WorldWideScience

Sample records for high glucose levels

  1. Glucose level regulation via integral high-order sliding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Lela

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough insulin, or does not properly respond to it. This causes the glucose level in blood to increase. An algorithm based on Integral High-Order Sliding Mode technique is proposed, which keeps the normal blood glucose level automatically releasing insulin into the blood. The system is highly insensitive to inevitable parametric and model uncertainties, measurement noises and small delays.

  2. High-normal fasting glucose levels are associated with increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandone, A; Amato, A; Luongo, C; Santoro, N; Perrone, L; del Giudice, E Miraglia

    2008-12-01

    The natural history of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and Type 2 diabetes among obese children is not clear. Although the cut-off for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) has recently been changed from 110 (6.1 mmol/l) to 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/l), it does not seem a reliable way to find all subjects with impaired glucose homeostasis. The aim of our study was to determine whether high-normal fasting glucose level could predict the occurrence of IGT and metabolic syndrome. Three hundred and twenty-three Italian obese children and adolescents were included in the study (176 females, mean age 11+/-2.9 yr; mean body mass index z-score: 3+/-0.6). Waist circumference, serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol HDL, blood pressure were evaluated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The prevalence of IFG and IGT were respectively 1.5% (5 subjects) and 5% (18 patients); no diabetic patients were found. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 20% of patients. Fasting glycemia values youths. Interestingly high-normal fasting plasma glucose levels constitute an independent risk factor for IGT among obese children and adolescents; therefore, this very easy-to-use parameter may help to identify obese patients at increased risk of diabetes or at least could suggest in which subjects to perform an OGTT.

  3. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  4. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L.; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase...

  5. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  6. Liraglutide prevents high glucose level induced insulinoma cells apoptosis by targeting autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ze-fang; LI Yan-bo; HAN Jun-yong; YIN Jia-jing; WANG Yang; ZHU Li-bo; XIE Guang-ying

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is progressive pancreatic beta cell failure with consequential reduced insulin secretion.Glucotoxicity results in the reduction of beta cell mass in type 2 diabetes by inducing apoptosis.Autophagy is essential for the maintenance of normal islet architecture and plays a crucial role in maintaining the intracellular insulin content by accelerating the insulin degradation rate in beta cells.Recently more attention has been paid to the effect of autophagy in type 2 diabetes.The regulatory pathway of autophagy in controlling pancreatic beta cells is still not clear.The aim of our study was to evaluate whether liraglutide can inhibit apoptosis and modulate autophagy in vitro in insulinoma cells (INS-1 cells).Methods INS-1 cells were incubated for 24 hours in the presence or absence of high levels of glucose,liraglutide (a long-acting human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue),or 3-methyadenine (3-MA).Cell viability was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) viability assay.Autophagy of INS-1 cells was tested by monodansylcadaverine (MDC)staining,an autophagy fluorescent compound used for the labeling of autophagic vacuoles,and by Western blotting of microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3),a biochemical markers of autophagic initiation.Results The viability of INS-1 cells was reduced after treatment with high levels of glucose.The viability of INS-1 cells was reduced and apoptosis was increased when autophagy was inhibited.The viability of INS-1 cells was significantly increased by adding liraglutide to supplement high glucose level medium compared with the cells treated with high glucose levels alone.Conclusions Apoptosis and autophagy were increased in rat INS-1 cells when treated with high level of glucose,and the viability of INS-1 cells was significantly reduced by inhibiting autophagy.Liraglutide protected INS-1 cells from high glucose level-induced apoptosis that is accompanied by a significant

  7. High normal fasting glucose level in obese youth: a marker for insulin resistance and beta cell dysregulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Malley, G

    2010-06-01

    A high but normal fasting plasma glucose level in adults is a risk factor for future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether normal fasting plasma glucose levels (<5.60 mmol\\/l) are associated with decreases in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, as well as an adverse cardiovascular profile in obese youth.

  8. Protective Pleiotropic Effect of Flavonoids on NAD+ Levels in Endothelial Cells Exposed to High Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle M. P. H. J. Boesten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NAD+ is important for oxidative metabolism by serving as an electron transporter. Hyperglycemia decreases NAD+ levels by activation of the polyol pathway and by overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP. We examined the protective role of three structurally related flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, and flavone during high glucose conditions in an in vitro model using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Additionally we assessed the ability of these flavonoids to inhibit aldose reductase enzyme activity. We have previously shown that flavonoids can inhibit PARP activation. Extending these studies, we here provide evidence that flavonoids are also able to protect endothelial cells against a high glucose induced decrease in NAD+. In addition, we established that flavonoids are able to inhibit aldose reductase, the key enzyme in the polyol pathway. We conclude that this protective effect of flavonoids on NAD+ levels is a combination of the flavonoids ability to inhibit both PARP activation and aldose reductase enzyme activity. This study shows that flavonoids, by a combination of effects, maintain the redox state of the cell during hyperglycemia. This mode of action enables flavonoids to ameliorate diabetic complications.

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  12. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  13. Physical activity of relatively high intensity in mid-pregnancy predicts lower glucose tolerance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medek, Helga; Halldorsson, Thorhallur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Geirsson, Reynir T

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) is recommended as part of therapy for patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Whether such recommendations are also justified for pregnant women is less well established. We investigated the association between PA and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. A non-selective sample of 217 pregnant women was recruited at a routine 20 week ultrasound examination. Participants answered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) about frequency, intensity and duration of daily physical activity in the past 7 days and underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) between 24 and 28 weeks. A subset of 72 overweight/obese pregnant women wore a pedometer for 1 week with assessment of IPAQ score and pedometric correlations to this. Of the sample, 177 attended for OGTT; 51% were overweight or obese. The mean (SD) fasting glucose was 4.5 (0.4) mmol/L, and 12% had gestational diabetes mellitus. Only one-third engaged in vigorous PA. After adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, age and parity, those engaging in vigorous PA had significantly lower fasting glucose levels (by 0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.03-0.27) compared with those not vigorously active. This decrease was similar in both normal and overweight/obese women. There were fewer cases of gestational diabetes (p = 0.03) among the vigorously active women (3/56; 5%) than among those who were not active (19/121; 16%). No association with glucose tolerance was observed for physical activity of moderate intensity. Only vigorous physical activity appears beneficial with respect to maternal glucose tolerance, both among normal, overweight and obese women. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  1. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body ...

  3. Effect of Arctium Lappa Root Extract on Glucose Levels and Insulin Resistance in Rats with High Sucrose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahangarpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a growing health problem in all over the world. Arctium Lappa has been used therapeutically in Europe, North America and Asia. Antioxidants and antidiabetic compounds have been found in the root of Arctium Lappa. This study intends to investigate the effects of Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract on glucose, insulin levels and Fasting Insulin Resistance Index in female rats with high sucrose diet. Methods: 40 female Wistar rats weighting 150-250(g were applied. After having a diet induced by sucrose 50% in drinking water for 5 weeks, the animals were randomly divided into two groups of control, sucrose induced, and three groups of sucrose induced along with Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract (50,100,200 mg/Kg (8 rats in each group. Treatment by extracts was used during 2 weeks (i.p. and 24 hours after the last treatment, heart blood samples were gathered. After Blood samples were centrifuged, fasting plasma glucose (12 h was determined by kit and fasting insulin concentration was assayed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa methods. Result: Glucose levels, insulin and FIRI in sucrose group significantly increased in comparison with control group. Glucose levels in aqueous extract groups; 50 mg/kg (116.14±16.64mg/dl and 200 mg/kg (90.66±22.58 mg/dl in comparison with sucrose group (140.5±18.73 mg/dl significantly decreased. Insulin level and FIRI in all of aqueous extract groups were significantly decreased (P<0.001 in comparison with sucrose group. Conclusions: Arctium Lappa root aqueous extracts in animal model has revealed significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels.

  4. RUMINAL FERMENTATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE AT LOW AND HIGH LEVEL INTAKE OF GROWING AND MATURE KACANG GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luthfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare ruminal Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA concentration andblood glucose in young and mature Kacang goats at different feeding levels. Eigth male young Kacanggoats weights at 12.75±2.68 kg (6-7 months and male mature goat weights at ± 17.34±3.32 kg (8-12months were used in this study. The pelleted complete feed was formulated to give 18,8% of CrudeProtein (CP and 78.82% of total digestible nutrients (TDN. The experiment design was nested designexperimental 2x2 with 4 replications. The main factors (based on nested were young and mature goatsand the second factor was low feeding (near maintenance level and high feeding (2X maintenance.Data measured were daily feed intake, feed digestibilities, ruminal VFA concentration and bloodglucose. The data obtained were analyzed by using analysis of variance. The results showed that drymatter intake (DMI, digestible carbohydrates, digestible crude fiber, and digestible organic matter wasaffected by age (P<0.05, as well as level of feeding (P<0.001, but age and feeding level has no effecton digestibility (P>0.05. Ruminal VFA and blood glucose concentrations were found similar (P>0.05 neither in young and mature goats. However, VFA and concentration on the 3 and 6 h on high feeding aswell as blood glucose on 3 h in high feeding were higher than those on low feeding.

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  6. Effect of Arctium Lappa Root Extract on Glucose Levels and Insulin Resistance in Rats with High Sucrose Diet

    OpenAIRE

    A Ahangarpour; M Mohaghegh; E Asadinia; F Ramazani Ali-Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a growing health problem in all over the world. Arctium Lappa has been used therapeutically in Europe, North America and Asia. Antioxidants and antidiabetic compounds have been found in the root of Arctium Lappa. This study intends to investigate the effects of Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract on glucose, insulin levels and Fasting Insulin Resistance Index in female rats with high sucrose diet. Methods: 40 female Wistar rats weighting 150-250(g) were appli...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  8. Effects of high levels of glucose on the steroidogenesis and the expression of adiponectin receptors in rat ovarian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramé Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive dysfunction in the diabetic female rat is associated with altered folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the reduction of steroid production have not been described. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that has insulin-sensitizing actions including stimulation of glucose uptake in muscle and suppression of glucose production in liver. Adiponectin acts via two receptor isoforms – AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 – that are regulated by hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in liver and muscle. We have recently identified AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in rat ovary. However, their regulation in ovaries of diabetic female rat remains to be elucidated. Methods We incubated rat primary granulosa cells in vitro with high concentrations of glucose (5 or 10 g/l + or - FSH (10-8 M or IGF-1 (10-8 M, and we studied the ovaries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ in vivo. The levels of oestradiol and progesterone in culture medium and serum were measured by RIA. We used immunoblotting to assay key steroidogenesis factors (3beta HSD, p450scc, p450 aromatase, StAR, and adiponectin receptors and various elements of signalling pathways (MAPK ERK1/2 and AMPK in vivo and in vitro. We also determined cell proliferation by [3H] thymidine incorporation. Results Glucose (5 or 10 g/l impaired the in vitro production in rat granulosa cells of both progesterone and oestradiol in the basal state and in response to FSH and IGF-1 without affecting cell proliferation and viability. This was associated with substantial reductions in the amounts of 3beta HSD, p450scc, p450 aromatase and StAR proteins and MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, glucose did not affect the abundance of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 proteins. In vivo, as expected, STZ treatment of rats caused hyperglycaemia and insulin, adiponectin and resistin deficiencies. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol levels were also reduced in STZ rats. However, the

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  10. The effect of high glucose levels on the hypermethylation of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3C (PPP1R3C) gene in colorectal cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soo Kyung Lee; Ji Wook Moon; Yong Woo Lee; Jung Ok Lee; Su Jin Kim; Nami Kim; Jin Kim; Hyeon Soo Kim; Sun-Hwa Park

    2015-03-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic event that occurs frequently in colorectal cancer (CRC). Increased glucose level is a strong risk factor for CRC. Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3C (PPP1R3C) modulates glycogen metabolism, particularly glycogen synthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose levels on DNA methylation of PPP1R3C in CRC. PPP1R3C was significantly hypermethylated in CRC tissues (76/105, 72.38%, < 0.05) and colon cancer cell lines ( < 0.05). CRC tissues obtained from patients with high glucose levels showed that the methylation of PPP1R3C was lower than in patients who had normal levels of glucose. When DLD-1 cells were cultured under conditions of high glucose, the methylation of PPP1R3C was repressed. The expression of PPP1R3C was inversely related to methylation status. In addition, a promoter luciferase assay showed that the transcriptional activity of PPP1R3C was increased in high glucose culture conditions. The number of cells decreased when PPP1R3C was silenced in DLD-1 cells. These results suggest that PPP1R3C, a novel hypermethylated gene in CRC, may play a critical role in cancer cell growth in association with glucose levels.

  11. Resolving futile glucose cycling and glycogenolytic contributions to plasma glucose levels following a glucose load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Jarak, I.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: After a glucose load, futile glucose/glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) cycling (FGC) generates [2-(2) H]glucose from (2) H2 O thereby mimicking a paradoxical glycogenolytic contribution to plasma glucose levels. Contributions of load and G6P derived from gluconeogenesis, FGC, and glycogenolysis to

  12. Development of a high-sensitivity and portable cell using Helmholtz resonance for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, K; Okada, K; Kobayashi, R; Ishihara, Y

    2016-08-01

    We describe the possibility of high-sensitivity noninvasive blood glucose measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The demand for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement has increased due to the explosive increase in diabetic patients. We have developed a noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on PAS. The conventional method uses a straight-type resonant cell. However, the cell volume is large, which results in a low detection sensitivity and difficult portability. In this paper, a small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell is proposed to improve detection sensitivity and portability by reducing the cell dead volume. First, the acoustic property of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was evaluated by performing an experiment using a silicone rubber. As a result, the detection sensitivity of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was approximately two times larger than that of the conventional straight-type resonant cell. In addition, the inside volume was approximately 30 times smaller. Second, the detection limits of glucose concentration were estimated by performing an experiment using glucose solutions. The experimental results showed that a glucose concentration of approximately 1% was detected by the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell. Although these results on the sensitivity of blood glucose-level measurement are currently insufficient, they suggest that miniaturization of a resonance cell is effective in the application of noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement.

  13. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Yong, E-mail: 11211220031@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-03-18

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels played a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.

  14. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  15. High-level expression of the Penicillium notatum glucose oxidase gene in Pichia pastoris using codon optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhaowei; Li, Zhuofu; Zhang, Yuhong; Huang, Huoqing; Li, Mu; Zhou, Liwei; Tang, Yunming; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Wei

    2012-03-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) gene from Penicillium notatum was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,815 bp gene, god-w, encodes 604 amino acids. Recombinant GOD-w had optimal activity at 35-40°C and pH 6.2 and was stable, from pH 3 to 7 maintaining >75% maximum activity after incubation at 50°C for 1 h. GOD-w worked as well as commercial GODs to improve bread making. To achieve high-level expression of recombinant GOD in P. pastoris, 272 nucleotides involving 228 residues were mutated, consistent with the codon bias of P. pastoris. The optimized recombinant GOD-m yielded 615 U ml(-1) (2.5 g protein l(-1)) in a 3 l fermentor--410% higher than GOD-w (148 U ml(-1)), and thus is a low-cost alternative for the bread baking industry.

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... events, such as eating breakfast, take on exaggerated importance. It's a world where a person needs a ... Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia ( ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... how to handle this condition. Medical IDs Many people with diabetes, particularly those who use insulin, should ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. When your body breaks ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers ... updated, this is the "take-you-by-the-hand" guide that will become a trusted friend and ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ... Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  10. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes: the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) [corrected] study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashino, Y; Fukuhara, S; Suzukamo, Y; Okamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ueshima, H

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain if higher normal fasting glucose levels are also an independent risk of developing diabetes in an Asian population, and we thus analysed data from a cohort of healthy Japanese workers. We used data from the non-randomised trial on health promotion intervention, High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) Study. Diabetes cases and those who had fasting blood glucose levels equal to or greater than 100 mg/dl at baseline were excluded, and the Cox proportional-hazards model was used for the analysis. During the four-year follow-up of 2212 participants, we found 37 diabetes cases. In the multivariable model, people with blood glucose levels in the 4th quartile had a higher risk of diabetes than those in the bottom quartile; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio was 2.52. The risk of diabetes abruptly rose in persons with blood glucose levels higher than 94 mg/dl (fourth quartile). A significant linear trend was not observed in the 1st to 3rd quartiles (p=0.726). In conclusion, higher fasting glucose level was associated with the risk of diabetes, and we found a threshold in the association between fasting blood glucose levels and risk of diabetes in an Asian population.

  11. Sex differences in glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Support a Cure - 2017-05-donation- ... well with diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble. ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia ( ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate ... Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  15. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p <0.05) between the mean values of all critical areas and the concentrations of glucose values have been highlighted with the correlation index of Pearson. Multiple linear regression confirmed these findings, showing that the critical dimensions resulting from the questionnaire were the significant variables that can increase the levels of blood glucose. The preliminary results indicate that perceived work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  16. Succinate receptor GPR91 provides a direct link between high glucose levels and renin release in murine and rabbit kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Ildikó; Kang, Jung Julie; Sipos, Arnold; Vargas, Sarah; Bansal, Eric; Hanner, Fiona; Meer, Elliott; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2008-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common and rapidly growing cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. A classic hallmark of early diabetes mellitus includes activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which may lead to hypertension and renal tissue injury, but the mechanism of RAS activation is elusive. Here we identified a paracrine signaling pathway in the kidney in which high levels of glucose directly triggered the release of the prohypertensive hormone renin. The signaling cascade involved the local accumulation of succinate and activation of the kidney-specific G protein-coupled metabolic receptor, GPR91, in the glomerular endothelium as observed in rat, mouse, and rabbit kidney sections. Elements of signal transduction included endothelial Ca2+, the production of NO and prostaglandin (PGE2), and their paracrine actions on adjacent renin-producing cells. This GPR91 signaling cascade may serve to modulate kidney function and help remove metabolic waste products through renal hyperfiltration, and it could also link metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, or metabolic syndrome with RAS overactivation, systemic hypertension, and organ injury.

  17. P2X7R-Panx1 Complex Impairs Bone Mechanosignaling under High Glucose Levels Associated with Type-1 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Seref-Ferlengez

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D causes a range of skeletal problems, including reduced bone density and increased risk for bone fractures. However, mechanisms underlying skeletal complications in diabetes are still not well understood. We hypothesize that high glucose levels in T1D alters expression and function of purinergic receptors (P2Rs and pannexin 1 (Panx1 channels, and thereby impairs ATP signaling that is essential for proper bone response to mechanical loading and maintenance of skeletal integrity. We first established a key role for P2X7 receptor-Panx1 in osteocyte mechanosignaling by showing that these proteins are co-expressed to provide a major pathway for flow-induced ATP release. To simulate in vitro the glucose levels to which bone cells are exposed in healthy vs. diabetic bones, we cultured osteoblast and osteocyte cell lines for 10 days in medium containing 5.5 or 25 mM glucose. High glucose effects on expression and function of P2Rs and Panx1 channels were determined by Western Blot analysis, quantification of Ca2+ responses to P2R agonists and oscillatory fluid shear stress (± 10 dyne/cm2, and measurement of flow-induced ATP release. Diabetic C57BL/6J-Ins2Akita mice were used to evaluate in vivo effects of high glucose on P2R and Panx1. Western blotting indicated altered P2X7R, P2Y2R and P2Y4R expression in high glucose exposed bone cells, and in diabetic bone tissue. Moreover, high glucose blunted normal P2R- and flow-induced Ca2+ signaling and ATP release from osteocytes. These findings indicate that T1D impairs load-induced ATP signaling in osteocytes and affects osteoblast function, which are essential for maintaining bone health.

  18. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose.

  19. Diacylglycerol kinase δ phosphorylates phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-dependent, palmitic acid-containing diacylglycerol species in response to high glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-09-19

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels.

  20. [Medical and administrative neglect of high blood glucose levels; comments on a decision by a medical disciplinary tribunal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelens, D W

    1997-04-26

    A 41-year-old man died in 1995 during ketoacidotic coma. He suffered from chronic manic depression, used lithium carbonate, and consulted the psychiatrist and the general practitioner (GP) frequently. Diabetes had not been diagnosed. Late in 1994 the situation worsened, the patient complaining of general illness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, thirst and excessive drinking of soft drinks. The GP referred the patient to a neurologist who found no neurological disorder but who asked for determination of blood glucose and lithium levels, and of thyroid function. The day afterwards the neurologist went on holiday. The blood glucose level proved to be elevated (16.9 mmol/1) but nobody took any action and the GP was not informed. Six days after returning from his holiday, the neurologist who had an administration backlog, found the laboratory findings only after he had been informed that the patient had just died. The court gave the neurologist a warning. Lessons are that somatic problems should be treated as such, even in a psychiatric patient, and that a good administrative signalling system is a prerequisite for quality in medical practice.

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the safest way ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  4. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, ... the influence of dehydration on the blood glucose level of anurans. .... J. Cell. Compo Physiol. 44: 233 - 246. VAWDA, A. 1978. The loss of sodium across the skin of the.

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  8. [Activity of Vegetative Nervous System and Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines During Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects With Optimal and High Normal Blood Pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangileva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p system activity in control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP.

  9. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  10. Neural activity and the levels of high energy phosphates during deprivation of oxygen and/or glucose in hippocampal slices of immature and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabetani, M; Okada, Y; Kawai, S; Nakamura, H

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between neural activity and cerebral energy metabolism during anoxia or ischemia in neural tissue of different ages, hippocampal slices were prepared from four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats. For the index of the neural activity, the population spikes were recorded in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA3 area. ATP and phosphocreatine levels in the slices were measured during oxygen and/or glucose deprivation. After deprivation of both oxygen and glucose, population spikes of the slices from four, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats ceased completely in 14.2, 11.8, 9.4 and 5.3 min, respectively. The level of ATP at the time of cessation of population spike in four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats was 37.4, 30.2, 28.5 and 56.4% of the original concentrations. After deprivation of glucose only, the decay time of the population spikes of the slices from four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats was 17.8, 14.5, 9.0 and 10.0 min and at the time of population spikes cessation the level of ATP was 99.8, 84.2, 79.3 and 49%, respectively. After deprivation of oxygen only, population spikes of the slices from four, seven- and 10-day old and adult rats ceased completely in 257, 283, 109 and 8.5 min, respectively. The level of ATP at the time of population spikes cessation was 50, 40, 36.6 and 94.4% of the initial values, respectively. These results indicate that the immature rat is extremely resistant to oxygen deprivation from a functional and a metabolic view, whereas in the adult rat, preservation of neural activity depends much on both oxygen and glucose. During glucose deprivation, population spikes of the slices of immature and mature rats ceased rapidly although the level of ATP is preserved at high levels. This suggests that glucose plays an important role in the preservation of neural activity in addition to its major function as an energy substrate especially in immature animals.

  11. Effect of high-dose dexamethasone on perioperative lactate levels and glucose control : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottens, Thomas H.; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.; Hofland, Jan; Dieleman, Jan M.; Hoekstra, Miriam; van Dijk, Diederik; van der Maaten, Joost M. A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Blood lactate levels are increasingly used to monitor patients. Steroids are frequently administered to critically ill patients. However, the effect of steroids on lactate levels has not been adequately investigated. We studied the effect of a single intraoperative high dose of

  12. Nigerian propolis improves blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels in rat models of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladayo, Mustafa Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to our previous studies, propolis of Nigerian origin showed some evidence of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in addition to its ability to ameliorate oxidative-stress-induced organ dysfunction. This study was carried out to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (EENP) improves glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in rats that have alloxan diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced with alloxan (110 mg/kg). Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 5); Group 1 was non-diabetic receiving normal saline and Group 2 was diabetic but also received only normal saline. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were diabetic receiving 200 mg/kg propolis, 300 mg/kg propolis, and 150 mg/kg metformin, respectively, for 42 days. Results: Hyperglycemia, elevated serum level of VLDL, elevated plasma level of HbA1c, and decreased levels of HDL were observed in the diabetic untreated animals. Nigerian propolis decreased blood glucose level and serum level of VLDL but elevated HDL level. These changes were significant (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma HbA1c were also reduced in the propolis-treated groups, and the reduction was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Nigerian propolis contains compounds exhibiting hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and HbA1c reducing activities. PMID:27366348

  13. Can intramuscular glucose levels diagnose compartment syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, Christopher J; Sitzman, Thomas J; O'Toole, Robert V

    2014-02-01

    Compartment syndrome is difficult to diagnose, particularly in patients who are not able to undergo adequate clinical examination. Current methods rely on pressure measurements within the compartment, have high false-positive rates, and do not reliably indicate presence of muscle ischemia. We hypothesized that measurement of intramuscular glucose and oxygen can identify compartment syndrome with high sensitivity and specificity. Compartment syndrome was created in 12 anesthetized adult mixed-sex beagles, in the craniolateral compartment of a lower leg, by infusion of lactated Ringer's solution with normal serum concentration of glucose. The contralateral leg served as a control. Hydrostatic pressure, oxygen tension, and glucose concentration were recorded with commercially available probes. Compartment syndrome was maintained for 8 hours, and the animals were recovered. Two weeks later, compartment and control legs underwent muscle biopsy. Specimens were reviewed by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 minutes of creating compartment syndrome, glucose concentration and oxygen tension in the experimental limb were significantly lower than in the control limb (glucose, p = 0.02; oxygen, p = 0.007; two-tailed t test). Intramuscular glucose concentration of less than 97 mg/dL was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 73-100%) and 75% specific (95% CI, 40-94%) for the presence of compartment syndrome. Partial pressure of oxygen less than 30 mm Hg was 100% sensitive (95% CI, 72-100%) and 100% specific (95% CI, 69-100%) for the presence of compartment syndrome. Pathology confirmed compartment syndrome in all experimental limbs. Our results show that intramuscular glucose concentration and partial pressure of oxygen rapidly identify muscle ischemia with high sensitivity and specificity after experimentally created compartment syndrome in this animal model.

  14. Air Pollution and Serum Glucose Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Maayan Yitshak; Kloog, Itai; Liberty, Idit F.; Katra, Itzhak; Novack, Lena; Novack, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies demonstrated an adverse effect of chronic exposure to air pollution (AP) on metabolic syndrome and its components. In a population-based study, we investigated the association between exposure to ambient AP and serum glucose (SG), among subjects with normal glucose, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes mellitus (DM). We included 1,063,887 SG tests performed in 131,882 subjects (years 2001–2012). Exposure data included daily levels of SO2, NO2 and other pollutants of industrial, traffic, and nonanthropogenic sources. Demographical, clinical, and medications purchase data were assessed. Log-transformed SG levels were analyzed by linear mixed models adjusted for seasonal variables and personal characteristics. SG increases (%increase [95% CI]), among subjects with normal glucose, IFG, and DM, respectively, were associated with 6.36 ppb increase of NO2 measured 24 to 72 hours before the test (0.40% [0.31%; 0.50%], 0.56% [0.40%; 0.71%], and 1.08% [0.86%; 1.29%]); and with 1.17 ppb increase of SO2 measured 24 hours before the test (0.29% [0.22%; 0.36%], 0.20% [0.10%; 0.31%], and 0.33% [0.14%; 0.52%]). Among DM population, weakest association was observed among patients treated with Metformin (0.56% increase in SG [0.18%; 0.95%]). In conclusion, NO2 and SO2 exposure is associated with small but significantly increased levels of SG. Although DM patients were found to be more susceptible to the AP induced SG variations, Metformin treatment seem to have a protective effect. Given the chronic lifetime exposure to AP and the broad coverage of the population, even small associations such as those found in our study can be associated with detrimental health effects and may have profound public health implications. PMID:26166095

  15. Glucose and Fructose to Platform Chemicals: Understanding the Thermodynamic Landscapes of Acid-Catalysed Reactions Using High-Level ab Initio Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Kim, Taijin; Low, John; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-12-28

    Molecular level understanding of acid-catalysed conversion of sugar molecules to platform chemicals such as hydroxy-methyl furfural (HMF), furfuryl alcohol (FAL), and levulinic acid (LA) is essential for efficient biomass conversion. In this paper, the high-level G4MP2 method along with the SMD solvation model is employed to understand detailed reaction energetics of the acid-catalysed decomposition of glucose and fructose to HMF. Based on protonation free energies of various hydroxyl groups of the sugar molecule, the relative reactivity of gluco-pyranose, fructo-pyranose and fructo-furanose are predicted. Calculations suggest that, in addition to the protonated intermediates, a solvent assisted dehydration of one of the fructo-furanosyl intermediates is a competing mechanism, indicating the possibility of multiple reaction pathways for fructose to HMF conversion in aqueous acidic medium. Two reaction pathways were explored to understand the thermodynamics of glucose to HMF; the first one is initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH group and the second one through an enolate intermediate involving acyclic intermediates. Additionally, a pathway is proposed for the formation of furfuryl alcohol from glucose initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH position, which includes a C–C bond cleavage, and the formation of formic acid. The detailed free energy landscapes predicted in this study can be used as benchmarks for further exploring the sugar decomposition reactions, prediction of possible intermediates, and finally designing improved catalysts for biomass conversion chemistry in the future.

  16. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Yoshizaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed.

  17. Enzyme-synthesized highly branched maltodextrins have slow glucose generation at the mucosal α-glucosidase level and are slowly digestible in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hoo Lee

    Full Text Available For digestion of starch in humans, α-amylase first hydrolyzes starch molecules to produce α-limit dextrins, followed by complete hydrolysis to glucose by the mucosal α-glucosidases in the small intestine. It is known that α-1,6 linkages in starch are hydrolyzed at a lower rate than are α-1,4 linkages. Here, to create designed slowly digestible carbohydrates, the structure of waxy corn starch (WCS was modified using a known branching enzyme alone (BE and an in combination with β-amylase (BA to increase further the α-1,6 branching ratio. The digestibility of the enzymatically synthesized products was investigated using α-amylase and four recombinant mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases. Enzyme-modified products (BE-WCS and BEBA-WCS had increased percentage of α-1,6 linkages (WCS: 5.3%, BE-WCS: 7.1%, and BEBA-WCS: 12.9%, decreased weight-average molecular weight (WCS: 1.73×10(8 Da, BE-WCS: 2.76×10(5 Da, and BEBA-WCS 1.62×10(5 Da, and changes in linear chain distributions (WCS: 21.6, BE-WCS: 16.9, BEBA-WCS: 12.2 DPw. Hydrolysis by human pancreatic α-amylase resulted in an increase in the amount of branched α-limit dextrin from 26.8% (WCS to 56.8% (BEBA-WCS. The α-amylolyzed samples were hydrolyzed by the individual α-glucosidases (100 U and glucogenesis decreased with all as the branching ratio increased. This is the first report showing that hydrolysis rate of the mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases is limited by the amount of branched α-limit dextrin. When enzyme-treated materials were gavaged to rats, the level of postprandial blood glucose at 60 min from BEBA-WCS was significantly higher than for WCS or BE-WCS. Thus, highly branched glucan structures modified by BE and BA had a comparably slow digesting property both in vitro and in vivo. Such highly branched α-glucans show promise as a food ingredient to control postprandial glucose levels and to attain extended glucose release.

  18. Enzyme-synthesized highly branched maltodextrins have slow glucose generation at the mucosal α-glucosidase level and are slowly digestible in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hoo; Yan, Like; Phillips, Robert J; Reuhs, Bradley L; Jones, Kyra; Rose, David R; Nichols, Buford L; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2013-01-01

    For digestion of starch in humans, α-amylase first hydrolyzes starch molecules to produce α-limit dextrins, followed by complete hydrolysis to glucose by the mucosal α-glucosidases in the small intestine. It is known that α-1,6 linkages in starch are hydrolyzed at a lower rate than are α-1,4 linkages. Here, to create designed slowly digestible carbohydrates, the structure of waxy corn starch (WCS) was modified using a known branching enzyme alone (BE) and an in combination with β-amylase (BA) to increase further the α-1,6 branching ratio. The digestibility of the enzymatically synthesized products was investigated using α-amylase and four recombinant mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases. Enzyme-modified products (BE-WCS and BEBA-WCS) had increased percentage of α-1,6 linkages (WCS: 5.3%, BE-WCS: 7.1%, and BEBA-WCS: 12.9%), decreased weight-average molecular weight (WCS: 1.73×10(8) Da, BE-WCS: 2.76×10(5) Da, and BEBA-WCS 1.62×10(5) Da), and changes in linear chain distributions (WCS: 21.6, BE-WCS: 16.9, BEBA-WCS: 12.2 DPw). Hydrolysis by human pancreatic α-amylase resulted in an increase in the amount of branched α-limit dextrin from 26.8% (WCS) to 56.8% (BEBA-WCS). The α-amylolyzed samples were hydrolyzed by the individual α-glucosidases (100 U) and glucogenesis decreased with all as the branching ratio increased. This is the first report showing that hydrolysis rate of the mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases is limited by the amount of branched α-limit dextrin. When enzyme-treated materials were gavaged to rats, the level of postprandial blood glucose at 60 min from BEBA-WCS was significantly higher than for WCS or BE-WCS. Thus, highly branched glucan structures modified by BE and BA had a comparably slow digesting property both in vitro and in vivo. Such highly branched α-glucans show promise as a food ingredient to control postprandial glucose levels and to attain extended glucose release.

  19. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secreting Cell Function as well as Production of Inflammatory Reactive Oxygen Species Is Differently Regulated by Glycated Serum and High Levels of Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Puddu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an intestinal hormone contributing to glucose homeostasis, is synthesized by proglucagon and secreted from intestinal neuroendocrine cells in response to nutrients. GLP-1 secretion is impaired in type 2 diabetes patients. Here, we aimed at investigating whether diabetic toxic products (glycated serum (GS or high levels of glucose (HG may affect viability, function, and insulin sensitivity of the GLP-1 secreting cell line GLUTag. Cells were cultured for 5 days in presence or absence of different dilutions of GS or HG. GS and HG (alone or in combination increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and upregulated proglucagon mRNA expression as compared to control medium. Only HG increased total production and release of active GLP-1, while GS alone abrogated secretion of active GLP-1. HG-mediated effects were associated with the increased cell content of the prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3, while GS alone downregulated this enzyme. HG upregulated Glucokinase (GK and downregulated SYNTHAXIN-1. GS abrogated SYNTHAXIN-1 and SNAP-25. Finally, high doses of GS alone or in combination with HG reduced insulin-mediated IRS-1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, we showed that GS and HG might regulate different pathways of GLP-1 production in diabetes, directly altering the function of neuroendocrine cells secreting this hormone.

  20. Glycated hemoglobin in camel: Minimal correlation with blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi Mohammad D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb in the blood of camel (Camelus dromedarius and cow (Bos taurus were analyzed and compared with human values. Camel displayed high blood glucose concentration (9.7±2.8 mM but a low level of glycated-Hb (3.4± 0.23%.Cow blood samples did not show sufficient variations in glucose concentrations (5.7±0.73 mM or glycated Hb levels (3.2± 0.11% compared to human values. The low glycation of camel Hb at higher glucose concentrations suggest that certain factors protect the Hb from glycation at high glucose concentrations. Camel Hb also exhibited a higher electrophoretic mobility than normal hemoglobin of human or cow. Camel Hb migrated at a rate corresponding to that of human Hb-C. Bioinformatics tools were used to explore the biochemical basis for the difference in camel Hb migratory position and its apparent resistance to glycation.

  1. Examination of liver and muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... energy requirement is high and start to decrease after May when reproduction starts. In the summer, it was determined that glycogen and glucose reserves were at ... Glycogen and glucose reserves generally showed parallel changes with ...

  2. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  3. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  4. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-11-15

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake.

  5. Hepatic carboxylesterase 1 is induced by glucose and regulates postprandial glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiesi Xu

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, increases the risks for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1 is an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and is important for lipid metabolism. Our previous data show that over-expression of mouse hepatic CES1 lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic ob/ob mice. In the present study, we determined the physiological role of hepatic CES1 in glucose homeostasis. Hepatic CES1 expression was reduced by fasting but increased in diabetic mice. Treatment of mice with glucose induced hepatic CES1 expression. Consistent with the in vivo study, glucose stimulated CES1 promoter activity and increased acetylation of histone 3 and histone 4 in the CES1 chromatin. Knockdown of ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, an enzyme that regulates histone acetylation, abolished glucose-mediated histone acetylation in the CES1 chromatin and glucose-induced hepatic CES1 expression. Finally, knockdown of hepatic CES1 significantly increased postprandial blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the present study uncovers a novel glucose-CES1-glucose pathway which may play an important role in regulating postprandial blood glucose levels.

  6. Corticosterone and Exogenous Glucose Alter Blood Glucose levels, Neurotoxicity, and Vascular Toxicity Produced by Methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, John F; Tranter, Karen M; Sarkar, Sumit; George, Nysia I; Hanig, Joseph P; Kelly, Kimberly A; Michalovicz, Lindsay T; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2017-08-09

    Our previous studies have raised the possibility that altered blood glucose levels may influence and/or be predictive of methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of exogenous glucose and corticosterone (CORT) pretreatment alone or in combination with METH on blood glucose levels and the neural and vascular toxicity produced. METH exposure consisted of four sequential injections of 5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg (2h between injections) D-METH. The three groups given METH in combination with saline, glucose (METH+Glucose), or CORT (METH+CORT) had significantly higher glucose levels compared to the corresponding treatment groups without METH except at 3 h after the last injection. At this last time point, the METH and METH+Glucose groups had lower levels than the non-METH groups, while the METH+CORT group did not. CORT alone or glucose alone did not significantly increase blood glucose. Mortality rates for the METH+CORT (40%) and METH+Glucose (44%) groups were substantially higher than the METH (< 10%) group. Additionally, METH+CORT significantly increased neurodegeneration above all other treatments (≈ 2.5-fold in the parietal cortex). Thus, maintaining elevated levels of glucose during METH exposure increases lethality and may exacerbate neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation, specifically microglial activation, was associated with degenerating neurons in the parietal cortex and thalamus after METH exposure. The activated microglia in the parietal cortex were surrounding vasculature in most cases and the extent of microglial activation was exacerbated by CORT pretreatment. Our findings implicate elevated blood levels of glucose and hyperthermia in METH-induced neurotoxicity, neurovascular damage, and lethality, and that acute elevation of CORT exacerbates both neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. H2O2 Treatment of HUVECs Facilitates PKC Mediated Thr495 Phosphorylation on eNOS when Pre-treated with High Glucose Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guterbaum, Thomas J; Braunstein, Thomas H; Fossum, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome entails hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Hyperglycemia during coronary reperfusion is associated with a poor prognosis. Contrastingly, targeting correction of hyper......Objective: Metabolic syndrome entails hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Hyperglycemia during coronary reperfusion is associated with a poor prognosis. Contrastingly, targeting correction...... -rich environment. Methods and results: HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were exposed to high glucose (20 mM) for either 20 or 72 hours co-incubated with or without H2 O2 (400 µM) for 30 minutes as models of increased oxidative stress during acute and prolonged hyperglycemia, respectively...... in an increase in Thr495 phosphorylation (to 425%, paffect phosphorylation of Thr495 and Ser1177. Stimulating HUVECs that were pre-incubated with 20 mM glucose for 72 hours with H2 O2...

  8. Intermittent High Glucose Enhances Apoptosis in INS-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG and sustained high glucose (SHG on inducing β-cell apoptosis and the potential involved mechanisms, INS-1 beta cells were incubated for 72 h in the medium containing different glucose concentrations: control (5.5 mmol/L, SHG (33.3 mmol/L, and IHG (5.5 mmol/L and 33.3 mmol/L glucose alternating every 12 h. Cell viability, apoptosis rate, and oxidative-stress markers were determined. The results showed that the apoptosis induced by IHG was more obvious than that by SHG. Simultaneously, the intracellular level of oxidative stress was more significantly increased in INS-1 cells exposed to IHG. These findings suggest that intermittent high glucose could be more deleterious to β-cell than a constant high concentration of glucose, this may be due to the aggravation of oxidative stress triggered by intermittent high glucose.

  9. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and measures of glucose and lipid metabolism following pioglitazone treatment in a randomized placebo-controlled study in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Frystyk, Jan; Højlund, Kurt;

    2008-01-01

    .89) and Delta-oxidative glucose metabolism (r = 0.71) and inversely with Delta-fasting free fatty acid (FFA) levels (r = -0.69) and Delta-lipid oxidation (r = -0.73) during insulin stimulation (all P ... and lipid metabolism during insulin stimulation than with Delta-total adiponectin. CONCLUSION: A close correlation between increased total adiponectin levels and increased insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during pioglitzone treatment supports the hypothesis that the insulin-sensitizing effect......OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that the effect of adiponectin on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism is mediated primarily by the high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin. In the present study we evaluated total and HMW adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients...

  10. [Effect of high-carbohydrate diet in the form of sugar beet on glucose and ketone body levels in the blood serum of highly pregnant and freshly lactating cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowski, B; Voigt, J; Girschewski, H

    1977-12-01

    In an experiment using 24 high-yielding cows (3rd and 6th lactations), group II was fed sugar beet as carbohydrate source (2 kg DM per animal and day) for 4 weeks before and for 4 weeks after parturition, whilst group I was given the equivalent amount of dried spent beet pulp. Sugar beet feeding during the dry period caused the glucose level in the blood to rise significantly from 48 to 55 mg/100 ml. On the 21st day of lactation the glucose concentration in group II (27 mg) had declined more strongly than in group I (37 mg). Feeding large amounts of easily soluble carbohydrates during the dry period obviously inhibits gluconeogenesis during early lactation. The ketone body level of group II was found to rise to 14 mg/100 ml by the 21st day of lactation (group I--4 mg), a level indicative of ketosis. The ketogenous action (strong formation of butyric acid in the rumen) of sugar beet enhances this effect, too. The daily milk yield did not vary much coming to 26.8 and 27.8 kg in the control and in the experimental group, respectively. The results allow to conclude that feeding fresh sugar beet to high-yielding cows just before and shortly after parturition is not advisable.

  11. Glucose Levels in Culture Medium Determine Cell Death Mode in MPP(+)-treated Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, So-Young; Oh, Young J

    2015-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) causes caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells. Here, we specifically examined whether change of glucose concentration in culture medium may play a role for determining cell death modes of DA neurons following MPP(+) treatment. By incubating MN9D cells in medium containing varying concentrations of glucose (5~35 mM), we found that cells underwent a distinct cell death as determined by morphological and biochemical criteria. At 5~10 mM glucose concentration (low glucose levels), MPP(+) induced typical of the apoptotic dell death accompanied with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation as well as cell shrinkage. In contrast, MN9D cells cultivated in medium containing more than 17.5 mM (high glucose levels) did not demonstrate any of these changes. Subsequently, we observed that MPP(+) at low glucose levels but not high glucose levels led to ROS generation and subsequent JNK activation. Therefore, MPP(+)-induced cell death only at low glucose levels was significantly ameliorated following co-treatment with ROS scavenger, caspase inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. We basically confirmed the quite similar pattern of cell death in primary cultures of DA neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that a biochemically distinct cell death mode is recruited by MPP(+) depending on extracellular glucose levels.

  12. High glucose promotes Aβ production by inhibiting APP degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    Full Text Available Abnormal deposition of neuriticplaques is the uniqueneuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD.Amyloid β protein (Aβ, the major component of plaques, is generated from sequential cleavage of amyloidβ precursor protein (APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase complex. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia,have increased risk of AD development.However, the role of high blood glucose in APP processing and Aβ generation remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of high glucose on APP metabolism and Aβ generation in cultured human cells. We found that high glucose treatment significantly increased APP protein level in both neuronal-like and non-neuronal cells, and promoted Aβ generation. Furthermore, we found that high glucose-induced increase of APP level was not due to enhancement of APP gene transcription but resulted from inhibition of APP protein degradation. Taken together, our data indicated that hyperglycemia could promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting APP degradation and enhancing Aβ production. More importantly, the elevation of APP level and Aβ generation by high glucose was caused by reduction of APP turnover rate.Thus,our study provides a molecular mechanism of increased risk of developing AD in patients withDMand suggests thatglycemic control might be potentially beneficial for reducing the incidence of AD in diabetic patients and delaying the AD progression.

  13. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  14. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  15. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON PLASMA GLUCOSE LEVEL IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Chakraborty; Mrigendranath Gantait; Biswapati Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma glucose level (PGL) in human volunteers after acupuncture. Methods Seventy-seven human volunteers were taken up from the acupuncture clinic. All of pletion of acupuncture. All cases were at four hours abstinence from food before doing acupuncture. Results Plasma glucose level varied 5 mg% or more in 62 cases (80.51%) and only those were considered for computation. PGL increased in cases who had generally plasma glucose level below 90 mg% before acupuncture;and PGL decreased in cases who had plasma glucose 90 mg% or above. In 10 control cases there was no variation of the considerable level of 5 mg% in any case. Conclusion Bi-directional variation of PGL after acupuncture indicates that acupuncture can be used to maintain optimum PGL through endogenous mechanism,suggesting that it is applicable in controlling hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus patients.

  16. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute toxicity following oral ... Diabetes was induced in male and female Wistar rats with alloxan ... had good hypoglycemic activity and good effects on cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. Relationship between glycated Haemoglobin and glucose levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between glycated Haemoglobin and glucose levels in adult healthy and diabeticNigerians in Benin Metropolis. ... Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... Patients And Methods: A total of 200 subjects participated in this study.

  18. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  19. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P =110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  20. An elevated 1-h post- load glucose level during the oral glucose tolerance test detects prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, Martin; Bergman, Michael; Yanogo, Donald; Jagannathan, Ram; Buysschaert, Benoit; Preumont, Vanessa

    The objective of the study was to compare the diagnosis of dysglycemic states by conventional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) criteria (fasting and 2-h plasma glucose) with the 1-h post-load plasma glucose level. 34 individuals (mean age: 55±13years; BMI: 27.7±6.3kg/m(2)) at risk for prediabetes were administered a 75g OGTT. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes were identified according to fasting and/or 2-h plasma glucose (PG) concentrations. Subsequently, subjects were divided in 2 groups: group 1 (n=21) with a 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl. HOMA was performed to assess β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. NGT or prediabetes based on conventional criteria correlated with the 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl was associated with higher HbA1c levels (6.1±0.5 vs. 5.5±0.3%, ph PGh post-load plasma glucose value ≥155mg/dl is strongly associated with conventional criteria for (pre)diabetes and alterations of β-cell function. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. ... diabetics could be predisposed to microvascular complications, while a ... measurements of HbA1c of randomly selected patients with long-standing diabetes.

  2. [Glucose absorption in the rat small intestine in vivo after various levels of local substrate load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdkov, A A; Gromova, L V

    2013-05-01

    In order to evaluate relative roles of various mechanisms of glucose transport in the small intestine at high substrate loads in chronic experiments on rats, we investigated kinetics of glucose absorption in isolated part (-20 cm) of the intestine after its perfusion for 6 and 14 days during 1.5 h per day with 125 mM glucose solution (gr. 1--increased substrate load) or during 45-60 min per day with 25 mM glucose solution (gr. 2--reduced substrate load). The results of the experiments were analyzed by means of mathematical simulation. It was found that in the rats of gr. 1 the regular substrate load was more effective in maintaining a high level of glucose absorption in the isolated part of the intestine. Adaptation of glucose absorption to the increased local glucose load occurs due to enhancement of the secondary active transport via SGLT1. This component in many times exceeds the "unsaturated" component of glucose absorption, which is mainly determined by the facilitated diffusion via GLUT2, both at high and low glucose concentrations in the intestinal lumen.

  3. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  4. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive correlation between BMI with fasting serum glucose and

  5. Enzyme-synthesized highly branched maltodextrins have slow glucose generation at the mucosal alpha-glucosidase level and are slowly digestible "in vivo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    For digestion of starch in humans, alpha-amylase first hydrolyzes starch molecules to produce alpha-limit dextrins, followed by complete hydrolysis to glucose by the mucosal alpha-glucosidases in the small intestine. It is known that alpha-1,6 linkages in starch are hydrolyzed at a lower rate than a...

  6. [Analysis of blood glucose levels in 746 cases of schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, An-Ming; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    The levels of blood glucose of 746 inpatients with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis were assayed last 3 years and the results were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the pure chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients and normal population. However, there was a significant difference between the chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients with viral hepatitis and normal population.

  7. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Natarelli

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG. In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3 and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  8. Modulation of memory with septal injections of morphine and glucose: effects on extracellular glucose levels in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C; Canal, Clinton E; Sherwin, Robert S; Gold, Paul E

    2006-02-28

    The concentration of glucose in the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the hippocampus decreases substantially during memory testing on a hippocampus-dependent memory task. Administration of exogenous glucose, which enhances task performance, prevents this decrease, suggesting a relationship between hippocampal glucose availability and memory performance. In the present experiment, spontaneous alternation performance and task-related changes in hippocampal ECF glucose were assessed in rats after intraseptal administration of morphine, which impairs memory on a spontaneous alternation task, and after co-administration of intraseptal glucose, which attenuates that impairment. Consistent with previous findings, spontaneous alternation testing resulted in a decrease in hippocampal ECF glucose levels in control rats. However, rats that received intraseptal morphine prior to testing showed memory impairments and an absence of the task-related decrease in hippocampal ECF glucose levels. Intraseptal co-administration of glucose with morphine attenuated the memory impairment, and ECF glucose levels in the hippocampus decreased in a manner comparable to that seen in control rats. These data suggest that fluctuations in hippocampal ECF glucose levels may be a marker of mnemonic processing and support the view that decreases in extracellular glucose during memory testing reflect increased glucose demand during memory processing.

  9. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, Fabien [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Stines-Chaumeil, Claire [Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, Institut de Biochimie et de Genetique Cellulaires, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Flexer, Victoria [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Andre, Isabelle [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Mano, Nicolas, E-mail: mano@crpp-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  10. Effects of Different Levels of Echinostoma caproni Miracidial Dose on Glucose and Maltose Composition of Biomphalaria glabrata Snails as Determined by High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolcie DeGrandchamp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 5, 25, and 40 Echinostoma caproni miracidia on the sugar content of young adult and mature adult Biomphalaria glabrata were studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometry. Analysis was done on the snail’s digestive gland gonad complex (DGG at two and four weeks postmiracidial exposure. The sugars were extracted from the DGG using 70% ethanol and analyzed on silica gel HPTLC plates with a preadsorbent zone using 1-butanol-glacial acetic acid-diethyl ether-deionized water (27:18:5:3 mobile phase. The separated bands were then detected using alpha-naphthol-sulfuric reagent and quantified by densitometry at 515 nm. Significant differences were found in the maltose content between two and four weeks post exposure for both age groups. Additionally, significantly lower maltose and glucose levels were observed in the high exposure groups of both ages.

  11. Frequency of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by a FINDRISC survey in Puebla City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcalá, Hector; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Hirales-Tamez, Omara; Salinas-Palma, Jorge; Soto-Vega, Elena

    2012-01-01

    As a first step in the prevention of diabetes, the International Diabetes Federation recommends identification of persons at risk using the Finnish type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment (FINDRISC) survey. The frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by FINDRISC is unknown in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in higher-risk groups using a FINDRISC survey in an urban population. We used a television program to invite interested adults to fill out a survey at a television station. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all persons with a FINDRISC score ≥ 15 points (high-risk and very high-risk groups). Patients were classified as normal (fasting glucose < 100 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL), or having impaired fasting glucose (fasting glucose 100-125 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL), glucose intolerance (fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose 140-199 mg/dL), and diabetes mellitus (fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hour glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL). We describe the frequency of each diagnostic category in this selected population according to gender and age. A total of 186 patients had a score ≥ 15. The frequencies of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and normal glucose levels were 28.6%, 25.9%, 29.2%, and 16.2%, respectively. We found a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in men than in women (33% versus 27% and 40% versus 21%, respectively) and more glucose intolerance in women than in men (34% versus 16%, P < 0.05). Patients with diabetes mellitus (52.55 ± 9.2 years) were older than those with impaired fasting glucose (46.19 ± 8.89 years), glucose intolerance (46.15 ± 10.9 years), and normal levels (41.9 ± 10.45 years, P < 0.05). We found a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus in those aged over 50 years

  12. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This stud...... measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O(2)(-) from isolated human neutrophils....

  13. The Effect of Noscapine on Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation on Primary Murine Cortical Neurons in High Glucose Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Gelareh; Ebrahimi, Soltan-Ahmed; Rahbar-Roshandel, Nahid; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we set out to investigate the neuroprotective effects of noscapine (0.5-2 µM) in presence of D-glucose on primary murine foetal cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 h. recovery. Cell viability, nitric oxide production and intracellular calcium ((ca(2+))i) levels were evaluated by MTT assay, the modified Griess method and Fura-2 respectively. 25 and 100 mM D-glucose could, in a concentration dependent manner, improve cell viability and decrease NO production and (ca(2+))i level in neuronal cells after ischemic insult. Moreover, pre-incubation of cells with noscapine, noticeably enhanced protective effects of 25 and 100 mM D-glucose compared to similar conditions without noscapine pre-treatment. In fact, noscapine attenuated NO production in a dose-dependent fashion, after 30 minutes (min) OGD, during high-glucose (HG) condition in cortical neurons. Pretreatment with 2 μM noscapine and 25 or 100 mM D-glucose, was shown to decrease the rise in (ca(2+))i induced by Sodium azide/glucose deprivation (chemical OGD) model. These effects were more pronounced than that of 25 or 100 mM D-glucose alone. The present study demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of HG before an ischemic insult were augmented by pre-treatment with noscapine. Our results also suggested that the neuroprotection offered by both HG and noscapine involve attenuation of NO production and (ca(2+))i levels stimulated by the experimental ischemia in cortical neurons.

  14. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  15. Vav3, a GEF for RhoA, Plays a Critical Role under High Glucose Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe role of small GTPase molecules is poorly understood under high glucose conditions.MethodsWe analyzed the expression pattern of Vav3 in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells under high glucose culture condition with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. We also measured glucose uptake using isotope-labelled glucose.ResultsWe showed that expression of Vav3 (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoA increased. mRNA and protein levels in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells under high glucose conditions. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activator AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxy-amide-1-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR suppressed high glucose-induced Vav3 induction. In addition, exposure of cells to high glucose concentration increased the phosphorylation of PAK-1, a molecule downstream of RhoA. The phosphorylation of paxillin, a downstream molecule of PAK-1, was also increased by exposure to high glucose. Phosphorylation of these molecules was not observed in the presence of AICAR, indicating that AMPK is involved in the RhoA signal pathway under high glucose conditions. Knock down of Vav3 enhances metformin-mediated glucose uptake. Inhibition of AMPK blocked the increases of Vav3 knock down-induced glucose uptake. Metformin-mediated Glut4 translocation was also increased by Vav3 knock-down, suggesting that Vav3 is involved in metformin-mediated glucose uptake.ConclusionThese results demonstrate that Vav3 is involved in the process of metformin-mediated glucose regulation.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Ecklonia cava Extract on High Glucose-Induced Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kojima-Yuasa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a disease closely associated with obesity and diabetes. A prevalence of type 2 diabetes and a high body mass index in cryptogenic cirrhosis may imply that obesity leads to cirrhosis. Here, we examined the effects of an extract of Ecklonia cava, a brown algae, on the activation of high glucose-induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, key players in hepatic fibrosis. Isolated HSCs were incubated with or without a high glucose concentration. Ecklonia cava extract (ECE was added to the culture simultaneously with the high glucose. Treatment with high glucose stimulated expression of type I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin, which are markers of activation in HSCs, in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of high glucose-treated HSCs was suppressed by the ECE. An increase in the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in intracellular glutathione levels were observed soon after treatment with high glucose, and these changes were suppressed by the simultaneous addition of ECE. High glucose levels stimulated the secretion of bioactive transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β from the cells, and the stimulation was also suppressed by treating the HSCs with ECE. These results suggest that the suppression of high glucose-induced HSC activation by ECE is mediated through the inhibition of ROS and/or GSH and the downregulation of TGF-β secretion. ECE is useful for preventing the development of diabetic liver fibrosis.

  17. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  18. Effects of breakfast with different calorigenic amounts on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Su-xia(黄素霞); FU Yun-xing(傅运兴); WANG Hui-ming(王慧铭); GIANG Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between breakfast and serum glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations in order to establish a model breakfast appropriate for Chinese. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to four study groups: high carbohydrate breakfast, high fat and protein breakfast, the typical breakfast and fasting. Each subject had serum and urine samples collected while fasting and at 1,2 and 3.5 hours following the meal. The concentration of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon was measured. The levels of serum glucose in group A,B and C differed significantly at 1 and 2 hour after meal compared to those at fasting (P<0.05). The serum glucose in group A increased insignificantly after meal. The serum insulin levels were in group A,B and C significant different compared with control group(P<0.05).Those peaked at 1 hour after meal ,with group C rising the furthest. Compared with the fasting group, the serum glucagons rose and maintained the increase after breakfast in group A,B and C (P<0.05).The data suggested that various diets with different calorigenic amounts increased hormone concentration to various extents. We found that a breakfast rich in carbohydrates could maintain proper blood glucose level.

  19. High glucose potentiates L-FABP mediated fibrate induction of PPARα in mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Anca D; McIntosh, Avery L; Storey, Stephen M; Huang, Huan; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-08-01

    Although liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) binds fibrates and PPARα in vitro and enhances fibrate induction of PPARα in transformed cells, the functional significance of these findings is unclear, especially in normal hepatocytes. Studies with cultured primary mouse hepatocytes show that: 1) At physiological (6mM) glucose, fibrates (bezafibrate, fenofibrate) only weakly activated PPARα transcription of genes in LCFA β-oxidation; 2) High (11-20mM) glucose, but not maltose (osmotic control), significantly potentiated fibrate-induction of mRNA of these and other PPARα target genes to increase LCFA β-oxidation. These effects were associated with fibrate-mediated redistribution of L-FABP into nuclei-an effect prolonged by high glucose-but not with increased de novo fatty acid synthesis from glucose; 3) Potentiation of bezafibrate action by high glucose required an intact L-FABP/PPARα signaling pathway as shown with L-FABP null, PPARα null, PPARα inhibitor-treated WT, or PPARα-specific fenofibrate-treated WT hepatocytes. High glucose alone in the absence of fibrate was ineffective. Thus, high glucose potentiation of PPARα occurred through FABP/PPARα rather than indirectly through other PPARs or glucose induced signaling pathways. These data indicated L-FABP's importance in fibrate-induction of hepatic PPARα LCFA β-oxidative genes, especially in the context of high glucose levels.

  20. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  1. Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurdan Acar,1 Hamit Ozcelik,1 Arif Alper Cevik,1 Engin Ozakin,1 Goknur Yorulmaz,2 Nur Kebapci,2 Ugur Bilge,3 Muzaffer Bilgin4 1Emergency Department, 2Endocrinology Department, 3Family Medicine Department, 4Biostatistics Department, Medical School, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Aim: In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over.Method: We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009.Results: The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients.Conclusion: In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in

  2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels in adult population of Bangladesh: Results from STEPS 2006 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Ahmed, Jasimuddin; Talukder, Md Habibullah; Rahman, A H M Shafiqur

    2016-01-01

    A nationally representative survey was carried out to determine the distribution of blood glucose and cholesterol in adult population of Bangladesh in the absence of existing data. The study adopted a multistage and geographically clustered sampling technique of households. A total of 2610 individuals (1444 men and 1166 women) aged 25-64 years were selected from rural and urban areas. Capillary blood glucose and total cholesterol levels were measured using an overnight fasting state. The mean age of the participants was 41 years [standard deviation (SD), 11 years]. Half of them (49%) were from urban areas. Half of them (51%) had primary or higher education. Mean glucose was 74mg/dL (SD 23mg/dL). Men had higher mean glucose levels (79mg/dL) than women (67mg/dL). Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and/or use of anti-diabetic medication) was 5.5%. In men, it was almost two-and-half times (7.6%) compared with women (2.8%). It was also double in urban areas (7.8%) compared with rural areas (3.4%). Mean cholesterol level among all participants was 167mg/dL (SD 26mg/dL). Men and women had almost similar levels (169mg/dL versus 166mg/dL, respectively). Prevalence of high cholesterol level (≥240mg/dL) was very low (1.3%) in both men (2.2%) and women (0.5%). However, the prevalence of borderline high cholesterol was substantial (5.8%) in this sample. The prevalence of high hypercholesterolemia is low, whereas there is a high prevalence of borderline high cholesterol and diabetes in the adult population of Bangladesh. This warrants population-based interventions to tackle this problem. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to dete...

  4. Enhancement of LPS-Induced Microglial Inflammation Response via TLR4 Under High Glucose Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microglia activation mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays an important role in neuroinflammation and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD. Diabetes mellitus (DM has been recently suggested as an independent risk factor for POCD. In this study, we investigate the potential exacerbation of the inflammatory response in primary microglia due to high glucose conditions. Methods: Primary microglial cells were exposed to normal glucose (25 mmol/L and high glucose (35 mmol/L levels alone or with lipopolyscaccharide (LPS 0, 2, 5, 10 ng/mL. The pro-inflammatory response of the cells was assessed by measuring changes in cytokine levels and the evaluation of associated signaling pathways. Results: Neither high glucose nor low LPS (≤5ng/ml alone had an effect on TNF-a and IL-6 levels, but the combination of low LPS and high glucose stimulated the inflammatory response. Analyses of the associated signaling pathways demonstrated that high glucose enhanced the LPS-induced microglial activation via the TLR4/JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that high glucose, one of the key abnormalities characteristic of DM, can augment LPS-induced microglial activation and inflammatory cytokine levels through the TLR4/JAK2/STAT3 pathway, offering new insight into the pathophysiological relationship between DM and POCD.

  5. Association of serum uric acid with different levels of glucose and related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hui-juan; YANG Xu-guang; SHI Xiao-yang; TIAN Rui; ZHAO Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that serum uric acid (UA) is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in general populations. This study aimed to investigate specific characteristics of UA and its relationship between UA and blood glucose and other risk factors in the Chinese population.Methods A total of 946 subjects were included in this study. UA, glucose, insulin, fractional excretion of UA (FEua),creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine (FA), blood pressure and lipids were studied and also reexamined after the patients underwent two weeks of combined therapeutics.Results UA levels were the highest in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), followed by subjects with normoglycemia (NGT) and finally by subjects with T2DM. The level of the 2-hour postprandial insulin and the area under the curve for insulin (AUCins) showed a similar tendency. The UA levels initially increased with increasing fasting blood glucose (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) levels, up to 7 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L, respectively, and thereafter decreased at higher FBG and PPBG levels. Compared with subjects in the lower serum UA quartile, subjects in the upper quartile of serum UA levels had higher weights, triglyceride levels, and creatinine levels as well as lower Ccr and FEua levels. Compared with women's group, UA levels were higher, and FEua levels were lower in men's group. Sex,body mass index (BMI), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), serum triglycerides (TG), FA and Ccr were independent correlation factors of UA. UA decreased and FEua increased after the patients underwent a combined treatment.Conclusions UA increased initially and then decreased as glucose levels increased from NGT to IGR and T2DM.Compared with NGT and T2DM, IGR subjects had higher SUA levels, which related to its high levels of insulin. Under T2DM, male gender, BMI, MAP, Ccr, TG and FA are independent correlation factors of UA

  6. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior st

  7. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...

  8. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on high glucose-induced glomerular podocyte injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Zhao, Huichen; Qiang, Ye; Qian, Guanfang; Lu, Shengxia; Chen, Jicui; Wang, Xiangdong; Guan, Qingbo; Liu, Yuantao; Fu, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hydrogen sulfide on high glucose-induced mouse podocyte (MPC) injury and the underlying mechanisms. Mouse podocytes were randomly divided into 4 groups, including high glucose (HG), normal glucose (NG), normal glucose + DL-propargylglycine (PPG), and high glucose + NaHS (HG + NaHS) groups for treatment. Then, ZO-2, nephrin, β-catenin, and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) protein expression levels were determined by western blot. We found that high glucose significantly reduced nephrin, ZO-2, and CSE expression levels (P<0.05), and overtly elevated β-catenin amounts (P<0.05), in a time-dependent manner. Likewise, PPG at different concentrations in normal glucose resulted in significantly lower CSE, ZO-2, and nephrin levels (P<0.05), and increased β-catenin amounts (P<0.05). Interestingly, significantly increased ZO-2 and nephrin levels, and overtly reduced β-catenin amounts were observed in the HG + NaHS group compared with HG treated cells (P<0.01). Compared with NG treated cells, decreased ZO-2 and nephrin levels and higher β-catenin amounts were obtained in the HG + NaHS group. In conclusion,CSE downregulation contributes to hyperglycemia induced podocyte injury, which is alleviated by exogenous H2S possibly through ZO-2 upregulation and the subsequent suppression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  9. High Glucose Enhances Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by Regulating TRPC-Dependent Calcium Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ZhongJie; Ma, ChangQing; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, QingGuo; Xu, Rui; Zhang, HongFei; Lei, HongYi; Xu, ShiYuan

    2017-01-06

    Isoflurane is a commonly used inhalational anesthetic that can induce neurotoxicity via elevating cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)). High glucose regulates the expression of a family of non-selective cation channels termed transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels that may contribute to Ca(2+) influx. In the present study, we investigated whether high glucose enhances isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by regulating TRPC-dependent Ca(2+) influx. First, we evaluated toxic damage in mice primary cultured hippocampal neurons and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) after hyperglycemia and isoflurane exposure. Next, we investigated cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, TRPC mRNA expression levels and tested the effect of the TRPC channel blocker SKF96365 on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in cells treated with high glucose or/and isoflurane. Finally, we employed knocked down TRPC6 to demonstrate the role of TRPC in high glucose-mediated enhancement of isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that high glucose could enhance isoflurane-induecd toxic damage in primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. High glucose enhanced the isoflurane-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) in SH-SY5Y cells. High glucose elevated TRPC mRNA expression, especially that of TRPC6. SKF96365 and knock down of TRPC6 were able to inhibit the high glucose-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) and decrease isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells cultured with high glucose. Our findings indicate that high glucose could elevate TRPC expression, thus increasing Ca(2+) influx and enhancing isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

  10. The Effects of High Glucose on Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Gestational Tissue-Derived MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawan Hankamolsiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most type 2 diabetic patients are obese who have increased number of visceral adipocytes. Those visceral adipocytes release several factors that enhance insulin resistance making diabetic treatment ineffective. It is known that significant percentages of visceral adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and high glucose enhances adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs. However, the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow and gestational tissue-derived MSCs is still poorly characterized. This study aims to investigate the effects of high glucose on proliferation as well as adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs derived from bone marrow and several gestational tissues including chorion, placenta, and umbilical cord. We found that high glucose reduced proliferation but enhanced adipogenic differentiation of all MSCs examined. The expression levels of some adipogenic genes were also upregulated when MSCs were cultured in high glucose. Although high glucose transiently downregulated the expression levels of some osteogenic genes examined, its effect on the osteogenic differentiation levels of the MSCs is not clearly demonstrated. The knowledge gained from this study will increase our understanding about the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and might lead to an improvement in the diabetic treatment in the future.

  11. Combined effects of low-level laser therapy and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium on viability of human dermal fibroblasts cultured in a high-glucose medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendudari, Farzane; Piryaei, Abbas; Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh; Darbandi, Hasan; Bayat, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) exhibited biostimulatory effects on fibroblasts viability. Secretomes can be administered to culture mediums by using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (BM-MSCs CM). This study investigated the combined effects of LLLT and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (hBM-MSCs CM) on the cellular viability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), which was cultured in a high-glucose (HG) concentration medium. The HDFs were cultured either in a concentration of physiologic (normal) glucose (NG; 5.5 mM/l) or in HG media (15 mM/l) for 4 days. LLLT was performed with a continuous-wave helium-neon laser (632.8 nm, power density of 0.00185 W/cm(2) and energy densities of 0.5, 1, and 2 J/cm(2)). About 10% of hBM-MSCs CM was added to the HG HDF culture medium. The viability of HDFs was evaluated using dimethylthiazol-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A significantly higher cell viability was observed when laser of either 0.5 or 1 J/cm(2) was used to treat HG HDFs, compared to the control groups. The cellular viability of HG-treated HDFs was significantly lower compared to the LLLT + HG HDFs, hBM-MSCs CM-treated HG HDFs, and LLLT + hBM-MSCs CM-treated HG HDFs. In conclusion, hBM-MSCs CM or LLLT alone increased the survival of HG HDFs cells. However, the combination of hBM-MSCs CM and LLLT improved these results in comparison to the conditioned medium.

  12. Adult male northern elephant seals maintain high rates of glucose production during extended breeding fasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Daniel E; Wenzel, Brian K; Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S

    2017-04-18

    Many species undergo natural fasts as part of their life histories. Extended fasting is associated with increased β-oxidation of fatty acids and reduced oxidation of glucose to minimize commitment of body protein to gluconeogenesis. However, the metabolic strategies used to sustain extended fasts simultaneous with high rates of energy expenditure are not well understood. Studies in fasting adult female and weanling northern elephant seals (NES) have revealed high rates of endogenous glucose production (EGP) under constraints of high nutrient demand for lactation or development but relatively low rates of metabolism. These studies revealed low rates of glucose oxidation and high rates of glucose recycling through the Cori cycle. We measured rates of glucose flux in fasting adult male NES to assess how significantly longer fasting durations, higher metabolic rates, and greater rates of muscular activity affect glucose kinetics. We measured glucose turnover in 18 adult males using the clearance of [6-H(3)] glucose during breeding and molting. Adult male NES maintain high rates of EGP across extended fasts. EGP greatly exceeded estimated needs for glucose-dependent tissues, varied directly with plasma insulin and lactate concentrations, and was inversely related to plasma ketoacid concentrations. Together, these findings suggest that high rates of glucose production and recycling during breeding maintain high blood glucose levels to support glucose-dependent tissues while minimizing production of ketoacids and commitment of protein stores to glucose production.

  13. Effects of chronic caffeine administration on blood glucose levels and on glucose tolerance in healthy and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Z; Trujillo, X; Huerta, M; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Ríos-Silva, M; Onetti, C; Ortiz-Mesina, M; Sánchez-Pastor, E

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the effect of chronic caffeine use on risk reduction and prognosis of diabetes mellitus. In this 60-day study, five groups of 11 healthy male Wistar rats were selected to receive one of four doses (37.5, 56.2, 75.0 or 93.0 mg/kg per day) of caffeine orally or no caffeine (control). The effect of caffeine on glycaemia and glucose tolerance was evaluated. After 15 days, each group was treated with 60 mg/kg of streptozotocine to induce diabetes mellitus, and glycaemia and glucose tolerance were assessed for a further 45 days. In nondiabetic rats, caffeine had no effect on blood glucose. Compared with controls, the fasting blood glucose levels declined significantly in two caffeine-treated groups (93.0 mg/kg per day and 56.2 mg/kg per day) during the first 15 days following diabetes induction. Glucose tolerance was significantly improved 120 min after glucose loading in all caffeine-treated groups. The mean ± SE half-maximal effective concentration of caffeine was 35.79 ± 2.44 mg/dl. Blood glucose levels decreased, and glucose tolerance improved, in diabetic rats administered increasing doses of caffeine.

  14. Astroglial pentose phosphate pathway rates in response to high-glucose environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Suzuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ROS (reactive oxygen species play an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes enhances ROS production and causes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, but adverse effects of either acute or chronic high-glucose environments on brain parenchymal cells remain unclear. The PPP (pentose phosphate pathway and GSH participate in a major defence mechanism against ROS in brain, and we explored the role and regulation of the astroglial PPP in response to acute and chronic high-glucose environments. PPP activity was measured in cultured neurons and astroglia by determining the difference in rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose. ROS production, mainly H2O2, and GSH were also assessed. Acutely elevated glucose concentrations in the culture media increased PPP activity and GSH level in astroglia, decreasing ROS production. Chronically elevated glucose environments also induced PPP activation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that chronic high-glucose environments induced ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress (presumably through increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, which regulates G6PDH (glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by enhancing transcription, was also observed in association with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein expression. Acute and chronic high-glucose environments activated the PPP in astroglia, preventing ROS elevation. Therefore a rapid decrease in glucose level seems to enhance ROS toxicity, perhaps contributing to neural damage when insulin levels given to diabetic patients are not properly calibrated and plasma glucose levels are not adequately maintained. These findings may also explain the lack of evidence for clinical benefits from strict glycaemic control during the acute phase of stroke.

  15. Astroglial Pentose Phosphate Pathway Rates in Response to High-Glucose Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Takahashi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ROS (reactive oxygen species play an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes enhances ROS production and causes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, but adverse effects of either acute or chronic high-glucose environments on brain parenchymal cells remain unclear. The PPP (pentose phosphate pathway and GSH participate in a major defence mechanism against ROS in brain, and we explored the role and regulation of the astroglial PPP in response to acute and chronic high-glucose environments. PPP activity was measured in cultured neurons and astroglia by determining the difference in rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose. ROS production, mainly H2O2, and GSH were also assessed. Acutely elevated glucose concentrations in the culture media increased PPP activity and GSH level in astroglia, decreasing ROS production. Chronically elevated glucose environments also induced PPP activation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that chronic high-glucose environments induced ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress (presumably through increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, which regulates G6PDH (glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by enhancing transcription, was also observed in association with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein expression. Acute and chronic high-glucose environments activated the PPP in astroglia, preventing ROS elevation. Therefore a rapid decrease in glucose level seems to enhance ROS toxicity, perhaps contributing to neural damage when insulin levels given to diabetic patients are not properly calibrated and plasma glucose levels are not adequately maintained. These findings may also explain the lack of evidence for clinical benefits from strict glycaemic control during the acute phase of stroke.

  16. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and measures of glucose and lipid metabolism following pioglitazone treatment in a randomized placebo-controlled study in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Frystyk, J.; Hojlund, K.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that the effect of adiponectin on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism is mediated primarily by the high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin. In the present study we evaluated total and HMW adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients...

  17. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  18. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  19. Intermittent nutritional stimulus by short-term treatment of high-energy diet promotes ovarian performance together with increases in blood levels of glucose and insulin in cycling goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabuli, Jahid; Tanaka, Tomomi; Lu, Wengeng; Kamomae, Hideo

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if short-term intermittent treatments of high-energy diet have any stimulatory effects on ovarian function and metabolic status in goat. Cycling Shiba goats were divided into treatment (TG; n=6) and control (CG; n=6) groups. After the detection of ovulation (1st ovulation, Day 0) by ultrasonography, a high-energy diet (250% of maintenance) was fed to the TG from Day 12 to Day 15 (4 days) and from Day 18 to Day 21 (4 days). The high-energy diet comprised 1000 g hay-cubes and 300 g of concentrated feed/head/day (approximately 15 MJ of digestible energy/day). The CG was offered maintenance diet throughout the experiment. Transrectal ultrasound examinations were conducted every other day during the luteal phase and were conducted daily during the follicular phase. Blood samples were collected daily from Day -2 to 7 days after ovulation (2nd ovulation) following the nutritional treatment for analysis of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, oestradiol, glucose and insulin in plasma. Two wave-like rises in the concentrations of glucose and insulin appeared in response to the intermittent nutritional stimulus. Mean plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were significantly (Pintermittent nutritional stimulus from the luteal phase increased the total number of ovulatory follicles and the ovulation rate in association with increasing plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin in goats.

  20. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Morelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose effects in the human GnRH-secreting FNC-B4 cells. Gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR, confirmed that FNC-B4 cells express GnRH and several genes relevant for GnRH neuron function (KISS1R, KISS1, sex steroid and leptin receptors, FGFR1, neuropilin 2, and semaphorins, along with glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. High glucose exposure (22 mM; 40 mM significantly reduced gene and protein expression of GnRH, KISS1R, KISS1, and leptin receptor, as compared to normal glucose (5 mM. Consistent with previous studies, leptin treatment significantly induced GnRH mRNA expression at 5 mM glucose, but not in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a deleterious direct contribution of high glucose on human GnRH neurons, thus providing new insights into pathogenic mechanisms linking metabolic disorders to reproductive dysfunctions.

  1. Modification of cellulose for high glucose generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Gu, Jian; Tian, Xiuzhi; Li, Yali; Huang, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of introduction of cyanuric chloride on glucose's yield (Y) in acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) has been studied. The content of cyanuric chloride (C) in modified MCCs was determined by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy. The chemical structures of modified MCCs were analyzed by Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy and cross polarization/magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. Crystal index (CI) and the ratio (R) representing the sum of content of (1 ̅10) and (110) to that of (200) were calculated based on diffraction intensity in wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Hydrolysis experiment and WAXD show that Y, CI and R vary with C. The modified MCC containing 3.9 mol% of cyanuric chloride has the highest Y, the highest R and the lowest CI. Variations of CI and R show that the chemical modification changed the proportion of crystal/amorphous and crystal planes, both of which influence glucose's generation in hydrolysis of cellulose.

  2. Effects of adiponectin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in human cardiac myocytes cultured with high glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing; LI Mei-rong; GUO Zhi-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients.Oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy.This study aimed to investigate the effects of adiponectin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in human cardiac myocytes (HCM) cultured with high glucose.Methods The cells were assigned to three group: control group,high glucose group and high glucose plus adiponectin group.After culture for 24,48,72 hours,oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the supernatant of culture media.The expression of p66Shc and Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Flow cytometry was designed to observe and detect cellular apoptosis.Results Our findings showed significant increase in MDA levels and decrease in SOD activity in the high glucose group compared with the control group (P <0.05).However,MDA levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity was significantly increased in the adiponectin group compared with those in the high-glucose group (P <0.05).The mRNA expression of HO-1 in the high glucose group was significantly increased in a time-dependent manner compared with that in the control group (P <0.05).Adiponectin further increased the mRNA expression of HO-1 induced by high glucose in a time-dependent manner (P <0.05).The expression of p66Shc was significantly increased in high glucose group compared with that in the control group (P <0.05).Adiponectin significantly suppressed the upregulation of p66Shc induced by high glucose (P <0.05).The apoptotic rate of cardiomyocytes was significantly increased in the high glucose group compared with that in the control group while the apoptotic rate in the adiponectin group was remarkably declined in comparison with that in the high glucose group.Conclusion Adiponectin reduces high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and plays a

  3. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  4. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Kobori, Nilce Naomi; Behle, Robert W; Dunlap, Christopher A; Delalibera Júnior, Ítalo

    2015-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is an economically important pathogen of numerous arthropod pests and is able to grow in submerged culture as filaments (mycelia) or as budding yeast-like blastospores. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen and high glucose concentrations on blastospore production by submerged cultures of two isolates of B. bassiana, ESALQ1432 and GHA. Results showed that maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels coupled with high glucose concentrations enhanced blastospore yields by both isolates. High glucose concentrations increased the osmotic pressure of the media and coincided with higher dissolved oxygen levels and increased production of significantly smaller blastospores compared with blastospores produced in media with lower concentrations of glucose. The desiccation tolerance of blastospores dried to less than 2.6 % moisture was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium but was isolate dependent. Blastospores of isolate ESALQ1432 produced in media containing 140 g glucose L(-1) showed greater virulence toward whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) as compared with blastospores produced in media containing 40 g glucose L(-1). These results suggest a synergistic effect between glucose concentration and oxygen availability on changing morphology and enhancing the yield and efficacy of blastospores of B. bassiana, thereby facilitating the development of a cost-effective production method for this blastospore-based bioinsecticide.

  5. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  6. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  7. Leukocyte telomere length is inversely associated with post-load but not with fasting plasma glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalangot, Mykola; Krasnienkov, Dmytro; Vaiserman, Alexander; Avilov, Ivan; Kovtun, Volodymir; Okhrimenko, Nadia; Koliada, Alexander; Kravchenko, Victor

    2017-04-01

    .04-2.22), P = 0.03. After the adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, these phenomena remain significant. We conclude that 2-h post-load plasma glucose but not fasting plasma glucose is inversely associated with leukocyte telomere length. Impact statement • Contradictory epidemiologic data have been obtained about the link between the leucocyte telomere length (LTL) and diabetes. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is likely to be pathophysiologically heterogeneous, but comparison of the association of LTL separately with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG) levels has not been done before. Thus, the study of LTL changes associated with different types of hyperglycaemia, that largely determine the heterogenity of T2D is important. • In a population-based study of rural Ukrainians, we were the first to demonstrate that the increase of 2hPG (but not FPG) level increases the chances of revealing short telomeres. • The obtained data can help to clarify the relationship between the LTL shortening and different conditions of the insulin resistance (mainly liver resistance in high FPG and mostly muscle and adipose tissue resistance in high 2hPG).

  8. High glucose augments stress-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenwen Zhong; Yang Liu; Hui Tian

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia has been identified as one of the important factors involved in the microvascular complications of diabetes, and has been related to increased cardiovascular mortality. Endothelial damage and dysfunction result from diabetes; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the response of endothelial cells to stressful stimuli, modelled in normal and high glucose concentrations in vitro. Eahy 926 endothelial cells were cultured in 5 mmol/L or 30 mmol/L glucose conditions for a 24 hour period and oxidative stress was induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ), following which the protective effect of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone was assessed. Apoptosis, necrosis and cell viability were determined using an ELISA for DNA fragmentation, an enzymatic lactate dehydrogenase assay and an MTT assay, respectively. High glucose significantly increased the susceptibility of Eahy 926 cells to apoptosis in the presence of 500 μmol/L H2O2, above that induced in normal glucose (P<0.02). A reduction of H2O2- and TNF- α -induced apoptosis occurred in both high and low glucose after treatment with dexametha-sone (P<0.05). Conclusion high glucose is effective in significantly augmenting stress caused by H2O2, but not in causing stress alone. These findings suggest a mechanism by which short term hyperglycemia may facilitate and augment endothelial damage.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of adaptation to high glucose concentrations in Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; He, Ming-Xiong; Wu, Bo; Feng, Hong

    2015-02-01

    The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is usually tolerant to high concentrations of glucose. The addition of sorbitol decreases the lag phase and increases ethanol yield and productivity of the bacteria in high glucose concentrations. The molecular mechanisms of adaptation to high glucose concentrations and the effect of sorbitol are still unclear. In this study, microarray analysis was used to study the global transcriptional adaptation responses of Z. mobilis to high glucose concentrations. A total of 235 genes were differentially expressed when 220 g/L glucose was added with or without 10 mM sorbitol. These genes are involved in diverse aspects of cell metabolism and regulation, including membrane transporters, nitrogen metabolism, and plasmid-encoded genes. However, most differentially expressed genes were downregulated when sorbitol was added. Notably, the transcription of almost all genes involved in the Entner-Doudoroff and ethanol production pathways was not significantly affected. In addition, a prophage and a nitrogen-fixation cluster were significantly induced. These results revealed that Z. mobilis cells responded to high glucose concentrations by regulating the transcriptional levels of genes related to membrane channels and transporters, stress response mechanisms, and metabolic pathways. These data provide insight into the intracellular adaptation responses to high glucose concentrations and reveal strategies to engineer efficient ethanol fermentation in Z. mobilis.

  10. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GLUCOMETER AND LABORATORY GLUCOSE OXIDASE METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Hypoglycemia is one of the most common metabolic problems encountered in neonates. Hypoglycemia in neonates can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Hypoglycemia is known to be associated with brain dysfunction and neuromotor developmental retardation. The gl ucose oxidase method used in the laboratory for determining the blood glucose concentration is precise and specific for glucose. As it is usually performed in the main laboratory, the results are not available quickly enough for timely appropriate manageme nt. The glucometers are often used for blood glucose estimation in NICU. Many studies have shown that their results co - relate well with the laboratory measured glucose levels in the normoglycemic and hyperglycemic range but are not satisfactory in the lowe r range. OBJECTIVES: This is a prospective study done to determine the efficacy of glucometer in estimation of blood glucose levels in neonates in comparison with the laboratory values. METHOD S : 250 neonates admitted in NICU, KIMS hospital, Bangalore with varied symptomatology were enrolled in this study. Blood glucose estimation was done by glucometer and laboratory method using the same venous sample at the time of admission. For the last 50 cases glucometer estimation of capillary blood was also done. St atistical analysis was done by using Pearson correlation. Hypoglycemia was defined as blood glucose level 45mg%[0.756] and when the value is <45mg%, there is just a moderate correlation[0.417] . Though the pick - up rate of hypoglycemia by venous blood glucometer [28%] was slightly better compared to the capillary blood glucometer value [22%] , the overa ll pick - up rate of hypoglycemia by glucometer is very low compared to the laboratory method [56%]. CONCLUSION : The glucometer as a sole measuring device to screen neonatal hypoglycemia is not satisfactory and confirmation with the laboratory measurements o f plasma glucose is still of up most importance.

  12. Trace glucose and lipid metabolism in high androgen and high-fat diet induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Hua-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different metabolic pathways in the development of diabetes mellitus in high-androgen female mice fed with a high-fat diet. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group(C, n = 10; the andronate-treated group (Andronate, n = 10 (treated with andronate, 1 mg/100 g body weight/day for 8 weeks; and the andronate-treated and high-fat diet group (Andronate+HFD, n = 10. The rate of glucose appearance (Ra of glucose, gluconeogenesis (GNG, and the rate of glycerol appearance (Ra of glycerol were assessed with a stable isotope tracer. The serum sex hormone levels, insulin levels, glucose concentration, and the lipid profile were also measured. Results Compared with control group, both andronate-treated groups exhibited obesity with higher insulin concentrations (P P Conclusions Andronate with HFD rat model showed ovarian and metabolic features of PCOS, significant increase in glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid profiles, as well as normal blood glucose levels. Therefore, aberrant IR, increased glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid metabolism may represent the early-stage of glucose and lipid kinetics disorder, thereby might be used as potential early-stage treatment targets for PCOS.

  13. [Correlation between resting heart rate and blood glucose level in elderly patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong-Liang; Li, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Lin; Xu, Hao; Tuo, Xi-Ping; Jian, Zai-Jin; Wang, Xiao-Na; Yun, Ji-Li; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Si-Yue

    2016-05-01

    To explore the correlation between resting heart rate (RHR) and blood glucose level in elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated by diabetes mellitus. Between April and July, 2011, a total of 1336 outpatients over 60 years of age recruited from 165 hospitals were asked to complete a questionnaire and received blood glucose and RHR examination. According to baseline RHR, the patients were divided into 3 groups with HRH blood glucose control rate. HbA1c levels in the total, male and female patients differed significantly among the 3 groups (F=15.436, 15.436, and 24.270, respectively, PBlood glucose control rate in the total, male and female patients also differed significantly among the 3 groups (χ(2)=13.471, 6.752, and 6.522, respectively, Pblood glucose control failure of 1.99 (95% CI: 1.23-2.37, Pblood glucose level, and an increased RHR is associated with an increased risk of poor blood glucose control. Rigorous RHR control in such high-risk patients may prove beneficial for both blood glucose control and secondary prevention of CHD.

  14. Effects of Cumin(Cuminum Cyminum L Oil on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mohiti Ardekani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases in the world. It affects 6.6% of world population and about 3 million individuals in Iran. Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum L is a plant used in traditional Iranian medicine to cure obesity, and some recent studies have suggested that Cumin could have a role in diabetes treatment and reduction of lipid levels. In this study, we investigated the Cumin oil effects on serum glucose and lipid levels of rats. Methods: We divided 24 male rats of Wistar race into 6 hexadic groups; the control group with normal regimen(group a, the Cumin oil group with normal regimen(group b, the control group with high fat regimen(group c, the Cumin oil group with high fat regimen(group d. The consumed dosages of Cumin oil were 400 µg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively which was administered by Gavages (tube feeding. Samples from the hungry rats were taken during three various periods including the first day of the study, 20th day (the beginning of the medicine usage and 55 th day (the end of the medicine usage in order to measure their serum glucose and lipid levels. Results: The results of this study showed a significant decrease in glucose(p=0.007, cholesterol(p=0.001, triglyceride(p=0.002, LDL (p=0.004 levels and a significant increase in serum HDL levels(p=0.05. Conclusion: Cumin oil administered via Gavages can significantly affect the serum glucose and lipid levels.

  15. Decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with Chuvash polycythemia: a role for HIF in glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Donald A.; Abuelgasim, Khadega A; Nouraie, Mehdi; Salomon-Andonie, Juan; Niu, Xiaomei; Miasnikova, Galina; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Sergueeva, Adelina; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Okhotin, David; Cox, James E.; Swierczek, Sabina; Song, Jihyun; Simon, M. Celeste

    2012-01-01

    In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glyco...

  16. Temporal metabolomic responses of cultured HepG2 liver cells to high fructose and high glucose exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissen, John K.; Hirahatake, Kristin M.; Adams, Sean H.; Fiehn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    High fructose consumption has been implicated with deleterious effects on human health, including hyperlipidemia elicited through de novo lipogenesis. However, more global effects of fructose on cellular metabolism have not been elucidated. In order to explore the metabolic impact of fructose-containing nutrients, we applied both GC-TOF and HILIC-QTOF mass spectrometry metabolomic strategies using extracts from cultured HepG2 cells exposed to fructose, glucose, or fructose + glucose. Cellular responses were analyzed in a time-dependent manner, incubated in media containing 5.5 mM glucose + 5.0 mM fructose in comparison to controls incubated in media containing either 5.5 mM glucose or 10.5 mM glucose. Mass spectrometry identified 156 unique known metabolites and a large number of unknown compounds, which revealed metabolite changes due to both utilization of fructose and high-carbohydrate loads independent of hexose structure. Fructose was shown to be partially converted to sorbitol, and generated higher levels of fructose-1-phosphate as a precursor for glycolytic intermediates. Differentially regulated ratios of 3-phosphoglycerate to serine pathway intermediates in high fructose media indicated a diversion of carbon backbones away from energy metabolism. Additionally, high fructose conditions changed levels of complex lipids toward phosphatidylethanolamines. Patterns of acylcarnitines in response to high hexose exposure (10.5 mM glucose or glucose/fructose combination) suggested a reduction in mitochondrial beta-oxidation. PMID:26190955

  17. High glucose-mediated oxidative stress impairs cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L Lamers

    Full Text Available Deficient wound healing in diabetic patients is very frequent, but the cellular and molecular causes are poorly defined. In this study, we evaluate the hypothesis that high glucose concentrations inhibit cell migration. Using CHO.K1 cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and primary skin fibroblasts from control and diabetic rats cultured in 5 mM D-glucose (low glucose, LG, 25 mM D-glucose (high glucose, HG or 25 mM L-glucose medium (osmotic control--OC, we analyzed the migration speed, protrusion stability, cell polarity, adhesion maturation and the activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1. We also analyzed the effects of reactive oxygen species by incubating cells with the antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC. We observed that HG conditions inhibited cell migration when compared to LG or OC. This inhibition resulted from impaired cell polarity, protrusion destabilization and inhibition of adhesion maturation. Conversely, Rac1 activity, which promotes protrusion and blocks adhesion maturation, was increased in HG conditions, thus providing a mechanistic basis for the HG phenotype. Most of the HG effects were partially or completely rescued by treatment with NAC. These findings demonstrate that HG impairs cell migration due to an increase in oxidative stress that causes polarity loss, deficient adhesion and protrusion. These alterations arise, in large part, from increased Rac1 activity and may contribute to the poor wound healing observed in diabetic patients.

  18. Changes and significance of SIRT3 expression in cellular senescence induced by high glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin ZHANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of the silent information regulator 3(SIRT3 in the decrepitude process of human diploid fibroblasts(WI-38 induced by high glucose.Methods The WI-38 cells [population doublings(PDs,20-32] were cultured in media containing different concentrations of glucose as follows: low glucose(3.34mmol/L,LG,normal glucose(5.56mmol/L,NG,and high glucose(25mmol/L,HG.The protein expression levels of p21,p27,catalase,MnSOD,and SIRT3 were evaluated through Western blot.The double-label immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the location and expression of SIRT3,MnSOD,and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci(SAHF in the WI-38 cells.The ROS level was determined with fluorescent probe.Results The results from the Western blot showed that the protein expression of SIRT3,catalase,and MnSOD decreased significantly in the HG group compared with the LG and NG groups(P 0.05.SIRT3 and MnSOD were highly expressed in the cytoplasm.The ROS levels in the HG group were elevated compared with those in the LG and NG groups.Conclusion SIRT3 may play an important role in cellular senescence induced by high glucose in human diploid fibroblasts.

  19. ASSOCIATION OF VITAMIN D LEVEL WITH FASTING PLASMA GLUCOSE IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Latha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has increased in India. Recently there have been plenty of research studies pointing to the essentiality of vitamin D beyond bone health. Type 2 diabetes is also found to be more prevalent in individuals with hypovita minosis D. AIM: To evaluate the levels of vitamin D in type 2 diabetic patients and age matched healthy controls in South Indian population and also to correlate vitamin D level with fasting plasma glucose level and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patient s. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross - sectional study include d 51 type2 diabetic patients and 51 healthy controls. Estimation of Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile was done in Beckmann - Coulter auto analyzer using standard kits. Vitamin D was estimated by Chemiluminescent Immuno Assay (C.L.I.A. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21 software. RESULTS: The vitamin D level was significantly lower in the diabetic patients. The fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low densi ty lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins were increased in patients with vitamin D deficiency (i.e. vitamin D < 20 ng/ml but the increase was statistically significant only in fasting blood glucose and triglycerides(p<0.01. The level of high den sity lipoproteins was statistically significantly lower in the vitamin D deficient group (p<0.01. By Pearson’s correlation vitamin D was found to be negatively correlated significantly (p value < 0.01 with fasting blood sugar and triglycerides and was fo und to be positively correlated significantly (p value <0.01 with HDL. CONCLUSION: There is high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in type 2 diabetic patients. These individuals have also been proved to have atherogenic dyslipidemia that may lead to vasc ular complications. Whether supplementing diabetic patients with vitamin D helps in reducing further complications is yet to be proved by interventional studies.

  20. Retinal proteins associated with redox regulation and protein folding play central roles in response to high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ssu-Han; Lee, Wen-Chi; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy typically causes poor vision and blindness. A previous study revealed that a high blood glucose concentration induces glycoxidation and weakens the retinal capillaries. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of high blood glucose induced diabetic retinopathy remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we cultured the retinal pigmented epithelial cell line ARPE-19 in mannitol-balanced 5.5, 25, and 100 mM glucose media and investigated protein level alterations. Proteomic analysis revealed significant changes in 137 protein features, of which 124 demonstrated changes in a glucose concentration dependent manner. Several proteins functionally associated with redox regulation, protein folding, or the cytoskeleton are affected by increased glucose concentrations. Additional analyses also revealed that cellular oxidative stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, was significantly increased after treatment with high glucose concentrations. However, the mitochondrial membrane potential and cell survival remained unchanged during treatment with high glucose concentrations. To summarize, in this study, we used a comprehensive retinal pigmented epithelial cell based proteomic approach for identifying changes in protein expression associated retinal markers induced by high glucose concentrations. Our results revealed that a high glucose condition can induce cellular oxidative stress and modulate the levels of proteins with functions in redox regulation, protein folding, and cytoskeleton regulation; however, cell viability and mitochondrial integrity are not significantly disturbed under these high glucose conditions.

  1. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  2. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  3. Protective effects of marein on high glucose-induced glucose metabolic disorder in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoping; Le, Liang; Zhai, Wei; Wan, Wenting; Hu, Keping; Yong, Peng; He, Chunnian; Xu, Lijia; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-08-15

    Our previous study has shown that Coreopsis tinctoria increases insulin sensitivity and regulates hepatic metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance rats. However, it is unclear whether or not marein, a major compound of C. tinctoria, could improve insulin resistance. Here we investigate the effect and mechanism of action of marein on improving insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. We investigated the protective effects of marein in high glucose-induced human liver carcinoma cell HepG2. In kinase inhibitor studies, genistein, LY294002, STO-609 and compound C were added to HepG2 cells 1h before the addition of marein. Transfection with siRNA was used to knock down LKB1, and 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), an effective tracer, was used to detect glucose uptake. The results showed for the first time that marein significantly stimulates the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the Akt substrate of 160kDa (AS160) and enhanced the translocation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) to the plasma membrane. Further study indicated that genistein (an insulin receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) altered the effect of marein on glucose uptake, and both LY294002 (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) and compound C (an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor) significantly decreased marein-stimulated 2-NBDG uptake. Additionally, marein-stimulated glucose uptake was blocked in the presence of STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor; however, marein-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation was not blocked by LKB1 siRNA in HepG2 cells. Marein also inhibited the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) at Ser 612, but inhibited GSK-3β phosphorylation and increased glycogen synthesis. Moreover, marein significantly decreased the expression levels of FoxO1, G6Pase and PEPCK. Consequently, marein improved insulin resistance induced by high glucose in HepG2 cells through CaMKK/AMPK/GLUT1 to promote glucose uptake

  4. High glucose, glucose fluctuation and carbonyl stress enhance brain microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction: Implications for diabetic cerebral microvasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that in normal glucose (5 mM, methylglyoxal (MG, a model of carbonyl stress induced brain microvascular endothelial cell (IHEC dysfunction that was associated with occludin glycation and prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC. Herein, we investigated the impact of high glucose and low GSH, conditions that mimicked the diabetic state, on MG-induced IHEC dysfunction. MG-induced loss of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER was potentiated in IHECs cultured for 7 or 12 days in 25 mM glucose (hyperglycemia; moreover, barrier function remained disrupted 6 h after cell transfer to normal glucose media (acute glycemic fluctuation. Notably, basal occludin glycation was elevated under these glycemic states. TEER loss was exaggerated by inhibition of glutathione (GSH synthesis and abrogated by NAC, which corresponded to GSH decreases and increases, respectively. Significantly, glyoxalase II activity was attenuated in hyperglycemic cells. Moreover, hyperglycemia and GSH inhibition increased MG accumulation, consistent with a compromised capacity for MG elimination. α-Oxoaldehydes (MG plus glyoxal levels were elevated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat plasma. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prevalence of MG-positive, but fewer occludin-positive microvessels in the diabetic brain in vivo, and Western analysis confirmed an increase in MG–occludin adducts. These results provide the first evidence that hyperglycemia and acute glucose fluctuation promote MG–occludin formation and exacerbate brain microvascular endothelial dysfunction. Low occludin expression and high glycated-occludin contents in diabetic brain in vivo are factors that would contribute to the dysfunction of the cerebral microvasculature during diabetes.

  5. Insulin Resistance and Glucose Levels in Subjects with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sikandar Hayat; Fazal, Nadeem; Ijaz, Aamir; Manzoor, Syed Mohsin; Asif, Naveed; Rafi, Tariq; Yasir, Muhammad; Niazi, Najmusaquib Khan

    2017-06-01

    To compare insulin resistance and glycemic indicators among subjects with euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Comparative cross-sectional study. Department of Pathology and Medicine, PNS Hafeez, Islamabad, in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from December 2015 to September 2016. Subjects referred for executive screening of apparently healthy population (without any known history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or other chronic ailments), were included. Subjects were grouped as euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Median (IQR) insulin resistance indices including fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance in subjects with group-1 (n=176, 87%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 0.5 - 3.5 mIU/L) and group-2 (n=26, 13%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 3.51 - 15 mIU/L) were 7.6 (6.70) vs. 11.4 (13.72, p=0.040) and 1.77 (1.79) vs. 2.8 (3.07, p=0.071). The median differences for fasting plasma glucose were 5.0 (1.0) in group-1 vs. 5.0 (1.47) for Group-2 [p=0.618], and glycated hemoglobin was 5.60 (1.1) vs. 5.60 (1.7, p=0.824). Homeostasis Model Assessment for beta sensitivity index in paradox showed slightly higher values for group-2 [median (IQR) 86.67 (92.94)] than group-1 [111.6 (189.64, p= 0.040)]. Measures of insulin resistance including Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance and fasting insulin levels were significantly different between subjects with euthyroidism and having subclinical hypothyroidism.

  6. Frequency of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by a FINDRISC survey in Puebla City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirales-Tamez O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hector García-Alcalá, Christelle Nathalie Genestier-Tamborero, Omara Hirales-Tamez, Jorge Salinas-Palma, Elena Soto-VegaFaculty of Medicine, Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla Pue, MexicoBackground: As a first step in the prevention of diabetes, the International Diabetes Federation recommends identification of persons at risk using the Finnish type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment (FINDRISC survey. The frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in high-risk groups identified by FINDRISC is unknown in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance in higher-risk groups using a FINDRISC survey in an urban population.Methods: We used a television program to invite interested adults to fill out a survey at a television station. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all persons with a FINDRISC score ≥ 15 points (high-risk and very high-risk groups. Patients were classified as normal (fasting glucose < 100 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL, or having impaired fasting glucose (fasting glucose 100–125 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose < 140 mg/dL, glucose intolerance (fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL and 2-hour glucose 140–199 mg/dL, and diabetes mellitus (fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hour glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. We describe the frequency of each diagnostic category in this selected population according to gender and age.Results: A total of 186 patients had a score ≥ 15. The frequencies of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and normal glucose levels were 28.6%, 25.9%, 29.2%, and 16.2%, respectively. We found a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in men than in women (33% versus 27% and 40% versus 21%, respectively and more glucose intolerance in women than in men (34% versus 16%, P < 0.05. Patients with diabetes mellitus (52.55 ± 9

  7. High glucose alters retinal astrocytes phenotype through increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are macroglial cells that have a crucial role in development of the retinal vasculature and maintenance of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB. Diabetes affects the physiology and function of retinal vascular cells including astrocytes (AC leading to breakdown of BRB. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to retinal AC dysfunction under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Here we show that high glucose conditions did not induce the apoptosis of retinal AC, but instead increased their rate of DNA synthesis and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. These alterations were associated with changes in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration and proliferation. High glucose conditions also affected the expression of inflammatory cytokines in retinal AC, activated NF-κB, and prevented their network formation on Matrigel. In addition, we showed that the attenuation of retinal AC migration under high glucose conditions, and capillary morphogenesis of retinal endothelial cells on Matrigel, was mediated through increased oxidative stress. Antioxidant proteins including heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 levels were also increased in retinal AC under high glucose conditions through nuclear localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2. Together our results demonstrated that high glucose conditions alter the function of retinal AC by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress with significant impact on their proliferation, adhesion, and migration.

  8. A quantitative proteomic analysis of cellular responses to high glucose media in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenke; Dai, Shujia; Bones, Jonathan; Ray, Somak; Cha, Sangwon; Karger, Barry L; Li, Jingyi Jessica; Wilson, Lee; Hinckle, Greg; Rossomando, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A goal in recombinant protein production using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is to achieve both high specific productivity and high cell density. Addition of glucose to the culture media is necessary to maintain both cell growth and viability. We varied the glucose concentration in the media from 5 to 16 g/L and found that although specific productivity of CHO-DG44 cells increased with the glucose level, the integrated viable cell density decreased. To examine the biological basis of these results, we conducted a discovery proteomic study of CHO-DG44 cells grown under batch conditions in normal (5 g/L) or high (15 g/L) glucose over 3, 6, and 9 days. Approximately 5,000 proteins were confidently identified against an mRNA-based CHO-DG44 specific proteome database, with 2,800 proteins quantified with at least two peptides. A self-organizing map algorithm was used to deconvolute temporal expression profiles of quantitated proteins. Functional analysis of altered proteins suggested that differences in growth between the two glucose levels resulted from changes in crosstalk between glucose metabolism, recombinant protein expression, and cell death, providing an overall picture of the responses to high glucose environment. The high glucose environment may enhance recombinant dihydrofolate reductase in CHO cells by up-regulating NCK1 and down-regulating PRKRA, and may lower integrated viable cell density by activating mitochondrial- and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated cell death pathways by up-regulating HtrA2 and calpains. These proteins are suggested as potential targets for bioengineering to enhance recombinant protein production.

  9. High pressure HC1 conversion of cellulose to glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonoplis, Robert Alexander; Blanch, Harvey W.; Wilke, Charles R.

    1981-08-01

    The production of ethanol from glucose by means of fermentation represents a potential long-range alternative to oil for use as a transportation fuel. Today's rising oil prices and the dwindling world supply of oil have made other fuels, such as ethanol, attractive alternatives. It has been shown that automobiles can operate, with minor alterations, on a 10% ethanol-gasoline mixture popularly known as gasohol. Wood has long been known as a potential source of glucose. Glucose may be obtained from wood following acid hydrolysis. In this research, it was found that saturating wood particles with HCl gas under pressure was an effective pretreatment before subjecting the wood to dilute acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment is necessary because of the tight lattice structure of cellulose, which inhibits dilute acid hydrolysis. HCl gas makes the cellulose more susceptible to hydrolysis and the glucose yield is doubled when dilute acid hydrolysis is preceded by HCl saturation at high pressure. The saturation was most effectively performed in a fluidized bed reactor, with pure HCl gas fluidizing equal volumes of ground wood and inert particles. The fluidized bed effectively dissipated the large amount of heat released upon HCl absorption into the wood. Batch reaction times of one hour at 314.7 p.s.i.a. gave glucose yields of 80% and xylose yields of 95% after dilute acid hydrolysis. A non-catalytic gas-solid reaction model, with gas diffusing through the solid limiting the reaction rate, was found to describe the HCl-wood reaction in the fluidized bed. HCl was found to form a stable adduct with the lignin residue in the wood, in a ratio of 3.33 moles per mole of lignin monomer. This resulted in a loss of 0.1453 lb. of HCl per pound of wood. The adduct was broken upon the addition of water. A process design and economic evaluation for a plant to produce 214 tons per day of glucose from air-dried ground Populus tristi gave an estimated glucose cost of 15.14 cents per pound

  10. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  11. High glucose repatterns human podocyte energy metabolism during differentiation and diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasawa, Toshiyuki; Obre, Emilie; Bellance, Nadège; Lavie, Julie; Imasawa, Tomoko; Rigothier, Claire; Delmas, Yahsou; Combe, Christian; Lacombe, Didier; Benard, Giovanni; Claverol, Stéphane; Bonneu, Marc; Rossignol, Rodrigue

    2017-01-01

    Podocytes play a key role in diabetic nephropathy pathogenesis, but alteration of their metabolism remains unknown in human kidney. By using a conditionally differentiating human podocyte cell line, we addressed the functional and molecular changes in podocyte energetics during in vitro development or under high glucose conditions. In 5 mM glucose medium, we observed a stepwise activation of oxidative metabolism during cell differentiation that was characterized by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)–dependent stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, with concomitant reduction of the glycolytic enzyme content. Conversely, when podocytes were cultured in high glucose (20 mM), stepwise oxidative phosphorylation biogenesis was aborted, and a glycolytic switch occurred, with consecutive lactic acidosis. Expression of the master regulators of oxidative metabolism transcription factor A mitochondrial, PGC-1α, AMPK, and serine–threonine liver kinase B1 was altered by high glucose, as well as their downstream signaling networks. Focused transcriptomics revealed that myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) expression was inhibited by high glucose levels, and endoribonuclease-prepared small interfering RNA–mediated combined inhibition of those transcription factors phenocopied the glycolytic shift that was observed in high glucose conditions. Accordingly, a reduced expression of MEF2C, MYF5, and PGC-1α was found in kidney tissue sections that were obtained from patients with diabetic nephropathy. These findings obtained in human samples demonstrate that MEF2C-MYF5–dependent bioenergetic dedifferentiation occurs in podocytes that are confronted with a high-glucose milieu.—Imasawa, T., Obre, E., Bellance, N., Lavie, J., Imasawa, T., Rigothier, C., Delmas, Y., Combe, C., Lacombe, D., Benard, G., Claverol, S., Bonneu, M., Rossignol, R. High glucose repatterns human podocyte energy

  12. False elevation of blood glucose levels measured by GDH-PQQ-based glucometers occurs during all daily dwells in peritoneal dialysis patients using icodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chiu-Yeh; Lee, Su-Chu; Hung, Chi-Chih; Lee, Jia-Jung; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-01-01

    False elevation of blood glucose levels measured by glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinoline quinone (GDH-PQQ)-based glucose self-monitoring systems; glucometer) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using icodextrin solution has been well documented. However, adverse hypoglycemic events caused by misreadings for blood glucose are still being reported. We aimed to study blood glucose levels measured simultaneously using different methods in PD patients with switching of icodextrin, and throughout daily exchanges either using icodextrin or not. We recruited 100 PD patients, including 40 using icodextrin; 128 hemodialysis patients served as a reference. Fasting serum glucose was measured using our laboratory reference method (LAB) and 2 glucose self-monitoring systems based on glucose dehydrogenase nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (GDH-NAD) and GDH-PQQ respectively. 80 PD patients had a second follow-up study. A time course study was performed in 16 PD patients through measuring fingertip glucose using the 2 glucose self-monitoring systems during daily exchanges. The differences in measured serum glucose levels in (PQQ minus LAB) versus (NAD minus LAB) were markedly increased in PD patients using icodextrin compared to other patient groups, and was further confirmed by the follow-up study in patients that switched to icodextrin. The high serum glucose levels measured by the GDH-PQQ-based glucose self-monitoring system were present throughout all exchanges during the day in patients using icodextrin solution. False elevation of blood glucose measured by GDH-PQQ-based glucose self-monitoring systems exists in patients using icodextrin. To avoid misinterpretation of hyperglycemia and subsequent over-injection of insulin, GDH-PQQ-based glucose self-monitoring systems should not be used in PD patients.

  13. Marked hyperleptinemia after high-fat diet associated with severe glucose intolerance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahren, B.; Scheurink, A.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    We asked whether the likelihood for mice of the C57BL/6J strain to develop glucose intolerance when fed a high-fat diet is related to the increase in circulating levels of leptin or free fatty acids (FFA). We therefore administered a high-fat diet (58% fat) or a control diet (11% fat) for 1.5 years.

  14. The efficacy of karkadeh tea in controlling post-prandial blood glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Cooper, Ross Gordon; Suliman, Moustafa Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Increasing interest from the general public to use herbal remedies, exposes a considerable need to document ancient medical practices, as well as to investigate the efficacy of "ancient" compounds currently reputed to have medicinal benefits for such diseases as diabetes and ob...... of slowing the rate of rise in blood glucose following consumption of a high glycemic index food, but that ultimately it induces a greater degreee of glucose absorption cf. other types of imbibed fluids.......Problem Statement: Increasing interest from the general public to use herbal remedies, exposes a considerable need to document ancient medical practices, as well as to investigate the efficacy of "ancient" compounds currently reputed to have medicinal benefits for such diseases as diabetes......, a slower rise to maximum levels and a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC) in terms of blood glucose was noted for the karkadeh tea plus a high glycemic index food cf. that of water imbibition with an identical high glycemic food. Conclusions/Recommendations: Karkadeh tea appears to have an efffect in terms...

  15. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  16. Serum vaspin level in relation to postprandial plasma glucose concentration in subjects with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yin; HOU Xu-hong; PAN Xiao-ping; LU Jun-xi; JIA Wei-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Vaspin is a newly-identified adipocytokine related to obesity and insulin sensitivity.However,its pathophysiologic role in humans remains largely unknown.The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between serum vaspin level and glucose metabolism or obesity in Chinese adults.Methods A total of 123 subjects,including 84 subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)and 39 subjects with diabetes,were enrolled in this study.Anthropometric parameters,abdominal fat areas,plasma glucose concentration,serum insulin,lipids,and vaspin level were measured in each participant.Results Serum vaspin concentration was significantly higher in diabetic patients than that in NGT subjects(592 (438-695)pg/ml vs 380(294-517)pg/ml,P=0.020)in women.In all participants,age,fasting plasma glucose concentration(FPG),2-hour post-load plasma glucose(PG2h),hemoglobin Alc(HbAlc)and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c)significantly increased from the lower tertile to the higher tertile of vaspin.Univariate linear regression analyses revealed that vaspin level was only positively correlated with age(β=0.340,P=0.002)in NGT subjects.And vaspin was positively associated with FPG(β=0.365,P=0.023),PG2h(β=0.526,P=0.001),HbA1c(13=0.388,P=0.016),and HDL-c(β=0.353,P=0.027),while negatively with homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function(HOMA-β)(β=-0.361,P=0.024)in diabetic patients.In stepwise multivariate regression analyses,age was independently associated with circulating vaspin in NGT subjects,whereas PG2h was an independent predictor of vaspin in diabetic patients.In addition,there was no significant difference of serum vaspin level between men and women.And no significant correlations between vaspin and body fat indexes were detected.Conclusions Serum vaspin level is higher in diabetic patients than that in NGT subjects in women.Age predicts serum vaspin level in NGT subjects,while PG2h is independently associated with vaspin in diabetic patients.

  17. Impact of a Combined High Cholesterol Diet and High Glucose Environment on Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Taixing; Tang, Dongqi; Wang, Xing Li

    2013-01-01

    Aims Vascular complications are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. However, proper animal models of diabetic vasculopathy that recapitulate the accelerated progression of vascular lesions in human are unavailable. In the present study, we developed a zebrafish model of diabetic vascular complications and the methodology for quantifying vascular lesion formation real-time in the living diabetic zebrafish. Methods and Results Wild type zebrafish (AB) and transgenic zebrafish lines of fli1:EGFP, lyz:EGFP, gata1:dsRed, double transgenic zebrafish of gata1:dsRed/fli1:EGFP were exposed to high cholesterol diet and 3% glucose (HCD-HG) for 10 days. The zebrafish model with HCD-HG treatment was characterized by significantly increased tissue levels of insulin, glucagon, glucose, total triglyceride and cholesterol. Confocal microscopic analysis further revealed that the diabetic larvae developed clearly thickened endothelial layers, distinct perivascular lipid depositions, substantial accumulations of inflammatory cells in the injured vasculature, and a decreased velocity of blood flow. Moreover, the vascular abnormalities were improved by the treatment of pioglitazone and metformin. Conclusion A combination of high cholesterol diet and high glucose exposure induces a rapid onset of vascular complications in zebrafish similar to the early atherosclerotic vascular injuries in mammalian diabetic models, suggesting that zebrafish may be used as a novel animal model for diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:24349075

  18. High glucose-boosted inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide are suppressed by statin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nareika, A; Maldonado, A; He, L; Game, B A; Slate, E H; Sanders, J J; London, S D; Lopes-Virella, M F; Huang, Y

    2007-02-01

    It has been established that periodontal diseases are more prevalent and of greater severity in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. Recent studies have underscored the role of monocytes and macrophages in periodontal tissue inflammation and destruction in diabetic patients. Although it has been shown that monocytes isolated from diabetic patients produce more inflammatory cytokines and that gingival crevicular fluid collected from diabetic patients contains higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than that obtained from nondiabetic patients, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. U937 histiocytes cultured in medium containing either normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose were treated with 100 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide for 24h. After the treatment, cytokines in the medium and cytokine mRNA in the cells were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbet assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated that the pre-exposure of U937 histiocytes to high glucose concentrations markedly increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the cellular inducible nitric oxide level compared with pre-exposure to normal glucose. Our data also showed that the increased secretion of cytokines was a result of increased mRNA expression. Furthermore, the effects of statin and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor agonists on high glucose-enhanced secretion of cytokines were determined. The results showed that simvastatin, but not fenofibrate or pioglitazone, inhibited high glucose-enhanced cytokine release. This study has shown that high glucose concentrations and lipopolysaccharide act synergistically to stimulate the secretion of inflammatory mediators, and that statin is capable of suppressing the high glucose-boosted proinflammatory response. This study therefore delineates a novel mechanism by which hyperglycemia enhances the inflammatory responses of

  19. Production of water-soluble yellow pigments via high glucose stress fermentation of Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihua; Huang, Tao; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-01-13

    Monascus pigments are secondary metabolites of Monascus species and are mainly composed of yellow pigments, orange pigments and red pigments. In this study, a larger proportion of Monascus yellow pigments could be obtained through the selection of the carbon source. Hydrophilic yellow pigments can be largely produced extracellularly by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 under conditions of high glucose fermentation with low oxidoreduction potential (ORP). However, keeping high glucose levels later in the culture causes translation or a reduction of yellow pigment. We presume that the mechanism behind this phenomenon may be attributed to the redox level of the culture broth and the high glucose stress reaction of M. ruber CGMCC 10910 during high glucose fermentation. These yellow pigments were produced via high glucose bio-fermentation without citrinin. Therefore, these pigments can act as natural pigments for applications as food additives.

  20. Effect of physical training on glucose transporter protein and mRNA levels in rat adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Andersen, P H; Vinten, J

    1993-01-01

    Physical training increases insulin-stimulated glucose transport and the number of glucose transporters in adipocytes measured by cytochalasin B binding. In the present study we used immunoblotting to measure the abundance of two glucose transporters (GLUT-4, GLUT-1) in white adipocytes from....../or intrinsic activity). GLUT-1 protein and mRNA levels/adipocyte volume did not change with age or training....

  1. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  2. STRING BEAN JUICE DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-post test control group design and purposive sampling.  The population were all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Puskesmas Pacar Keling Surabaya. Sample were 12 patients who met inclusion criteria. The independent variable was string bean juice and dependent variable was blood glucose level. Data were analyzed by using Paired T-test with significance level of α≤ 0.05 and Independent T-test with significant level of α≤0.05. Result: The results showed that string bean juice has an effect on decreasing blood glucose between pre test and post test for blood glucose with independent T-test is p=0.003. Analysis: In conclusion, string bean juice has an effect on blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Discussion: The possible explanation for this findings is string bean juice contains two ingredients: thiamine and fiber. Thiamine helps support insulin receptors and glucose transporter in cells hence GLUT-4 could translocated to the cell membrane brought glucouse enter to the  intracellular compartment, that leads to blood glucouse level well regulated.  Dietary fiber reduces food transit time so slowing the glucose absorption. Therefore blood glucose level will be decreased.

  3. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  5. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients.

  6. Intraoperative blood glucose levels in neurosurgical patients : an evaluation of two fluid regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence that hyperglycaemia aggravates ischaemic cerebral injury, it has been suggested that blood glucose levels be kept within 200 mg/dL during intracranial neurosurgery. Hypoglycaemia, however, can be a serious problem if glucose-containing solutions are avoided during the first four hours, as suggested in some studies. In order to explore the possibility of administering glucose in moderation so that the blood glucose levels are within acceptable limits, but at the same time the risk of hyoglycaemia is eliminated, we compared two intraoperative fluid regimens. Of the 52 neurosurgical patients studied, 32 patients received alternately 500 ml of 5% dextrose in normal saline and Ringer′s lactate (DNS/RL Group and 18 patients received alternately 500 ml of Ringer′s lactate and normal saline (RL/NS Group. Blood glucose concentrations were determined at the end of each unit of fluid, until the patient received 4 units of fluid. In the DNS/RL group, blood glucose values peaked with the administration of each unit of DNS and tended to return towards the baseline with the subsequent RL, but remained higher than the previous control value. In the RL/NS group, there was a progressive increase in blood glucose values throughout the study period, but the increase was not statistically significant. The blood glucose levels were significantly different between the two groups after each unit of fluid except at the end of the fourth unit. Two patients in the RL/NS group had hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the DNS/RL regimen maintains blood glucose levels within acceptable limits while avoiding the risk of hyperglycaemia. Withholding glucose completely, lowers blood glucose levels, but carries a risk of hypoglycaemia in some patients.

  7. Fasting Glucose Levels Correlate with Disease Severity of Guillain-Barre Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available A potential association between diabetes and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS has been indicated by a few case studies. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of a large cohort of GBS patients to explore the relationship between the level of fasting plasma glucose (FPG obtained in the acute phase at admission and the severity of GBS.Three hundred and four GBS patients were divided into two groups, one with normal FPG and the other with high FPG levels according to the international standards of FPG.The GBS disability scale score was positively, the Medical Research Council (MRC sum score was negatively correlated to the level of FPG, but not to blood HBA1c or CSF glucose concentrations. A relatively higher FPG level was observed in older and younger GBS patients, and more often in those with cranial nerve involvement, autonomic deficit, dyspnea and ventilator dependence than in patients without these clinical characteristics. Importantly, higher levels of FPG at admission were associated with poorer short-term prognosis measured by the MRC sum score and the GBS disability scale at discharge.Our data demonstrates that FPG in the acute phase of GBS correlates with the severity of GBS and may predict the short-term prognosis of GBS.

  8. Erythropoietin (EPO) protects against high glucose-induced apoptosis in retinal ganglional cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxiao; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yanping; Li, Ping; Cao, Zhihong; Cao, Yu

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of EPO on the apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs). High glucose-induced apoptosis model was established in RGCs isolated from SD rats (1-3 days old) and identified with Thy1.1 mAb and MAP-2 pAb. The apoptosis was determined by Hochest assay. The levels of ROS were quantitated by staining the cells with dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and measure by flow cytometry. The SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activities, and levels of T-AOC and MDA were determined by ELISA. Change in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was also assessed by flow cytometry, and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome C were assessed by western blotting. The RGCs treated with high glucose levels exhibited significantly increased apoptotic rate and concentrations of ROS and MDA. Pretreatment of the cells with EPO caused a significant blockade of the high glucose-induced increase in ROS and MDA levels and apoptotic rate. EPO also increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT, and recovered the levels of T-AOC levels. As a consequence, the mitochondrial membrane potential was improved and Cyt c release into the cytoplasm was prevented which led to significantly suppressed up-regulation of Bax reducing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-9 induced by high glucose exposure were also ameliorated in the RGCs treated with EPO. The protective effect of EPO against apoptosis was mediated through its antioxidant action. Thus, it blocked the generation of pro-apoptotic proteins and apoptotic degeneration of the RGCs by preventing the mitochondrial damage.

  9. Differential Response of Human Hepatocyte Chromatin to HDAC Inhibitors as a Function of Microenvironmental Glucose Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisbino, Marina Barreto; Alves da Costa, Thiago; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Mello, Maria Luiza Silveira

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is a complex multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin secretion. Recent observations suggest that the complexity of the disease cannot be entirely accounted for genetic predisposition and a compelling argument for an epigenetic component is rapidly emerging. The use of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) in clinical setting is an emerging area of investigation. In this study, we have aimed to understand and compare the response of hepatocyte chromatin to valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) treatments under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions to expand our knowledge about the consequences of HDACi treatment in a diabetes cell model. Under normoglycemic conditions, these treatments promoted chromatin remodeling, as assessed by image analysis and H3K9ac and H3K9me2 abundance. Simultaneously, H3K9ac marks shifted to the nuclear periphery accompanied by HP1 dissociation from the heterochromatin and a G1 cell cycle arrest. More striking changes in the cell cycle progression and mitotic ratios required drastic treatment. Under hyperglycemic conditions, high glucose per se promoted chromatin changes similar to those promoted by VPA and TSA. Nonetheless, these results were not intensified in cells treated with HDACis under hyperglycemic conditions. Despite the absence of morphological changes being promoted, HDACi treatment seems to confer a physiological meaning, ameliorating the cellular hyperglycemic state through reduction of glucose production. These observations allow us to conclude that the glucose level to which the hepatocytes are subjected affects how chromatin responds to HDACi and their action under high-glucose environment might not reflect on chromatin remodeling. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2257-2265, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Aldolase B knockdown prevents high glucose-induced methylglyoxal overproduction and cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghai Liu

    Full Text Available We used cultured endothelial cells as a model to examine whether up-regulation of aldolase B and enhanced methylglyoxal (MG formation play an important role in high glucose-induced overproduction of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs, oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction. High glucose (25 mM incubation up-regulated mRNA levels of aldose reductase (an enzyme converting glucose to fructose and aldolase B (a key enzyme that catalyzes MG formation from fructose and enhanced MG formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and HUVEC-derived EA. hy926 cells. High glucose-increased MG production in EA. hy926 cells was completely prevented by siRNA knockdown of aldolase B, but unaffected by siRNA knockdown of aldolase A, an enzyme responsible for MG formation during glycolysis. In addition, inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 or semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase which produces MG during the metabolism of lipid and proteins, respectively, did not alter MG production. Both high glucose (25 mM and MG (30, 100 µM increased the formation of N(ε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL, a MG-induced AGE, oxidative stress (determined by the generation of oxidized DCF, H(2O(2, protein carbonyls and 8-oxo-dG, O-GlcNAc modification (product of the hexosamine pathway, membrane protein kinase C activity and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in EA. hy926 cells. However, the above metabolic and signaling alterations induced by high glucose were completely prevented by knockdown of aldolase B and partially by application of aminoguanidine (a MG scavenger or alagebrium (an AGEs breaker. In conclusion, efficient inhibition of aldolase B can prevent high glucose-induced overproduction of MG and related cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.

  11. On-chip highly sensitive saliva glucose sensing using multilayer films composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for human health to rapidly and accurately detect glucose levels in biological environments, especially for diabetes mellitus. We proposed a simple, highly sensitive, accurate, convenient, low-cost, and disposable glucose biosensor on a single chip. A working (sensor electrode, a counter electrode, and a reference electrode are integrated on a single chip through micro-fabrication. The working electrode is functionalized through a layer-by-layer (LBL assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and multilayer films composed of chitosan (CS, gold nanoparticles (GNp, and glucose oxidase (GOx to obtain high sensitivity and accuracy. The glucose sensor has following features: (1 direct electron transfer between GOx and the electrode surface; (2 on-a-chip; (3 glucose detection down to 0.1 mg/dL (5.6 μM; (4 good sensing linearity over 0.017–0.81 mM; (5 high sensitivity (61.4 μA/mM-cm2 with a small reactive area (8 mm2; (6 fast response; (7 high reproducibility and repeatability; (8 reliable and accurate saliva glucose detection. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real time tracking of glucose levels from body fluids, e.g. saliva, in a noninvasive, pain-free, accurate, and continuous way. In addition to being used as a disposable glucose biosensor, it also provides a suitable platform for on-chip electrochemical sensing for other chemical agents and biomolecules.

  12. Fabrication of interdigitated high-performance zinc oxide nanowire modified electrodes for glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarindraprasad, R; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Perumal, Veeradasan; Liu, Wei-Wen; Balakrishnan, S R

    2016-06-21

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease with a prolonged elevated level of glucose in the blood leads to long-term complications and increases the chances for cardiovascular diseases. The present study describes the fabrication of a ZnO nanowire (NW)-modified interdigitated electrode (IDE) to monitor the level of blood glucose. A silver IDE was generated by wet etching-assisted conventional lithography, with a gap between adjacent electrodes of 98.80 μm. The ZnO-based thin films and NWs were amended by sol-gel and hydrothermal routes. High-quality crystalline and c-axis orientated ZnO thin films were observed by XRD analyses. The ZnO thin film was annealed for 1, 3 and 5 h, yielding a good-quality crystallite with sizes of 50, 100 and 110 nm, and the band gaps were measured as 3.26, 3.20 and 3.17 eV, respectively. Furthermore, a flower-modeled NW was obtained with the lowest diameter of 21 nm. Our designed ZnO NW-modified IDE was shown to have a detection limit as low as 0.03 mg/dL (correlation coefficient = 0.98952) of glucose with a low response time of 3 s, perform better than commercial glucose meter, suitable to instantly monitor the glucose level of diabetes patients. This study demonstrated the high performance of NW-mediated IDEs for glucose sensing as alternative to current glucose sensors.

  13. Protective effects of antioxidants on high Glucose-induced malfunctions in human glomerular mesangial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini R

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Altered functions of mesangial cells induced by high glucose concentrations are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We therefore investigated the effect of high glucose (39.2 mM alone and in combination with taurine (500 µM or vitamin E (100 µM in serum free medium (RPMI 1640 on the proliferative growth response and turnover of type IV collagen by human glomerular mesangial cells (GMC. The results showed that the high glucose level decreases the proliferation of the GMC which is reversed by taurine and vitamin E. In order to control the osmotic effects of high glucose, the GMC were also cultured in the presence of manitol. Manitol had no effect on the proliferation of GMC. Furthermore, the results showed that addition of vitamin E or taurine to media containing high glucose could reverse and normalize the collagen turn-over by the cultured mesangial cells. These results suggest that taurie and vitamin E may function as endogenous agents in the kidney to limit the development of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic renal disease.

  14. NLRP3 Inflammasome Expression and Signaling in Human Diabetic Wounds and in High Glucose Induced Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To investigate the contribution and mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome expression in human wounds in diabetes mellitus and in high glucose induced macrophages. Methods. In the present study, we compared the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in debridement wound tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic patients. We also examined whether high glucose induces NLRP3 inflammasome expression in cultures THP-1-derived macrophages and the influence on IL-1β expression. Results. The expressions of NLRP3, caspase1, and IL-1β, at both the mRNA and protein level, were significantly higher in wounds of diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic wounds (P<0.05. High glucose induced a significant increase in NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β expression in THP-1-derived macrophages. M1 macrophage surface marker with CCR7 was significantly upregulated after high glucose stimulation. SiRNA-mediated silencing of NLRP3 expression downregulates the expression of IL-1β. Conclusion. The higher expression of NLRP3, caspase1, and secretion of IL-1β, signaling, and activation might contribute to the hyperinflammation in the human diabetic wound and in high glucose induced macrophages. It may be a novel target to treat the DM patients with chronic wound.

  15. High Glucose Induces Sumoylation of Smad4 via SUMO2/3 in Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqin Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that sumoylation is a posttranslational modification involved in regulation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN. However, the role of sumoylation in the regulation of TGF-β signaling in DN is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression of SUMO (SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 and Smad4 and the interaction between SUMO and Smad4 in cultured rat mesangial cells induced by high glucose. We found that SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 expression was significantly increased in the high glucose groups compared to the normal group P<0.05. Smad4 and fibronectin (FN levels were also increased in the high glucose groups in a dose-dependent manner. Coimmunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning revealed that Smad4 interacted and colocalized with SUMO2/3, but not with SUMO1 in mesangial cells. Sumoylation (SUMO2/3 of Smad4 under high glucose condition was strongly enhanced compared to normal control P<0.05. These results suggest that high glucose may activate TGF-β/Smad signaling through sumoylation of Samd4 by SUMO2/3 in mesangial cells.

  16. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  17. Androgen-stimulated UDP-glucose dehydrogenase expression limits prostate androgen availability without impacting hyaluronan levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin; Galbenus, Robert; Raza, Ashraf; Cerny, Ronald L.; Simpson, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) oxidizes UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronate, an essential precursor for production of hyaluronan (HA), proteoglycans, and xenobiotic glucuronides. High levels of HA turnover in prostate cancer are correlated with aggressive progression. UGDH expression is high in the normal prostate even though HA accumulation is virtually undetectable. Thus, its normal role in the prostate may be to provide precursors for glucuronosyltransferase enzymes, which inactivate and solubilize androgens by glucuronidation. In this report, we quantified androgen dependence of UGDH, glucuronosyltransferase, and HA synthase expression. Androgen dependent and independent human prostate cancer cell lines were used to test the effects of UGDH manipulation on tumor cell growth, HA production and androgen glucuronidation. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increased UGDH expression ≈2.5-fold in androgen dependent cells. However, upregulation of UGDH did not affect HA synthase expression or enhance HA production. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that DHT was converted to a glucuronide, DHT-G, at a six-fold higher level in androgen dependent cells relative to androgen independent cells. The increased solubilization and elimination of DHT corresponded to slower cellular growth kinetics, which could be reversed in androgen dependent cells by treatment with a UDP-glucuronate scavenger. Collectively, these results suggest that dysregulated expression of UGDH could promote the development of androgen independent tumor cell growth by increasing available levels of intracellular androgen. PMID:19244115

  18. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  19. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Mohammed S

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  20. Sourdough-leavened bread improves postprandial glucose and insulin plasma levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Mario; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Sanna, Manuela; Cherchi, Sara; Dettori, Mariella; Manca, Elena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Sourdough bread has been reported to improve glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. In this study postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were evaluated in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had a meal containing sourdough bread leavened with lactobacilli, in comparison to a reference meal containing bread leavened with baker yeast. Sixteen IGT subjects (age range 52-75, average BMI 29.9 +/- 4.2 kg/ m2) were randomly given a meal containing sourdough bread (A) and a meal containing the reference bread (B) in two separate occasions at the beginning of the study and after 7 days. Sourdough bread was leavened for 8 h using a starter containing autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several bacilli able to produce a significant amount of D-and L-lactic acid, whereas the reference bread was leavened for 2 h with commercial baker yeast containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured at time 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. In IGT subjects sourdough bread induced a significantly lower plasma glucose response at 30 minutes (p = 0.048) and a smaller incremental area under curve (AUC) delta 0-30 and delta 0-60 min (p = 0.020 and 0.018 respectively) in comparison to the bread leavened with baker yeast. Plasma insulin response to this type of bread showed lower values at 30 min (p = 0.045) and a smaller AUC delta 0-30 min (p = 0.018). This study shows that in subjects with IGT glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after the consumption of sourdough bread are lower than after the bread leavened with baker yeast. This effect is likely due to the lactic acid produced during dough leavening as well as the reduced availability of simple carbohydrates. Thus, sour-dough bread may potentially be of benefit in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism.

  1. Determination of Glucose Levels during Dialysis Treatment: Different Sensors and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sbrignadello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of glycemia in subjects with renal failure, thus treated with hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis, is clinically relevant, since glucose levels may influence the determination of other solutes, such as creatinine, as well as some ions, such as sodium, whose degree of removal during dialysis sessions should be controlled carefully. Also, glucose levels should be controlled to avoid possible events of hypoglycemia during the treatment, especially in diabetic subjects. Indeed, even cases of hypoglycemic coma are documented. The glucose measurement during the dialysis treatment can be performed with different sensors and technologies: for instance, with traditional glucose meters, with instruments for continuous glucose monitoring, or with optical sensors. The aim of this review study was to analyze these different approaches and briefly discuss possible advantages and limitations.

  2. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  3. Association between one-hour post-load plasma glucose levels and vascular stiffness in essential hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sciacqua

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pulse wave velocity (PWV is a surrogate end-point for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A plasma glucose value ≥155 mg/dl for the 1-hour post-load plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT at high-risk for type-2 diabetes (T2D and for subclinical organ damage. Thus, we addressed the question if 1-hour post-load plasma glucose levels, affects PWV and its central hemodynamic correlates, as augmentation pressure (AP and augmentation index (AI. METHODS: We enrolled 584 newly diagnosed hypertensives. All patients underwent OGTT and measurements of PWV, AP and AI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by Matsuda-index. RESULTS: Among participants, 424 were NGT and 160 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Of 424 NGT, 278 had 1-h post-load plasma glucose <155 mg/dl (NGT<155 and 146 had 1-h post-load plasma glucose ≥155 mg/dl (NGT≥155. NGT≥155 had a worse insulin sensitivity and higher hs-CRP than NGT<155, similar to IGT subjects. In addition, NGT ≥155 in comparison with NGT<155 had higher central systolic blood pressure (134±12 vs 131±10 mmHg, as well as PWV (8.4±3.7 vs 6.7±1.7 m/s, AP (12.5±7.1 vs 9.8±5.7 mmHg and AI (29.4±11.9 vs 25.1±12.4%, and similar to IGT. At multiple regression analysis, 1-h post-load plasma glucose resulted the major determinant of all indices of vascular stiffness. CONCLUSION: Hypertensive NGT≥155 subjects, compared with NGT<155, have higher PWV and its hemodynamic correlates that increase their cardiovascular risk profile.

  4. LXR-Mediated ABCA1 Expression and Function Are Modulated by High Glucose and PRMT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryem A Hussein

    Full Text Available High cholesterol and diabetes are major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Regression of atherosclerosis is mediated in part by the Liver X Receptor (LXR through the induction of genes involved in cholesterol transport and efflux. In the context of diabetes, regression of atherosclerosis is impaired. We proposed that changes in glucose levels modulate LXR-dependent gene expression. Using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 and primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs cultured in normal or diabetes relevant high glucose conditions we found that high glucose inhibits the LXR-dependent expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1, but not ABCG1. To probe for this mechanism, we surveyed the expression of a host of chromatin-modifying enzymes and found that Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2 was reduced in high compared to normal glucose conditions. Importantly, ABCA1 expression and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux were reduced in Prmt2-/- compared to wild type BMDMs. Monocytes from diabetic mice also showed decreased expression of Prmt2 compared to non-diabetic counterparts. Thus, PRMT2 represents a glucose-sensitive factor that plays a role in LXR-mediated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux and lends insight to the presence of increased atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.

  5. The Cytotoxic Role of Intermittent High Glucose on Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. Methods. Cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L, constant high glucose (CHG (25 mmol/L, and IHG (rotation per 24 h in 11.1 or 25 mmol/L for 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, xanthine oxidase (XOD level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1, p21, p27, and Skp2 were determined. Results. We found that IHG induced more significant apoptosis than CHG and normal glucose; intracellular ROS and XOD levels were more markedly increased in cells exposed to IHG. Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle related proteins such as cyclinD1 and Skp2 were decreased significantly, but expressions of p27 and p21 were increased markedly. Conclusions. This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells induced by IHG.

  6. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both sexes, and SAT was additionallyassociated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels in women andwith higher blood pressure in participants with diabetes. Conclusion: Both abdominal VAT and SAT are independent of overall obesity......) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound....... Results: Independent of SAT and overall obesity, VAT was associated with higher triglyceride andlower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in both men and women and additionallyassociated with higher total cholesterol in men. SAT was independently associated with highertotal cholesterol...

  7. High Glucose Represses hERG K+ Channel Expression through Trafficking Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Qi Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Abnormal QT prolongation is the most prominent cardiac electrical disturbance in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. It is well known that the human ether-ago-go-related gene (hERG controls the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr in cardiac cells. The expression of the hERG channel is severely down-regulated in diabetic hearts, and this down-regulation is a critical contributor to the slowing of repolarization and QT prolongation. However, the intracellular mechanisms underlying the diabetes-induced hERG deficiency remain unknown. Methods: The expression of the hERG channel was assessed via western blot analysis, and the hERG current was detected with a patch-clamp technique. Results: The results of our study revealed that the expression of the hERG protein and the hERG current were substantially decreased in high-glucose-treated hERG-HEK cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that the high-glucose-mediated damage to the hERG channel depended on the down-regulation of protein levels but not the alteration of channel kinetics. These discoveries indicated that high glucose likely disrupted hERG channel trafficking. From the western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses, we found that high glucose induced trafficking inhibition through an effect on the expression of Hsp90 and its interaction with hERG. Furthermore, the high-glucose-induced inhibition of hERG channel trafficking could activate the unfolded protein response (UPR by up-regulating the expression levels of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6 and the ER chaperone protein calnexin. In addition, we demonstrated that 100 nM insulin up-regulated the expression of the hERG channel and rescued the hERG channel repression caused by high glucose. Conclusion: The results of our study provide the first evidence of a high-glucose-induced hERG channel deficiency resulting from the inhibition of channel trafficking. Furthermore, insulin promotes the expression of the hERG channel

  8. Some thoughts on the importance of insulin in the regulation of the blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsholme, E A; Dimitriadis, G

    1996-05-15

    Insulin can influence rates of glucose utilization by muscle and possibly other tissues via both direct and indirect effects. It can control the rate of fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the rate of fatty acid oxidation in muscle, and the latter inhibits glucose utilization and oxidation. Insulin may influence the levels of insulin-like growth factors I and II, both of which have effects on rates of glucose utilization by muscle. The inter-tissue cycle between glucose and lactate-the Cori cycle, which is influenced by insulin-may provide another novel mechanism for control of blood glucose. How far other anti-insulin hormones affect these processes is not clear.

  9. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  10. The association of early combined lactate and glucose levels with subsequent renal and liver dysfunction and hospital mortality in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Jorge, Pedro; Wieringa, Nienke; de Felice, Eva; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2017-08-21

    The development of renal and liver dysfunction may be accompanied by initially subtle derangements in the gluconeogenetic function. Discrepantly low glucose levels combined with high lactate levels might indicate an impaired Cori cycle. Our objective was to examine the relation between early lactate and glucose levels with subsequent renal and liver dysfunction and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. Over a 4-year period (2011 to 2014), all adult patients admitted to our adult 48-bed teaching hospital intensive care unit (ICU) for at least 12 h were retrospectively analyzed. Lactate and glucose were regularly measured with point-of-care analyzers in all ICU patients. Lactate and glucose measurements were collected from 6 h before to 24 h after ICU admission. Patients with fewer than four lactate/glucose measurements were excluded. Patients received insulin according to a computer-guided control algorithm that aimed at a glucose level 2.3 mmol/L) and glucose quintiles (≤7.0; 7.0-7.6; 7.6-8.2; 8.2-9.0; >9.0 mmol/L) were related with outcome in univariate analysis (p < 0.001). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV, lactate, and glucose were associated with renal and liver dysfunction in multivariate analysis (p < 0.001), with a U-shaped relationship for glucose. The combination of the highest lactate quintile with the lowest glucose quintile was associated with the highest rates of renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction, and mortality (p < 0.001) with a significant interaction between lactate and glucose (p ≤ 0.001). Abnormal combined lactate and glucose measurements may provide an early indication of organ dysfunction. In critically ill patients a 'normal' glucose with an elevated lactate should not be considered desirable, as this combination is related with increased mortality.

  11. A survey of cognitive functioning at difference glucose levels in diabetic persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C S; Hayford, J T; Gonzalez, J L; Weydert, J A

    1983-01-01

    Cognitive functioning was assessed in diabetic patients during hypoglycemia (60 mg/dl), euglycemia/control (110 mg/dl), and hyperglycemia (300 mg/dl). Blood glucose levels were set and maintained to within 4% of targeted levels by an artificial insulin/glucose infusion system (Biostator). Attention and fine motor skills, assessed by visual reaction time, was slowed at altered glucose levels. Performance was less impaired during hyperglycemia than hypoglycemia when a longer interstimulus interval was used, although it was still slower than normal. The time required to solve simple addition problems was increased during hypoglycemia, although reading comprehension was not affected. The possibility that some automatic brain skills are disrupted at altered glucose concentrations is discussed, while associative or inferential skills may be less affected.

  12. Glucose uptake and growth of glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Aspergillus niger and a disruptant lacking MstA, a high-affinity glucose transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Poulsen, Bjarne R

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of high-affinity glucose uptake in Aspergillus niger and the effect of disruption of a high-affinity monosaccharide-transporter gene, mstA. The substrate saturation constant (K(s)) of a reference strain was about 15 microM in glucose-limited chemostat culture. Disruption of mst......-affinity uptake system of A. niger. The mstA disruptant and a reference strain were cultivated in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at low, intermediate and high dilution rate (D=0.07 h(-1), 0.14 h(-1) and 0.20 h(-1)). Mycelium harvested from steady-state cultures was subjected to glucose uptake assays...

  13. Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

  14. Insights from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum point to high affinity glucose transporters as targets for enhancing ethanol production from lignocellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin S Ali

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km((glucose was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing.

  15. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  16. High glucose induces the expression of osteopontin in blood vessels in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjia; Ni, Leng; Liu, Xinnong; Wang, Zhanqi; Liu, Changwei

    2016-11-11

    Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in mineral metabolism and the inflammatory response while diabetes mellitus is associated with severe and extensive vascular calcification. Therefore, we speculated that OPN could be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of blood vessels exposed to high glucose. To identify the relationship between high glucose and OPN, we used high glucose medium to stimulate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in vitro and diabetic rats for in vivo analyses. As assessed by flow cytometry and western blots, SMC and VEC apoptosis levels increased with high glucose. Potassium and calcium uptake by cells were also increased with high glucose. These findings demonstrated the relationship between mineral metabolism and high glucose. Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that OPN increased in vitro with high glucose stimulation. The inflammatory factor ICAM1 and the inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) (Thr495) were also upregulated by high glucose. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2 and the activating phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser1177) were downregulated. Similar to the change of OPN, phosphorylated P38 was increased with high glucose. SB203580, an inhibitor of P38 phosphorylation, downregulated the expression of OPN and related inflammatory factors. Additionally, OPN was increased in the aortas and plasma of diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high glucose can induce the expression of OPN, which may be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of the vascular wall in diabetes.

  17. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  18. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  19. The impact of high-dose vitamin C on blood glucose testing in ¹⁸F-FDG PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Rebekah L; Wilson, Don C

    2015-03-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies in addition to standard oncology protocols are commonly sought by cancer patients; however, few patients disclose their complementary treatments to their cancer care team. A lack of communication may result in unforeseen side effects and the potential for some alternative therapies to interfere with or inhibit conventional treatment. High-dose vitamin C therapy, in particular, may lead to an inability to measure a patient's blood glucose level before (18)F-FDG injection for PET/CT scanning. We report a case of a 52-y-old woman referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent colorectal cancer. The PET/CT scan immediately followed a single intravenous dose of 25 g of ascorbic acid from her naturopath. A glucometer that applies the glucose oxidase method for measuring fasting blood glucose was used, for which high doses of vitamin C are listed as a contraindication. The high concentration of ascorbic acid in the patient's blood sample interfered with the chemical reaction on the glucose strip, and therefore no blood glucose measurement could be attained. With more patients receiving alternative and complementary cancer therapies, it is important to know what the implications of orthomolecular therapy might be on routine blood glucose testing for (18)F-FDG PET scans. (18)F-FDG is in direct competition with glucose; therefore, elevated blood glucose levels will cause a decrease in (18)F-FDG absorption and may lead to a false-negative scan.

  20. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-08-28

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after a 6-week HIIT intervention. Various statistical methods were used to classify plasma metabolic signatures associated with post-prandial glucose and/or training status when using a repeated measures/cross-over study design. Branched-chain/aromatic amino acids and other intermediates of urea cycle and carnitine metabolism decreased over time in plasma after oral glucose loading. Adaptive exercise-induced changes to plasma thiol redox and orthinine status were measured for trained subjects while at rest in a fasting state. A multi-linear regression model was developed to predict changes in glucose tolerance based on a panel of plasma metabolites measured for naïve subjects in their untrained state. Since treatment outcomes to physical activity are variable between-subjects, prognostic markers offer a novel approach to screen for potential negative responders while designing lifestyle modifications that maximize the salutary benefits of exercise for diabetes prevention on an individual level.

  1. High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leave this field empty High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It What is high blood glucose? People who do ... glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual ...

  2. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Lee, Esder; Chun, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Song, Ki-Ho, E-mail: kihos@catholic.ac.kr

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •High glucose increased production of reactive oxygen species in cultured pancreatic stellate cells. •High glucose facilitated the activation of these cells. •Antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced activation of these cells. -- Abstract: The activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) is thought to be a potential mechanism underlying islet fibrosis, which may contribute to progressive β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated that antioxidants reduced islet fibrosis in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no in vitro study demonstrating that high glucose itself can induce oxidative stress in PSCs. Thus, PSCs were isolated and cultured from Sprague Dawley rats, and treated with high glucose for 72 h. High glucose increased the production of reactive oxygen species. When treated with high glucose, freshly isolated PSCs exhibited myofibroblastic transformation. During early culture (passage 1), PSCs treated with high glucose contained an increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. During late culture (passages 2–5), PSCs treated with high glucose exhibited increases in cell proliferation, the expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, release of interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β and collagen, and cell migration. Finally, the treatment of PSCs with high glucose and antioxidants attenuated these changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high glucose increased oxidative stress in primary rat PSCs, thereby facilitating the activation of these cells, while antioxidant treatment attenuated high glucose-induced PSC activation.

  3. [High glucose dialysate enhances peritoneal fibrosis through upregulating glucose transporters GLUT1 and SGLT1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mengqi; Nie, Zhenyu; Chen, Zhengyue; Yu, Xiongwei; Bao, Beiyan

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To investigate the role of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) in high glucose dialysate-induced peritoneal fibrosis. Methods: Thirty six male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (6 in each):normal control group, sham operation group, peritoneal dialysis group (PD group), PD+phloretin group (PD+T group), PD+phlorizin group (PD+Z group), PD+phloretin+phlorizin group (PD+T+Z group). Rat model of uraemia was established using 5/6 nephrotomy, and 2.5% dextrose peritoneal dialysis solution was used in peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal equilibration test was performed 24 h after dialysis to evaluate transport function of peritoneum in rats; HE staining was used to observe the morphology of peritoneal tissue; and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of GLUT1, SGLT1, TGF-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in peritoneum. Human peritoneal microvascular endothelial cells (HPECs) were divided into 5 groups:normal control group, peritoneal dialysis group (PD group), PD+phloretin group (PD+T group), PD+phlorezin group (PD+Z group), and PD+phloretin+phlorezin group (PD+T+Z group). Real time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein expressions of GLUT1, SGLT1, TGF-β1, CTGF in peritoneal membrane and HPECs. Results:In vivo, compared with sham operation group, rats in PD group had thickened peritoneum, higher ultrafiltration volume, and the mRNA and protein expressions of GLUT1, SGLT1, CTGF, TGF-β1 were significantly increased (all P<0.05); compared with PD group, thickened peritoneum was attenuated, and the mRNA and protein expressions of GLUT1, SGLT1, CTGF, TGF-β1 were significantly decreased in PD+T, PD+Z and PD+T+Z groups (all P<0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the expressions of GLUT1, SGLT1 in peritoneum were positively correlated with the expressions of TGF-β1 and CTGF (all P<0.05). In vitro, the mRNA and protein expressions of GLUT1, SGLT1, TGF-β1

  4. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CYTOSOLIC GLUCOSE AND ATP LEVELS IN YEAST WITH OPTICAL SENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Clara; Haerizadeh, Farzad; Takanaga, Hitomi; Chermak, Diane; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2010-01-01

    Precise and dynamic measurement of intracellular metabolite levels has been hampered by difficulties in differentiating between adsorbed and imported fractions and the subcellular distribution between cytosol, endomembrane compartments and mitochondria. Here, genetically encoded Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based sensors were deployed for dynamic measurements of free cytosolic glucose and ATP at varying external supply and in glucose transport mutants. Moreover, by using the FRET sensors in a microfluidic platform, we were able to monitor in vivo changes in intracellular free glucose in individual yeast cells. We demonstrate the suitability of the FRET sensors for gaining physiological insight by demonstrating that free intracellular glucose and ATP levels are reduced in an hxt5Δ hexose transporter mutant compared to wild type and to other hxtΔ strains. PMID:20854260

  5. Dynamic analysis of cytosolic glucose and ATP levels in yeast using optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Clara; Haerizadeh, Farzad; Takanaga, Hitomi; Chermak, Diane; Frommer, Wolf B

    2010-12-01

    Precise and dynamic measurement of intracellular metabolite levels has been hampered by difficulties in differentiating between adsorbed and imported fractions and the subcellular distribution between cytosol, endomembrane compartments and mitochondria. In the present study, genetically encoded FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer)-based sensors were deployed for dynamic measurements of free cytosolic glucose and ATP with varying external supply and in glucose-transport mutants. Moreover, by using the FRET sensors in a microfluidic platform, we were able to monitor in vivo changes of intracellular free glucose in individual yeast cells. We demonstrate the suitability of the FRET sensors for gaining physiological insight by demonstrating that free intracellular glucose and ATP levels are reduced in a hxt5Δ hexose-transporter mutant compared with wild-type and other hxtΔ strains.

  6. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2–6 s) increased (30–70 μM or 6–14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (−20–40 μM or 5–10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  7. Mitochondrial Fission Increases Apoptosis and Decreases Autophagy in Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells Treated with High Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chin; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Chen, Jin-Bor; Chen, Chiu-Hua; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mitochondrial morphogenesis changes on apoptosis and autophagy of high-glucose-treated proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK2). Cell viability, apoptosis, and mitochondrial morphogenesis were examined using crystal violet, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), and mitotracker staining, respectively. High glucose inhibited cell viability and induced mitochondrial fission in HK2 cells. After depleting mitofusin 1 (MFN1), the MFN1(-) HK2 cells (fission type) became more susceptible to high-glucose-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial fragmentation observed by TUNEL and mitotracker assays. In siMFN2 HK2 cells (fission type), mitochondria were highly fragmented (>80% fission rate) with or without high-glucose treatment; however, siFIS1 (mitochondrial fission protein 1) HK2 cells (fusion type) exhibited little fragmentation (High-glucose treatment induced autophagy, characterized by the formation of autophagosome and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) B-II, as observed by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting, respectively. LC3B-II levels decreased in both MFN1(-) and siMFN2 HK2 cells, but increased in siFIS1 HK2 cells. Moreover, autophagy displays a protective role against high-glucose-induced cell death based on cotreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and chloroquine). Mitochondrial fission may increase apoptosis and decrease autophagy of high-glucose-treated HK2 cells.

  8. Response of urinary purine derivatives excretion to different levels of ruminal glucose infusion in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoefer, Uta; Ahnert, Sandra; Schoof, Hartwig; Moritz, Niels; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the response of urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion to increasing levels of intraruminal glucose infusion to evaluate how well this indicator reflects induced changes in microbial crude protein flow. Four rumen-cannulated heifers (482 ± 25 kg body weight) were fed at maintenance energy level with a basal diet (on fresh matter basis) of 4 kg/d hay, 1.5 kg/d concentrate and 60 g/d minerals in two equal meals. The trial comprised a control period (Control I) without glucose infusion followed by four consecutive periods in which all animals received 125 g, 250 g, 500 g or 1000 g/d of glucose, respectively. For this, daily dosages of glucose and urea (90 g/d during all periods) were divided into three portions that were dissolved in water and directly administered into the rumen during morning and afternoon feedings and once during noon. After the highest glucose dosage, a second control period was carried out (Control II). Urinary PD excretion increased with glucose infusion of 125 g/d (71.4 mmol/d) and 1000 g/d (74.2 mmol/d) over the level at Control I (53.9 mmol/d (standard error of the mean (SEM) 3.4; p = 0.012). After withdrawing glucose infusion, PD excretion (79.0 mmol/d) did not return to Control I level (p = 0.001). In contrast, faecal nitrogen (N) excretions linearly increased with incremental glucose infusion (p infusions highlight the limited accuracy of the PD excretion as a non-invasive indicator when incremental dosages of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates are supplied.

  9. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  10. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Penghua; Shen, Wei-bin; Reece, E. Albert; Chen, Xi; Yang, Peixin

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal neurogenesis occurs during embryonic development in human diabetic pregnancies and in animal models of diabetic embryopathy. Our previous studies in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy have implicated that high glucose of maternal diabetes delays neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium leading to neural tube defects. However, the underlying process in high glucose-impaired neurogenesis is uncharacterized. Neurogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells provides a valuable model for understanding the abnormal neural lineage development under high glucose conditions. ES cells are commonly generated and maintained in high glucose (approximately 25 mM glucose). Here, the mouse ES cell line, E14, was gradually adapted to and maintained in low glucose (5 mM), and became a glucose responsive E14 (GR-E14) line. High glucose induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CHOP, in GR-E14 cells. Under low glucose conditions, the GR-E14 cells retained their pluripotency and capability to differentiate into neural lineage cells. GR-E14 cell differentiation into neural stem cells (Sox1 and nestin positive cells) was inhibited by high glucose. Neuron (Tuj1 positive cells) and glia (GFAP positive cells) differentiation from GR-E14 cells was also suppressed by high glucose. In addition, high glucose delayed GR-E14 differentiation into neural crest cells by decreasing neural crest markers, paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7). Thus, high glucose impairs ES cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. The low glucose adapted and high glucose responsive GR-E14 cell line is a useful in vitro model for assessing the adverse effect of high glucose on the development of the central nervous system. PMID:26940741

  11. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Penghua; Shen, Wei-bin; Reece, E Albert; Chen, Xi; Yang, Peixin

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal neurogenesis occurs during embryonic development in human diabetic pregnancies and in animal models of diabetic embryopathy. Our previous studies in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy have implicated that high glucose of maternal diabetes delays neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium leading to neural tube defects. However, the underlying process in high glucose-impaired neurogenesis is uncharacterized. Neurogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells provides a valuable model for understanding the abnormal neural lineage development under high glucose conditions. ES cells are commonly generated and maintained in high glucose (approximately 25 mM glucose). Here, the mouse ES cell line, E14, was gradually adapted to and maintained in low glucose (5 mM), and became a glucose responsive E14 (GR-E14) line. High glucose induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CHOP, in GR-E14 cells. Under low glucose conditions, the GR-E14 cells retained their pluripotency and capability to differentiate into neural lineage cells. GR-E14 cell differentiation into neural stem cells (Sox1 and nestin positive cells) was inhibited by high glucose. Neuron (Tuj1 positive cells) and glia (GFAP positive cells) differentiation from GR-E14 cells was also suppressed by high glucose. In addition, high glucose delayed GR-E14 differentiation into neural crest cells by decreasing neural crest markers, paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7). Thus, high glucose impairs ES cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. The low glucose adapted and high glucose responsive GR-E14 cell line is a useful in vitro model for assessing the adverse effect of high glucose on the development of the central nervous system.

  12. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decrease (p<0.05) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic untreated rats as compared ... These and possible high cost of these ... carbohydrates, 13% fat, 10% proteins, 20% fibre, 2% .... insulin in patients with type-1 diabetes – a 1.

  13. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  14. Protective effect of berberine on serum glucose levels in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2012-03-01

    Among the active components in traditional anti-diabetic herbal plants, berberine which is an isoquinoline alkaloid exhibits promising potential for its potent anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects. However, the berberine effect on serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects still remains unknown. This study investigated berberine's effects on serum glucose levels using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop T1D. The NOD mice were randomly divided into four groups, administered water with 50, 150, and 500 mg berberine/kg bw, respectively, through 14 weeks. ICR mice were also selected as a species control group to compare with the NOD mice. Changes in body weight, oral glucose challenge, and serum glucose levels were determined to identify the protective effect of berberine on T1D. After the 14-week oral supplementation, berberine decreased fasting serum glucose levels in NOD mice close to the levels in normal ICR mice in a dose dependent manner. Serum berberine levels showed a significantly (Pberberine-administered NOD mice. Our results suggested that berberine supplemented at appropriate doses for 14 weeks did not cause toxic side effects, but improved hyperglycemia in NOD mice.

  15. NLRP3 Inflammasome Expression and Signaling in Human Diabetic Wounds and in High Glucose Induced Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Dai, Jiezhi; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To investigate the contribution and mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome expression in human wounds in diabetes mellitus and in high glucose induced macrophages. Methods. In the present study, we compared the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in debridement wound tissue from diabetic and nondiabetic patients. We also examined whether high glucose induces NLRP3 inflammasome expression in cultures THP-1-derived macrophages and the influence on IL-1β expression. Results. The expressions of NLRP3, caspase1, and IL-1β, at both the mRNA and protein level, were significantly higher in wounds of diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic wounds (P CCR7 was significantly upregulated after high glucose stimulation. SiRNA-mediated silencing of NLRP3 expression downregulates the expression of IL-1β. Conclusion. The higher expression of NLRP3, caspase1, and secretion of IL-1β, signaling, and activation might contribute to the hyperinflammation in the human diabetic wound and in high glucose induced macrophages. It may be a novel target to treat the DM patients with chronic wound. PMID:28164132

  16. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic untreated rats as compared with control group. ... Article Metrics.

  17. Convergence role of transcriptional coactivator p300 and apparent modification on HMCs metabolic memory induced by high glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the protein expression of transcriptional coactivator p300, acetylated histone H3 (Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 in human renal mesangial cell (HMCs as imitative "metabolic memory" in vitro, and explore the potential role of convergence point of p300. Methods  The HMCs were divided into the following groups: ① High glucose metabolic memory model: normal glucose group (NG, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×2d, high glucose group (HG, 25mmol/L D-glucose×2d, memory groups (M1, M2, M3, 25mmol/L D-glucose×2days + 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×3d, 6d or 9d, persisting normal glucose group (NG, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×9d. ② Advanced glycation end products memory model: normal glucose group (NG, 5.5mmol/ L D-glucose×2d, NG+AGEs group (AGEs, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose+250µg/ml AGEs×2d; AGEs memory group (AGEs-M, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose + 250µg/ml AGEs×2d + 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×3d; BSA control group (NG+BSA, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose + 250µg/ml BSA×2d. ③ H2O2 was used to simulate oxidative stress memory model: normal glucose group (NG, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×2d, NG+H2O2 group (H2O2, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose +100µmol/L H2O2×30min; H2O2 memory group [(5.5mmol/ L D-glucose + 100µmol/L H2O2×30min + 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×3d]; normal glucose control group (NG3, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×3d. ④ Transfection with PKCβ2 memory model: normal glucose group (NG, 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×2d; high glucose group (HG, 25mmol/L D-glucose×2d; memory group (M, 25mmol/L D-glucose×2d + 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×3d; Ad5-null memory group (HN, 25mmol/L D-glucose + Ad5-null×2d + 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×3d; PKCβ2 memory group (PO, 25mmol/L D-glucose + Ad5-PKCβ2×2d + 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×3d; inhibitor of PKCβ2 memory group (PI, 25mmol/L D-glucose×2d + 10µmol/L CGP53353 + 5.5mmol/L D-glucose×3d. The expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was detected by fluorescence microscope and fluorescence microplate reader. The expression levels of p300, Ac-H3, Ac-H4 and PKCβ2 proteins were

  18. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  19. SIRT1-AMPK crosstalk is involved in high glucose-dependent impairment of insulin responsiveness in primary rat podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogacka, Dorota; Piwkowska, Agnieszka; Audzeyenka, Irena; Angielski, Stefan; Jankowski, Maciej

    2016-12-10

    Growing evidence indicates that in diabetes, high glucose concentrations affect podocyte metabolism and function. The crucial pathological feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance, often developed as a result of dysregulation of nutrient-responsible systems and disturbance of cellular homeostasis under diabetic conditions. Here, we report the involvement of the reciprocal interplay between deacetylase SIRT1 and protein kinase AMPK in podocyte high glucose-induced abolition of insulin-dependent glucose uptake, manifesting insulin resistance. Experiments were performed on primary rat podocytes cultured in standard or high glucose conditions. Immunodetection methods were used to determine SIRT1 protein level and AMPK phosphorylation degree. Insulin-stimulated changes in glucose uptake were used to determine podocyte responsiveness to insulin. SIRT1 activity was modulated by resveratrol, EX-527, or small interfering RNA targeting SIRT1. We have demonstrated that the absence of the stimulating effect of insulin on glucose uptake into primary rat podocytes after long-time exposition to high glucose concentrations, is a result of decreased SIRT1 protein levels and activity, associated with decreased AMPK phosphorylation degree, presumably underlying the induction of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the interplay between SIRT1 and AMPK is involved in the regulation of insulin action in podocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients Following Corticosteroid Injections into the Subacromial Space of the Shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander w. Aleem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corticosteroid injections are used to treat a variety of orthopedic conditions with the goal of decreasingpain and inflammation. Administration of systemic or local corticosteroids risks temporarily increasing blood glucoselevels, especially diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of corticosteroid injections onblood glucose levels in diabetic patients with shoulder pathology.Methods: Diabetic patients who regularly monitored their blood glucose levels and were indicated for a subacromialcorticosteroid injection were included in this prospective investigation. The typical normal morning fasting glucoseand most recent hemoglobin A1c level was recorded for each patient. After injection, patients were contacted daily toconfirm their fasting morning glucose level for 10 days post-injection.Results: Seventeen consecutive patients were enrolled. Patients with hemoglobin A1c of

  1. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  2. Glycogen Supercompensation in the Rat Brain After Acute Hypoglycemia is Independent of Glucose Levels During Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João M N; Morgenthaler, Florence D; Gruetter, Rolf

    2017-01-12

    Patients with diabetes display a progressive decay in the physiological counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness. The mechanism through which the brain adapts to hypoglycemia may involve brain glycogen. We tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen supercompensation following hypoglycemia depends on blood glucose levels during recovery. Conscious rats were submitted to hypoglycemia of 2 mmol/L for 90 min and allowed to recover at different glycemia, controlled by means of i.v. glucose infusion. Brain glycogen concentration was elevated above control levels after 24 h of recovery in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. This glycogen supercompensation was independent of blood glucose levels in the post-hypoglycemia period. In the absence of a preceding hypoglycemia insult, brain glycogen concentrations were unaltered after 24 h under hyperglycemia. In the hypothalamus, which controls peripheral glucose homeostasis, glycogen levels were unaltered. Overall, we conclude that post-hypoglycemia glycogen supercompensation occurs in several brain areas and its magnitude is independent of plasma glucose levels. By supporting brain metabolism during recurrent hypoglycemia periods, glycogen may have a role in the development of hypoglycemia unawareness.

  3. Effects of L-lysine monohydrochloride on insulin and blood glucose levels in spinal cord injured rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-ling; ZHAO Yu-wu; LIU Xue-yuan; DING Su-ju

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia in brain and spinal cord could aggravate neurologic impairment. Recent studies showed that L-lysine monohydrochlonde (LMH) could increase the insulin secretion and regulate the blood glucose level. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of LMH on pancreatic islet B cells, the levels of endogenous insulin and blood glucose in spinal cord injured rats.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, namely, normal control group, model group, high-dose LMH group (621.5 mg/kg equal to LMH 1/8 LD50), and low-dose LMH group (310.8 mg/kg equal to LMH 1/16 LD50). The model of spinal cord injured rat was established by hemi-transection at the lower right thoracic spinal cord. LMH was administered via intraperitoneal injection once spinal cord injury was produced in rats. All rats were sacrificed 48 hours after spinal cord injured. The effects of LMH on pancreatic islet B cells, the content of endogenous insulin, end the level of blood glucose were observed with immunohistochemical method, radioimmunoassay method, end biochemical analyzer, respectively. Results The insulin immunohistochemical intensities of islet B cells were significantly weaker in model group then those in normal control group (P 0.05). Conclusion LMH, but dose-dependent, might participate in the regulation of pancreatic islet B cells, and then reduce the blood glucose levels in the spinal cord injured rats.

  4. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  5. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ky; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Lee-Kyung; Cho, Young Min

    2016-02-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281).

  6. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎ conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1 proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2 proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB, supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.

  7. Preventative effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on high glucose-cultured opacity of rat lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Mingzhu; Du, Lei; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Nan; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Gang; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic cataract is one of the earliest secondary complications of diabetes, and it is characterized by opacification of the eye lens. In this study, we examined the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on rat lenses cultured in high-glucose conditions. The cultured rat lenses were divided into six groups: normal group, high-glucose group, high glucose plus low, medium, and high concentrations of EGb761 groups, and a high glucose plus bendazac lysine group. The activities of antioxidases, aldose reductase, advanced glycosylation end products, transforming growth factor-β2, Smad2/3, E-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin were assessed by different methods. Compared with the levels in the high glucose group, EGb761 decreased the intensity of oxidative stress, decreased aldose reductase activation and the level of advanced glycosylation end products, and suppress the transforming growth factor-β2 or Smad pathway activation, further increase the expression of E-cadherin and decrease α-smooth muscle actin, and therefore, prevents the pathological changes of high glucose-induced lens epithelial cells and ameliorated lens opacity. These results suggest that EGb761 has protective effects on several pharmacological targets in the progress of diabetic cataract and is a potential drug for the prevention of diabetic cataract.

  8. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  9. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  10. Changes in dominant fermentation type during anaerobic digestion of high-loading glycerol with slight glucose content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Kashiwagi, Mai

    2012-12-01

    High-loading glycerol containing slight amounts of five different monosaccharides was inoculated with seed sludge obtained from a methane fermentation reactor. The use of different monosaccharides as fermentation promoters resulted in changes in fermentation types; in particular, glucose induced the formation of 1,3-propanediol. After 9 days incubation with glucose, glycerol levels had fallen by 81%, while molar yields of organic acids and 1,3-propanediol (per mole of glycerol degraded) were 0.22 and 0.39, respectively. Other monosaccharides enhanced methane production after 14 days of incubation in the following order: galactose, galacturonic acid, mannose and arabinose. Hydrogen was generated (together with a negligible amount of methane) only in the presence of glucose. When glucose was introduced to a methane-producing reactor (promoted by galacturonic acid), hydrogen production began 5 days later and displaced the methane production after 12 days. These results suggest that glucose catalyzes glycerol degradation, resulting in the production of hydrogen.

  11. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (, and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (. BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring.

  12. High glucose stimulates the expression of erythropoietin in rat glomerular epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seul Ki; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the levels of erythropoietin are associated with diabetes mellitus. Glomerular epithelial cells, located in the renal cortex, play an important role in the regulation of kidney function and hyperglycemia-induced cell loss of glomerular epithelial cells is implicated in the onset of diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated the effect of high glucose on erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in rat glomerular epithelial cells. We found that 25 mM D-...

  13. Effects of Berberine on Amelioration of Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in High Glucose and High Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Hamsters In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of berberine on amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and the mechanism involved in high glucose and high fat diet-induced diabetic hamsters. Golden hamsters fed with high glucose and high fat diet were medicated with metformin, simvastatin, and low or high dose of berberine (50 and 100 mg·kg−1 for 6 weeks. The results showed that the body weights were significantly lower in berberine-treated groups than control group. Histological analyses revealed that the treatment of berberine inhibited hepatic fat accumulation. Berberine significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and 8-isoprostane level but significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity. Glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in metformin and berberine-treated groups. Glucose tolerance tests documented that berberine-treated mice were more glucose tolerant. Berberine treatment increased expression of skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 mRNA and significantly decreased liver low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression. The study suggested that berberine was effective in lowering blood glucose and lipids levels, reducing the body weight, and alleviating the oxidative stress in diabetic hamsters, which might be beneficial in reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes.

  14. Relationship among brain and blood glucose levels and spontaneous and glucoprivic feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Sanders, Nicole M; Compton, Douglas; Becker, Thomas C; Eiki, Jun-ichi; Zhang, Bei B; Levin, Barry E

    2009-05-27

    Although several studies implicate small declines in blood glucose levels as stimulus for spontaneous meal initiation, no mechanism is known for how these dips might initiate feeding. To assess the role of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) (arcuate plus ventromedial nucleus) glucosensing neurons as potential mediators of spontaneous and glucoprivic feeding, meal patterns were observed, and blood and VMH microdialysis fluid were sampled in 15 rats every 10 min for 3.5 h after dark onset and 2 h after insulin (5 U/kg, i.v.) infusion. Blood glucose levels declined by 11% beginning approximately 5 min before 65% of all spontaneous meals, with no fall in VMH levels. After insulin, blood and VMH glucose reached nadirs by 30-40 min, and the same rats ate 60% faster and spent 84% more time eating during the ensuing hypoglycemia. Although 83% of first hypoglycemic meals were preceded by 5 min dips in VMH (but not blood) glucose levels, neither blood nor VMH levels declined before second meals, suggesting that low glucose, rather than changing levels, was the stimulus for glucoprivic meals. Furthermore, altering VMH glucosensing by raising or lowering glucokinase (GK) activity failed to affect spontaneous feeding, body or adipose weights, or glucose tolerance. However, chronic depletion by 26-70% of VMH GK mRNA reduced glucoprivic feeding. Thus, although VMH glucosensing does not appear to be involved in either spontaneous feeding or long-term body-weight regulation, it does participate in glucoprivic feeding, similar to its role in the counter-regulatory neurohumoral responses to glucoprivation.

  15. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  16. Hyperosmolarity induced by high glucose promotes senescence in human glomerular mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Nogal, Maria; Troyano, Nuria; Calleros, Laura; Griera, Mercedes; Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Ruiz-Torres, María P

    2014-09-01

    Hyperglycemia is involved in the diabetic complication of different organs and can elevate serum osmolarity. Here, we tested whether hyperosmolarity promoted by high glucose levels induces cellular senescence in renal cells. We treated Wistar rats with streptozotocin to induce diabetes or with consecutive daily injections of mannitol to increase serum osmolarity and analyzed p53 and p16 genes in renal cortex by immunohistochemistry. Both diabetic and mannitol treated rats showed a significant increase in serum osmolarity, without significant signs of renal dysfunction, but associated with increased staining for p53 and p16 in the renal cortex. An increase in p53 and p16 expression was also found in renal cortex slices and glomeruli isolated from healthy rats, which were later treated with 30 mM glucose or mannitol. Intracellular mechanisms involved were analyzed in cultured human glomerular mesangial cells treated with 30 mM glucose or mannitol. After treatments, cells showed increased p53, p21 and p16 expression and elevated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Senescence was prevented when myo-inositol was added before treatment. High glucose or mannitol induced constitutive activation of Ras and ERK pathways which, in turn, were activated by oxidative stress. In summary, hyperosmolarity induced renal senescence, particularly in glomerular mesangial cells, increasing oxidative stress, which constitutively activated Ras-ERK 1/2 pathway. Cellular senescence could contribute to the organ dysfunction associated with diabetes.

  17. High glucose induces inflammatory cytokine through protein kinase C-induced toll-like receptor 2 pathway in gingival fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shao-Yun, E-mail: jiangshaoyun@yahoo.com [School of Dentistry, Tianjin Medical University, 12 Qi Xiang Tai Street, Heping District, Tianjin 300070 (China); Wei, Cong-Cong; Shang, Ting-Ting; Lian, Qi; Wu, Chen-Xuan [School of Dentistry, Tianjin Medical University, 12 Qi Xiang Tai Street, Heping District, Tianjin 300070 (China); Deng, Jia-Yin, E-mail: yazhou2991@126.com [School of Dentistry, Tianjin Medical University, 12 Qi Xiang Tai Street, Heping District, Tianjin 300070 (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose increased NF-{kappa}B p65 nuclear activity, IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC-{alpha}/{delta}-TLR2 pathway is involved in periodontal inflammation under high glucose. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune response and inflammation, especially in periodontitis. Meanwhile, hyperglycemia can induce inflammation in diabetes complications. However, the activity of TLRs in periodontitis complicated with hyperglycemia is still unclear. In the present study, high glucose (25 mmol/l) significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Also, high glucose increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 nuclear activity, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-l{beta} (IL-1{beta}) levels. Protein kinase C (PKC)-{alpha} and {delta} knockdown with siRNA significantly decreased TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 expression (p < 0.05), whereas inhibition of PKC-{beta} had no effect on TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 under high glucose (p < 0.05). Additional studies revealed that TLR2 knockdown significantly abrogated high-glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Collectively, these data suggest that high glucose stimulates TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta} secretion via inducing TLR2 through PKC-{alpha} and PKC-{delta} in human gingival fibroblasts.

  18. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  19. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  20. A miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell with a high tolerance against ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Zhang, L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Graduate School of CAS, Beijing (China); Su, L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Ohsaka, T. [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Mao, L.

    2009-02-15

    This study demonstrates a miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell (BFC) with a high tolerance against physiological level of ascorbic acid (AA) by immobilising ascorbate oxidase (AAox) on both the bioanode and the biocathode. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-modified carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are employed as the substrate electrode for the bioanode and biocathode. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) are used as the biocatalysts for the electro-oxidation of glucose and for the electro-reduction of oxygen, respectively. SWNTs are used as the support for the both, stably confining the electrocatalyst (i.e. polymerised methylene blue, polyMB) for the oxidation of NADH co-factor for GDH and efficiently facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e. BOD) for O{sub 2} reduction. The prepared micro-sized GDH-based bioanode and BOD-based biocathode employed for the bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose and reduction of oxygen, respectively, are further over-coated with AAox to give a miniature glucose/O{sub 2} BFC with a high tolerance against AA. The maximum power density and the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} BFC are 52 {mu}W cm{sup -2} and 0.60 V, respectively. These values remain unchanged with the presence of AA in solution. In the human serum containing 10 mM NAD{sup +} and under ambient air, the maximum power density and the OCV of the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} BFC with AAox immobilisation on both the bioanode and the biocathode are 35 {mu}W cm{sup -2} and 0.39 V, respectively. These values are remarkably larger than those of the glucose/O{sub 2} BFC without AAox immobilisation on both the bioanode and the biocathode. This study could offer a new route to the development of enzymatic BFCs with promising application in real biological systems. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Protective role of morin, a flavonoid, against high glucose induced oxidative stress mediated apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Kapoor

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an early event of liver damage in diabetes and oxidative stress has been linked to accelerate the apoptosis in hepatocytes. Therefore, the compounds that can scavenge ROS may confer regulatory effects on high-glucose induced apoptosis. In the present study, primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to high concentration (40 mM of glucose. At this concentration decreased cell viability and enhanced ROS generation was observed. Depleted antioxidant status of hepatocytes under high glucose stress was also observed as evident from transcriptional level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further, mitochondrial depolarisation was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial integrity and altered expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Increased translocation of apoptotic proteins like AIF (Apoptosis inducing factor & Endo-G (endonuclease-G from its resident place mitochondria to nucleus was also observed. Cyt-c residing in the inter-membrane space of mitochondria also translocated to cytoplasm. These apoptotic proteins initiated caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, increased apoptotic DNA content in glucose treated hepatocytes, suggesting mitochondria mediated apoptotic mode of cell death. Morin, a dietary flavonoid from Psidium guajava was effective in increasing the cell viability and decreasing the ROS level. It maintained mitochondrial integrity, inhibited release of apoptotic proteins from mitochondria, prevented DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and hypodiploid DNA upon exposure to high glucose. This study confirms the capacity of dietary flavonoid Morin in regulating apoptosis induced by high glucose via mitochondrial mediated pathway through intervention of oxidative stress.

  2. Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum β-glucosidase: a glucose-tolerant enzyme with high specific activity for cellobiose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jianjun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-Glucosidase is an important component of the cellulase enzyme system. It does not only participate in cellulose degradation, it also plays an important role in hydrolyzing cellulose to fermentable glucose by relieving the inhibition of exoglucanase and endoglucanase from cellobiose. Therefore, the glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase with high specific activity for cellobiose might be a potent candidate for industrial applications. Results The β-glucosidase gene bgl that encodes a 443-amino-acid protein was cloned and over-expressed from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 in Escherichia coli. The phylogenetic trees of β-glucosidases were constructed using Neighbor-Joining (NJ and Maximum-Parsimony (MP methods. The phylogeny and amino acid analysis indicated that the BGL was a novel β-glucosidase. By replacing the rare codons for the N-terminal amino acids of the target protein, the expression level of bgl was increased from 6.6 to 11.2 U/mg in LB medium. Recombinant BGL was purified by heat treatment followed by Ni-NTA affinity. The optimal activity was at pH 6.4 and 70°C. The purified enzyme was stable over pH range of 5.2–7.6 and had a 1 h half life at 68°C. The activity of BGL was significantly enhanced by Fe2+ and Mn2+. The Vmax of 64 U/mg and 120 U/mg were found for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (Km value of 0.62 mM and cellobiose (Km value of 7.9 mM, respectively. It displayed high tolerance to glucose and cellobiose. The Kcat for cellobiose was 67.7 s-1 at 60°C and pH 6.4, when the concentration of cellobiose was 290 mM. It was activated by glucose at concentrations lower that 200 mM. With glucose further increasing, the enzyme activity of BGL was gradually inhibited, but remained 50% of the original value in even as high as 600 mM glucose. Conclusions The article provides a useful novel β-glucosidase which displayed favorable properties: high glucose and cellobiose tolerance

  3. A tripeptide Diapin effectively lowers blood glucose levels in male type 2 diabetes mice by increasing blood levels of insulin and GLP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is rapidly increasing worldwide. Effective therapies, such as insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, require injections, which are costly and result in less patient compliance. Here, we report the identification of a tripeptide with significant potential to treat T2D. The peptide, referred to as Diapin, is comprised of three natural L-amino acids, GlyGlyLeu. Glucose tolerance tests showed that oral administration of Diapin effectively lowered blood glucose after oral glucose loading in both normal C57BL/6J mice and T2D mouse models, including KKay, db/db, ob/ob mice, and high fat diet-induced obesity/T2D mice. In addition, Diapin treatment significantly reduced casual blood glucose in KKay diabetic mice in a time-dependent manner without causing hypoglycemia. Furthermore, we found that plasma GLP-1 and insulin levels in diabetic models were significantly increased with Diapin treatment compared to that in the controls. In summary, our findings establish that a peptide with minimum of three amino acids can improve glucose homeostasis and Diapin shows promise as a novel pharmaceutical agent to treat patients with T2D through its dual effects on GLP-1 and insulin secretion.

  4. Effect of Aqueous-Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia polyacantha on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the blood glucose reducing effect (hypoglycemic effect of stem bark extract of Acacia polyacantha on normal wistar rats over a 24 h period. Three groups of previously fasted wistar rats, with each group made up of 5 rats each were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o of aqueous methanolic stem bark extract of A. polyacantha. The hypoglycemic effect of A . polyacantha stem bark aqueous methanolic extract was compared with that of Metformin (250 mg/kg in fasted normal rats. Following treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of A. polyacantha (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. produced a dose-dependent, significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. The three doses of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels after 2 h of extract administration. After 8 and 16 h of extract administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decreased the blood glucose levels when compared to control, while the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels after 4, 8 and 16 h of extract administration when compared with the control group. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 3807.9 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion the aqueous methanolic extract of Acacia polyacantha possesses hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic rats.

  5. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces glucose intolerance and insulin unresponsiveness to a glucose load not explained by obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. la Fleur; M.C.M. Luijendijk; A.J. van Rozen; A. Kalsbeek; R.A.H. Adan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In diet-induced obesity, it is not clear whether impaired glucose metabolism is caused directly by the diet, or indirectly via obesity. This study examined the effects of different free-choice, high-caloric, obesity-inducing diets on glucose metabolism. In these free-choice diets, satura

  6. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs. Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15 and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05. The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  7. Melatonin Signaling Controls the Daily Rhythm in Blood Glucose Levels Independent of Peripheral Clocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Owino

    Full Text Available Melatonin is rhythmically secreted by both the pineal gland and retina in a circadian fashion, with its peak synthesis occurring during the night. Once synthesized, melatonin exerts its effects by binding to two specific G-protein coupled receptors-melatonin receptor type 1(MT1 and melatonin receptor type 2(MT2. Recent studies suggest the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis; however the ability of melatonin signaling to impart timing cues on glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report that the removal of MT1 or MT2 in mice abolishes the daily rhythm in blood glucose levels. Interestingly, removal of melatonin receptors produced small effects on the rhythmic expression patterns of clock genes within skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the loss of the daily rhythm in blood glucose observed in MT1(-/- and MT2(-/- mice does not occur as a consequence of 'disrupted' clocks within insulin sensitive tissues. Finally our results highlight a diurnal contribution of melatonin receptor signaling in the daily regulation of blood glucose levels.

  8. Synergistic effect of high glucose and ANG II on proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells: involvement of PKC and MAPKs as well as AT1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hee; Han, Ho Jae

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the synergistic effect of high glucose levels and ANG II on proliferation and its related signal pathways using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The combined use of a high glucose concentration (25 mM) and ANG II increased the level of [3H]thymidine/BrdU incorporation, and the number of cells compared with either treatment alone. Each treatment with high glucose or ANG II increased the cell population in the S phase compared with control, and the combined treatment of a high glucose concentration and ANG II significantly increased the number of cells in the S phase according to FACS analysis. Moreover, the high glucose-induced increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation was blocked by inhibiting the ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor. The combined high glucose and ANG II significantly increased the STAT3 phosphorylation compared with high glucose or ANG II alone. ANG II stimulated the influx of Ca2+ in 25 mM glucose compared with 5 mM glucose. High glucose levels increase the level of PKC alpha, epsilon, and zeta translocation from the cytosol to the membrane fraction. In an examination of other signal pathways, the combined treatment significantly increased the level of p44/42, p38 MAPKs phosphorylation compared with either treatment alone. Indeed, the combined treatment increased the mRNA expression level of the protooncogenes and cell cycle regulatory proteins. In conclusion, the combined treatment of a high glucose concentration and ANG II had a synergistic effect in stimulating mouse ES cell proliferation through the Ca2+/PKC, MAPKs, and the AT1 receptor.

  9. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  10. Vochysia rufa Stem Bark Extract Protects Endothelial Cells against High Glucose Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neire Moura de Gouveia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased oxidative stress by persistent hyperglycemia is a widely accepted factor in vascular damage responsible for type 2 diabetes complications. The plant Vochysia rufa (Vr has been used in folk medicine in Brazil for the treatment of diabetes. Thus; the protective effect of a Vr stem bark extract against a challenge by a high glucose concentration on EA.hy926 (EA endothelial cells is evaluated. Methods: Vegetal material is extracted with distilled water by maceration and evaporated until dryness under vacuum. Then; it is isolated by capillary electrophoresis–tandem mass spectrometry. Cell viability is evaluated on EA cells treated with 0.5–100 µg/mL of the Vr extract for 24 h. The extract is diluted at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25 µg/mL and maintained for 24 h along with 30 mM of glucose to evaluate its protective effect on reduced glutathione (GSH; glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase (GR and protein carbonyl groups. Results: V. rufa stem bark is composed mainly of sugars; such as inositol; galactose; glucose; mannose; sacarose; arabinose and ribose. Treatment with Vr up to 100 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect cell viability. Treatment of EA cells with 30 mM of glucose for 24 h significantly increased the cell damage. EA cells treated with 30 mM of glucose showed a decrease of GSH concentration and increased Radical Oxygen Species (ROS and activity of antioxidant enzymes and protein carbonyl levels; compared to control. Co-treatment of EA with 30 mM glucose plus 1–10 μg/mL Vr significantly reduced cell damage while 5–25 μg/mL Vr evoked a significant protection against the glucose insult; recovering ROS; GSH; antioxidant enzymes and carbonyls to baseline levels. Conclusion: V. rufa extract protects endothelial cells against oxidative damage by modulating ROS; GSH concentration; antioxidant enzyme activity and protein carbonyl levels.

  11. 糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死患者血浆Hcy和血清hs-CRP水平的影响%The Influence of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on the Levels of Plasma Homocysteine and Serum High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction(ACI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红东; 陆敏; 唐冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of abnormal glucose tolerance on the levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with acute cerebral infarction( AGI). Methods 756 patients with AGI were divided into normal glucose tolerance group (NGT, 33 leases) , abnormal glucose tolerance group(IGT,142cases) ,and diabetes mellitus group (DM,283 scase) ac-cording to the result of oral glucose tolerance test( OGTT). The serum levels of Hcy and hs-GRP were measured in 24 hours after ad-mission. Result The both levels of Hey and hs-GRP in IGT group(19.17 9.35juno]/L,20.46 10.56μmol/L) and DM group (8.0 2.9 mg/L,7.7 2.3 mg/L) were higher than the NGT group with no difference between each other. Conclusion The levels of Hey and hs-GRP in patients with AGI and abnormal glucose tolerance rise significantly,which indicate the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis in the stage of abnormal glucose tolerance. The results showed abnormal glucose tolerance is the risk factor of atherosclerosis as diabetes mellitus,and the OGTT test is valuable in screening risk factors of AGI and stroke prevention.%目的:观察糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死(acute cerebral infarction,ACI)患者的同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平的影响.方法:756例ACI患者按葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)结果分为糖耐量正常组(NGT,331例)、单纯性糖耐量异常组(IGT,142例)、2型糖尿病组(DM2,283例).在入院24h之内测定血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平并进行组间比较.结果:IGT组及DM2组的Hcy水平(19.17±9.35)μmol/L、(20.46±10.56)μmol/L以及hs-CRP水平(8.0±2.9)mg/L、(7.7±2.3)mg/L明显高于NGT组(16.17±7.35)μmol/L、(3.5±1.2)mg/L.IGT组及DM2组两组之间的Hcy、hs-CRP水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05、P>0.05).结论:单纯性糖耐量异常的ACI患者血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平明显升高,表明在糖耐量异常阶段,已经出现了慢性低水平炎症和动脉粥样硬化的发生.提

  12. Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-04-01

    Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 μAcm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 Ω. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose.

  13. Correlation between human placental lactogen levels and glucose metabolism in pregnant women with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, R; Vasishta, K; Majumdar, S; Garg, S K

    1990-11-01

    Twenty pregnant women with fetal growth retardation and 20 pregnant women with appropriate for gestational age fetuses (controls) were recruited after the 28th week of gestation. Samples were collected for estimation of serum insulin and human placental lactogen (HPL) levels in the fasting state and a glucose tolerance test was carried out on all the subjects. The results showed the glucose and HPL levels to be significantly lower in the fetal growth retardation group compared to controls. There were no differences in the fasting serum insulin levels in the 2 groups. Fetal growth retardation appears to be linked with the absence of development of the physiological 'diabetogenic' state in the second half of pregnancy. This maternal hypoglycaemic state is associated with low HPL levels and not with raised maternal insulin levels as measured in the fasting state.

  14. Involvement of AP-1 in p38MAPK signaling pathway in osteoblast apoptosis induced by high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z P; Deng, H C; Jiang, R; Du, J; Cheng, D Y

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the effect of p38MAPK/AP-1 (activator protein-1) signaling on the apoptosis of osteoblasts induced by high glucose. A lentivirus vector of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting p38MAPK was constructed in vitro. Osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cultured in vitro were treated with vehicle, high glucose, p38MAPK-shRNA transfection, p38MAPK inhibitor, and unrelated shRNA transfection. Apoptosis, protein levels of p38MAPK, and activities of AP-1 in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were measured using TUNEL and flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Compared with the vehicle group, high glucose induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and activated p38MAPK and AP-1. p38MAPK-shRNA transfection blocked the effect of high glucose stimulation, and the p38MAPK inhibitor showed similar effects as those observed in p38MAPK transfection. Unrelated shRNA had no effect on these changes in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts induced by high glucose. Therefore, our results suggest that p38MAPK-shRNA reduce apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts induced by high glucose by inhibiting the p38MAPK-AP-1 signaling pathway.

  15. Naringin Protects Against High Glucose-Induced Human Endothelial Cell Injury Via Antioxidation and CX3CL1 Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The induction of endothelial injury by hyperglycemia in diabetes has been widely accepted. Naringin is a bio-flavonoid. Some studies showed that naringin alleviates diabetic complications, but the exact mechanisms by which naringin improves diabetic anomalies are not yet fully understood. The aim of this research was to study the protective effect of naringin on high glucose-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods: HUVECs were cultured with or without high glucose in the absence or presence of naringin for 5 days. The expression of CX3CL1 was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR and western blot. The cellular bioenergetic analysis oxygen consumption rate (OCR was measured with a Seahorse Bioscience XF analyzer. Results: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the expression of CX3CL1 and the level of AKT phosphorylation were increased in HUVECs cultured with high glucose compared with controls. However, naringin rescued these increases in ROS production, CX3CL1 expression and AKT phosphorylation. Nitric oxide (NO production and OCR were lower in the high glucose group, and naringin restored the changes induced by high glucose. Molecular docking results suggested that Naringin might interact with the CX3CL1 protein. Conclusion: Naringin protects HUVECs from high-glucose-induced damage through its antioxidant properties by downregulating CX3CL1 and by improving mitochondrial function.

  16. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    Full Text Available We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98. There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05.This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of diabetes mellitus, and may also be very useful in the diagnosis of postprandial hypoglycemia and other special situations.

  17. Effects of stress on exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, serum glucose and cortisol levels and body weight in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Shadan, Farrokh; Karimian, Seied Morteza; Sadr, Seied Shahab-e-din; Nasimi, Ali

    2006-02-21

    The effects of stress on the serum glucose, serum cortisol levels and body weight were investigated to clarify the possible link between the stress and diabetes. The experiments were performed on nondiabetic and streptozotocin diabetic rats divided to control, sham and stressed groups. Water immersion was used as stressor. After the experiment, blood samples were collected. The serum glucose level (SGL) was measured by the glucose oxidase method and serum cortisol level (SCL) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Stress caused a significant increase in glucose level in both nondiabetic and diabetic rats. In diabetes rats, a significant increase in SCL was observed. Stress did not cause, however, significant increases in SCL. A significant weight loss took place in rats exposed to stress and that was much greater in diabetic animals. The stress with mainly psychic component exacerbated the diabetes in streptozotocin treated rats and the glucose levels increased significantly also in nondiabetic controls, but no glucose was detected in their urine.

  18. Expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptors in cultured retinal Müller cells under high glucose circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinping; Sun, Yan; Wang, Zhongping; Cui, Weigang; Peng, Yuwen; Li, Ruixi

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of high glucose concentration on the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its family ligand receptors (GFRs) GFRα1 and GFRα2 in Müller cells and the protective role of GDNF in cultured Müller cells under high glucose circumstance. Cultured Müller cells (untreated or treated with 200 ng/mL of GDNF) were exposed to high glucose conditions (20 mmol/L glucose). We found that the expression levels of GDNF and GFRα1 mRNA and protein increased gradually over time under high glucose and exogenous GDNF-treated conditions, whereas the upregulation in GFRα2 expression was observed only in the early stage of high glucose conditions. Exogenous GDNF not only decreased apoptosis in cultured Müller cells under high glucose circumstance, but also accelerated the levels and speed of synthesis of GDNF and GFRα1 proteins in Müller cells. These results suggest that Müller cells can synthesize GDNF and GFRs under high glucose conditions, and GDNF may play important role in protecting Müller cells during the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. The difference in GFRs expression indicated that GDNF and neurturin may exert different effects on Müller cells under high glucose circumstance.

  19. Effects of Subcutaneous Injection MnO2 Micro- and Nanoparticles on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mousavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of nanotechnology has led to rapid growth in various areas. Thus, health and safety issues of nanoparticles (NPs should be promptly addressed. Manganese oxide (MnO2 nanoparticles (NPs are typically used for biomedical and industrial applications. However, characterizing the potential human health effects of MnO2 NPs is required before fully exploiting these materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of MnO2 micro- and nanoparticles on blood glucose level and lipid profile in male Wistar rats. Methods: A total of 105 rats were divided into one control and two experimental groups. Each experimental group received a single subcutaneous injection of MnO2 micro- and nanoparticles (100 µg/kg, respectively, every two weeks for 14 weeks. Their blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL levels were then measured. The data presented as mean±SEM and compared with the repeated measures using the Prism statistical software (version 6.0. Results: Biochemical assessment in plasma samples showed that MnO2 micro- and nanoparticles injection significantly (P<0.01 increased the plasma glucose and cholesterol levels in all and few weeks, respectively. MnO2 nanoparticles significantly (P<0.01 decreased the HDL level in weeks 6, 12, and 14, but MnO2 microparticles decreased the HDL level only in week 12. In both MnO2 micro- and nanoparticles groups, LDL alterations were near to the control group, except for week 10. However, the same treatment had no effect on triglycerides concentrations compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results show that exposure to nanosized particles at subchronic doses caused adverse changes in animal biochemical profiles, especially in glucose level. It seems that the high oxidative power of these particles is the main reason for these disturbances.

  20. Erythropoietin inhibits gluconeogenesis and inflammation in the liver and improves glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Meng

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO has multiple biological functions, including the modulation of glucose metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying the action of EPO are still obscure. This study is aimed at investigating the potential mechanisms by which EPO improves glucose tolerance in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks and then treated with EPO (HFD-EPO or vehicle saline (HFD-Con for two week. The levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and glucose tolerance were measured and the relative levels of insulin-related phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, insulin receptor (IR and IR substrate 1 (IRS1 phosphorylation were determined. The levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, glucose-6- phosphatase (G6Pase, toll like receptor 4 (TLR4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-6 expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK and p38 MAPK activation in the liver were examined. EPO treatment significantly reduced the body weights and the levels of fasting blood glucose and serum insulin and improved the HFD-induced glucose intolerance in mice. EPO treatment significantly enhanced the levels of Akt, but not IR and IRS1, phosphorylation, accompanied by inhibiting the PEPCK and G6Pase expression in the liver. Furthermore, EPO treatment mitigated the HFD-induced inflammatory TNF-α and IL-6 production, TLR4 expression, NF-κB and JNK, but not ERK and p38 MAPK, phosphorylation in the liver. Therefore, our data indicated that EPO treatment improved glucose intolerance by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and inflammation in the livers of HFD-fed mice.

  1. Three hours of intermittent hypoxia increases circulating glucose levels in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Lauren P; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B; Laurenti, Marcello C; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Vella, Adrian; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2017-01-01

    An independent association exists between sleep apnea and diabetes. Animal models suggest exposure to intermittent hypoxia, a consequence of sleep apnea, results in altered glucose metabolism and fasting hyperglycemia. However, it is unknown if acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia increases glucose concentrations in nondiabetic humans. We hypothesized plasma glucose would be increased from baseline following 3 h of intermittent hypoxia in healthy humans independent of any effect on insulin sensitivity. Eight (7M/1F, 21-34 years) healthy subjects completed two study visits randomized to 3 h of intermittent hypoxia or continuous normoxia, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Intermittent hypoxia consisted of 25 hypoxic events per hour where oxygen saturation (SpO2) was significantly reduced (Normoxia: 97 ± 1%, Hypoxia: 90 ± 2%, P  0.05). In contrast, circulating glucose concentrations were increased after 3 h of intermittent hypoxia when compared to baseline (5.0 ± 0.2 vs. 5.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P = 0.01). There were no detectable changes in insulin sensitivity following intermittent hypoxia when compared to continuous normoxia, as assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test (P > 0.05). Circulating glucose is increased after 3 h of intermittent hypoxia in healthy humans, independent of any lasting changes in insulin sensitivity. These novel findings could explain, in part, the high prevalence of diabetes in patients with sleep apnea and warrant future studies to identify underlying mechanisms.

  2. Monitoring of glucose levels in mouse blood with noninvasive optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmed, E.; Ikram, M.

    2014-02-01

    We report the quantification/monitoring of glucose levels in a blood sample using optical diffuse reflectance (ODR) underlying variations in optical parameters with a white light source (at peak wavelength ˜600 nm and range 450-850 nm) and in blood in vivo using M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT) in terms of the translational diffusion coefficient (DT). In the ODR experiments, we have investigated two types of mono-dispersive particles, i.e. polystyrene microspheres (PMSs) with diameters of 1.4 μm (variable concentrations) and 2.6 μm (fixed concentration) in a water phantom by observing changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding and optimal use of laser applications in blood glucometry without piercing the skin. In the OCT experiments, this idea of glucose monitoring was applied on an in vivo normal mouse without injection of glucose intravenously to provide the threshold levels by envisioning/identifying a blood vessel by speckle variance (SV-OCT) using a dorsal skinfold mouse windows chamber model. We report an average value of translation decorrelation time τT = 41.18 ± 1.92 ms and DT = 8.90 × 10-14 m2 s-1 underlying the dynamic light scattering (DLS). Our results have a potential application in the quantification of higher glucose levels in vivo administrated intravenously.

  3. Changes in glucose, insulin, and growth hormone levels associated with bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (HGH) resulting from exposure to 56 d of bedrest were determined in five healthy young male subjects. Changes in the daily levels of these factors for each subject were expressed as the mean of six blood samples per 24-h period. The level of HGH dropped after 10 d of bedrest, then showed a 1.5-fold increase at 20 d and subsequently decreased gradually reaching levels of 2.5 mg/ml/24 h, well below pre-bedrest controls of 4.2 mg/ml/24 h, by the 54th d. In spite of a marked increase in the daily plasma insulin levels during the first 30 d of bedrest, glucose levels remained unchanged. Beyond 30 d of bedrest, insulin began decreasing toward pre-bedrest levels and glucose followed with a similar reduction to below the control levels of 75 mg/100 ml/24 h on day 54. The daily mean changes reflect a change in the amplitude of the diurnal variation. The daily peak in plasma insulin shifted progressively to the late evening during the bedrest period.

  4. Starch source influences dietary glucose generation at the mucosal α-glucosidase level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Nichols, Buford L; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Rose, David R; Naim, Hassan Y; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2012-10-26

    The quality of starch digestion, related to the rate and extent of release of dietary glucose, is associated with glycemia-related problems such as diabetes and other metabolic syndrome conditions. Here, we found that the rate of glucose generation from starch is unexpectedly associated with mucosal α-glucosidases and not just α-amylase. This understanding could lead to a new approach to regulate the glycemic response and glucose-related physiologic responses in the human body. There are six digestive enzymes for starch: salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and four mucosal α-glucosidases, including N- and C-terminal subunits of both maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase. Only the mucosal α-glucosidases provide the final hydrolytic activities to produce substantial free glucose. We report here the unique and shared roles of the individual α-glucosidases for α-glucans persisting after starch is extensively hydrolyzed by α-amylase (to produce α-limit dextrins (α-LDx)). All four α-glucosidases share digestion of linear regions of α-LDx, and three can hydrolyze branched fractions. The α-LDx, which were derived from different maize cultivars, were not all equally digested, revealing that the starch source influences glucose generation at the mucosal α-glucosidase level. We further discovered a fraction of α-LDx that was resistant to the extensive digestion by the mucosal α-glucosidases. Our study further challenges the conventional view that α-amylase is the only rate-determining enzyme involved in starch digestion and better defines the roles of individual and collective mucosal α-glucosidases. Strategies to control the rate of glucogenesis at the mucosal level could lead to regulation of the glycemic response and improved glucose management in the human body.

  5. Mangiferin Upregulates Glyoxalase 1 Through Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling in Central Neurons Cultured with High Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Wu; Cheng, Ya-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Li; Hao, Yun-Chao; Li, Yu; Zhu, Xia; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiao-Xing

    2016-06-18

    Mangiferin, a natural C-glucoside xanthone, has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective actions. Our previous study showed that mangiferin could attenuate diabetes-associated cognitive impairment of rats by enhancing the function of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1) in brain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Glo-1 upregulation by mangiferin in central neurons exposed to chronic high glucose may be related to activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway. Compared with normal glucose (25 mmol/L) culture, Glo-1 protein, mRNA, and activity levels were markedly decreased in primary hippocampal and cerebral cortical neurons cultured with high glucose (50 mmol/L) for 72 h, accompanied by the declined Nrf2 nuclear translocation and protein expression of Nrf2 in cell nucleus, as well as protein expression and mRNA level of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) and superoxide dismutase activity, target genes of Nrf2/ARE signaling. Nonetheless, high glucose cotreating with mangiferin or sulforaphane, a typical inducer of Nrf2 activation, attenuated the above changes in both central neurons. In addition, mangiferin and sulforaphane significantly prevented the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) reflecting Glo-1 activity, while elevated the level of glutathione, a cofactor of Glo-1 activity and production of γ-GCS, in high glucose cultured central neurons. These findings demonstrated that Glo-1 was greatly downregulated in central neurons exposed to chronic high glucose, which is expected to lead the formation of AGEs and oxidative stress damages. We also proved that mangiferin enhanced the function of Glo-1 under high glucose condition by inducing activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

  6. High protein high fibre snack bars reduce food intake and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles compared with high fat snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gemma; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Foster, Paul; Clifton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The replacement in the diet of refined carbohydrate and fat with fibre and protein has been shown to promote satiety and improve glucose and insulin profiles. It is less clear whether the macronutrient composition of individual foods such as snacks have any meaningful impact on metabolic parameters and satiety. We examined if the consumption of higher protein higher fibre snack bars would result in reducing outcome measures such as food intake and glucose and insulin patterns compared to a conventional isocaloric high fat high refined carbohydrate snack bar. Twenty three women were randomized in a single blind cross over study with 2 interventions, a high fat high sugar snack bar and a comparatively higher protein, higher fibre snack bar intervention. Snack bars were eaten at mid morning and mid afternoon, and a standard breakfast and ad libitum buffet lunch. The glucose and insulin responses over 9 hours were significantly lower (P = 0.014 and P = 0.012 respectively) during the high protein snack bar intervention. Peak glucose levels were also 16% lower after the morning HP bar (P bar reduced the energy intake at the buffet lunch meal by 5% (4657 +/- 1025KJ vs 4901 +/- 1186KJ, P bar can assist in reducing the energy intake at a subsequent meal and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles.

  7. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear...

  8. Unaltered lactate and glucose transporter levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchades, Maja; Sogn, Carl Johan; Maehlen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic impairment contributes to development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in degeneration of nigral dopamine neurons. Also, in PD there are alterations in glucose metabolism in nigro-striatal pathways, and increased cerebral lactate levels have...... of MCT1, MCT2 and GLUT1 is not changed following dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This is in contrast to findings in other neurodegenerative disease, such as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, where there are large alterations in MCT levels....

  9. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there ...

  10. Integration of a highly ordered gold nanowires array with glucose oxidase for ultra-sensitive glucose detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jiewu [NanoScience and Sensor Technology Research Group, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Gippsland Campus, Churchill 3842, VIC Australia (Australia); Laboratory of Functional Nanomaterials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui (China); Adeloju, Samuel B., E-mail: sam.adeloju@monash.edu [NanoScience and Sensor Technology Research Group, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Gippsland Campus, Churchill 3842, VIC Australia (Australia); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Functional Nanomaterials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui (China)

    2014-01-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Successfully synthesised highly-ordered gold nanowires array with an AAO template. •Fabricated an ultra-sensitive glucose nanobiosensor with the gold nanowires array. •Achieved sensitivity as high as 379.0 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and detection limit as low as 50 nM. •Achieved excellent anti-interference with aid of Nafion membrane towards UA and AA. •Enabled successful detection and quantification of glucose in human blood serum. -- Abstract: A highly sensitive amperometric nanobiosensor has been developed by integration of glucose oxidase (GO{sub x}) with a gold nanowires array (AuNWA) by cross-linking with a mixture of glutaraldehyde (GLA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). An initial investigation of the morphology of the synthesized AuNWA by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) revealed that the nanowires array was highly ordered with rough surface, and the electrochemical features of the AuNWA with/without modification were also investigated. The integrated AuNWA–BSA–GLA–GO{sub x} nanobiosensor with Nafion membrane gave a very high sensitivity of 298.2 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} for amperometric detection of glucose, while also achieving a low detection limit of 0.1 μM, and a wide linear range of 5–6000 μM. Furthermore, the nanobiosensor exhibited excellent anti-interference ability towards uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) with the aid of Nafion membrane, and the results obtained for the analysis of human blood serum indicated that the device is capable of glucose detection in real samples.

  11. [Salidroside attenuates high glucose-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via activating the Ca(2)+/CaM/CAMKIIδ/eNOS pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziwei; Wu, Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Endothelial oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L, could exert potent antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects, and related mechanism of salidroside against high glucose (33 mmol/L)-induced cell damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were cultured in normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L), high glucose (33 mmol/L), high salidroside (10 µg/ml+33 mmol/L glucose), moderate salidroside (4 µg/ml+33 mmol/L glucose), low salidroside (1 µg/ml+33 mmol/L glucose) and very low salidroside (0.1 µg/ml+33 mmol/L glucose) for 48 h. Cell viability, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) , reactive oxygen species (ROS) , nitric oxide (NO) , [Ca(2)+]i, calmodulin (CaM) , calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) IIδ, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) , active caspase-3 protein expression and eNOS ser 1177 phosphorylation of HUVECs post various treatments were measured. The cell viability was assessed with MTT assay, and the level of ROS, and [Ca(2)+]i was analyzed using flow cytometry. Nitric oxide and MDA was detected by Nitric Oxide Assay Kit and MDA Assay Kit. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expressions of eNOS, active caspase-3 and eNOS ser 1177 phosphorylation. Comparing to the normal glucose group, high glucose treatment increased the cell damage, the level of NO and [Ca(2)+]i (P Salidroside treatment significantly attenuated high glucose-induce cell damage on cultured HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Comparing to the high glucose group, 10 µg/ml Salidroside significantly increased cell viability (P salidroside could attenuate high glucose induced apoptosis in HUVEC, partly through activating the Ca(2)+/CaM/CAMKIIδ/eNOS pathway.

  12. Puerarin prevents high glucose-induced apoptosis of Schwann cells by inhibiting oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying Wu; Bing Xue; Xiaojin Li; Hongchen Liu

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress may be the unifying factor for the injury caused by hyperglycemia in diabeticperipheral neuropathy.Puerarin is the major isoflavonoid derived from Radix puerariae and has been shown to be effective in increasing superoxide dismutase activity.This study sought to investigate the neuroprotective effect of puerarin on high glucose-induced oxidative stress and Schwann cell apoptosis in vitro.Intracellular reactive oxygen radicals and mitochondrial transmembrane potential were detected by flow cytometry analysis.Apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL and oxidative stress was monitored using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the DNA marker 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine.The expression levels of bax and bcl-2 were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR,while protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and-9 were analyzed by means of western blotting.Results suggested that puerarin treatment inhibited high glucose-induced oxidative stress,mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.Furthermore,puerarin treatment downregulated Bax expression,upregulated bcl-2 expression and attenuated the activation of caspase-3 and-9.Overall,our results indicated that puerarin antagonized high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in Schwann cells.

  13. Effects of endomorphins on human umbilical vein endothelial cells under high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wei, Suhong; Tian, Limin; Yan, Liping; Guo, Qian; Ma, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    The endomorphin-1 (EM1) and endomorphin-2 (EM2) are endogenous opioid peptides, which modulate extensive bioactivities such as pain, cardiovascular responses, immunological responses and so on. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of EM1/EM2 on the primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) damaged by high glucose. PI AnnexinV-FITC detection was performed to evaluate the apoptosis rate. Levels of nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were measured by the Griess reaction and the conversion of 3H-arginine to 3H-citrulline, respectively. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT viability assay. mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and ET-1 were measured by real-time PCR. Our data showed that EM1/EM2 inhibited cell apoptosis. The high glucose induced increase in expression of NO, NOS and ET-1 were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with EM1/EM2 in a dose dependent manner. In addition, EM1/EM2 suppressed the mRNA eNOS and mRNA ET-1 expression in HUVECs under high glucose conditions. Naloxone, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, did not influence the mRNA eNOS expression when it was administrated on its own; but it could significantly antagonize the effects induced by EM1/EM2. Furthermore, in all assay systems, EM1 was more potent than EM2. The results suggest that EM1/EM2 have a beneficial effect in protecting against the endothelial dysfunction by high glucose in vitro, and these effects were mediated by the opioid receptors in HUVECs.

  14. Activin A Levels Are Associated With Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Geir Ø.; Ueland, Thor; Knudsen, Eva C.; Scholz, Hanne; Yndestad, Arne; Sahraoui, Afaf; Smith, Camilla; Lekva, Tove; Otterdal, Kari; Halvorsen, Bente; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Aukrust, Pål

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE On the basis of the role of activin A in inflammation, atherogenesis, and glucose homeostasis, we investigated whether activin A could be related to glucometabolic abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Activin A measurement and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed in patients (n = 115) with acute MI, without previously known diabetes, and repeated after 3 months. Release of activin A and potential anti-inflammatory effects of activin A were measured in human endothelial cells. Activin A effects on insulin secretion and inflammation were tested in human pancreatic islet cells. RESULTS 1) In patients with acute MI, serum levels of activin A were significantly higher in those with abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) compared with those with normal glucose regulation. Activin A levels were associated with the presence of AGR 3 months later (adjusted odds ratio 5.1 [95% CI 1.73–15.17], P = 0.003). 2) In endothelial cells, glucose enhanced the release of activin A, whereas activin A attenuated the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and enhanced the mRNA levels of the antioxidant metallothionein. 3) In islet cells, activin A attenuated the suppressive effect of inflammatory cytokines on insulin release, counteracted the ability of these inflammatory cytokines to induce mRNA expression of IL-8, and induced the expression of transforming growth factor-β. CONCLUSIONS We found a significant association between activin A and newly detected AGR in patients with acute MI. Our in vitro findings suggest that this association represents a counteracting mechanism to protect against inflammation, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. PMID:21464440

  15. Xerostomia and salivary levels of glucose and urea in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, K; Naumovski, V; Kostadinova, M; Pesevska, S; Drijanska, K; Filipce, V

    2012-01-01

    Examination of the composition of saliva in patients with diabetes may be useful for understanding why oral manifestations occur and how they should be treated. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of severity of xerostomia, salivary concentrations of glucose and urea in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes, and to determine the correlation between xerostomia and salivary glucose levels. For the realization of this goal, the study included 60 patients of both sexes aged 30-70 years. The sample was divided into two groups. The first, experimental, group consisted of 30 patients who had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The control group consisted of 30 subjects who were not suffering from diabetes. To determine the degree of severity of xerostomia among all respondents a questionnaire recommended by Carda was used. From all patients in both the control and experimental group, total saliva was collected for 10 minutes for biochemical analysis in accordance with the recommendations of Navazesh. Salivary glucose was determined by using the enzymatic method with a hexokinase (mmol/l), and salivary urea by using the kinetic method with urease and glutamate dehydrogenase (mmol/l). Varying degrees of xerostomia were noticed in 80% of the experimental group and only 10% of the control group. In diabetics, we found significantly higher levels of urea (2.36 mmol/l) and glucose (0.022 mmol/l) in the saliva compared with the values of these parameters (1.48 mmol/l, 0017 mmol/l) in the control group. Based on these results, we concluded that diabetes is a disease that causes xerostomia and there is a significant correlation between the degree of xerostomia and the salivary level of glucose.

  16. Elevated skeletal muscle glucose transporter levels in exercise-trained middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmard, J A; Egan, P C; Neufer, P D; Friedman, J E; Wheeler, W S; Israel, R G; Dohm, G L

    1991-10-01

    Exercise training has been proposed to improve whole body insulin sensitivity through a postreceptor adaptation in skeletal muscle. This study examined if levels of the insulin-responsive muscle glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4) were associated with improved insulin sensitivity in trained vs. sedentary middle-aged individuals. Muscle GLUT-4 levels and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) responses were obtained in age-matched trained and sedentary men (n = 11). Plasma insulin levels during the OGTT were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) in the trained men, whereas no differences were seen in plasma glucose responses. GLUT-4 protein content was approximately twofold higher in the trained men (2.41 +/- 0.17 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.11 micrograms standard, P less than 0.001). OGTT responses and GLUT-4 levels were not altered 15-18 h after a standard exercise bout in six representative sedentary subjects. These data suggest that GLUT-4 levels are increased in conjunction with insulin sensitivity in chronically exercise-trained middle-aged men. This finding suggests a possible mechanism for the improved insulin sensitivity observed with exercise training in humans.

  17. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  18. Probiotics lower plasma glucose in the high-fat fed C57BL/6J mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, U; Bränning, C; Ahrné, S; Molin, G; Alenfall, J; Onning, G; Nyman, M; Holm, C

    2010-06-01

    Today, the gut microbiota is considered a key organ in host nutritional metabolism and recent data have suggested that alterations in gut microbiota contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Accordingly, a whole range of beneficial effects relating to inflammation and gut health have been observed following administration of probiotics to both humans and different animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of an oral probiotic supplement, Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313, to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice, a model of human obesity and early diabetes. The mice were fed the experimental diets for 20 weeks, after which the HFD had induced an insulin-resistant state in both groups compared to the start of the study. The increase in body weight during the HFD feeding was higher in the probiotic group than in the control group, however, there were no significant differences in body fat content. Fasting plasma glucose levels were lower in the group fed the probiotic supplement, whereas insulin and lipids were not different. Caecal levels of short-chain fatty acids were not significantly different between the groups. An oral glucose tolerance test showed that the group fed probiotics had a significantly lower insulin release compared to the control group, although the rate of glucose clearance was not different. Taken together, these data indicate that L. plantarum DSM 15313 has anti-diabetic properties when fed together with an HFD.

  19. [Efectiveness of long-term consumption of nuts, seeds and seeds' oil on glucose and lipid levels; systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lira-García, C; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Jiménez-Cruz, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of long-term consumption of nuts, seeds and vegetable oil (NSO) on weight, glucose, and lipid levels. We searched English articles published in Pubmed and Ebsco up to May 2011. Studies were included if they were randomized clinical trials, and had an intervention period of 24 or more weeks. Search terms include: "diabetes mellitus", "Nuts", "Diet Mediterranean", "Seeds", "Oils", "Canola oil", "Olive oil","Walnut", "Almond", "Pistachio", "Paleolithic diet", "High monounsaturated diet", "High polyunsaturated diet", "Soya" and "Sunflower". Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria; eight studies had a 24 weeks intervention period, one had 42 weeks, one had 48 weeks, and for the other three the intervention lasted 52 or more weeks. At 24 weeks a consistent increase of HDL levels and inconsistent improvement of weight, BMI, waist to hip index, A1C, total cholesterol, LDL: HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure was observed. Four studies with an intervention ≥ 48 weeks showed no statistical difference, and in one study a reduction of weight, BMI, waist hip index, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL: cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure was observed. No evidence of long-term improvement of NSO on weight, glucose or lipids in the adult population was found.

  20. The Impact of a Pure Protein Load on the Glucose Levels in Type 1 Diabetes Patients Treated with Insulin Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Klupa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the impact of ingestion of a pure protein load on the glucose levels in T1DM patients treated with insulin pumps. We examined 10 T1DM patients (6 females, mean age—32.3 years, mean HbA1c—6.8% treated with insulin pumps equipped with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. In Phase I, baseline insulin infusion was optimized to minimize the differences in fasting glucose levels to less than 30 mg/dL between any two time points between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. In Phase II, the patients were exposed to single pure protein load. CGMS record was performed and the glucose pattern was defined for 6 hours of each phase. The maximal glucose level increment was similar for the entire duration of the fasting and the protein load test (26.6 versus 27.6 mg/dL, resp., P<0.78. There was only a borderline difference in change between baseline versus 6th hour glucose (12.5 and 19.0 mg/dL, P=0.04. Glucose variability, assessed by standard deviation of mean glucose levels, was 36.4 and 37.9 mg/dL, respectively (P=0.01. The administration of a pure protein load does not seem to have a clinically significant impact on glucose levels in T1DM patients treated with insulin pumps.

  1. The impact of a pure protein load on the glucose levels in type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupa, Tomasz; Benbenek-Klupa, Teresa; Matejko, Bartlomiej; Mrozinska, Sandra; Malecki, Maciej T

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of ingestion of a pure protein load on the glucose levels in T1DM patients treated with insulin pumps. We examined 10 T1DM patients (6 females, mean age-32.3 years, mean HbA1c-6.8%) treated with insulin pumps equipped with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). In Phase I, baseline insulin infusion was optimized to minimize the differences in fasting glucose levels to less than 30 mg/dL between any two time points between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. In Phase II, the patients were exposed to single pure protein load. CGMS record was performed and the glucose pattern was defined for 6 hours of each phase. The maximal glucose level increment was similar for the entire duration of the fasting and the protein load test (26.6 versus 27.6 mg/dL, resp., P < 0.78). There was only a borderline difference in change between baseline versus 6th hour glucose (12.5 and 19.0 mg/dL, P = 0.04). Glucose variability, assessed by standard deviation of mean glucose levels, was 36.4 and 37.9 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.01). The administration of a pure protein load does not seem to have a clinically significant impact on glucose levels in T1DM patients treated with insulin pumps.

  2. The Impact of a Pure Protein Load on the Glucose Levels in Type 1 Diabetes Patients Treated with Insulin Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupa, Tomasz; Benbenek-Klupa, Teresa; Matejko, Bartlomiej; Mrozinska, Sandra; Malecki, Maciej T.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of ingestion of a pure protein load on the glucose levels in T1DM patients treated with insulin pumps. We examined 10 T1DM patients (6 females, mean age—32.3 years, mean HbA1c—6.8%) treated with insulin pumps equipped with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). In Phase I, baseline insulin infusion was optimized to minimize the differences in fasting glucose levels to less than 30 mg/dL between any two time points between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. In Phase II, the patients were exposed to single pure protein load. CGMS record was performed and the glucose pattern was defined for 6 hours of each phase. The maximal glucose level increment was similar for the entire duration of the fasting and the protein load test (26.6 versus 27.6 mg/dL, resp., P < 0.78). There was only a borderline difference in change between baseline versus 6th hour glucose (12.5 and 19.0 mg/dL, P = 0.04). Glucose variability, assessed by standard deviation of mean glucose levels, was 36.4 and 37.9 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.01). The administration of a pure protein load does not seem to have a clinically significant impact on glucose levels in T1DM patients treated with insulin pumps. PMID:25767510

  3. Enzyme controlled glucose auto-delivery for high cell density cultivations in microplates and shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casteleijn Marco G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe a novel cultivation method, called EnBase™, or enzyme-based-substrate-delivery, for the growth of microorganisms in millilitre and sub-millilitre scale which yields 5 to 20 times higher cell densities compared to standard methods. The novel method can be directly applied in microwell plates and shake flasks without any requirements for additional sensors or liquid supply systems. EnBase is therefore readily applicable for many high throughput applications, such as DNA production for genome sequencing, optimisation of protein expression, production of proteins for structural genomics, bioprocess development, and screening of enzyme and metagenomic libraries. Results High cell densities with EnBase are obtained by applying the concept of glucose-limited fed-batch cultivation which is commonly used in industrial processes. The major difference of the novel method is that no external glucose feed is required, but glucose is released into the growth medium by enzymatic degradation of starch. To cope with the high levels of starch necessary for high cell density cultivation, starch is supplied to the growing culture suspension by continuous diffusion from a storage gel. Our results show that the controlled enzyme-based supply of glucose allows a glucose-limited growth to high cell densities of OD600 = 20 to 30 (corresponding to 6 to 9 g l-1 cell dry weight without the external feed of additional compounds in shake flasks and 96-well plates. The final cell density can be further increased by addition of extra nitrogen during the cultivation. Production of a heterologous triosphosphate isomerase in E. coli BL21(DE3 resulted in 10 times higher volumetric product yield and a higher ratio of soluble to insoluble product when compared to the conventional production method. Conclusion The novel EnBase method is robust and simple-to-apply for high cell density cultivation in shake flasks and microwell plates. The

  4. Effects of a fibre-enriched milk drink on insulin and glucose levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilvi Taru K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycaemic response to foods is dependent on the quality and content of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates in the form of dietary fibre have favourable effects on insulin and glucose metabolism and may help to control energy intake. Dairy products have a relatively low carbohydrate content, and most of the carbohydrate is in the form of lactose which causes gastrointestinal symptoms in part of the population. In order to avoid these symptoms, dairy products can be replaced with lactose-free dairy products which are on the market in many parts of the world. However, the effects of lactose-free products on insulin and glucose metabolism have not been studied. Methods In the present study, we investigated the effects of 1 a lactose-free milk drink, 2 a novel fibre-enriched, fat- and lactose-free milk drink and 3 normal fat-free milk on serum glucose and insulin levels and satiety using a randomized block design. Following an overnight fast, 26 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of one of these drinks on three non-consecutive days. Insulin and glucose levels and subjective satiety ratings were measured before the ingestion of the milk product and 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion. The responses were calculated as the area under the curve subtracted by the baseline value (AUC minus baseline. Results The insulin response was significantly lower for the fibre-enriched milk drink than it was for the other milk products (AUC, P = 0.007. There were no differences in the response for glucose or in the AUC for the subjective satiety ratings between the studied milk products. Conclusion The present results suggest that this novel milk drink could have positive effects on insulin response.

  5. The Glucose Sensor-Like Protein Hxs1 Is a High-Affinity Glucose Transporter and Required for Virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Gregory M.; Fahmy, Hany; Jiang, Linghuo; Xue, Chaoyang

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus is a major fungal pathogen that frequently causes systemic infection in patients with compromised immunity. Glucose, an important signal molecule and the preferred carbon source for Cryptococcus, plays a critical role in fungal development and virulence. Cryptococcus contains more than 50 genes sharing high sequence homology with hexose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is no report on their function in glucose sensing or transport. In this study, we investigated two hexose transporter-like proteins (Hxs1 and Hxs2) in Cryptococcus that share the highest sequence identity with the glucose sensors Snf3 and Rgt2 in S. cerevisiae. The expression of HXS1 is repressed by high glucose, while the HXS2 expression is not regulated by glucose. Functional studies showed that Hxs1 is required for fungal resistance to oxidative stress and fungal virulence. The hxs1Δ mutant exhibited a significant reduction in glucose uptake activity, indicating that Hxs1 is required for glucose uptake. Heterologous expression of Cryptococcus HXS1 rendered the S. cerevisiae mutant lacking all 20 hexose transporters a high glucose uptake activity, demonstrating that Hxs1 functions as a glucose transporter. Heterologous expression of HXS1 in the snf3Δ rgt2Δ double mutant did not complement its growth in YPD medium containing the respiration inhibitor antimycin A, suggesting that Hxs1 may not function as a glucose sensor. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Hxs1 is a high-affinity glucose transporter and required for fungal virulence. PMID:23691177

  6. Boehmeria nivea Stimulates Glucose Uptake by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in C2C12 Cells and Improves Glucose Intolerance in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the antidiabetic property of Boehmeria nivea (L. Gaud. Ethanolic extract of Boehmeria nivea (L. Gaud. (EBN increased the uptake of 2-[N-(nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose in C2C12 myotubes. To examine the mechanisms underlying EBN-mediated increase in glucose uptake, we examined the transcriptional activity and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ, a pivotal target for glucose metabolism in C2C12 myotubes. We found that the EBN increased both the transcriptional activity and mRNA expression levels of PPAR-γ. In addition, we measured phosphorylation and expression levels of other targets of glucose metabolism, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB. We found that EBN did not alter the phosphorylation or expression levels of these proteins in a time- or dose-dependent manner, which suggested that EBN stimulates glucose uptake through a PPAR-γ-dependent mechanism. Further, we investigated the antidiabetic property of EBN using mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Administration of 0.5% EBN reduced the HFD-induced increase in body weight, total cholesterol level, and fatty liver and improved the impaired fasting glucose level, blood insulin content, and glucose intolerance. These results suggest that EBN had an antidiabetic effect in cell culture and animal systems and may be useful for preventing diabetes.

  7. High glucose concentrations alter the biomineralization process in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, A; Arzate, H; Gil-Chavarría, I; Rojo, R; Moreno-Fierros, L

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) may alter bone remodeling, as osteopenia and osteoporosis are among the complications. Moreover, DM increases the risk and severity of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease, in which bone resorption occurs. Broad evidence suggests that chronic inflammation can contribute to the development of DM and its complications. Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of DM that may contribute to sustained inflammation by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, which are known to cause insulin resistance, via toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-mediated mechanisms. However, the mechanisms by which bone-related complications develop in DM are still unknown. Studies done on the effect of high glucose concentrations on osteoblast functions are contradictory because some suggest increases (although others suggest reductions) in the biomineralization process. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of high glucose levels on biomineralization and inflammation markers in a human osteoblastic cell line. Cells were treated with either physiological 5.5 mM or increasing concentrations of glucose up to 24 mM, and we determined the following: i) the quantity and quality of calcium-deposit crystals in culture and ii) the expression of the following: a) proteins associated with the process of biomineralization, b) the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), c) cytokines IL1, IL6, IL8, IL10, MCP-1 and TNF alpha, and d) TLR-2, -3, -4 and -9. Our results show that high glucose concentrations (12 mM and particularly 24 mM) alter the biomineralization process in osteoblastic cells and provoke the following: i) a rise in mineralization, ii) an increase in the mRNA expression of RANKL and a decrease of OPG, iii) an increase in the mRNA expression of osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and the transcription factor Runx2, iv) a diminished quality of the mineral, and v) an increase in the expression of IL1beta, IL6, IL8, MCP-1 and IL10 mRNAs. In addition we

  8. AGEs and Glucose Levels Modulate Type I and III Procollagen mRNA Synthesis in Dermal Fibroblasts Cells Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Iren Andreea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dermis, fibroblasts play an important role in the turnover of the dermal extracellular matrix. Collagen I and III, the most important dermal proteins of the extracellular matrix, are progressively altered during ageing and diabetes. For mimicking diabetic conditions, the cultured human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with increasing amounts of AGE-modified BSA and D-glucose for 24 hours. The expression of procollagen α2(I and procollagen α1(III mRNA was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our data revealed that the treatment of fibroblasts with AGE-modified BSA upregulated the expression of procollagen α2(I and procollagen α1(III mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. High glucose levels mildly induced a profibrogenic pattern, increasing the procollagen α2(I mRNA expression whereas there was a downregulation tendency of procollagen α1(III mRNA.

  9. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherajee, Shamshad J; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-11-15

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 µg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation.

  10. Sex difference in the effect of the fasting serum glucose level on the risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Nam, Chung Mo; Suh, Il

    2017-09-04

    Diabetic women have a greater relative risk of coronary heart disease than diabetic men. However, the sex difference in the effect of fasting serum glucose levels below the diabetic range on the risk of coronary heart disease is unclear. We investigated whether the association between nondiabetic blood glucose levels and the incident risk of coronary heart disease is different between men and women. The fasting serum glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline were measured in 159,702 subjects (100,144 men and 59,558 women). Primary outcomes were hospital admission and death due to coronary heart disease during the 11-year follow-up. The risk for coronary heart disease in women significantly increased with impaired fasting glucose levels (≥110mg/dL) compared to normal glucose levels (coronary heart disease in men was significantly increased at a diabetic glucose range (≥126mg/dL). Women had a higher hazard ratio of coronary heart disease associated with the fasting serum glucose level than men (p for interaction with sex=0.021). The stronger effect of the fasting serum glucose levels on the risk of coronary heart disease in women than in men was significant from a prediabetic range (≥110mg/dL). Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Jiang Zhuo Mixture on Blood Glucose Level and Insulin Resistance in Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiabo; Wang Hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the knowledge of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine and modem biomedical sciences,Dr. Wang Hui (王晖) designed Jiang Zhuo Mixture (降浊合剂) , a preparation for treatment of fat diabetes type 2. Jiang Zhuo Mixture showed good actions of strengthening the spleen and stomach,separating the clear from the turbid, resolving the stasis and decreasing the blood glucose level. These were reported as follows.

  12. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of aqueous Lenzites betulina extracts from the Philippines on the blood glucose levels of the ICR mice(Mus musculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faizal Rajeeb Mangudadatu Hussin; Rodel Jonathan Santos Vitor Ⅱ; Julie Ann Oraa Joaquin; Melody Mendoza Clerigo; Anamy Ma.Caterial Paano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the anti-hyperglycemic effects of aqueous Lenzites betulina(L. betulina) extracts on normoglycemic glucose-loaded mice.Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract from L. betulina were administered to 45 ICR mice(Mus musculus) to determine whether there was an effect of L. betulina extracts on the blood glucose level of the ICR mice. Aqueous extracts of L. betulina were orally gavaged to mice using oral glucose tolerance test. A total of five groups were used to determine the effect of the fungi on blood glucose of the mice. Group A(positive control)was given 16.7 mg/kg glimepiride; Group B(negative control) was given distilled water;Group C(low dosage) was given 200 mg/kg aqueous extract; Group D(mid dosage) was given 400 mg/kg aqueous extract and Group E(high dosage) was given 800 mg/kg aqueous extract. Baseline blood glucose value was firstly acquired before induction of hyperglycemia through D-glucose, after which another check on blood glucose was made after 0.5 h. Immediately, after the acquisition of hyperglycemic blood glucose level, the individual administration of treatments were done. After that, three blood collections were done spanning 3 h with 1 h interval.Results: The low dose(200 mg/kg) and the mid dose(400 mg/kg) of L. betulina extracts were significantly different(P 0.05) from its corresponding baseline value, acting faster than the positive control(glimepiride), which only became significantly different(P < 0.05) at the 2nd hour.Conclusions: Aqueous L. betulina extract is able to produce hypoglycemic effects on the mice with all doses, which are able to normalize blood glucose levels at varying times.

  13. Converting enzyme inhibitor temocaprilat prevents high glucose-mediated suppression of human aortic endothelial cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Maeda, Kensaku; Watanabe, Takanori; Nakamura, Munehiro; Asada, Akira; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2003-12-01

    We examined the involvement of the oxidative stress in high glucose-induced suppression of human aortic endothelial cell proliferation. Chronic glucose treatment for 72 h concentration-dependently (5.6-22.2 mol/l) inhibited human coronary endothelial cell proliferation. Temocaprilat, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, at 10 nmol/l to 1 micromol/l inhibited high glucose (22.2 mmol/l)-mediated suppression of human aortic endothelial cell proliferation. Temocaprilat at 1 micromol/l inhibited high glucose-induced membrane-bound protein kinase C activity in human aortic endothelial cells. The protein kinase C inhibitors calphostin C 100 nmol/l or chelerythrine 1 micromol/l inhibited high glucose-mediated suppression of human aortic endothelial cell proliferation. Chronic high glucose treatment for 72 h increased intracellular oxidative stress, directly measured by flow cytometry using carboxydichlorofluorescein diacetate bis-acetoxymethyl ester, and this increase was significantly suppressed by temocaprilat 10 nmol/l to 1 micromol/l. Bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant 100 nmol/l significantly reduced the action of temocaprilat; whereas bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9-Leu8-bradykinin 100 nmol/l had no effect. These findings suggest that high glucose inhibits human aortic endothelial cell proliferation and that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor temocaprilat inhibits high glucose-mediated suppression of human aortic endothelial cell proliferation, possibly through suppression of protein kinase C, bradykinin B2 receptors and oxidative stress.

  14. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results.

  15. Effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on glucose and lipid metabolisms in normal and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Jiro; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Umehara, Norimitsu; Miyashita, Akira; Tsuru, Tomomitsu; Hikida, Shigeki; Mizote, Hiroyoshi

    2004-04-01

    The beneficial effects of high-monounsaturated fat (high-MUFA) diets on diabetic patients have been reported, whereas studies concerning the effects on animals have been few. Although experiments on animals should be useful in elucidating underlying mechanisms, it is not clear even whether there are benefits of a high-MUFA diet in animals. This study examined the short-term effects of a high-MUFA diet on normal and genetically diabetic mice. The high-MUFA diet supplied 38% of the total calories as fat (26% from MUFA), while a regular diet was 13% fat (3% from MUFA). Normal C5 7BL/6J and diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed either the regular or the high-MUFA diet for 1 wk. Serum glucose and lipid levels were then measured. In normal mice, hepatic triglyceride production was also compared between the two dietary groups using the Triton WR1339 method. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the diabetic mice. After 1 wk of feeding to normal mice, the high-MUFA diet was seen to lower serum triglyceride levels and reduce hepatic triglyceride production in comparison with the regular diet; it is suggested that the lowering of triglyceride consists of mechanisms including reduced hepatic triglyceride production. When diabetic mice were fed the high-MUFA diet with a controlled caloric intake, the serum glucose levels lowered without an accompanying deterioration in lipid metabolism and the impaired glucose tolerance was ameliorated. This study demonstrates that a high-MUFA diet can lower serum triglyceride levels in normal mice and improve disorders of glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

  16. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  17. Increasing the culture efficiency of hybridoma cells by the use of integrated metabolic control of glucose and glutamine at low levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Mi, Li; Feng, Qiang; Liu, Rong; Tang, Hao; Xie, Li; Yu, Xiaoling; Chen, Zhinan

    2005-08-01

    The metabolism of HAb18 hybridoma cells was shifted to decrease metabolite accumulation and to improve culture efficiency by integrated metabolic control of glucose and glutamine at low levels. When glucose and glutamine levels were decreased to 0.5 and 0.3 mM respectively, lactate and ammonia production were reduced by 62.6 and 74% respectively, glucose-to-cell yield was increased from 0.23x10(9) to 0.66x10(9) cells.mmol-1, and glutamine-to-cell yield from 0.18x10(9) to 1.95x10(9) cells.mmol-1. Compared with high-level glucose and glutamine fed-batch cultures, low-level glucose and glutamine led to higher cell density (1.0x10(7) versus 0.3x10(7) cells.ml-1), longer culture span (14 as opposed to 8 days) and higher antibody yield (250 as against 150 mg.l-1). These results indicate that hybridoma culture efficiency would be increased by the integrated control of glucose and glutamine at 0.5 and 0.3 mM respectively. In contrast with previously reported glucose-and/or-glutamine-level-controlled fed-batch cultures, we demonstrated an efficient strategy of nutrient level selection and amino acid feeding. More importantly, our accurately and well-distributed Equable Feeding Control System opens a new avenue for reducing metabolites to low levels by controlling nutrients at low levels.

  18. Glucose transporter-8 (GLUT8) mediates glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in high-fructose diet-fed male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBosch, Brian J; Chen, Zhouji; Finck, Brian N; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H

    2013-11-01

    Members of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family of membrane-spanning hexose transporters are subjects of intensive investigation for their potential as modifiable targets to treat or prevent obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mounting evidence suggests that the ubiquitously expressed class III dual-specificity glucose and fructose transporter, GLUT8, has important metabolic homeostatic functions. We therefore tested the hypothesis that GLUT8 mediates the deleterious metabolic effects of chronic high-fructose diet exposure. Here we demonstrate resistance to high-fructose diet-induced glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia concomitant with enhanced oxygen consumption and thermogenesis in GLUT8-deficient male mice. Independent of diet, significantly lower systolic blood pressure both at baseline and after high-fructose diet feeding was also observed by tail-cuff plethysmography in GLUT8-deficient mice vs wild-type controls. Resistance to fructose-induced metabolic dysregulation occurred in the context of enhanced hepatic peroxisome proliferator antigen receptor-γ (PPARγ) protein abundance, whereas in vivo hepatic adenoviral GLUT8 overexpression suppressed hepatic PPARγ expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GLUT8 blockade prevents fructose-induced metabolic dysregulation, potentially by enhancing hepatic fatty acid metabolism through PPARγ and its downstream targets. We thus establish GLUT8 as a promising target in the prevention of diet-induced obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in males.

  19. Aldose reductase inhibitor prevents hyperproliferation and hypertrophy of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Kano, H; Yokokawa, K; Horio, T; Yoshikawa, J

    1995-12-01

    Vascular remodeling is a key process in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests that high glucose levels may function as a vascular smooth muscle growth and proliferation-promoting substance. To explore the role of the polyol pathway in this process, we examined the effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI), epalrestat, on the growth characteristics of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Epalrestat (10 nmol/L, 1 mumol/L) significantly suppressed the high glucose-induced proliferative effect as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation by 67% and 82% in cell number, suggesting ARI as an antimitogenic factor. In VSMCs, epalrestat (10 nmol/L, 1 mumol/L) significantly suppressed the high glucose-induced incorporation of [3H]leucine by 45% and 58% with the concomitant reduction of the cell size estimated by flowcytometry. Epalrestat (1 mumol/L) also suppressed high glucose-induced intracellular NADH/NAD+ increase and membrane-bound protein kinase C activation. These results indicate that this ARI possesses an antiproliferative and antihypertrophic action on VSMCs induced by high glucose possibly through protein kinase C suppression.

  20. Antioxidants improve impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and prevent migration and proliferation of cultured rabbit coronary smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Kano, H; Yokokawa, K; Minami, M; Yoshikawa, J

    1999-03-16

    To explore the role of intracellular oxidative stress in high glucose-induced atherogenesis, we examined the effect of probucol and/or alpha-tocopherol on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Chronic high-glucose-medium (22. 2 mmol/L) treatment increased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated VSMC migration, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell number compared with VSMCs treated with normal-glucose medium (5.6 mmol/L+16.6 mmol/L mannose). Probucol and alpha-tocopherol significantly suppressed high glucose-induced increase in VSMC migration, cell number, and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Probucol and alpha-tocopherol suppressed high glucose-induced elevation of the cytosolic ratio of NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and membrane-bound protein kinase C activation. Probucol, alpha-tocopherol, and calphostin C improved the high glucose-induced suppression of insulin-mediated [3H]deoxyglucose uptake. Chronic high-glucose treatment increased the oxidative stress, which was significantly suppressed by probucol, alpha-tocopherol, suramin, and calphostin C. These findings suggest that probucol and alpha-tocopherol may suppress high glucose-induced VSMC migration and proliferation via suppression of increases in the cytosolic ratio of free NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and protein kinase C activation induced by high glucose, which result in reduction in intracellular oxidative stress.

  1. Glucose tolerance, lipids, and GLP-1 secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats fed a high protein fiber diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A; Russell, James C

    2008-01-01

    We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain. Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined. Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia.

  2. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  3. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  4. Design of FitFor2 study: the effects of an exercise program on insulin sensitivity and plasma glucose levels in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, E.W.M.; Poppel, van M.N.M.; Eekhoff, E.M.W.; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a period in the life of women that is often associated with decreased daily physical activity and/or exercise. However, maintaining adequate levels of daily physical activity during pregnancy is important for mother and child. Studies suggest that moderate daily ph

  5. Caffeamide 36-13 Regulates the Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Signs of High-Fat-Fed Mice on Glucose Transporter 4, AMPK Phosphorylation, and Regulated Hepatic Glucose Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of (E-3-[3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-1-(piperidin-1-ylprop-2-en-1-one] (36-13 (TS, one of caffeic acid amide derivatives, on high-fat (HF- fed mice. The C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the control (CON group and the experimental group, which was firstly fed a HF diet for 8 weeks. Then, the HF group was subdivided into four groups and was given TS orally (including two doses or rosiglitazone (Rosi or vehicle for 4 weeks. Blood, skeletal muscle, and tissues were examined by measuring glycaemia and dyslipidemia-associated events. TS effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, insulin, leptin, and free fatty acid (FFA and weights of visceral fa; moreover, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TS treatment significantly increased the protein contents of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in skeletal muscle; TS also significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in liver, whereas it reduced the expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase. Moreover, TS enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK both in skeletal muscle and liver tissue. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by TS resulted in enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, contrasting with diminished gluconeogenesis in liver. TS exhibits hypolipidemic effect by decreasing the expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS. Thus, antidiabetic properties of TS occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production by PEPCK and G6Pase downregulation and improved insulin sensitization. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by TS in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of GLUT4, G6Pase, and FAS and phosphorylation of AMPK.

  6. Portal vein glucose entry triggers a coordinated cellular response that potentiates hepatic glucose uptake and storage in normal but not high-fat/high-fructose-fed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kraft, Guillaume; Irimia, Jose M; Smith, Marta S; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss W; Roach, Peter J; Shiota, Masakazu; Cherrington, Alan D

    2013-02-01

    The cellular events mediating the pleiotropic actions of portal vein glucose (PoG) delivery on hepatic glucose disposition have not been clearly defined. Likewise, the molecular defects associated with postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) following consumption of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD) are unknown. Our goal was to identify hepatocellular changes elicited by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and PoG signaling in normal chow-fed (CTR) and HFFD-fed dogs. In CTR dogs, we demonstrated that PoG infusion in the presence of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia triggered an increase in the activity of hepatic glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase (GS), which occurred in association with further augmentation in HGU and glycogen synthesis (GSYN) in vivo. In contrast, 4 weeks of HFFD feeding markedly reduced GK protein content and impaired the activation of GS in association with diminished HGU and GSYN in vivo. Furthermore, the enzymatic changes associated with PoG sensing in chow-fed animals were abolished in HFFD-fed animals, consistent with loss of the stimulatory effects of PoG delivery. These data reveal new insight into the molecular physiology of the portal glucose signaling mechanism under normal conditions and to the pathophysiology of aberrant postprandial hepatic glucose disposition evident under a diet-induced glucose-intolerant condition.

  7. High Glucose Impairs Insulin Signaling in the Glomerulus: An In Vitro and Ex Vivo Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias N Katsoulieris

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycaemia, as seen in type II diabetes, results in both morphological and functional impairments of podocytes in the kidney. We investigated the effects of high glucose (HG on the insulin signaling pathway, focusing on cell survival and apoptotic markers, in immortalized human glomerular cells (HGEC; podocytes and isolated glomeruli from healthy rats.HGEC and isolated glomeruli were cultured for various time intervals under HG concentrations in the presence or absence of insulin. Our findings indicated that exposure of HGEC to HG led to downregulation of all insulin signaling markers tested (IR, p-IR, IRS-1, p-Akt, p-Fox01,03, as well as to increased sensitivity to apoptosis (as seen by increased PARP cleavage, Casp3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Short insulin pulse caused upregulation of insulin signaling markers (IR, p-IR, p-Akt, p-Fox01,03 in a greater extent in normoglycaemic cells compared to hyperglycaemic cells and for the case of p-Akt, in a PI3K-dependent manner. IRS-1 phosphorylation of HG-treated podocytes was negatively regulated, favoring serine versus tyrosine residues. Prolonged insulin treatment caused a significant decrease of IR levels, while alterations in glucose concentrations for various time intervals demonstrated changes of IR, p-IR and p-Akt levels, suggesting that the IR signaling pathway is regulated by glucose levels. Finally, HG exerted similar effects in isolated glomeruli.These results suggest that HG compromises the insulin signaling pathway in the glomerulus, promoting a proapoptotic environment, with a possible critical step for this malfunction lying at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation; thus we herein demonstrate glomerular insulin signaling as another target for investigation for the prevention and/ or treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Osteocalcin levels on oral glucose load in women being investigated for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwetz, Verena; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schweighofer, Natascha; Hacker, Nicole; Trummer, Olivia; Borel, Olivier; Pieber, Thomas R; Chapurlat, Roland; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) might play a hormone-like role in energy metabolism and the regulatory circuit between the pancreas and osteoblasts. Effects of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on total OC, undercarboxylated (ucOC), and carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) in insulin-resistant (IR) and noninsulin-resistant (nIR) premenopausal women was evaluated, and the relationships of changes in OC, ucOC, and cOC with area under the curve (AUC) insulin and the Matsuda index were examined. In this cross-sectional study, 105 premenopausal women underwent OGTT; 18 were IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] > 2.6; (2 with type 2 diabetes, 2 with impaired glucose tolerance), and 87 were nIR (3 with impaired glucose tolerance). Changes in total OC, ucOC, and cOC were evaluated 60 and 120 minutes after glucose loading. At baseline, IR subjects had significantly lower levels of total OC, cOC, and ucOC. In nIR women, total OC decreased by 19% from 18.0 ng/mL (14.5-24.7) at baseline to 14.6 ng/mL (10.9-17.8) after 120 minutes, ucOC decreased by 22% from 3.2 ng/mL (2.1-4.5) to 2.5 ng/mL (1.7-3.5), and cOC decreased by 26% from 14.9 ng/mL (12.1-20.4) to 11.1 ng/mL (9.0-14.5) (P < .001, respectively). No significant decreases were noted in IR subjects. The declines in OC and cOC predicted AUCinsulin (ΔOC: β = 0.301, P = .001; ΔcOC: β = 0.315, P < .001) and the Matsuda index (ΔOC: β = -0.235, P = .003; ΔcOC: β = -0.245, P = .002). Glucose intake lowers levels of OC, ucOC, and cOC in nIR women, the extent of which predicts IR and insulin sensitivity in premenopausal women. OC parameters seem suppressed in IR women. There might be a differential osteoblast response to oral glucose in IR and nIR women, with OC reflecting this finding.

  9. Conditioning causes an increase in glucose transporter-4 levels in mononuclear cells in sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Reynolds, Arleigh J; Gustafson, Sally J; Duffy, Lawrence K; Dunlap, Kriya L

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of physical conditioning on the expression of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter-4 protein (GLUT4) on mononuclear cells and HOMA-IR levels in dogs and compared to results reported in human skeletal muscle and the skeletal muscle of rodent models. Blood was sampled from conditioned dogs (n = 8) and sedentary dogs (n = 8). The conditioned dogs were exercised four months prior the experiment and were following a uniform training protocol, whereas the sedentary dogs were not. GLUT4 expression in mononuclear cells and plasma insulin levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood glucose levels were determined using blood plasma. HOMA-IR was calculated using plasma insulin and blood glucose levels using the linear approximation formula. Our results indicate that the state of conditioning had a significant effect on the GLUT4 expression at the surface of mononuclear cells. HOMA-IR was also affected by conditioning in dogs. GLUT4 levels in mononuclear cells of sled dogs were inversely correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrates that conditioning increases GLUT4 levels in mononuclear cells of sled dogs as it has been previously reported in skeletal muscle. Our results support the potential of white blood cells as a proxy tissue for studying insulin signaling and may lead to development of a minimally invasive and direct marker of insulin resistance. This may be the first report of GLUT4 in mononuclear cells in response to exercise and measured with ELISA.

  10. Management of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy by maintaining normal blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgokong, E T

    1983-12-17

    Forty-eight pregnant Black patients with overt diabetes were treated with a protocol of strict control of plasma glucose levels. Fasting (normal 3,5 - 5,5 mmol/l) and 2-hour postprandial (normal 4,5 - 6,7 mmol/l) values were used to define normoglycaemia. Subcutaneous insulin therapy was used if the above levels were persistently exceeded. Bacteriuria and preterm labour were common. Congenital fetal malformations and macrosomia did not occur. The perinatal mortality rate for this group of diabetics of 40/1 000 was lower than that for the general hospital population.

  11. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinashe Chikowore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis was used to derive nutrient patterns of 2010 participants stratified by urban/rural status and gender. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied to 25 nutrients, computed from the quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ. Three nutrient patterns per stratum, which accounted for 73% of the variation of the selected nutrients, were identified. Multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education attained, alcohol intake, seasonality and total energy intake were computed. Starch, dietary fibre and B vitamins driven nutrient pattern was significantly associated with fasting glucose (β = −0.236 (−0.458; −0.014; p = 0.037 and glycated haemoglobin levels (β = −0.175 (−0.303; −0.047; p = 0.007 in rural women. Thiamine, zinc and plant protein driven nutrient pattern was associated with significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin and fasting glucose ((β = −0.288 (−0.543; −0.033; p = 0.027 and (β = −0.382 (−0.752; −0.012; p = 0.043, respectively in rural men. Our results indicate that plant driven nutrient patterns are associated with low fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels.

  12. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikowore, Tinashe; Pisa, Pedro T.; van Zyl, Tertia; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Conradie, Karin R.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis was used to derive nutrient patterns of 2010 participants stratified by urban/rural status and gender. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients, computed from the quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ). Three nutrient patterns per stratum, which accounted for 73% of the variation of the selected nutrients, were identified. Multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education attained, alcohol intake, seasonality and total energy intake were computed. Starch, dietary fibre and B vitamins driven nutrient pattern was significantly associated with fasting glucose (β = −0.236 (−0.458; −0.014); p = 0.037) and glycated haemoglobin levels (β = −0.175 (−0.303; −0.047); p = 0.007) in rural women. Thiamine, zinc and plant protein driven nutrient pattern was associated with significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin and fasting glucose ((β = −0.288 (−0.543; −0.033); p = 0.027) and (β = −0.382 (−0.752; −0.012); p = 0.043), respectively) in rural men. Our results indicate that plant driven nutrient patterns are associated with low fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels. PMID:28106816

  13. Estimation of lipid profile and glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe O. Ewenighi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cymbopogon citratus extract has been reported to have hypoglycemic properties but not much is known about its hypolipidemic effects. In this study it was aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials of Cymbopogon citratus extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats of weights between 106-118 g were used for the study and divided into three groups of six rats each. The rats of the non-diabetic control group were given 1 ml of distilled water daily. Two other groups induced with diabetes using alloxan by a single dose administration of 120 mg/kg body weight (BW; one of these diabetic rat groups were treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract daily at 1.5 ml/100 g BW for 4 weeks while the other group was left untreated. Blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and glucose levels were assayed. Results: After four weeks of treatment, data indicated significant reductions in BW, blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels of diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract compared to the non-treated group. The treated diabetic rats also indicated significantly higher HDL levels compared to the non-treated group. Conclusion: Treatment of diabetic rats with the Cymbopogon citratus extract lowered blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels and increased the HDL level. This shows that the extract has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 249-253

  14. High performance separation of xylose and glucose by enzyme assisted nanofiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2015-01-01

    of the integrated system. Full conversion of glucose to gluconic acid assisted by glucose oxidase (GOD) could be achieved by coupling a parallel reaction catalyzed by catalase (CAT), where H2O2 (GOD-inhibitor formed in the first reaction) was decomposed to water and oxygen. GOD has a high oxygen...

  15. DPP4 gene variation affects GLP-1 secretion, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in humans with high body adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, Anja; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves and inactivates the insulinotropic hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, collectively termed incretins. DPP-4 inhibitors entered clinical practice as approved therapeutics for type-2 diabetes in 2006. However......-BMI interaction effects were detected (p = 0.8). After stratification for body fat content, the SNP negatively affected glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0229), insulin secretion (p = 0.0061), and glucose tolerance (p = 0.0208) in subjects with high body fat content only. CONCLUSIONS: A common variant, i......, inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF). RESEARCH DESIGN...

  16. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2014-05-01

    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  18. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  19. Aldose reductase inhibitor improves insulin-mediated glucose uptake and prevents migration of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Kano, H; Minami, M; Yoshikawa, J

    2000-05-01

    We examined involvement of the polyol pathway in high glucose-induced human coronary artery smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration using Boyden's chamber method. Chronic glucose treatment for 72 hours potentiated, in a concentration-dependent manner (5.6 to 22.2 mol/L), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB-mediated SMC migration. This potentiation was accompanied by an increase in PDGF BB binding, because of an increased number of PDGF-beta receptors, and this potentiation was blocked by the aldose reductase inhibitor epalrestat. Epalrestat at concentrations of 10 and 100 nmol/L inhibited high glucose-potentiated (22.2 mmol/L), PDGF BB-mediated migration. Epalrestat at 100 nmol/L inhibited a high glucose-induced increase in the reduced/oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ratio and membrane-bound protein kinase C (PKC) activity in SMCs. PKC inhibitors calphostin C (100 nmol/L) and chelerythrine (1 micromol/L) each inhibited high glucose-induced, PDGF BB-mediated SMC migration. High glucose-induced suppression of insulin-mediated [(3)H]-deoxyglucose uptake, which was blocked by both calphostin C (100 nmol/L) and chelerythrine (1 micromol/L), was decreased by epalrestat (100 nmol/L). Chronic high glucose treatment for 72 hours increased intracellular oxidative stress, which was directly measured by flow cytometry using carboxydichlorofluorescein diacetate bis-acetoxymethyl ester, and this increase was significantly suppressed by epalrestat (100 nmol/L). Antisense oligonucleotide to PKC-beta isoform inhibited high glucose-mediated changes in SMC migration, insulin-mediated [(3)H]-deoxyglucose uptake, and oxidative stress. These findings suggest that high glucose concentrations potentiate SMC migration in coronary artery and that the aldose reductase inhibitor epalrestat inhibits high glucose-potentiated, PDGF BB-induced SMC migration, possibly through suppression of PKC (PKC-beta), impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake, and oxidative stress.

  20. Influence of food restriction on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Aparecida Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the foodrestricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in foodrestricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk.

  1. Impact of the Bienestar School-Based Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Program on Fasting Capillary Glucose Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Yin, Zenong; Hernandez, Arthur; Hale, Daniel E.; Garcia, Oralia A.; Mobley, Connie

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on low-income fourth-grade Mexican American children. Design A randomized controlled trial with 13 intervention and 14 control schools. Setting Elementary schools in inner-city neighborhoods in San Antonio, Tex. Participants Eighty percent of participants were Mexican American and 94% were from economically disadvantaged households. Baseline and follow-up measures were collected from 1419 (713 intervention and 706 control) and 1221 (619 intervention and 602 control) fourth-grade children, respectively. Intervention The Bienestar Health Program consists of a health class and physical education curriculum, a family program, a school cafeteria program, and an after-school health club. The objectives are to decrease dietary saturated fat intake, increase dietary fiber intake, and increase physical activity. Main Outcome Measures The primary end point was fasting capillary glucose level, and the secondary end points were percentage of body fat, physical fitness level, dietary fiber intake, and dietary saturated fat intake. Fasting capillary glucose level, bioelectric impedance, modified Harvard step test, three 24-hour dietary recalls, weight, and height were collected at baseline and 8 months later. Results Children in the intervention arm attended an average of 32 Bienestar sessions. Mean fasting capillary glucose levels decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools after adjusting for covariates (−2.24 mg/dL [0.12 mmol/L]; 95% confidence interval, −6.53 to 2.05 [−0.36 to 0.11 mmol/L]; P = .03). Fitness scores (P = .04) and dietary fiber intake (P = .009) significantly increased in intervention children and decreased in control children. Percentage of body fat (P = .56) and dietary saturated fat intake (P = .52) did not differ significantly between intervention and control children. Conclusion This intervention showed some positive results, but additional

  2. Meta-analysis investigating associations between healthy diet and fasting glucose and insulin levels and modification by loci associated with glucose homeostasis in data from 15 cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether loci that influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) levels, as identified by genome-wide association studies, modify associations of diet with FG or FI is unknown. We utilized data from 15 US and European cohort studies comprising 51,289 persons without diabetes to test whether...

  3. Angiotensin II receptor blockers decreased blood glucose levels: a longitudinal survey using data from electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamadate Shuukoh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A beneficial effect on glucose metabolism is reported with angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB treatment of hypertension. The effect on blood glucose level during the course of treatment with ARBs in clinical cases is uncertain. Our objectives were to survey the changes in glucose and HbA1c levels in patients with hypertension over a one-year period, and to study the correlations between these values and the time after the start of ARB therapy. Methods We conducted a retrospective longitudinal survey of blood glucose and HbA1c measurements in Japanese patients aged ≥20 years with newly diagnosed hypertension but without diabetes, who had received ARB monotherapy with candesartan cilexetil, losartan potassium, olmesartan medoxomil, telmisartan, or valsartan during the period from December 2004 to November 2005. Data including 2465 measurements of non-fasting blood glucose in 485 patients and 457 measurements of HbA1c in 155 patients were obtained from electronic medical records of Nihon University School of Medicine. Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze the relationship between these longitudinal data of blood examinations and covariates of patient age, sex, medication, and duration of ARB therapy. Results Casual blood glucose level was associated with the duration of treatment (P Conclusion Our findings provide new clinical evidence that the effects of ARBs on glucose metabolism may change during the course of treatment, suggesting a blood glucose-lowering effect in the short-term after the start of treatment.

  4. High glucose induces podocyte injury via enhanced (prorenin receptor-Wnt-β-catenin-snail signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Li

    Full Text Available (Prorenin receptor (PRR expression is upregulated in diabetes. We hypothesized that PRR contributes to podocyte injury via activation of Wnt-β-catenin-snail signaling pathway. Mouse podocytes were cultured in normal (5 mM or high (25 mM D-glucose for 3 days. Compared to normal glucose, high glucose significantly decreased mRNA and protein expressions of podocin and nephrin, and increased mRNA and protein expressions of PRR, Wnt3a, β-catenin, and snail, respectively. Confocal microscopy studies showed significant reduction in expression and reorganization of podocyte cytoskeleton protein, F-actin, in response to high glucose. Transwell functional permeability studies demonstrated significant increase in albumin flux through podocytes monolayer with high glucose. Cells treated with high glucose and PRR siRNA demonstrated significantly attenuated mRNA and protein expressions of PRR, Wnt3a, β-catenin, and snail; enhanced expressions of podocin mRNA and protein, improved expression and reorganization of F-actin, and reduced transwell albumin flux. We conclude that high glucose induces podocyte injury via PRR-Wnt-β-catenin-snail signaling pathway.

  5. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  6. Polyamines regulate cell growth and cellular methylglyoxal in high-glucose medium independently of intracellular glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Lee, Mun-Hyoung; Park, Seong-Jun; Shin, Sang-Min; Liu, Rui; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-03-01

    Polyamines can presumably inhibit protein glycation, when associated with the methylglyoxal inevitably produced during glycolysis. Herein, we hypothesized a nonenzymatic interaction between putrescine and methylglyoxal in putrescine-deficient or -overexpressing Dictyostelium cells in high-glucose medium, which can control methylglyoxal production. Putrescine was essentially required for growth rescue accompanying methylglyoxal detoxification when cells underwent growth defect and cell cycle G1-arrest when supplemented with high glucose. Furthermore, methylglyoxal regulation by putrescine seemed to be a parallel pathway independent of the changes in cellular glutathione content in high-glucose medium. Consequently, we suggest that Dictyostelium cells need polyamines for normal growth and cellular methylglyoxal regulation.

  7. Influence of the time of day and fasting duration on glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchalli Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the time of day (TD of glucose measurement and the fasting duration (FD influence the glucose levels in adults. Few studies have examined the effects of the TD and FD on the glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT in pregnant women in screening for or diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the TD (morning, afternoon, night and the FD (the time of the last food ingestion as follows: ≤1 hour, 1-2 hours, and >2 hours by examining their combined effects on the glucose levels following a 50-gram GCT in pregnant women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 1,454 non-diabetic pregnant Taiwanese women in a prospective study. Multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were used to estimate the relationships between the 9 TD-FD groups and the continuous and binary glucose levels (cut-off at 140 mg/dL following a 50-gram GCT, after adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain. Different TD and FD groups were associated with variable glucose responses to the 50-gram GCT, some of which were significant. The estimate coefficients (β of the TD-FD groups "night, ≤1 hr" and "night, 1-2 hr" revealed significantly lower glucose concentrations [β (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.46 (-12.53, -0.38 and -6.85 (-12.50, -1.20] compared with the "morning, >2 hr" group. The TD-FD groups "afternoon, ≤1 hr" and "afternoon, 1-2 hr" showed significantly lower odds ratios (OR of a positive GCT; the adjusted ORs (95% CI were 0.54 (0.31-0.95 and 0.58 (0.35-0.96, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the importance of standardizing the TD and FD for the 1-hour, 50-gram GCT. In screening for and diagnosing GDM, the TD and FD are modifiable factors that should be considered in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.

  8. Highly sensitive glucose biosensor based on Au-Ni coaxial nanorod array having high aspect ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Che-Wei; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2014-06-15

    An effective glucose biosensor requires a sufficient amount of GOx immobilizing on the electrode surface. An electrode of a 3D nanorod array, having a larger surface-to-volume ratio than a 2D nanostructure, can accommodate more GOx molecules to immobilize onto the surface of the nanorods. In this study, a highly sensitive Au-Ni coaxial nanorod array electrode fabricated through the integration of nano electroforming and immersion gold (IG) method for glucose detection was developed. The average diameter of the as-synthesized Ni nanorods and that of the Au-Ni nanorods were estimated to be 150 and 250 nm, respectively; both had a height of 30 μm. The aspect ratio was 120. Compared to that of a flat Au electrode, the effective sensing area was enhanced by 79.8 folds. Actual glucose detections demonstrated that the proposed Au-Ni coaxial nanorod array electrode could operate in a linear range of 27.5 μM-27.5mM with a detection limit of 5.5μM and a very high sensitivity of 769.6 μA mM(-1)cm(-2). Good selectivity of the proposed sensing device was verified by sequential injections of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA). Long-term stability was examined through successive detections over a period of 30 days.

  9. Performance of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Postprandial Urine Glucose in Screening for Diabetes in Chinese High-risk Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Quan Yang; Yang Lu; Jia-Jia He; Tong-Zhi Wu; Zuo-Ling Xie; Cheng-Hao Lei; Yi Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Background: The conventional approaches to diabetes screening are potentially limited by poor compliance and laboratory demand.This study aimed to evaluate the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial urine glucose (PUG) in screening for diabetes in Chinese high-risk population.Methods: Nine hundred and nine subjects with high-risk factors of diabetes underwent oral glucose tolerance test after an overnight fast.FPG, hemoglobin A 1 c, 2-h plasma glucose (2 h-PG), and 2 h-PUG were evaluated.Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the American Diabetes Association criteria.The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 h-PUG, and the optimal cut-offdetermined to provide the largest Youden index.Spearman correlation was used for relationship analysis.Results: Among 909 subjects, 33.4% (304/909) of subjects had prediabetes, and 17.2% (156/909) had diabetes.The 2 h-PUG was positively related to FPG and 2 h-PG (r =0.428 and 0.551, respectively, both P < 0.001).For estimation of 2 h-PG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L and 2 h-PG ≥ 1 1.1 mmol/L using 2 h-PUG, the area under the ROC curve were 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.738-0.806) and 0.885 (95% CI:0.850~.921), respectively.The corresponding optimal cut-offs for 2 h-PUG were 5.6 mmol/L and 7.5 mmol/L, respectively.Compared with FPG alone, FPG combined with 2 h-PUG had a higher sensitivity for detecting glucose abnormalities (84.1% vs.73.7%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (82.7% vs.48.1%, P < 0.001).Conclusion: FPG combined with 2 h-PUG substantially improves the sensitivity in detecting prediabetes and diabetes relative to FPG alone, and may represent an efficient layperson-oriented diabetes screening method.

  10. Down-regulation of EPHX2 gene transcription by Sp1 under high-glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Ami; Oida, Shoko; Imaoka, Susumu

    2015-09-15

    sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase), which is encoded by the EPHX2 gene, regulates the actions of bioactive lipids, EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids). Previously, we found that high-glucose-induced oxidative stress suppressed sEH levels in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep3B) and sEH was decreased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms underlying EPHX2 transcriptional suppression under high-glucose conditions. The decrease in sEH was prevented by an Sp1 (specificity protein 1) inhibitor, mithramycin A, and overexpression or knockdown of Sp1 revealed that Sp1 suppressively regulated sEH expression, in contrast with the general role of Sp1 on transcriptional activation. In addition, we found that AP2α (activating protein 2α) promoted EPHX2 transcription. The nuclear transport of Sp1, but not that of AP2α, was increased under high glucose concomitantly with the decrease in sEH. Within the EPHX2 promoter -56/+32, five Sp1-binding sites were identified, and the mutation of each of these sites showed that the first one (SP1_1) was important in both suppression by Sp1 and activation by AP2α. Furthermore, overexpression of Sp1 diminished the binding of AP2α by DNA-affinity precipitation assay and ChIP, suggesting competition between Sp1 and AP2α on the EPHX2 promoter. These findings provide novel insights into the role of Sp1 in transcriptional suppression, which may be applicable to the transcriptional regulation of other genes.

  11. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  12. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  13. Effect of polysaccharide of dendrobium candidum on proliferation and apoptosis of human corneal epithelial cells in high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangxiang; Chen, Jing; Li, Yajia; Chen, Ting; Zou, Jing; Wang, Hua

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to observe the effect of polysaccharide of dendrobium candidum (PDC) and high glucose on proliferation, apoptosis of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). The MTT method was used to screen and take the optimal high-glucose concentration, treatment time, and PDC concentration using HCEC and divide it into 4 groups: control group (C), high glucose group (HG), PDC group, and HG + PDC group. We observed and compared the effect of the 4 groups on HCEC proliferation by MTT, apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC/PI double fluorescent staining and flow cytometry (FCM), and expression of bax mRNA and bcl-2 mRNA by RT-qPCR. Compared with the control group, proliferative activity of HCEC cells was reduced; the cells apoptosis ratio was increased; the expression of bax mRNA was increased, and the expression of bcl-2 mRNA was reduced in the HG group. Proliferative activity of HCEC cells in the PDC group was increased, and the expression of bcl-2 mRNA was increased but that of bax mRNA was decreased. Proliferative activity of HCEC cells in the HG + PDC group was increased, but it could not restore to the normal level; the expression of bax mRNA was significantly decreased but the expression of bcl-2 mRNA was significantly increased. Our results demonstrate that high glucose can inhibit proliferative activity and induce apoptosis of HCEC. PDC can improve the proliferative activity of HCEC cells under the high glucose environment and reduce the apoptosis of cells by regulating the expression of bax and bcl-2. PDC play a very important role on protecting and repairing of corneal epithelial cells damage in high glucose.

  14. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits the deleterious effects induced by high glucose on osteoblasts through undercarboxylated osteocalcin and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-ying; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yan-shan; Li, Feng; Wang, Yan-ying; Wang, Yong-yue; Gong, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with multiple skeletal disorders, and vitamin D may play a functional role in the preservation of glucose tolerance. However, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and DM is not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential molecular link between 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulation and glucose homeostasis. Rat primary osteoblasts were cultured in different conditioned medium: normal glucose, high glucose, high glucose and insulin, high glucose and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), high glucose and insulin and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). The activity of osteoblasts was measured by cell viability, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin assay. The potential mechanism of how 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) affect insulin sensitivity was investigated by the assay of insulin receptor (IR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) level. The combined treatment has the strongest effect of inhibiting the deleterious effects induced by high glucose on osteoblasts, and it promoted the %ucOC value to approximately 40%, which is much higher than that in high glucose without treatment. Levels of IR and VDR of osteoblasts in combined treatment culture increased significantly compared with that in high glucose without treatment. So maybe 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) promotes insulin sensitivity of osteoblasts by activating insulin signaling and simultaneously stimulating ucOC secretion, which in turn regulate insulin production and sensitivity. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) might be beneficial not only for diabetes, but also, for osteoporosis by promoting bone formation.

  15. Priming effect in agricultural and forest soils depending on glucose level and N addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Yue

    2015-04-01

    Growing plants continuously release easily available organic compounds into the rhizosphere. By their interactions with soil microbial biomass (MB) these compounds result in changes of organic matter turnover rates. The understanding of this priming effect (PE) is important for the estimation of climate change impacts on different land use systems. In order to investigate the PE, we conducted a soil incubation experiment under laboratory conditions with two loamy soils: one under cropland and the second under a deciduous forest near Göttingen. 13C and 14C Glucose were added in four levels reaching from 10% to 300% of MB-C. Furthermore two nitrogen levels were established in order to investigate the effects of fertilization on PE. During the whole experiment CO2 release was monitored by trapping in a NaOH solution. Nitrogen mineralization rate, activity of enzymes, and composition of MB were analyzed at the start, after one day, after one week and at the end of the experiment. The results on priming effects induced in agricultural and forest soils depending on N and glucose levels will be presented.

  16. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaneda-Sceppa Carmen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metabolism are mitigated by increased dietary protein. Methods Nineteen men ([mean ± SD] 23 ± 2 y, VO2peak 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1 were divided into three groups, two consuming moderate (MP; 0.9 g protein kg-1 d-1, and one high (HP; 1.8 g protein kg-1 d-1 protein diets (55% energy from carbohydrate for 11 days. Following 4 days of energy balance (D1-4, energy expenditure was increased for 7 days (D5-12 in all groups. Energy intake was unchanged in two, creating a 1000 kcal d-1 deficit (DEF-MP, DEF-HP; n = 6, both groups, whereas energy balance was maintained in the third (BAL-MP, n = 7. Biochemical markers of substrate metabolism were measured during fasting rest on D4 and D12, as were GP and contribution of gluconeogenesis to endogenous glucose production (fgng using 4-h primed, continuous infusions of [6,6-2H2]glucose (dilution-method and [2-13C]glycerol (MIDA technique. Glycogen breakdown (GB was derived from GP and fgng. Results Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased, and plasma glucose and insulin declined from D4 to D12, regardless of group. DEF-MP experienced decreased plasma GP from D4 to D12 ([mean change ± SD] 0.24 ± 0.24 mg·kg-1·min-1, due to reduced GB from D4 (1.40 ± 0.28 mg·kg-1·min-1 to D12 (1.16 ± 0.17 mg·kg-1·min-1, P -1·min-1, respectively by maintaining GB. Conclusion Exercise-induced energy deficit decreased GP and additional dietary protein mitigated that effect.

  17. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montain, Scott J; Rood, Jennifer; Pikosky, Matthew A; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Glickman, Ellen; Young, Andrew J

    2011-04-28

    Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP) to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metabolism are mitigated by increased dietary protein. Nineteen men ([mean ± SD] 23 ± 2 y, VO2peak 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1) were divided into three groups, two consuming moderate (MP; 0.9 g protein kg-1 d-1), and one high (HP; 1.8 g protein kg-1 d-1) protein diets (55% energy from carbohydrate) for 11 days. Following 4 days of energy balance (D1-4), energy expenditure was increased for 7 days (D5-12) in all groups. Energy intake was unchanged in two, creating a 1000 kcal d-1 deficit (DEF-MP, DEF-HP; n = 6, both groups), whereas energy balance was maintained in the third (BAL-MP, n = 7). Biochemical markers of substrate metabolism were measured during fasting rest on D4 and D12, as were GP and contribution of gluconeogenesis to endogenous glucose production (fgng) using 4-h primed, continuous infusions of [6,6-2H2]glucose (dilution-method) and [2-13C]glycerol (MIDA technique). Glycogen breakdown (GB) was derived from GP and fgng. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased, and plasma glucose and insulin declined from D4 to D12, regardless of group. DEF-MP experienced decreased plasma GP from D4 to D12 ([mean change ± SD] 0.24 ± 0.24 mg·kg-1·min-1), due to reduced GB from D4 (1.40 ± 0.28 mg·kg-1·min-1) to D12 (1.16 ± 0.17 mg·kg-1·min-1), P < 0.05. Conversely, BAL-MP and DEF-HP sustained GP from D4 to D12 ([mean change ± SD] 0.1 ± 0.5 and 0.0 ± 0.2 mg·kg-1·min-1, respectively) by maintaining GB. Exercise-induced energy deficit decreased GP and additional dietary protein mitigated that effect.

  18. Can Fasting Glucose Levels or Post-Breakfast Glucose Fluctuations Predict the Occurrence of Nocturnal Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Receiving Basal-Bolus Insulin Therapy with Long-Acting Insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Sumie; Nishimura, Rimei; Ando, Kiyotaka; Tsujino, Daisuke; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the occurrence of nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia may be predicted based on fasting glucose levels and post-breakfast glucose fluctuations. The study subjects comprised type 1 diabetic patients who underwent CGM assessments and received basal-bolus insulin therapy with long-acting insulin. The subjects were evaluated for I) fasting glucose levels and II) the range of post-breakfast glucose elevation (from fasting glucose levels to postprandial 1- and 2-hour glucose levels). The patients were divided into those with asymptomatic hypoglycemia during nighttime and those without for comparison. Optimal cut-off values were also determined for relevant parameters that could predict nighttime hypoglycemia by using ROC analysis. 64 patients (mean HbA1c 8.7 ± 1.8%) were available for analysis. Nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia occurred in 23 patients (35.9%). Fasting glucose levels (I) were significantly lower in those with hypoglycemia than those without (118 ± 35 mg/dL vs. 179 ± 65 mg/dL; P fasting glucose level 54 mg/dL (0.65/0.61/0.71, P = 0.006), 2-h postprandial elevation > 78 mg/dL (0.65/0.73/0.71, P = 0.005). Nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia was associated with increases in post-breakfast glucose levels in type 1 diabetes. Study findings also suggest that fasting glucose levels and the range of post-breakfast glucose elevation could help predict the occurrence of nocturnal asymptomatic hypoglycemia.

  19. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulates β-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Sushant Shivdas; Srinivasan, B P

    2012-08-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. has been in use for a long time in Asian food and traditional medicine for different diseases including diabetes and obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been fully understood. In view of the multidimensional activity of tamarind seeds due to their having high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of aqueous tamarind seed extract (TSE) might increase glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) 1c messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver. Daily oral administration of TSE to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (90 mg/kg intraperitoneally) type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (120 and 240 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks showed positive correlation with intracellular calcium and insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans. Tamarind seed extract supplementation significantly improved the GLUT-2 protein and SREBP-1c mRNA expression in the liver and GLUT-4 protein and mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats. The elevated levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), glycosylated hemoglobin level (hemoglobin (A1c)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) decreased after TSE administration. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that TSE abrogated STZ-induced apoptosis and increased β-cell neogenesis, indicating its effect on islets and β-cell mass. In conclusion, it was found that the antidiabetic effect of TSE on STZ-induced diabetes resulted from complex mechanisms of β-cell neogenesis, calcium handling, GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and SREBP-1c. These findings show the scope for formulating a new herbal drug for diabetes therapy.

  20. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  1. β-3AR W64R Polymorphism and 30-Minute Post-Challenge Plasma Glucose Levels in Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Hasibe; Tulgar Kınık, Sibel; Yılmaz Yalçın, Yaprak; Muratoğlu Şahin, Nursel; Yazıcı, Ayşe Canan; Ataç, F Belgin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of W64R polymorphism of the β3-adrenergic receptor gene (β-3AR) with childhood obesity and related pathologies. β-3AR gene W64R genotyping was carried out in 251 children aged 6-18 years. Of these subjects, 130 were obese (62 boys) and 121 were normal-weight (53 boys). In the obese group, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin levels were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 75 of the obese patients. The frequency of W64R genotype was similar in obese and non-obese children. In obese children, relative body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels, as well as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were not different between Arg allele carriers (W64R and R64R) and noncarriers (W64W). In 75 obese children, OGTT results showed that Arg allele carriers had significantly higher 30-minute glucose levels (p=0.027). W64R polymorphism of the β-3AR gene is not associated with obesity and waist-to-hip ratio in Turkish children. Although there were no relationships between the genotypes and lipid, glucose/insulin levels or HOMA-IR, the presence of W64R variant seemed to have an unfavorable influence on early glucose excursion after glucose loading.

  2. Gastric bypass surgery has a weight-loss independent effect on post-challenge serum glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofsø, Dag; Birkeland, Kåre I; Holst, Jens J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass surgery seems to have an effect on glucose metabolism beyond what is mediated through weight reduction. The magnitude of this effect on fasting and post-challenge glucose levels remains unknown. RESULTS: Morbidly obese subjects without known diabetes performed a 75 g oral...... glucose tolerance test before and after either gastric bypass surgery (n = 64) or an intensive lifestyle intervention programme (n = 55), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00273104. The age-adjusted effects of the therapeutic procedures and percentage weight change on fasting and 2-h glucose levels at 1......-h glucose levels were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the lifestyle group, 4.7 (0.4) versus 5.4 (0.7) mmol/l and 3.4 (0.8) versus 6.0 (2.4) mmol/l, respectively (both p Gastric bypass and weight-loss had both independent glucose-lowering effects on 2-h glucose levels [B...

  3. Liver glucose-6-phosphatase proteins in suckling and weaned grey seal pups: structural similarities to other mammals and relationship to nutrition, insulin signalling and metabolite levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K A; Hammill, M; Currie, S

    2013-12-01

    Phocid seals have been proposed as models for diabetes because they exhibit limited insulin response to glucose, high blood glucose and increasing insulin resistance when fasting. Liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalyses the final step in glucose production and is central to glucose regulation in other animals. G6Pase comprises a translocase (SLC37A4) and a catalytic subunit (G6PC). G6PC and SLC37A4 expression and activity are normally regulated by nutritional state and glucostatic hormones, particularly insulin, and are elevated in diabetes. We tested the hypotheses that (1) grey seal G6PC and SLC37A4 cDNA and predicted protein sequences differ from other species' at functional sites, (2) relative G6Pase protein abundances are lower during feeding than fasting and (3) relative G6Pase protein abundances are related to insulin, insulin receptor phosphorylation and key metabolite levels. We show that G6PC and partial SLC37A4 cDNA sequences encode proteins sharing 82-95 % identity with other mammals. Seal G6PC contained no differences in sites responsible for activity, stability or subcellular location. Several substitutions in seal SLC37A4 were predicted to be tolerated with low probability, which could affect glucose production. Suckling pups had higher relative abundance of both subunits than healthy, postweaned fasting pups. Furthermore, relative G6PC abundance was negatively related to glucose levels. These findings contrast markedly with the response of relative hepatic G6Pase abundance to feeding, fasting, insulin, insulin sensitivity and key metabolites in other animals, and highlight the need to understand the regulation of enzymes involved in glucose control in phocids if these animals are to be informative models of diabetes.

  4. The Impact of a Pure Protein Load on the Glucose Levels in Type 1 Diabetes Patients Treated with Insulin Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Klupa; Teresa Benbenek-Klupa; Bartlomiej Matejko; Sandra Mrozinska; Malecki, Maciej T.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of ingestion of a pure protein load on the glucose levels in T1DM patients treated with insulin pumps. We examined 10 T1DM patients (6 females, mean age—32.3 years, mean HbA1c—6.8%) treated with insulin pumps equipped with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). In Phase I, baseline insulin infusion was optimized to minimize the differences in fasting glucose levels to less than 30 mg/dL between any two time points between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. In Phase II, ...

  5. Circulating ZBED3 level is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the plasma zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3(ZBED3)levels in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance,and to explore the relationship between ZBED3 and insulin resistance.Methods There were 109 patients with newly diagnosed type 2diabetes mellitus(T2DM),89 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT),113 sex-,age-,and body mass index(BMI)-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)included in this study.Plasma ZBED3 level

  6. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  7. Switching from high-fat to low-fat diet normalizes glucose metabolism and improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity but not body weight in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, Carl-David; Ahrén, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Environmental factors such as a high-fat diet contribute to type 2 diabetes and obesity. This study examined glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function after switching from a high-fat diet to a low-fat diet in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet or low-fat diet for 18 months, after which mice on the high-fat diet either maintained this diet or switched to a low-fat diet for 4 weeks. Body weight and glucose and insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose were determined. Insulin secretion (insulinogenic index: the 10-minute insulin response divided by the 10-minute glucose level) and insulin sensitivity (1 divided by basal insulin) were determined. After 18 months on a high-fat diet, mice had glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight compared to mice on a low-fat diet (P diet to low-fat diet normalized glucose tolerance, reduced but not normalized body weight (P diet to low-fat diet normalizes glucose tolerance and improves but not normalizes insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. These effects are more pronounced than the reduced body weight.

  8. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2007-01-01

    in Primary Care]). METHODS: Persons aged 40-69 years were screened for type 2 diabetes based on a high-risk, stepwise strategy. At baseline, anthropometric measurements, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. A total of 1,160 persons had IFG or IGT at baseline: 811 (70%) accepted re......-examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  9. A PI-fuzzy logic controller for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, M

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript investigates different fuzzy logic controllers for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients. While fuzzy logic control is still intuitive and at a very early stage, it has already been implemented in many industrial plants and reported results are very promising. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) scheme was recently proposed for maintaining blood glucose level in diabetics within acceptable limits, and was shown to be more effective with better transient characteristics than conventional techniques. In fact, FLC is based on human expertise and on desired output characteristics, and hence does not require precise mathematical models. This observation makes fuzzy rule-based technique very suitable for biomedical systems where models are, in general, either very complicated or over-simplistic. Another attractive feature of fuzzy techniques is their insensitivity to system parameter variations, as numerical values of physiological parameters are often not precise and usually vary from patient to another. PI and PID controllers are very popular and are efficiently used in many industrial plants. Fuzzy PI and PID controllers behave in a similar fashion to those classical controllers with the obvious advantage that the controller parameters are time dependant on the range of the control variables and consequently, result in a better performance. In this manuscript, a fuzzy PI controller is designed using a simplified design scheme and then subjected to simulations of the two common diabetes disturbances--sudden glucose meal and system parameter variations. The performance of the proposed fuzzy PI controller is compared to that of the conventional PID and optimal techniques and is shown to be superior. Moreover, the proposed fuzzy PI controller is shown to be more effective than the previously proposed FLC, especially with respect to the overshoot and settling time.

  10. Efficacy of 2-hour post glucose insulin levels in predicting insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian syndrome with infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Insulin resistance (IR is central to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, but tests for determining IR are elaborate, tedious and expensive. Aims : To evaluate if "2-hour post-glucose insulin level" is an effective indicator of IR and can aid in diagnosing IR in infertile PCOS women. Settings and Design : Observational study at infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods : 50 infertile women with PCOS and 20 females with tubal/male factor infertility were evaluated for the presence of IR, as defined by the fasting/2-hour post-glucose insulin levels cutoffs of >25/>41 μU/mL, respectively. The clinical, metabolic and endocrinologic profile was determined in both the groups. Statistical Analysis : Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA. Results : Body mass index, post load glucose, insulin, glucose/insulin ratio, area under curve (AUC of glucose and insulin and insulinogenic index were significantly lower in the controls as compared to the PCOS group. "2-hour post-glucose insulin levels" were elevated in 88% of PCOS individuals but were normal in all females not suffering from PCOS. These levels significantly correlated with AUC of glucose and insulin, and insulinogenic index and inversely correlated with 2-hour glucose to insulin ratio (r=0.827, 0.749 and −0.732, respectively. Conclusions : "2-hour post-glucose insulin levels" appears to be a good indicator of IR. It can be a useful tool, especially in low resource setting where a single sample can confirm the diagnosis, thus reducing cost and repeat visits.

  11. The effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on systemic immune response and blood glucose level of NIDDM patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oedijani Santoso

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal inflammation is a periodontal disorder of high prevalence in the population. Chronic periodontitis is associated with the accumulation of plaque and calculus as local factors, and systemic factors such an diabetes mellitus (DM and HIV infection. Cytokine, especially IL-1β as inflammatory mediator for periodontal disease, may directly stimulated iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and NO (nitric oxide production by β-cells, resulting in NO-mediated β-cell damage. The leucotoxin and proteases produced by periodontal pathogens will induce chemotactic and phagocytotic defect; therefore causing decreased PMN phagocytotic function. Hyperglicemia which occurs in diabetic patients increases calcium influx to the cell, resulting in the increased cytosol’s calcium ([Ca 2+]i level and; therefore, resulting in dysfunction of PMN and impaired PMN phagocytotic function. Advanced glycosilation endproduct in NIDDM binds to monocytes resulting in the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNFα and produces activation of macrophages and osteoclasts. Hyperglicemia activates diacyl glycerol (DAG-protein kinase C (PKC, thus increasing PGE2 and cytokine expression that induce inflammation and periodontal tissue destruction processes. Studies on the effect of scaling to remove calculus disposition on blood glucose control and cellular immune response in DM patient has never been carried out. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of scaling as non-surgical periodontal therapy on immune response (IL-1β level and PMN phagocytotic function and blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Subjects were diabetic patients, 60 controlled-DM (CDM and 60 uncontrolled-DM (UCDM, in Metabolic-Endocrinology Clinic of Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital, aged 40-60 years. The subjects were divided into treatment (scaling and control group, and cellular immune response and diabetic status, before and 6 weeks after treatment were evaluated

  12. Personalized Metabolomics for Predicting Glucose Tolerance Changes in Sedentary Women After High-Intensity Interval Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Gibala, Martin J.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after...

  13. The pivotal role of high glucose-induced overexpression of PKCβ in the appearance of glucagon-like peptide-1 resistance in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas, Gemma; De Nigris, Valeria; La Sala, Lucia; Testa, Roberto; Genovese, Stefano; Ceriello, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has a protective effect on endothelial cells. Our hypothesis is that this GLP-1 protective effect is partly lost when the cells are exposed to sustained high glucose concentrations. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured for 21 days in normal glucose (5 mmol/L, NG) or high glucose (25 mmol/L glucose, HG). GLP-1 (7-37) and Ruboxistaurin were added at 50 and 500 nM, respectively, alone or in combination, 1 h before cell harvesting. Analysis of GLP-1 receptor protein levels, as well as of the gene expression of different ER stress-related genes, proliferation markers, antioxidant cell response-related genes, and PKA subunits, was performed. ROS production was also measured in HUVECs exposed to mentioned treatments. GLP-1 receptor expression was reduced in HUVECs exposed to chronic high glucose concentrations but was partially restored by a chemical PKCβ-specific inhibitor. GLP-1, added as an acute treatment in endothelial cells, had the capacity to induce the expression of Nrf2-detoxifying enzyme targets, to increase transcription levels of scavenger genes, to attenuate the expression of high glucose-induced PKA subunits, ER stress and also the apoptotic phenotype of HUVECs; these effects occured only when high glucose-induced PKCβ overexpression was reduced by Ruboxistaurin. In a similar manner, ROS production induced by high glucose was reduced by GLP-1 in the presence of PKCβ inhibitor. This study suggests that an increase in PKCβ, induced by high glucose, could have a role in endothelial GLP-1 resistance, reducing GLP-1 receptor levels and disrupting the GLP-1 canonical pathway.

  14. The ALICE high level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  15. Propofol inhibits high glucose-induced PP2A expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qichao; Zhao, Yanjun; Duan, Wenming; Liu, Yi; Chen, Xiangyuan; Zhu, Minmin

    2017-04-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia is a common clinical metabolic disorder. Hyperglycemia could induce endothelial apoptosis, dysfunction and inflammation, resulting in endothelial injury. Propofol is a widely used anesthetic drug in clinical settings. Our previous studies indicated that propofol, via inhibiting high glucose-induced phosphatase A2 (PP2A) expression, attenuated high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thus improving endothelial apoptosis, dysfunction and inflammation. However, the mechanisms by which propofol attenuated high glucose-induced PP2A expression is still obscure. In the present study, we examined how propofol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial PP2A expression. Compared with 5mM glucose treatment, 15mM glucose up-regulated expression and activity of PP2A, increased cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMK II) phosphorylation and Ca(2+) accumulation. More importantly, propofol decreased PP2A expression and activity, attenuated CREB, CaMK II phosphorylation and Ca(2+) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrated that the effect of propofol was similar to that of MK801, an inhibitor of NMDA receptor. In contrast, rapastinel, an activator of NMDA receptor, antagonized the effect of propofol. Also, the effect of KN93, an inhibitor of CaMK II, was similar to that of propofol, except KN93 had no effect on 15mM glucose-mediated Ca(2+) accumulation. Our data indicated that propofol, via inhibiting NMDA receptor, attenuated 15mM glucose-induced Ca(2+) accumulation, CaMK II and CREB phosphorylation, thus inhibiting PP2A expression and improving 15mM glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to High Glucose Concentration Decreases Cell Surface ABCA1 and HDL Biogenesis in Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Maki; Hossain, Mohammad Anwar; Lu, Rui; Tsuboi, Tomoe; Okumura-Noji, Kuniko; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2017-04-19

    To study atherosclerosis risk in diabetes, we investigated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis in the liver and hepatocytes under hyperglycemic conditions. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, plasma HDL decreased while ABCA1 protein increased without changing its mRNA in the liver, only in the animals that responded to the treatment to show hypoinsulinemia and fasting hyperglycemia but not in the poor responders not showing those. To study the mechanism for this finding, hepatocytes were isolated from the control and diabetic mice, and they showed no difference in expression of ABCA1 protein, its mRNA, and HDL biogenesis in 1 g/l d-glucose but showed decreased HDL biogenesis in 4.5 g/l d-glucose although ABCA1 protein increased without change in its mRNA. Similar findings were confirmed in HepG2 cells with d-glucose but not with l-glucose. Thus, these cell models reproduced the in vivo findings in hyperglycemia. Labeling of cell surface protein revealed that surface ABCA1 decreased in high concentration of d-glucose in HepG2 cells despite the increase of cellular ABCA1 while not with l-glucose. Immunostaining of ABCA1 in HepG2 cells demonstrated the decrease of surface ABCA1 but increase of intracellular ABCA1 with high d-glucose. Clearance of ABCA1 was retarded both in primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells exposed to high d-glucose but not to l-glucose, being consistent with the decrease of surface ABCA1. It is suggested that localization of ABCA1 to the cell surface is decreased in hepatocytes in hyperglycemic condition to cause decrease of HDL biogenesis.

  17. High rates of glucose utilization in the gas gland of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are supported by GLUT1 and HK1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Kathy A; Short, Connie E; Hall, Jennifer R; Gendron, Robert L; Paradis, Hélène; Ralhan, Ankur; Driedzic, William R

    2016-09-01

    The gas gland of physoclistous fish utilizes glucose to generate lactic acid that leads to the off-loading of oxygen from haemoglobin. This study addresses characteristics of the first two steps in glucose utilization in the gas gland of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Glucose metabolism by isolated gas gland cells was 12- and 170-fold higher, respectively, than that in heart and red blood cells (RBCs) as determined by the production of (3)H2O from [2-(3)H]glucose. In the gas gland, essentially all of the glucose consumed was converted to lactate. Glucose uptake in the gas gland shows a very high dependence upon facilitated transport as evidenced by saturation of uptake of 2-deoxyglucose at a low extracellular concentration and a requirement for high levels of cytochalasin B for uptake inhibition despite the high efficacy of this treatment in heart and RBCs. Glucose transport is via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is localized to the glandular cells. GLUT1 western blot analysis from whole-tissue lysates displayed a band with a relative molecular mass of 52 kDa, consistent with the deduced amino acid sequence. Levels of 52 kDa GLUT1 in the gas gland were 2.3- and 33-fold higher, respectively, than those in heart and RBCs, respectively. Glucose phosphorylation is catalysed by hexokinase Ib (HKIb), a paralogue that cannot bind to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Transcript levels of HKIb in the gas gland were 52- and 57-fold more abundant, respectively, than those in heart and RBCs. It appears that high levels of GLUT1 protein and an unusual isoform of HKI are both critical for the high rates of glycolysis in gas gland cells. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  19. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  20. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  1. Conditions With High Intracellular Glucose Inhibit Sensing Through Glucose Sensor Snf3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhumaa, Kaisa; Wu, B.Q.; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression in micro-organisms is regulated according to extracellular conditions and nutrient concentrations. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, non-transporting sensors with high sequence similarity to transporters, that is, transporter-like sensors, have been identified for sugars as well...

  2. Inpatient Glucose Values: Determining the Nondiabetic Range and Use in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Mary K; Safo, Sandra E; Jackson, Sandra L; Xue, Wenqiong; Olson, Darin E; Long, Qi; Barb, Diana; Haw, J Sonya; Tomolo, Anne M; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2017-10-06

    Many individuals with diabetes remain undiagnosed, leading to delays in treatment and higher risk for subsequent diabetes complications. Despite recommendations for diabetes screening in high risk groups, the optimal approach is not known. We evaluated the utility of inpatient glucose levels as an opportunistic screening tool for identifying patients at high risk for diabetes. We retrospectively examined 462,421 patients in the national VA healthcare system, hospitalized on medical/surgical services in 2000-2010, for ≥3 days, with ≥2 inpatient random plasma glucose (RPG) measurements. All had continuity of care - ≥1 primary care visit and ≥1 glucose measure within 2 years before hospitalization and yearly for ≥3 years after discharge. Glucose levels during hospitalization and incidence of diabetes within 3 years after discharge in patients without diabetes were evaluated. Patients had mean age 65.0 years, BMI 29.9, and were 96% male, 71% white, and 18% black. Preexisting diabetes was present in 39.4%, 1.3% were diagnosed during hospitalization, 8.1% diagnosed RPG (112 mg/dl [6.2 mmol/L]). Having at least two RPGs >140 mg/dl (>7.8 mmol/L), the 95(th) percentile of NonDM hospital glucose, provided 81% specificity for identifying incident diabetes <3 years post-discharge. Screening for diabetes could be considered in patients with at least two hospital glucoses at/above the 95th percentile of the nondiabetic range (141 mg/dl [7.8 mmol/L]). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Punicalagin exerts protective effect against high glucose-induced cellular stress and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianxiang; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2015-11-13

    Maternal diabetes-induced birth defects remain a significant health problem. Studying the effect of natural compounds with antioxidant properties and minimal toxicities on diabetic embryopathy may lead to the development of new and safe dietary supplements. Punicalagin is a primary polyphenol found in pomegranate juice, which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties, suggesting a protective effect of punicalagin on diabetic embryopathy. Here, we examined whether punicalagin could reduce high glucose-induced neural tube defects (NTDs), and if this rescue occurs through blockage of cellular stress and caspase activation. Embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) mouse embryos were cultured for 24 or 36 h with normal (5 mM) glucose or high glucose (16.7 mM), in presence or absence of 10 or 20 μM punicalagin. 10 μM punicalagin slightly reduced NTD formation under high glucose conditions; however, 20 μM punicalagin significantly inhibited high glucose-induced NTD formation. Punicalagin suppressed high glucose-induced lipid peroxidation marker 4-hydroxynonenal, nitrotyrosine-modified proteins, and lipid peroxides. Moreover, punicalagin abrogated endoplasmic reticulum stress by inhibiting phosphorylated protein kinase ribonucleic acid (RNA)-like ER kinase (p-PERK), phosphorylated inositol-requiring protein-1α (p-IRE1α), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing. Additionally, punicalagin suppressed high glucose-induced caspase 3 and caspase 8 cleavage. Punicalagin reduces high glucose-induced NTD formation by blocking cellular stress and caspase activation. These observations suggest punicalagin supplements could mitigate the teratogenic effects of hyperglycemia in the developing embryo, and possibly prevent diabetes-induced NTDs.

  4. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05). The glucose tolerance test revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels in the HFCS group compared to the water group, whereas the RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p < 0.05). At 30, 60, and 90 min, the levels of insulin in the RSS group were significantly lower than those in the water group (p < 0.05). The amount of hepatic glycogen was more than 3 times higher in the RSS group than that in the other groups. After glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  5. The liver function test enzymes and glucose level are positively correlated in gallbladder cancer: a cancer registry data analysis from north central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T D; Barbhuiya, M A; Poojary, S; Shrivastav, B R; Tiwari, P K

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the trend of expression of liver function test enzymes and other biochemical changes during gallbladder carcinogenesis. Eight hundred and seventy-eight gallbladder disease patients were selected to study the liver function test enzymes and routine blood biochemical changes in the last five years (2004-08). Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad prism 5.02 software. The liver function test enzymes showed significant correlations among themselves, and with glucose in gallbladder cancer and gallstone disease patients (N = 878). Out of 878 gallbladder cases, 46 (5.24%) showed significantly higher glucose level of 216.66 mg/dL (P calculus cholecystitis (CC), showed highly significant positive correlation (Pearson) between Serum Glutamic Oxaloactetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) [P < 0.0001, (GBCS); P < 0.0001, (GBC), and P < 0.0001, (CC)]. SGOT and SGPT also showed positive correlation with higher glucose level independently, in both GBCS and CC (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001), respectively. Simultaneous elevation of glucose and liver function test enzymes in GBC makes the diagnosis complex. Any patient of gallbladder diseases with higher level of glucose may have the possibility of developing gallbladder cancer.

  6. Association Between Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels with Risk of Insulin Resistance and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Non-diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a well known risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently discovered adipocyte-derived proteins (leptin and adiponectin might contribute to the pathologic mechanism linking obesity and insulin resistance. A total of 190 non-diabetic women were recruited from the Obesity Clinic of Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2003 and February 2004. All participants completed a simple questionnaire. Blood pressure and body mass index were measured; blood samples for fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, adiponectin, and fasting insulin level were collected after an overnight fast. Two-hour glucose level after a 75-g glucose tolerance test was determined. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated as the index of insulin resistance. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between adipocytokines and insulin resistance after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Leptin and adiponectin were found to be independently associated with HOMA-IR and fasting insulin concentration, but in divergent directions, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Adiponectin, but not leptin, was associated with impaired glucose tolerance after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The results suggest that leptin and adiponectin may be involved in the pathophysiologic link between obesity and insulin resistance independently. Low levels of adiponectin may increase the risks of developing impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and glucose in patients with schizophrenia, unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Adam; Strzelecki, Dominik; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate differences in triglycerides (TGA), cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL and glucose (FPG) levels in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Results for 2305 Caucasian patients were included in the study (1377 women, 59.7%; mean age 45.6). Mean TGA level was: schizophrenia: 139.9±90.6 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.4±70.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 141.1±81.9 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 147.7±82.8 mg/dL mg/dL, bipolar mania: 120.2±76.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean TC level was: schizophrenia: 188.5±40.4 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 198.8±50.7 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 194.4±48.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 198.9±48.8 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 180.1±43.8 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean HDL level was: schizophrenia: 45.3±13.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 48.1±14.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 45.4±15.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 45.1±15.4 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 46.4±15.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean LDL level was: schizophrenia: 115.4±34.7 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.7±44.1 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 120.9±42.1 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 124.5±43.1 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 109.3±36.9 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean FPG level was: schizophrenia: 95.9±24.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 94.8±22.9 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 97.2±24.4 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 98.3±25.3 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 93.9±21.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were not significant (p=0.08). Odds ratios for glucose and lipids abnormalities, correlations with age, sex distribution in diagnostic groups for normal ranges of glucose and lipids, differences in glucose and lipids levels between the age groups were also calculated. Our results confirm that there is a high prevalence of lipid and glucose abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders (both unipolar and

  8. Effects of Extended-Release Niacin Added to Simvastatin/Ezetimibe on Glucose and Insulin Values in AIM-HIGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ronald B; Bittner, Vera A; Dunbar, Richard L; Fleg, Jerome L; Grunberger, George; Guyton, John R; Leiter, Lawrence A; McBride, Ruth; Robinson, Jennifer G; Simmons, Debra L; Wysham, Carol; Xu, Ping; Boden, William E

    2016-07-01

    Niacin is an antidyslipidemic agent that may cause blood sugar elevation in patients with diabetes, but its effects on glucose and insulin values in nondiabetic statin-treated subjects with cardiovascular disease and at high risk for diabetes are less well known. This was a prespecified, intent-to-treat analysis of the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low high-density lipoprotein/high triglycerides: Impact on Global Health outcomes trial which randomized 3,414 participants at 92 centers in the US and Canada to extended-release niacin (ERN) plus simvastatin/ezetimibe (ERN) or simvastatin/ezetimibe plus placebo (Placebo). Baseline and annual fasting glucose and insulin values were measured. Those experiencing an adverse event indicative of diabetes or starting medications for diabetes were considered to have confirmed diabetes. In addition, nondiabetic subjects with 2 annual follow-up glucose measurements were categorized into normal, impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed diabetes (presumed or confirmed) states. Compared with placebo, ERN increased annual fasting glucose from baseline to 1 year in both those with normal (7.9 ± 15.8 vs 4.3 ± 10.3 mg/dL; P < .001) and impaired fasting glucose (4.1 ± 18.7 vs 1.4 ± 14.9; P < .02) and increased insulin levels. Both effects waned over the next 2 years. There were less consistent effects in those with baseline diabetes. There was an increased risk of progressing from normal to presumed or confirmed impaired fasting glucose (ERN 197/336) cases (58.6%) vs placebo 135/325 cases (41.5%; P < .001) over time, but no difference in diabetes development in the 2 treatment groups except in those with normal fasting glucose at baseline. The addition of ERN to simvastatin/ezetimibe had marginal effects on glycemia in those with diabetes at baseline, and there was a trend toward increased development of new-onset diabetes. In addition, ERN increased the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose, which

  9. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  10. Anthrax lethal toxin suppresses high glucose induced VEGF over secretion through a post-translational mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wei; Zhang; Xin; Wang; Ping; Xie; Song-Tao; Yuan; Qing-Huai; Liu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To prove anthrax lethal toxin(Le Tx) blocks the mitogen activated protein kinases(MAPKs) activation by degrading the MAPK/ERK kinases(MEKs) to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) secretion.METHODS: Human adult retinal pigmented epithelium(ARPE) cells were cultured and treated with normal glucose, high glucose or high glucose with Le Tx for additional 24, 48 or 72 h for viable cell count. Total RNA from the ARPE was isolated for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The conditioned medium of ARPE cells treated in different group for 48 h was filtered and diluted to detect the concentration of VEGF by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays.Evaluate the role of MEK/MAPK pathway in the secretion of VEGF by immunoblotting. RESULTS: In this study, we proved high glucose induced activation of the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK1/2) and p38 in the ARPE cell line was blocked by anthrax Le Tx. Le Tx also inhibited high glucose induced ARPE cell over proliferation.CONCLUSION: Le Tx suppressed high glucose induced VEGF over secretion in the ARPE cells, mainly through a post-translational mechanism.

  11. Impact of glucose level on morbidity and mortality inelderly with diabetes and pre-diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orit Twito; Meir Frankel; Dan Nabriski

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)increases with age and reaches 25% in those olderthan age 65 years. Pre-diabetes status is also verycommon in the elderly, and is present in about half ofthose age 75 years and older. Many physicians care forelderly patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes, dealingwith the challenge of controlling glucose levels andimproving health with minimal adverse events. Over thelast decade, research on diabetes among the elderlypopulation has proliferated, adding new information onthis topic. This review summarizes the updated medicalliterature on diabetes and pre-diabetes in the elderly,including the significance of pre-diabetic conditions,new-onset DM in the elderly and long-standing DM.The role of therapeutic intervention and the level ofglycemic control for this population are discussed inparticular.

  12. Wholegrain barley β-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Taketa, Shin; Bird, Anthony R

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of oat and barley β-glucans is believed to mediate in part their metabolic health benefits, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that barley β-glucan fermentation raises circulating incretin hormone levels and improves glucose control, independent of other grain components. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 2 weeks. The low- (LBG, 0% β-glucan) and high- (HBG, 3% β-glucan) β-glucan diets contained 25% wholegrain barley and similar levels of insoluble dietary fiber, available carbohydrate, and energy. A low-fiber diet (basal) was included for comparison. Immediately prior to the dietary intervention, gastric emptying rate (using the (13)C-octanoic breath test) and postprandial glycemic response of each diet were determined. At the end of the study, circulating gut hormone levels were determined; and a glucose tolerance test was performed. The rats were then killed, and indices of cecal fermentation were assessed. Diet did not affect live weight; however, the HBG diet, compared to basal and LBG, reduced food intake, tended to slow gastric emptying, increased cecal digesta mass and individual and total short-chain fatty acid pools, and lowered digesta pH. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, insulin, gastric-inhibitory peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucose tolerance were unaffected by diet. In conclusion, wholegrain barley β-glucan suppressed feed intake and increased cecal fermentation but did not improve postprandial glucose control or insulin sensitivity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adiponectin attenuates high glucose-induced apoptosis through the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway in NRK-52E cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Lian; Gao, Ping; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Excessive apoptosis of proximal tubule cell is closely related to the development of diabetes. Recent evidence suggests that adiponectin (ADPN) protects cells from high glucose induced apoptosis. However, the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. We sought to investigate the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) in anti-apoptotic of adiponectin under high glucose condition in rat tubular NRK-52E cells. Cells were cultured in constant and oscillating high glucose media with or without recombinant rat adiponectin for 48 h. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect cell viability, flow cytometry and Hoechst Staining were applied to investigate cell apoptosis, and western blotting was used to examine protein expression, such as phospho-AMPK and phospho-p38MAPK. Exposure to oscillating high glucose exerted lower cell viability and higher early apoptosis than constant high glucose, which were both partially prevented by adiponectin. Further studies revealed that adiponectin suppressed p38MAPK phosphorylation, but led to an increase in AMPK α phosphorylation. Compared to stable high glucose group, blockage of p38MAPK cascade with SB203580 attenuated apoptosis significantly, but failed to affect the phosphorylation level of AMPK. While AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, increased apoptosis and remarkably inhibited the p38MAPK phosphorylation. Adiponectin exert a crucial protective role against apoptosis induced by high glucose via AMPK/p38MAPK pathway.

  14. Increased oxidative stress and toxicity in ADH and CYP2E1 overexpressing human hepatoma VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthikeyan; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Kumar, S Mathan; Clemens, Dahn L; Dey, Aparajita

    2012-05-01

    High glucose mediated oxidative stress and cell death is a well documented phenomenon. Using VL-17A cells which are HepG2 cells over-expressing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and control HepG2 cells, the association of ADH and CYP2E1 with high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in liver cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured and apoptosis or necrosis was determined through caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and detecting decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and the formation of advanced glycated-end products were assessed. The levels of several antioxidants which included glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were altered in high glucose treated VL-17A cells. Greater toxicity was observed in VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose when compared to HepG2 cells. Oxidative stress parameters were greatly increased in high glucose exposed VL-17A cells and apoptotic cell death was observed. Inhibition of CYP2E1 or caspase 3 or addition of the antioxidant trolox led to significant decreases in high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Thus, the over-expression of ADH and CYP2E1 in liver cells is associated with increased high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of NiWO4 crystals for high performance non-enzymatic glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sivakumar; Vediyappan, Veeramani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Madhu, Rajesh; Pitchaimani, Veerakumar; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal route for the synthesis of ordered NiWO4 nanocrystals, which show promising applications as high performance non-enzymatic glucose sensor is reported. The NiWO4-modified electrodes showed excellent sensitivity (269.6 μA mM−1 cm−2) and low detection limit (0.18 μM) for detection of glucose with desirable selectivity, stability, and tolerance to interference, rendering their prospective applications as cost-effective, enzyme-free glucose sensors. PMID:27087561

  16. Pycnogenol modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in high glucose-treated renal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jung; Kim, Young Ae; Yokozawa, Takako

    2011-09-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that polyphenolic antioxidants protect against diabetic nephropathy. Pycnogenol is made up of flavonoids, mainly procyanidins and phenolic compounds, and is a known powerful antioxidant. Hyperglycemia is characteristic of diabetic nephropathy and induces renal tubular cell apoptosis. Thus, in this study, we used high glucose-treated renal tubular cells to investigate the protective action of pycnogenol against high glucose-induced apoptosis and diabetic nephropathy. We also sought to further delineate the underlying mechanisms elicited by oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressed by pycnogenol. Results show that pycnogenol significantly suppressed the high glucose-induced morphological changes and the reduction in cell viability associated with cytotoxicity. Bcl2/Bax protein levels indicated pycnogenol's anti-apoptotic effect against high glucose-induced apoptotic cell death. In addition, several key markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured for pycnogenol's beneficial effects. Results indicate pycnogenol's anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory efficacy in suppressing lipid peroxidation, total reactive species (RS), superoxide ((·)O(2)), nitric oxide (NO(·)), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation. Based on these results, we conclude that pycnogenol's anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties underlie its anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting further investigation of pycnogenol as a promising treatment against diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  18. Curcumin improves high glucose-induced INS-1 cell insulin resistance via activation of insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenfeng; Wang, Huan; Zhu, Lin; Han, Mingbao; Gao, Yuan; Du, Yu; Wen, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin is a yellow pigment isolated from Corcuma longan. This research investigates the improvement of curcumin on INS-1 cells with insulin resistance induced by high glucose. INS-1 cells were treated with high glucose (30 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h. Subsequently, the medium was replaced with curcumin for 24 h. Curcumin effectively increased insulin gene expression and glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of curcumin-induced insulin expression and secretion in high glucose-induced INS-1 cells was investigated in this study. Curcumin increased the expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT in the INS-1 cells. Moreover, curcumin stimulation increased the expression of PDX-1 and GCK. This investigation suggests that curcumin prevented high glucose-reduced insulin expression and secretion through activation of the PI3K/Akt/GLUT2 pathway in INS-1 cells.

  19. Morroniside protects cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells from damage by high ambient glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qin XU; Hai-ping HAO; Xu ZHANG; Yang PAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether morroniside, a compound in Comus officinalis Sieb et Zucc can prevent cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from damage by high ambient glucose. METHODS: HUVEC was incubated in glucose, 5 or 30 mmol/L, either alone or in the presence of morroniside (final concentration 100, 10,and 1 μmol/L, respectively) for 48 h. The proliferation of HUVEC was quantified by MTT method; its cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry; morphological change was observed with fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS:Survival of HUVEC cultured in high ambient glucose was significantly decreased when compared to that in normal concentration of glucose (P<0.01). High ambient glucose also lowered the rate of cells entering into S-phase, along with severe morphological damage. With the intervention of morroniside (final concentration 100 and 10 μmol/L),the cell survival was significantly recovered (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), accompanied with increased S-phase rate and less extent of morphological damage. CONCLUSION: Morroniside protected HUVEC against high ambient glucose induced injury, which suggested that morroniside could exert a beneficial effect on preventing diabetic angiopathies.

  20. Heme oxygenase-1-derived bilirubin protects endothelial cells against high glucose-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meihua; Nitti, Mariapaola; Piras, Sabrina; Furfaro, Anna Lisa; Traverso, Nicola; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Mann, Giovanni E

    2015-12-01

    Hyperglycemia and diabetes are associated with endothelial cell dysfunction arising from enhanced oxidative injury, leading to the progression of diabetic vascular pathologies. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), involved in cellular defenses against oxidative stress. We have investigated the pathways involved in high glucose-induced activation of HO-1 in endothelial cells and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying cytoprotection. Elevated d-glucose increased intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression in bovine aortic endothelial cells, with no changes in cell viability. Superoxide scavenging and inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) abrogated upregulation of HO-1 expression by elevated glucose. Inhibition of HO-1 increased the sensitivity of endothelial cells to high glucose-mediated damage, while addition of bilirubin restored cell viability. Our findings establish that exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose leads to activation of endogenous antioxidant defense genes via the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Upregulation of HO-1 provides cytoprotection against high glucose-induced oxidative stress through the antioxidant properties of bilirubin. Modulation of the Nrf2 pathway in the early stages of diabetes may thus protect against sustained damage by hyperglycemia during progression of the disease.

  1. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  2. Variation of Serum Levels of Glucose and Protein During the Day in Sheep of Different Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Galván Doria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the effect of sampling hour and sex on blood glucose levels and total protein, there were monitored six Colombian native sheep for 3 days. The blood samples were taken by jugular venipuncture, after asepsis and stored at -20°C to its subsequent processing through Spectrophotometry. The results were tabulated in Excel and analyzed using statistical program SAS 9.1. The mean values found were: glucose 75.57 ± 27.5 mg/dL for females and 83.70 ± 37.7 mg/dL for males; total protein 8.47 ± 2.76 g/dL for females and 7.14 ± 3.26 g/dL for males; albumin 4.29 ± 1.41 g/dL for females and 3.83 ± 1.46 g/dL for males; globulin 4.62 ± 2.35 g/dL for females and 3.92 ± 2.45 g/dL for males. The day and the hour of sampling affect serum concentrations (p < 0.05 of evaluated metabolites, also there was variation of themself regarding sex (p < 0.05.

  3. Effective Control of Postprandial Glucose Level through Inhibition of Intestinal Alpha Glucosidase by Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Ghadyale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of intestinal alpha glucosidase plays a major role in preventing rise in postprandial glucose level in diabetics. Cymbopogon martinii (CM (family Poaceae is used in traditional Indian medicine in treatment of diabetes mellitus. The alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of the plant is studied. The active component was separated using hot water extraction of the whole plant powder, differential solvent extraction, and silica gel column chromatography. The 30 : 70 toluene : ethyl acetate fraction showed optimum activity. The silica gel chromatography fraction demonstrated 98, 98, and 68% inhibition for starch, maltose, and sucrose, respectively, at 5 mg/kg body weight of rats. Intestinal absorption studies using noneverted intestinal sacs, as well as in vivo studies in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using oral glucose tolerance with maltose and sucrose load, revealed better inhibition of alpha glucosidase as compared to acarbose. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver Burk plot showed mixed to noncompetitive type of inhibition by CM. In vivo studies with maltose load of 2 mg and 3 mg/gm body weight showed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition at 5 mg/kg body weight of CM as against 60 mg/kg body weight of acarbose. Thus CM is more effective alpha glucosidase inhibitor and at lower concentration than acarbose.

  4. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  5. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  6. The ATP Receptors P2X7 and P2X4 Modulate High Glucose and Palmitate-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasri Sathanoori

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells lining the blood vessels are principal players in vascular inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of endothelial cell function caused by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia often result in impaired vasoregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered barrier function. Various stressors including high glucose stimulate the release of nucleotides thus initiating signaling via purinergic receptors. However, purinergic modulation of inflammatory responses in endothelial cells caused by high glucose and palmitate remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of high glucose and palmitate is mediated by P2X7 and P2X4 and if they play a role in endothelial cell dysfunction. Transcript and protein levels of inflammatory genes as well as reactive oxygen species production, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion, and cell permeability were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to high glucose and palmitate. We report high glucose and palmitate to increase levels of extracellular ATP, expression of P2X7 and P2X4, and inflammatory markers. Both P2X7 and P2X4 antagonists inhibited high glucose and palmitate-induced interleukin-6 levels with the former having a significant effect on interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2. The effect of the antagonists was confirmed with siRNA knockdown of the receptors. In addition, P2X7 mediated both high glucose and palmitate-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Blocking P2X7 inhibited high glucose and palmitate-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, high glucose and palmitate enhanced endothelial cell permeability that was dependent on both P2X7 and P2X4. Furthermore, antagonizing the P2X7 inhibited high glucose and palmitate-mediated activation of p38-mitogen

  7. Effects of miglitol, sitagliptin or their combination on plasma glucose, insulin and incretin levels in non-diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Masuda, Kiyomi; Miyazaki, Takashi; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (alphaGIs) increase active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and reduce the total glucosedependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels, but their ability to prevent diabetes remains uncertain. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, such as sitagliptin, increase active GLP-1 and GIP levels and improve hyperglycemia in a glucose-dependent fashion. However, the effectiveness of their combination in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is uncertain. The present study evaluated the effect of miglitol, sitagliptin, and their combination on glucose, insulin and incretin levels in non-diabetic men. Miglitol and sitagliptin were administered according to four different intake schedules (C: no drug, M: miglitol; S: sitagliptin, M+S: miglitol and sitagliptin). The plasma glucose levels were significantly lower for M, S and M+S than for the control. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the plasma active GLP-1 level in the M, S, and M+S groups were significantly greater than that in the control group. The AUC of the plasma active GLP-1 level was significantly greater for M+S group than for the M and S groups. The AUC of the plasma total GIP level was significantly smaller for M+S group than for the control and M and S groups. The results of our study suggest that miglitol, sitagliptin, or their combination contributes to the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase acts as a negative regulator of high glucose-induced RANKL expression in human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yuan; LIU Jia-qiang; LIU Hong-chen

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that the function of periodontal ligament cells may be affected by high glucose levels.This study investigated the direct effect of high glucose on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) in human PDL (hPDL) cells.In addition,we examined whether this effect was mediated via AMPK activation.Methods We examined the expression of osteoprotegerin in hPDL cells cultured at different concentrations of glucose using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),and Western blotting analysis.AMPK phosphorylation in hPDL cells was studied using immunoprecipitate kinase assay and Western blotting.The effect of AMPK activation on RANKL expression in hPDL cells was investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting.Results High glucose levels caused an increase in RANKL mRNA and protein expression in hPDL cells.Moreover,the amount of p-AMPK and AMPK activity was lower in hPDL cells exposed to high glucose levels than in cells exposed to normal glucose levels.Suppression of AMPK by Compound C augmented RANKL expression,and AMPK activation by metformin significantly decreased RANKL expression in hPDL cells.Additionally,metformin down-regulated RANKL expression in hPDL cells exposed to high glucose via AMPK activation.Conclusion High glucose-induced up-regulation of RANKL could be due to decreased AMPK activity,and AMPK activation may be involved in regulating of RANKL expression in hPDL cells.

  9. Modulation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 expression levels alters mouse mammary tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D Young

    Full Text Available Tumor cells exhibit an altered metabolism characterized by elevated aerobic glycolysis and lactate secretion which is supported by an increase in glucose transport and consumption. We hypothesized that reducing or eliminating the expression of the most prominently expressed glucose transporter(s would decrease the amount of glucose available to breast cancer cells thereby decreasing their metabolic capacity and proliferative potential.Of the 12 GLUT family glucose transporters expressed in mice, GLUT1 was the most abundantly expressed at the RNA level in the mouse mammary tumors from MMTV-c-ErbB2 mice and cell lines examined. Reducing GLUT1 expression in mouse mammary tumor cell lines using shRNA or Cre/Lox technology reduced glucose transport, glucose consumption, lactate secretion and lipid synthesis in vitro without altering the concentration of ATP, as well as reduced growth on plastic and in soft agar. The growth of tumor cells with reduced GLUT1 expression was impaired when transplanted into the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice in vivo. Overexpression of GLUT1 in a cell line with low levels of endogenous GLUT1 increased glucose transport in vitro and enhanced growth in nude mice in vivo as compared to the control cells with very low levels of GLUT1.These studies demonstrate that GLUT1 is the major glucose transporter in mouse mammary carcinoma models overexpressing ErbB2 or PyVMT and that modulation of the level of GLUT1 has an effect upon the growth of mouse mammary tumor cell lines in vivo.

  10. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira,Andressa Magalhães; Tsukamoto, Rosangela; Lopes,Camila Takáo; Silva, Rita de Cassia Gengo e

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. Method: an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemi...

  11. Over-the-counter analgesics normalize blood glucose and body composition in mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Eric L; Schneider, Scott N; Clegg, Deborah J; Genter, Mary Beth; Shertzer, Howard G

    2008-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) develops from a pre-diabetic condition that is characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, and is exacerbated by obesity. In this study, we compared the ability of over-the-counter analgesic drugs (OTCAD) [acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); naproxen (NAP); aspirin (ASA)], to protect against the development of a pre-diabetic state in mice fed a high fat diet. After 10 weeks on the high fat diet, mice had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, but exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment with 20 mg OTCADs/kg body weight improved glucose tolerance, with the order of efficacy, APAP=ASA>IBU, while NAP proved ineffective. Mice fed the high fat diet also exhibited increases in weight gain associated with an increase in body fat. OTCADs prevented in part this increase in body fat, in the order of efficacy, APAP=IBU>NAP=ASA. In isolated liver mitochondria, OTCADs inhibited succinate-dependent H2O2 production, while in white adipose tissue, APAP inhibited NADPH-oxidase mediated H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation. Thus, OTCADs diminish pro-oxidant processes that might otherwise exacerbate inflammation and a pre-diabetic state. We conclude that OTCADs, especially APAP and IBU, may be valuable tools to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes from a pre-diabetic condition.

  12. Impact of admission blood glucose levels on prognosis of elderly patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Ahmet; Uluganyan, Mahmut; Tufan, Fatif; Uyarel, Huseyin; Karaca, Gurkan; Kul, Seref; Gungor, Barış; Ertas, Gokhan; Erer, Betul; Sayar, Nurten; Gul, Mehmet; Eren, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    Admission hyperglycemia in acute myocardial infarction (MI) is related with increased in-hospital and long term mortality and major cardiac adverse events. We aimed to investigate how admission hyperglycemia affects the short and long term outcomes in elderly patients (> 65 years) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST elevation myocardial infarction. We retrospectively analyzed 677 consecutive elderly patients (mean age 72.2 ± 5.4). Patients were divided into two groups according to admission blood glucose levels. Group 1: low glucose group (LLG), glucose 168 mg/dL. In-hospital, long term mortality and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events were higher in the high admission blood glucose group (P 1, post-thrombolysis in MI < 3 and admission blood glucose levels were independent predictors of in-hospital adverse cardiac events (P < 0.001). Admission hyperglycemia in elderly patients presented with ST elevation myocardial infarction is an independent predictor of in-hospital major adverse cardiac events and is associated with in-hospital and long term mortality.

  13. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  14. Doped graphene/Cu nanocomposite: A high sensitivity non-enzymatic glucose sensor for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabnam, Luba; Faisal, Shaikh Nayeem; Roy, Anup Kumar; Haque, Enamul; Minett, Andrew I; Gomes, Vincent G

    2017-04-15

    An amperometric non-enzymatic glucose sensor was developed based on nitrogen-doped graphene with dispersed copper nanoparticles (Cu-NGr). The sensing element was tested in conjunction with a modified glassy carbon electrode for glucose detection. The Cu-NGr composite was prepared by one pot synthesis from a mixture of graphene oxide, copper nitrate and uric acid, followed by thermal annealing at 900°C for 1h. Detailed characterizations showed homogeneous copper nanoparticle dispersion and the presence of significant proportion of graphitic nitrogen. The developed electrode presented high electrocatalytic activity towards glucose through synergetic effect of copper nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped graphene. Amperometric analysis confirmed high glucose sensitivity and ultra-low detection of 10nM glucose over a linear range. The sensor was tested for direct application to detect glucose in food samples for which the sensor displayed high selectivity with excellent reproducibility and recovery in complex food materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of leisure time physical activity and abdominal obesity with fasting serum insulin and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulin, K; Tuomilehto, J; Peltonen, M; Lakka, T A; Sundvall, J; Jousilahti, P

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the joint associations of leisure time physical activity and abdominal obesity with fasting insulin and 2-h glucose levels and with the risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and Type 2 diabetes (Type 2 DM). A cross-sectional population-based random sample of 1812 Finnish adults 45-74 years of age without a history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Relative energy expenditure during the previous 12 months (METh/week), assessed by a questionnaire, was used as a measure of leisure time physical activity. Waist-hip ratio (WHR) was used as a measure of abdominal obesity. IGT and Type 2 DM were assessed by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and were defined according to the World Health Organization guidelines. While 2-h glucose and fasting insulin levels increased with increasing WHR (P physical activity (P = 0.015 and P fasting insulin levels were found among individuals who had most abdominal obesity and were least physically active. Physically inactive individuals had a higher prevalence of IGT and Type 2 DM in all WHR tertiles than physically active persons. Higher levels of leisure time physical activity are associated with lower 2-h glucose and fasting insulin levels and a reduced risk of having IGT and Type 2 DM, independent of the level of abdominal obesity.

  16. Insulin elevates leptin secretion and mRNA levels via cyclic AMP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes deprived of glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Tsubai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Insulin alone stimulates leptin secretion and elevates leptin mRNA levels via cAMP under the lack of glucose metabolism, while glucose is a significant and ambivalent effector on the insulin effects of leptin.

  17. Enzyme-functionalized thin-cladding long-period fiber grating in transition mode at dispersion turning point for sugar-level and glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmos, Abdulyezir A.; Sun, Qizhen; Sun, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Junxi; Yan, Zhijun; Lutsyk, Petro; Rozhin, Alex; Zhang, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Enzyme-functionalized dual-peak long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed in 80-μm-cladding B/Ge codoped single-mode fiber is presented for sugar-level and specific glucose detection. Before enzyme functionalization, the dual-peak LPFG was employed for refractive index sensing and sugar-level detection and high sensitivities of ˜4298.20 nm/RIU and 4.6696 nm/% were obtained, respectively. Glucose detection probe was attained by surface functionalization of the dual-peak LPFG via covalent binding with aminopropyl triethoxysilane used as a binding site. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of enzyme. The surface-functionalized dual-peak LPFG was tested with D-(+)-glucose solution of different concentrations. While the peak 2 at the longer wavelength was suitable only to measure lower glucose concentration (0.1 to 1.6 mg/ml) recording a high sensitivity of 12.21±0.19 nm/(mg/ml), the peak 1 at the shorter wavelength was able to measure a wider range of glucose concentrations (0.1 to 3.2 mg/ml) exhibiting a maximum resonance wavelength shift of 7.12±0.12 nm/mg/ml. The enzyme-functionalized dual-peak LPFG has the advantage of direct inscription of highly sensitive grating structures in thin-cladding fibre without etching, and most significantly, its sensitivity improvement of approximately one order of magnitude higher than previously reported LPFG and excessively tilted fibre grating (Ex-TFG) for glucose detection.

  18. Phenotypic and gene expression changes between low (glucose-responsive) and High (glucose non-responsive) MIN-6 beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Driscoll, L.; Gammell, p.; McKierman, E.

    2006-01-01

    that the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) phenotype is relatively unstable, in long-term culture. This study aimed to investigate phenotypic and gene expression changes associated with this loss of GSIS, using the MIN-6 cell line as model. Phenotypic differences between MIN-6(L, low passage) and MIN-6(H......, high passage) were determined by ELISA (assessing GSIS and cellular (pro)insulin content), proliferation assays, phase contrast light microscopy and analysis of alkaline phosphatase expression. Differential mRNA expression was investigated using microarray, bioinformatics and real-time PCR technologies....... Long-term culture was found to be associated with many phenotypic changes, including changes in growth rate and cellular morphology, as well as loss of GSIS. Microarray analyses indicate expression of many mRNAs, including many involved in regulated secretion, adhesion and proliferation...

  19. Heritable transmission of stress resistance by high dietary glucose in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauffenberger, Arnaud; Parker, J Alex

    2014-05-01

    Glucose is a major energy source and is a key regulator of metabolism but excessive dietary glucose is linked to several disorders including type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiac dysfunction. Dietary intake greatly influences organismal survival but whether the effects of nutritional status are transmitted to the offspring is an unresolved question. Here we show that exposing Caenorhabditis elegans to high glucose concentrations in the parental generation leads to opposing negative effects on fecundity, while having protective effects against cellular stress in the descendent progeny. The transgenerational inheritance of glucose-mediated phenotypes is dependent on the insulin/IGF-like signalling pathway and components of the histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylase complex are essential for transmission of inherited phenotypes. Thus dietary over-consumption phenotypes are heritable with profound effects on the health and survival of descendants.

  20. High reproducibility and sensitivity of bifacial copper nanowire array for detection of glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ordered bifacial copper nanowire array (Cu BNWA was synthesized by a template assisted electrochemical deposition method. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared samples were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results show that the ordered Cu nanowire array with uniform geometrical dimensions covered both side of the Cu substrate. When used as the electrode for glucose detection, the minimum detectable concentration of glucose can be reached as low as 0.2 mM. Impressively, the sample still showed high sensitivity and stability for glucose detection after two months placement in ambient environment. These excellent performances of the Cu BNWA make it a promising non-enzyme glucose detection sensor for various applications.

  1. Mechanisms of action of troglitazone in the prevention of high glucose-induced migration and proliferation of cultured coronary smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Kano, H; Yokokawa, K; Minami, M; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-12-01

    Recent findings suggest that high glucose levels may promote atherosclerosis in coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To explore the intracellular mechanisms of action by which troglitazone affects this process, we examined the effect of troglitazone on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary VSMCs. Treatment with chronic high glucose medium (22.2 mmol/L) for 5 days increased VSMC migration by 92%, [3H]thymidine incorporation by 135%, and cell number by 32% compared with VSMCs treated with normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L glucose + 16.6 mmol/L mannose) medium. Trolitazone at 100 nmol/L and 1 mumol/L significantly suppressed high glucose-induced VSMC migration by 34% and 42%, respectively, the proliferative effect (as measured by cell number) by 17% and 27%, and [3H]thymidine incorporation by 45% and 60% (n = 6, P < .05). The high glucose-induced impairment of insulin-mediated [3H]deoxyglucose uptake was blocked by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (calphostin C, 1 mumol/L) and was also improved by troglitazone without any change in insulin receptor number and affinity. The high glucose-induced insulin-mediated increase in cell number and in [3H]thymidine incorporation was suppressed by troglitazone. Troglitazone (1 mumol/L) also suppressed high glucose-induced phospholipase D activation, elevation of the cytosolic NADH/NAD+ ratio (as measured by the cytosolic ratio of lactate/pyruvate), and membrane-bound PKC activation. Flow cytometric DNA histogram analysis of cell cycle stage showed that high glucose-induced increase in the percentage of cells in the S phase was suppressed by 1 mumol/L troglitazone. These findings suggest that PKC may be a link between impairment of insulin-mediated glucose uptake and the increase in migration and proliferation induced by high glucose levels and that troglitazone may be clinically useful for the treatment of high glucose-induced coronary atherosclerosis.

  2. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3) approximately 6 weeks apart. A food frequency- and dietary pattern-related questionnaire was administered and numerically coded responses were analyzed. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were also collected at V1, V2, and V3. Body weight, fasting blood glucose level, and blood pressure of study participants were also determined at each time period. Total sample population (TSP) had a significant increase in mean weight of 2.79 lb from visit 1 (V1) to visit 3 (V3) (p = .0082). Ten participants gained an average of 9.0 lb (participants who gained weight; n = 10). There was also an increase in the frequency of consumption of high-calorie American food items from V1 to V3. However, there were no significant changes in mean systolic blood pressure and mean fasting blood glucose was significantly lower at V3 than at V1. There was a gradual shift in the dietary patterns of international students towards the American diet. Dietary acculturation led to weight gain among some of the students, which may potentially have a negative impact on their health status if continued for longer time periods.

  3. Regulation of Autophagy by High Glucose in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autophagy is a self-degradative process that is important for balancing sources of energy at critical times in development and in response to nutrient stress. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE works as the outer blood retina barrier and is vulnerable to energy stress-induced injury. However, the effect of high glucose treatment on autophagy is still unclear in RPE. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy was used to detect the generation of autophagosome. Small interfering RNA (siRNA and MTT was used to determine the effect of autophagy on cell viability. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression pattern of autophagic markers, including LC3 and p62. Results: High glucose treatment results in a significant increase in the generation of autophagosome and altered expression of LC3 and p62. High glucose-induced autophagy is independent of mTOR signaling, but is mainly regulated via ROS-mediated ER stress signaling. Conclusion: In the scenario of high glucose-induced oxidative stress, autophagy may be required for the removal of damaged proteins, and provide a default mechanism to prevent high glucose-induced injury in RPE.

  4. Role of salt inducible kinase 1 in high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and metformin intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Takemori, Hiroshi; Wang, Chang; Fu, JiaHui; Xu, MingWang; Xiong, Liang; Li, NingXu; Wen, XiuYing

    2017-03-15

    To investigate the roles of salt inducible kinase (SIK1) in high glucose-induced triglyceride accumulation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells as well as in the molecular mechanism by which metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, suppresses high glucose-induced lipogenesis. A cell model for high glucose-induced hepatic steatosis was prepared by exposing HepG2 cells to high glucose (25mmol) in the absence or presence of metformin (0.5mmol). Intracellular triglycerides were visualized by Oil Red O and measured using a triglyceride assay kit. Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. SIK1 overexpression in HepG2 cells was achieved by transient transfection, and the mRNA and protein levels of SIK1 and lipogenic factors were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells was obvious after treatment with high glucose for 24h. In response to high glucose, SIK1 expression was negatively correlated with that of lipogenic factors and lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. We observed that overexpression of SIK1, or treatment with metformin, suppressed lipogenesis, even in high glucose conditions. Furthermore, treatment with metformin upregulated SIK1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as the active form of SIK1. SIK1 plays a vital role in high glucose-induced lipid accumulation, and metformin suppresses lipogenesis via the induction and activation of SIK1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Variations in the G6PC2/ABCB11 genomic region are associated with fasting glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wei-Min; Erdos, Michael R; Jackson, Anne U

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the genetic variants that regulate fasting glucose concentrations may further our understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetes. We therefore investigated the association of fasting glucose levels with SNPs in 2 genome-wide scans including a total of 5,088 nondiabetic individuals from...... Finland and Sardinia. We found a significant association between the SNP rs563694 and fasting glucose concentrations (P = 3.5 x 10(-7)). This association was further investigated in an additional 18,436 nondiabetic individuals of mixed European descent from 7 different studies. The combined P value...... for association in these follow-up samples was 6.9 x 10(-26), and combining results from all studies resulted in an overall P value for association of 6.4 x 10(-33). Across these studies, fasting glucose concentrations increased 0.01-0.16 mM with each copy of the major allele, accounting for approximately 1...

  6. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  7. The Appearance of a Leptin Effect on Glucose Absorption in Caco2 Cells Depends on Their Differentiation Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola El-Zein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Backdround/Aims: The aim of this work was to study the effect and mechanism of action of leptin added apically, on glucose absorption, using Caco-2 cells as a model. Methods: Cells were grown on inserts and treated with leptin, at different time points after confluence. Radiolabelled glucose was added to the upper chamber and samples from the lower chamber were collected and assayed for radioactivity. Results: Glucose absorption increased with an increase in the level of differentiation and was associated with an increase in the protein expression level of glucose transporters. Leptin reduced glucose absorption only by day 16 after confluence, the time at which apical leptin receptors started appearing. This inhibitory effect became higher the longer the post confluence period, and was prominent on day 23. The hormone effect was found to be mediated via a decrease in the number of glucose transporters (SGLT1 and GLUT2 and a decrease in the activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase which was assayed by measuring the amount of inorganic phosphate liberated in presence and absence of enzyme activators. Conclusion: It was concluded that by day 23 post confluence, Caco-2 cells are differentiated and are appropriate to use as a model for intestinal transport studies.

  8. Downregulation of VEGF and upregulation of TL1A expression induce HUVEC apoptosis in response to high glucose stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Lu, Guihua; Zhu, Xun; Huang, Zhibin; Feng, Chong; Fang, Rong; Wang, Yesong; Gao, Xiuren

    2016-04-01

    High glucose‑induced endothelial cell apoptosis is considered to be the initiator of diabetes‑associated vascular complications. Experiments in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that high glucose levels contribute to the apoptosis of endothelial cells by mediating cellular dysfunction and metabolic disorder via the production of various cytokines. As the most important endogenous vascular regulators, the balance between pro‑proliferative effector vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti‑proliferative effector tumor necrosis factor‑like cytokine 1A (TL1A) is important in the modulation of endothelial cell survival and proliferation, and neovascularization. The present study aimed to explore whether the imbalance between VEGF and TL1A affected the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to high glucose conditions and then further investigated the potential mechanism. The results showed that the downregulation of VEGF in combination with the upregulation of TL1A in response to high glucose levels led to enhanced HUVEC apoptosis. Further experiments revealed that silencing high glucose‑induced TL1A expression using TL1A small interfering (si)RNA or the overexpression of VEGF by transfection with VEGF DNA resulted in a reduced HUVEC apoptosis rate compared with the controls. The effects occurred by attenuating and activating the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway, respectively. In addition, VEGF and TL1A inhibited each other in hyperglycemia. In conclusion, these findings provide theoretical support for the further investigation of novel therapeutic strategies designed to maintain the balance between VEGF and TL1A and, thus, to prevent the onset and progression of endothelial cell apoptosis in response to high glucose stimuli.

  9. The level of menadione redox-cycling in pancreatic β-cells is proportional to the glucose concentration: Role of NADH and consequences for insulin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heart, Emma [Cellular Dynamics Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Palo, Meridith; Womack, Trayce [Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT, 06320 (United States); Smith, Peter J.S. [Cellular Dynamics Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Gray, Joshua P., E-mail: Joshua.p.gray@uscga.edu [Cellular Dynamics Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT, 06320 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Pancreatic β-cells release insulin in response to elevation of glucose from basal (4–7 mM) to stimulatory (8–16 mM) levels. Metabolism of glucose by the β-cell results in the production of low levels of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), such as hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a newly recognized coupling factor linking glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. However, high and toxic levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibit insulin secretion. Menadione, which produces H{sub 2}O{sub 2} via redox cycling mechanism in a dose-dependent manner, was investigated for its effect on β-cell metabolism and insulin secretion in INS-1 832/13, a rat β-cell insulinoma cell line, and primary rodent islets. Menadione-dependent redox cycling and resulting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production under stimulatory glucose exceeded several-fold those reached at basal glucose. This was paralleled by a differential effect of menadione (0.1–10 μM) on insulin secretion, which was enhanced at basal, but inhibited at stimulatory glucose. Redox cycling of menadione and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation was dependent on glycolytically-derived NADH, as inhibition of glycolysis and application of non-glycogenic insulin secretagogues did not support redox cycling. In addition, activity of plasma membrane electron transport, a system dependent in part on glycolytically-derived NADH, was also inhibited by menadione. Menadione-dependent redox cycling was sensitive to the NQO1 inhibitor dicoumarol and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, suggesting a role for NQO1 and other oxidoreductases in this process. These data may explain the apparent dichotomy between the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and menadione on insulin secretion. -- Highlights: ► Menadione stimulation or inhibition of insulin secretion is dependent upon applied glucose levels. ► Menadione-dependent H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production is proportional to applied glucose levels. ► Quinone-mediated redox cycling

  10. Increased levels of lipid metabolism and cystatin-C,but not glucose, affect virtual P vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia; LIN Yu-bi; ZENG Chu-qian; YANG Zhen-zhen; LAI Xiao-shu; LU Qi-ji; ZHOU Jing-wen

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study,we aimed to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose,lipid and Cystatin-C on the virtual P vector characteristics,which haven' t been reported in previous studies.Methods 204 of non-diabetes mellitus (NDM),130 of DM (type 2) and 39 of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients were consecutively and retrospectively recruited.We selected a one-minute length of electrocardiogram at 4AM for analysis.After a series of calculating algorisms,we obtained the virtual planar P vector parameters.Results There were no significant differences in FPV,FPA,RSPV,RSPA,HPV and HPA groups.After adjusting confounding factors,the regression coefficients (RC) were estimated as follow:for FPV,female gender (RC-0.21,P =0.02),triglyceride (RC-0.09,P < 0.01),RVOT (RC 0.03,P =0.02);for RSPV,female gender (RC-0.21,P < 0.01),triglyceride (RC-0.10,P < 0.01),average heart rate (RC 0.01,P =0.02);for HPV,triglyceride (RC-0.08,P < 0.001),LDL (RC-0.19,P < 0.01),Apo B (RC 0.67,P < 0.01);for RSPA,B type of blood (RC-22.06,P =0.02),Cystatin-C (RC-72.79,P =0.02),thickness of interventricular septum (RC 3.70,P =0.01).Cystatin-C was suggested as a cure related to RSPA,and the cut-off point was 1.6 mg/L.There were no significant risk factors associated with FPA and HPA.There was no difference in virtual P vector among DM,IGT and NDM groups.Conclusion Increased levels of lipid and Cystatin-C significantly impact the characteristics of virtual P vector,whereas glucose does not.These changes may come from a higher low voltage atrial area and abnormal orientation of atrial depolarization.

  11. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rong Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg on embryo development day (EDD 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  12. Postprandial blood glucose level in maintenance hemodialysis patients predicts post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Friedl, A; Batrice, A; Auinger, M; Wolzt, M; Hörl, W H

    2010-03-01

    Post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent complication after kidney transplantation. One-hundred-and-seven patients with kidney transplantation were screened for the occurrence of PTDM. Of these, full data sets from 49 subjects were available with documented glucose concentrations during maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and regular clinical follow-up of 7-34 months. For assessment of glucose metabolism the response to a standard meal during MHD was used in normoglycemic patients based on fasting blood glucose. Abnormal postprandial blood glucose concentration was defined as >140 mg/dl 2 h after food intake.Twelve end stage renal disease patients had abnormal postprandial blood glucose on MHD. All 12 subjects but also four MHD patients with normal postprandial and fasting blood glucose values developed PTDM. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that abnormal postprandial blood glucose is a strong predictor for PTDM (Hazard ratio: 42.3 (IQR: 7.9-227.2); p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose (94 vs. 100 mg/dl) was not different between MHD patients who did (n=16) or did not (n=33) develop PTDM.This study suggests that measurement of postprandial blood glucose during MHD identifies patients who develop PTDM after kidney transplantation. It should be used for screening of patients at risk.

  13. Fabrication of CuO nanoplatelets for highly sensitive enzyme-free determination of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Weide, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Adhered growth of CuO nanoplatelets on Cu foils. > Enzyme-free glucose sensor with very high sensitivity. > Excellent stability and good anti-interference ability. - Abstract: CuO nanoplatelets were grown on Cu foils by a one step, template free process. The structure and morphology of the CuO nanoplatelets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The CuO nanoplatelets grown on Cu foil were integrated to be an electrode for glucose sensing. The electrocatalytic activity of the CuO nanoplatelets electrode for glucose in alkaline media was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrode exhibits a sensitivity of 3490.7 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to glucose which is much higher than that of most reported enzyme-free glucose sensors and the linear range was obtained over a concentration up to 0.80 mM with a detection limit of 0.50 {mu}M (signal/noise = 3). Exhilaratingly, the electrode based on the CuO nanoplatelets is resistant against poisoning by chloride ion, and the interference from the oxidation of common interfering species, such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine and carbonhydrate compounds, can also be effectively avoided. Finally, the electrode was applied to analyze glucose concentration in human serum samples.

  14. High density lipoprotein (HDL promotes glucose uptake in adipocytes and glycogen synthesis in muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High density lipoprotein (HDL was reported to decrease plasma glucose and promote insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes patients. This investigation was designed to determine the effects and mechanisms of HDL on glucose uptake in adipocytes and glycogen synthesis in muscle cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Actions of HDL on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were assessed with 1-[(3H]-2-deoxyglucose and plasma membrane lawn, respectively, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycogen analysis was performed with amyloglucosidase and glucose oxidase-peroxidase methods in normal and palmitate-treated L6 cells. Small interfering RNA was used to observe role of scavenger receptor type I (SR-BI in glucose uptake of HDL. Corresponding signaling molecules were detected by immunoblotting. HDL stimulated glucose uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was significantly increased by HDL. Glycogen deposition got enhanced in L6 muscle cells paralleling with elevated glycogen synthase kinase3 (GSK3 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, increased phosphorylations of Akt-Ser473 and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK α were detected in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glucose uptake and Akt-Ser473 activation but not AMPK-α were diminished in SR-BI knock-down 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: HDL stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through enhancing GLUT4 translocation by mechanisms involving PI3K/Akt via SR-BI and AMPK signaling pathways, and increases glycogen deposition in L6 muscle cells through promoting GSK3 phosphorylation.

  15. Paradoxical effects of ginkgolide B on cardiomyocyte contractile function in normal and high-glucose environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihye KIM; Qun LI; Cindy X FANG; Jun REN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Ginkgo biloba extract is a natural product used widely for cerebral and cardiovascular diseases. It is mainly composed of terpene lactones (ginkgolide A and B) and flavone glycosides (eg quercetin and kaempferol).To better understand the cardiac electromechanical action of Ginkgo biloba extract in normal and diabetic states, this study was designed to examine the effect of ginkgolide B on cardiomyocyte contractile function under normal and high-glucose environments. Methods: Isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were cultured for 6 h in a serum-free medium containing either normal (NG;5.5 mmol/L) or high (HG;25.5 mmol/L) glucose with or without ginkgolide B (0.5-2.0μg/mL). Mechanical properties were evaluated using the IonOptix MyoCam system. Contractile properties analyzed included peak shortening (PS),maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+dl/dt),time-to-PS (TPS) and time-to-90% relengthening (TR90). Levels of essential Ca2+ regulatory proteins sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA2a),phospholamban (PLB) and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) were assessed by Western blotting. Results: Ginkgolide B nullified HG-induced prolongation in TR90. However, ginkgolide B depressed PS.±dl/dt and shortened TPS in NG and HG cells. Ginkgolide B also prolonged TR90 in NG cells. Western blot analysis revealed that HG upregulated SERCA2a and downregulated PLB expression without affecting that of NCX. Ginkgolide B disrupted the NG-HG response pattern in SERCA2a and NCX without affecting that of PLB. Conclusion: Ginkgolide B affects cardiomyocyte contractile function under NG or HG environments in a paradoxical manner, which may be attributed to uneven action on Ca2+ regulatory proteins under NG and HG conditions.

  16. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliner, Manuel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Davis, Mark E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2010-04-06

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (1:50 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].

  17. Quercetin alleviates high glucose-induced Schwann cell damage by autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Qu; Xiaochun Liang; Bei Gu; Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin can reverse high glucose-induced inhibition of neural cell proliferation, and therefore may have a neuroprotective effect in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It is dififcult to obtain pri-mary Schwann cells and RSC96 cells could replace primary Schwann cells in studies of the role of autophagy in the mechanism underlying diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, we show that under high glucose conditions, there are fewer autophagosomes in immortalized rat RSC96 cells and primary rat Schwann cells than under control conditions, the proliferative activity of both cell types is signiifcantly impaired, and the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3, the molecular mark-ers for autophagy, is signiifcantly lower. After intervention with quercetin, the autophagic and proliferative activity of both cell types is rescued. These results suggest that quercetin can allevi-ate high glucose-induced damage to Schwann cells by autophagy.

  18. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  19. High environmental temperature increases glucose requirement in the developing chicken embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Molenaar

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions during the perinatal period influence metabolic and developmental processes in mammals and avian species, which could impact pre- and postnatal survival and development. The current study investigated the effect of eggshell temperature (EST on glucose metabolism in broiler chicken embryos. Broiler eggs were incubated at a high (38.9°C or normal (37.8°C EST from day 10.5 of incubation onward and were injected with a bolus of [U-(13C]glucose in the chorio-allantoic fluid at day 17.5 of incubation. After [U-(13C]glucose administration, (13C enrichment was determined in intermediate pools and end-products of glucose metabolism. Oxidation of labeled glucose occurred for approximately 3 days after injection. Glucose oxidation was higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment from day 17.6 until 17.8 of incubation. The overall recovery of (13CO2 tended to be 4.7% higher in the high than in the normal EST treatment. An increase in EST (38.9°C vs 37.8°C increased (13C enrichment in plasma lactate at day 17.8 of incubation and (13C in hepatic glycogen at day 18.8 of incubation. Furthermore, high compared to normal EST resulted in a lower yolk-free body mass at day 20.9 (-2.74 g and 21.7 (-3.81 g of incubation, a lower hepatic glycogen concentration at day 18.2 (-4.37 mg/g and 18.8 (-4.59 mg/g of incubation, and a higher plasma uric acid concentration (+2.8 mg/mL/+43% at day 21.6 of incubation. These results indicate that the glucose oxidation pattern is relatively slow, but the intensity increased consistently with an increase in developmental stage of the embryo. High environmental temperatures in the perinatal period of chicken embryos increased glucose oxidation and decreased hepatic glycogen prior to the hatching process. This may limit glucose availability for successful hatching and could impact body development, probably by increased gluconeogenesis from glucogenic amino acids to allow anaerobic glycolysis.

  20. Diets high and low in glycemic index versus high monounsaturated fat diets: effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, N D; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M

    1999-06-01

    To examine the relative effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates, and monounsaturated fats on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM subjects. Fourteen male and seven female variably controlled NIDDM subjects recruited by advertisement. Free living outpatients. A repeated measures, within-subject design was used such that each subject consumed three diets: (a) a high-GI diet (53% CHO -21% fat, 63 GI units (glucose= 100)); (b) a low-GI diet (51% CHO -23% fat, 43 GI units); and (c) a high-mono high-GI diet (42% CHO -35% fat, 59 GI units) in random order and cross-over fashion for four weeks. Approximately 45% energy was provided as key foods which differed in published GI values and specifically excluded legumes. Dietary fibre intake was > 30 g/d on each diet. At the end of each dietary intervention, we measured fasting plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, total glycated plasma protein, fructosamine, LDL and HDL particle size as well as 24 h urinary excretion of glucose and C-peptide. HDL-cholesterol was higher on the low-GI and high-mono high-GI diets compared to the high-GI diet (P < 0.05 for overall diet effect). There were no other significant differences in metabolic control between diets, even when adjusted for BMI, glucose control or gender. Body weight and saturated fat intake remained stable between dietary interventions. High-mono high-GI and high-CHO, low-GI diets are superior to high-CHO, high-GI diets with respect to HDL metabolism but no effect was noted on glucose metabolism in variably controlled NIDDM subjects.

  1. Continuous glucose monitoring and HbA1c in the evaluation of glucose metabolism in children at high risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminen, Olli; Pokka, Tytti; Tossavainen, Päivi; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta

    2016-10-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) parameters, self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were studied during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Ten asymptomatic children with multiple (⩾2) islet autoantibodies (cases) and 10 age and sex-matched autoantibody-negative controls from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study were invited to 7-day CGM with Dexcom G4 Platinum Sensor. HbA1c and two daily SMBG values (morning and evening) were analyzed. Five-point OGTTs were performed and carbohydrate intake was assessed by food records. The matched pairs were compared with the paired sample t-test. The cases showed higher mean values and higher variation in glucose levels during CGM compared to the controls. The time spent ⩾7.8mmol/l was 5.8% in the cases compared to 0.4% in the controls (p=0.040). Postprandial CGM values were similar except after the dinner (6.6mmol/l in cases vs. 6.1mmol/l in controls; p=0.023). When analyzing the SMBG values higher mean level, higher evening levels, as well as higher variation were observed in the cases when compared to the controls. HbA1c was significantly higher in the cases [5.7% (39mmol/mol) vs. 5.3% (34mmol/mol); p=0.045]. No differences were observed in glucose or C-peptide levels during OGTT. Daily carbohydrate intake was slightly higher in the cases (254.2g vs. 217.7g; p=0.034). Glucose levels measured by CGM and SMBG are useful indicators of dysglycemia during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Increased evening glucose values seem to be common in children with preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TaqI B1/B2 and -629A/C cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene polymorphisms and their association with CETP activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a Tehranian population. Part of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam S Daneshpour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene TaqI intron 1 B1/B2 polymorphism and the -629A/C CETP promoter polymorphism in respect to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in a healthy Iranian population taken from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS. The relationship between CETP activity and HDL-C level was also determined along with body mass index, blood pressure and tobacco smoking status. PCR-RFLP used to amplify a segment of the CETP intron 1 TaqI (B2/B1 polymorphism from 1021 individuals and we selected 345 individuals from the lowest, middle and highest HDL-C deciles and investigated the -629A/C polymorphism. We also evaluated the CETP activity of 103 of these individuals, each with at least one homozygous allele. The presence of the TaqI B2 and -629A/C A alleles were significantly associated with increased HDL-C levels (B2B2 = 1.19 ± 0.31 mmolL-1 vs. B1B1 = 1.01 ± 0.2 mmol L-1 for p < 0.001; AA = 1.15 ± 0.41 mmol L-1 vs. CC = 0.95 ± 0.28 mmol L-1 for p < 0.001 and decreased the CETP activity (B1B1 = 67.8 ± 8.9 pmol L-1 vs. B2B2 = 62.6 ± 9.6 pmol L-1 for p < 0.01; CC = 68.6 ± 8.4 pmol L-1 vs. AA = 62.7 ± 9.7 pmol L-1 for p < 0.002. The frequencies were 0.382 for the TaqI B2 allele and 0.462 for the -629A/C A allele, with linkage disequilibrium analysis giving D = 0.0965 and D' = 0.4695. We demonstrated that the TaqI B1 and B2 alleles and the -629A/C A and C alleles were in linkage disequilibrium in our population and that there was a significant association between the B2 and A alleles and high HDL-C levels and low CETP activity. Linkage disequilibrium between the TaqI A and B2 alleles also detected.

  3. Expression and characterization of a novel highly glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from a soil metagenome