure to school environment were indoor and outdoor pollutants, two standardized questionnaires for school and classroom characteristics. In both classroom air and ambient air in front of them we measured, during a 5-day exposure period for continuous 24h measuring: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, indoor air temperature, relative humidity, and PM10 during classes. PM10 concentrations were significantly most frequent in an interval of ≥80.1μg/m(3), that is, in the interval above 50μg/m(3). Mean PM10 value was 82.24±42.43 μg/m(3), ranging from 32.00μg/m(3) to of 197.00μg/m(3). The increase of outdoor PM10 concentration significantly affects the increase of indoor PM10. A statistically significant difference exists for average IAQ PM10 concentrations vs. indicators of indoor thermal comfort zone (p75%), and indoor temperature beyond 23°C, as well as bad ventilation habits (keeping windows shut most of the time).

  5. Particulate matter in the indoor and outdoor air of a gymnasium and a fronton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana I; Marques, Liliana; Castro, Amaya; Nunes, Teresa; Coz, Esther; Fraile, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    An indoor/outdoor monitoring programme of PM10 was carried out in two sports venues (a fronton and a gymnasium). Levels always below 50 μg m(-3) were obtained in the fronton and outdoor air. Due to the climbing chalk and the constant process of resuspension, concentrations above 150 μg m(-3) were registered in the gymnasium. The chalk dust contributed to CO3 (2-) concentrations of 32 ± 9.4 μg m(-3) in this sports facility, which represented, on average, 18 % of the PM10 mass. Here, the carbonate levels were 128 times higher than those registered outdoors. Much lower concentrations, around 1 μg m(-3), were measured in the fronton. The chalk dust is also responsible for the high Mg(2+) concentrations in the gym (4.7 ± 0.89 μg m(-3)), unfolding a PM10 mass fraction of 2.7 %. Total carbon accounted for almost 30 % of PM10 in both indoor spaces. Aerosol size distributions were bimodal and revealed a clear dependence on physical activities and characteristics of the sports facilities. The use of climbing chalk in the gymnasium contributed significantly to the coarse mode. The average geometric mean diameter, geometric standard deviation and total number of coarse particles were 0.77 μm, 2.79 cm(-3) and 28 cm(-3), respectively.

  6. The Effect of Roof Angles on Indoor Air Temperatures in Terrace Houses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Ramly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of energy efficiency in building design is to create buildings that utilise minimum amount of energy while meeting the comfort standards as high as or higher than those provided by conventional buildings.To achieve these standards, it is necessary to study the local environment in order to assess its positive and negative features (impact on the building. The results will provide a basic understanding of heat transfer and human thermal comfort requirements. It also provides foundation for which an energy efficient design of buildings can be established. The design of residential buildings has a significant impact on everyday lives of people. It includes the types and forms of buildings that are commonly occupied by people. In Malaysia, the 'terrace house' constitutes the majority of the residential building stock on which this study is based. The study considers the effects of the different roof angles on reducing solar gain and indoor temperatures through eight directions within 24 hours. To analyse and explain that effect, five different angles of roof were chosen for the simulations. In general, all the angles were chosen due 10 their architectural design characteristics. These angles start from 0 degree as a horizontal flat roof to 60 degrees, i.e. increment of every 15 degrees. The research is seen as providing a tool in evaluating the dynamic indoor air temperature and the effect of roof angles. The evaluation is derived from a series of computer simulations using commercially available software called BLAST.

  7. Background Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds in North American Residences (1990 – 2005): A Compilation of Statistics for Assessing Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical report presents a summary of indoor air studies that measured background concentrations of VOCs in the indoor air of thousands of North American residences and an evaluation and compilation of their reported statistical information.

  8. Multi-parameter measurements using optical fibre long period gratings for indoor air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadka, J.; Korposh, S.; Partridge, M. C.; James, S.; Davis, F.; Crump, D.; Lee, S.-W.; Tatam, R. P.

    2017-04-01

    An array of three long period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in a single optical fibre and multiplexed in the wavelength domain was used to measure simultaneously temperature, relative humidity (RH) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each LPG sensor was designed to optimize its response to a desired measurand. The LPGs were fabricated with periods such that they operated at or near the phase matching turning point. The sensors were calibrated in the laboratory and the simultaneous measurement of the key indoor air quality parameters was undertaken in laboratory and office environments. It was demonstrated successfully that the data produced by the LPG sensor array under real conditions was in a good agreement with that produced by commercially available sensors. Further, the potential application of fibre optic sensors for VOCs detection at high levels has been demonstrated.

  9. The effect of an ion generator on indoor air quality in a residential room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A

    2011-08-01

    Ion generators charge particles with a corona prior to their removal on collector plates or indoor surfaces and also emit ozone, which can react with terpenes to yield secondary organic aerosol, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and free radicals. This study characterized the indoor air quality implications of operating an ion generator in a 27 m(3) residential room, with four different test room configurations. Two room configurations had carpet overlaying the original flooring of stained/sealed concrete, and for one configuration with and without carpet, a plug-in air freshener was used as a terpene source. Measurements included airborne sampling of particulate matter (0.015-20 μm), terpenes and C(1) -C(4) and C(6) -C(10) aldehydes, ozone concentrations, and air exchange rates. When the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system was not operating (room air exchange rate = ∼0.5/h), the use of the ion generator in the presence of the air freshener led to a net increase in ultrafine particles (ozone were observed regardless of air freshener presence, as well as increases in formaldehyde and nonanal, albeit within measurement uncertainty in some cases. Thus, it may be prudent to limit ion generator use indoors until evidence of safety can be ascertained. Portable ion generators are intended to clean the air of particles, but they may emit ozone as a byproduct of their operation, which has the potential to degrade indoor air quality. This study showed that under certain conditions in a residential room, the use of a portable ion generator can increase concentrations of ozone and, to a lesser degree, potentially aldehydes. Also, if operated in the presence of a plug-in air freshener that emits terpenes, its use can increase concentrations of secondary organic aerosol in the ultrafine size range. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in preschool children: Levels and impact of preschool indoor air on excretion of main urinary monohydroxyl metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; do Carmo Pereira, Maria; Morais, Simone

    2017-01-15

    The present work aimed to assess exposure of preschool children to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by environmental monitoring (eighteen compounds in air) and biomonitoring (six urinary biomarkers of exposure (OH-PAHs)). The impact of preschool indoor air on excretion of urinary monohydroxyl metabolites was also evaluated. Gaseous and particulate-bound PAHs were simultaneously collected indoors and outdoors in two Portuguese preschools. PAHs and OH-PAHs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and photodiode array detection. Total air (gaseous+total suspended particles) levels of PAHs (ΣPAHs) were higher indoors than outdoors. Gaseous phase (composed by ≥98% of 2-3 rings compounds) and particulate-bound PAHs (90-99% of 5-6 rings) accounted for 93-95% and 5-7% of ΣPAHs in indoor air, respectively. Total (including probable/possible) carcinogenic PAHs represented 26-45% of ΣPAHs; naphthalene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were the strongest contributors. A similar distribution profile was observed between airborne PAHs and urinary OH-PAHs. Urinary 1-hydroxynaphthalene+1-hydroxyacenaphthene represented more than 78% of ΣOH-PAHs, being followed by 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxypyrene, and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene. 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (PAH biomarker of carcinogenicity) was not detected. Results suggest that children had preschool indoor air as their major exposure source of naphthalene and acenaphthene, while no conclusion was reached regarding fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between indoor and outdoor air pollution and adolescent asthma from 1995 to 1996 in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.N.; Ko, Y.C.; Chao, Y.Y.; Huang, C.C.; Lin, R.S.

    1999-10-01

    The study aim was to estimate the contribution of indoor and outdoor air pollution to the 1-year prevalence of adolescent asthma after personal susceptibility and other potential risk factors were taken into account. A large-scaled cross-sectional study was conducted among 165,173 high school students aged 11 to 16 years in the different communities of Kaohsiung and Pintong in Taiwan, from October 1995 to June 1996. Each student and his/her parents participating in the study completed a video and a written International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire about symptoms of wheezing and allergies, passive smoking, and demographic variables. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents exposed to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke were found to suffer from asthma at an increased frequency. The authors observed a statistically significant association between outdoor air pollution and asthma, after controlling for potential confound variables. Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and airborne dust particles all displayed an independent association with asthma, respectively. There were no selection biases in this community-based study, which provides evidence that passive smoking and long-term, high average outdoor air pollution are independent risk factors of asthma.

  12. Indoor Air Temperature and Agitation of Nursing Home Residents With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarini, Federico; Cooper, Paul; Fleming, Richard; Batterham, Marijka

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the specific correlation between indoor air temperature and agitation of nursing home residents with dementia. Agitated behaviors of 21 residents, living in 1 nursing home, were assessed for a 10-month period using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The CMAI Total Frequency scores were found to increase significantly when indoor average temperatures deviated from 22.6°C. In addition, cumulative exposure to temperatures higher than 26°C and lower than 20°C was linearly correlated with CMAI Total Frequency scores. Results showed that agitated behaviors not only affected the person manifesting them but were found to be disruptive for other residents and the delivery of care. Agitation can, therefore, be potentially reduced by limiting the range of indoor air temperature variations, and aged care providers should ensure that a thermally comfortable environment is provided in nursing homes to enhance comfort and well-being of all occupants.

  13. Indoor air quality in the Swedish housing stock and its dependence on building characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Bekö, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Data from a recent Swedish survey on the status of the housing stock and indoor air quality were placed in the public domain by the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning in 2011. The available parameters included the year of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation...... exchange rate was a significant predictor of the concentrations of all three indoor pollutants. While ventilation seemed to be a source of NO2, increased ventilation rate appeared to decrease the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde and TVOC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....... system, temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate (AER), and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) from 157 single-family houses and 148 apartments. The median AER was lower in the single-family houses than in apartments (0.33h-1 vs. 0...

  14. Relationship among environmental quality variables, housing variables, and residential needs: a secondary analysis of the relationship among indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) concentrations database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Fausto; Shendell, Derek G.; Madrigano, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Retrospective descriptive secondary analyses of data from relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) study homes (in Houston, Texas; Los Angeles County, California; and, Elizabeth, New Jersey May 1999-February 2001) were conducted. Data included air exchange rates, associations between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity, and calculated apparent temperature and humidex. Analyses examined if study homes provided optimum thermal comfort for residents during both heating and cooling seasons when compared to current American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards 62/62.1 and 55. Results suggested outdoor temperature, humidex, and apparent temperature during the cooling season potentially served as indicators of indoor personal exposure to parameters of thermal comfort. Outdoor temperatures, humidex, and apparent temperature during the cooling season had statistically significant predictive abilities in predicting indoor temperature. During the heating season, only humidex in Texas and combined data across study states were statistically significant, but with weaker to moderate predicative ability. The high degree of correlation between outdoor and indoor environmental variables provided support for the validity of epidemiologic studies of weather relying on temporal comparisons. Results indicated most RIOPA study residents experienced thermal comfort; however, many values indicated how several residents may have experienced some discomfort depending on clothing and indoor activities. With climate change, increases in temperature are expected, with more days of extreme heat and humidity and, potentially harsher, longer winters. Homes being built or modernized should be created with the appropriate guidelines to provide comfort for residents daily and in extreme weather events.

  15. [Effects of indoor air pollution on asthma and asthma-related symptoms among children in Shenyang city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ya-nan; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-qin; Liu, Miao-miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-hui; Gao, Feng; Dong, Guang-hui; He, Qin-cheng

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of indoor air pollution and individual susceptible factors on prevalence of children's asthma and asthma-related symptoms in Shenyang city. On April, 2007, 8733 Han children who were under age of 12 and lived for more than 2 years in Shenyang city, were selected from five administrative areas (one primary school and two kindergartens for each area) through cluster random sampling method. Information on children's general condition, asthma and related symptoms (including stridor, stridor symptoms, persistent cough, persistent phlegm), indoor air pollution, and susceptibility history were obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. The effects of indoor air pollution on asthma and asthma-related symptoms was analyzed through χ(2) test. Logistic regression was used to research the effects of risk factors on the prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms of both susceptible and non-susceptible children. Among the 8733 subjects, 4420 (50.6%) were boy and 4313 (49.4%) were girl, with the age of (8.08 ± 2.88) years old. The prevalence of asthma, current asthma, cough, persistent phlegm, stridor and stridor symptom were 6.4% (559 cases), 2.5% (215 cases), 9.6% (836 cases), 4.4% (386 cases), 17.5% (1524 cases) and 2.6% (229 cases) respectively. The prevalence of asthma the boys and girls were among 7.1% (313 cases) and 5.7% (246 cases) (χ(2) = 6.916, P Indoor air pollution is a risk factor of children' s asthma. Family history of asthma and physical susceptible children are high risk to asthma, and susceptible children are easily influenced by other risk factors.

  16. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Reisbacka, H; Vinha, J

    2014-12-01

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH50, i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100% in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h(-1). This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30% lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute respiratory infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, M R; Boleij, J S; Smith, K R; Wafula, E M

    1989-02-25

    Indoor air pollution emerges as an important risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARI) in developing countries. In many developing countries, in addition to an increasing amount of tobacco smoke, many homes contain high levels of smoke from the combustion of biofuels such as wood, crop residues, and animal dung for cooking or heating. In about half the world's households, such fuels are used for cooking daily, usually without a flue or chimney and with poor ventilation. Results of investigations in 6 developing nations have shown the range of indoor pollution in such circumstances. The best single indicator for comparison of toxic noncarcinogenic effects is most likely respirable particulates, similar to tar reported for cigarette emissions. Results of studies in animals suggest any difference in respiratory-system toxicity according to mass is not likely to be large. On the basis of the small amount of evidence available, peak and daily exposures to indoor particulate levels in villages in developing countries seem to be about 20 times greater than in developed nations. The results of a semi-quantitative epidemiological study conducted in Nepal showed a direct relation between reported hours/day spent near the stove by infants and children aged under 2 years and episodes of life threatening acute respiratory infections. If one discounts the many possible confounding factors, extrapolation shows that by moving all children into the lowest smoke exposure groups as much as 25% of moderate and severe infections would be eliminated. Extrapolation from studies of both ARI and environmental tobacco smoke also indicates indirectly the potential effect of indoor smoke from biofuels. Some environmental tobacco smoke studies have reported a dose-response relation between the number of cigarettes smoked in the home and respiratory symptoms in children. In sum, biofuel smoke is likely to be a factor in ARI, but its importance in relation to other risk factors is

  18. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in

  19. Integrated Management of Residential Indoor Air Quality: A Call for Stakeholders in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Levasseur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm change in the management of environmental health issues has been observed in recent years: instead of managing specific risks individually, a holistic vision of environmental problems would assure sustainable solutions. However, concrete actions that could help translate these recommendations into interventions are lacking. This review presents the relevance of using an integrated indoor air quality management approach to ensure occupant health and comfort. At the nexus of three basic concepts (reducing contaminants at the source, improving ventilation, and, when relevant, purifying the indoor air, this approach can help maintain and improve indoor air quality and limit exposure to several contaminants. Its application is particularly relevant in a climate change context since the evolving outdoor conditions have to be taken into account during building construction and renovation. The measures presented through this approach target public health players, building managers, owners, occupants, and professionals involved in building design, construction, renovation, and maintenance. The findings of this review will help the various stakeholders initiate a strategic reflection on the importance of indoor air quality and climate change issues for existing and future buildings. Several new avenues and recommendations are presented to set the path for future research activities.

  20. A comparative study on indoor air quality in a low cost and a green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is important because people spend most of their time inside houses. IAQ was monitored in two different types of rural houses namely a low cost house and a “green” house built with pyramidal shape of roof in the rural area. Carbon monoxide (CO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) concentrations ...

  1. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  2. The effect of mercuric chloride treatment as biocide for herbaria on the indoor air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Dekker, R.; Sportel, R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most previous conservation treatments for plant specimen in herbarium collections was mercuric chloride (HgCl2). However, due time HgCl2 may decompose and it may cause (metallic) mercury (Hg) emission. Hg vapour in indoor air should be avoided as mercury poisoning can already occur at

  3. Indoor simulation and testing of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solanki, S.C.; Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, A.

    2009-01-01

    An indoor standard test procedure has been developed for thermal and electrical testing of PV/T collectors connected in series. For this, a PV/T solar air heater has been designed, fabricated and its performance over different operating parameters were studied. Based on the energy balance equations,

  4. Indoor air condensate as a novel matrix for monitoring inhalable organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Isaac B; Halden, Rolf U; Pycke, Benny F G

    2015-05-15

    With the population of developed nations spending nearly 90% of their time indoors, indoor air quality (IAQ) is a critical indicator of human health risks from inhalation of airborne contaminants. We present a novel approach for qualitative monitoring of IAQ through the collection and analysis of indoor air condensate discharged from heat exchangers of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Condensate samples were collected from six suburban homes and one business in Maricopa County, Arizona, concentrated via solid-phase extraction, analyzed for 10 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and screened for additional organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 10 EDCs were detected in at least one of the sampled buildings. More than 100 additional compounds were detected by GC-MS, of which 40 were tentatively identified using spectral database searches. Twelve compounds listed as designated chemicals for biomonitoring by the California Environmental Contaminant Biomonitoring Program were detected. Microfiltration of condensate samples prior to extraction had no discernable effect on contaminant concentration, suggesting that contaminants were freely dissolved or associated with inhalable, submicron particles. This study is the first to document the utility of HVAC condensate for the qualitative assessment of indoor air for pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  6. Early-life exposures to environmental tobacco smoke and indoor air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fuels (such as paraffin, wood, coal and other biomass substances), often in inadequately ventilated homes, contributes to indoor air pollution, a recognised risk factor for respiratory disease.[5] Further, environmental tobacco smoke exposure continues to be problematic despite anti-smoking legislation.[6]. The Drakenstein ...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION USING INDOOR AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a method for evaluating vapor intrusion using indoor and sub-slab air measurement and at the same time directly assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion in 15 homes and one business near the former R...

  8. Emissions of indoor air pollutants from six user scenarios in a model room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllbacher, Eva; Ters, Thomas; Rieder-Gradinger, Cornelia; Srebotnik, Ewald

    2017-02-01

    In this study six common user scenarios putatively influencing indoor air quality were performed in a model room constructed according to the specifications of the European Reference Room given in the new horizontal prestandard prEN 16516 to gain further information about the influence of user activities on indoor air quality. These scenarios included the use of cleaning agent, an electric air freshener, an ethanol fireplace and cosmetics as well as cigarette smoking and peeling of oranges. Four common indoor air pollutants were monitored: volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), carbonyl compounds and CO2. The development of all pollutants was determined during and after the test performance. For each measured pollutant, well-defined maximum values could be assigned to one or more of the individual user scenarios. The highest VOC concentration was measured during orange-peeling reaching a maximum value of 3547 μg m-3. Carbonyl compounds and PM were strongly elevated while cigarette smoking. Here, a maximum formaldehyde concentration of 76 μg m-3 and PM concentration of 378 μg m-3 were measured. CO2 was only slightly affected by most of the tests except the use of the ethanol fireplace where a maximum concentration of 1612 ppm was reached. Generally, the user scenarios resulted in a distinct increase of several indoor pollutants that usually decreased rapidly after the removal of the source.

  9. Ventilation behaviour and indoor air problems in different types of newly built dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.E.F. van; Phaff, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In four types of newly built single family dwellings and in apartments of a block of flats in the Netherlands, the behaviour and motivations of the occupants are studied with respect to their response to heating and ventilation, as well as their judgment on indoor air and climate variables such as

  10. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Kelly G; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m(3) and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an "Imminent Hazard" condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed.

  11. The impact of a photocatalytic paint on indoor air pollutants: Sensory assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    was illuminated by bulbs emitting visible/UV light. A mixture of common indoor pollutants, including emissions from chipboard, linoleum and carpet, as well as human bioffluents and isopropanol, were used to test the efficacy of the paint. A sensory panel of 35 subjects assessed the air quality in the test...

  12. Indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Alexandro; Dominski, Fábio Hech

    2018-01-15

    Systematic reviews have the potential to contribute substantially to environmental health and risk assessment. This study aimed to investigate indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice through a systematic review. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was recorded in the PROSPERO registry (CRD42016036057). The search was performed using the SciELO, Science Direct, Scopus, LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed, and SPORTDiscus databases, from their inception through April 2017. The search terms used in the databases were {air pollution" OR "air pollutants" OR "air quality"} AND {"physical exercise" OR "physical activity" OR "sport"}. The results of selected studies were divided into 5 categories for analysis: monitoring of air quality in the environment according to international guidelines, indoor-to-outdoor ratio (I/O), air quality during physical exercise, impact of air quality on health, and interventions to improve indoor air quality. Among 1281 studies screened, 34 satisfied the inclusion criteria. The monitoring of pollutants was conducted in 20 studies. CO and NO 2 were the most investigated pollutants, and guidelines were discussed in most studies. The I/O ratio was investigated in 12 studies, of which 9 showed a higher concentration of some pollutants in indoor rather than outdoor environments. Among the 34 studies selected, only 7 investigated the impact of indoor air pollution on human health. The population in most of these studies consisted of hockey players. Most studies conducted monitoring of pollutants in indoor environments used for physical exercise and sports practice. The earliest studies were conducted in ice skating rinks and the most recent evaluated gymnasiums, fitness centers, and sports centers. The CO, particulate matter, and NO 2 concentrations were the most investigated and have the longest history of investigation. These pollutants were within the limits established by guidelines in most

  13. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Hyun Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with indoor plants and went through the latter observation term without any indoor plants. Results The household of continuation showed a continual decrease in the indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs during the entire observation period, but the household of withdrawal performed an increase in the indoor concentrations of VOCs, except formaldehyde and toluene during the latter observation term after the decrease during the former observation term. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR increased in the households of continuation with the value of 13.9 L/min in the morning and 20.6 L/ min in the evening, but decreased in the households of withdrawal with the value of -24.7 L/min in the morning and -30.2 L/min in the evening in the first experimental season. All of the households exhibited a decrease in the value of PEFR in the second experimental season. Conclusions Limitations to the generalizability of findings regarding the presence of plants indoors can be seen as a more general expression of such a benefit of human-environment relations.

  14. Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents living in nursing homes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentayeb, Malek; Norback, Dan; Bednarek, Micha

    2015-01-01

    cough. Elderly subjects aged ≥80 years were at higher risk. Pollutant effects were more pronounced in the case of poor ventilation. Even at low levels, indoor air quality affected respiratory health in elderly people permanently living in nursing homes, with frailty increasing with age. The effects were......Few data exist on respiratory effects of indoor air quality and comfort parameters in the elderly. In the context of the GERIE study, we investigated for the first time the relationships of these factors to respiratory morbidity among elderly people permanently living in nursing homes in seven...... European countries. 600 elderly people from 50 nursing homes underwent a medical examination and completed a standardised questionnaire. Air quality and comfort parameters were objectively assessed in situ in the nursing home. Mean concentrations of air pollutants did not exceed the existing standards...

  15. Measurement of Indoor Air Quality by Means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    When a person is located in a contaminant field with significant gradients the contaminant distribution is modified locally due to the entrainment and transport of room air in the human convective boundary layer as well as due to the effect of the person acting as an obstacle to the flow field, e....... The local modification of the concentration distribution may affect the personal exposure significantly and, thus, the indoor air quality actually experienced. In this paper measurements of indoor air quality by means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin (BTM) are presented.......When a person is located in a contaminant field with significant gradients the contaminant distribution is modified locally due to the entrainment and transport of room air in the human convective boundary layer as well as due to the effect of the person acting as an obstacle to the flow field, etc...

  16. Association of outdoor air pollution and indoor renovation with early childhood ear infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Lu, Chan; Jiang, Wei; Zhao, Jinping; Deng, Linjing; Xiang, Yuguang

    2017-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common infection in early childhood with repeated attacks that lead to long-term complications and sequelae, but its risk factors still remain unclear. To examine the risk of childhood OM for different indoor and outdoor air pollutants during different timing windows, with a purpose to identify critical windows of exposure and key components of air pollution in the development of OM. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1617 children aged 3-4 years in Changsha, China (2011-2012). Children's life-time prevalence of OM and exposure to indoor air pollution related to home renovation activities were surveyed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Children's exposure to outdoor air pollution, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), was estimated using the measured concentrations at municipal monitoring stations. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of childhood OM for prenatal and postnatal exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution were examined by using logistic regression model. Life-time prevalence of OM in preschool children (7.3%) was associated not only with prenatal exposure to industrial air pollutant with adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.44 (1.09-1.88) for a 27 μg/m3 increase in SO2 but also with postnatal exposure to indoor renovations with OR (95% CI) = 1.62 (1.05-2.49) for new furniture and 1.81 (1.12-2.91) for redecoration, particularly in girls. Combined exposure to outdoor SO2 and indoor renovation significantly increased OM risk. Furthermore, we found that exposure to outdoor SO2 and indoor renovation were significantly associated with the onset but not repeated attacks of OM. Prenatal exposure to outdoor industrial air pollution and postnatal exposure to indoor renovation are independently associated with early childhood OM in China and may cause the OM onset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Improvement of the indoor air quality. An integral approach; Verbetering van de luchtkwaliteit. Een integrale benadering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluyssen, Ph. M. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    There seems to be a discrepancy between current Indoor Air Quality standards and end-users wishes and demands. Indoor air quality can be approached from three points of view: (1) the human, (2) the indoor air of the space and (3) the sources contributing to indoor air pollution. Standards currently in use mainly address the indoor air of the space. Other or additional recommendations and guidelines are required to improve indoor air quality. Even though we do not fully understand the mechanisms behind the physical, chemical, physiological and psychological processes, it is still possible to identify the different ways to be taken: regulatory, political and social (awareness), technical (process and product) and scientific. Besides the fact that there is an urgent need to involve medicine and neuropsychology in research to investigate the mechanisms behind dose-response, health effects and interactions between and with the other factors and parameters of the indoor environment and the human body and mind, a holistic approach is required including the sources, the air and last but not least the human beings (occupants) themselves. This paper mainly focuses on the European situation. [Dutch] Er lijkt een discrepantie te bestaan tussen de huidige richtlijnen voor binnenluchtkwaliteit en de wensen en eisen van eindgebruikers. Binnenluchtkwaliteit kan op drie manieren worden benaderd: vanuit de mens, de binnenlucht in de ruimte en vanuit de bronnen die aan de binnenluchtverontreiniging bijdragen. Huidige richtlijnen adresseren vooral de binnenlucht in een ruimte. Andere of extra aanbevelingen en richtlijnen zijn nodig om de binnenluchtkwaliteit te verbeteren. Ondanks dat we de mechanismen achter de fysieke, chemische, fysiologische en psychologische processen niet volledig begrijpen, is het toch mogelijk, om de verschillende wegen (regelgeving, politiek-sociale (besef/bewustzijn), technisch (proces en product) en wetenschappelijk), die bewandeld kunnen worden uit te

  18. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Here, we extend that analysis to approximately eighty organic compounds that (a) occur commonly indoors and (b) are primarily in the gas-phase rather than being associated with particles. For some compounds, the modeled ratio of dermal-to-inhalation uptake is large....... In this group are common parabens, lower molecular weight phthalates, o-phenylphenol, Texanol, ethylene glycol, and α-terpineol. For other compounds, estimated dermal uptakes are small compared to inhalation. Examples include aliphatic hydrocarbons, single ring aromatics, terpenes, chlorinated solvents...

  19. Sources and Perceptions of Indoor and Ambient Air Pollution in Rural Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Desirae; Lewis, Johnnye; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Noonan, Curtis; Ward, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Even though Alaska is the largest state in the United States, much of the population resides in rural and underserved areas with documented disparities in respiratory health. This is especially true in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (southwest) and Ahtna (southcentral) Regions of Alaska. In working with community members, the goal of this study was to identify the air pollution issues (both indoors and outdoors) of concern within these two regions. Over a two-year period, 328 air quality surveys were di...

  20. Measuring Infiltration Rates in Homes as a Basis for Understanding Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerz, G. G.; Lamb, B. K.; Pressley, S. N.; O'Keeffe, P.; Fuchs, M.; Kirk, M.

    2015-12-01

    Infiltration rates, or the rate of air exchange, of houses are important to understand because ventilation can be a dominate factor in determining indoor air quality. There are chemicals that are emitted from surfaces or point sources inside the home which are harmful to humans; these chemicals come from various objects including furniture, cleaning supplies, building materials, gas stoves, and the surrounding environment. The use of proper ventilation to cycle cleaner outdoor air into the house can be crucial for maintaining healthy living conditions in the home. At the same time, there can also be outdoor pollutants which infiltrate the house and contribute to poor indoor air quality. In either case, it is important to determine infiltration rates as a function of outdoor weather conditions, the house structure properties and indoor heating and cooling systems. In this work, the objective is to measure ventilation rates using periodic releases of a tracer gas and measuring how quickly the tracer concentration decays. CO2 will be used as the tracer gas because it is inert and harmless at low levels. An Arduino timer is connected to a release valve which controls the release of 9.00 SLPM of CO2 into the uptake vent within the test home. CO2 will be released until there is at least a 200 to 300 ppm increase above ambient indoor levels. Computers with CO2 sensors and temperature/pressure sensors attached will be used to record data from different locations within the home which will continuously record data up to a week. The results from these periodic ventilation measurements will be analyzed with respect to outdoor wind and temperature conditions and house structure properties. The data will be used to evaluate an established indoor air quality model.

  1. [Chlorine concentrations in the air of indoor swimming pools and their effects on swimming pool workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; Gallardo, Leonor; Tamaral, Francisco Manuel

    2013-01-01

    To describe chlorine levels in the air of indoor swimming pools in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and relate them to other chemical parameters in the installation and to the health problems perceived by swimming pool workers. We analyzed 21 pools with chlorine as chemical treatment in Castilla-La Mancha. The iodometry method was applied to measure chlorine concentrations in the air. The concentrations of free and combined chlorine in water, pH and temperature were also evaluated. Health problems were surveyed in 230 swimming pool workers in these facilities. The mean chlorine level in the air of swimming pools was 4.3 ± 2.3mg/m(3). The pH values were within the legal limits. The temperature parameters did not comply with regulations in 17 of the 21 pools analyzed. In the pools where chlorine values in the air were above the legal regulations, a significantly higher percentage of swimming pool workers perceived eye irritation, dryness and irritation of skin, and ear problems. Chlorine values in the air of indoor swimming pools were higher than those reported in similar studies. Most of the facilities (85%) exceeded the concentration of 1.5mg/m(3) established as the limit for the risk of irritating effects. The concentration of chlorine in indoor swimming pool air has a direct effect on the self-perceived health problems of swimming pool workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Sources and perceptions of indoor and ambient air pollution in rural Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Desirae; Lewis, Johnnye; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Noonan, Curtis; Ward, Tony

    2013-08-01

    Even though Alaska is the largest state in the United States, much of the population resides in rural and underserved areas with documented disparities in respiratory health. This is especially true in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (southwest) and Ahtna (southcentral) Regions of Alaska. In working with community members, the goal of this study was to identify the air pollution issues (both indoors and outdoors) of concern within these two regions. Over a two-year period, 328 air quality surveys were disseminated within seven communities in rural Alaska. The surveys focused on understanding the demographics, home heating practices, indoor activities, community/outdoor activities, and air quality perceptions within each community. Results from these surveys showed that there is elevated potential for PM10/PM2.5 exposures in rural Alaska communities. Top indoor air quality concerns included mold, lack of ventilation or fresh air, and dust. Top outdoor air pollution concerns identified were open burning/smoke, road dust, and vehicle exhaust (e.g., snow machines, ATVs, etc.). These data can now be used to seek additional funding for interventions, implementing long-term, sustainable solutions to the identified problems. Further research is needed to assess exposures to PM10/PM2.5 and the associated impacts on respiratory health, particularly among susceptible populations such as young children.

  3. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total...... inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m3) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m3). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass...

  4. Indoor air pollution from solid biomass fuels combustion in rural agricultural area of Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Yu, Q; Gu, Q; Chen, Y; Ding, K; Zhu, J; Chen, L

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we are trying to investigate the indoor air pollution and to estimate the residents' pollution exposure reduction of energy altering in rural Tibet. Daily PM(2.5) monitoring was conducted in indoor microenvironments like kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard in rural Tibet from December 2006 to March 2007. For kitchen air pollution, impact of two fuel types, methane and solid biomass fuels (SBFs), were compared. Questionnaire survey on the domestic energy pattern and residents' daily activity pattern was performed in Zha-nang County. Daily average PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard were 134.91 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 45, 95%CI 84.02, 185.80), 103.61 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 21, 95%CI 85.77, 121.45), 76.13 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 57.22, 95.04), and 78.33 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 34, 95%CI 60.00, 96.65) respectively. Using SBFs in kitchen resulted in higher indoor pollution than using methane. PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen with dung cake, fuel wood and methane use were 117.41 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 71.03, 163.79), 271.11 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 12, 95%CI 104.74, 437.48), and 46.96 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 15, 95%CI 28.10, 65.82) respectively. Family income has significant influence on cooking energy choice, while the lack of commercial energy supply affects the energy choice for heating more. The effects of two countermeasures to improve indoor air quality were estimated in this research. One is to replace SBFs by clean energy like methane, the other is to separate the cooking place from other rooms and by applying these countermeasures, residents' exposure to particulate matters would reduce by 25-50% (methane) or 20-30% (separation) compared to the present situation. Indoor air pollution caused by solid biomass fuels is one of the most important burdens of disease in the developing countries, which attracts the attention of environment and public health researchers, as well as policy makers. This paper

  5. Monitoring of Microscopic Filamentous Fungi in Indoor Air of Transplant Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holý, Ondřej; Matoušková, Ivanka; Kubátová, Alena; Hamal, Petr; Svobodová, Lucie; Jurásková, Eva; Raida, Luděk

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to control the microbial contamination of indoor air monitored monthly at the Transplant Unit of the University Hospital Olomouc from August 2010 to July 2011. The unit is equipped with a three-stage air filtration system with HEPA filters. The MAS-100 air sampler (Merck, GER) was used. Twenty locations were singled out for the purposes of collecting a total of 720 samplings of the indoor air. Swabs of the HVAC diffusers at the sampling locations were always carried out after the sampling of the indoor air. In total, 480 samples of the indoor air were taken for Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar. In 11 cases (2.29%) the cultivation verified the presence of microscopic filamentous fungi. Only two cases involved the sanitary facilities of a patient isolation box; the other positive findings were from the facilities. The most frequent established genus was Aspergillus spp. (4x), followed by Trichoderma spp. (2x) and Penicillium spp. (2x), Paecilomyces spp., Eurotium spp., and Chrysonilia spp. (1x each). In 2 cases the cultivation established sterile aerial mycelium, unfortunately no further identification was possible. A total of 726 swabs of HVAC diffusers were collected (2 positive-0.28%). The study results demonstrated the efficacy of the HVAC equipment. With the continuing increase in the number of severely immunocompromised patients, hospitals are faced with the growing problem of invasive aspergillosis and other opportunistic infections. Preventive monitoring of microbial air contaminants is of major importance for the control of invasive aspergillosis. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  6. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  7. Impact of human activities on the concentration of indoor air particles in an antarctic research station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Coelho Pagel

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main characteristics of Antarctic buildings is the fact that they are designed mostly with a focus on energy efficiency. Although human activity is a major source of pollution, indoor air quality is not a matter of significant concern during building planning. This study examines the relationship between indoor activities in an Antarctic Research Station and the size distribution of particulate matter. Real-time particle size distribution data is used in conjunction with time-activity data. The activity number ratio is calculated using the mean number of particles found in each size range during each activity divided by the average number of particles found during a period characterized by the absence of human activities. Cooking, the use of cosmetics, waste incineration and exhaust from light vehicles were responsible for significant deterioration of indoor air related to the presence of fine and ultrafine particles. Cleaning, physical exercise and the movement of people were responsible for the emission of coarse particles. This article emphasizes the importance of post-occupancy evaluation of buildings, generating results relevant to the planning and layout of new buildings, especially regarding better indoor air quality.

  8. Can ornamental potted plants remove volatile organic compounds from indoor air? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H; Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge; Müller, Renate

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found in indoor air, and many of these can affect human health (e.g. formaldehyde and benzene are carcinogenic). Plants affect the levels of VOCs in indoor environments, thus they represent a potential green solution for improving indoor air quality that at the same time can improve human health. This article reviews scientific studies of plants' ability to remove VOCs from indoor air. The focus of the review is on pathways of VOC removal by the plants and factors affecting the efficiency and rate of VOC removal by plants. Laboratory based studies indicate that plant induced removal of VOCs is a combination of direct (e.g. absorption) and indirect (e.g. biotransformation by microorganisms) mechanisms. They also demonstrate that plants' rate of reducing the level of VOCs is influenced by a number of factors such as plant species, light intensity and VOC concentration. For instance, an increase in light intensity has in some studies been shown to lead to an increase in removal of a pollutant. Studies conducted in real-life settings such as offices and homes are few and show mixed results.

  9. Chamber bioaerosol study: outdoor air and human occupants as sources of indoor airborne microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available Human occupants are an important source of microbes in indoor environments. In this study, we used DNA sequencing of filter samples to assess the fungal and bacterial composition of air in an environmental chamber under different levels of occupancy, activity, and exposed or covered carpeting. In this office-like, mechanically ventilated environment, results showed a strong influence of outdoor-derived particles, with the indoor microbial composition tracking that of outdoor air for the 2-hour sampling periods. The number of occupants and their activity played a significant but smaller role influencing the composition of indoor bioaerosols. Human-associated taxa were observed but were not particularly abundant, except in the case of one fungus that appeared to be transported into the chamber on the clothing of a study participant. Overall, this study revealed a smaller signature of human body-associated taxa than had been expected based on recent studies of indoor microbiomes, suggesting that occupants may not exert a strong influence on bioaerosol microbial composition in a space that, like many offices, is well ventilated with air that is moderately filtered and moderately occupied.

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mainka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children’s health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2 levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total—TSP and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children and of localization (urban or rural. To evaluate the children’s exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children.

  11. [Indoor air pollution by fine particulate matter in the homes of newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barría, René Mauricio; Calvo, Mario; Pino, Paulina

    Air pollution by particulate matter (PM) is a major public health problem. In Chile, the study has focused on outdoor air and PM 10 , rather than indoor air and PM 2.5 . Because newborns and infants spend most of their time at home, it is necessary to evaluate the exposure to indoor air pollution in this susceptible population. To determine concentration of PM 2.5 in the homes of newborns and identify the emission sources of the pollutants. The PM 2.5 concentration ([PM 2.5 ]) was collected over a 24hour period in 207 households. Baseline sociodemographic information and environmental factors (heating, ventilation, smoking and house cleaning), were collected. The median [PM 2.5 ] was 107.5μg/m 3 . Family history of asthma was associated with lower [PM 2.5 ] (P=.0495). Homes without heating showed a lower median [PM 2.5 ], 58.6μg/m 3 , while those using firewood, kerosene, and electricity ranged between 112.5 and 114.9, and coal users' homes reached 162.9μg/m 3 . Wood using homes had significant differences (P=.0164) in median [PM 2.5 ] whether the stove had complete combustion (98.2μg/m 3 ) vs. incomplete (112.6μg/m 3 ), or a salamander stove (140.6μg/m 3 ). Cigarette smoking was reported in 8.7% of the households, but was not associated with the [PM 2.5 ]. Ventilation was associated with a higher median [PM 2.5 ] (120.6 vs. 99.1μg/m 3 , P=.0039). We found homes with high [PM 2.5 ]. Residential wood consumption was almost universal, and it is associated with the [PM 2.5 ]. Natural ventilation increased MP 2.5 , probably due to infiltration from outside. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  13. Monitoring biodiversity in libraries: a pilot study and perspectives for indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriani, F; Cianfanelli, C; Gianfranceschi, G; Santucci, S; Romano Spica, V; Mucci, N

    2017-09-01

    Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in libraries is influenced by the presence of specific factors which can impact on both paper storage as well as people health. Microclimatic conditions induce and support a biodiversity pattern involving environmental and anthropic microorganisms. We used a multidisciplinary monitoring model to characterize microflora biodiversity by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Biodiversity indexes were adapted to evaluate anthropic vs environmental pollution by combining Shannon mean index (H), species representativeness (E H ), human/environmental pollution ratio (SA) to better characterize the NGS output and acquire synthetic information on Indoor Air Microbial Biodiversity (IAMB). Results indicate a frequently low microbial load (IGCM/m 3 < 1000) characterized by different species (n = 102), including several cellulose metabolizing bacteria. Workers and visitors appeared a relevant source of microbial contamination. Air biodiversity assayed by NGS seems a promising marker for studying IAQ.

  14. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor and outdoor air in a community in Guangzhou, a megacity of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nan; Wang, Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yu, Mei; Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-05-01

    Indoor environments contribute a significant portion of human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) because of their extensive use in various household products. This study investigates the occurrence of a number of BFRs in the indoor and outdoor air in a megacity in southern China, in which little information on indoor BFRs contamination is available. The estimated total PBDE concentrations ranged from 1.43 to 57 pg/m(3) indoors and from 1.21 to 1522 pg/m(3) outdoors. The indoor concentrations of lower brominated PBDEs that are mainly derived from the technical penta- and octa-BDE mixtures were higher than or comparable to the outdoors, while the indoor levels of DecaBDEs and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were apparently lower than the outdoors. The seasonal variations of BFR concentrations indicated that evaporation from old indoor products is the primary source of Penta- and OctaBDEs in the air, whereas most DecaBDEs and DBDPE concentrations showing weak temperature-dependence are largely released from industrial activities. The PBDE congener profiles in the air were generally similar, which were dominated by BDE209, 28, and 47; whereas the appreciable indoor-outdoor differences in the compositions are possibly due to emission sources, photochemical degradation, or congener-specific transport of BFRs in the indoor and outdoor air. Significant correlations between the indoor and outdoor BFRs were observed suggesting the exchange of BFRs between the two compartments, which are more noticeable for PentaBDEs and DecaBDEs with strong indoor and outdoor emission sources, respectively. This study provides significant insights into the sources of BFRs in urban air in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Indoor air mycoflora of residential dwellings in Jos metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The quality of air in the environment where one lives or works can have potential effects on human health. There are strong indications that in many parts of the world, our homes, schools and workplaces are heavily contaminated with air-borne molds and other biological contaminants. Objectives: This study ...

  16. An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction.......Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction....

  17. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. Methods: The materials reviewed in this publication ...

  18. Microbiological Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality of Two Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air contains large number of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi and their estimation is important as an index of cleanliness for any particular environment. It becomes imperative to undertake a study of the microbiological air quality of the airborne micro-flora in the environments of two major government hospitals, ...

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  20. Transparent air filter for high-efficiency PM2.5 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ye, Meng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liu, Nian; Li, Weiyang; Cui, Yi

    2015-02-16

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution has raised serious concerns for public health. Although outdoor individual protection could be achieved by facial masks, indoor air usually relies on expensive and energy-intensive air-filtering devices. Here, we introduce a transparent air filter for indoor air protection through windows that uses natural passive ventilation to effectively protect the indoor air quality. By controlling the surface chemistry to enable strong PM adhesion and also the microstructure of the air filters to increase the capture possibilities, we achieve transparent, high air flow and highly effective air filters of ~90% transparency with >95.00% removal of PM2.5 under extreme hazardous air-quality conditions (PM2.5 mass concentration >250 μg m(-3)). A field test in Beijing shows that the polyacrylonitrile transparent air filter has the best PM2.5 removal efficiency of 98.69% at high transmittance of ~77% during haze occurrence.

  1. Geothermal ground gas emissions and indoor air pollution in Rotorua, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Michael; Scott, Bradley J

    2005-06-01

    The emission of toxic gases from the soil is a hazard in geothermal regions that are also urbanized because buildings constructed on geothermal ground may be subject to the ingress of gases from the soil directly into the structure. The Rotorua geothermal field, New Zealand, is extensively urbanized but to date no studies have evaluated the extent of the ground gas hazard. The main gases emitted are hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), both of which are highly toxic and denser than air. This paper reports preliminary findings from a study of selected buildings constructed in the gas anomaly area. Properties were investigated for evidence of ingress by H2S, CO2, and 222Rn, with a view to determine the means and rates of gas entry and the nature of any consequent hazard. H2S and CO2 were investigated using infrared active gas analysers and passive detector tubes left in place for 10-48 h. 222Rn was measured over a period of 3 months by poly-allyl diglycol carbonate sensors. Eight of the nine buildings studied were found to suffer problems with soil gases entering the indoor air through the structure. The primary means of gas entry was directly from the ground through the floors, walls, and subsurface pipes. Indoor vents were located and found emitting up to approximately 200 ppm H2S and approximately 15% CO2, concentrations high enough to present an acute respiratory hazard to persons close to the vent (e.g., children playing at floor level). In some properties, gas problems occurred despite preventative measures having been made during construction or during later renovations. Typically, these measures include the under-laying of concrete floors with a gas-proof butanol seal, under-floor ventilation systems or the installation of positive-pressure air conditioning. Recently constructed buildings (<10 years) with butanol seals were nevertheless affected by ground gas emissions, and we conclude that such measures are not always effective in the long term.

  2. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM 10 and benzo[a]pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Linwei; Lan, Qing; Yang, Dong; He, Xingzhou; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) by 66% and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM 10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM 10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  3. Indoor climate and air quality . Review of current and future topics in the field of ISB study group 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppe, P.; Martinac, Ivo

    In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. The ambient parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature and humidity, air velocity, and radiant heat exchange within an enclosure. In assessing the thermal environment, one needs to consider all ambient parameters, the insulating properties of the occupants' clothing, and the activity level of the occupants by means of heat balance models of the human body. Apart from thermal parameters, air quality (measured and perceived) is also of importance for well-being and health in indoor environments. Pollutant levels are influenced by both outdoor concentrations and by indoor emissions. Indoor levels can thus be lower (e.g. in the case of ozone and SO2) or higher (e.g. for CO2 and formaldehyde) than outdoor levels. Emissions from cooking play an important role, especially in developing countries. The humidity of the ambient air has a wide range of effects on the energy and water balance of the body as well as on elasticity, air quality perception, build-up of electrostatic charge and the formation or mould. However, its effect on the indoor climate is often overestimated. While air-handling systems are commonly used for achieving comfortable indoor climates, their use has also been linked to a variety of problems, some of which have received attention within the context of ''sick building syndrome''.

  4. Modeling and measuring the indoor randon concentrations in high-rise buildings in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, C K; Yeung, H S

    1999-06-01

    A newly constructed, uninhabited high-rise building has been measured for its indoor and outdoor radon concentrations at similar locations on each of the 18 floor levels. Grab sampling technique has been used so that many locations can be measured within short period of time to minimize the variations due to temperature, pressure and humidity. Air exchange rates inside rooms were obtained by tracer gas method. Standard concrete samples were manufactured in laboratory to simulate the concrete used in the construction of the high-rise building. The concrete samples were measured for their radon exhalation rates by calculating the initial growth rates of radon inside an airtight container. The air exchange rates have been found to increase with floor levels, whilst the indoor and outdoor radon concentrations decreased with floor levels. Using a model utilizing a simple mass balance equation, the indoor radon concentration inside a room on each of the 18 floor levels has been calculated and the results agreed very well with measurements.

  5. Modeling and measuring the indoor radon concentrations in high-rise buildings in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, C.K.; Yeung, H.S

    1999-06-01

    A newly constructed, uninhabited high-rise building has been measured for its indoor and outdoor radon concentrations at similar locations on each of the 18 floor levels. Grab sampling technique has been used so that many locations can be measured within short period of time to minimize the variations due to temperature, pressure and humidity. Air exchange rates inside rooms were obtained by tracer gas method. Standard concrete samples were manufactured in laboratory to simulate the concrete used in the construction of the high-rise building. The concrete samples were measured for their radon exhalation rates by calculating the initial growth rates of radon inside an airtight container. The air exchange rates have been found to increase with floor levels, whilst the indoor and outdoor radon concentrations decreased with floor levels. Using a model utilizing a simple mass balance equation, the indoor radon concentration inside a room on each of the 18 floor levels has been calculated and the results agreed very well with measurements.

  6. In vitro exposure of human lung cells to emissions of several indoor air sources created in a climate chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Alblas, M.J.; Tuinman, I.L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, studies on indoor air pollution suggest a link between exposure to indoor particulate matter and compounds, in particular ultrafine particles and secondary organic aerosols, and several health effects. The mechanisms of how those complex mixtures relate to health effects are

  7. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT-PART 2. TEST HOUSE STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission models developed using small chamber data were combined with an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) model to analyze the impact of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from latex paint on indoor environments. Test house experiments were conducted to verify the IAQ model's pred...

  8. A case of indoor air pollution of ammonia emitted from concrete in a newly built office in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Torsten [Department of Medical Sciences/Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    A case of suspected indoor ammonia contamination from concrete was investigated in an airline company office in Beijing. A standardized questionnaire on indoor environment perceptions, medical symptoms and psychosocial work environment was distributed to all staff, and compared with a reference group of office workers from the same company in Stockholm. Temperature, relative humidity, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ammonia, and carbon dioxide were measured both in Beijing and Stockholm. In Beijing mould and bacteria were also measured. Totally 95% (N = 14) participated. The Beijing staff reported a higher rate of complaints regarding poor work satisfaction, and work stress as compared to the Stockholm reference group. In the total material (N = 203) the psychosocial environment was related to general symptoms (headache and tiredness) but not odour perception or mucous membrane symptoms. Controlling for age, smoking habits, and psychosocial work environment the Beijing staff had more complaints on unpleasant odour and mucous membrane symptoms. An increased indoor concentration of ammonia (3-6 ppm) and benzene (26.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) was measured in the indoor air in the Beijing office, as compared to the office in Stockholm (<0.1 ppm ammonia and 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} benzene). The ammonia contamination in the Beijing office was confirmed, the probable source being additives in the concrete. The ammonia level was well below the Swedish threshold limit values (TLV) (25 ppm). In addition the exposure to benzene, an indicator of traffic exhaust pollution was high both indoors and outdoors in Beijing, possible related to increased levels of odour complaints and mucous membrane irritation. (author)

  9. Household Cooking Fuel Use among Residents of a Sub-Urban Community in Nigeria: Implications for Indoor Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the types of household cooking fuel used by residents of Isiohor community in Edo State, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 133 household heads or their representatives in Isiohor Community in Edo State, Nigeria. Data collection was by means of a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Half (50.3%) of the households studied were made up of 4-6 persons living in them. Sixty-two (46.6%) respondents had tertiary level of education and a third 44 (33.1%) earned between 21,000 and 30,000 naira (150-200 dollars) monthly. Forty six (34.6%) and 27 (20.3%) respondents live in passage houses and flats respectively. Two thirds (68.4%) of the respondents cook their food indoors. The predominant household cooking fuels used by the respondents were cooking gas (51.1%), Kerosene (45.9%), vegetables (25.6%) and firewood (14.3%). Majority 106 (79.7%) had poor knowledge of the health effects of prolonged exposure to smoke arising from indoor cooking. There was a statistically significant association between the occupation of the respondents and the type of household cooking fuel used (p=0.002). The use of unclean indoor cooking fuel was high among the residents of Isiohor community in Edo State, Nigeria. Also, there was poor knowledge of the health effects of prolonged exposure to smoke from unclean cooking fuel among the respondents and this has serious implications for indoor air pollution. There is an urgent need for health/hygiene education on the health effects of use of unclean indoor cooking fuel among these residents. There is also need for use of clean/green cooking stoves and construction of exhaust ventilation pipes in these households.

  10. Evaluation of the Indoor Air Quality Procedure for Use in Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barrios, Marcella [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parthasarathy, Srinandini [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sidheswaran, Meera [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Katerina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    California's building efficiency standards (Title 24) mandate minimum prescribed ventilation rates (VRs) for commercial buildings. Title 24 standards currently include a prescriptive procedure similar to ASHRAE’s prescriptive “ventilation rate procedure”, but does not include an alternative procedure, akin to ASHRAE’s non-prescriptive “indoor air quality procedure” (IAQP). The IAQP determines minimum VRs based on objectively and subjectively evaluated indoor air quality (IAQ). The first primary goal of this study was to determine, in a set of California retail stores, the adequacy of Title 24 VRs and observed current measured VRs in providing the level of IAQ specified through an IAQP process, The second primary goal was to evaluate whether several VRs implemented experimentally in a big box store would achieve adequate IAQ, assessed objectively and subjectively. For the first goal, a list of contaminants of concern (CoCs) and reference exposure levels (RELs) were selected for evaluating IAQ. Ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor CoC concentrations were measured in 13 stores, including one “big box” store. Mass balance models were employed to calculate indoor contaminant source strengths for CoCs in each store. Using these source strengths and typical outdoor air contaminant concentrations, mass balance models were again used to calculate for each store the “IAQP” VR that would maintain indoor CoC concentrations below selected RELs. These IAQP VRs were compared to the observed VRs and to the Title 24- prescribed VRs. For the second goal, a VR intervention study was performed in the big box store to determine how objectively assessed indoor contaminant levels and subjectively assessed IAQ varied with VR. The three intervention study VRs included an approximation of the store’s current VR [0.24 air changes per hour (ACH)], the Title 24-prescribed VR [0.69 ACH], and the calculated IAQPbased VR [1.51 ACH]). Calculations of IAQP-based VRs

  11. Drinking water, diet, indoor air: Comparison of the contribution to environmental micropollutants exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enault, Jérôme; Robert, Samuel; Schlosser, Olivier; de Thé, Catherine; Loret, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    This study collated 254,441 analytical results from drinking water quality monitoring in order to compare levels of exposure of the French adult population from drinking water with that from total diet for 37 pesticides, 11 mineral elements, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 6 non dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL PCB), 5 ether polybromodiphenyl ethers (BDE), 2 perfluorinated compounds. It also compares levels of exposure from drinking water with that from inhalation of indoor air for 9 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 3 phthalates. The vast majority of the water analysis results showed values below the limits of quantification and this comparison was primarily made on the basis of a highly pessimistic scenario consisting in considering the data below the limits of quantification as being equal to the limits of quantification. With this conservative scenario, it can be seen that tap water makes a minor but potentially non-negligible contribution for a few micropollutants, by comparison with diet and air. It also shows that exposure through drinking water remains below the toxicity reference values for these substances. Apart from a few extreme values reflecting exceptional local situations, the concentrations measured for the minority of positive samples (below the 95th percentile value) suggest a very low risk for human health. Lower limits of quantification would however be of use in better estimating the safety margin with regard to the toxicity reference values, in particular for BDE, PAH and NDL PCB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry for Indoor Air Quality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, T; Etienne, S; Fauck, C; Fuhrmann, F; Märk, L; Salthammer, T

    2014-04-01

    In the field of Indoor Air Quality research, the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) demands instruments that are rapid, mobile, robust, highly sensitive and allow for simultaneous monitoring of multiple compounds. These instruments should also compensate for possible interferences from permanent gases and air humidity. Proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) has proved to be a valuable and promising technique that fits the mentioned requirements for a suitable online measuring device. In this study, five exemplary applications of PTR-MS are described: (i) release of paint additives during drying process, (ii) emission of VOCs from active hardcopy devices, (iii) reference material evaluation, (iv) diffusion studies, and (v) emission testing of building products. The examples are selected to illustrate possibilities and limitations of the PTR technique in this field of research. The quadruple-based PTR-QMS was able to determine the emission characteristics during the experiments, especially in case of depleting emission sources (e.g., reference material). This allows for chemometrical analysis of the measured release patterns and detection of underlying processes. However, PTR-QMS reaches a functional limit in case of compound identification. If identification of VOCs is necessary, the measurements need to be accompanied by GC/MS analytics or a PTR instrument with higher mass-resolution (e.g., PTR-TOF-MS). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Singh

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001 was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001 as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001 among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs

  14. Analysis of the dust particles distribution and ventilation as a way to improve indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovtseva, E. Yu; Azarov, V. N.; Stefanenko, I. V.

    2017-10-01

    The indoor air pollution is analyzed in the article. The subject of the research is the presence and composition of the dust particles taken into “traps” in the working space of the public building (Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, the Russian Federation). The research has established the range of sizes of the particulate matter (fractional composition) for the dust in the air of the working space in the form of integral curves for the mass distribution of particles with to their diameters, it also provides the scheme of the air flows movement in the ventilation system of the room.

  15. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus

    2016-01-01

    temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius–Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = −H/RT + a0, where....... The results showed that one easured concentration of PCB at a known steady-state temperature can be used to predict the steady-state concentrations at other temperatures under circumstances where e.g. direct sunlight does not influence temperatures and the air exchange rate is constant. The model was also...

  16. Detection and Solution of Indoor Air Quality Problems in a Danish Town Hall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik; Brohus, Henrik

    in the climate laboratory. A new heating and ventilating system and a new control strategy were chosen and implemented into the town hall. It was found that air supply upwards along a window may make it nearly impossible to achieve comfort and a good air quality the year round without full-scale measurements.......In connection with the research programme "Healthy Buildings", a building with indoor air quality problems was selected for further investigations. A Danish town hall was chosen because of many complaints over several years. A full-scale mock-up of a typical town hall office was built...

  17. Tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality (ToPIQ - the protocol of a new study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Since decades it is well documented that ETS can be harmful to human health and causes premature death and disease. In comparison to the huge research on toxicological substances of ETS, less attention was paid on the concentration of indoor ETS-dependent particulate matter (PM. Especially, investigation that focuses on different tobacco products and their concentration of deeply into the airways depositing PM-fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 must be stated. The tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality study (ToPIQS will approach this issue by device supported generation of indoor ETS and simultaneously measurements of PM concentration by laser aerosol spectrometry. Primarily, the ToPIQ study will conduct a field research with focus on PM concentration of different tobacco products and within various microenvironments. It is planned to extend the analysis to basic research on influencing factors of ETS-dependent PM concentration.

  18. Culturable mold in indoor air and its association with moisture-related problems and asthma and allergy among Swedish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, J.; Hagerhed-Engman, L.; Mattsson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In a nested case-control study with 198 children with asthmatic and allergic symptoms (cases) and 202 healthy controls in Varmland. Sweden, we have investigated the relationship between mold spore exposure (mean colony-forming unit) indoor and (i) different indexes of moldy odor indoor (observed...... by professional inspectors and reported by parents), (ii) visible signs of dampness in the homes of the children (observed and reported), and (iii) doctor-diagnosed asthma/allergy in children. No association was found between the spore concentration indoor and moldy odor and signs of visible dampness in the homes...... in indoor air and asthma/allergy in the children....

  19. Indoor air quality in Portuguese archives: a snapshot on exposure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, A C; Viegas, C; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C; Brandão, J; Macedo, M F

    2012-01-01

    Indoor air quality recently entered legislation in Portugal. Several parameters must be evaluated and kept within limits in order to obtain a certification for air quality and energy consumption. Certification parameters were analyzed in two Portuguese archives in order to assess indoor air quality both for people attending or working on these premises and for maintenance of a written heritage that must be retained for future generations. Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO₂), formaldehyde, and fungal counts were kept within stipulated limits. Relative humidity (RH), volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM₁₀), and ozone (O₃) showed values above legislated levels and justified the implementation of corrective measures. In terms of conservation, studies on the limit values are still needed, but according to the available international guidelines, some of the analyzed parameters such as PM₁₀, O₃, and RH were also above desirable values. Corrective measures were proposed to these institutions. Although this study was only of a short duration, it proved valuable in assessing potential eventual problems and constitutes the first Portuguese indoor air quality assessment taking into consideration both aspects of an archive such as human health and heritage safekeeping.

  20. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  1. Indoor air quality in urban and rural kindergartens: short-term studies in Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Ewa; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Klejnowski, Krzysztof; Kubiesa, Piotr; Fulara, Izabela; Mielżyńska-Švach, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    More than 80% of people living in urban areas who monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed limits defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although all regions of the world are affected, populations in low-income cities are the most impacted. According to average annual levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) presented in the urban air quality database issued by WHO in 2016, as many as 33 Polish cities are among the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union (EU), with Silesian cities topping the list. The aim of this study was to characterize the indoor air quality in Silesian kindergartens based on the concentrations of gaseous compounds (SO 2 , NO 2 ), PM2.5, and the sum of 15 PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including PM2.5-bound benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity of PM2.5 organic extracts in Salmonella assay (strains: TA98, YG1024). The assessment of the indoor air quality was performed taking into consideration the pollution of the atmospheric air (outdoor). I/O ratios (indoor/outdoor concentration) for each investigated parameter were also calculated. Twenty-four-hour samples of PM2.5, SO 2 , and NO 2 were collected during spring in two sites in southern Poland (Silesia), representing urban and rural areas. Indoor samples were taken in naturally ventilated kindergartens. At the same time, in the vicinity of the kindergarten buildings, the collection of outdoor samples of PM2.5, SO 2 , and NO 2 was carried out. The content of BaP and the sum of 15 studied PAHs was determined in each 24-h sample of PM2.5 (indoor and outdoor). In the urban site, statistically lower concentrations of SO 2 and NO 2 were detected indoors compared to outdoors, whereas in the rural site, such a relationship was observed only for NO 2 . No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-bound BaP, and Σ15 PAHs

  2. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  3. Association of Roadway Proximity with Indoor Air Pollution in a Peri-Urban Community in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Underhill

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and black carbon (BC were measured OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 13467 during two seasons, and allergens were measured in bedroom dust. Allergen levels were highest for dust mite and mouse allergens, with concentrations above clinically relevant thresholds in over a quarter and half of all homes, respectively. Mean indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations were similar (PM2.5: 20.0 vs. 16.9 μg/m3, BC: 7.6 vs. 8.1 μg/m3, NO2: 7.3 vs. 7.5 ppb, and tended to be higher in the summer compared to the winter. Road proximity was significantly correlated with overall concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 (rs = −0.42, p = 0.01 and NO2 (rs = −0.36, p = 0.03, and outdoor BC concentrations in the winter (rs = −0.51, p = 0.03. Our results suggest that outdoor-sourced pollutants significantly influence indoor air quality in peri-urban Peruvian communities, and homes closer to roadways are particularly vulnerable.

  4. THE PRINCIPLES OF MODELING OF DYNAMICS OF IONIC COMPOSITION OF INDOOR AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Запорожець

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ionic composition of indoor air is one of the most significant physical factors of influence on human health. Nowadays research in this field  are continued, and mainly it is directed to  development of equipment for normalization of ionic composition of air and equipment for control of ionic composition of air. At  the same time researches in the field of development of  mathematical apparatus for modeling time and spatial changes of concentrations of air ions are not numerous. In the article authors proposed to use continuity equation for description of dynamics of spreading of air ions indoors. It’s transformed to linear differential equation of order 1 with usage of  simplification and transformation, and for it’s solution was used Bernoulli equation. Solution of equation shows that concentration of air ions increases with approaching  to source, that was  confirmed by experiment. Also in article is proposed to use diffusion coefficient for characterizing of spreading of air ions, it allows to get linear nonhomogenous equation of order 2. In general  results of solution of such equation correlate with experimental data satisfactorily

  5. An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-06-02

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth

  6. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthaamarai Rogawansamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®, 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid, and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia oil tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to

  7. Making the Business Case for Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for School Building Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Savings Plus Health Guide equips school districts to integrate indoor air quality protections into school energy efficiency retrofits and other building upgrade projects. This page describes the business case for energy savings in schools.

  8. Energy performance and indoor air quality in modern buildings in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A new dormitory for engineering students "Apisseq" was built in Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students, but thanks to its complex monitoring system, it enables researchers to evaluate the building's energy performance and indoor air quality. Some...... of the installed technologies are not commonly used in the current Greenlandic building stock. Therefore, evaluation of their performance under local conditions is essential for further use and development. The first year of operation has disclosed some errors made during the design process and construction phase......, which have negative effects on the energy performance and indoor air quality. The heat demand in 2011 was 26.5% higher than expected. One of the main causes of the extra heat demand is the fact that the ventilation system was over-dimensioned, and although it is running on the lowest fan power...

  9. Modeling and physical interpretation of photocatalytic oxidation efficiency in indoor air applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Haghighat, Fariborz [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Blondeau, Partice [University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle (France); Kozinski, Janusz [College of Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major pollutants in indoor air, which significantly impact indoor air quality (IAQ). As a promising technique to remove VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) takes the advantages of oxidation of a large range of VOCs with low energy consumption. In this study, the mass transports and reaction mechanism involved in the PCO process have been studied. In addition, the kinetic models of PCO on the different conditions of elementary reactions have been critically reviewed. Moreover, the factors that may affect the efficiency of PCO were interpreted based on the established fundamental mechanism of PCO. Some recommendations were made for future work to improve the efficiency of PCO system for building applications. (author)

  10. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fuentes-Leonarte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development.

  11. Indoor air problems among employees at a hotel in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Gitte Juel; Harboe, Henrik; Sigsgaard, Torben

    reporting these unexpected findings a hotel employee drew our attention to the hotel’s smoking room, a shelter in the basement of the hotel building without ventilation. However, a lot of the hotel staff smoked down there so an ozone generator was installed in order to clean the air. After this meeting...

  12. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to use electricity for cooking and heating (OR 2521 and 3522 respectively), as well ..... tExposure to solid fuels::::: % households usillg solid fuels for cooking or heating after taking into account the ventilation in the households (ventilation coefficient 0.6). ..... mining, air pollution from power plants, and nuclear plant accidents.

  13. VOC EMISSIONS FROM AN AIR FRESHENER IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes results of tests, conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) large chamber facility, that investigated emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from one electrical plug-in type air freshener with pine-scented refills. VOCs were measured ...

  14. Assessment of indoor air in Austrian apartments with and without visible mold growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Galler, H.; Buzina, W.; Schlacher, R.; Marth, E.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    Fungal spores are transported across great distances in the outdoor air and are also regularly found indoors. Building conditions and behavior-related problems in apartments may lead to massive growth of mold within a very short period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the visible growth of mold indoors influences the concentration of fungal spores in the air as well as the variety of their species. Samples were collected from 66 households in Austria. For each sampling, the corresponding outdoor air was measured as reference value. The size of the visible mold growth was categorized in order to correlate the extent of mold growth with the concentration of airborne spores as well as the fungal genera. In order to determine fungal spore concentrations in the air, the one-stage MAS-100 ® air sampler was used. Malt extract agar (MEA) and dichloran glycerol agar (DG18) plates were used as culture media. The total colony forming units (CFU) per m 3 were determined. The fungi were identified from the isolated colonies. The results show that in apartments visibly affected by mold, the median values were significantly higher than those of apartments without visible mold growth. The extent of visible mold growth is significantly correlated with both concentration of fungal spores ( p<0.001) as well as the predominance of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. ( p<0.001) in indoor air. The total fungal concentration of Penicillium and Aspergillus in the air of apartments is recommended for assessing fungal exposure.

  15. Characterization of air quality problems in five Finnish indoor ice arenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennanen, A S; Salonen, R O; Alm, S; Jantunen, M J; Pasanen, P

    1997-10-01

    The air quality in five Finnish ice arenas with different volumes, ventilation systems, and resurfacer power sources (propane, gasoline, electric) was monitored during a usual training evening and a standardized, simulated ice hockey game. The measurements included continuous recording of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations, and sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Emissions from the ice resurfacers with combustion engines caused indoor air quality problems in all ice arenas. The highest 1-hour average CO and NO2 concentrations ranged from 20 to 33 mg/m3 (17 to 29 ppm) and 270 to 7440 micrograms/m3 (0.14 to 3.96 ppm), respectively. The 3-hour total VOC concentrations ranged from 150 to 1200 micrograms/m3. The highest CO and VOC levels were measured in the arena in which a gasoline-fueled resurfacer was used. The highest NO2 levels were measured in small ice arenas with propane-fueled ice resurfacers and insufficient ventilation. In these arenas, the indoor NO2 levels were about 100 times the levels measured in ambient outdoor air, and the highest 1-hour concentrations were about 20 times the national and World Health Organization (WHO) health-based air quality guidelines. The air quality was fully acceptable only in the arena with an electric resurfacer. The present study showed that the air quality problems of indoor ice arenas may vary with the fuel type of resurfacer and the volume and ventilation of arena building. It also confirmed that there are severe air quality problems in Finnish ice arenas similar to those previously described in North America.

  16. Indoor air quality in 300 homes in Kingston/Harriman, Tennessee: winter phase status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Uziel, M.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Cohen, M.A.; Orebaugh, C.T.; Miller, G.H.; Ironsides, K.; Monar, K.P.; Dudney, C.S.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes the status of the 300-Home Kingston/Harriman Indoor Air Quality Study at the end of the winter phase of monitoring. Plans for the summer monitoring phase are also presented. The report is organized by the major pollutants monitored. Reporting focuses on study protocols and summaries of winter monitoring activities. A minimum of results are presented since, for many pollutants, laboratory analyses are not yet complete.

  17. Resolving the ambiguities: An industrial hygiene Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Resolving the Ambiguities: An Industrial Hygiene (IAQ) Symposium was a one-day event designed to inform practicing industrial hygienists about highlight presentations made at Indoor Air `93. A broad range of topics was presented by invited speakers. Topics included were attempts to deal with guidelines and standards, questionnaires, odors and sensory irritation, respiratory allergies, neuroses, sick building syndrome (SBS), and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS).

  18. Influences of the Indoor Environment on Heat, Air, and Moisture Conditions in the Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Rode, Carsten; Janssen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    transfer coefficients strongly depend on the local air velocity, local temperature, water-material interactions, water content at the material surface, and the surface texture of the material. Moreover, due to local heat and moisture sources, imperfect mixing and microclimatic effects, temperature...... conditions in a building component. Building researchers and designers should be aware that the ppropriate indoor environmental conditions are applied, when performing a HAM component simulation and analysis....

  19. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room

    OpenAIRE

    Grant O'Connell; Stéphane Colard; Xavier Cahours; Pritchard, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne chemicals in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as burning fuels and cooking, construction materials and furniture, environmental tobacco smoke as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol to the pre-existing chemicals in the ambient air, an indoor air quality study was conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tob...

  20. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in the ZEBRAlliance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. In this project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in research houses located in Oak Ridge, TN, that were less than 2 years old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built, unoccupied, and unfurnished. The team identified air pollutants of concern in the test homes that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern from initial air sampling surveys. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74°F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused minimal to modest increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  1. Electronic Cigarettes and Indoor Air Quality: A Simple Approach to Modeling Potential Bystander Exposures to Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Colard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes (“vaping” in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  2. Electronic cigarettes and indoor air quality: a simple approach to modeling potential bystander exposures to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colard, Stéphane; O'Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2014-12-24

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes ("vaping") in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  3. Disinfection of indoor air microorganisms in stack room of university library using gaseous chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Lu, Ming-Chun; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    As with all indoor public spaces in Taiwan, the stack rooms in public libraries should meet the air quality guidelines laid down by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Accordingly, utilizing a university library in Taiwan for experimental purposes, this study investigates the efficiency of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as a disinfection agent when applied using three different treatment modes, namely a single-daily disinfection mode (SIM), a twice-daily disinfection mode (TWM), and a triple-daily disinfection mode (TRM). For each treatment mode, the ClO2 is applied using an ultrasonic aerosol device and is performed both under natural lighting conditions and under artificial lighting conditions. The indoor air quality is evaluated before and after each treatment session by measuring the bioaerosol levels of bacteria and fungi. The results show that for all three disinfection modes, the application of ClO2 reduces the indoor bacteria and fungi concentrations to levels lower than those specified by the Taiwan EPA (i.e., bacteria air quality requirements of the Taiwan EPA.

  4. Electronic Cigarettes and Indoor Air Quality: A Simple Approach to Modeling Potential Bystander Exposures to Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colard, Stéphane; O’Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D.

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes (“vaping”) in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents. PMID:25547398

  5. Abatement and degradation pathways of toluene in indoor air by positive corona discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, J; Dewulf, J; Sysmans, W; Leys, C; Van Langenhove, H

    2007-08-01

    Indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds often exceed outdoor levels by a factor of 5. There is much interest in developing new technologies in order to improve indoor air quality. In this work non-thermal plasma (DC positive corona discharge) is explored as an innovative technology for indoor air purification. An inlet gas stream of 10 l min(-1) containing 0.50+/-0.02 ppm toluene was treated by the plasma reactor in atmospheric conditions. Toluene removal proved to be achievable with a characteristic energy density epsilon(0) of 50 J l(-1). Removal efficiencies were higher for 26% relative humidity (epsilon(0)=35 J l(-1)), compared with those at increased humidities (50% relative humidity, epsilon(0)=49 J l(-1)). Reaction products such as formic acid, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol, 4-methyl-2-propyl furan, 5-methyl-2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol are identified by means of mass spectrometry. Based on these by-products a toluene degradation mechanism is proposed.

  6. Assessing metabolic rate and indoor air quality with passive environmental sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Iván; Sprowls, Mark; Deng, Yue; Kulick, Doina; Destaillats, Hugo; Forzani, Erica S

    2018-02-13

    The present work introduces the use of environmental sensors to assess indoor air quality (IAQ) in combination with human biometrics. The sensor array included temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and noise sensors. The array was used in a classroom as well as in a vehicle cabin to assess the indoor air quality and carbon dioxide production rate of individuals in a closed ventilation environment. Analysis of carbon dioxide production allowed for the quantification of the average metabolic rate of the group of individuals in the classroom, and for one individual in the vehicle cabin. These results yielded a mere 5% difference from the values assessed using commercial metabolic rate instruments, and averaged values from epidemiological studies. The results presented in this work verify the feasibility of determining an individual's metabolic rate using passive environmental sensors; these same sensors are able to provide a metric of indoor air quality that helps characterize the safety of the environment in which the individual is present. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Assessment of the biomass related indoor air pollution in Kwale district in Kenya using short term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Svaro, Miroslav; Bodo, Jan; Taylor, Mark; Muendo, Redempta Malinda

    2015-09-01

    Indoor air pollution remains an important health problem in some countries. Although research data on this issue is available, routine monitoring in affected areas is limited. The aims of this study were to quantify exposure to biomass-related indoor air pollution; assess the respiratory health of subjects; and explore the feasibility of routine monitoring in Kwale district, Kenya. We sampled 125 rural houses using short-term monitoring for levels of CO, CO2 and TSP. Additional exposure information was obtained using a checklist. Respiratory health was also assessed using a questionnaire, and electronic spirometer in 172 inhabitants. The overall median levels of CO in the sampled houses on all study sites ranged from 5.9 (IQR 3-14.5) to 10 (5.5-21.2) mg/m3, levels of CO2 ranged from 774 (IQR 724-846) to 839 (IQR 749-961) mg/m3) and the levels of TSP ranged from 295 (IQR 79-853 to 1384 (IQR 557-3110) µg/m(3) which indicates that safe levels recommended by WHO and USEPA could be exceeded. Relatively high incidences of respiratory illness or symptoms were reported and the spirometry readings suggested impaired lung function in over 80% of respondents. Our results quantify that the use of biomass fuel can give rise to high levels of indoor air pollution. Given that poor lung function contributes to public health problems in rural regions of East Africa, such as Kwale in Kenya, our findings create grounds for more detailed investigations of the problem and may provide motivation for community based interventions.

  8. Characterization of particle number concentrations and PM2.5 in a school: influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hai; Morawska, Lidia; He, Congrong; Zhang, Yanli L; Ayoko, Godwin; Cao, Min

    2010-07-01

    The impact of air pollution on school children's health is currently one of the key foci of international and national agencies. Of particular concern are ultrafine particles which are emitted in large quantities, contain large concentrations of toxins and are deposited deeply in the respiratory tract. In this study, an intensive sampling campaign of indoor and outdoor airborne particulate matter was carried out in a primary school in February 2006 to investigate indoor and outdoor particle number (PN) and mass concentrations (PM(2.5)), and particle size distribution, and to evaluate the influence of outdoor air pollution on the indoor air. For outdoor PN and PM(2.5), early morning and late afternoon peaks were observed on weekdays, which are consistent with traffic rush hours, indicating the predominant effect of vehicular emissions. However, the temporal variations of outdoor PM(2.5) and PN concentrations occasionally showed extremely high peaks, mainly due to human activities such as cigarette smoking and the operation of mower near the sampling site. The indoor PM(2.5) level was mainly affected by the outdoor PM(2.5) (r = 0.68, p indoor PN concentration had some association with outdoor PN values (r = 0.66, p indoor PN concentration was occasionally influenced by indoor sources, such as cooking, cleaning and floor polishing activities. Correlation analysis indicated that the outdoor PM(2.5) was inversely correlated with the indoor to outdoor PM(2.5) ratio (I/O ratio; r = -0.49, p indoor PN had a weak correlation with the I/O ratio for PN (r = 0.34, p < 0.01). The results showed that occupancy did not cause any major changes to the modal structure of particle number and size distribution, even though the I/O ratio was different for different size classes. The I/O curves had a maximum value for particles with diameters of 100-400 nm under both occupied and unoccupied scenarios, whereas no significant difference in I/O ratio for PM(2.5) was observed between

  9. Impacts of a clay plaster on indoor air quality assessed using chemical and sensory measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin K.; Cros, Clement J.; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Passive removal materials (PRMs) are building materials or furnishings that effectively control indoor pollution without substantial formation of chemical byproducts and without an energy penalty. Recent studies have suggested that clay might be an effective PRM for ozone. To assess clay wall...... plaster as a PRM for improving air quality by controlling ozone, perceived air quality (PAQ) was determined in the presence of eight combinations of an emitting and reactive pollutant source (new carpet), clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard, and chamber air with and without ozone. A panel of 24 human...... subjects assessed air quality in twin 30m3 chambers using a continuous acceptability scale. Air samples were collected immediately prior to panel assessment to quantify concentrations of C5–C10 saturated n-aldehydes and two aromatic aldehydes that are commonly produced by reaction of ozone with carpet...

  10. Microbial volatile organic compounds in the air of moldy and mold-free indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleibinger, H; Laussmann, D; Bornehag, C-G; Eis, D; Rueden, H

    2008-04-01

    A single-blinded study was performed to analyze whether indoor environments with and without mold infestation differ significantly in microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC) concentrations. Air sampling for MVOC was performed in 40 dwellings with evident mold damage and in 44 dwellings, where mold damage was excluded after a thorough investigation. The characteristics of the dwellings, climatic parameters, airborne particles and air exchange rates (AER) were recorded. The parameters mold status, characteristics of the interiors and measured climatic parameters were included in the multiple regression model. The results show no significant association between most of the analyzed MVOC and the mold status. Only the compounds 2-methyl-1-butanol and 1-octen-3-ol indicated a statistically significant, but weak association with the mold status. However, the concentrations of the so-called MVOC were mainly influenced by other indoor factors. 2-Methylfuran and 3-methylfuran, often used as main indicators for mold damage, had a highly significant correlation with the smoking status. These compounds were also significantly correlated with the humidity and the AER. The compounds 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-hexanone, 3-heptanone and dimethyl disulfide were weakly correlated with the recorded parameters, the humidity being the strongest influencing factor. Only 2-methyl-1-butanol and 1-octen-3-ol showed a statistically significant association with the mold status; however, only a small portion (10% in this case) of the total variability could be explained by the predictor mold status; they do not qualify as indicator compounds, because such minor correlations lead to a too excessive part of incorrect classifications, meaning that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of these compounds are too low. The assumption that mold infestations might be detected by microbial VOC emissions must be considered with great reservation. The major part of the total variability of the

  11. Development and application of an integrated indoor air quality audit to an international hotel building in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nae-Wen; Chiang, Hsin-Chen; Chiang, Che-Ming

    2008-12-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has begun to surface as an important issue that affects the comfort and health of people; however, there is little research concerned about the IAQ monitoring of hotels up to now. Hotels are designed to provide comfortable spaces for guests. However, most complaints related to uncomfortable thermal environment and inadequate indoor air quality appear. In addition, microbial pollution can affect the health of tourists such as the Legionnaire's disease and SARS problems. This study is aimed to establish the comprehensive IAQ audit approach for hotel buildings with portable equipment, and one five-star international hotel in Taiwan was selected to exam this integrated approach. Finally, four major problems are identified after the comprehensive IAQ audit. They are: (1) low room temperature (21.8 degrees C), (2) insufficient air exchange rate (0.02 ppm), and (4) the microbial pollution (total bacteria: 2,624-3,799 CFU/m(3)). The high level of formaldehyde may be due to the emission from the detergent and cleaning agents used for housekeeping.

  12. Can changing the timing of outdoor air intake reduce indoor concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, M; Dobbin, N; St-Jean, M; Wallace, L; Marro, L; Shin, T; You, H; Kulka, R; Allen, R W; Wheeler, A J

    2016-10-01

    Traffic emissions have been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Many schools are situated close to major roads, and as children spend much of their day in school, methods to reduce traffic-related air pollutant concentrations in the school environment are warranted. One promising method to reduce pollutant concentrations in schools is to alter the timing of the ventilation so that high ventilation time periods do not correspond to rush hour traffic. Health Canada, in collaboration with the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board, tested the effect of this action by collecting traffic-related air pollution data from four schools in Ottawa, Canada, during October and November 2013. A baseline and intervention period was assessed in each school. There were statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in concentrations of most of the pollutants measured at the two late-start (9 AM start) schools, after adjusting for outdoor concentrations and the absolute indoor-outdoor temperature difference. The intervention at the early-start (8 AM start) schools did not have significant reductions in pollutant concentrations. Based on these findings, changing the timing of the ventilation may be a cost-effective mechanism of reducing traffic-related pollutants in late-start schools located near major roads. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Health Canada.

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Multi-Apartment Buildings before and after Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimdina Ilze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the IAQ parameters of multi-apartment buildings before and after renovation in Latvia. In a building with natural ventilation system air exchange is significantly dependent on the position of the apartment within the building. If CO2 as an indicator of indoor air quality is analyzed, the results show that inhabitants’ behavior has a considerable impact on IAQ. The planning of adequate investment in buildings to improve energy efficiency and choosing the modern, adequate and effective engineering solutions, it is possible to raise the comfort level of living space and to reduce heat and thermal energy consumption.

  14. Energy performance and Indoor Air Quality in Modern Buildings in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    A new dormitory for engineering students “Apisseq” was built in the town of Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students. Thanks to its complex monitoring system it enables researchers to evaluate the building’s energy performance and indoor air quality...... heat consumption is the fact that the ventilation system was over-dimensioned, and although it is running on the lowest fan power it maintains 1.1 ACH in the building. Reduction of the air flows and better frost protection of the heat exchangers are important issues to be dealt with in order...

  15. A ventilation intervention study in classrooms to improve indoor air quality: the FRESH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbach, Jeannette T M; Vonk, Machiel; Duijm, Frans; van Ginkel, Jan T; Gehring, Ulrike; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-12-17

    Classroom ventilation rates often do not meet building standards, although it is considered to be important to improve indoor air quality. Poor indoor air quality is thought to influence both children's health and performance. Poor ventilation in The Netherlands most often occurs in the heating season. To improve classroom ventilation a tailor made mechanical ventilation device was developed to improve outdoor air supply. This paper studies the effect of this intervention. The FRESH study (Forced-ventilation Related Environmental School Health) was designed to investigate the effect of a CO2 controlled mechanical ventilation intervention on classroom CO2 levels using a longitudinal cross-over design. Target CO2 concentrations were 800 and 1200 parts per million (ppm), respectively. The study included 18 classrooms from 17 schools from the north-eastern part of The Netherlands, 12 experimental classrooms and 6 control classrooms. Data on indoor levels of CO2, temperature and relative humidity were collected during three consecutive weeks per school during the heating seasons of 2010-2012. Associations between the intervention and weekly average indoor CO2 levels, classroom temperature and relative humidity were assessed by means of mixed models with random school-effects. At baseline, mean CO2 concentration for all schools was 1335 ppm (range: 763-2000 ppm). The intervention was able to significantly decrease CO2 levels in the intervention classrooms (F (2,10) = 17.59, p device was not capable of precisely achieving the two predefined levels of CO2, our study showed that classroom CO2 levels can be reduced by intervening on classroom ventilation using a CO2 controlled mechanical ventilation system.

  16. Formaldehyde and carbon dioxide air concentrations and their relationship with indoor environmental factors in daycare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Lee, Gil Bong; Kim, Im Soon; Park, Wha Me

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the air concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in daycare centers to determine relevant influencing factors, including temperature, relative humidity (RH), type of facility, number of children, type of ventilation system, ventilation time, and air cleaning system. The authors measured HCHO, CO 2 , temperature, and RH in the center of classrooms in 289 daycare centers. Spearman's correlation and Mann-Whitney analyses were used to examine the relationships and differences in HCHO and CO 2 for varying temperatures, RH values, and categorical indoor environmental factors. There were no significant differences in the HCHO and CO 2 air concentrations with varying numbers of children, ventilation times, or ventilation and air cleaning system types. However, both the HCHO and CO 2 air concentrations were significantly different for varying RH values, which were divided into five categories (p daycare centers. Further research is needed to elucidate the precise mechanisms responsible for the relationships observed in this study. Data from 289 daycare centers in Seoul, South Korea, indicate that HCHO concentrations show a positive correlation with indoor temperature and relative humidity. This indicates that keeping temperatures low will help keep HCHO concentrations low, by both a direct and an indirect effect, since low temperatures also cause low relative humidity.

  17. Influence of combined dust reducing carpet and compact air filtration unit on the indoor air quality of a classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; de Hartog, Jeroen J; Reijnaerts, Judith; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob; Poels, Katrien; Godderis, Lode

    2015-02-01

    Primary schools mostly rely on natural ventilation but also have an interest in affordable technology to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). Laboratory tests show promising results for dust reducing carpets and compact air filtration systems but there is no information available on the performance of these interventions in actual operating classrooms. An exploratory study was performed to evaluate a combination of the two systems in a primary school. Measurements of PM-10 and PM-2.5 were performed by filter sampling and aerosol spectrometry. Other IAQ parameters included black smoke (BS), volatile organic compounds (VOC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde. Both interventions were introduced in one classroom during one week, using another classroom as a reference. In a second week the interventions were moved to the other classroom, using the first as a reference (cross-over design). In three remaining weeks the classrooms were compared without interventions. Indoor IAQ parameters were compared to the corresponding outdoor parameters using the indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio. When the classrooms were occupied (teaching hours) interventions resulted in 27-43% reductions of PM-10, PM-2.5 and BS values. During the weekends the systems reduced these levels by 51-87%. Evaluations using the change in I/O ratios gave comparable results. Levels of VOC, NO2 and formaldehyde were rather low and a contribution of the interventions to the improvement of these gas phase IAQ parameters was inconclusive.

  18. Fungal monitoring of the indoor air of the Museo de La Plata Herbarium, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Andrea C; Elíades, Lorena A; Nitiu, Daniela S; Saparrat, Mario C N

    Biological agents, such as fungal spores in the air in places where scientific collections are stored, can attack and deteriorate them. The aim of this study was to gather information on the indoor air quality of the Herbarium of Vascular Plants of the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de La Plata, Argentina, in relation to fungal propagules and inert particles. This study was made using a volumetric system and two complementary sampling methods: (1) a non-viable method for direct evaluation, and (2) a viable method by culture for viable fungal propagules. The non-viable method led to ten spore morphotypes being found from related fungal sources. A total of 4401.88spores/m3 and 32135.18 inert suspended particles/m3 were recorded. The viable method led to the finding of nine fungal taxa as viable spores that mostly belonged to anamorphic forms of Ascomycota, although the pigmented yeast Rhodotorula F.C. Harrison (Basidiomycota) was also found. A total count of 40,500fungal CFU/m3 air was estimated for all the sites sampled. Both the non-viable and viable sampling methods were necessary to monitor the bio-aerosol load in the La Plata Herbarium. The indoor air of this institution seems to be reasonably adequate for the conservation of vascular plants due to the low indoor/outdoor index, low concentrations of air spores, and/or lack of indicators of moisture problems. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27

    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in

  20. Quantitative assessments of indoor air pollution and the risk of childhood acute leukemia in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Kamijima, Michihiro; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Khalequzzaman, Md; Nakajima, Tamie; Shi, Rong; Wang, Xiaojin; Chen, Didi; Ji, Xiaofan; Han, Kaiyi; Tian, Ying

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the association between indoor air pollutants and childhood acute leukemia (AL). A total of 105 newly diagnosed cases and 105 1:1 gender-, age-, and hospital-matched controls were included. Measurements of indoor pollutants (including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 17 types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) were taken with diffusive samplers for 64 pairs of cases and controls. Higher concentrations of NO2 and almost half of VOCs were observed in the cases than in the controls and were associated with the increased risk of childhood AL. The use of synthetic materials for wall decoration and furniture in bedroom was related to the risk of childhood AL. Renovating the house in the last 5 years, changing furniture in the last 5 years, closing the doors and windows overnight in the winter and/or summer, paternal smoking history and outdoor pollutants affected VOC concentrations. Our results support the association between childhood AL and indoor air pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.