Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A
Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross
Lohbeck, Kai T; Riebesell, Ulf; Collins, Sinéad; Reusch, Thorsten B H
Predicting the impacts of environmental change on marine organisms, food webs, and biogeochemical cycles presently relies almost exclusively on short-term physiological studies, while the possibility of adaptive evolution is often ignored. Here, we assess adaptive evolution in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a well-established model species in biological oceanography, in response to ocean acidification. We previously demonstrated that this globally important marine phytoplankton species adapts within 500 generations to elevated CO2 . After 750 and 1000 generations, no further fitness increase occurred, and we observed phenotypic convergence between replicate populations. We then exposed adapted populations to two novel environments to investigate whether or not the underlying basis for high CO2 -adaptation involves functional genetic divergence, assuming that different novel mutations become apparent via divergent pleiotropic effects. The novel environment "high light" did not reveal such genetic divergence whereas growth in a low-salinity environment revealed strong pleiotropic effects in high CO2 adapted populations, indicating divergent genetic bases for adaptation to high CO2 . This suggests that pleiotropy plays an important role in adaptation of natural E. huxleyi populations to ocean acidification. Our study highlights the potential mutual benefits for oceanography and evolutionary biology of using ecologically important marine phytoplankton for microbial evolution experiments. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution © 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Tahir, Mohammad; Rahman, Hidayatur; Gul, Rahmani; Ali, Amjad; Khalid, Muhammad
To assess genetic divergence of sugarcane germplasm, an experiment comprising 25 sugarcane genotypes was conducted at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in quadruple lattice design during 2008-09. Among the 14 parameters evaluated, majority exhibited significant differences while some showed nonsignificant mean squares. The initial correlation matrix revealed medium to high correlations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that there were two pr...
Wiley, Anne E.; Welch, Andreanna J.; Ostrom, P.H.; James, Helen F.; Stricker, C.A.; Fleischer, R.C.; Gandhi, H.; Adams, J.; Ainley, D.G.; Duvall, F.; Holmes, N.; Hu, D.; Judge, S.; Penniman, J.; Swindle, K.A.
Foraging segregation may play an important role in the maintenance of animal diversity, and is a proposed mechanism for promoting genetic divergence within seabird species. However, little information exists regarding its presence among seabird populations. We investigated genetic and foraging divergence between two colonies of endangered Hawaiian petrels (Pterodroma sandwichensis) nesting on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai using the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene and carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotope values (?? 13C, ?? 15N and ??D, respectively) of feathers. Genetic analyses revealed strong differentiation between colonies on Hawaii and Kauai, with ?? ST = 0. 50 (p Feather ??D varied from -69 to 53???. This variation cannot be related solely to an isotopically homogeneous ocean water source or evaporative water loss. Instead, we propose the involvement of salt gland excretion. Our data demonstrate the presence of foraging segregation between proximately nesting seabird populations, despite high species mobility. This ecological diversity may facilitate population coexistence, and its preservation should be a focus of conservation strategies. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).
Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P
The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.
Hu, Xin-Sheng; Yeh, Francis C; Hu, Yang; Deng, Li-Ting; Ennos, Richard A; Chen, Xiaoyang
Copy-number-variable (CNV) loci differ from single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites in size, mutation rate, and mechanisms of maintenance in natural populations. It is therefore hypothesized that population genetic divergence at CNV loci will differ from that found at SNP sites. Here, we test this hypothesis by analysing 856 CNV loci from the genomes of 1184 healthy individuals from 11 HapMap populations with a wide range of ancestry. The results show that population genetic divergence at the CNV loci is generally more than three times lower than at genome-wide SNP sites. Populations generally exhibit very small genetic divergence (G st = 0.05 ± 0.049). The smallest divergence is among African populations (G st = 0.0081 ± 0.0025), with increased divergence among non-African populations (G st = 0.0217 ± 0.0109) and then among African and non-African populations (G st = 0.0324 ± 0.0064). Genetic diversity is high in African populations (~0.13), low in Asian populations (~0.11), and intermediate in the remaining 11 populations. Few significant linkage disequilibria (LDs) occur between the genome-wide CNV loci. Patterns of gametic and zygotic LDs indicate the absence of epistasis among CNV loci. Mutation rate is about twice as large as the migration rate in the non-African populations, suggesting that the high mutation rates play dominant roles in producing the low population genetic divergence at CNV loci.
André Pugnal Mattedi
Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.
Stiassny Melanie LJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that one of the mechanisms promoting diversification in cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes has been the well-documented pattern of philopatry along shoreline habitats leading to high levels of genetic isolation among populations. However lake habitats are not the only centers of cichlid biodiversity - certain African rivers also contain large numbers of narrowly endemic species. Patterns of isolation and divergence in these systems have tended to be overlooked and are not well understood. Results We examined genetic and morphological divergence among populations of two narrowly endemic cichlid species, Teleogramma depressum and Lamprologus tigripictilis, from a 100 km stretch of the lower Congo River using both nDNA microsatellites and mtDNA markers along with coordinate-based morphological techniques. In L. tigripictilis, the strongest genetic break was concordant with measurable phenotypic divergence but no morphological disjunction was detected for T. depressum despite significant differentiation at mtDNA and nDNA microsatellite markers. Conclusions The genetic markers revealed patterns of philopatry and estimates of genetic isolation that are among the highest reported for any African cichlid species over a comparable geographic scale. We hypothesize that the high levels of philopatry observed are generated and maintained by the extreme hydrology of the lower Congo River.
Holmquist, R.; Conroy, T.
Consideration is given to the criticism of Nei and Tateno (1978) of the REH (random evolutionary hits) theory of genetic divergence in nucleic acids and proteins, and to their proposed alternative estimator of total fixed mutations designated X2. It is argued that the assumption of nonuniform amino acid or nucleotide substitution will necessarily increase REH estimates relative to those made for a model where each locus has an equal likelihood of fixing mutations, thus the resulting value will not be an overestimation. The relative values of X2 and measures calculated on the basis of the PAM and REH theories for the number of nucleotide substitutions necessary to explain a given number of observed amino acid differences between two homologous proteins are compared, and the smaller values of X2 are attributed to (1) a mathematical model based on the incorrect assumption that an entire structural gene is free to fix mutations and (2) the assumptions of different numbers of variable codons for the X2 and REH calculations. Results of a repeat of the computer simulations of Nei and Tateno are presented which, in contrast to the original results, confirm the REH theory. It is pointed out that while a negative correlation is observed between estimations of the fixation intensity per varion and the number of varions for a given pair of sequences, the correlation between the two fixation intensities and varion numbers of two different pairs of sequences need not be negative. Finally, REH theory is used to resolve a paradox concerning the high rate of covarion turnover and the nature of general function sites as permanent covarions.
Podsiadlowski, L.; Carapelli, A.; Nardi, F.; Dallai, R.; Koch,M.; Boore, J.L.; Frati, F.
Mitochondrial genomes from two dipluran hexapods of the genus Campodea have been sequenced. Gene order is the same as in most other hexapods and crustaceans. Secondary structures of tRNAs reveal specific structural changes in tRNA-C, tRNA-R, tRNA-S1 and tRNA-S2. Comparative analyses of nucleotide and amino acid composition, as well as structural features of both ribosomal RNA subunits, reveal substantial differences among the analyzed taxa. Although the two Campodea species are morphologically highly uniform, genetic divergence is larger than expected, suggesting a long evolutionary history under stable ecological conditions.
Quamruzzaman, A.M.; Moniruzzaman, M.
Genetic divergence among 18 punpkin genotypes was estimated using Mahalanohis's 1) statistic. Altogether lour clusters were formed where cluster I contained the highest number of genotypes (8) and cluster II contained the lowest (I). The highest intra-cluster distance was observed h.ir cluster I (0.83 I) and the lowest for clustcr IV (0.65 I). The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and 11(24.346). Cluster II recorded the highest mean for fruit number/plant, TSS, fruit yield and niinitnuiii III cavity length and cavity diameter. Cluster III had the second highest mean for fruit diameter, fruit number/plant, individual unit weight, fruit yield and the fewest number of days to 1st Female flowering, earliness being a desirable trait. These crosses may produce new recombinants with desirable traits. (author)
Rebeca Lourenço de Oliveira
Full Text Available Estimating the genetic variability in germplasm collections is important not only for conserving genetic resources, but also for plant breeding purposes. However, generating a large number of different categories data (qualitative and quantitative often complicate the analysis and results interpretation, resulting in an incomplete distinction of accessions. This study reports the characterization and evaluation of 14 pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata accessions collected from farms in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state. Genetic diversity among accessions was also estimated using qualitative and quantitative variables considering joint analysis. The plants were grown under field conditions in a randomized block design with three replications and six plants per plot. Eight qualitative traits (leaf size; seed shape; seed color; color of the fruit pulp; hollow; fruit shape; skin color, and fruit skin texture and eight quantitative traits (fruit weight; fruit length; fruit diameter; soluble solids, 100 seed weight, and wall thickness measured in the middle and in the lower stem were evaluated. The data were analyzed considering the Gower distance, and cluster analysis was performed using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA. Variability among accessions was observed considering morphoagronomic data. The Gower distance together with UPGMA cluster allowed for good discrimination between accessions in the groups, demonstrating that the simultaneous analysis of qualitative and quantitative data is feasible and may increase the understanding of the variation among accessions.
Wolfe, C J; Haygood, M G
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the lux and 16S ribosomal RNA gene regions were used to compare unculturable bacterial light organ symbionts of several anomalopid fish species. The method of Nei and Li (1979) was used to calculate phylogenetic distance from the patterns of restriction fragment lengths of the luxA and 16S rRNA regions. Phylogenetic trees constructed from each distance matrix (luxA and 16S rDNA data) have similar branching orders. The levels of divergence among the symbionts, relative to other culturable luminous bacteria, suggests that the symbionts differ at the level of species among host fish genera. Symbiont relatedness and host geographic location do not seem to be correlated, and the symbionts do not appear to be strains of common, free-living, luminous bacteria. In addition, the small number of hybridizing fragments within the 16S rRNA region of the symbionts, compared with that of the free-living species, suggests a decrease in copy number of rRNA operons relative to free-living species. At this level of investigation, the symbiont phylogeny is consistent with the proposed phylogeny of the host fish family and suggests that each symbiont strain coevolved with its host fish species.
Funk, W Chris; Murphy, Melanie A
Understanding the evolutionary causes of phenotypic variation among populations has long been a central theme in evolutionary biology. Several factors can influence phenotypic divergence, including geographic isolation, genetic drift, divergent natural or sexual selection, and phenotypic plasticity. But the relative importance of these factors in generating phenotypic divergence in nature is still a tantalizing and unresolved problem in evolutionary biology. The origin and maintenance of phenotypic divergence is also at the root of many ongoing debates in evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which gene flow constrains adaptive divergence (Garant et al. 2007) and the relative importance of genetic drift, natural selection, and sexual selection in initiating reproductive isolation and speciation (Coyne & Orr 2004). In this issue, Wang & Summers (2010) test the causes of one of the most fantastic examples of phenotypic divergence in nature: colour pattern divergence among populations of the strawberry poison frog (Dendrobates pumilio) in Panama and Costa Rica (Fig. 1). This study provides a beautiful example of the use of the emerging field of landscape genetics to differentiate among hypotheses for phenotypic divergence. Using landscape genetic analyses, Wang & Summers were able to reject the hypotheses that colour pattern divergence is due to isolation-by-distance (IBD) or landscape resistance. Instead, the hypothesis left standing is that colour divergence is due to divergent selection, in turn driving reproductive isolation among populations with different colour morphs. More generally, this study provides a wonderful example of how the emerging field of landscape genetics, which has primarily been applied to questions in conservation and ecology, now plays an essential role in evolutionary research.
Menezes, M.R.; Martins, M.; Naik, S.
Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships among Mugil cephalus, Liza subviridis and Valamugil cunnesius were investigated by examining the electrophoretic patterns of ten enzymes and sarcoplasmic proteins. Among the 19 loci detected, eight...
Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan
D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.
Cooke, Georgina M; Landguth, Erin L; Beheregaray, Luciano B
Ecological speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolation and niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier to gene flow. The process is one of the most controversial topics of the speciation debate, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we investigate ecologically based divergence across an Amazonian ecotone in the electric fish, Steatogenys elegans. We combine phylogenetics, genome scans, and population genetics with a recently developed individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics approach that incorporates selection. This framework is used to assess the relative contributions of geography and divergent natural selection between environments as biodiversity drivers. We report on two closely related and sympatric lineages that exemplify how divergent selection across a major Amazonian aquatic ecotone (i.e., between rivers with markedly different hydrochemical properties) may result in replicated ecologically mediated speciation. The results link selection across an ecological gradient with reproductive isolation and we propose that assortative mating based on water color may be driving the divergence. Divergence resulting from ecologically driven selection highlights the importance of considering environmental heterogeneity in studies of speciation in tropical regions. Furthermore, we show that framing ecological speciation in a spatially explicit evolutionary landscape genetics framework provides an important first step in exploring a wide range of the potential effects of spatial dependence in natural selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Nair Helena Castro Arriel
Full Text Available The evaluation of diversity in germplasm collections is important for both plant breeders and germplasmcurators to optimize the use of the variability available. Diversity can be estimated by different genetic markers. The purposeof this study was to estimate the genetic divergence of 30 morphological and agronomic traits in 108 sesame genotypes bymultivariate analysis. The Cole-Rodgers index was used to establish the dissimilarity matrices. The principal componentanalysis identified the traits that contributed most to the divergence and the genotypes were clustered by Tocher’s optimization.Despite the narrow genetic basis, the markers were efficient to characterize the genotypes and identify the most similar groupsor duplicate and divergent genotypes. Greatest variation was found for the traits number of capsules per plant and grain yield.
Reginaldo Brito da Costa
Full Text Available Assessing the parental genetic differences and their subsequent prediction of progeny performance is an important first step to assure the efficiency of any breeding program. In this study, we estimate the genetic divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis based on the morphological traits of 132 progenies grown in a savanna biome. Thus, a field experiment was performed using a randomized block design and five replications to compare divergences in total height, commercial height, diameter at breast height, stem form and survival rate at 48 months. Tocher's clustering method was performed using the Mahalanobis and Euclidian distances. The Mahalanobis distance seemed more reliable for the assessed parameters and clustered all of the progenies into fourteen major groups. The most similar progenies (86 accessions were clustered into Group I, while the most dissimilar (1 progeny represented Group XIV. The divergence analysis indicated that promising crosses could be made between progenies allocated in different groups for high genetic divergence and for favorable morphological traits.
D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...
Rodrigo Ramos Lopes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of genetic divergence as a basis for identifying superior individuals, with greater heterozygosity, is important in view of the difficulty when selecting of dissimilar genotypes exhibiting high average for interest traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence and the expression of seed production traits in seventeen apomictic Paspalum plicatulum × Paspalum guenoarum hybrids and two male parents (P. guenoarum. A randomized block design was used, with genotypes individually arranged into ten blocks. The following traits were assessed: total number of tillers/plant (TT, reproductive tiller/plant (RT, number of racemes per inflorescence (NRI, reproductive tiller height (RTH, inflorescence rachis length (IRL, number of seeds/inflorescence (NSI, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS and seed production (SP. Genetic divergence among the genotypes was estimated using the Tocher method and UPGMA clustering, based on the generalized Mahalanobis distance (D2 ii’. The Tocher and UPGMA optimization methods showed high concordance. The traits that most contributed to genetic divergence were RTH (23.59%, IRL (21.63%, WTS (16.67% and SP (14.23%. The presence of genetic diversity made it possible to identify divergent genotypes and those with high means for the traits studied, allowing the selection of genotypes with significant breeding potential. Repeated cross-breeding of female superior plants with the genotypes Azulão and H20 can result in a high heterosis effect on seed production characteristics.
Full Text Available The Mexican Sheartail (Doricha eliza, an endangered hummingbird, is endemic to Mexico where two populations have a disjunct distribution. One population is distributed along the northern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula whereas the other is mostly restricted to central Veracruz. Despite their disjunct distribution, previous work has failed to detect morphological or behavioral differences between these populations. Here we use variation in morphology, mtDNA and nuDNA sequences to determine the degree of morphological and molecular divergence between populations, their divergence time, and historical demography. We use species distribution modeling and niche divergence tests to infer the relative roles of vicariance and dispersal in driving divergence in the genus. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that Doricha eliza populations form a monophyletic clade and support their sister relationship with D. enicura. We found marked genetic differentiation, with reciprocal monophyly of haplotypes and highly restricted gene flow, supporting a history of isolation over the last 120,000 years. Genetic divergence between populations is consistent with the lack of overlap in environmental space and slight morphological differences between males. Our findings indicate that the divergence of the Veracruz and Yucatan populations is best explained by a combination of a short period of isolation exacerbated by subsequent divergence in climate conditions, and that rather than vicariance, the two isolated ranges of D. eliza are the product of recent colonization and divergence in isolation.
Tetradis, N.; Wetterich, C.
The most commonly used method for the study of high temperature phase transitions is based on the perturbative evaluation of the temperature dependent effective potential. This method becomes unreliable in the case of a second order or weakly first order phase transition, due to the appearance of infrared divergences. These divergences can be controlled through the method of the effective average action which employs renormalization group ideas. We report on the study of the high temperature phase transition for the N-component φ 4 theory. A detailed quantitative picture of the second order phase transition is presented, including the critical exponents for the behaviour in the vicinity of the critical temperature. An independent check of the results is obtained in the large N limit, and contact with the perturbative approach is established through the study of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. (orig.)
FUNK, W. CHRIS; LOVICH, ROBERT E.; HOHENLOHE, PAUL A.; HOFMAN, COURTNEY A.; MORRISON, SCOTT A.; SILLETT, T. SCOTT; GHALAMBOR, CAMERON K.; MALDONADO, JESUS E.; RICK, TORBEN C.; DAY, MITCH D.; POLATO, NICHOLAS R.; FITZPATRICK, SARAH W.; COONAN, TIMOTHY J.; CROOKS, KEVIN R.; DILLON, ADAM; GARCELON, DAVID K.; KING, JULIE L.; BOSER, CHRISTINA L.; GOULD, NICHOLAS; ANDELT, WILLIAM F.
The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of 6 subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1–89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland gray foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6–6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness, and reduced adaptive potential. PMID:26992010
Funk, W Chris; Lovich, Robert E; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Hofman, Courtney A; Morrison, Scott A; Sillett, T Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rick, Torben C; Day, Mitch D; Polato, Nicholas R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Coonan, Timothy J; Crooks, Kevin R; Dillon, Adam; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Boser, Christina L; Gould, Nicholas; Andelt, William F
The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1-89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland grey foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6-6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness and reduced adaptive potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pereira, Ricardo J; Monahan, William B; Wake, David B
Reproductive isolation (RI) is widely accepted as an important "check point" in the diversification process, since it defines irreversible evolutionary trajectories. Much less consensus exists about the processes that might drive RI. Here, we employ a formal quantitative analysis of genetic interactions at several stages of divergence within the ring species complex Ensatina eschscholtzii in order to assess the relative contribution of genetic and ecological divergence for the development of RI. By augmenting previous genetic datasets and adding new ecological data, we quantify levels of genetic and ecological divergence between populations and test how they correlate with a restriction of genetic admixture upon secondary contact. Our results indicate that the isolated effect of ecological divergence between parental populations does not result in reproductively isolated taxa, even when genetic transitions between parental taxa are narrow. Instead, processes associated with overall genetic divergence are the best predictors of reproductive isolation, and when parental taxa diverge in nuclear markers we observe a complete cessation of hybridization, even to sympatric occurrence of distinct evolutionary lineages. Although every parental population has diverged in mitochondrial DNA, its degree of divergence does not predict the extent of RI. These results show that in Ensatina, the evolutionary outcomes of ecological divergence differ from those of genetic divergence. While evident properties of taxa may emerge via ecological divergence, such as adaptation to local environment, RI is likely to be a byproduct of processes that contribute to overall genetic divergence, such as time in geographic isolation, rather than being a direct outcome of local adaptation.
Dumont, Beth L
The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X / Y segregation is buffered against the accumulation of homology-disrupting mutations. Here, I investigate the interplay of PAR evolution and function in two interfertile house mouse subspecies characterized by structurally divergent PARs, Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. castaneus Using cytogenetic methods to visualize the sex chromosomes at meiosis, I show that intersubspecific F 1 hybrids harbor an increased frequency of pachytene spermatocytes with unsynapsed sex chromosomes. This high rate of asynapsis is due, in part, to the premature release of synaptic associations prior to completion of prophase I. Further, I show that when sex chromosomes do synapse in intersubspecific hybrids, recombination is reduced across the paired region. Together, these meiotic defects afflict ∼50% of spermatocytes from F 1 hybrids and lead to increased apoptosis in meiotically dividing cells. Despite flagrant disruption of the meiotic program, a subset of spermatocytes complete meiosis and intersubspecific F 1 males remain fertile. These findings cast light on the meiotic constraints that shape sex chromosome evolution and offer initial clues to resolve the paradox raised by the rapid evolution of this functionally significant locus. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Tobler, Michael; Dewitt, Thomas J; Schlupp, Ingo; García de León, Francisco J; Herrmann, Roger; Feulner, Philine G D; Tiedemann, Ralph; Plath, Martin
Divergent natural selection drives evolutionary diversification. It creates phenotypic diversity by favoring developmental plasticity within populations or genetic differentiation and local adaptation among populations. We investigated phenotypic and genetic divergence in the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana along two abiotic environmental gradients. These fish typically inhabit nonsulfidic surface rivers, but also colonized sulfidic and cave habitats. We assessed phenotypic variation among a factorial combination of habitat types using geometric and traditional morphometrics, and genetic divergence using quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Fish in caves (sulfidic or not) exhibited reduced eyes and slender bodies. Fish from sulfidic habitats (surface or cave) exhibited larger heads and longer gill filaments. Common-garden rearing suggested that these morphological differences are partly heritable. Population genetic analyses using microsatellites as well as cytochrome b gene sequences indicate high population differentiation over small spatial scale and very low rates of gene flow, especially among different habitat types. This suggests that divergent environmental conditions constitute barriers to gene flow. Strong molecular divergence over short distances as well as phenotypic and quantitative genetic divergence across habitats in directions classic to fish ecomorphology suggest that divergent selection is structuring phenotypic variation in this system.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a common pathogen correlated with several severe digestive diseases. It has been reported that isolates associated with different geographic areas, different diseases and different individuals might have variable genomic features. Here, we describe draft genomic sequences of H. pylori strains YN4-84 and YN1-91 isolated from patients with gastritis from the Naxi and Han populations of Yunnan, China, respectively. The draft sequences were compared to 45 other publically available genomes, and a total of 1059 core genes were identified. Genes involved in restriction modification systems, type four secretion system three (TFS3 and type four secretion system four (TFS4, were identified as highly divergent. Both YN4-84 and YN1-91 harbor intact cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI and have EPIYA-A/B/D type at the carboxyl terminal of cagA. The vacA gene type is s1m2i1. Another major finding was a 32.5-kb prophage integrated in the YN4-84 genome. The prophage shares most of its genes (30/33 with Helicobacter pylori prophage KHP30. Moreover, a 1,886 bp transposable sequence (IS605 was found in the prophage. Our results imply that the Naxi ethnic minority isolate YN4-84 and Han isolate YN1-91 belong to the hspEAsia subgroup and have diverse genome structure. The genome has been extensively modified in several regions involved in horizontal DNA transfer. The important roles played by phages in the ecology and microevolution of H. pylori were further emphasized. The current data will provide valuable information regarding the H. pylori genome based on historic human migrations and population structure.
Yasmeen, F; Khurshid, H; Ghafoor, A
Wheat flour quality is an important consideration in the breeding and development of new cultivars. A strong association between high-molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and bread making quality has resulted in the widespread utilization of HMW-GS in wheat breeding. In this study, we analyzed 242 lines of wheat, including landraces from the provinces of Punjab and Baluchistan, as well as the commercial varieties of Pakistan, to determine allelic variation in the Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 loci encoding HMW-GS. Higher genetic diversity was observed for HMW-GS in landraces from Baluchistan, followed by landraces collected from Punjab and then commercial varieties. Rare and uncommon subunits were observed in Glu-B1, whereas Glu-A1 was less polymorphic. However, Glu-B1 was the highest contributor to overall diversity (78%), with a total of 31 rare alleles, followed by Glu-D1 (20%) with the high quality 5+10 allele and other variants. Commercial cultivars possessed favorable alleles, potentially from indirect selection for wheat flour quality by the breeders; however, this indirect selection has decreased the pedigree base of commercial cultivars. The allelic combinations, including 2*, 5+10, and 17+18, showing high quality scores were frequent among landraces, indicating their usefulness in future crop improvement and breeding programs.
Daza-Vamenta, Riza; Glusman, Gustavo; Rowen, Lee; Guthrie, Brandon; Geraghty, Daniel E.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is comprised of the class I, class II, and class III regions, including the MHC class I and class II genes that play a primary role in the immune response and serve as an important model in studies of primate evolution. Although nonhuman primates contribute significantly to comparative human studies, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity and genomics underlying nonhuman primate immunity. To address this issue, we sequenced a complete rhesus macaque MHC spanning over 5.3 Mb, and obtained an additional 2.3 Mb from a second haplotype, including class II and portions of class I and class III. A major expansion of from six class I genes in humans to as many as 22 active MHC class I genes in rhesus and levels of sequence divergence some 10-fold higher than a similar human comparison were found, averaging from 2% to 6% throughout extended portions of class I and class II. These data pose new interpretations of the evolutionary constraints operating between MHC diversity and T-cell selection by contrasting with models predicting an optimal number of antigen presenting genes. For the clinical model, these data and derivative genetic tools can be implemented in ongoing genetic and disease studies that involve the rhesus macaque. PMID:15289473
Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
Full Text Available Understanding among and within population genetic variation of ecologically important plant traits provides insight into the potential evolutionary processes affecting those traits. The strength and consistency of selection driving variability in traits would be affected by plasticity in differences among genotypes across environments (G×E. We investigated population divergence, selection and environmental plasticity of foliar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs in a dominant tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. Using two common garden trials we examined variation in PSMs at multiple genetic scales; among 12 populations covering the full geographic range of the species and among up to 60 families within populations. Significant genetic variation in the expression of many PSMs resides both among and within populations of E. globulus with moderate (e.g., sideroxylonal A h(2op = 0.24 to high (e.g., macrocarpal G h(2op = 0.48 narrow sense heritabilities and high coefficients of additive genetic variation estimated for some compounds. A comparison of Qst and Fst estimates suggest that variability in some of these traits may be due to selection. Importantly, there was no genetic by environment interaction in the expression of any of the quantitative chemical traits despite often significant site effects. These results provide evidence that natural selection has contributed to population divergence in PSMs in E. globulus, and identifies the formylated phloroglucinol compounds (particularly sideroxylonal and a dominant oil, 1,8-cineole, as candidates for traits whose genetic architecture has been shaped by divergent selection. Additionally, as the genetic differences in these PSMs that influence community phenotypes is stable across environments, the role of plant genotype in structuring communities is strengthened and these genotypic differences may be relatively stable under global environmental changes.
Shahin, A.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Arens, P.F.P.; Bakker, F.T.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) may enable estimating relationships among genotypes using allelic variation of multiple nuclear genes simultaneously. We explored the potential and caveats of this strategy in four genetically distant Lilium cultivars to estimate their genetic divergence from
Duim, Birgitta; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Zomer, Aldert L
Abstract Homologous recombination is a major driver of bacterial speciation. Genetic divergence and host association are important factors influencing homologous recombination. Here, we study these factors for Campylobacter fetus, which shows a distinct intraspecific host dichotomy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) and venerealis are associated with mammals, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) is associated with reptiles. Recombination between these genetically divergent C. fetus lineages is extremely rare. Previously it was impossible to show whether this barrier to recombination was determined by the differential host preferences, by the genetic divergence between both lineages or by other factors influencing recombination, such as restriction-modification, CRISPR/Cas, and transformation systems. Fortuitously, a distinct C. fetus lineage (ST69) was found, which was highly related to mammal-associated C. fetus, yet isolated from a chelonian. The whole genome sequences of two C. fetus ST69 isolates were compared with those of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus strains for phylogenetic and recombination analysis. In total, 5.1–5.5% of the core genome of both ST69 isolates showed signs of recombination. Of the predicted recombination regions, 80.4% were most closely related to Cft, 14.3% to Cff, and 5.6% to C. iguaniorum. Recombination from C. fetus ST69 to Cft was also detected, but to a lesser extent and only in chelonian-associated Cft strains. This study shows that despite substantial genetic divergence no absolute barrier to homologous recombination exists between two distinct C. fetus lineages when occurring in the same host type, which provides valuable insights in bacterial speciation and evolution. PMID:29608720
Flávio de França Souza
Full Text Available A divergência genética entre 31 genótipos de melancia foi avaliada por meio da análise de variáveis canônicas e de técnicas de agrupamento (Tocher e método hierárquico de Ward baseadas na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis (D²ii'. Trinta linhagens, obtidas a partir de acessos coletados no Nordeste brasileiro e a cultivar 'Crimson Sweet' foram avaliadas quanto ao número de dias para o aparecimento da primeira flor masculina e da primeira flor feminina (NDM e NDF; número do nó da primeira flor masculina e da primeira flor feminina (NGM e NGF; número de frutos por planta (NFP; comprimento de rama principal (CRP; peso médio de fruto (PMF; teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS; diâmetro transversal e longitudinal do fruto (DTF e DLF e espessura média de casca (EMC. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, compostas por parcelas de sete plantas. As características que mais contribuíram para a divergência entre as linhagens foram número de frutos por planta, diâmetro longitudinal, teor de sólidos solúveis e peso médio de fruto. Foram formados três grupos por meio do método de otimização de Tocher, três por meio do método hierárquico de Ward e quatro grupos pela dispersão gráfica baseada nas duas primeiras variáveis canônicas. Neste caso, o grupo I compôs-se de sete linhagens de Pernambuco e uma da Bahia; o grupo II reuniu todas as 21 linhagens do Maranhão; os grupos III e IV foram compostos pela linhagem 97-0247.008 (Pernambuco e pela cultivar Crimson Sweet, respectivamente. As linhagens 87-019.021 e 87-019.022 foram as mais semelhantes, enquanto a linhagem 87-019.023 e 'Crimson Sweet' apresentaram maior dissimilaridade pela distância generalizada Mahalanobis (D²ii'. Os cruzamentos mais promissores serão aqueles realizados entre Crimson Sweet e as linhagens do grupo II. Cruzamentos entre Crimson Sweet e as linhagens do grupo I serão interessantes para a obtenção de
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal capacity across the entire species range. In theory, this should oppose any genetic differentiation. Results We find significant ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between the western colonies and colonies from the central region of the archipelago that are exposed to different ecological conditions. Stable isotope analyses indicate that western animals use different food sources than those from the central area. This is likely due to niche partitioning with the second Galápagos eared seal species, the Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis that exclusively dwells in the west. Stable isotope patterns correlate with significant differences in foraging-related skull morphology. Analyses of mitochondrial sequences as well as microsatellites reveal signs of initial genetic differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest a key role of intra- as well as inter-specific niche segregation in the evolution of genetic structure among populations of a highly mobile species under conditions of free movement. Given the monophyletic arrival of the sea lions on the archipelago, our study challenges the view that geographical barriers are strictly needed for the build-up of genetic divergence. The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations.
Thayer, J.P.; Killeen, T.L.
Measurements made from the Dynamics Explorer-2 satellite in November 1981 through January 1982 and November 1982 through January 1983 have been analyzed to determine the divergence and vertical component of vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the upper thermosphere for quiet (kp≤6) geomagnetic conditions and for both northern (winter) and southern (summer) hemispheres in the polar thermosphere and provides insight into the relative strengths of the different sources of momentum and energy responsible for driving the winds. The principal findings from this work include the following: The mean neutral wind pattern is dominated by rotational flow rather than by divergent flow, with a typical vorticity: divergence ratio of ∼ 2:1 for active conditions and ∼ 4:1 for quiet conditions. Comparison of the divergence and vorticity patterns for quiet and active conditions indicates that the divergent component of the neutral flow intensifies more significantly with increasing geomagnetic activity than does the rotational component
Eric G DeChaine
Full Text Available Despite the strength of climatic variability at high latitudes and upper elevations, we still do not fully understand how plants in North America that are distributed between Arctic and alpine areas responded to the environmental changes of the Quaternary. To address this question, we set out to resolve the evolutionary history of the King's Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia using multi-locus population genetic and phylogenetic analyses in combination with ecological niche modeling. Our population genetic analyses of multiple anonymous nuclear loci revealed two major clades within R. integrifolia that diverged from each other ~ 700 kya: one occurring in Beringia to the north (including members of subspecies leedyi and part of subspecies integrifolia, and the other restricted to the Southern Rocky Mountain refugium in the south (including individuals of subspecies neomexicana and part of subspecies integrifolia. Ecological niche models corroborate our hypothesized locations of refugial areas inferred from our phylogeographic analyses and revealed some environmental differences between the regions inhabited by its two subclades. Our study underscores the role of geographic isolation in promoting genetic divergence and the evolution of endemic subspecies in R. integrifolia. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analyses of the plastid spacer region trnL-F demonstrate that among the native North American species, R. integrifolia and R. rhodantha are more closely related to one another than either is to R. rosea. An understanding of these historic processes lies at the heart of making informed management decisions regarding this and other Arctic-alpine species of concern in this increasingly threatened biome.
Full Text Available Coral reefs are hotspots of biodiversity, yet processes of diversification in these ecosystems are poorly understood. The environmental heterogeneity of coral reef environments could be an important contributor to diversification, however, evidence supporting ecological speciation in corals is sparse. Here, we present data from a widespread coral species that reveals a strong association of host and symbiont lineages with specific habitats, consistent with distinct, sympatric gene pools that are maintained through ecologically-based selection.Populations of a common brooding coral, Seriatopora hystrix, were sampled from three adjacent reef habitats (spanning a approximately 30 m depth range at three locations on the Great Barrier Reef (n = 336. The populations were assessed for genetic structure using a combination of mitochondrial (putative control region and nuclear (three microsatellites markers for the coral host, and the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA for the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium. Our results show concordant genetic partitioning of both the coral host and its symbionts across the different habitats, independent of sampling location.This study demonstrates that coral populations and their associated symbionts can be highly structured across habitats on a single reef. Coral populations from adjacent habitats were found to be genetically isolated from each other, whereas genetic similarity was maintained across similar habitat types at different locations. The most parsimonious explanation for the observed genetic partitioning across habitats is that adaptation to the local environment has caused ecological divergence of distinct genetic groups within S. hystrix.
Full Text Available Seventy germplasm lines of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. of diverse eco-geographical origin were undertaken in present investigation to determine the genetic divergence following multivariate and canonical analysis for seed yield and its 9 component traits. The 70 genotypes were grouped into 9 clusters depending upon the genetic architecture of genotypes and characters uniformity and confirmed by canonical analysis. Seventy percent of total genotypes (49/70 were grouped in 4 clusters (V, VI, VIII and IX, while apparent diversity was noticed for 30 percent genotypes (21/70 that diverged into 5 clusters (I, II, III, FV, and VII. The maximum inter cluster distance was between I and IV (96.20 followed by III and IV (91.13 and I and VII (87.15. The cluster VI was very unique having genotypes of high mean values for most of the component traits. The cluster VII had highest seeds/umbel (35.3 ± 2.24, and leaves/plant (12.93 ± 0.55, earliest flowering (65.05 ± 1.30 and moderately high mean values for other characters. Considering high mean and inter cluster distance breeding plan has been discussed to select desirable plant types.
Ciofi, C.; Beaumont, M. A.; Swingland, I. R.; Bruford, M. W.
In the past decade much attention has focused on the role that genetics can play in the formation of management strategies in conservation. Here, we describe genetic diversity in the world's largest lizard, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), examining the evolutionary relationships and population genetic history of the four islands in south-east Indonesia, which form the vast majority of its range. We identify distinct genetic groups for conservation. The population on the island of Komodo shows by far the largest values of genetic divergence and is proposed that it should be a separate conservation management unit. Other populations, surviving either on small islands with substantially reduced genetic variability, or in isolated patches, are identified as particularly vulnerable to stochastic threats and habitat loss. Our results provide an example of how data defining intraspecific levels of genetic divergence can provide information to help management plans, ensure the maintenance of genetic variability across populations and identify evolutionary potential within endangered species.
Mallikarjuna Rao eKovi
Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF] and 27 of Unselected [US] from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected control population were genotyped using 278 genome-wide SNPs derived from Lolium perenne L. transcriptome sequence. Our studies showed that the HF and LF populations are very divergent after selection for freezing tolerance, whereas the HF and US populations are more similar. Linkage disequilibrium (LD decay varied across the seven chromosomes and the conspicuous pattern of LD between the HF and LF population confirmed their divergence in freezing tolerance. Furthermore, two Fst outlier methods; finite island model (fdist by LOSITAN and hierarchical structure model using ARLEQUIN detected six loci under directional selection. These outlier loci are most probably linked to genes involved in freezing tolerance, cold adaptation and abiotic stress and might be the potential marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved freezing tolerance.
The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity in 74 RR soybean cultivars from different Brazilian breeding programs. ... chosen SSR markers were effective in assessing the genetic diversity among genotypes, besides proving to be ...
Valéria Rosa Lopes
Full Text Available This work had the aim to evaluate the genetic divergence in sugarcane clones using the methodology of graphic dispersion by principal components analysis associated to linear mixed models, indentifying the more divergent and productive genotypes with more precision, for a subsequent combination. 138 sugarcane clones of the RB97 series of the Sugarcane Breeding Program of the Universidade Federal do Parana, more two standard cultivars were evaluated in three environments, with two replications. The two first components explained 96% of the total variation, sufficiently for explaining the divergence found. The variable that contributed the most to de divergence was kilogram of brix per plot (BKP followed by brix, mass of 10 stalks and number of stalks per plot. The more divergent sugarcane clones were RB975008, RB975112, RB975019, RB975153 and RB975067 and the more productive clones were RB975269, RB977533, RB975102, RB975317 and RB975038.
Wang, Jing; Abbott, Richard J; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Liu, Jianquan
Because of introgressive hybridization, closely related species can be more similar to each other in areas of range overlap (parapatry or sympatry) than in areas where they are geographically isolated from each other (allopatry). Here, we report the reverse situation based on nuclear genetic divergence between two fir species, Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii, in China, at sites where they are parapatric relative to where they are allopatric. We examined genetic divergence across 126 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a set of 172 individuals sampled from both allopatric and parapatric populations of the two species. Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between the species when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence. PMID:24772279
Bay, Rachael A; Arnegard, Matthew E; Conte, Gina L; Best, Jacob; Bedford, Nicole L; McCann, Shaugnessy R; Dubin, Matthew E; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Jones, Felicity C; Kingsley, David M; Schluter, Dolph; Peichel, Catherine L
Ecological speciation with gene flow is widespread in nature , but it presents a conundrum: how are associations between traits under divergent natural selection and traits that contribute to assortative mating maintained? Theoretical models suggest that genetic mechanisms inhibiting free recombination between loci underlying these two types of traits (hereafter, "genetic coupling") can facilitate speciation [2-4]. Here, we perform a direct test for genetic coupling by mapping both divergent traits and female mate choice in a classic model of ecological speciation: sympatric benthic and limnetic threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). By measuring mate choice in F2 hybrid females, we allowed for recombination between loci underlying assortative mating and those under divergent ecological selection. In semi-natural mating arenas in which females had access to both benthic and limnetic males, we found that F2 females mated with males similar to themselves in body size and shape. In addition, we found two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with female mate choice that also predicted female morphology along the benthic-limnetic trait axis. Furthermore, a polygenic genetic model that explains adaptation to contrasting benthic and limnetic feeding niches  also predicted F2 female mate choice. Together, these results provide empirical evidence that genetic coupling of assortative mating with traits under divergent ecological selection helps maintain species in the face of gene flow, despite a polygenic basis for adaptation to divergent environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine; Sørensen, Chris K.; Hansen, Jens G.; Lassen, Poul; Nazari, Kumarse; Hodson, David P.; Justesen, Annemarie F.; Hovmøller, Mogens S.
We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales. PMID:28676811
Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales.
Vanheule, Adriaan; De Boevre, Marthe; Moretti, Antonio; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Munaut, Françoise; De Saeger, Sarah; Bekaert, Boris; Haesaert, Geert; Waalwijk, Cees; van der Lee, Theo; Audenaert, Kris
Fusarium head blight is a disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. F. poae is omnipresent throughout Europe in spite of its low virulence. In this study, we assessed a geographically diverse collection of F. poae isolates for its genetic diversity using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). Furthermore, studying the mating type locus and chromosomal insertions, we identified hallmarks of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. Despite the large genetic variation found, all F. poae isolates possess the nivalenol chemotype based on Tri7 sequence analysis. Nevertheless, Tri gene clusters showed two layers of genetic variability. Firstly, the Tri1 locus was highly variable with mostly synonymous mutations and mutations in introns pointing to a strong purifying selection pressure. Secondly, in a subset of isolates, the main trichothecene gene cluster was invaded by a transposable element between Tri5 and Tri6 . To investigate the impact of these variations on the phenotypic chemotype, mycotoxin production was assessed on artificial medium. Complex blends of type A and type B trichothecenes were produced but neither genetic variability in the Tri genes nor variability in the genome or geography accounted for the divergence in trichothecene production. In view of its complex chemotype, it will be of utmost interest to uncover the role of trichothecenes in virulence, spread and survival of F. poae .
Dalcomo, J M; Vieira, H D; Ferreira, A; Lima, W L; Ferrão, R G; Fonseca, A F A; Ferrão, M A G; Partelli, F L
Coffea canephora genotypes from the breeding program of Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa e Extensão Rural were evaluated, and genetic diversity was estimated with the aim of future improvement strategies. From an initial group of 55 genotypes, 18 from the region of Castelo, ES, were selected, and three clones of the cultivars "Vitória" and "robusta tropical." Upon completion of the scheduled cycle pruning, 17 morphoagronomic traits were measured in the 22 genotypes selected. The principal components method was used to evaluate the contributions relative to the traits. The genetic dissimilarity matrix was obtained through Mahalanobis generalized distance, and genotypes were grouped using the hierarchical method based on the mean of the distances. The most promising clones of Avaliação Castelo were AC02, AC03, AC12, AC13, AC22, AC24, AC26, AC27, AC28, AC29, AC30, AC35, AC36, AC37, AC39, AC40, AC43, and AC46. These methods detected high genetic variability, grouping, by similarity, the genotypes in five groups. The trait that contributed the least to genetic divergence was the number of leaves in plagiotropic branches; however, this was not eliminated, because discarding it altered the groups. There are superior genotypes with potential for use in the next stages of the breeding program, aimed at both the composition of clonal variety and hybridizations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of spatial variation in discrete phenotypic traits can be used to draw inferences about the adaptive significance of traits and evolutionary processes, especially when compared to patterns of neutral genetic variation. Population divergence in adaptive traits such as color morphs can be influenced by both local ecology and stochastic factors such as genetic drift or founder events. Here, we use quantitative color measurements of males and females of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae, to demonstrate that this species is polymorphic with respect to throat color, and the morphs form discrete phenotypic clusters with limited overlap between categories. We use divergence in throat color morph frequencies and compare that to neutral genetic variation to infer the evolutionary processes acting on islet- and mainland populations. Results Geographically close islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard exhibit strong divergence in throat color morph frequencies. Population variation in throat color morph frequencies between islets was higher than that between mainland populations, and the effective population sizes on the islets were small (Ne:s ST for throat color morph frequencies fell within the neutral FST-distribution estimated from microsatellite markers, and genetic drift could thus not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern. Moreover, for both comparisons among mainland-mainland population pairs and between mainland-islet population pairs, morph frequency divergence was significantly correlated with neutral divergence, further pointing to some role for genetic drift in divergence also at the phenotypic level of throat color morphs. Conclusions Genetic drift could not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern of population divergence in morph frequencies. In spite of an expected stabilising selection, throat color frequencies diverged in the islet populations. These results suggest that
ADRIANA QUEIROZ DE ALMEIDA
Full Text Available The knowledge about genetic diversity of jatropha crop is important for genetic conservation resources and breeding of this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and performance of jatropha clones through morphological characterization to selection of clonal varieties for biofuels production. The clones were obtained through shoot cuttings from previous selection in a population of half - sibs progenies. The morphoagronomic analyses of clones was carried out at 180 days after transplantation and were evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of primary branches and number of secondary branches, number of bunches and number of fruits per plant. Evaluating clones performance, significant results were found for the number of secondary branches. About analysis of genetic diversity, the measures of dissimilarity genetic varied from 0.62 to 13.11, this way, the UFRBPR14 and UFRBPR15 clones were more divergent. The Tocher method was efficient to verify formation of four groups. The characteristics that most contributed to the divergence among clones were branches number, height and number of bunches, and, stem diameter had lower contribution. The jatropha clones differed only in the secondary branches number and multivariate analysis showed divergence among the jatropha clones with formation of four groups. Also, branches number, plant height and number of bunches were characteristic that contributed to genetic divergence.
Nogueira, A M; Ferreira, M F S; Guilhen, J H S; Ferreira, A
The family Myrtaceae is widespread in the Atlantic Forest and is well-represented in the Espírito Santo State in Brazil. In the genus Psidium of this family, guava (Psidium guajava L.) is the most economically important species. Guava is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries; however, the widespread cultivation of only a small number of guava tree cultivars may cause the genetic vulnerability of this crop, making the search for promising genotypes in natural populations important for breeding programs and conservation. In this study, the genetic diversity of 66 guava trees sampled in the southern region of Espírito Santo and in Caparaó, MG, Brazil were evaluated. A total of 28 morphological descriptors (11 quantitative and 17 multicategorical) and 18 microsatellite markers were used. Principal component, discriminant and cluster analyses, descriptive analyses, and genetic diversity analyses using simple sequence repeats were performed. Discrimination of accessions using molecular markers resulted in clustering of genotypes of the same origin, which was not observed using morphological data. Genetic diversity was detected between and within the localities evaluated, regardless of the methodology used. Genetic differentiation among the populations using morphological and molecular data indicated the importance of the study area for species conservation, genetic erosion estimation, and exploitation in breeding programs.
Liang, Lu; Liu, Yang; Liao, Jishan; Gong, Peng
Understanding the divergence patterns of hosts could shed lights on the prediction of their parasite transmission. No effort has been devoted to understand the drivers of genetic divergence pattern of Oncomelania hupensis, the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. Based on a compilation of two O. hupensis gene datasets covering a wide geographic range in China and an array of geographical distance and environmental dissimilarity metrics built from earth observation data and ecological niche modeling, we conducted causal modeling analysis via simple, partial Mantel test and local polynomial fitting to understand the interactions among isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-environment, and genetic divergence. We found that geography contributes more to genetic divergence than environmental isolation, and among all variables involved, wetland showed the strongest correlation with the genetic pairwise distances. These results suggested that in China, O. hupensis dispersal is strongly linked to the distribution of wetlands, and the current divergence pattern of both O. hupensis and schistosomiasis might be altered due to the changed wetland pattern with the accomplishment of the Three Gorges Dam and the South-to-North water transfer project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kuruppumullage Don, Prabhani; Ananda, Guruprasad; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Makova, Kateryna D
Many studies have demonstrated that divergence levels generated by different mutation types vary and covary across the human genome. To improve our still-incomplete understanding of the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon, we analyze several mutation types simultaneously, anchoring their variation to specific regions of the genome. Using hidden Markov models on insertion, deletion, nucleotide substitution, and microsatellite divergence estimates inferred from human-orangutan alignments of neutrally evolving genomic sequences, we segment the human genome into regions corresponding to different divergence states--each uniquely characterized by specific combinations of divergence levels. We then parsed the mutagenic contributions of various biochemical processes associating divergence states with a broad range of genomic landscape features. We find that high divergence states inhabit guanine- and cytosine (GC)-rich, highly recombining subtelomeric regions; low divergence states cover inner parts of autosomes; chromosome X forms its own state with lowest divergence; and a state of elevated microsatellite mutability is interspersed across the genome. These general trends are mirrored in human diversity data from the 1000 Genomes Project, and departures from them highlight the evolutionary history of primate chromosomes. We also find that genes and noncoding functional marks [annotations from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)] are concentrated in high divergence states. Our results provide a powerful tool for biomedical data analysis: segmentations can be used to screen personal genome variants--including those associated with cancer and other diseases--and to improve computational predictions of noncoding functional elements.
Kathleen Semple Delaney
Full Text Available Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding.We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation.Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.
April, Julien; Hanner, Robert H.; Mayden, Richard L.; Bernatchez, Louis
Taxonomically exhaustive and continent wide patterns of genetic divergence within and between species have rarely been described and the underlying evolutionary causes shaping biodiversity distribution remain contentious. Here, we show that geographic patterns of intraspecific and interspecific genetic divergence among nearly all of the North American freshwater fish species (>750 species) support a dual role involving both the late Pliocene-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and metabolic rate in determining latitudinal gradients of genetic divergence and very likely influencing speciation rates. Results indicate that the recurrent glacial cycles caused global reduction in intraspecific diversity, interspecific genetic divergence, and species richness at higher latitudes. At the opposite, longer geographic isolation, higher metabolic rate increasing substitution rate and possibly the rapid accumulation of genetic incompatibilities, led to an increasing biodiversity towards lower latitudes. This indicates that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors similarly affect micro and macro evolutionary processes shaping global patterns of biodiversity distribution. These results also indicate that factors favouring allopatric speciation are the main drivers underlying the diversification of North American freshwater fishes. PMID:23922969
THIAGO ALEXANDRE SANTANA GILIO
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance and estimate the genetic divergence of 18 cotton genotypes grown in the main season (sowed in December, 2012 and off season (sowed in January, 2013, considering their agronomic characteristics and resistance to Ramularia leaf spot. A randomized block experimental design was used, with five replications. The characteristics evaluated were plant height, first branch height, position of first fruiting branch, height of first fruiting branch, length between nodes, number of nodes, average number of bolls per plant, average boll weight, area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC related to the Ramularia leaf spot severity, weight of 100 - seed from the plant middle third, fiber percentage, average production per plant, yield and cotton fiber quality. The results were subjected to individual and joint analysis of variance and the genetic divergence was estimated according to multivariate procedures (Mahalanobis' generalized distance and Tocher's optimization method. The dissimilarity matrices were summed to estimate the genetic divergence, considering both growing periods. Genetic variability was found among the genotypes evaluated, in both the main season and off season. The characteristic that most contributed to the genetic divergence in the main season was the production per plant and, in the off season, was the fiber percentage. According to the results of the present work, the crosses between the genotypes BRS - 335 and FMT - 707; FM - 910 and FMT - 707; and IMA - 08 - 12427 and FMT - 707 are recommended.
Streicher, Jeffrey W; McEntee, Jay P; Drzich, Laura C; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Smart, Utpal; Parkinson, Christopher L; Jezkova, Tereza; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A
Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting of divergent mitochondrial (mtDNA) lineages over a portion of its range, but weak sorting of these lineages elsewhere. We tested three alternative hypotheses to explain this pattern-local adaptation, secondary contact following allopatric divergence, and range expansion. Collectively, near panmixia of nuclear DNA, the signal of range expansion associated sampling drift, expansion origins in the Gulf Coast of Mexico, and species distribution modeling suggest that the spatial sorting of divergent mtDNA lineages within M. tener has resulted from genetic surfing of standing mtDNA variation-not local adaptation or allopatric divergence. Our findings highlight the potential for the stochastic effects of recent range expansion to mislead estimations of population divergence made from mtDNA, which may be exacerbated in systems with low vagility, ancestral mtDNA polymorphism, and male-biased dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).
Mário Sérgio Sigrist
Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a vegetatively-propagated crop which is used as a natural dye in the food industryand also presents many biological active compounds. Turmeric conventional breeding is difficult and often limited to germplasmselection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among turmeric accessions available in Brazil using sevenmorpho-agronomical descriptors. Overall genetic divergence was low, although some divergent genotypes were identified. Fourmain groups of genotypes were identified and could be further used in breeding programs. Canonical variable analysis suggestedthat some descriptors were more important to discriminate accessions and also that one of the descriptors could be discarded. Theresults provided useful insights for better management of the germplasm collection, optimizing conservational and breeding efforts.
Hansen, Michael Møller; Limborg, Morten; Ferchaud, A.-L.
Background: Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River......, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally...... genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Results: Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence...
Tavares, Mara Garcia; Pietrani, Nathalia Teixeira; de Castro Durvale, Maxwell; Resende, Helder Canto; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio
Melipona quadrifasciata is a stingless bee widely found throughout the Brazilian territory, with two recognized subspecies, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, that exhibits interrupted metasomal stripes, and M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata, with continuous metasomal stripes. This study aimed to estimate the genetic variability of these subspecies. For this purpose, 127 colonies from 15 Brazilian localities were analyzed, using nine species-specific microsatellite primers. At these loci, the number of alleles ranged from three to 15 (mean: 7.2), and the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.03-0.21, while the expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.23-0.47. The genetic distances among populations ranged from 0.03-0.45. The FST multilocus value (0.23) indicated that the populations sampled were structured, and the clustering analysis showed the formation of two subgroups and two more distant populations. The first group contained the subspecies M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata, and the other, the subspecies M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and the two M. quadrifasciata populations with continuous metasomal stripes from northern Minas Gerais. These results confirmed that the yellow metasomal stripes alone are not a good means for correctly identifying the different subspecies of M. quadrifasciata.
Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine
population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease...... that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia......; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent...
Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar
*In plants, epigenetic variations based on DNA methylation are often heritable and could influence the course of evolution. Before this hypothesis can be assessed, fundamental questions about epigenetic variation remain to be addressed in a real-world context, including its magnitude, structuring within and among natural populations, and autonomy in relation to the genetic context. *Extent and patterns of cytosine methylation, and the relationship to adaptive genetic divergence between populations, were investigated for wild populations of the southern Spanish violet Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae) using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique, a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism method (AFLP) based on the differential sensitivity of isoschizomeric restriction enzymes to site-specific cytosine methylation. *The genome of V. cazorlensis plants exhibited extensive levels of methylation, and methylation-based epigenetic variation was structured into distinct between- and within- population components. Epigenetic differentiation of populations was correlated with adaptive genetic divergence revealed by a Bayesian population-genomic analysis of AFLP data. Significant associations existed at the individual genome level between adaptive AFLP loci and the methylation state of methylation-susceptible MSAP loci. *Population-specific, divergent patterns of correlated selection on epigenetic and genetic individual variation could account for the coordinated epigenetic-genetic adaptive population differentiation revealed by this study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of genetic divergence between populations of facultative metallophytes have been investigated extensively. However, most previous investigations have focused on a single plant species making it unclear if genetic divergence shows common patterns or, conversely, is species-specific. The herbs Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L. are two pseudo-metallophytes thriving in both normal and cupriferous soils along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Their non-metallicolous and metallicolous populations are often sympatric thus providing an ideal opportunity for comparative estimation of genetic structures and divergence under the selective pressure derived from copper toxicity. Results In the present study, patterns of genetic divergence of R. acetosa and C. communis , including metal tolerance, genetic structure and genetic relationships between populations, were investigated and compared using hydroponic experiments, AFLP, ISSR and chloroplast genetic markers. Our results show a significant reduction in genetic diversity in metallicolous populations of C. communis but not in R. acetosa . Moreover, genetic differentiation is less in R. acetosa than in C. communis , the latter species also shows a clustering of its metallicolous populations. Conclusions We propose that the genetic divergences apparent in R. acetosa and C. communis , and the contrasting responses of the two species to copper contamination, might be attributed to the differences in their intrinsic physiological and ecological properties. No simple and generalised conclusions on genetic divergence in pseudo-metallophytes can thus be drawn.
Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero
Ruiling, Zhang; Tongkai, Liu; Zhendong, Huang; Guifen, Zhuang; Dezhen, Ma; Zhong, Zhang
Aedes albopictus has been described as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. This mosquito originated from southeastern Asia and currently has a widespread presence in every continent except Antarctica. The rapid global expansion of Ae. albopictus has increased public health concerns about arbovirus-related disease threats. Adaptation, adaption to novel areas is a biological challenge for invasive species, and the underlying processes can be studied at the molecular level. In this study, genetic analysis was performed using mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5), based on both native and invasive populations. Altogether, 38 haplotypes were detected with H1 being the dominant and widely distributed in 21 countries. Both phylogenetic and network analyses supported the existence of five clades, with only clade I being involved in the subsequent global spread of Asian tiger mosquito. The other four clades (II, III, IV and V) were restricted to their original regions, which could be ancestral populations that had diverged from clade I in the early stages of evolution. Neutrality tests suggested that most of the populations had experienced recent expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and the population-pair statistic F ST revealed that most populations lacked genetic structure, while high variability was detected within populations. Multiple and independent human-mediated introductions may explain the present results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Han, Zhengzhou; Ma, Xinye; Wei, Min; Zhao, Tong; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen
Chrysanthemum indicum L., an important ancestral species of the flowering plant chrysanthemum, can be used as medicine and for functional food development. Due to the lack of hereditary information for this species and the difficulty of germplasm identification, we herein provide new genetic insight from the perspective of intraspecific transcriptome comparison and present single sequence repeat (SSR) molecular marker recognition technology. Through the study of a diploid germplasm (DIWNT) and a tetraploid germplasm (DIWT), the following outcome were obtained. (1) A significant difference in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations for specific homologous genes was observed using the OrthoMCL method for the identification of homologous gene families between the two cytotypes. Ka/Ks analysis of common, single-copy homologous family members also revealed a greater difference among genes that experienced positive selection than among those experiencing positive selection. (2) Of more practical value, 2575 SSR markers were predicted and partly verified. We used TaxonGap as a visual tool to inspect genotype uniqueness and screen for high-performance molecular loci; we recommend four primers of 65 randomly selected primers with a combined identification success rate of 88.6% as priorities for further development of DNA fingerprinting of C. indicum germplasm. The SSR technology based on next-generation sequencing was proved to be successful in the identification of C. indicum germplasms. And the information on the intraspecfic genetic divergence generated by transcriptome comparison deepened the understanding of this complex species' nature.
Hansen, Michael M; Limborg, Morten T; Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Pujolar, José-Martin
Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence times ca. 600-800 years bp, providing strong evidence for establishment of dams in the Medieval as the factor causing divergence. Bayesian cluster analysis showed influence of stocked trout in several reference populations, but not in the focal lake and anadromous populations. Estimates of effective population size using a linkage disequilibrium method ranged from 244 to > 1,000 in all but one anadromous population, but were lower (153 and 252) in the lake populations. We show that genetic divergence of lake-dwelling trout in two Danish lakes reflects establishment of water mills and impassable dams ca. 600-800 years ago rather than a natural genetic population structure. Although effective population sizes of the two lake populations are not critically low they may ultimately limit response to selection and thereby future adaptation. Our results demonstrate that populations may have been affected by anthropogenic disturbance over longer time scales than normally assumed.
Hiraoka, Koichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro
Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Although population differentiation was very low (F (ST) = 0.027; R (ST) = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides of Japan, indicating that physical barriers to migration and gene flow, notably the mountain ranges separating the populations along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides, have promoted genetic divergence between these populations. The two lineages of the nuclear genome are generally consistent with those of the chloroplast genome detected in a previous study, with several discrepancies between the two genomes. Within-population genetic diversity was generally very high (average H (E) = 0.839), but decreased in a clinal fashion from southwest to northeast, largely among populations of the Japan Sea lineage. This geographical gradient may have resulted from the late-glacial and postglacial recolonization to the northeast, which led to a loss of within-population genetic diversity due to cumulative founder effects.
Aragão, F A S; Torres Filho, J; Nunes, G H S; Queiróz, M A; Bordallo, P N; Buso, G S C; Ferreira, M A; Costa, Z P; Bezerra Neto, F
The genetic divergence of 38 melon accessions from traditional agriculture of the Brazilian Northeast and three commercial hybrids were evaluated using fruit descriptors and microsatellite markers. The melon germplasm belongs to the botanic varieties cantalupensis (19), momordica (7), conomon (4), and inodorus (3), and to eight genotypes that were identified only at the species level. The fruit descriptors evaluated were: number of fruits per plant (NPF), fruit mass (FM; kg), fruit longitudinal diameter (LD; cm), fruit transversal diameter (TD; cm), shape index based on the LD/TD ratio, flesh pulp thickness, cavity thickness (CT; cm), firmness fruit pulp (N), and soluble solids (SS; °Brix). The results showed high variability for all descriptors, especially for NPF, LD, and FM. The grouping analysis based on fruit descriptors produced eight groups without taxonomic criteria. The LD (22.52%), NPF (19.70%), CT (16.13%), and SS (9.57%) characteristics were the descriptors that contributed the most to genotype dissimilarity. The 17 simple sequence repeat polymorphic markers amplified 41 alleles with an average of 2.41 alleles and three genotypes per locus. Some markers presented a high frequency for the main allele. The genetic diversity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, the observed heterozygosity had very low values, and the mean polymorphism information content was 0.32. Molecular genetic similarity analyses clustered the accessions in 13 groups, also not following taxonomic ranks. There was no association between morphoagronomic and molecular groupings. In conclusion, there was great variability among the accessions and among and within botanic groups.
Full Text Available Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in higher plants, and represents a driving force of evolution and speciation. Inter-specific hybridization often induces genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant homoploid hybrids or allopolyploids, a phenomenon known as genome shock. Although genetic and epigenetic consequences of hybridizations between rice subspecies (e.g., japonica and indica and closely related species sharing the same AA genome have been extensively investigated, those of inter-specific hybridizations between more remote species with different genomes in the rice genus, Oryza, remain largely unknown.We investigated the immediate chromosomal and molecular genetic/epigenetic instability of three triploid F1 hybrids produced by inter-specific crossing between species with divergent genomes of Oryza by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and molecular marker analysis. Transcriptional and transpositional activity of several transposable elements (TEs and methylation stability of their flanking regions were also assessed. We made the following principle findings: (i all three triploid hybrids are stable in both chromosome number and gross structure; (ii stochastic changes in both DNA sequence and methylation occurred in individual plants of all three triploid hybrids, but in general methylation changes occurred at lower frequencies than genetic changes; (iii alteration in DNA methylation occurred to a greater extent in genomic loci flanking potentially active TEs than in randomly sampled loci; (iv transcriptional activation of several TEs commonly occurred in all three hybrids but transpositional events were detected in a genetic context-dependent manner.Artificially constructed inter-specific hybrids of remotely related species with divergent genomes in genus Oryza are chromosomally stable but show immediate and highly stochastic genetic and epigenetic instabilities at the molecular level. These novel hybrids might
Pessoa, A M S; Barroso, P A; do Rêgo, E R; Medeiros, G D A; Bruno, R L A; do Rêgo, M M
Brazil has a great diversity of Capsicum peppers that can be used in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic variation in traits related to the physiological quality of seeds of Capsicum annuum L. in a segregating F2 population and its parents. A total of 250 seeds produced by selfing in the F1 generation resulting from crosses between UFPB 77.3 and UFPB 76 were used, with 100 seeds of both parents used as additional controls, totaling 252 genotypes. The seeds were germinated in gerboxes containing substrate blotting paper moistened with distilled water. Germination and the following vigor tests were evaluated: first count, germination velocity index, and root and shoot lengths. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by Scott and Knott's method at 1% probability. Tocher's clustering based on Mahalanobis distance and canonical variable analysis with graphic dispersion of genotypes were performed, and genetic parameters were estimated. All variables were found to be significant by the F test (P ≤ 0.01) and showed high heritability and a CVg/CVe ratio higher than 1.0, indicating genetic differences among genotypes. Parents (genotypes 1 and 2) formed distinct groups in all clustering methods. Genotypes 3, 104, 153, and 232 were found to be the most divergent according to Tocher's clustering method, and this was mainly due to early germination, which was observed on day 14, and would therefore be selected. Understanding the phenotypic variability among these 252 genotypes will serve as a basis for continuing the breeding program within this family.
Roesch Goodman, Kari; Welter, Stephen C; Roderick, George K
Adaptive radiation involves ecological shifts coupled with isolation of gene pools. However, we know little about what drives the initial stages of divergence. We study a system in which ecological diversification is found within a chronologically well-defined geological matrix to provide insight into this enigmatic phase of radiation. We tested the hypothesis that a period of geographic isolation precedes ecological specialization in an adaptive radiation of host-specialized Hawaiian planthoppers. We examined population structure and history using mitochondrial and multiple independent microsatellite loci in a species whose geographic distribution on the island of Hawaii enabled us to observe the chronology of divergence in its very earliest stages. We found that genetic divergence is associated with geographic features but not different plant hosts and that divergence times are very recent and on the same timescales as the dynamic geology of the island. Our results suggest an important role for geography in the dynamics of the early stages of divergence. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Fluker, Brook L; Kuhajda, Bernard R; Harris, Phillip M
Recent studies determined that darters with specialized breeding strategies can exhibit deep lineage divergence over fine geographic scales without apparent physical barriers to gene flow. However, the extent to which intrinsic characteristics interact with extrinsic factors to influence population divergence and lineage diversification in darters is not well understood. This study employed comparative phylogeographic and population genetic methods to investigate the influence of life history on gene flow, dispersal ability, and lineage divergence in two sympatric sister darters with differing breeding strategies. Our results revealed highly disparate phylogeographic histories, patterns of genetic structure, and dispersal abilities between the two species suggesting that life history may contribute to lineage diversification in darters, especially by limiting dispersal among large river courses. Both species also showed striking differences in demographic history, indicating that extrinsic factors differentially affected each species during the Pleistocene. Collectively, our results indicate that intrinsic and extrinsic factors have influenced levels of gene flow among populations within both species examined. However, we suggest that life-history strategy may play a more important role in lineage diversification in darters than previously appreciated, a finding that has potentially important implications for understanding diversification of the rich North American freshwater fish fauna. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
SIMONE M. SCHEFFER-BASSO
Full Text Available This study had the objective of assessing the genetic divergence in giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus x A. scoparius germplasm based on morphological and agronomic traits. Five accessions were evaluated in the field: V14337, V14403, V14404, V14405 and V14406. Three contrasting groups were formed using the UPGMA clustering method: V14337 and V14404 formed one group, V14403 and V14405 formed another, and V14406 was isolated from the other accessions. The most striking traits for the identification of the accessions were the height of the plant and the change color of the leaf. Only V14406 accession had purplish green leaves. The other four accessions differed with regards to plant height and dry matter production, with superiority of V14337 and V14404 accessions. The high similarity, as assessed by the mean Euclidean distance, suggests that V14337 and V14404 share the same genotype. The genotypic variability among accessions indicates their potential use in breeding programs.
Full Text Available Despite the wide acceptability Torch Ginger (Etlingera elatior by the consumer market and its cultivation are still restricted due to the high mass of inflorescences (over 1 kg, which complicates the process of harvesting, handling, packaging and transportation. The objective of this work was to characterize agromorphological and estimate the genetic divergence among Etlingera elatior ( Jack R.M. Sm. with standard cut flower. A stand of 75 genotypes resulting from crosses between genotypes at random from the collection of germplasm with variability inflorescences of commercial interest, they keep on growing in the Research and Development of Ubatuba. Seventeen descriptors were evaluated on the leaf, inflorescence and infrutescence. The inflorescence mass, length and diameter of the flowering stem, height and flower diameter were selected as the most important descriptors for selecting accessions with standard marketing as cut flower. We selected 12 promising accessions, with characteristics appropriate to the market and with good combination of shapes and coloring bracts.
Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří
Binary decision trees under the Bayesian decision technique are used for supervised classification of high-dimensional data. We present a great potential of adaptive kernel density estimation as the nested separation method of the supervised binary divergence decision tree. Also, we provide a proof of alternative computing approach for kernel estimates utilizing Fourier transform. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo data set from the particle accelerator Tevatron at DØ experiment in Fermilab and provide final top-antitop signal separation results. We have achieved up to 82 % AUC while using the restricted feature selection entering the signal separation procedure.
Pestana-Caldas, C N; Silva, S A; Machado, E L; de Souza, D R; Cerqueira-Pereira, E C; Silva, M S
The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic divergence between accessions of Jatropha curcas through joint analysis of morphoagronomic and molecular characters. To this end, we investigated 11 morphoagronomic characters and performed molecular genotyping, using 23 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers in 46 accessions of J. curcas. We calculated the contribution of each character on divergence using analysis of variance. The grouping among accessions was performed using the Ward-MLM (modified location model) method, using morphoagronomic and molecular data, whereas the cophenetic correlation was obtained based on Gower's algorithm. There were significant differences in all growth-related characteristics: number of primary and secondary branches per plant, plant height, and stem diameter. For characters related to grain production, differences were found for number of fruit clusters per plant and number of inflorescence clusters per plant and average number of seeds per fruit. The greatest phenotypic variation was found in plant height (59.67- 222.33 cm), whereas the smallest variation was found in average number of seeds per fruit (0-2.90), followed by the number of fruit clusters per plant (0-8.67). In total, 94 polymorphic ISSR fragments were obtained. The genotypic grouping identified six groups, indicating that there is genetic divergence among the accessions. The most promising crossings for future hybridization were identified among accessions UFRB60 and UFVJC45, and UFRB61 and UFVJC18. In conclusion, the joint analysis of morphoagronomic characters and ISSR markers is an efficient method to assess the genetic divergence in J. curcas.
Lukoshe, Akvile; White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus N; van der Lugt, Aad; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms that indicate not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. However, little is known about developmental differences in brain structure in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate global brain morphology in children with PWS, including the comparison between different genetic subtypes of PWS. In addition, we performed exploratory cortical and subcortical focal analyses. High resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 children with genetically confirmed PWS (11 children carrying a deletion (DEL), 9 children with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD)), and compared with 11 age- and gender-matched typically developing siblings as controls. Brain morphology measures were obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. Both children with DEL and mUPD showed smaller brainstem volume, and a trend towards smaller cortical surface area and white matter volume. Children with mUPD had enlarged lateral ventricles and larger cortical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Further, a trend towards increased cortical thickness was found in children with mUPD. Children with DEL had a smaller cerebellum, and smaller cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes. Focal analyses revealed smaller white matter volumes in left superior and bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right cingulate cortex, and bilateral precuneus areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) in children with mUPD. Children with PWS show signs of impaired brain growth. Those with mUPD show signs of early brain atrophy. In contrast, children with DEL show signs of fundamentally arrested, although not deviant brain development and presented few signs of cortical atrophy. Our results of global brain measurements suggest divergent neurodevelopmental patterns in children with DEL and mUPD.
Menezes, M.R.; Naik, S.; Martins, M.
Genetic divergence in the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuv) from the west coast (Goa), east coast (Madras) and the Andaman Sea was estimated, using allozyme markers. Skeletal muscle and eye proteins were electrophoretically analysed for 5...
Glauco Vieira Miranda
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de melhoramento e a divergência genética de nove cultivares tropicais de milho-pipoca. A divergência genética foi estimada por meio da técnica de análise multivariada e as cultivares foram agrupadas com base na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis (DGM, utilizando o método de otimização de Tocher e a dispersão gráfica. Com produtividade de grãos acima de 3 t/ha, destacaram-se as cultivares CMS 43, IAC 112, Viçosa, CMS 42 e Branco, e com índices de capacidade de expansão acima de 24 (v/v, as cultivares IAC 112, RS 20 e Zélia. As estimativas da DGM indicaram (RS 20 e Beija-flor e (Rosa-claro e RS 20 os pares de cultivares mais distantes geneticamente, e (IAC 112 e Viçosa e (Branco e CMS 42, os pares mais similares. Foram identificados três ou quatro grupos divergentes dependendo do método de agrupamento. Para o melhoramento de milho-pipoca, as cultivares com maiores potenciais são RS 20, Zélia, IAC 112 e Beija-flor. As cultivares apresentam divergência genética.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the potential of breeding and genetic divergence in nine tropical popcorn cultivars. The genetic divergence was estimated using multivariate analysis techniques and the cultivars were grouped based in Mahalanobis' generalized distance (MGD, using Tocher's optimization and graphic dispersion. The best cultivars concerning the yield grain above 3 ton/ha were CMS 43, IAC 112, Viçosa, CMS 42 and Branco, and to popping expansion above 24 (v/v were IAC 112, RS 20 and Zélia. The estimates of MGD indicated the pairs genetically more distant (RS 20, Beija-flor and (Rosa-claro, RS 20 as well as pairs genetically more similar (IAC 112, Viçosa and (Branco, CMS 42. Tree or four genetic divergences groups were formed depending on the method. To popcorn breeding, cultivars with best potential are RS 20, Zélia, IAC 112, and Beija-flor. The cultivars show genetic divergence.
GREICIELE FARIAS DA SILVEIRA
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence among Passiflora cristalina genotypes and quantify the relative contribution of 30 flower and fruit characteristics, seeking to support the preservation and characterization of genetic resources of the species for preservation and use in future breeding programs. We evaluated 150 fruit and 150 flowers collected in 15 genotypes with naturally occurring in the municipality of Alta Floresta, MT. The characterization of genotypes was performed through 30 morphological characteristics of flowers and fruits, 21 of these for flower and 9 for fruit. Data were evaluated using the principal components and cluster methods obtained by UPGMA method from the similarity matrix (Euclidian mean distance, using the Genes software. By principal component analysis, it has been found that the first three components have absorbed 52.11% of the accumulated variation. The characteristics that most contributed to the discrimination of genotypes were fresh fruit weight, stigma length, length of corona filaments, fruit width, petal width and pulp weight, which are more responsive for the selection of P.cristalina genotypes. Smaller contributions to diversity were obtained from anther width, bract width and fruit length. The smallest contributions for diversity were obtained from the following characteristics: anther width, bract width and fruit length. Through UPGMA clustering method, it was found that there is a large genetic divergence among genotypes analyzed because all genotypes were grouped with over 50% of dissimilarity. This study identified genotypes 4, 5 and 9 as the most divergent and therefore the most suitable for breeding in future breeding programs and genetic conservation of the species.
Bernard, Guillaume; Chan, Cheong Xin; Ragan, Mark A
Alignment-free (AF) approaches have recently been highlighted as alternatives to methods based on multiple sequence alignment in phylogenetic inference. However, the sensitivity of AF methods to genome-scale evolutionary scenarios is little known. Here, using simulated microbial genome data we systematically assess the sensitivity of nine AF methods to three important evolutionary scenarios: sequence divergence, lateral genetic transfer (LGT) and genome rearrangement. Among these, AF methods are most sensitive to the extent of sequence divergence, less sensitive to low and moderate frequencies of LGT, and most robust against genome rearrangement. We describe the application of AF methods to three well-studied empirical genome datasets, and introduce a new application of the jackknife to assess node support. Our results demonstrate that AF phylogenomics is computationally scalable to multi-genome data and can generate biologically meaningful phylogenies and insights into microbial evolution.
Phillimore, A B; Owens, I P F; Black, R A; Chittock, J; Burke, T; Clegg, S M
Substantial phenotypic and genetic variation is often found below the species level and this may be useful in quantifying biodiversity and predicting future diversification. However, relatively few studies have tested whether different aspects of intraspecific variation show congruent patterns across populations. Here, we quantify several aspects of divergence between 13 insular populations of an island endemic bird, the Vanuatu white-eye (Zosterops flavifrons). The components of divergence studied are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), nuclear DNA microsatellites and morphology. These different aspects of divergence present subtly different scenarios. For instance, an mtDNA phylogenetic tree reveals a potential cryptic species on the most southerly island in Vanuatu and considerable divergence between at least two other major phylogroups. Microsatellite loci suggest that population genetic divergence between insular populations, both between and within phylogroups, is substantial, a result that is consistent with a low level of interisland gene flow. Finally, most populations were found to be strongly morphologically divergent, but no single population was morphologically diagnosable from all others. Taken together, our results show that, although many measures of divergence are concordant in this system, the number of divergent units identified varies widely depending on the characters considered and approach used. A continuum of divergence and a degree of discordance between different characters are both to be expected under simple models of evolution, but they present problems in terms of delimiting conservation units.
Parapatric genetic divergence among deep evolutionary lineages in the Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Brachyura, Portunoidea, Carcinidae), accounts for a sharp phylogeographic break in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Deli, Temim; Kalkan, Evrim; Karhan, Selahattin Ünsal; Uzunova, Sonya; Keikhosravi, Alireza; Bilgin, Raşit; Schubart, Christoph D
Recently, population genetic studies of Mediterranean marine species highlighted patterns of genetic divergence and phylogeographic breaks, due to the interplay between impacts of Pleistocene climate shifts and contemporary hydrographical barriers. These factors markedly shaped the distribution of marine organisms and their genetic makeup. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to understand the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the highly dispersive Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847), across the Mediterranean Sea. Recently, marked divergence between two highly separated haplogroups (genetic types I and II) of C. aestuarii was discerned across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait, suggesting an Early Pleistocene vicariant event. In order to better identify phylogeographic patterns in this species, a total of 263 individuals from 22 Mediterranean locations were analysed by comparing a 587 basepair region of the mitochondrial gene Cox1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1). The examined dataset is composed of both newly generated sequences (76) and previously investigated ones (187). Our results unveiled the occurrence of a highly divergent haplogroup (genetic type III) in the most north-eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Divergence between the most distinct type III and the common ancestor of both types I and II corresponds to the Early Pleistocene and coincides with the historical episode of separation between types I and II. Our results also revealed strong genetic divergence among adjacent regions (separating the Aegean and Marmara seas from the remaining distribution zone) and confirmed a sharp phylogeographic break across the Eastern Mediterranean. The recorded parapatric genetic divergence, with the potential existence of a contact zone between both groups in the Ionian Sea and notable differences in the demographic history, suggest the likely impact of paleoclimatic events, as well as past and contemporary oceanographic processes
Vinicius Silva dos Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the genetic divergence of eighteen accessions of cupuaçu trees based on fruit morphometric traits and comparing usual methods of cluster analysis with the proposed multiscale bootstrap resampling methodology. The data were obtained from an experiment conducted in Tomé-Açu city (PA, Brazil, arranged in a completely randomized design with eighteen cupuaçu accessions and 10 repetitions, from 2004 to 2011. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction (REML/BLUP methodology. The predicted breeding values were used in the study on genetic divergence through Unweighted Pair Cluster Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA hierarchical clustering and Tocher’s optimization method based on standardized Euclidean distance. Clustering consistency and optimal number of clusters in the UPGMA method were verified by the cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCC and Mojena’s criterion, respectively, besides the multiscale bootstrap resampling technique. The use of the clustering UPGMA method in situations with and without multiscale bootstrap resulted in four and five clusters, respectively, while the Tocher’s method resulted in seven clusters. The multiscale bootstrap resampling technique proves to be efficient to assess the consistency of clustering in hierarchical methods and, consequently, the optimal number of clusters.
Pech-May, Angélica; Marina, Carlos F; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Narváez-Zapata, José A; Moo-Llanes, David; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Ramsey, Janine M; Becker, Ingeborg
The low dispersal capacity of sand flies could lead to population isolation due to geographic barriers, climate variation, or to population fragmentation associated with specific local habitats due to landscape modification. The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has a wide distribution throughout Mexico and is a vector of Leishmania mexicana in the southeast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity, structure, and divergence within and among populations of Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas, and to infer the intra-specific phylogeny using the 3' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We analyzed 62 sequences from four Lu. cruciata populations and found 26 haplotypes, high genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among populations (Fst=0.416, Nm=0.701, p<0.001). The highest diversity values were recorded in populations from Loma Bonita and Guadalupe Miramar. Three lineages (100% bootstrap and 7% overall divergence) were identified using a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis which showed high genetic divergence (17.2-22.7%). A minimum spanning haplotype network also supported separation into three lineages. Genetic structure and divergence within and among Lu. cruciata populations are hence affected by geographic heterogeneity and evolutionary background. Data obtained in the present study suggest that Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas consists of at least three lineages. Such findings may have implications for vector capacity and hence for vector control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Foote, Andrew D; Newton, Jason; Piertney, Stuart B
promoting divergence. Here we use morphological traits, nitrogen stable isotope ratios and tooth wear to characterize two disparate types of North Atlantic killer whale. We find a highly specialist type, which reaches up to 8.5 m in length and a generalist type which reaches up to 6.6 m in length...
Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek
Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.
Eduardo Neves Costa
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetics divergence of bean genotypes in relation to the oviposition, feeding and development of Zabrotes subfasciatus, determining the degrees of resistance to the weevil. The genotypes used were: IAC Carioca-Tybatã, IAC Fortaleza, IAPAR 81, IAC Carioca-Eté, IAC Galante, IAC Harmonia, IAC Una, IAC Diplomata, BRS Supremo and RAZ 49. Tests were performed in laboratory under controlled humidity, temperature and photophase conditions. In free choice test, 10 g of bean genotypes seeds were distributed in circular openings placed equidistant from each other in aluminum trays, where 70 couples were released. The attractiveness was evaluated 24 hours and seven days after the experiment started, and then the number of eggs was evaluated. In non choice test, 10 g of seeds were used where seven couples of Z. subfasciatus, 24 hours-old, were released, remaining seven days, and after the adults retreat, the total number eggs, viable and unviable eggs, the number and percentage of emerged adults, weight, longevity and period from egg to adult of males and females, sex ratio, dry mass and dry mass consumed by insect were evaluated. In the genotype IAC Harmonia was observed the lower oviposition; RAZ 49 was the most non preference-type resistant for feeding and/or antibiosis-type resistant; BRS Supremo, IAC Carioca-Eté and IAPAR 81 are no preference for feeding and/or antibiosis-type moderate resistant; IAC Galante is susceptible and the other genotypes are highly susceptible to Z. subfasciatus
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world, yet we are far from understanding the geologic history and the processes driving population divergence and speciation for most endemic taxa. In species with highly differentiated populations selective and/or neutral factors can induce rapid changes to traits involved in mate choice, promoting reproductive isolation between allopatric populations that can eventually lead to speciation. We present the results of genetic differentiation, and explore drift and selection effects in promoting acoustic and morphological divergence among populations of Campylopterus curvipennis, a lekking hummingbird with an extraordinary vocal variability across Mesoamerica. Results Analyses of two mitochondrial genes and ten microsatellite loci genotyped for 160 individuals revealed the presence of three lineages with no contemporary gene flow: C. c. curvipennis, C. c. excellens, and C. c. pampa disjunctly distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Tuxtlas region and the Yucatan Peninsula, respectively. Sequence mtDNA and microsatellite data were congruent with two diversification events: an old vicariance event at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (c. 1.4 Ma, and a more recent Pleistocene split, isolating populations in the Tuxtlas region. Hummingbirds of the excellens group were larger, and those of the pampa group had shorter bills, and lineages that have been isolated the longest shared fewer syllables and differed in spectral and temporal traits of a shared syllable. Coalescent simulations showed that fixation of song types has occurred faster than expected under neutrality but the null hypothesis that morphological divergence resulted from drift was not rejected. Conclusions Our phylogeographic analyses uncovered the presence of three Mesoamerican wedge-tailed sabrewing lineages, which diverged at different time scales. These results highlight the importance of the
Simms, Tanya M; Rodriguez, Carol E; Rodriguez, Rosa; Herrera, Rene J
The West Indies represent an amalgamation of African, European and in some cases, East Asian sources, but the contributions from each ethnic group remain relatively unexplored from a genetic perspective. In the present study, we report, for the first time, allelic frequency data across the complete set of 15 autosomal STR loci for general collections from Haiti and Jamaica, which were subsequently used to examine the genetic diversity present in each island population. Our results indicate that although both Haiti and Jamaica display genetic affinities with the continental African collections, a stronger African signal is detected in Haiti than in Jamaica. Although only minimal contributions from non-African sources were observed in Haiti, Jamaica displays genetic input from both European and East Asian sources, an admixture profile similar to other New World collections of African descent analyzed in this report. The divergent genetic signatures present in these populations allude to the different migratory events of Africans, Europeans, and East Asians into the New World.
Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua
Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean, the three major ethnic groups of East Asia, share many similarities in appearance, language and culture etc., but their genetic relationships, divergence times and subsequent genetic exchanges have not been well studied. We conducted a genome-wide study and evaluated the population structure of 182 Han Chinese, 90 Japanese and 100 Korean individuals, together with the data of 630 individuals representing 8 populations wordwide. Our analyses revealed that Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations have distinct genetic makeup and can be well distinguished based on either the genome wide data or a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Their genetic structure corresponds well to their geographical distributions, indicating geographical isolation played a critical role in driving population differentiation in East Asia. The most recent common ancestor of the three populations was dated back to 3000 ~ 3600 years ago. Our analyses also revealed substantial admixture within the three populations which occurred subsequent to initial splits, and distinct gene introgression from surrounding populations, of which northern ancestral component is dominant. These estimations and findings facilitate to understanding population history and mechanism of human genetic diversity in East Asia, and have implications for both evolutionary and medical studies.
Full Text Available Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eingenmann and Eigenmann, 1889 are large migratory catfishes of high biological importance and great commercial value in South America. Because fertile crossbreeds can be artificially produced in hatcheries, a high genetic proximity between these two Pimelodidae species is conceivable. Possible escape of crossbred specimens from pisciculture stations is a serious environmental concern. Despite their importance, knowledge of P. corruscans and P. reticulatum biology, ecology, population diversity and genetics is limited. In the present work, the genetic divergence between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum populations from the Paraná River Basin was analyzed on the basis of polymorphisms in ISSR fragments and in the hypervariable sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. Estimates of intraspecific haplotype (h > 0.5 and nucleotide diversities (π < 0.01 indicate that P. corruscans and P. reticulatum have survived a historical population decline, followed by a demographic expansion. The interspecific polymorphisms within the mtDNA control region and ISSR fragments were suitable as diagnostic molecular markers and could be used to discriminate the two species. A unique Pseudoplatystoma specimen, captured in the Upper Paraná River Floodplain, was identified by these DNA diagnostic markers as a hybrid P. reticulatum x P. corruscans, which possibly escaped from pisciculture. The integrity of the natural population of P. corruscans in the Upper Paraná River is at risk of genetic introgression or homogenization due to the presence of hybrids and the transposition of P. reticulatum upstream through the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam. Data presented herein improve the understanding of the genetic relatedness between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum and represent potential tools for future programs of conservation and surveillance of genetic introgression
Wallace, I J; Botigué, L R; Lin, M; Smaers, J B; Henn, B M; Grine, F E
This study investigates the influence of genetic differentiation in determining worldwide heterogeneity in osteoporosis-related hip fracture rates. The results indicate that global variation in fracture incidence exceeds that expected on the basis of random genetic variance. Worldwide, the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures varies considerably. This variability is believed to relate mainly to non-genetic factors. It is conceivable, however, that genetic susceptibility indeed differs across populations. Here, we present the first quantitative assessment of the effects of genetic differentiation on global variability in hip fracture rates. We investigate the observed variance in publically reported age-standardized rates of hip fracture among 28 populations from around the world relative to the expected variance given the phylogenetic relatedness of these populations. The extent to which these variances are similar constitutes a "phylogenetic signal," which was measured using the K statistic. Population genetic divergence was calculated using a robust array of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. While phylogenetic signal is maximized when K > 1, a K value of only 0.103 was detected in the combined-sex fracture rate pattern across the 28 populations, indicating that fracture rates vary more than expected based on phylogenetic relationships. When fracture rates for the sexes were analyzed separately, the degree of phylogenetic signal was also found to be small (females: K = 0.102; males: K = 0.081). The lack of a strong phylogenetic signal underscores the importance of factors other than stochastic genetic diversity in shaping worldwide heterogeneity in hip fracture incidence.
Lígia Regina Lima Gouvêa
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variability and divergence among 22 superior rubber tree (Hevea sp. genotypes of the IAC 400 series. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using eight quantitative traits (descriptors, including yield. In the univariate analyses, the estimated parameters were: genetic and environmental variances; genetic and environmental coefficients of variation; and the variation index. The Mahalanobis generalized distance, the Tocher agglomerative method and canonical variables were used for the multivariate analyses. In the univariate analyses, variability was verified among the genotypes for all the variables evaluated. The Tocher method grouped the genotypes into 11 clusters of dissimilarity. The first four canonical variables explained 87.93% of the cumulative variation. The highest genetic variability was found in rubber yield-related traits, which contributed the most to the genetic divergence. The most divergent pairs of genotypes are suggested for crossbreeding. The genotypes evaluated are suitable for breeding and may be used to continue the IAC rubber tree breeding program.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a divergência e a variabilidade genética entre 22 genótipos superiores de seringueira (Hevea sp. da série IAC 400. Análises univariadas e multivariadas foram realizadas com oito caracteres quantitativos (descritores, incluindo produtividade. Na análise univariada, os parâmetros estimados foram: variâncias genética e ambiental, coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental, e índice de variação. A distância generalizada de Mahalanobis, o método aglomerativo de Tocher e variáveis canônicas foram utilizados nas análises multivariadas. Nas análises univariadas, verificou-se variabilidade entre os genótipos para todas as variáveis avaliadas. O método de Tocher agrupou os genótipos em 11 grupos de dissimilaridade. As quatro primeiras variáveis can
Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar
Little is known on the potential of ecological disturbance to cause genetic and epigenetic changes in plant populations. We take advantage of a long-term field experiment initiated in 1986 to study the demography of the shrub Lavandula latifolia , and compare genetic and epigenetic characteristics of plants in two adjacent subplots, one experimentally disturbed and one left undisturbed, 20 years after disturbance. Experimental setup was comparable to an unreplicated 'Before-After-Control-Impact' (BACI) design where a single pair of perturbed and control areas were compared. When sampled in 2005, plants in the two subplots had roughly similar ages, but they had established in contrasting environments: dense conspecific population ('Undisturbed' subpopulation) versus open area with all conspecifics removed ('Disturbed' subpopulation). Plants were characterized genetically and epigenetically using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and two classes of methylation-sensitive AFLP (MSAP) markers. Subpopulations were similar in genetic diversity but differed in epigenetic diversity and multilocus genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Epigenetic divergence between subpopulations was statistically unrelated to genetic divergence. Bayesian clustering revealed an abrupt linear boundary between subpopulations closely coincident with the arbitrary demarcation line between subplots drawn 20 years back, which supports that genetic and epigenetic divergence between subpopulations was caused by artificial disturbance. There was significant fine-scale spatial structuring of MSAP markers in both subpopulations, which in the Undisturbed one was indistinguishable from that of AFLP markers. Genetic differences between subpopulations could be explained by divergent selection alone, while the concerted action of divergent selection and disturbance-driven appearance of new methylation variants in the Disturbed subpopulation is proposed to explain epigenetic differences. This
Adriana Antonieta do Nascimento Rizzo
Full Text Available Estimou-se a divergência genética entre cinco genótipos de melão rendilhado (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus Naud. (JAB-20, JAB-21, JAB-22, JAB-23 e 'Bônus nº 2' e determinou-se qual a contribuição relativa das 16 características avaliadas [nº médio de flores masculinas, hermafroditas/planta; produção total de frutos/m², peso médio dos frutos comerciáveis; diâmetro médio transversal e longitudinal do fruto (DMTF e DMLF; diâmetro médio transversal da inserção do pedúculo (DMTP; espessura média do mesocarpo e epicarpo (EMM e EME; diâmetro médio longitudinal e transversal do lóculo (DMTL e DMLL; proporção da cavidade (PC; desprendimento de sementes (DS; teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, pH e acidez titulável (AT] na divergência gen��tica. Obtiveram-se dois grupos de similaridade: I- JAB-20, JAB-21 e 'Bônus nº2' e II- JAB-22 e JAB-23. As características DMLF, DMTP, DMLL, DS e SST foram as que mais contribuíram para a divergência genética entre os genótipos.The genetic divergence of five cultivars of muskmelon was estimated (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus Naud (JAB-20, JAB-21, JAB-22, JAB-23 and 'Bônus nº2' and the relative contribution of each 16 characteristics were determined (number of male flowers per plant; total production of fruit, weight of fruits; longitudinal and transversal diameters of fruits; thickness and color of flesh and skin; longitudinal and transversal loculos diameter of fruits; seed loosing; netting thickness; and % total solvers solids, pH and total acidity in genetic divergence. Two groups of similarity were formed between the genitors by the values of D², one of then was constituted of the JAB-20 and JAB-21 and 'Bônus nº 2' genotypes, and another of the JAB-22 and JAB-23. The characteristics of longitudinal loculos diameters, longitudinal diameter of fruits, transversal diameter of peduncle insertion, % total solvers solids and seed loosing contributed to for genetic
Full Text Available We present genetic and morphometric support for a third, distinct, and recently diverged group of Manta ray that appears resident to the Yucatán coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Individuals of the genus Manta from Isla Holbox are markedly different from the other described manta rays in their morphology, habitat preference, and genetic makeup. Herein referred to as the Yucatán Manta Ray, these individuals form two genetically distinct groups: (1 a group of mtDNA haplotypes divergent (0.78% from the currently recognized Manta birostris and M. alfredi species, and (2 a group possessing mtDNA haplotypes of M. birostris and highly similar haplotypes. The latter suggests the potential for either introgressive hybridization between Yucatán Manta Rays and M. birostris, or the retention of ancestral M. birostris signatures among Yucatán Manta Rays. Divergence of the genetically distinct Yucatán Manta Ray from M. birostris appears quite recent (<100,000 YBP following fit to an Isolation-with-Migration model, with additional support for asymmetrical gene flow from M. birostris into the Yucatán Manta Ray. Formal naming of the Yucatán Manta Ray cannot yet be assigned until an in-depth taxonomic study and further confirmation of the genetic identity of existing type specimens has been performed.
Hinojosa-Alvarez, Silvia; Walter, Ryan P; Diaz-Jaimes, Pindaro; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Paig-Tran, E Misty
We present genetic and morphometric support for a third, distinct, and recently diverged group of Manta ray that appears resident to the Yucatán coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Individuals of the genus Manta from Isla Holbox are markedly different from the other described manta rays in their morphology, habitat preference, and genetic makeup. Herein referred to as the Yucatán Manta Ray, these individuals form two genetically distinct groups: (1) a group of mtDNA haplotypes divergent (0.78%) from the currently recognized Manta birostris and M. alfredi species, and (2) a group possessing mtDNA haplotypes of M. birostris and highly similar haplotypes. The latter suggests the potential for either introgressive hybridization between Yucatán Manta Rays and M. birostris , or the retention of ancestral M. birostris signatures among Yucatán Manta Rays. Divergence of the genetically distinct Yucatán Manta Ray from M. birostris appears quite recent (birostris into the Yucatán Manta Ray. Formal naming of the Yucatán Manta Ray cannot yet be assigned until an in-depth taxonomic study and further confirmation of the genetic identity of existing type specimens has been performed.
Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane
Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.
Full Text Available Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H T = 0.82. The low levels of divergence [F ST (0.023, G ST' (0.005] and the high number of migrants (Nm -3.8 to 52.2 indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.
Luo, Y; Widmer, A; Karrenberg, S
Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and 2700 m above sea level in the Swiss Alps. Seed families were grown with and without vernalization, corresponding to winter-annual and summer-annual life histories, respectively. We analyzed putatively neutral genetic divergence between these populations using 24 simple sequence repeat markers. We measured seven traits related to growth, phenology and leaf morphology that are rarely reported in A. thaliana and performed analyses of altitudinal clines, as well as overall QST-FST comparisons and correlation analyses among pair-wise QST, FST and altitude of origin differences. Multivariate analyses suggested adaptive differentiation along altitude in the entire suite of traits, particularly when expressed in the summer-annual life history. Of the individual traits, a decrease in rosette leaf number in the vegetative state and an increase in leaf succulence with increasing altitude could be attributed to adaptive divergence. Interestingly, these patterns relate well to common within- and between-species trends of smaller plant size and thicker leaves at high altitude. Our results thus offer exciting possibilities to unravel the underlying mechanisms for these conspicuous trends using the model species A. thaliana.
Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira
Full Text Available Molecular markers have been used as tools in breading programs of sexual hybridation, allowing the genetic characterization of a large number of genotypes. The RADP markers are the most used since the employed techniques are simple and of low cost. To evaluate the genetic divergence among F1 hybrids of 'Cravo' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco and 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck, this study analyses the variability and similarity of the hybrids among themselves and with their parents. Random Amplified Polimorfic DNA marker analysis, with 102 primers, were applied to a population composed of 94 hybrids and their parents. Multivariate genetic divergence analysis of the principal components and Tocher grouping were carried out only considering the polymorphic fragments. Genetic distances were calculated by the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index. Bidimensional dispersion graphs among hybrid and parent distances and of the divergence analysis by principal components were constructed. High genetic similarity among Cravo and Pêra varieties and their hybrids was verified, showing a casual distribution from the hybrids in relation to the parents, but in intermediary positions. The principal component analysis showed little applicability in the study of hybrid genetic divergence. The hybrids and parents were classified in groups based on the genetic similarity, using the Tocher optimization method.Os marcadores moleculares têm sido utilizados como ferramentas em programas de melhoramento por hibridação sexual, permitindo a caracterização genética de grande número de genótipos. Os marcadores moleculares RAPD são os mais utilizados pois as técnicas empregadas são simples e de baixo custo. Avaliou-se a divergência genética entre híbridos F1 de tangerina 'Cravo' (Citrus reticulata Blanco com laranja 'Pêra' (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck e estudou-se a variabilidade e a similaridade desses materiais entre si e em relação aos
Donald J. Colgan
Full Text Available The hairy mussel Trichomya hirsuta (Lamarck, 1819 has disjunct known ranges in northeast Asia and Australia. There are substantial DNA sequence divergences for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA between specimens from these ranges showing that neither is likely to derive from a recent colonization. The most recent common ancestor of the observed haplotypes may have lived as long ago as the early Pliocene. It is, however, suggested here that the mussels from the two regions continue to be regarded, tentatively, as conspecific because intraspecific divergence of mitochondrial DNA sequences can be very high in Mytilidae. The present knowledge of fossil history suggests that the direction of colonization in Trichomya may have been from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere in contrast with migrations of other genera of Mytilidae.
Milana Gonçalves Ivoglo
Full Text Available Estudou-se a divergência genética de 21 progênies de meios-irmãos - 19 do grupo Congolês e duas do grupo Guineano - de introduções do germoplasma de café robusta (Coffea canephora do IAC. O estudo baseou-se em análises multivariadas de 14 características morfo-agronômicas, com o propósito de selecionar as progênies mais divergentes, visando à definição de população-base para posterior seleção e produção de híbridos. Avaliou-se também a importância das características discriminantes para análises de divergência, visando ao descarte das variáveis, segundo suas contribuições relativas. O experimento foi plantado e desenvolvido em campo experimental localizado no Pólo Regional do Nordeste Paulista, Mococa (SP, em blocos casualizados, com 21 tratamentos e 24 repetições. O agrupamento dos genótipos foi realizado com base nos métodos de Tocher e UPGMA. A matriz de dissimilaridade genética foi obtida por meio da distância generalizada de Mahalanobis, que serviu de base para a formação dos grupos. Os métodos empregados foram eficientes em detectar ampla variabilidade genética entre as progênies avaliadas. Vários grupos dissimilares foram identificados. As progênies IAC 2262, IAC 2290, IAC 2286, IAC 2292 e IAC 2291 são indicadas para compor programas de intercruzamentos, por terem sido consideradas as mais promissoras na obtenção de populações segregantes ou híbridos heteróticos. As características que menos contribuíram para a divergência genética foram, hierarquicamente: diâmetro da copa antes da poda, altura da planta antes da poda e área foliar.It was studied genetic divergence of 21 half-sib progenies, being 19 of the Congolês group and two of the Guineano group, introductions of germoplasma robust (Coffea canephora, based in 14 morpho-agronomic traits and multivariate procedures. It's aims to select the lineages most divergent for definition of population-base for posterior reciprocal
Cristina Soares de Sousa
Full Text Available Considerando a restrita diversidade de espécies disponíveis para nutrir a carência de vitaminas no Brasil, Kerr e colaboradores, desde 1981, vêm desenvolvendo pesquisas para melhoramento genético de hortaliças ricas em vitamina A. Dentre elas, obtiveram uma cultivar de alface, denominada Uberlândia 10.000 com 10.200 UI de vitamina A em 100 gramas de folha fresca. Este trabalho objetivou comparar o grau de divergência genética entre a cultivar Uberlândia 10.000 e seus parentais para avaliar a eficiência da seleção utilizada, por meio da técnica AFLP. Foram utilizados os seguintes genótipos de alface: Maioba, Salad Bowl-Mimosa, Moreninha-de-Uberlândia, Vitória de Santo Antão, Uberlândia 10.000 lisa 8.ª e 9.ª geração e Uberlândia 10.000 crespa 8.ª e 9.ª geração. A técnica AFLP foi eficiente para identificar genótipos muito próximos e para estudos de progênies em alface. O primer PR15 permitiu a separação da forma lisa e crespa com 1,8% de divergência genética e a oitava da nona geração com apenas 0,71%. Com o estudo da filogenia da cultivar pode-se observar que o programa de melhoramento foi desenvolvido com sucesso, pois a cultivar obtida Uberlândia 10.000 possui alto teor de vitamina A e 92% de similaridade com o parental Vitória de Santo Antão. O primer PR11 conseguiu identificar polimorfismo entre cultivares de alta e baixa resistência à septoriose, sugerindo a possibilidade destas bandas estarem relacionadas à resistência.Considering the restricted diversity of species available to counteract vitamin deficiencies in Brazil, Kerr and coworkers have been engaged since 1981, in developing genetic improved garden vegetables rich in vitamin A. One of these vegetables is the lettuce cultivar Uberlândia 10,000, which contains 10,200 UI of vitamin A per 100 grams of fresh leaves. This study compares the genetic diversity between Uberlândia 10,000 and its parental, evaluating selection efficiency through
Liyanage, Harshini M; Magana Arachchi, Dhammika N; Chandrasekaran, Naduviladath V
Sri Lanka has rich cyanobacterial diversity, however, only few studies have been conducted to identify the potential toxin producers in water bodies used for human consumption. As the detection of cyanotoxin is vital in water quality management, a study was done by employing 16S rRNA gene to explore the genetic divergence, phylogenetic relationships and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria in reservoirs and well waters in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Forty five, 16S rRNA gene sequences were assayed and phylogenetic tree was constructed. Among 45 isolates, 20 isolates were classified as unidentified cyanobacteria and considered as novel cyanobacterial genera. Of 25 identified isolates, seven isolates were identified up to species level. With 16S rRNA phylogeny, 20 unidentified cyanobacterial isolates were able to place on their taxonomic positions up to order level. Results revealed that water samples understudy had vast cyanobacterial diversity with potential microcystin (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) producers and eleven clusters clearly demonstrated five cyanobacterial orders with more than 90% similarity irrespective to their toxicity which showed the suitability of 16S rRNA gene for taxonomic differentiation. Sixteen isolates had the potential to produce MC and two isolates to produce CYN. Findings of the study confirm the rich cyanobacterial diversity and the divergence among the potential cyanotoxin producers in the dry zone water bodies of Sri Lanka.
Rodrigo Kelson Silva Rezende
Full Text Available No processo de produção comercial de mudas de gérbera, a cor da flor é uma das principais características morfológicas de interesse agronômico, sendo uma característica importante em programas de melhoramento genético. A utilização de marcadores moleculares pode servir para direcionar cruzamentos, confirmar novos híbridos ou genótipos mutantes e identificar novos genótipos para fins comerciais. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a divergência genética entre seis cultivares de Gerbera jamesonii ('Jaguar Yellow', 'Jaguar Cream', 'Jaguar Lemon', 'Jaguar Salmon Pastel', 'Jaguar Red', 'Jaguar Deep Rose'. A análise de divergência genética entre as cultivares de gérbera foi realizada utilizando-se 21 primers, os quais amplificaram 37 fragmentos polimórficos de DNA, que foram usados para estimar o coeficiente de Jaccard, o qual apresentou uma média de 0,38, variando de 0,28 a 0,56. A estrutura genética entre as cultivares foi estimada pelo UPGMA, revelando dois grupos distintos, a 38% de similaridade genética. A maior similaridade genética encontrada (56% foi entre as cultivares 'Jaguar Yellow' e 'Jaguar Lemon'. Os resultados demonstram que a técnica RAPD oferece uma maneira rápida, relativamente barata e útil para a caracterização da divergência genética entre as diferentes cultivares de Gerbera jamesonii com relação à cor da flor.During the commercial production of gerbera seedlings, flower color is one of the main morphological aspects that have an agronomic interest and becoming an important feature in genetic breeding programs. The use of molecular markers may serve to direct crossings, new hybrids and mutants, besides confirm and identify new genotypes for commercial purposes. In that context, this work aimed to analyze the genetic divergence among six cultivars of Gerbera jamesonii ('Jaguar Yellow', 'Jaguar Cream', 'Jaguar Lemon', 'Jaguar Salmon Pastel', 'Jaguar Red', 'Jaguar Deep Rose'. The
Lígia Regina Lima Gouvêa
Full Text Available Genetic diversity of 60 Hevea genotypes, consisting of Asiatic, Amazonian, African and IAC clones, and pertaining to the genetic breeding program of the Agronomic Institute (IAC, Brazil, was estimated. Analyses were based on phenotypic multivariate parameters and microsatellites. Five agronomic descriptors were employed in multivariate procedures, such as Standard Euclidian Distance, Tocher clustering and principal component analysis. Genetic variability among the genotypes was estimated with 68 selected polymorphic SSRs, by way of Modified Rogers Genetic Distance and UPGMA clustering. Structure software in a Bayesian approach was used in discriminating among groups. Genetic diversity was estimated through Nei's statistics. The genotypes were clustered into 12 groups according to the Tocher method, while the molecular analysis identified six groups. In the phenotypic and microsatellite analyses, the Amazonian and IAC genotypes were distributed in several groups, whereas the Asiatic were in only a few. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.96. Both high total diversity (H T' = 0.58 and high gene differentiation (Gst' = 0.61 were observed, and indicated high genetic variation among the 60 genotypes, which may be useful for breeding programs. The analyzed agronomic parameters and SSRs markers were effective in assessing genetic diversity among Hevea genotypes, besides proving to be useful for characterizing genetic variability.
Ranke, Charlotte; Champoux, Ellen M.
Describes a middle school career-oriented teaching unit with emphasis on teaching for divergent thinking. The unit provides hands-on opportunities for eighth-grade students to explore careers using the knowledge and skills developed in their home economics class. The careers are restaurant management, hospitality service, and interior design. (CT)
Full Text Available Another additional peculiarity in Leishmania will be discussed about of the amino acid divergence rate of three structural proteins: acidic ribosomal P1 and P2b proteins, and histone H3 by using multiple sequence alignment and dendrograms. These structural proteins present a high rate of divergence regarding to their homologous protein in Trypanosoma cruzi. At this regard, L. (V. peruviana P1 and T. cruzi P1 showed 57.4% of divergence rate. Likewise, L. (V. braziliensis histone H3 and acidic ribosomal P2 protein exhibited 31.8% and 41.7% respectively of rate of divergence in comparison with their homologous in T. cruzi.
Vikram E. Chhatre; Om P. Rajora
Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations...
Zenger, Kyall R; Stow, Adam J; Peddemors, Victor; Briscoe, David A; Harcourt, Robert G
Population numbers of many shark species are declining rapidly around the world. Despite the commercial and conservation significance, little is known on even the most fundamental aspects of their population biology. Data collection that relies on direct observation can be logistically challenging with sharks. Consequently, molecular methods are becoming increasingly important to obtain knowledge that is critical for conservation and management. Here we describe an amplified fragment length polymorphism method that can be applied universally to sharks to identify highly informative genome-wide polymorphisms from 12 primer pairs. We demonstrate the value of our method on 15 divergent shark species within the superorder Galeomorphii, including endangered species which are notorious for low levels of genetic diversity. Both the endangered sand tiger shark (Carcharodon taurus, N = 18) and the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, N = 7) displayed relatively high levels of allelic diversity. A total of 59 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.373) and 78 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.316) were resolved in C. taurus and C. carcharias, respectively. Results from other sharks (e.g., Orectolobus ornatus, Orectolobus sp., and Galeocerdo cuvier) produced remarkably high numbers of polymorphic loci (106, 94, and 86, respectively) from a limited sample size of only 2. A major constraint to obtaining much needed genetic data from sharks is the time-consuming process of developing molecular markers. Here we demonstrate the general utility of a technique that provides large numbers of informative loci in sharks.
Full Text Available The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e = 0.63-0.65 in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.
M. A. Malek
Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important for crop improvement. An experiment was conducted during 2011 to study genetic variability, character association, and genetic diversity among 27 soybean mutants and four mother genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the mutants and mothers for nine morphological traits. Eighteen mutants performed superiorly to their mothers in respect to seed yield and some morphological traits including yield attributes. Narrow differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV and GCV for most of the characters revealed less environmental influence on their expression. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high GCV for branch number, plant height, pod number, and seed weight can be considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement through phenotypic selection and high expected genetic gain can be achieved. Pod and seed number and maturity period appeared to be the first order traits for higher yield and priority should be given in selection due to their strong associations and high magnitudes of direct effects on yield. Cluster analysis grouped 31 genotypes into five groups at the coefficient value of 235. The mutants/genotypes from cluster I and cluster II could be used for hybridization program with the mutants of clusters IV and V in order to develop high yielding mutant-derived soybean varieties for further improvement.
Kohl, Kathryn P; Singh, Nadia D
Phenotypic plasticity is pervasive in nature. One mechanism underlying the evolution and maintenance of such plasticity is environmental heterogeneity. Indeed, theory indicates that both spatial and temporal variation in the environment should favor the evolution of phenotypic plasticity under a variety of conditions. Cyclical environmental conditions have also been shown to yield evolved increases in recombination frequency. Here, we use a panel of replicated experimental evolution populations of D. melanogaster to test whether variable environments favor enhanced plasticity in recombination rate and/or increased recombination rate in response to temperature. In contrast to expectation, we find no evidence for either enhanced plasticity in recombination or increased rates of recombination in the variable environment lines. Our data confirm a role of temperature in mediating recombination fraction in D. melanogaster, and indicate that recombination is genetically and plastically depressed under lower temperatures. Our data further suggest that the genetic architectures underlying plastic recombination and population-level variation in recombination rate are likely to be distinct. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Lefort-Buson, Marianne; Guillot-Lemoine, Brigitte; Dattée, Yvette
The paper deals with a comparison of different indicators of genetic divergence between rapeseed parental lines : the relationship coefficient defined by MALÈCOT the generalized distance D2 of Mahalanobis, and a new G2 parameter close to HANSON & CASAS' R2. The purpose of the authors is to discuss the advantages of their simultaneous use in the prediction of both heterosis values and F1 performances of hybrids from parental lines. Relationships between heterosis values and genetic distanc...
Shinwari, Z.K.; Rehman, H.; Rabbani, M.A.
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm, comprising of 116 accessions was characterized using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seed storage proteins. The germplasm was acquired from different countries of the world. Total seed proteins were separated through electrophoresis polyacrylamide gels using standard protocols. Eighteen (60%) of the protein bands detected were polymorphic, the rest being monomorphic. Eight bands (14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24 and 25) were more than 80% common in all accessions. Similarity coefficients among the accessions ranged from 0.00 to 1.00. Accessions 16327 and 26752 were the most divergent genotypes having maximum dissimilarity with all the other accessions used. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was used which is based on dissimilarity matrix. The dendrogram obtained separated all accessions into four main clusters (I, II, III and IV) and two independent individual genotypes. Four major clusters comprised of 23, 75, 8 and 8 accessions, respectively. This technique did not reveal genetic variability of significant value in safflower genotypes, hence advanced molecular and biochemical markers are recommended for further studies. This study will be helpful for the future breeding program of safflower accessions. (author)
Masembe, Charles; Muwanika, Vincent B.; Nyakaana, Silvester
Phylogeographic and population genetic studies using sequence information are frequently used to infer species boundaries and history; and to assess hybridization and population level processes. In this study, partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (423 bp) and cytochrome b sequences (666...... bp) of Oryx beisa sampled from five isolated localities in its entire current range in Africa were analyzed to investigate the extent of genetic variation and differentiation between populations. We observed high nucleotide diversity at the control region in the total sample (6.3%) but within...... populations, it varied considerably ranging from 1.6% to 8.1%. Population pairwise genetic differentiation was generally significantly high (ranging from F ST¿=¿0.15, P
Jacson Rondinelli da Silva Negreiros
Speed Germination Index (IVE were evaluated after 28 days and the seedling height and survival percentage, root length, leaf number and total dry weight of the seedlings were evaluated after 45 days. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and the means were grouped according to Scott & Knott method. Genetic diversity was studied according to Tocher's grouping method based in Mahalanobis distance (D2 and canonical variables. The traits that had contributed more for the genetic divergence were percentage of germination, leaf number and IVE. Population 20 can be recommended for crossing with the other populations due to its high divergence and high germination rates and seed vigor.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's age of genomic discovery, no attempt has been made to comprehensively sequence a gymnosperm genome. The largest genus in the coniferous family Pinaceae is Pinus, whose 110-120 species have extremely large genomes (c. 20-40 Gb, 2N = 24. The size and complexity of these genomes have prompted much speculation as to the feasibility of completing a conifer genome sequence. Conifer genomes are reputed to be highly repetitive, but there is little information available on the nature and identity of repetitive units in gymnosperms. The pines have extensive genetic resources, with approximately 329000 ESTs from eleven species and genetic maps in eight species, including a dense genetic map of the twelve linkage groups in Pinus taeda. Results We present here the Sanger sequence and annotation of ten P. taeda BAC clones and Genome Analyzer II whole genome shotgun (WGS sequences representing 7.5% of the genome. Computational annotation of ten BACs predicts three putative protein-coding genes and at least fifteen likely pseudogenes in nearly one megabase of sequence. We found three conifer-specific LTR retroelements in the BACs, and tentatively identified at least 15 others based on evidence from the distantly related angiosperms. Alignment of WGS sequences to the BACs indicates that 80% of BAC sequences have similar copies (≥ 75% nucleotide identity elsewhere in the genome, but only 23% have identical copies (99% identity. The three most common repetitive elements in the genome were identified and, when combined, represent less than 5% of the genome. Conclusions This study indicates that the majority of repeats in the P. taeda genome are 'novel' and will therefore require additional BAC or genomic sequencing for accurate characterization. The pine genome contains a very large number of diverged and probably defunct repetitive elements. This study also provides new evidence that sequencing a pine genome using a WGS approach is
Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.
Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Valérie Le Corre
Full Text Available Phelipanche ramosa is a parasitic plant that infects numerous crops worldwide. In Western Europe it recently expanded to a new host crop, oilseed rape, in which it can cause severe yield losses. We developed 13 microsatellite markers for P. ramosa using next-generation 454 sequencing data. The polymorphism at each locus was assessed in a sample of 96 individuals collected in France within 6 fields cultivated with tobacco, hemp or oilseed rape. Two loci were monomorphic. At the other 11 loci, the number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 3 to 6 and from 0.31 to 0.60, respectively. Genetic diversity within each cultivated field was very low. The host crop from which individuals were collected was the key factor structuring genetic variation. Individuals collected on oilseed rape were strongly differentiated from individuals collected on hemp or tobacco, which suggests that P. ramosa infecting oilseed rape forms a genetically diverged race. The microsatellites we developed will be useful for population genetics studies and for elucidating host-associated genetic divergence in P. ramosa.
Jennifer S. Evans
Full Text Available Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection. Existing rabies vaccines afford protection against phylogroup I viruses but offer little to no protection against phylogroup II and III viruses. As such, work involving sharps with phylogroup II and III must be considered of high risk as no PEP is thought to have any effect on the prevention of a productive infection with these lyssaviruses. Whilst rabies virus itself has been characterised in a number of different animal models, data on the remaining lyssaviruses are scarce. As the lyssavirus glycoprotein is considered to be the sole target of neutralising antibodies we generated a vaccine strain of rabies using reverse genetics expressing highly divergent glycoproteins of West Caucasian Bat lyssavirus and Ikoma lyssavirus. Using these recombinants, we propose that recombinant vaccine strain derived lyssaviruses containing heterologous glycoproteins may be a suitable surrogate for wildtype viruses when assessing vaccine protection for the lyssaviruses.
Jeffrey R Johansen
Full Text Available A highly divergent 16S rRNA gene was found in one of the five ribosomal operons present in a species complex currently circumscribed as Scytonema hyalinum (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria using clone libraries. If 16S rRNA sequence macroheterogeneity among ribosomal operons due to insertions, deletions or truncation is excluded, the sequence heterogeneity observed in S. hyalinum was the highest observed in any prokaryotic species thus far (7.3-9.0%. The secondary structure of the 16S rRNA molecules encoded by the two divergent operons was nearly identical, indicating possible functionality. The 23S rRNA gene was examined for a few strains in this complex, and it was also found to be highly divergent from the gene in Type 2 operons (8.7%, and likewise had nearly identical secondary structure between the Type 1 and Type 2 operons. Furthermore, the 16S-23S ITS showed marked differences consistent between operons among numerous strains. Both operons have promoter sequences that satisfy consensus requirements for functional prokaryotic transcription initiation. Horizontal gene transfer from another unknown heterocytous cyanobacterium is considered the most likely explanation for the origin of this molecule, but does not explain the ultimate origin of this sequence, which is very divergent from all 16S rRNA sequences found thus far in cyanobacteria. The divergent sequence is highly conserved among numerous strains of S. hyalinum, suggesting adaptive advantage and selective constraint of the divergent sequence.
Ron Santiago R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering how populations of a species differ genetically and ecologically is important for understanding evolutionary processes. Here we combine population genetic methods (microsatellites with phylogenetic information (mtDNA to define genetic population clusters of the wide-spread Neotropical túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus. We measure gene flow and migration within and between population clusters and compare genetic diversity between population clusters. By applying ecological niche modeling we determine whether the two most divergent genetic groups of the túngara frog (1 inhabit different habitats, and (2 are separated geographically by unsuitable habitat across a gap in the distribution. Results Most population structure is captured by dividing all sample localities into two allopatric genetic lineages. The Northern genetic lineage (NW Costa Rica is genetically homogenous while the Southern lineage (SW Costa Rica and Panama is sub-divided into three population clusters by both microsatellite and mtDNA analyses. Gene flow is higher within the Northern lineage than within the Southern lineage, perhaps due to increased landscape heterogeneity in the South. Niche modeling reveals differences in suitable habitat between the Northern and Southern lineages: the Northern lineage inhabits dry/pine-oak forests, while the Southern lineage is confined to tropical moist forests. Both lineages seem to have had little movement across the distribution gap, which persisted during the last glacial maximum. The lack of movement was more pronounced for the Southern lineage than for the Northern lineage. Conclusions This study confirms the finding of previous studies that túngara frogs diverged into two allopatric genetic lineages north and south of the gap in the distribution in central Costa Rica several million years ago. The allopatric distribution is attributed to unsuitable habitat and probably other unknown ecological factors
Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST = 0.073; G'ST = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.
Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji
Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST = 0.073; G'ST = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.
Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji
Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species’ evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST = 0.073; G′ST = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species’ more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study. PMID:24498039
Dennenmoser, Stefan; Vamosi, Steven M; Nolte, Arne W; Rogers, Sean M
Understanding the genomic basis of adaptive divergence in the presence of gene flow remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), an abundant euryhaline fish in northwestern North America, high genetic connectivity among brackish-water (estuarine) and freshwater (tributary) habitats of coastal rivers does not preclude the build-up of neutral genetic differentiation and emergence of different life history strategies. Because these two habitats present different osmotic niches, we predicted high genetic differentiation at known teleost candidate genes underlying salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. We applied whole-genome sequencing of pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) to explore adaptive divergence between two estuarine and two tributary habitats. Paired-end sequence reads were mapped against genomic contigs of European Cottus, and the gene content of candidate regions was explored based on comparisons with the threespine stickleback genome. Genes showing signals of repeated differentiation among brackish-water and freshwater habitats included functions such as ion transport and structural permeability in freshwater gills, which suggests that local adaptation to different osmotic niches might contribute to genomic divergence among habitats. Overall, the presence of both repeated and unique signatures of differentiation across many loci scattered throughout the genome is consistent with polygenic adaptation from standing genetic variation and locally variable selection pressures in the early stages of life history divergence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shih, Kai-Ming; Chang, Chung-Te; Chung, Jeng-Der; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hwang, Shih-Ying
Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana , disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, F ST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals) of K. davidiana var. formosana . Principal component analysis (PCA), individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana , but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE). However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana , was also examined (72 individuals). This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of population
Full Text Available Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity. A total of 13,914 SNPs were detected and used to assess genetic diversity, FST outlier detection, population genetic structure, and individual assignments of five populations (62 individuals of K. davidiana var. formosana. Principal component analysis (PCA, individual assignments, and the neighbor-joining tree were successful in differentiating individuals between northern and southern populations of K. davidiana var. formosana, but apparent gene flow between the southern DW30 population and northern populations was also revealed. Fifteen of 23 highly differentiated SNPs identified were found to be strongly associated with environmental variables, suggesting isolation-by-environment (IBE. However, multiple matrix regression with randomization analysis revealed strong IBE as well as significant isolation-by-distance. Environmental impacts on divergence were found between populations of the North and South regions and also between the two southern neighboring populations. BLASTN annotation of the sequences flanking outlier SNPs gave significant hits for three of 23 markers that might have biological relevance to mitochondrial homeostasis involved in the survival of locally adapted lineages. Species delimitation between K. davidiana var. formosana and its ancestor, K. davidiana, was also examined (72 individuals. This study has produced highly informative population genomic data for the understanding of
Drevecky, C J; Falco, R; Aguirre, W E
The genetic relationship between sympatric, morphologically divergent populations of anadromous and lake-resident three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Jim Creek drainage of Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined using microsatellite loci and mitochondrial d-loop sequence data. Resident samples differed substantially from sympatric anadromous samples in the Jim Creek drainage with the magnitude of the genetic divergence being similar to that between allopatric resident and anadromous populations in other areas. Resident samples were genetically similar within the Jim Creek drainage, as were the anadromous samples surveyed. Neighbour-joining and Structure cluster analysis grouped the samples into four genetic clusters by ecomorph (anadromous v. all resident) and geographic location of the resident samples (Jim Creek, Mat-Su and Kenai). There was no evidence of hybridization between resident and anadromous G. aculeatus in the Jim Creek drainage, which thus appear to be reproductively isolated. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Wong, Mark K L; Woodman, James D; Rowell, David M
Speciation involves divergence at genetic and phenotypic levels. Where substantial genetic differentiation exists among populations, examining variation in multiple phenotypic characters may elucidate the mechanisms by which divergence and speciation unfold. Previous work on the Australian funnel-web spider Atrax sutherlandi Gray (2010; Records of the Australian Museum 62 , 285-392; Mygalomorphae: Hexathelidae: Atracinae) has revealed a marked genetic structure along a 110-kilometer transect, with six genetically distinct, parapatric populations attributable to past glacial cycles. In the present study, we explore variation in three classes of phenotypic characters (metabolic rate, water loss, and morphological traits) within the context of this phylogeographic structuring. Variation in metabolic and water loss rates shows no detectable association with genetic structure; the little variation observed in these rates may be due to the spiders' behavioral adaptations (i.e., burrowing), which buffer the effects of climatic gradients across the landscape. However, of 17 morphological traits measured, 10 show significant variation among genetic populations, in a disjunct manner that is clearly not latitudinal. Moreover, patterns of variation observed for morphological traits serving different organismic functions (e.g., prey capture, burrowing, and locomotion) are dissimilar. In contrast, a previous study of an ecologically similar sympatric spider with little genetic structure indicated a strong latitudinal response in 10 traits over the same range. The congruence of morphological variation with deep phylogeographic structure in Tallaganda's A. sutherlandi populations, as well as the inconsistent patterns of variation across separate functional traits, suggest that the spiders are likely in early stages of speciation, with parapatric populations independently responding to local selective forces.
Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos
Full Text Available Sixty-nine Psidium accessions collected in six Brazilian states were analyzed by two non-hierarchical clusteringmethods and principal components (PC, to provide orientation for breeding programs. The variables ascorbic acid, b-carotene,lycopene, total phenols, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, titrable acidity, soluble solids, total soluble sugars, moisture content,lateral and transversal fruit diameter, fruit pulp and seed weighs, and plant fruit number and weight were analyzed. Specific groups were observed for the araçazeiros accessions, by the Tocher and the k-means methods, as well as by the three-dimensionaldispersion of the four PCs. The clustering separated accessions of araçazeiros from the guava. There was no specific grouping interms of States of origin, indicating the absence of barriers in the guava propagation accessions. Analyses suggested the collectionof a greater number of guava germplasm samples from a smaller number of regions and divergent accessions with high nutritionalcompound levels to develop new cultivars.
BiBi, M.; Khan, N.U.; Mohammad, F.; Gul, R.
Development of promising cotton populations with improved agronomic performance is primary objective of the cotton breeders. Genetic potential and variability in 8 X 8 F/sub 1/diallel hybrids versus their parental lines, traits correlation and heritability estimates were studied in Gossypium hirsutum L., during 2008-09 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant variations were observed among the parental cultivars and their F/sub 1/ hybrids for all traits. Results indicated that F/sub 1/ hybrids CIM-506 X CIM-554, CIM-473 X CIM-554, CIM-446 X CIM-554 and CIM-446 X CIM-496 (its reciprocal) produced significantly higher seed cotton yield, bolls per sympodia, boll weight and seeds per boll. Most of the F/sub 1/ populations involving CIM-554 as maternal plant also revealed early maturity. Yield related traits revealed significant positive correlations with seed cotton yield. Heritability (broad sense) was high in magnitude for all traits. Results revealed that traits with high heritability and wide range of genetic variability in breeding material can work as a base population, and their significant contribution towards high yield can help in early segregating generations. (author)
Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis populations from Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru where the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and populations from the northern Peruvian Andes, for which transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. The haplotype analyses showed higher intrapopulation genetic divergence in northern Peruvian Andes populations and less divergence in the southern Peru and Ecuador populations, suggesting that a population bottleneck occurred in the latter populations, but not in former ones. Importantly, both haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that populations from Ecuador consisted of clearly distinct clusters from southern Peru, and the two populations were separated from those of northern Peru. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.
Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.
Dominguez, Eddie; Zarnowski, Robert; Sanchez, Hiram; Covelli, Antonio S; Westler, William M; Azadi, Parastoo; Nett, Jeniel; Mitchell, Aaron P; Andes, David R
Candida biofilms resist the effects of available antifungal therapies. Prior studies with Candida albicans biofilms show that an extracellular matrix mannan-glucan complex (MGCx) contributes to antifungal sequestration, leading to drug resistance. Here we implement biochemical, pharmacological, and genetic approaches to explore a similar mechanism of resistance for the three most common clinically encountered non- albicans Candida species (NAC). Our findings reveal that each Candida species biofilm synthesizes a mannan-glucan complex and that the antifungal-protective function of this complex is conserved. Structural similarities extended primarily to the polysaccharide backbone (α-1,6-mannan and β-1,6-glucan). Surprisingly, biochemical analysis uncovered stark differences in the branching side chains of the MGCx among the species. Consistent with the structural analysis, similarities in the genetic control of MGCx production for each Candida species also appeared limited to the synthesis of the polysaccharide backbone. Each species appears to employ a unique subset of modification enzymes for MGCx synthesis, likely accounting for the observed side chain diversity. Our results argue for the conservation of matrix function among Candida spp. While biogenesis is preserved at the level of the mannan-glucan complex backbone, divergence emerges for construction of branching side chains. Thus, the MGCx backbone represents an ideal drug target for effective pan- Candida species biofilm therapy. IMPORTANCE Candida species, the most common fungal pathogens, frequently grow as a biofilm. These adherent communities tolerate extremely high concentrations of antifungal agents, due in large part, to a protective extracellular matrix. The present studies define the structural, functional, and genetic similarities and differences in the biofilm matrix from the four most common Candida species. Each species synthesizes an extracellular mannan-glucan complex (MGCx) which
Gonçalves Ceolin, Ana Cristina; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Soares Vidigal Filho, Pedro; Vinícius Kvitschal, Marcus; Gonela, Adriana; Alberto Scapim, Carlos
The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among the common bean group Carioca by the Tocher method (based on Mahalanobis distance) and graphic dispersion of canonic variables, aiming to identify populations with wide genetic variability. Eighteen genotypes were evaluated in four seasons using a randomized block design with four replications. The mean weight of 100 seeds, in three experiments, and the mean number of pods per plant, in one experiment, were the most important characteristics for the genetic divergence, representing more than 46% of the total variation in the first canonic variable. The first two canonic variables were sufficient to explain about 88.23% of the total variation observed in the average of the four environments. The results showed that CNFC 8008 and CNFC 8009 genotypes presented the best yield averages in all the experiments. While Pérola, Princesa and CNFC 8005 cultivars were the most dissimilar for morpho-agronomic traits. Therefore, the combinations of PérolaxCNFC 8008, CNFC 8005xCNFC 8009, PérolaxCNFC 8009, PrincesaxCNFC 8008 and PrincesaxCNFC 8009 were indicated for interpopulational breeding.
Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan
Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceanic islands provide unique scenarios for studying the roles of geography and ecology in driving population divergence and speciation. Assessing the relative importance of selective and neutral factors in driving population divergence is central to understanding how such divergence may lead to speciation in small oceanic islands, where opportunities for gene flow and population mixing are potentially high. Here we report a case of genetic and morphological structure in the Mascarene grey white-eye (Zosterops borbonicus a species that shows a striking, geographically structured plumage polymorphism on the topographically and ecologically complex island of Réunion, yet is monotypic on the relatively uniform neighbouring island of Mauritius. Results Analysis of 276 AFLP loci in 197 individuals revealed prolonged independent evolution of Réunion and Mauritius populations, which is congruent with previous mtDNA assessments. Furthermore, populations on Réunion showed significant differentiation into three main genetic groups separating lowland from highland areas despite the small geographic distances involved. Genetic differentiation along the altitudinal gradient is consistent with morphometric analysis of fitness-related traits. Birds in the highlands were larger, yet had relatively smaller beaks than in the lowlands, suggesting the role of selection in shaping morphology and restricting gene flow along the gradient. No genetic differentiation between plumage morphs was detected in neutral markers, suggesting that plumage differences are of recent origin. Conclusions Our results suggest a dual role of vicariance and natural selection in differentiating populations of a passerine bird in an oceanic island at very small spatial scales. We propose a combination of past microallopatry driven by volcanic activity and selection-constrained dispersal along steep ecological gradients to explain the striking levels of population
Liao, Jie; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Gerya, Taras
Exhumation of (ultra)high pressure [(U)HP] rocks by upper-plate divergent motion above an unbroken slab, first proposed in the Western Alps, has never been tested by numerical methods. We present 2D thermo-mechanical models incorporating subduction of a thinned continental margin beneath either a continental or oceanic upper plate, followed by upper-plate divergent motion away from the lower plate. Results demonstrate how divergent plate motion may trigger rapid exhumation of large volumes of (U)HP rocks directly to the Earth's surface, without the need for significant overburden removal by erosion. Model exhumation paths are fully consistent with natural examples for a wide range of upper-plate divergence rates. Exhumation rates are systematically higher than the divergent rate imposed to the upper plate, and the modeled size of exhumed (U)HP domes is invariant for different rates of upper-plate divergence. Major variations are instead predicted at depth for differing model scenarios, as larger amounts of divergent motion may allow mantle-wedge exhumation to shallow depth under the exhuming domes. The transient temperature increase, due to ascent of mantle-wedge material in the subduction channel, has a limited effect on exhumed continental (U)HP rocks already at the surface. We test two examples, the Cenozoic (U)HP terranes of the Western Alps (continental upper plate) and eastern Papua New Guinea (oceanic upper plate). The good fit between model predictions and the geologic record in these terranes encourages the application of these models globally to pre-Cenozoic (U)HP terranes where the geologic record of exhumation is only partly preserved.
Menezes, M.R.; Taniguchi, N.
enzymes. The allele frequencies of 21 loci were estimated to calculate the genetic distances (D). The average D value among the sciaenid species increased in proportion to the level of taxonomic category. Relationships estimated by genetic markers well...
Ciofi, C.; Beaumont, M. A.; Swingland, I. R.; Bruford, M. W.
In the past decade much attention has focused on the role that genetics can play in the formation of management strategies in conservation. Here, we describe genetic diversity in the world's largest lizard, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), examining the evolutionary relationships and population genetic history of the four islands in south-east Indonesia, which form the vast majority of its range. We identify distinct genetic groups for conservation. The population on the island of Kom...
da Silva, F A; Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Lopes, K V; Corrêa, C C G
Evaluating genetic diversity among genotypes is important for providing parameters for the identification of superior genotypes, because the choice of parents that form segregating populations is crucial. Our objectives were to i) evaluate agronomic performance; ii) compare clustering methods; iii) ascertain the relative contributions of the variables evaluated; and iv) identify the most promising hybrids to produce superior segregating populations. The trial was conducted in 2015 at the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We used a randomized block design with three replications, and recorded the days to emergence, days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, weight of 100 grains, and productivity. The genetic diversity of the genotypes was determined by cluster analysis using two dissimilarity measures: the Euclidean distance and the standardized mean Mahalanobis distance using the Ward hierarchical method. The genotypes 'CNFC 10762', 'IAC Dawn', and 'BRS Style' had the highest grain yields, and clusters that were based on the Euclidean distance differed from those based on the Mahalanobis distance, the second being more precise. The yield grain character has greater relevance to the dispute. Hybrids with a high heterotic effect can be obtained by crossing 'IAC Alvorada' with 'CNFC 10762', 'IAC Alvorada' with 'CNFC 10764', and 'BRS Style' with 'IAC Alvorada'.
– which we define here as a combination of impartial bureaucratic practices, corruption and the rule of law – limits, and in some cases reverses the tendency towards greater divergence linked to trade. Countries with high levels of state capacity – that is, those that have greater government effectiveness......, stronger rule of law and lower corruption – experience lower levels of divergence, as they have the mechanisms to counterbalance the strong centripetal forces linked to openness. This claim is tested on countries that have experienced relatively high levels of increases in levels of economic and political......Why do increases in globalisation in the face of European expansion lead to sharp levels of regional divergences in wealth in some countries but not in others? The central crux of this paper is that convergence/divergence trends in European states are conditioned by ‘state capacity’. State capacity...
Praveen Balabaskaran Nina
Full Text Available The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1 sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1 and F(o sectors are highly conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, it was a surprise that genes encoding the a and b subunits as well as other components of the F(o sector were undetectable in the sequenced genomes of a variety of apicomplexan parasites. While the parasitic existence of these organisms could explain the apparent incomplete nature of ATP synthase in Apicomplexa, genes for these essential components were absent even in Tetrahymena thermophila, a free-living ciliate belonging to a sister clade of Apicomplexa, which demonstrates robust oxidative phosphorylation. This observation raises the possibility that the entire clade of Alveolata may have invented novel means to operate ATP synthase complexes. To assess this remarkable possibility, we have carried out an investigation of the ATP synthase from T. thermophila. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed the ATP synthase to be present as a large complex. Structural study based on single particle electron microscopy analysis suggested the complex to be a dimer with several unique structures including an unusually large domain on the intermembrane side of the ATP synthase and novel domains flanking the c subunit rings. The two monomers were in a parallel configuration rather than the angled configuration previously observed in other organisms. Proteomic analyses of well-resolved ATP synthase complexes from 2-D BN/BN-PAGE identified orthologs of seven canonical ATP synthase subunits, and at least 13 novel proteins that constitute subunits apparently limited to the ciliate lineage. A mitochondrially encoded protein, Ymf66, with predicted eight transmembrane domains could be a
Hinojosa-Alvarez, Silvia; Walter, Ryan P.; Diaz-Jaimes, Pindaro; Galv?n-Maga?a, Felipe; Paig-Tran, E. Misty
We present genetic and morphometric support for a third, distinct, and recently diverged group of Manta ray that appears resident to the Yucatán coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Individuals of the genus Manta from Isla Holbox are markedly different from the other described manta rays in their morphology, habitat preference, and genetic makeup. Herein referred to as the Yucatán Manta Ray, these individuals form two genetically distinct groups: (1) a group of mtDNA haplotypes divergent (0....
Hansen, Michael Edberg; Pandya, P. K.; Chaochen, Zhou
the framework of duration calculus. Axioms and proof rules are given. Patterns of occurrence of divergence are classified into dense divergence, accumulative divergence and discrete divergence by appropriate axioms. Induction rules are given for reasoning about discrete divergence...
Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.
Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern
Charruau, P; Fernandes, C; Orozco-terWengel, P; Peters, J; Hunter, L; Ziaie, H; Jourabchian, A; Jowkar, H; Schaller, G; Ostrowski, S; Vercammen, P; Grange, T; Schlötterer, C; Kotze, A; Geigl, E-M; Walzer, C; Burger, P A
The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been described as a species with low levels of genetic variation. This has been suggested to be the consequence of a demographic bottleneck 10 000–12 000 years ago (ya) and also led to the assumption that only small genetic differences exist between the described subspecies. However, analysing mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites in cheetah samples from most of the historic range of the species we found relatively deep phylogeographic breaks between some of the investigated populations, and most of the methods assessed divergence time estimates predating the postulated bottleneck. Mitochondrial DNA monophyly and overall levels of genetic differentiation support the distinctiveness of Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii). Moreover, combining archaeozoological and contemporary samples, we show that Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) are unambiguously separated from African subspecies. Divergence time estimates from mitochondrial and nuclear data place the split between Asiatic and Southern African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) at 32 000–67 000 ya using an average mammalian microsatellite mutation rate and at 4700–44 000 ya employing human microsatellite mutation rates. Cheetahs are vulnerable to extinction globally and critically endangered in their Asiatic range, where the last 70–110 individuals survive only in Iran. We demonstrate that these extant Iranian cheetahs are an autochthonous monophyletic population and the last representatives of the Asiatic subspecies A. j. venaticus. We advocate that conservation strategies should consider the uncovered independent evolutionary histories of Asiatic and African cheetahs, as well as among some African subspecies. This would facilitate the dual conservation priorities of maintaining locally adapted ecotypes and genetic diversity. PMID:21214655
Reding, Dawn M; Addis, Elizabeth A; Palacios, Maria G; Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M
The insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway (IIS) has been shown to mediate life history trade-offs in mammalian model organisms, but the function of this pathway in wild and non-mammalian organisms is understudied. Populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) around Eagle Lake, California, have evolved variation in growth and maturation rates, mortality senescence rates, and annual reproductive output that partition into two ecotypes: "fast-living" and "slow-living". Thus, genes associated with the IIS network are good candidates for investigating the mechanisms underlying ecological divergence in this system. We reared neonates from each ecotype for 1.5years under two thermal treatments. We then used qPCR to compare mRNA expression levels in three tissue types (brain, liver, skeletal muscle) for four genes (igf1, igf2, igf1r, igf2r), and we used radioimmunoassay to measure plasma IGF-1 and IGF-2 protein levels. Our results show that, in contrast to most mammalian model systems, igf2 mRNA and protein levels exceed those of igf1 and suggest an important role for igf2 in postnatal growth in reptiles. Thermal rearing treatment and recent growth had greater impacts on IGF levels than genetic background (i.e., ecotype), and the two ecotypes responded similarly. This suggests that observed ecotypic differences in field measures of IGFs may more strongly reflect plastic responses in different environments than evolutionary divergence. Future analyses of additional components of the IIS pathway and sequence divergence between the ecotypes will further illuminate how environmental and genetic factors influence the endocrine system and its role in mediating life history trade-offs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giovani O da Silva
order to identify the best parental genotypes and to provide a better understanding of the available plant genetic resources. Considering this information, the objectives of this research were: (1 evaluate the sweet potato plant accessions of Embrapa Germplasm Bank based on root traits; (2 estimate the relative importance of quantitative morphoagronomic characters in the genotype discrimination; and (3 find out promising hybrid combinations for crosses. Then, 11 sweet potato clones from Embrapa Germplasm Bank were evaluated in a trial at Embrapa SPM/EN Canoinhas, Brazil. The genotypes were cultivated in field conditions on a randomized blocks experimental design with four replications; the experimental plot was composed of 10 plants. In each experimental plot the plants were harvested and 12 characteristics of the roots were evaluated. The total number and mass of roots, and the specific gravity were the characteristics with the greatest influence on the genetic divergence. Most of the evaluated genotypes were closely related considering their quantitative characteristics. However, it is possible to obtain useful gains with heterosis and the generation of superior progenies, through crosses between genotypes from the different groups; because the most contrasting genotypes '1228', '051-1' and '1270' were grouped among the best ones for various characteristics such as mass and total number of roots, marketable root mass, the first two showed a high specific weight and '1270' intense orange color, indicative of high levels of β-carotene.
Conrad, Taina; Paxton, Robert J; Assum, Günter; Ayasse, Manfred
In some insect species, females may base their choice for a suitable mate on male odor. In the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, female choice is based on a male's odor bouquet as well as its thorax vibrations, and its relatedness to the female, a putative form of optimal outbreeding. Interestingly, O. bicornis can be found as two distinct color morphs in Europe, which are thought to represent subspecies and between which we hypothesize that female discrimination may be particularly marked. Here we investigated (i) if these two colors morphs do indeed represent distinct, reproductively differentiated populations, (ii) how odor bouquets of male O. bicornis vary within and between populations, and (iii) whether variation in male odor correlates with genetic distance, which might represent a cue by which females could optimally outbreed. Using GC and GC-MS analysis of male odors and microsatellite analysis of males and females from 9 populations, we show that, in Denmark, an area of subspecies sympatry, the two color morphs at any one site do not differ, either in odor bouquet or in population genetic differentiation. Yet populations across Europe are distinct in their odor profile as well as being genetically differentiated. Odor differences do not, however, mirror genetic differentiation between populations. We hypothesize that populations from Germany, England and Denmark may be under sexual selection through female choice for local odor profiles, which are not related to color morph though which could ultimately lead to population divergence and speciation.
Full Text Available In some insect species, females may base their choice for a suitable mate on male odor. In the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, female choice is based on a male's odor bouquet as well as its thorax vibrations, and its relatedness to the female, a putative form of optimal outbreeding. Interestingly, O. bicornis can be found as two distinct color morphs in Europe, which are thought to represent subspecies and between which we hypothesize that female discrimination may be particularly marked. Here we investigated (i if these two colors morphs do indeed represent distinct, reproductively differentiated populations, (ii how odor bouquets of male O. bicornis vary within and between populations, and (iii whether variation in male odor correlates with genetic distance, which might represent a cue by which females could optimally outbreed. Using GC and GC-MS analysis of male odors and microsatellite analysis of males and females from 9 populations, we show that, in Denmark, an area of subspecies sympatry, the two color morphs at any one site do not differ, either in odor bouquet or in population genetic differentiation. Yet populations across Europe are distinct in their odor profile as well as being genetically differentiated. Odor differences do not, however, mirror genetic differentiation between populations. We hypothesize that populations from Germany, England and Denmark may be under sexual selection through female choice for local odor profiles, which are not related to color morph though which could ultimately lead to population divergence and speciation.
Koh, Yong Qin; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Vaswani, Kanchan; Almughlliq, Fatema B; Meier, Susanne; Burke, Chris R; Roche, John R; Reed, Charlotte B; Arachchige, Buddhika J; Reed, Sarah; Mitchell, Murray D
The current study evaluated exosomes isolated from plasma of heifers bred to have high or low fertility through developing extreme diversity in fertility breeding values, however, key animal traits (e.g., body weight, milk production, and percentage of North American genetics) remained similar between the 2 groups. The exosomes were isolated by a combined ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography approach and characterized by their size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis), morphology (transmission electron microscopy), and presence of exosomal markers (immunoblotting). In addition, a targeted mass spectrometry approach was used to confirm the presence of 2 exosomal markers, tumor susceptibility gene 101 and flotillin 1. The number of exosomes from plasma of high fertility heifers was greater compared with low fertility heifers. Interestingly, the exosomal proteomic profile, evaluated using mass spectrometry, identified 89 and 116 proteins in the high and low fertility heifers respectively, of which 4 and 31 were unique, respectively. These include proteins associated with specific biological processes and molecular functions of fertility. Most notably, the tetratricopeptide repeat protein 41-related, glycodelin, and kelch-like protein 8 were identified in plasma exosomes unique to the low fertility heifers. These proteins are suggested to play a role in reproduction; however, the role of these proteins in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated. Their identification underscores the potential for proteins within exosomes to provide information on the fertility status and physiological condition of the cow. This may potentially lead to the development of prognostic tools and interventions to improving dairy cow fertility. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carmen J Figueredo-Urbina
Full Text Available Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships. We studied 24 agave populations, 16 of them of Agave inaequidens, four of A. cupreata and four of A. hookeri. Population morphometric and genetics studies were performed using 39 morphological characters and 10 nuclear microsatellites, respectively. We estimated levels of morphological and genetic diversity and dissimilarity, as well as genetic structure and gene flow among populations and species. The three species were clearly differentiated by general plant size, lateral teeth, terminal spines, flowers and fruit size. The largest plants were those of A. hookeri followed by A. inaequidens and the smallest were A. cupreata. Multivariate analyses indicated greater morphological similarity between A. hookeri and cultivated A. inaequidens, while A. cupreata consistently appeared as a separate group. We identified similar levels of morphological diversity index (MDI in the three species, but higher genetic diversity in A. inaequidens (MDI = 0.401-0.435; HE = 0.704-0.733, than in A. cupreata (MDI = 0.455-0.523; HE = 0.480-0.510 and the predominantly vegetative propagated crop A. hookeri (MDI = 0.335-0.688; HE = 0.450-0.567, a pattern consistent with our expectations. The morphological and genetic similarities between cultivated A. inaequidens and A. hookeri support the hypothetical evolutionary relationships among these species, but studies with cpDNA and SNPs, and including other
Figueredo-Urbina, Carmen J; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-García, Ignacio
Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships. We studied 24 agave populations, 16 of them of Agave inaequidens, four of A. cupreata and four of A. hookeri. Population morphometric and genetics studies were performed using 39 morphological characters and 10 nuclear microsatellites, respectively. We estimated levels of morphological and genetic diversity and dissimilarity, as well as genetic structure and gene flow among populations and species. The three species were clearly differentiated by general plant size, lateral teeth, terminal spines, flowers and fruit size. The largest plants were those of A. hookeri followed by A. inaequidens and the smallest were A. cupreata. Multivariate analyses indicated greater morphological similarity between A. hookeri and cultivated A. inaequidens, while A. cupreata consistently appeared as a separate group. We identified similar levels of morphological diversity index (MDI) in the three species, but higher genetic diversity in A. inaequidens (MDI = 0.401-0.435; HE = 0.704-0.733), than in A. cupreata (MDI = 0.455-0.523; HE = 0.480-0.510) and the predominantly vegetative propagated crop A. hookeri (MDI = 0.335-0.688; HE = 0.450-0.567), a pattern consistent with our expectations. The morphological and genetic similarities between cultivated A. inaequidens and A. hookeri support the hypothetical evolutionary relationships among these species, but studies with cpDNA and SNPs, and including other member of the
Wörheide, Gert; Epp, Laura S; Macis, Luciana
An increasing number of studies demonstrate that genetic differentiation and speciation in the sea occur over much smaller spatial scales than previously appreciated given the wide distribution range of many morphologically defined coral reef invertebrate species and the presumed dispersal-enhancing qualities of ocean currents. However, knowledge about the processes that lead to population divergence and speciation is often lacking despite being essential for the understanding, conservation, and management of marine biodiversity. Sponges, a highly diverse, ecologically and economically important reef-invertebrate taxon, exhibit spatial trends in the Indo-West Pacific that are not universally reflected in other marine phyla. So far, however, processes generating those unexpected patterns are not understood. We unraveled the phylogeographic structure of the widespread Indo-Pacific coral reef sponge Leucetta chagosensis across its known geographic range using two nuclear markers: the rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1&2) and a fragment of the 28S gene, as well as the second intron of the ATP synthetase beta subunit-gene (ATPSb-iII). This enabled the detection of several deeply divergent clades congruent over both loci, one containing specimens from the Indian Ocean (Red Sea and Maldives), another one from the Philippines, and two other large and substructured NW Pacific and SW Pacific clades with an area of overlap in the Great Barrier Reef/Coral Sea. Reciprocally monophyletic populations were observed from the Philippines, Red Sea, Maldives, Japan, Samoa, and Polynesia, demonstrating long-standing isolation. Populations along the South Equatorial Current in the south-western Pacific showed isolation-by-distance effects. Overall, the results pointed towards stepping-stone dispersal with some putative long-distance exchange, consistent with expectations from low dispersal capabilities. We argue that both founder and vicariance events during the late Pliocene and
Epp Laura S
Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of studies demonstrate that genetic differentiation and speciation in the sea occur over much smaller spatial scales than previously appreciated given the wide distribution range of many morphologically defined coral reef invertebrate species and the presumed dispersal-enhancing qualities of ocean currents. However, knowledge about the processes that lead to population divergence and speciation is often lacking despite being essential for the understanding, conservation, and management of marine biodiversity. Sponges, a highly diverse, ecologically and economically important reef-invertebrate taxon, exhibit spatial trends in the Indo-West Pacific that are not universally reflected in other marine phyla. So far, however, processes generating those unexpected patterns are not understood. Results We unraveled the phylogeographic structure of the widespread Indo-Pacific coral reef sponge Leucetta chagosensis across its known geographic range using two nuclear markers: the rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1&2 and a fragment of the 28S gene, as well as the second intron of the ATP synthetase beta subunit-gene (ATPSb-iII. This enabled the detection of several deeply divergent clades congruent over both loci, one containing specimens from the Indian Ocean (Red Sea and Maldives, another one from the Philippines, and two other large and substructured NW Pacific and SW Pacific clades with an area of overlap in the Great Barrier Reef/Coral Sea. Reciprocally monophyletic populations were observed from the Philippines, Red Sea, Maldives, Japan, Samoa, and Polynesia, demonstrating long-standing isolation. Populations along the South Equatorial Current in the south-western Pacific showed isolation-by-distance effects. Overall, the results pointed towards stepping-stone dispersal with some putative long-distance exchange, consistent with expectations from low dispersal capabilities. Conclusion We argue that both
Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Hutchings, Jeffrey A.
Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution...
Vermeulen, CJ; Bijlsma, R
Artificial selection experiments often confer important information on the genetic correlations constraining the evolution of life history. After artificial selection has ceased however, selection pressures in the culture environment can change the correlation matrix again. Here, we reinvestigate
Elena A. Shubina
Full Text Available The aim of the study is a comparative investigation of changes that certain genome parts undergo during speciation. The research was focused on divergence of coding and noncoding sequences in different groups of salmonid fishes of the Salmonidae (Salmo, Parasalmo, Oncorhynchus, and Salvelinus genera and the Coregonidae families under different levels of reproductive isolation. Two basic approaches were used: (1 PCR-RAPD with a 20–22 nt primer design with subsequent cloning and sequencing of the products and (2 a modified endonuclease restriction analysis. The restriction fragments were shown with sequencing to represent satellite DNA. Effects of speciation are found in repetitive sequences. The revelation of expressed sequences in the majority of the employed anonymous loci allows for assuming the adaptive selection during allopatric speciation in isolated char forms.
Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Salvatore, Jessica E; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M
17-year-old females with twin brothers. We found divergent developmental trajectories for alcohol-specific and externalizing behavior-related genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors; in early adolescence, genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors are largely nonspecific, and later in adolescence and young adulthood, alcohol-specific genetic influences on alcohol use are more influential. Importantly, within these overall trajectories, several interesting sex differences emerged. We found that the relationship between genetic risk and problematic drinking across development is moderated by the individual's sex and his/her cotwin's sex. AUD-GR influenced adolescent alcohol outcomes in females more than in males and by age 22, EXT-GR influenced AD criteria more for males than females. In addition, the association between genetic risk and intoxication frequency was greater among 14- and 17-year-old females with male cotwins. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Mehetre, S.S.; Patil, P.A.; Mahajan, C.R.; Shinde, R.B.
The extent of coefficient of variation indicated that sterility percentage showed highest genotypic coefficients of variability (gcv) followed by grain yield/plant, plant height, spikelets/plant and tillers/plant, which proved existence of high genetic variability in induced varieties. High genetic estimates were recorded in all the characters studied. High genetic advance was observed in plant height and spikelets/panicle. Path coefficient analysis revealed that days to 50% flowering and days to maturity had largest positive direct effect on grain yield in induced varieties. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs
Zhao, Yujuan; Yin, Genshen; Pan, Yuezhi; Gong, Xun
Understanding of the processes of divergence and speciation is a major task for biodiversity researches and may offer clearer insight into mechanisms generating biological diversity. Here, we employ an integrative approach to explore genetic and ecological differentiation of Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis distributed allopatrically along the two sides of the biogeographic boundary 'Tanaka Line' in Southwest China. We addressed these questions using ten low-copy nuclear genes and nine plastid DNA regions sequenced among individuals sampled from 28 populations across their geographic ranges in China. Phylogenetic, coalescent-based population genetic analyses, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework and ecological niche models (ENMs) were conducted. We identified a closer phylogenetic relationship in maternal lineage of L. decora with N. insignis than that between L . decora and congeneric Leucomeris spectabilis . A deep divergence between the two species was observed and occurred at the boundary between later Pliocene and early Pleistocene. However, the evidence of significant chloroplast DNA gene flow was also detected between the marginal populations of L. decora and N. insignis . Niche models and statistical analyses showed significant ecological differentiation, and two nuclear loci among the ten nuclear genes may be under divergent selection. These integrative results imply that the role of climatic shift from Pliocene to Pleistocene may be the prominent factor for the divergence of L . decora and N . insignis , and population expansion after divergence may have given rise to chloroplast DNA introgression. The divergence was maintained by differential selection despite in the face of gene flow.
Crespel, Amélie; Bernatchez, Louis; Garant, Dany; Audet, Céline
Investigating the nature of physiological traits potentially related to fitness is important towards a better understanding of how species and/or populations may respond to selective pressures imposed by contrasting environments. In northern species in particular, the ability to mobilize energy reserves to compensate for the low external energy intake during winter is crucial. However, the phenotypic and genetic bases of energy reserve accumulation and mobilization have rarely been investigated, especially pertaining to variation in strategy adopted by different populations. In the present study, we documented variation in several energy reserve variables and estimated their quantitative genetic basis to test the null hypothesis of no difference in variation at those traits among three strains of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and their reciprocal hybrids. Our results indicate that the strategy of winter energy preparation and mobilization was specific to each strain, whereby (1) domestic fish accumulated a higher amount of energy reserves before winter and kept accumulating liver glycogen during winter despite lower feeding; (2) Laval fish used liver glycogen and lipids during winter and experienced a significant decrease in condition factor; (3) Rupert fish had relatively little energy reserves accumulated at the end of fall and preferentially mobilized visceral fat during winter. Significant heritability for traits related to the accumulation and use of energy reserves was found in the domestic and Laval but not in the Rupert strain. Genetic and phenotypic correlations also varied among strains, which suggested population-specific genetic architecture underlying the expression of these traits. Hybrids showed limited evidence of non-additive effects. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of a genetically based-and likely adaptive-population-specific strategy for energy mobilization related to overwinter survival.
Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar
Epigenetic variation can play a role in local adaptation; thus, there should be associations among epigenetic variation, environmental variation, and functional trait variation across populations. This study examines these relationships in the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Plants from 10 subpopulations were characterized genetically (AFLP, SSR markers), epigenetically (MSAP markers), and phenotypically (20 functional traits). Habitats were characterized using six environmental variables. Isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE) patterns of genetic and epigenetic divergence were assessed, as was the comparative explanatory value of geographical and environmental distance as predictors of epigenetic, genetic, and functional differentiation. Subpopulations were differentiated genetically, epigenetically, and phenotypically. Genetic differentiation was best explained by geographical distance, while epigenetic differentiation was best explained by environmental distance. Divergence in functional traits was correlated with environmental and epigenetic distances, but not with geographical and genetic distances. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that epigenetic IBE and functional divergence reflected responses to environmental variation. Spatial analyses simultaneously considering epigenetic, genetic, phenotypic and environmental information provide a useful tool to evaluate the role of environmental features as drivers of natural epigenetic variation between populations. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.
Full Text Available A divergência genética entre seis linhas de aves Legorne (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 e L6, desenvolvidas pela UFV, foi avaliada utilizando análise de variáveis canônicas e o método de agrupamento de Tocher. Foram incluídas no estudo oito características: peso corporal na 40ª semana (PC40, na 48ª semana (PC48, na 56ª semana (PC56; peso do ovo na 40ª semana (PO40, na 44ª semana (PO44, na 52ª semana (PO52, na 60ª semana (PO60 e taxa de postura da 40ª a 62ª semana (TP. Foi observada diferença entre as linhas quanto às características estudadas. A linha L4 mostrou-se divergente das demais, apresentando a menor média canônica, e foi alocada em grupo distinto das outras pelo teste de Tocher. O desempenho das diferentes linhas foi também avaliado por meio da análise de variância multivariada, usando o teste do maior autovalor de Roy, e por meio do teste de Roy para comparações múltiplas. Verificou-se divergência genética entre as linhas da UFV, sendo PC40 a característica que mais contribuiu para a divergência.Genetic divergence among six Leghorn lines (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 e L6, developed by Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil, was evaluated using canonical variate analysis and grouping method of Tocher. Eight traits were used: body weight at 40 weeks, at 48 weeks, at 56 weeks; egg weight at 40 weeks, at 44 weeks, at 52 weeks, at 60 weeks and laying ratio from 40 to 62 weeks of age. Significant differences were observed among lines for the studied traits. The line L4 was divergent in comparison with the other ones, showed the smallest canonical mean and was allocated in a different group. The performance of different genetic groups was also evaluated by multivariate analysis of variance, using Roy test of the largest eigenvalue and the Roy principle for multiple comparisons. Genetic divergence among UFV's lines was observed and body weight at 40 weeks was the trait that more contributed for this divergence.
Szövényi, P; Terracciano, S; Ricca, M; Giordano, S; Shaw, A J
Several lines of evidence suggest that recent long-distance dispersal may have been important in the evolution of intercontinental distribution ranges of bryophytes. However, the absolute rate of intercontinental migration and its relative role in the development of certain distribution ranges is still poorly understood. To this end, the genetic structure of intercontinental populations of six peatmoss species showing an amphi-Atlantic distribution was investigated using microsatellite markers. Methods relying on the coalescent were applied (IM and MIGRATE) to understand the evolution of this distribution pattern in peatmosses. Intercontinental populations of the six peatmoss species were weakly albeit significantly differentiated (average F(ST) = 0.104). This suggests that the North Atlantic Ocean is acting as a barrier to gene flow even in bryophytes adapted to long-range dispersal. The im analysis suggested a relatively recent split of intercontinental populations dating back to the last two glacial periods (9000-289,000 years ago). In contrast to previous hypotheses, analyses indicated that both ongoing migration and ancestral polymorphism are important in explaining the intercontinental genetic similarity of peatmoss populations, but their relative contribution varies with species. Migration rates were significantly asymmetric towards America suggesting differential extinction of genotypes on the two continents or invasion of the American continent by European lineages. These results indicate that low genetic divergence of amphi-Atlantic populations is a general pattern across numerous flowering plants and bryophytes. However, in bryophytes, ongoing intercontinental gene flow and retained shared ancestral polymorphism must both be considered to explain the genetic similarity of intercontinental populations.
Bernardo, Pauline; Golden, Michael; Akram, Mohammad; Naimuddin; Nadarajan, Nagaswamy; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Granier, Martine; Rebelo, Anthony G; Peterschmitt, Michel; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe
During a large scale "non a priori" survey in 2010 of South African plant-infecting single stranded DNA viruses, a highly divergent geminivirus genome was isolated from a wild spurge, Euphorbia caput-medusae. In addition to being infectious in E. caput-medusae, the cloned viral genome was also infectious in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. The virus, named Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus (EcmLV) due to the absence of infection symptoms displayed by its natural host, caused severe symptoms in both tomato and N. benthamiana. The genome organisation of EcmLV is unique amongst geminiviruses and it likely expresses at least two proteins without any detectable homologues within public sequence databases. Although clearly a geminivirus, EcmLV is so divergent that we propose its placement within a new genus that we have tentatively named Capulavirus. Using a set of highly divergent geminiviruses genomes, it is apparent that recombination has likely been a primary process in the genus-level diversification of geminiviruses. It is also demonstrated how this insight, taken together with phylogenetic analyses of predicted coat protein and replication associated protein (Rep) amino acid sequences indicate that the most recent common ancestor of the geminiviruses was likely a dicot-infecting virus that, like modern day mastreviruses and becurtoviruses, expressed its Rep from a spliced complementary strand transcript. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iqbal, Q.; Saleem, M.Y.; Hameed, A.; Asghar, M.
For the improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits, existence of variability has prime importance in plant breeding. Data on different morphological and reproductive traits of 47 tomato genotypes were analyzed for correlation,agglomerative hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) to select genotypes and traits for future breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between yield and yield components like fruit diameter, single fruit weight and number of fruits plant-1. Principal component (PC) analysis depicted first three PCs with Eigen-value higher than 1 contributing 81.72% of total variability for different traits. The PC-I showed positive factor loadings for all the traits except number of fruits plant-1. The contribution of single fruit weight and fruit diameter was highest in PC-1. Cluster analysis grouped all genotypes into five divergent clusters. The genotypes in cluster-II and cluster-V exhibited uniform maturity and higher yield. The D2 statistics confirmed highest distance between cluster- III and cluster-V while maximum similarity was observed in cluster-II and cluster-III. It is therefore suggested that crosses between genotypes of cluster-II and cluster-V with those of cluster-I and cluster-III may exhibit heterosis in F1 for hybrid breeding and for selection of superior genotypes in succeeding generations for cross breeding programme. (author)
Horton, Daniel L; Banyard, Ashley C; Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma; Selden, David; Nunez, Alejandro; Hicks, Daniel; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Peel, Alison J; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Rupprecht, Charles E; Fooks, Anthony R
In 2009, a novel lyssavirus (subsequently named Ikoma lyssavirus, IKOV) was detected in the brain of an African civet (Civettictis civetta) with clinical rabies in the Serengeti National Park of Tanzania. The degree of nucleotide divergence between the genome of IKOV and those of other lyssaviruses predicted antigenic distinction from, and lack of protection provided by, available rabies vaccines. In addition, the index case was considered likely to be an incidental spillover event, and therefore the true reservoir of IKOV remained to be identified. The advent of sensitive molecular techniques has led to a rapid increase in the discovery of novel viruses. Detecting viral sequence alone, however, only allows for prediction of phenotypic characteristics and not their measurement. In the present study we describe the in vitro and in vivo characterization of IKOV, demonstrating that it is (1) pathogenic by peripheral inoculation in an animal model, (2) antigenically distinct from current rabies vaccine strains and (3) poorly neutralized by sera from humans and animals immunized against rabies. In a laboratory mouse model, no protection was elicited by a licensed rabies vaccine. We also investigated the role of bats as reservoirs of IKOV. We found no evidence for infection among 483 individuals of at least 13 bat species sampled across sites in the Serengeti and Southern Kenya.
Lukoshe, Akvile; White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus N; van der Lugt, Aad; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C
Background Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms that indicate not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. However, little is known about developmental differences in brain structure in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate global brain morphology in children with PWS, including the comparison between different genetic subtypes of PWS. In addition, we performed exploratory cortical and subcortical foc...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique and America (Argentina are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (for American and African strains and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains, which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results.
Ribeiro, Maria Margarida; Piotti, Andrea; Ricardo, Alexandra; Gaspar, Daniel; Costa, Rita; Parducci, Laura; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe
Mediterranean forests are fragile ecosystems vulnerable to recent global warming and reduction of precipitation, and a long-term negative effect is expected on vegetation with increasing drought and in areas burnt by fires. We investigated the spatial distribution of genetic variation of Arbutus unedo in the western Iberia Peninsula, using plastid markers with conservation and provenance regions design purposes. This species is currently undergoing an intense domestication process in the region, and, like other species, is increasingly under the threat from climate change, habitat fragmentation and wildfires. We sampled 451 trees from 15 natural populations from different ecological conditions spanning the whole species' distribution range in the region. We applied Bayesian analysis and identified four clusters (north, centre, south, and a single-population cluster). Hierarchical AMOVA showed higher differentiation among clusters than among populations within clusters. The relatively low within-clusters differentiation can be explained by a common postglacial history of nearby populations. The genetic structure found, supported by the few available palaeobotanical records, cannot exclude the hypothesis of two independent A. unedo refugia in western Iberia Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum. Based on the results we recommend a conservation strategy by selecting populations for conservation based on their allelic richness and diversity and careful seed transfer consistent with current species' genetic structure.
Maria Margarida Ribeiro
Full Text Available Mediterranean forests are fragile ecosystems vulnerable to recent global warming and reduction of precipitation, and a long-term negative effect is expected on vegetation with increasing drought and in areas burnt by fires. We investigated the spatial distribution of genetic variation of Arbutus unedo in the western Iberia Peninsula, using plastid markers with conservation and provenance regions design purposes. This species is currently undergoing an intense domestication process in the region, and, like other species, is increasingly under the threat from climate change, habitat fragmentation and wildfires. We sampled 451 trees from 15 natural populations from different ecological conditions spanning the whole species' distribution range in the region. We applied Bayesian analysis and identified four clusters (north, centre, south, and a single-population cluster. Hierarchical AMOVA showed higher differentiation among clusters than among populations within clusters. The relatively low within-clusters differentiation can be explained by a common postglacial history of nearby populations. The genetic structure found, supported by the few available palaeobotanical records, cannot exclude the hypothesis of two independent A. unedo refugia in western Iberia Peninsula during the Last Glacial Maximum. Based on the results we recommend a conservation strategy by selecting populations for conservation based on their allelic richness and diversity and careful seed transfer consistent with current species' genetic structure.
Chhatre, Vikram E.; Rajora, Om P.
Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (N e) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and N e than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and N e between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance. PMID:24859159
Chhatre, Vikram E; Rajora, Om P
Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and Ne than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and Ne between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance.
Pedersen, Susanne Holst; Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Bertelsen, Mia Smedegaard
Background: Distinct hybrid zones and phenotypic and genomic divergence is often observed between marine and freshwater threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Nevertheless, cases also exist where marinefreshwater divergence is diffuse despite seemingly similar environmental settings...
Lu, Wei; Wise, Michael J; Tay, Chin Yen; Windsor, Helen M; Marshall, Barry J; Peacock, Christopher; Perkins, Tim
Isolates of Helicobacter pylori can be classified phylogeographically. High genetic diversity and rapid microevolution are a hallmark of H. pylori genomes, a phenomenon that is proposed to play a functional role in persistence and colonization of diverse human populations. To provide further genomic evidence in the lineage of H. pylori and to further characterize diverse strains of this pathogen in different human populations, we report the finished genome sequence of Sahul64, an H. pylori strain isolated from an indigenous Australian. Our analysis identified genes that were highly divergent compared to the 38 publically available genomes, which include genes involved in the biosynthesis and modification of lipopolysaccharide, putative prophage genes, restriction modification components, and hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the virulence-associated vacA locus is a pseudogene and the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is not present. However, the genome does contain a gene cluster associated with pathogenicity, including dupA. Our analysis found that with the addition of Sahul64 to the 38 genomes, the core genome content of H. pylori is reduced by approximately 14% (∼170 genes) and the pan-genome has expanded from 2,070 to 2,238 genes. We have identified three putative horizontally acquired regions, including one that is likely to have been acquired from the closely related Helicobacter cetorum prior to speciation. Our results suggest that Sahul64, with the absence of cagPAI, highly divergent cell envelope proteins, and a predicted nontransportable VacA protein, could be more highly adapted to ancient indigenous Australian people but with lower virulence potential compared to other sequenced and cagPAI-positive H. pylori strains.
Gregorová, Soňa; Divina, Petr; Storchová, Radka; Trachtulec, Zdeněk; Fotopulosová, Vladana; Svenson, K.L.; Donahue, K.L.; Paigen, B.; Forejt, Jiří
Roč. 18, č. 3 (2008), s. 509-515 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1264 Grant - others:HHMI(US) HHMI55000306; NIH(US) 1R01HG00318; EC(XE) AnEUploidy 037627 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : complex trait loci (QTLs) * chromosome substitution strains * PWD/Ph Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.176, year: 2008
Kulish, Yu.V.; Rybachuk, E.V.
The problem of the elimination of the power divergences for the interactions of the high-spin bosons (J ≥ 1) is investigated. It is proved that in the consistent theory the high-spin boson interaction currents and the field tensors must obey similar requirements. Therefore the momentum dependencies of the propagators for all the bosons are the same. The partial differential equations derived for some components include the derivatives of order 2J for the currents. Therefore the current components for the spin-J boson must decrease with the momentum Kombi scalar p v Kombi scalar → ∞ at least as Kombi scalar p v Kombi scalar -2J
Rosana de Cássia Oliveira
Full Text Available One of the commonest neotropical stingless bees is Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, popularly known in Portuguese as jataí, which occurs in variable nesting sites from Mexico to Argentina. We used 18 primers to generate 218 RAPD markers which we used to determined the genetic distance between T. angustula populations from 25 localities in three different Latin America countries, using Tetragonisca weyrauchi from the Brazilian state of Acre and the common honey bee (Apis mellifera as outgroups. Genetic distance, calculated as the Percentage of Dissimilarity (14%, based on all markers divided the T. angustula population into eastern (group 1 and western (group 2 groups. However, we were able to separate the two groups by using only two primers that have generated five specific molecular markers. The eastern group consists of T. angustula angustula which occurs from Panama to the Brazilian states of Maranhão and northern Minas Gerais and has spread through the Brazilian Atlantic Forest as far as the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Group 2 is made up of T. angustula fiebrigi which has a more southerly and western distribution, occurring only in the western Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul as well as the west of some other Brazilian states (Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina and northeastern Argentina.
Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Diederichsen, Axel; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie
Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been assessed in flax because genomic resources have only recently been developed. We characterized 407 globally distributed flax accessions using 448 microsatellite markers. The data was analyzed to assess the suitability of this core collection for AM. Genomic scans to identify candidate genes selected during the divergent breeding process of fiber flax and linseed were conducted using the whole genome shotgun sequence of flax. Combined genetic structure analysis assigned all accessions to two major groups with six sub-groups. Population differentiation was weak between the major groups (F(ST) = 0.094) and for most of the pairwise comparisons among sub-groups. The molecular coancestry analysis indicated weak relatedness (mean = 0.287) for most individual pairs. Abundant genetic diversity was observed in the total panel (5.32 alleles per locus), and some sub-groups showed a high proportion of private alleles. The average genome-wide LD (r²) was 0.036, with a relatively fast decay of 1.5 cM. Genomic scans between fiber flax and linseed identified candidate genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis/modification, xylem identity and fatty acid biosynthesis congruent with genes previously identified in flax and other plant species. Based on the abundant genetic diversity, weak population structure and relatedness and relatively fast LD decay, we concluded that this core collection is suitable for AM studies targeting multiple agronomic and quality traits aiming at the improvement of flax as a
Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran
Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...
Finnerty, J R; Block, B A
We were able to differentiate between species of billfish (Istiophoridae family) and to detect considerable intraspecific variation in the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) by directly sequencing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, 612-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Thirteen variable nucleotide sites separated blue marlin (n = 26) into 7 genotypes. On average, these genotypes differed by 5.7 base substitutions. A smaller sample of swordfish from an equally broad geographic distribution displayed relatively little intraspecific variation, with an average of 1.3 substitutions separating different genotypes. A cladistic analysis of blue marlin cytochrome b variants indicates two major divergent evolutionary lines within the species. The frequencies of these two major evolutionary lines differ significantly between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins. This finding is important given that the Atlantic stocks of blue marlin are considered endangered. Migration from the Pacific can help replenish the numbers of blue marlin in the Atlantic, but the loss of certain mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the Atlantic due to overfishing probably could not be remedied by an influx of Pacific fish because of their absence in the Pacific population. Fishery management strategies should attempt to preserve the genetic diversity within the species. The detection of DNA sequence polymorphism indicates the utility of PCR technology in pelagic fishery genetics.
Toia, Alyssa R; Cuoco, Joshua A; Esposito, Anthony W; Ahsan, Jawad; Joshi, Alok; Herron, Bruce J; Torres, German; Bolivar, Valerie J; Ramos, Raddy L
Cortical function emerges from the intrinsic properties of neocortical neurons and their synaptic connections within and across lamina. Neurodevelopmental disorders affecting migration and lamination of the neocortex result in cognitive delay/disability and epilepsy. Molecular layer heterotopia (MLH), a dysplasia characterized by over-migration of neurons into layer I, are associated with cognitive deficits and neuronal hyperexcitability in humans and mice. The breadth of different inbred mouse strains that exhibit MLH and inheritance patterns of heterotopia remain unknown. A neuroanatomical survey of numerous different inbred mouse strains, 2 first filial generation (F1) hybrids, and one consomic strain (C57BL/6J-Chr 1 A/J /NaJ) revealed MLH only in C57BL/6 mice and the consomic strain. Heterotopia were observed in numerous genetically-engineered mouse lines on a congenic C57BL/6 background. These data indicate that heterotopia formation is a weakly penetrant trait requiring homozygosity of one or more C57BL/6 alleles outside of chromosome 1. These data are relevant toward understanding neocortical development and disorders affecting neocortical lamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md. Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S.; Sinha, Saurabh
Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like “long germband” development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250–350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as “training data” to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary
Rosa Lía Barbieri
Full Text Available Bulbos de 16 acessos do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Cebola (Allium cepa da Embrapa Clima Temperado foram avaliados quanto a peso, diâmetro, altura, coloração das túnicas externas, formato, uniformidade e conservação pós-colheita nas condições ambientais de Pelotas - RS, com o objetivo de estimar a divergência genética entre populações de cebola. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a análises de agrupamento e de componentes principais. Foi evidenciada a presença de variabilidade genética para os caracteres considerados. Os acessos foram divididos em três grupos: o primeiro reuniu 13 acessos incluindo todas as variedades locais e as variedades comerciais com bulbos de coloração marrom; o segundo formado por uma variedade local de bulbos roxos; e o terceiro grupo reunindo as duas variedades comerciais de bulbos brancos. Os caracteres que mais contribuíram para a divergência entre os acessos foram a cor, o peso e a conservação pós-colheita.Bulbs of 16 acessions from Onion Gene Bank of Embrapa Clima Temperado were evaluated for weight, diameter, length, skin color, shape, uniformity, and post harvest conservation in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic divergence in onion populations. The obtained data were submitted to principal component and cluster analysis. There was genetic variability for evaluated traits. Acessions were separated in three clusters. One cluster had 13 populations including all landraces and cultivars with brown skin color; the second cluster had the landrace with violet bulbs; and the third cluster had the two cultivars with white bulbs. Skin color, weight and post harvest of bulbs showed the highest contribution to divergence among acessions.
Akbar, F.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Khan, S.J.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world's oldest oil crops and has been cultivated in Asia since ancient times. The breeding potential of the germplasm accessions held in PGRP gene-bank has hardly been exploited to date. This study was carried out to evaluate the phenotypic variability in the local sesame genotypes using 16 qualitative and quantitative traits. A total of 105 sesame accessions collected from diverse ecologies of Pakistan were used. A considerable level of variation was recorded for a number of morphologic and agronomic traits, while limited diversity for observed among the accessions for characters like stem hairiness, flower color (white with purple shading), seed color and to some extent phyllody disease. The correlation coefficient analysis indicated that plant height, capsules plant/sup -1/, capsule length and 1000-seed weight had the significant positive effect on seed yield. The characters related to maturity, days to flower initiation an d days to 50% flowering showed negative correlation with seed yield. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to establish similarity and dissimilarity patterns. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that first three PC axes explained 54.21% of the total multivariate variation, while the first four PC axes explaining 63.64%. Plant height, days to maturity, capsules plant/sup -1/ and seed yield plant/sup -1/ were the major determinants of the genetic diversity in the collection. Cluster analysis places all the accessions into seven groups. Clustering was not associated with the geographical distribution instead accessions were mainly grouped due to their morphological differences. Elite sesame germplasm has been selected on the basis of best agro-morphological performance from 105 sesame collections. These results have an important suggestion for sesame germplasm agro-morphological assessment, enhancement, categorization and conservation in Pakistan. (author)
Morinha, Francisco; Dávila, José A; Bastos, Estela; Cabral, João A; Frías, Óscar; González, José L; Travassos, Paulo; Carvalho, Diogo; Milá, Borja; Blanco, Guillermo
Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographical or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units. Monitoring of marked individuals over 30 years revealed that long-distance movements over hundreds of kilometres are common, yet recruitment into breeding populations is infrequent and highly philopatric. Genetic differentiation is weakly related to geographical distance, and habitat types used are overall qualitatively similar among regions and regularly shared by individuals of different populations, so that genetic structure is unlikely to be due solely to isolation by distance or isolation by adaptation. Moreover, most population nuclei showed relatively high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a limited role for genetic drift in significantly differentiating populations. We propose that social mechanisms may underlie this unprecedented level of genetic structure in birds through a pattern of isolation by social barriers not yet described, which may have driven this remarkable population divergence in the absence of geographical and environmental barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Divergência genética em tomate estimada por marcadores RAPD em comparação com descritores multicategóricos Genetic divergence among tomato accessions using RAPD markers and its comparison with multicategoric descriptors
Leandro SA Gonçalves
Full Text Available A estimativa da variabilidade genética existente em um banco de germoplasma é importante não só para a conservação dos recursos genéticos, mas também para aplicações no melhoramento de plantas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a divergência genética entre 78 acessos de uma coleção de germoplasma de tomateiro, com base em 74 marcadores RAPD e correlacionar esses resultados àqueles da caracterização morfoagronômica realizada para 27 descritores. Foi utilizado o agrupamento hierárquico UPGMA para analisar os dados, observando-se a formação de 13 grupos. Esses grupos foram correlacionados a cinco descritores (hábito de crescimento, tipo de folha, cor do fruto, número de lóculos e formato do fruto. Alguns grupos apresentaram peculiaridades, a exemplo do grupo IV, que reuniu acessos com frutos no formato de pêra; o grupo VII com acessos resistentes a murcha-bacteriana e o grupo IX, que englobou acessos com folhas do tipo batata. As análises por bootstrap revelaram poucos agrupamentos consistentes. Houve correlação positiva e altamente significativa entre as matrizes geradas pelos 27 descritores qualitativos e pelos marcadores RAPD (t = 14,02. A correlação de Mantel (r = 0,39 foi altamente significativa, porém de baixa magnitude. O baixo valor verificado para esta correlação sugere que ambas as etapas de caracterização (morfoagronômica e molecular são importantes para um conhecimento mais amplo e melhor discriminação entre os acessos de tomate.The estimation of genetic variability in a germplasm bank is important not only for the conservation of the genetic resources, but also for applications in plant breeding. The genetic divergence among 78 tomato accessions was studied, based on 74 RAPD markers. Also, a correlation between the molecular profile and 27 morphological and agronomic data was performed. Cluster analysis (UPGMA, used to study the data, resulted in 13 groups that were correlated with
Borot de Battisti, M.; Maenhout, M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Hautvast, G.; Binnekamp, D.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; van Vulpen, M.; Moerland, M. A.
Focal high-dose-rate (HDR) for prostate cancer has gained increasing interest as an alternative to whole gland therapy as it may contribute to the reduction of treatment related toxicity. For focal treatment, optimal needle guidance and placement is warranted. This can be achieved under MR guidance. However, MR-guided needle placement is currently not possible due to space restrictions in the closed MR bore. To overcome this problem, a MR-compatible, single-divergent needle-implant robotic device is under development at the University Medical Centre, Utrecht: placed between the legs of the patient inside the MR bore, this robot will tap the needle in a divergent pattern from a single rotation point into the tissue. This rotation point is just beneath the perineal skin to have access to the focal prostate tumor lesion. Currently, there is no treatment planning system commercially available which allows optimization of the dose distribution with such needle arrangement. The aim of this work is to develop an automatic inverse dose planning optimization tool for focal HDR prostate brachytherapy with needle insertions in a divergent configuration. A complete optimizer workflow is proposed which includes the determination of (1) the position of the center of rotation, (2) the needle angulations and (3) the dwell times. Unlike most currently used optimizers, no prior selection or adjustment of input parameters such as minimum or maximum dose or weight coefficients for treatment region and organs at risk is required. To test this optimizer, a planning study was performed on ten patients (treatment volumes ranged from 8.5 cm3to 23.3 cm3) by using 2-14 needle insertions. The total computation time of the optimizer workflow was below 20 min and a clinically acceptable plan was reached on average using only four needle insertions.
Jaros, Ursula; Tribsch, Andreas; Comes, Hans Peter
Disentangling the relative roles of past fragmentation (vicariance), colonization (dispersal) and post-divergence gene flow in the genetic divergence of continental island organisms remains a formidable challenge. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to (1) gain further insights into the biogeographical processes underlying the Pleistocene diversification of the Aegean Nigella arvensis complex; (2) evaluate the role of potential key factors driving patterns of population genetic variability (mating system, geographical isolation and historical contingencies); and (3) test the robustness of conclusions previously drawn from chloroplast (cp) DNA. Genetic diversity was analysed for 235 AFLP markers from 48 populations (497 individuals) representing 11 taxa of the complex using population genetic methods and Bayesian assignment tests. Most designated taxa are identifiable as genetically distinct units. Both fragmentation and dispersal-driven diversification processes occurred at different geological time scales, from Early to Late Pleistocene, specifically (1) sea barrier-induced vicariant speciation in the Cyclades, the Western Cretan Strait and Ikaria; and (2) bi-regional colonizations of the 'Southern Aegean Island Arc' from the Western vs. Eastern Aegean mainland, followed by allopatric divergences in Crete vs. Rhodos and Karpathos/Kasos. Outcrossing island taxa experienced drift-related demographic processes that are magnified in the two insular selfing species. Population genetic differentiation on the mainland seems largely driven by dispersal limitation, while in the Central Aegean it may still be influenced by historical events (island fragmentation and sporadic long-distance colonization). The biogeographical history of Aegean Nigella is more complex than expected for a strictly allopatric vicariant model of divergence. Nonetheless, the major phylogeographical boundaries of this radiation are largely congruent with the geography and
Erika Sendra Tavares
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards lower latitudes the number of recognized species is not only higher, but also phylogeographic subdivision within species is more pronounced. Moreover, new genetically isolated populations are often described in recent phylogenies of Neotropical birds suggesting that the number of species in the region is underestimated. Previous COI barcoding of Argentinean bird species showed more complex patterns of regional divergence in the Neotropical than in the North American avifauna. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we analyzed 1,431 samples from 561 different species to extend the Neotropical bird barcode survey to lower latitudes, and detected even higher geographic structure within species than reported previously. About 93% (520 of the species were identified correctly from their DNA barcodes. The remaining 41 species were not monophyletic in their COI sequences because they shared barcode sequences with closely related species (N = 21 or contained very divergent clusters suggestive of putative new species embedded within the gene tree (N = 20. Deep intraspecific divergences overlapping with among-species differences were detected in 48 species, often with samples from large geographic areas and several including multiple subspecies. This strong population genetic structure often coincided with breaks between different ecoregions or areas of endemism. CONCLUSIONS: The taxonomic uncertainty associated with the high incidence of non-monophyletic species and discovery of putative species obscures studies of historical patterns of species diversification in the Neotropical region. We showed that COI barcodes are a valuable tool to indicate which taxa would benefit from more extensive taxonomic revisions with multilocus approaches. Moreover, our results support hypotheses that the megadiversity of birds in the region is associated with multiple geographic processes starting well before the Quaternary and extending to more recent
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a divergência genética de três linhagens de matrizes de corte do Programa de Melhoramento Genético da UFV. Foram avaliados dados de 270 aves, 90 de cada linhagem, para estudo das características dias para o primeiro ovo (DPPO, taxa de postura da 22ª à 56ª semana (TP, peso médio individual na 32ª (PMI1, 40ª (PMI2, 48ª (PMI3, 56ª (PMI4 e 64ª semanas de idade (PMI5; e peso médio do ovo, obtido pela média da pesagem de três ovos na 32ª (PMO1, 40ª (PMO2, 48ª (PMO3, 56ª (PMO4 e 64ª semanas de idade (PMO5. Para avaliar a divergência, foram utilizados dois métodos: hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e otimização de Tocher. Pelo método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, utilizando-se a distância de Mahalanobis ao quadrado (D² como medida de dissimilaridade, formou-se um único grupo. Pelo método de otimização de Tocher, foram formados dois grupos, comprovando que os dois métodos foram discordantes na avaliação da divergência genética de linhas de aves de corte. As características que apresentaram as contribuições relativas mais expressivas para a divergência foram, respectivamente, PMO1 (25,71%, DDPO (21,76%, PMI4 (17,65% e PMI2 (13,04%.Genetic divergence among three lineages of meat-type hens from the Genetic Breeding Program of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa was evaluated for the following traits: days at first egg (DPPO, egg production rate (TP from 22nd to 56th week, body weight on the 32nd (PMI1, on 40th (PMI2, at 48th (PMI3, at 56th (PMI4 and at the 64th week (PMI5, egg weight on the 32nd (PMO1, on 40th (PMO2, at 48th (PMO3, at 56th (PMO4 and at the 64th week (PMO5. Traits were measured on 270 hens (90 of each lineage and two different methods were used to evaluate genetic divergence. For the single linkage hierarchical method, using the squared Mahalanobis distance (D² as the dissimilarity measure, only one single group was formed. When
Flávia B. Abreu
ão-de-vagem.The search for snap bean cultivars presenting better production and quality is of crucial relevance due to the agricultural importance of this crop in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The determination of genetic divergence by multivariate analysis, through which several characters can be simultaneously dimensioned, is a rather advantageous technique since it allows to identify sources of variability, to evaluate the importance of characters for genetic divergence, and to identify genetic combinations with greater chances of success before crossings are performed. Multivariate analysis techniques allowed us to verify that common bean accessions presenting undetermined growth habits, originated from the UENF germplasm bank, show variability in relation to the evaluated traits. The Tocher optimization method allowed the formation of two groups; however, sub grouping by the same method has confirmed the occurrence of variability among group 1 accessions, from the formation of six subgroups. No relationship between genetic diversity and geographic origin of the accesses was found by using this method. The genetic divergence observed among the common bean accesses was quantified by three canonic variables, which explained around 79% of the total available variation. Discarding the variables of lower relative importance allowed us to identify the traits that have truly contributed to the determination of the genetic divergence: 100-seed weight, days for flowering, pod diameter, pod length, total number of beans and average number of beans. Accesses UENF-1429, UENF-1432, UENF-1442, UENF-1445 and UENF-1448 showed a good performance for the evaluated traits and genetic divergence, being indicated for use in breeding programs of snap beans.
Zhang, F; Ge, Y Y; Wang, W Y; Shen, X L; Yu, X Y
Conventional hybridization and selection techniques have aided the development of new ornamental crop cultivars. However, little information is available on the genetic divergence of bromeliad hybrids. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The morphological analysis showed that the putative hybrids were intermediate between both parental species with respect to inflorescence characteristics. The 16 SRAP primer combinations yield 265 bands, among which 154 (57.72%) were polymorphic. The genetic similarity was an average of 0.59 and ranged from 0.21 to 0.87, indicating moderate genetic divergence among the hybrids. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based cluster analysis distinguished the hybrids from their parents with a genetic distance coefficient of 0.54. The cophenetic correlation was 0.93, indicating a good fit between the dendrogram and the original distance matrix. The two-dimensional plot from the principal coordinate analysis showed that the hybrids were intermediately dispersed between both parents, corresponding to the results of the UPGMA cluster and the morphological analysis. These results suggest that SRAP markers could help to identify breeders, characterize F(1) hybrids of bromeliads at an early stage, and expedite genetic improvement of bromeliad cultivars.
Full Text Available Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation. However, attention has largely focused on young postglacial species pairs, with little knowledge of the genomic signatures of divergence and introgression in older stickleback systems. The Japanese stickleback species pair, composed of the Pacific Ocean three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and the Japan Sea stickleback (G. nipponicus, which co-occur in the Japanese islands, is at a late stage of speciation. Divergence likely started well before the end of the last glacial period and crosses between Japan Sea females and Pacific Ocean males result in hybrid male sterility. Here we use coalescent analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation to show that the two species split approximately 0.68-1 million years ago but that they have continued to exchange genes at a low rate throughout divergence. Population genomic data revealed that, despite gene flow, a high level of genomic differentiation is maintained across the majority of the genome. However, we identified multiple, small regions of introgression, occurring mainly in areas of low recombination rate. Our results demonstrate that a high level of genome-wide divergence can establish in the face of persistent introgression and that gene flow can be localized to small genomic regions at the later stages of speciation with gene flow.
Ravinet, Mark; Yoshida, Kohta; Shigenobu, Shuji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kitano, Jun
Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation. However, attention has largely focused on young postglacial species pairs, with little knowledge of the genomic signatures of divergence and introgression in older stickleback systems. The Japanese stickleback species pair, composed of the Pacific Ocean three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the Japan Sea stickleback (G. nipponicus), which co-occur in the Japanese islands, is at a late stage of speciation. Divergence likely started well before the end of the last glacial period and crosses between Japan Sea females and Pacific Ocean males result in hybrid male sterility. Here we use coalescent analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation to show that the two species split approximately 0.68-1 million years ago but that they have continued to exchange genes at a low rate throughout divergence. Population genomic data revealed that, despite gene flow, a high level of genomic differentiation is maintained across the majority of the genome. However, we identified multiple, small regions of introgression, occurring mainly in areas of low recombination rate. Our results demonstrate that a high level of genome-wide divergence can establish in the face of persistent introgression and that gene flow can be localized to small genomic regions at the later stages of speciation with gene flow.
Mauro Nóbrega da Costa
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a divergência genética entre acessos e cultivares de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. e utilizá-la como critério na escolha de genitores que viabilizem, a partir de hibridações, a formação de populações segregantes. Os tratamentos foram representados pelos acessos BRA 4871, BRA 2968, BRA 5550 e BRA 7722 Papo-de-gia, e as cultivares BRS 188 Paraguaçu, BRS 149 Nordestina, IAC-80, Mirante-10 e Pernambucana Melhorada. As características analisadas foram: início do florescimento (FR, número de racemos por planta (NRP, comprimento efetivo do racemo primário (CR, altura de planta (AP, potencial produtivo (PP e teor de óleo nas sementes (TO. A divergência genética foi estimada por meio de estatística multivariada, com base em variáveis canônicas e análise de agrupamento, tendo-se empregado a distância euclidiana média. Houve a formação de dois grupos: o grupo I formado por oito genótipos e o grupo II por apenas um genótipo, a cultivar Mirante-10. Apesar de a cultivar Mirante-10 ter sido a mais divergente, não deve ser recomendada para hibridação, por sua baixa média de desempenho. As demais cultivares também apresentam restrições para hibridação, por serem bastante similares. As variáveis que mais contribuíram para a divergência genética foram FR, AP, TO e CR.This work aimed to evaluate genetic divergence among castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivars, in order to enable the choice of parents which make the formation of segregating populations possible. Accesses BRA 4871, BRA 2968, BRA 5550 and BRA 7722 Papo-de-gia, and cultivars BRS 188 Paraguaçu, BRS 149 Nordestina, IAC-80, Mirante-10 and Pernambucana Melhorada were evaluated. Characteristics analyzed were: days to flowering, number of racemes per plant, length of pistillate region of main raceme, plant height, potential yield, and seed oil content. The genetic divergence among accesses and cultivars was studied by
Kazemian, Majid; Suryamohan, Kushal; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S; Sinha, Saurabh
Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like "long germband" development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250-350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as "training data" to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary history of gene
Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de híbridos simples de milho (Zea mays L., obtidos de cruzamentos dialélicos entre linhagens divergentes, estimar a capacidade de combinação das linhagens e verificar se a divergência genética entre as linhagens, obtida por marcadores moleculares, é correlacionada com a heterose dos híbridos simples no campo. Trinta e seis híbridos resultantes de um dialelo parcial foram avaliados em Campinas e em Mococa e as 12 linhagens parentais somente em Campinas, a fim de se calcular a heterose dos híbridos. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e 2 testemunhas comerciais. Avaliaram-se os caracteres: altura da planta (AP, altura da espiga (AE e massa de grãos (MG. Análises de variância foram efetuadas, sendo as médias comparadas entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. A capacidade de combinação das linhagens foi obtida de acordo com o método de Geraldi e Miranda Filho. Estimaram-se as correlações entre heterose, produtividade e capacidade específica de combinação com divergência genética obtida por AFLP e SSR. Destacou-se o híbrido PM624 x IP398, e as linhagens VER266 e L105 revelaram efeitos positivos da capacidade de combinação para produtividade. As estimativas de heterose variaram de -559 a 6.320 kg ha-1. Não houve correlação entre heterose, capacidade específica de combinação e produtividade dos híbridos com a distância genética por AFLP e SSR, indicando que não é possível fazer inferências sobre o comportamento dos híbridos de milho a partir da divergência genética entre as linhagens parentais.The objectives of this research were to evaluate single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L. obtained from partial diallel crosses among contrasting inbred lines, to estimate the combining ability of the lines and to verify whether the genetic diversity among those lines assessed by moleculars markers is correlated with single cross hybrid
Timmermans, M J T N; Lees, D C; Thompson, M J; Sáfián, Sz; Brattström, O
Afrotropical Acraeini butterflies provide a fascinating potential model system to contrast with the Neotropical Heliconiini, yet their phylogeny remains largely unexplored by molecular methods and their generic level nomenclature is still contentious. To test the potential of mitogenomes in a simultaneous analysis of the radiation, we sequenced the full mitochondrial genomes of 19 African species. Analyses show the potential of mitogenomic phylogeny reconstruction in this group. Inferred relationships are largely congruent with a previous multilocus study. We confirm a monophyletic Telchinia to include the Asiatic Pareba with a complicated paraphylum, traditional (sub)genus Acraea, toward the base. The results suggest that several proposed subgenera and some species groups within Telchinia are not monophyletic, while two other (sub)genera could possibly be combined. Telchinia was recovered without strong support as sister to the potentially interesting system of distasteful model butterflies known as Bematistes, a name that is suppressed in some treatments. Surprisingly, we find that this taxon has remarkably divergent mitogenomes and unexpected synapomorphic tRNA rearrangements. These gene order changes, combined with evidence for deviating dN/dS ratios and evidence for episodal diversifying selection, suggest that the ancestral Bematistes mitogenome has had a turbulent past. Our study adds genetic support for treating this clade as a distinct genus, while the alternative option, adopted by some authors, of Acraea being equivalent to Acraeini merely promotes redundancy. We pave the way for more detailed mitogenomic and multi-locus molecular analyses which can determine how many genera are needed (possibly at least six) to divide Acraeini into monophyletic groups that also facilitate communication about their biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diego Ferreira Marques
Full Text Available Molecular and cytogenetic data have provided evidence of cryptic speciation in the widespread South American trahira, Hoplias malabaricus. In the present study, karyotypes and DNA barcode sequences of specimens from seven populations inhabiting the lower Amazon River were analyzed in order to characterize the levels of genetic divergence within a single karyomorph. All the specimens presented karyotypes with 2n = 40 chromosomes (20m+20sm that were consistent with the species' C karyomorph. The DNA barcodes revealed six haplogroups, with clear divergence between populations from Brazil and Argentina. The results support the species complex hypothesis and indicate that a single karyomorph of H. malabaricus may harbor more than one species
Cláudia Pombo Sudré
Full Text Available The genus Dimorphandra has distinguish relevance considering either medicinal or biodiversity aspects because it includes two species that are economically important flavonoids sources for pharmachemical industry (D. mollis Benth. and D. gardneriana Tul., and species endemic to Brazil, such as D. jorgei Silva and D. wilsonii Rizz., threatened by extinction. In order to evaluate variability among accessions of D. mollis (fava-d'anta, D. gardneriana and D. wilsonii, it was collected fruit from individual plants from three Brazilian states in a total of 57 accessions, which were analyzed with RAPD markers. It was used 20 seeds per progeny; the DNA was extracted from fully-formed young leaves, which were collected in bulk. The data were analyzed using a binary matrix, in which the score one represented presence of a band and zero, absence. The similarity matrix was developed by using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index, later grouped based on the Neighbor Joining algorithm. It was found considerable intra and inter specific variability in Dimorphandra spp., which were separated into four groups. Though genetic variability was found, the collecting trips showed that most of these areas are subject to loss of genetic resources of fava-d'anta due to the following factors: continuous anthropic activity, propensity for natural fires, and loss of natural seed dispersers (large fruit-eating mammals. Therefore, protections of these areas and ex situ conservation are essentials for the maintenance of genetic variability of these species.O gênero Dimorphandra tem grande relevância, sobretudo nos aspectos medicinais e de biodiversidade, por incluir duas espécies que são importantes economicamente como fontes de flavonoides para indústria farmacoquímica (D. mollis Benth. e D. gardneriana Tull., e espécies endêmicas do Brasil, como a D. jorgei Silva e D. wilsonii Rizz., sendo esta ameaçada de extinção. Objetivando avaliar a variabilidade
Gisele Rodrigues Moreira
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a divergência genética e propor uma subcoleção representativa da traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (TDT. O experimento foi conduzido com quatro populações do inseto procedentes de Uberlândia, MG, Viçosa, MG, Camocim de São Félix, PE, e Santa Teresa, ES, e cinco acessos de tomateiro, 'Santa Clara', 'Moneymaker', TOM-601, PI 126445 (Lycopersicon hirsutum f. typicum e PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum. Foi realizada análise de agrupamento (método de Tocher, usando a distância de Mahalanobis como medida de dissimilaridade e verificada a importância relativa dos caracteres da TDT para a divergência genética entre populações por meio do método de Singh. As populações de cada grupo obtido pela análise de agrupamento foram combinadas e, para cada caráter, foi realizado o teste t de Student para uma média. Existe variabilidade genética entre populações da TDT provenientes de diferentes localidades do Brasil, quando estão infestando Lycopersicon spp. A mortalidade larval teve maior contribuição para a divergência genética entre as populações, com exceção de PI 134417, cujo caráter de maior contribuição foi o número de pupas fêmeas. Propõe-se uma subcoleção da TDT tomando-se por base a combinação das populações de Santa Teresa e Uberlândia.This work aimed to study the genetic diversity and to propose a representative tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (TDT, subcollection. Populations of insect originally from Uberlândia, MG, Viçosa (MG, Camocim de São Félix, PE, and Santa Teresa, ES, Brazil, and five tomato accessions, 'Santa Clara', 'Moneymaker', TOM-601, PI 126445 (Lycopersicon hirsutum f. typicum and PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum were used. Grouping analysis (Tocher method, using the Mahalanobis distance as dissimilarity measurement was performed and the relative importance of TDT characters to the genetic divergence among populations was evaluated by Singh
Wang, Yi; Han, Ge; Lu, Xingen; Zhu, Junqiang
Wedge diffuser is widely used in centrifugal compressors due to its high performance and compact size. This paper is aimed to research the influence of wedge diffuser blade number and divergence angle on centrifugal compressor performance. The impact of wedge diffuser blade number on compressor stage performance is investigated, and then the wedge diffusers with different divergence angle are studied by varying diffuser wedge angle and blade number simultaneously. It is found that wedge diffuser with 27 blades could have about 0.8% higher adiabatic efficiency and 0.14 higher total pressure ratio than the wedge diffuser with 19 blades and the best compressor performance is achieved when diffuser divergence angle is 8.3°.These results could give some advices on centrifugal compressor design.
Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Krapohl, Eva; Simpson, Michael A.; Reichenberg, Avi; Cederlöf, Martin; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Plomin, Robert
High intelligence (general cognitive ability) is fundamental to the human capital that drives societies in the information age. Understanding the origins of this intellectual capital is important for government policy, for neuroscience, and for genetics. For genetics, a key question is whether the genetic causes of high intelligence are qualitatively or quantitatively different from the normal distribution of intelligence. We report results from a sibling and twin study of high intelligence and its links with the normal distribution. We identified 360,000 sibling pairs and 9000 twin pairs from 3 million 18-year-old males with cognitive assessments administered as part of conscription to military service in Sweden between 1968 and 2010. We found that high intelligence is familial, heritable, and caused by the same genetic and environmental factors responsible for the normal distribution of intelligence. High intelligence is a good candidate for “positive genetics” — going beyond the negative effects of DNA sequence variation on disease and disorders to consider the positive end of the distribution of genetic effects. PMID:25593376
Low genetic diversity and local adaptive divergence of Dracaena cambodiana (Liliaceae) populations associated with historical population bottlenecks and natural selection: an endangered long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China.
Zheng, D-J; Xie, L-S; Zhu, J-H; Zhang, Z-L
Historical population bottlenecks and natural selection have important effects on the current genetic diversity and structure of long-lived trees. Dracaena cambodiana is an endangered, long-lived tree endemic to Hainan Island, China. Our field investigations showed that only 10 populations remain on Hainan Island and that almost all have been seriously isolated and grow in distinct habitats. A considerable amount of genetic variation at the species level, but little variation at the population level, and a high level of genetic differentiation among the populations with limited gene flow in D. cambodiana were detected using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. No significant correlation was found between genetic diversity and actual population size, as the genetic diversities were similar regardless of population size. The Mantel test revealed that there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances among the 10 populations. The UPGMA, PCoA and Bayesian analyses showed that local adaptive divergence has occurred among the D. cambodiana populations, which was further supported by habitat-private fragments. We suggest that the current genetic diversity and population differentiation of D. cambodiana resulted from historical population bottlenecks and natural selection followed by historical isolation. However, the lack of natural regeneration of D. cambodiana indicates that former local adaptations with low genetic diversity may have been genetically weak and are unable to adapt to the current ecological environments. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Sutherland, Tara D; Campbell, Peter M; Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Wanjura, Wolfgang J; Haritos, Victoria S
The pupal cocoon of the domesticated silk moth Bombyx mori is the best known and most extensively studied insect silk. It is not widely known that Apis mellifera larvae also produce silk. We have used a combination of genomic and proteomic techniques to identify four honey bee fiber genes (AmelFibroin1-4) and two silk-associated genes (AmelSA1 and 2). The four fiber genes are small, comprise a single exon each, and are clustered on a short genomic region where the open reading frames are GC-rich amid low GC intergenic regions. The genes encode similar proteins that are highly helical and predicted to form unusually tight coiled coils. Despite the similarity in size, structure, and composition of the encoded proteins, the genes have low primary sequence identity. We propose that the four fiber genes have arisen from gene duplication events but have subsequently diverged significantly. The silk-associated genes encode proteins likely to act as a glue (AmelSA1) and involved in silk processing (AmelSA2). Although the silks of honey bees and silkmoths both originate in larval labial glands, the silk proteins are completely different in their primary, secondary, and tertiary structures as well as the genomic arrangement of the genes encoding them. This implies independent evolutionary origins for these functionally related proteins.
Full Text Available To better understand the physical processes that control the high-latitude lower thermospheric dynamics, we analyze the divergence and vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the lower thermosphere during the southern summertime for different IMF conditions. For this study the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR-TIEG CM is used. The analysis of the large-scale vorticity and divergence provides basic understanding flow configurations to help elucidate the momentum sources that ultimately determine the total wind field in the lower polar thermosphere and provides insight into the relative strengths of the different sources of momentum responsible for driving winds. The mean neutral wind pattern in the high-latitude lower thermosphere is dominated by rotational flow, imparted primarily through the ion drag force, rather than by divergent flow, imparted primarily through Joule and solar heating. The difference vorticity, obtained by subtracting values with zero IMF from those with non-zero IMF, in the high-latitude lower thermosphere is much larger than the difference divergence for all IMF conditions, indicating that a larger response of the thermospheric wind system to enhancement in the momentum input generating the rotational motion with elevated IMF than the corresponding energy input generating the divergent motion. the difference vorticity in the high-latitude lower thermosphere depends on the direction of the IMF. The difference vorticity for negative and positive B_y shows positive and negative, respectively, at higher magnetic latitudes than -70°. For negative B_z, the difference vorticities have positive in the dusk sector and negative in the dawn sector. The difference vorticities for positive B_z have opposite sign. Negative IMF B_z has a stronger effect on the vorticity than does positive B_z.
Resman, Katarina; Korva, Miša; Fajs, Luka; Zidarič, Tanja; Trilar, Tomi; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič
Seewis virus, the shrew-borne hantavirus from Sorex araneus, has been molecularly detected in reservoir hosts in many different central European countries and Russia. Slovenia is a known endemic country for rodent-borne hantaviruses, therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of shrew-borne hantaviruses in insectivores. Viral L, S and M segment have been recovered only from tissue samples of 7 S. araneus, despite several shrew species were tested. Phylogenetic analysis showed high genetic diversity of SWSV in Slovenia, ranging from 3 to 19.4% for different viral segments. The most divergent were M segment sequences, with 19.4% nucleotide divergence among Slovenian strains. Above that, different SWSV strains from Slovenia do not group into separate geographic clusters. While three separate genetic clades were determined, two of them were simultaneously present in one location at the same time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The interest in broad-range anti-influenza A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has recently been strengthened by the identification of anti-hemagglutinin (HA mAbs endowed with heterosubtypic neutralizing activity to be used in the design of "universal" prophylactic or therapeutic tools. However, the majority of the single mAbs described to date do not bind and neutralize viral isolates belonging to highly divergent subtypes clustering into the two different HA-based influenza phylogenetic groups: the group 1 including, among others, subtypes H1, H2, H5 and H9 and the group 2 including, among others, H3 subtype. Here, we describe a human mAb, named PN-SIA28, capable of binding and neutralizing all tested isolates belonging to phylogenetic group 1, including H1N1, H2N2, H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes and several isolates belonging to group 2, including H3N2 isolates from the first period of the 1968 pandemic. Therefore, PN-SIA28 is capable of neutralizing isolates belonging to subtypes responsible of all the reported pandemics, as well as other subtypes with pandemic potential. The region recognized by PN-SIA28 has been identified on the stem region of HA and includes residues highly conserved among the different influenza subtypes. A deep characterization of PN-SIA28 features may represent a useful help in the improvement of available anti-influenza therapeutic strategies and can provide new tools for the development of universal vaccinal strategies.
Chatelet, A; Gondret, F; Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Friggens, N C; Le Floc'h, N
Pigs selected for high performance may be more at risk of developing diseases. This study aimed to assess the health and performance of two pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) (low RFI (LRFI) v. high RFI (HRFI)) and housed in two contrasted hygiene conditions (poor v. good) using a 2×2 factorial design (n=40/group). The challenge period (Period 1), started on week zero (W0) when 12-week-old pigs were transferred to good or poor housing conditions. At week 6 (W6), half of the pigs in each group were slaughtered. During a recovery period (Period 2) from W6 to W13 to W14, the remaining pigs (n=20/group) were transferred in good hygiene conditions before being slaughtered. Blood was collected every three (Period 1) or 2 weeks (Period 2) to assess blood indicators of immune and inflammatory responses. Pulmonary lesions at slaughter and performance traits were evaluated. At W6, pneumonia prevalence was greater for pigs housed in poor than in good conditions (51% v. 8%, respectively, Phygiene conditions, lung lesion scores were lower for LRFI pigs than for HRFI pigs (P=0.03). At W3, LRFI in poor conditions had the highest number of blood granulocytes (hygiene×line, P=0.03) and at W6, HRFI pigs in poor conditions had the greatest plasma haptoglobin concentrations (hygiene×line, P=0.02). During Period 1, growth rate and growth-to-feed ratio were less affected by poor hygiene in LRFI pigs than in HRFI pigs (hygiene×line, P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively). Low residual feed intake pigs in poor conditions ate more than the other groups (hygiene×line, P=0.002). Irrespective of the line, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were higher in poor conditions, whereas fasting free fatty acids concentrations were lower than in good conditions. At the end of Period 2, pneumonia prevalence was similar for both housing conditions (39% v. 38%, respectively). During Period 2, plasma protein concentrations were greater for pigs previously housed in poor than
Uso do algoritmo de Gower na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de tomateiro do grupo cereja = Using Gower’s algorithm on the genetic divergence determination among cherry tomato accessions
Mariella Camargo Rocha
Full Text Available A análise conjunta de variáveis qualitativas e quantitativas tem sido apontada como ferramenta útil na estimativa da divergência genética entre os acessos de uma coleção de germoplasma. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar uma coleção de germoplasma de tomateiro do grupo cereja, com base em descritores qualitativos e quantitativos e utilizar o algoritmo de Gower na quantificação da divergência genética. Estudaram-se 40 acessos de tomateiro cereja, cultivados em manejo orgânico nas condições de Seropédica, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizados quatro descritores qualitativos relacionados aos frutos e nove descritores quantitativos. Os dados foram analisados de forma conjunta pelo algoritmo de Gower. Detectou-se variabilidade para coloração, formato e número de lóculos do fruto. A coloração vermelha foi observada em 25 acessos testados, registrando-se também a produção de frutos amarelos, laranjas e marrons. Para número de lóculos, foi registrada a ocorrência de frutosbi, tri, tetra e pluriloculares (com até sete lóculos. O método UPGMA foi o que obteve o maior coeficiente de correlação cofenética (0,80, observando-se a formação de sete grupos. Os grupos formados permitiram a distinção de frutos classificados como cereja e outros que não se adequaram a esta definição, por estarem acima do diâmetro equatorial proposto para esta classe. The joint analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables has been considered a useful tool to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions of a gene bank. The purpose of this research was: (i to characterize a collection of cherry tomatoes, using quantitative and qualitative descriptors, and (ii to use Gower’s algorithm to quantify genetic divergence among genotypes, employing a joint descriptors analysis. Forty accessions of organically grown cherry tomato were studied in Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fourqualitative fruit descriptors
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael
Several advances have been reported in the recent literature on divergence-free finite volume schemes for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Almost all of these advances are restricted to structured meshes. To retain full geometric versatility, however, it is also very important to make analogous advances in divergence-free schemes for MHD on unstructured meshes. Such schemes utilize a staggered Yee-type mesh, where all hydrodynamic quantities (mass, momentum and energy density) are cell-centered, while the magnetic fields are face-centered and the electric fields, which are so useful for the time update of the magnetic field, are centered at the edges. Three important advances are brought together in this paper in order to make it possible to have high order accurate finite volume schemes for the MHD equations on unstructured meshes. First, it is shown that a divergence-free WENO reconstruction of the magnetic field can be developed for unstructured meshes in two and three space dimensions using a classical cell-centered WENO algorithm, without the need to do a WENO reconstruction for the magnetic field on the faces. This is achieved via a novel constrained L2-projection operator that is used in each time step as a postprocessor of the cell-centered WENO reconstruction so that the magnetic field becomes locally and globally divergence free. Second, it is shown that recently-developed genuinely multidimensional Riemann solvers (called MuSIC Riemann solvers) can be used on unstructured meshes to obtain a multidimensionally upwinded representation of the electric field at each edge. Third, the above two innovations work well together with a high order accurate one-step ADER time stepping strategy, which requires the divergence-free nonlinear WENO reconstruction procedure to be carried out only once per time step. The resulting divergence-free ADER-WENO schemes with MuSIC Riemann solvers give us an efficient and easily-implemented strategy for divergence-free MHD on
Russell, N D; Rios, J; Erosa, G; Remmenga, M D; Hawkins, D E
The microsatellites HEL5, HEL9, INRA063, and BM2113 were used to analyze genetic similarities and differences of geographically isolated Criollo cattle herds in Mexico. Criollo cattle from five counties within the state of Chihuahua and one county from the state of Tamaulipas (n = 60) were sampled. The five counties in Chihuahua included Cerocahui (n = 14), Chinipas (n = 10), Guachochi (n = 15), Morelos (n = 30), and Temoris (n = 9). Samples of DNA were amplified by PCR and separated on a 7% polyacrylamide gel. Microsatellite size was established by comparison to M13mp18 DNA ladder and a documented set of four bovine controls. Allele frequencies and genotypic deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested using the GENEPOP program. Eleven alleles were generated at HEL5 for the populations sampled (149 to 169 bp). Allele frequencies were greatest for the 163-bp allele in Criollo cattle from Cerocahui, Chinipas, Moralos, and Tamaulipas (0.23 to 0.5). Cattle from Guachochi had an allele frequency of 0.38 for the 151-bp allele, and cattle from Temoris had an allele frequency of 0.25 for the 149- and 167-bp alleles, with no 163-bp allele. Amplification with HEL9 produced 12 alleles (145, 149 to 169 bp) and showed common high-frequency alleles at 149, 157, and 159 bp for animals from all regions. The Chinipas population showed a moderate allele frequency at 145 bp; no other regions contained this allele. For INRA063 there were five alleles with 182 and 184 bp in low frequency. For BM2113 there were 10 alleles in the Criollo cattle (125 to 143 bp), with an equal distribution of frequencies for all alleles. In two regions, Guachochi and Morelos, genotypic frequencies deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cattle from the Temoris region were genetically most distant from Criollo cattle of the other five regions.
Liu, Jiewei; Li, Ming; Su, Bing
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk variants for samples of European and East Asian descent, but most of the identified susceptibility variants are population-specific to either Europeans or East Asians. This strong genetic heterogeneity suggests that differential population histories may play a role in SCZ susceptibility. Here, we explored this possibility by examining the allele frequency divergence of 136 previously reported genome-wide SCZ risk SNPs between European and East Asian populations. Our results showed that two SNPs (rs11038167 and rs11038172) at TSPAN18, reported as genome-wide significant SCZ risk variants in Han Chinese, were entirely monomorphic in Europeans, indicating a deep between-population divergence at this gene locus. To explore the evolutionary history of TSPAN18 in East Asians, we conducted population genetic analyses including multiple neutrality tests, the haplotype-based iHS and EHH tests, as well as haplotype bifurcation map and network constructions. We found that the protective allele of rs11038172 (G allele) had a long extended haplotype with much slower decay compared to the A allele. The star-like shape of the G-allele-carrying haplotypes indicates a recent enrichment in East Asians. Together, the evidences suggest that the protective allele of rs11038172 has experienced recent Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. These findings provide new insights that may help explain the strong genetic heterogeneity in SCZ risk and previous inconsistent association results for SCZ among both Europeans and East Asians. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Defaveri, Jacquelin; Shikano, Takahito; Shimada, Yukinori; Merilä, Juha
Populations of widespread marine organisms are typically characterized by a low degree of genetic differentiation in neutral genetic markers, but much less is known about differentiation in genes whose functional roles are associated with specific selection regimes. To uncover possible adaptive population divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation in marine three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we used a candidate gene-based genome-scan approach to analyse variability in 138 microsatellite loci located within/close to (<6 kb) functionally important genes in samples collected from ten geographic locations. The degree of genetic differentiation in markers classified as neutral or under balancing selection-as determined with several outlier detection methods-was low (F(ST) = 0.033 or 0.011, respectively), whereas average FST for directionally selected markers was significantly higher (F(ST) = 0.097). Clustering analyses provided support for genomic and geographic heterogeneity in selection: six genetic clusters were identified based on allele frequency differences in the directionally selected loci, whereas four were identified with the neutral loci. Allelic variation in several loci exhibited significant associations with environmental variables, supporting the conjecture that temperature and salinity, but not optic conditions, are important drivers of adaptive divergence among populations. In general, these results suggest that in spite of the high degree of physical connectivity and gene flow as inferred from neutral marker genes, marine stickleback populations are strongly genetically structured in loci associated with functionally relevant genes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez
Full Text Available A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂ = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis. The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the
Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Jezkova, Tereza; Fujita, Matthew K; Tolson, Peter J; García, Miguel A
Habitat fragmentation reduces the extent and connectivity of suitable habitats, and can lead to changes in population genetic structure. Limited gene flow among isolated demes can result in increased genetic divergence among populations, and decreased genetic diversity within demes. We assessed patterns of genetic variation in the Caribbean boa Chilabothrus monensis (Epicrates monensis) using two mitochondrial and seven nuclear markers, and relying on the largest number of specimens of these snakes examined to date. Two disjunct subspecies of C. monensis are recognized: the threatened C. m. monensis, endemic to Mona Island, and the rare and endangered C. m. granti, which occurs on various islands of the Puerto Rican Bank. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed unambiguous genetic differences between the taxa, and coalescent species delimitation methods indicated that these snakes likely are different evolutionary lineages, which we recognize at the species level, C. monensis and C. granti. All examined loci in C. monensis (sensu stricto) are monomorphic, which may indicate a recent bottleneck event. Each population of C. granti exclusively contains private mtDNA haplotypes, but five of the seven nuclear genes assayed are monomorphic, and nucleotide diversity is low in the two remaining markers. The faster pace of evolution of mtDNA possibly reflects the present-day isolation of populations of C. granti, whereas the slower substitution rate of nuDNA may instead mirror the relatively recent episodes of connectivity among the populations facilitated by the lower sea level during the Pleistocene. The small degree of overall genetic variation in C. granti suggests that demes of this snake could be managed as a single unit, a practice that would significantly increase their effective population size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Czesny, Sergiusz; Epifanio, John; Michalak, Pawel
Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, a small clupeid fish native to Atlantic Ocean, has recently (∼150 years ago) invaded the North American Great Lakes and despite challenges of freshwater environment its populations exploded and disrupted local food web structures. This range expansion has been accompanied by dramatic changes at all levels of organization. Growth rates, size at maturation, or fecundity are only a few of the most distinct morphological and life history traits that contrast the two alewife morphs. A question arises to what extent these rapidly evolving differences between marine and freshwater varieties result from regulatory (including phenotypic plasticity) or structural mutations. To gain insights into expression changes and sequence divergence between marine and freshwater alewives, we sequenced transcriptomes of individuals from Lake Michigan and Atlantic Ocean. Population specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were rare but interestingly occurred in sequences of genes that also tended to show large differences in expression. Our results show that the striking phenotypic divergence between anadromous and lake alewives can be attributed to massive regulatory modifications rather than coding changes. PMID:22438868
Full Text Available Host-associated adaptation is emerging as a potential driver of population differentiation and speciation for marine organisms with major implications for ecosystem structure and function. Coralliophila abbreviata are corallivorous gastropods that live and feed on most of the reef-building corals in the tropical western Atlantic and Caribbean. Populations of C. abbreviata associated with the threatened acroporid corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, display different behavioral, morphological, demographic, and life-history characteristics than those that inhabit other coral host taxa, indicating that host-specific selective forces may be acting on C. abbreviata. Here, we used newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data to assess the population genetic structure, connectivity, and demographic history of C. abbreviata populations from three coral host taxa (A. palmata, Montastraea spp., Mycetophyllia spp. and six geographic locations across the Caribbean. Analysis of molecular variance provided some evidence of weak and possibly geographically variable host-associated differentiation but no evidence of differentiation among sampling locations or major oceanographic regions, suggesting high gene flow across the Caribbean. Phylogenetic network and bayesian clustering analyses supported a hypothesis of a single panmictic population as individuals failed to cluster by host or sampling location. Demographic analyses consistently supported a scenario of population expansion during the Pleistocene, a time of major carbonate reef development in the region. Although further study is needed to fully elucidate the interactive effects of host-associated selection and high gene flow in this system, our results have implications for local and regional community interactions and impact of predation on declining coral populations.
Johnston, Lyza; Miller, Margaret W; Baums, Iliana B
Host-associated adaptation is emerging as a potential driver of population differentiation and speciation for marine organisms with major implications for ecosystem structure and function. Coralliophila abbreviata are corallivorous gastropods that live and feed on most of the reef-building corals in the tropical western Atlantic and Caribbean. Populations of C. abbreviata associated with the threatened acroporid corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, display different behavioral, morphological, demographic, and life-history characteristics than those that inhabit other coral host taxa, indicating that host-specific selective forces may be acting on C. abbreviata. Here, we used newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data to assess the population genetic structure, connectivity, and demographic history of C. abbreviata populations from three coral host taxa (A. palmata, Montastraea spp., Mycetophyllia spp.) and six geographic locations across the Caribbean. Analysis of molecular variance provided some evidence of weak and possibly geographically variable host-associated differentiation but no evidence of differentiation among sampling locations or major oceanographic regions, suggesting high gene flow across the Caribbean. Phylogenetic network and bayesian clustering analyses supported a hypothesis of a single panmictic population as individuals failed to cluster by host or sampling location. Demographic analyses consistently supported a scenario of population expansion during the Pleistocene, a time of major carbonate reef development in the region. Although further study is needed to fully elucidate the interactive effects of host-associated selection and high gene flow in this system, our results have implications for local and regional community interactions and impact of predation on declining coral populations.
Mardiana, Nana; Kuswanto, Heru
The aims of the research concerned here were to reveal (1) the characteristics of Android-assisted PML (physics mobile learning) to improve SMA (sekolah menengah atas, Indonesian senior high school) students' divergent thinking skills and physics HOTS (higher order thinking skills); (2) the feasibility of the Android-assisted PML; and (3) the influence of using the Android-assisted PML on improvement in SMA students' divergent thinking skills and physics HOTS. The7 research was of the R&D (research and development) type, adapted from theBorg-&-Gall development model. The research data were analyzed by means of MANOVA with the significance level of 5%. The results are as follows. (1) The product of the development, a learning media in software form with the android package(apk) format, is named PML (to refer to Physics Mobile Learning), which has such characterictics as being operable with use of Android devicesand being very good in quality in the aspect oflearning, material, software technology, and audiovisual appearance. 2) The developed learning media referred to as PML is appropriate for learning activity according to evaluation by a material expert, a media expert, peer reviewers, and physics teachers as well as according to results of students' tryouts. (3) The use of the Android-assisted PML media product could improve SMA students' divergent thinking skillsand physics HOTS with the respective high-category gain scores of 0.701 and 0.759.
Aletta E Bester-van der Merwe
Full Text Available The tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus Linnaeus, 1758 is a temperate, coastal hound shark found in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans. In this study, the population structure of Galeorhinus galeus was determined across the entire Southern Hemisphere, where the species is heavily targeted by commercial fisheries, as well as locally, along the South African coastline. Analysis was conducted on a total of 185 samples using 19 microsatellite markers and a 671 bp fragment of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2 gene. Across the Southern Hemisphere, three geographically distinct clades were recovered, including one from South America (Argentina, Chile, one from Africa (all the South African collections and an Australia-New Zealand clade. Nuclear data revealed significant population subdivisions (FST = 0.192 to 0.376, p<0.05 indicating limited gene flow for tope sharks across ocean basins. Marked population connectivity was however evident across the Indian Ocean based on Bayesian clustering analysis. More locally in South Africa, F-statistics and multivariate analysis supported moderate to high gene flow across the Atlantic/Indian Ocean boundary (FST = 0.035 to 0.044, p<0.05, with exception of samples from Struisbaai and Port Elizabeth which differed significantly from the rest. Discriminant and Bayesian clustering analysis indicated admixture in all sampling populations, decreasing from west to east, corroborating possible restriction to gene flow across regional oceanographic barriers. Mitochondrial sequence data recovered seven haplotypes (h = 0.216, π = 0.001 for South Africa, with one major haplotype shared by 87% of the individuals and at least one private haplotype for each sampling location except Port Elizabeth. As with many other coastal shark species with cosmopolitan distribution, this study confirms the lack of both historical dispersal and inter-oceanic gene flow while also implicating contemporary factors such as oceanic currents and
Yinda, Claude Kwe; Ghogomu, Stephen Mbigha; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Beller, Leen; Deboutte, Ward; Vanhulle, Emiel; Maes, Piet; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle
Most human emerging infectious diseases originate from wildlife and bats are a major reservoir of viruses, a few of which have been highly pathogenic to humans. In some regions of Cameroon, bats are hunted and eaten as a delicacy. This close proximity between human and bats provides ample opportunity for zoonotic events. To elucidate the viral diversity of Cameroonian fruit bats, we collected and metagenomically screened eighty-seven fecal samples of Eidolon helvum and Epomophorus gambianus fruit bats. The results showed a plethora of known and novel viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the eleven gene segments of the first complete bat rotavirus H genome, showed clearly separated clusters of human, porcine, and bat rotavirus H strains, not indicating any recent interspecies transmission events. Additionally, we identified and analyzed a bat bastrovirus genome (a novel group of recently described viruses, related to astroviruses and hepatitis E viruses), confirming their recombinant nature, and provide further evidence of additional recombination events among bat bastroviruses. Interestingly, picobirnavirus-like RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene segments were identified using an alternative mitochondrial genetic code, and further principal component analyses suggested that they may have a similar lifestyle to mitoviruses, a group of virus-like elements known to infect the mitochondria of fungi. Although identified bat coronavirus, parvovirus, and cyclovirus strains belong to established genera, most of the identified partitiviruses and densoviruses constitute putative novel genera in their respective families. Finally, the results of the phage community analyses of these bats indicate a very diverse geographically distinct bat phage population, probably reflecting different diets and gut bacterial ecosystems.
Kaushik, N.; Kumar, Krishan; Kumar, Sushil [CCS HAU, Regional Research Station, Bawal (Rewari) (India); Kaushik, Nutan; Roy, S. [The Energy Resource Institute, New Delhi (India)
Variability in seed traits and oil content of 24 accessions of Jatropha curcas collected from different agroclimatic zones of Haryana state, India were assessed. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in seed size, 100-seed weight and oil content between accessions. Maximum seed weight was recorded in seeds collected from IC-520602 and the least weight was recorded in IC-520587. Oil variability ranged from 28.00% in IC-520589 to 38.80% in IC-520601. In general phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation indicating the predominant role of environment. High heritability and genetic gain were recorded for oil content (99.00% and 18.90%) and seed weight (96.00% and 18.00%), respectively, indicating the additive gene action. Seed weight had positive correlation with seed length, breadth, thickness and oil content. On the basis of non-hierarchical Euclidian cluster analysis, six clusters were obtained with highest number of accession falling under cluster III. Maximum and minimum intra cluster distance was observed for cluster VI (2.499) and for cluster III (2.252), respectively. Whereas maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster VI and IV (5.129) and minimum between cluster III and II (2.472). Among the six clusters formed cluster IV showed maximum cluster value for seed size whereas, cluster VI showed maximum value for oil content and seed weight. Thus on the basis of present finding it is suggested that the crossing between accessions of cluster IV and VI will result in wide spectrum of variability in subsequent generations. (author)
Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten
Environmental high-throughput sequencing (envHTS) is a very powerful tool, which in protistan ecology is predominantly used for the exploration of diversity and its geographic and local patterns. We here used a pyrosequenced V4-SSU rDNA data set from a solar saltern pond as test case to exploit such massive protistan amplicon data sets beyond this descriptive purpose. Therefore, we combined a Swarm-based blastn network including 11 579 ciliate V4 amplicons to identify divergent amplicon clusters with targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design for full-length small subunit of the ribosomal DNA retrieval and probe design for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This powerful strategy allows to benefit from envHTS data sets to (i) reveal the phylogenetic position of the taxon behind divergent amplicons; (ii) improve phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary history of specific taxon groups; (iii) solidly assess an amplicons (species') degree of similarity to its closest described relative; (iv) visualize the morphotype behind a divergent amplicons cluster; (v) rapidly FISH screen many environmental samples for geographic/habitat distribution and abundances of the respective organism and (vi) to monitor the success of enrichment strategies in live samples for cultivation and isolation of the respective organisms. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mafusire, Cosmas; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.
The far-field divergence of a light beam propagating through a first order optical system is presented as a square root of the sum of the squares of the local divergence and the curvature divergence. The local divergence is defined as the ratio of the beam parameter product to the beam width whilst the curvature divergence is a ratio of the space-angular moment also to the beam width. It is established that the beam’s focusing parameter can be defined as a ratio of the local divergence to the curvature divergence. The relationships between the two divergences and other second moment-based beam parameters are presented. Their various mathematical properties are presented such as their evolution through first order systems. The efficacy of the model in the analysis of high power continuous wave laser-based welding systems is briefly discussed.
Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Voloshina, I.; Myslenkov, A.; Lamka, J.; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 104, č. 3 (2013), s. 312-326 ISSN 0022-1503 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/1569 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bottleneck * founder effect * genetic diversity * inbreeding * microsatellites * mtDNA Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 1.969, year: 2013
Dolby, Greer A; Ellingson, Ryan A; Findley, Lloyd T; Jacobs, David K
Plate tectonics and sediment processes control regional continental shelf topography. We examine the genetic consequences of how glacial-associated sea level change interacted with variable nearshore topography since the last glaciation. We reconstructed the size and distribution of areas suitable for tidal estuary formation from the last glacial maximum, ~20 thousand years ago, to present from San Francisco, California, USA (~38°N) to Reforma, Sinaloa, Mexico (~25°N). We assessed range-wide genetic structure and diversity of three codistributed tidal estuarine fishes (California Killifish, Shadow Goby, Longjaw Mudsucker) along ~4,600 km using mitochondrial control region and cytB sequence, and 16-20 microsatellite loci from a total of 524 individuals. Results show that glacial-associated sea level change limited estuarine habitat to few, widely separated refugia at glacial lowstand, and present-day genetic clades were sourced from specific refugia. Habitat increased during postglacial sea level rise and refugial populations admixed in newly formed habitats. Continental shelves with active tectonics and/or low sediment supply were steep and hosted fewer, smaller refugia with more genetically differentiated populations than on broader shelves. Approximate Bayesian computation favoured the refuge-recolonization scenarios from habitat models over isolation by distance and seaway alternatives, indicating isolation at lowstand is a major diversification mechanism among these estuarine (and perhaps other) coastal species. Because sea level change is a global phenomenon, we suggest this top-down physical control of extirpation-isolation-recolonization may be an important driver of genetic diversification in coastal taxa inhabiting other topographically complex coasts globally during the Mid- to Late Pleistocene and deeper timescales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhihao Su; Bryce A. Richardson; Li Zhuo; Xiaolong Jiang
Population genetic studies provide a foundation for conservation planning, especially for endangered species. Three chloroplast SSRs (mtrnSf-trnGr, mtrnL2-trnF, and mtrnL5-trnL3) and the internal transcribed spacer were used to examine the population structure of Helianthemum in northwestern China. A total of 15 populations of the genus were collected. Nine chloroplast...
Full Text Available Alterations in leaf adaxial–abaxial (ad-ab polarity are one of the main factors that are responsible for leaf curvature. In Chinese cabbage, to form a leafy head, leaf incurvature is an essential prerequisite. Identifying ad-ab patterning genes and investigating its genetic variations will facilitate in elucidating the mechanism underlying leaf incurvature during head formation. In the present study we conducted comparative genomic analysis of the identification of 45 leaf ad-ab patterning genes in Brassica rapa based on 26 homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that these genes underwent expansion and were retained after whole genome triplication (WGT. We also assessed the nucleotide diversity and selection footprints of these 45 genes in a collection of 94 Brassica rapa accessions that were composed of heading and non-heading morphotypes. Six of the 45 genes showed significant negative Tajima’s D indices and nucleotide diversity reduction in heading accessions compared to that in non-heading accessions, indicating that these underwent purifying selection. Further testing of the BrARF3.1 gene, which was one of the selection signals from a larger collection, confirmed that purifying selection did occur. Our results provide genetic evidence that ad-ab patterning genes are involved in leaf incurvature that is associated in the formation of a leafy head, as well as promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage.
Papasotiropoulos, V; Klossa-Kilia, E; Kilias, G; Alahiotis, S
The genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family (Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens) were investigated at the mtDNA level, on samples taken from Messolongi lagoon-Greece. RFLP analysis of three PCR-amplified mtDNA gene segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) was used. Ten, eight, and nine restriction enzymes were found to have at least one recognition site at 12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I genes, respectively. Several fragment patterns were revealed to be species-specific, and thus they could be useful in species taxonomy as diagnostic markers, as well as for further evolutionary studies. Seven different haplotypes were detected. The greatest amount of genetic differentiation was observed at the interspecific level, while little variation was revealed at the intraspecific level. The highest values of nucleotide sequence divergence were observed between M. cephalus and all the other species, while the lowest was found between C. labrosus and L. saliens. Dendrograms obtained by the three different methods (UPGMA, Neighbor-Joining, and Dollo parsimony), were found to exhibit in all cases the same topology. According to this, the most distinct species is M. cephalus, while the other species are clustered in two separate groups, thefirst one containing L. aurata and L. ramada, the other L. saliens and C. labrosus. This last clustering makes the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza questionable.
Logan, M.L.; Montgomery, Chad E.; Boback, Scott M.; Reed, R.N.; Campbell, J.A.
Studies of recently isolated populations are useful because observed differences can often be attributed to current environmental variation. Two populations of the lizard Anolis lemurinus have been isolated on the islands of Cayo Menor and Cayo Mayor in the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago of Honduras for less than 15 000 y. We measured 12 morphometric and 10 habitat-use variables on 220 lizards across these islands in 2 y, 2008 and 2009. The goals of our study were (1) to explore patterns of sexual dimorphism, and (2) to test the hypothesis that differences in environment among islands may have driven divergence in morphology and habitat use despite genetic homogeneity among populations. Although we found no differences among sexes in habitat use, males had narrower pelvic girdles and longer toe pads on both islands. Between islands, males differed in morphology, but neither males nor females differed in habitat use. Our data suggest that either recent selection has operated differentially on males despite low genetic dill'erentiation, or that they display phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation. We suggest that patterns may be driven by variation in intrapopulation density or differences in predator diversity among islands.
Ahmad, Faiz; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Hakim, Md Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Akmar Abdullah, Siti Nor
Coloured rice genotypes have greater nutritious value and consumer demand for these varieties is now greater than ever. The documentation of these genotypes is important for the improvement of the rice plant. In this study, 42 coloured rice genotypes were selected for determination of their genetic divergence using 25 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and 15 agro-morphological traits. Twenty-one out of the 25 SSR primers showed distinct, reproducible polymorphism. A dendrogram constructed using the SSR primers clustered the 42 coloured rice genotypes into 7 groups. Further, principle component analysis showed 75.28% of total variations were explained by the first—three components. All agro-morphological traits showed significant difference at the (p≤0.05) and (p≤0.01) levels. From the dendrogram constructed using the agro-morphological traits, all the genotypes were clustered into four distinct groups. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed that among the 15 agro-morphological traits, the yield contributing factor had positive correlation with the number of tillers, number of panicles, and panicle length. The heritability of the 15 traits ranged from 17.68 to 99.69%. Yield per plant and harvest index showed the highest value for both heritability and genetic advance. The information on the molecular and agro-morphological traits can be used in rice breeding programmes to improve nutritional value and produce higher yields. PMID:26393807
Genetic interactions between diverged alleles of Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) and Heading date 3a (Hd3a)/ RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1) control differential heading and contribute to regional adaptation in rice (Oryza sativa).
Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Ding; Tang, Huiwu; Qiu, Rong; Feng, Jinglei; Long, Yunming; Niu, Baixiao; Chen, Danping; Zhong, Tianyu; Liu, Yao-Guang; Guo, Jingxin
Initiation of flowering, also called heading, in rice (Oryza sativa) is determined by the florigens encoded by Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1). Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) regulates Hd3a and RFT1. However, different rice varieties have diverged alleles of Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 and their genetic interactions remain largely unclear. Here we generated three segregating populations for different combinations of diverged Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 alleles, and analyzed their genetic interactions between these alleles. We demonstrated that, in an ehd1 mutant background, Hd3a was silenced, but RFT1 was expressed (although at lower levels than in plants with a functional Ehd1) under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions. We identified a nonfunctional RFT1 allele (rft1); the lines carrying homozygous ehd1 and Hd3a/rft1 failed to induce the floral transition under SD and LD conditions. Like Hd3a, RFT1 also interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, the florigen receptors, but a nonfunctional RFT1 with a crucial E105K mutation failed to interact with 14-3-3 proteins. Furthermore, analyses of sequence variation and geographic distribution suggested that functional RFT1 alleles were selected during rice adaptation to high-latitude regions. Our results demonstrate the important roles of RFT1 in rice flowering and regional adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Potencial agronômico e divergência genética entre genótipos de berinjela nas condições do Caribe Colombiano Agronomic potential and genetic divergence among eggplant genotypes in the Colombian Caribbean region
the genetic diversity and agronomic traits we intend to initiate a program of eggplant breeding in that region. A randomized block design with three replications was used. The analyzed variables were fruit length, number of fruits per plant, mean fruit weight, yield, fruit firmness and plant height. The data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages grouped by Scott-Knott test. A multivariate analysis was also performed using different methods of hierarchical clustering and canonical variables. There was high divergence among the studied genotypes even when considered within hybrids, cultivars and landraces, with highest variability among the cultivars and hybrids followed by the landraces. The UPGMA method was more reliable than Ward and Single Linkage methods since UPGMA presented greater value of Cophenetic Correlation Coefficient (CCC. Using pseudo-F and pseudo-t² criteria the maximum point was reached when four clusters were formed, being considered the ideal number of groups for the UPGMA. There was agreement among the groups formed for UPGMA analysis and canonic variables. Crosses between CC08 x CC02; CC08 x EU01 and CC08 x C016 may be recommended to start an eggplant breeding program aiming to improve yield and fruit firmness.
Murphy, M.A.; Dezzani, R.; Pilliod, D.S.; Storfer, A.
Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a
Características agronômicas, produtividade, qualidade de vagens e divergência genética em feijão-vagem de crescimento indeterminado Agronomic characteristics, yield, pod quality and genetic divergence in pole beans
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a divergência genética entre quinze linhagens (Hav 13, Hav 14, Hav 21, Hav 22, Hav 25, Hav 38, Hav 40, Hav 41, Hav 49, Hav 53, Hav 56, Hav 64, Hav 65, Hav 67 e Hav 68 e cinco cultivares (Macarrão Favorito AG480, Macarrão Preferido AG482, Manteiga Maravilha AG481, Teresópolis AG484 e Macarrão Bragança de feijão-vagem de crescimento indeterminado, utilizando-se vinte características agronômicas. O ensaio foi conduzido na AGENCIARURAL - EE de Anápolis, no período de 30/04 a 10/08/1998. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de variância e multivariada (distância D² de Mahalanobis e o método de agrupamento de Tocher. Houve diferenças significativas entre os genótipos para as características consideradas. Os genótipos Hav 13, Hav 49, Hav 56, Hav 64, Hav 68, Favorito AG480 e Teresópolis AG484 destacaram-se com relação ao conjunto de características favoráveis a produtores e consumidores. Houve maior freqüência de pares com maiores distâncias, quando um dos componentes era a cultivar Teresópolis AG484 ou Hav 49, e de pares com menores distâncias quando seus componentes tiveram como ancestral comum a linhagem Hab 229. Os genótipos distribuíram-se em quatro grupos, sendo um constituído exclusivamente pela linhagem Hav 49, outro englobando as cultivares Manteiga Maravilha AG481 e Teresópolis AG484. A linhagem Hav 41 e as cultivares Macarrão Favorito AG480 e Macarrão Preferido AG482 um terceiro grupo, e os demais genótipos um único grupo. As características que mais contribuíram para a divergência entre os genótipos foram o número de dias para o início de floração e o comprimento das vagens, com 58,11% do total, seguidas da porcentagem de palha na vagem seca, da largura das vagens, das alturas das plantas nas duas épocas avaliadas, do peso médio de vagem e do número de vagens por planta que, em conjunto, contribuíram com 85,73% do total.Genetic divergence among fifteen breeding lines (Hav 13
Full Text Available The discrimination and taxonomic identification of marine species continues to pose a challenge despite the growing number of diagnostic metrics and approaches. This study examined the genetic relationship between two sibling species of the genus Calanus (Crustacea; Copepoda; Calanidae, C. agulhensis and C. sinicus, using a multi-gene analysis. DNA sequences were determined for portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI; nuclear citrate synthase (CS, and large subunit (28S rRNA genes for specimens collected from the Sea of Japan and North East (NE Pacific Ocean for C. sinicus and from the Benguela Current and Agulhas Bank, off South Africa, for C. agulhensis. For mtCOI, C. sinicus and C. agulhensis showed similar levels of haplotype diversity (H(d = 0.695 and 0.660, respectively and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively. Pairwise F(ST distances for mtCOI were significant only between C. agulhensis collected from the Agulhas and two C. sinicus populations: the Sea of Japan (F(ST = 0.152, p<0.01 and NE Pacific (F(ST = 0.228, p<0.005. Between the species, F(ST distances were low for both mtCOI (F(ST = 0.083, p = 0.003 and CS (F(ST = 0.050, p = 0.021. Large subunit (28S rRNA showed no variation between the species. Our results provide evidence of the lack of genetic distinction of C. sinicus and C. agulhensis, raise questions of whether C. agulhensis warrants status as a distinct species, and indicate the clear need for more intensive and extensive ecological and genetic analysis.
Kuznedelov, K D; Timoshkin, O A; Goldman, E
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of small ribosomal RNA genes were used for analysis of genetic differences among Asiatic species of freshwater triclad genus Bdellocephala. Representatives of four species and four subspecies of this genus were used to establish homology between nucleotides in the 5'-end portion of small ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Within 552 nucleotide sites of aligned sequences compared, six variable base positions were discovered, dividing Bdellocephala into five different genotypes. Sequence data allow to distinguish two groups of these genotypes. One of them unites species from Kamchatka and Japan, another one unites Baikalian taxa. Agreement between available morphological, cytological and sequence data is discussed.
Nxomani, C; Ribbink, A J; Kirby, R
Northwestern South Africa and Namibia contain a number of sinkholes in the dolomitic rock formations found in this area. These contain isolated populations of Tilapia. Most contain Tilapia sparmanii, but the one in Namibia, Guinas, is of particular interest as it contains the endemic species, Tilapia guinasana, which exhibits none sex-limited polychromatisms, which is unique for Tilapia. This sinkhole is under environmental threat, particularly as a result of being a recreational diving site. This study, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPDs), when analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), shows that the colour forms of Tilapia guinasana are genetically distinct. This confirms previous evidence that assortative mating between color forms takes place. The various possible hypotheses for the occurrence and genetic stability of the color polymorphism are discussed. Further, a new hypothesis is put forward based on a need to maximize outbreeding in fully isolated population with no possibility of increase in size above the maximum and limited carrying capacity of the sinkhole.
Evans, Melissa L.; Dionne, Mélanie; Miller, Kristina M.; Bernatchez, Louis
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent mating preferences have been observed across vertebrate taxa and these preferences are expected to promote offspring disease resistance and ultimately, viability. However, little empirical evidence linking MHC-dependent mate choice and fitness is available, particularly in wild populations. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of previously observed patterns of MHC-dependent mate choice in a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Québec, Canada, by examining the relationship between MHC genetic variation and adult reproductive success and offspring survival over 3 years of study. While Atlantic salmon choose their mates in order to increase MHC diversity in offspring, adult reproductive success was in fact maximized between pairs exhibiting an intermediate level of MHC dissimilarity. Moreover, patterns of offspring survival between years 0+ and 1+, and 1+ and 2+ and population genetic structure at the MHC locus relative to microsatellite loci indicate that strong temporal variation in selection is likely to be operating on the MHC. We interpret MHC-dependent mate choice for diversity as a likely bet-hedging strategy that maximizes parental fitness in the face of temporally variable and unpredictable natural selection pressures. PMID:21697172
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. However, its yield and fruit quality can be severely threatened by several pathogens. The plant nucleotide-binding site (NBS-leucine-rich repeat (LRR gene family is the largest class of known disease resistance genes (R genes effective against such pathogens. Therefore, the isolation and identification of such R gene homologues from pepper will provide a critical foundation for improving disease resistance breeding programs. Results A total of 78 R gene analogues (CaRGAs were identified in pepper by degenerate PCR amplification and database mining. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences for 51 of these CaRGAs with typically conserved motifs ( P-loop, kinase-2 and GLPL along with some known R genes from Arabidopsis and tomato grouped these CaRGAs into the non-Toll interleukin-1 receptor (TIR-NBS-LRR (CaRGAs I to IV and TIR-NBS-LRR (CaRGAs V to VII subfamilies. The presence of consensus motifs (i.e. P-loop, kinase-2 and hydrophobic domain is typical of the non-TIR- and TIR-NBS-LRR gene subfamilies. This finding further supports the view that both subfamilies are widely distributed in dicot species. Functional divergence analysis provided strong statistical evidence of altered selective constraints during protein evolution between the two subfamilies. Thirteen critical amino acid sites involved in this divergence were also identified using DIVERGE version 2 software. Analyses of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions per site showed that purifying selection can play a critical role in the evolutionary processes of non-TIR- and TIR-NBS-LRR RGAs in pepper. In addition, four specificity-determining positions were predicted to be responsible for functional specificity. qRT-PCR analysis showed that both salicylic and abscisic acids induce the expression of CaRGA genes, suggesting that they may primarily be involved in
Steimer, Thierry; Driscoll, Peter
The Swiss sublines of Roman high-(RHA/Verh) and low-(RLA/Verh) avoidance rats have been genetically selected for good vs. poor performance in two-way active avoidance since 1972. RLA/Verh rats show increased stress responses (e.g. freezing behaviour, ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin secretion) and adopt a more passive (or reactive) coping style when confronted with a novel environment. In the open field, elevated plus-maze, black/white box test, and in a new light/dark open field test, RLA/Verh rats appear to be more anxious than their RHA/Verh counterparts. Anxiety may result from their particular psychophysiological profile, i.e. increased emotionality combined with a passive coping style. In contrast, RHA/Verh rats are less responsive to stress, they show little anxiety in novel situations and tend to be impulsive and novelty (sensation) seekers. Some behavioural differences are already noticeable shortly after birth, but the full pattern appears to stabilize only after puberty. Gene-environment interactions are critical in establishing this pattern. The data reviewed indicate that the differences between RHA/Verh and RLA/Verh rats probably result from a complex interaction among divergent anxiety/emotionality characteristics, differences in locomotor activity and novelty/reward seeking, as well as active vs. passive coping styles. It is proposed further that these divergent personality types are to be found not only in other selective breeding programs but in the form of individual differences in most populations of rats used for this type of research.
Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro
Full Text Available Noventa genótipos de feijão carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. foram avaliados, em dois anos agrícolas, em Santa Maria, RS, a fim de definir quais características agromorfológicas constituem-se como melhores descritores, realizar agrupamento em função de dissimilaridade genética e de definir quais combinações híbridas mais promissoras serão obtidas para o desenvolvimento de populações segregantes. Dos 20 caracteres agromorfológicos avaliados, apenas nove (ferrugem nos legumes, acamamento, nota geral, cor do tegumento, rendimento de grãos, massa de 100 sementes, altura de inserção do primeiro legume, altura de inserção do último legume e número de sementes por legume apresentaram maior contribuição para a divergência genética. Os genótipos de feijão carioca foram agrupados pelo método hierárquico de ligação completa. Populações segregantes, com variabilidade genética superior, podem ser obtidas com hibridações entre o genótipo ESAL 550 com genótipos do grupo 2 (LH-6, 17-4-32, R-78, H-4-5 e R-102 e/ou com genótipos do grupo 3 (FT 97-188, Cati-Taquari, CII-328, Carioca Precoce, FT 97-41, LH-11, FT 91-4067, Iapar 31, CI 102, Carioca MG, CII-54 e R-102.Carioca bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated in two growing seasons in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The objectives of this work were to evaluate which morpho-agronomic characteristics were the best descriptors, to group the genotypes in relation to genetic diversity and to determine which hybrid combinations are promissing to obtain higher segregation populations in carioca bean. From the 20 morpho-agronomic characteristics evaluated, only seven (pod rust, lodging, general note, colour of seed tegument, grain yield, 100 seed weight, height of first and final pod insertion and number of seeds per pod showed higher contribution to genetic diversity. The evaluated carioca bean genotypes were clustered by the complete linkage method. The following hybrid
Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady
Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Crawford, E. A.; Hoffman, A. L.; Milroy, R. D.; Quimby, D. C.; Albrecht, G. F.
The CORK code is utilized to evaluate the applicability of low divergence ultraviolet lasers for efficient production of soft X-rays. The use of the axial hydrodynamic code wih one ozone radial expansion to estimate radial motion and laser energy is examined. The calculation of ionization levels of the plasma and radiation rates by employing the atomic physics and radiation model included in the CORK code is described. Computations using the hydrodynamic code to determine the effect of laser intensity, spot size, and wavelength on plasma electron temperature are provided. The X-ray conversion efficiencies of the lasers are analyzed. It is observed that for a 1 GW laser power the X-ray conversion efficiency is a function of spot size, only weakly dependent on pulse length for time scales exceeding 100 psec, and better conversion efficiencies are obtained at shorter wavelengths. It is concluded that these small lasers focused to 30 micron spot sizes and 10 to the 14th W/sq cm intensities are useful sources of 1-2 keV radiation.
Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton.
Hirt, Christian; Kuhn, Michael
Theoretically, spherical harmonic (SH) series expansions of the external gravitational potential are guaranteed to converge outside the Brillouin sphere enclosing all field-generating masses. Inside that sphere, the series may be convergent or may be divergent. The series convergence behavior is a highly unstable quantity that is little studied for high-resolution mass distributions. Here we shed light on the behavior of SH series expansions of the gravitational potential of the Moon. We present a set of systematic numerical experiments where the gravity field generated by the topographic masses is forward-modeled in spherical harmonics and with numerical integration techniques at various heights and different levels of resolution, increasing from harmonic degree 90 to 2160 ( 61 to 2.5 km scales). The numerical integration is free from any divergence issues and therefore suitable to reliably assess convergence versus divergence of the SH series. Our experiments provide unprecedented detailed insights into the divergence issue. We show that the SH gravity field of degree-180 topography is convergent anywhere in free space. When the resolution of the topographic mass model is increased to degree 360, divergence starts to affect very high degree gravity signals over regions deep inside the Brillouin sphere. For degree 2160 topography/gravity models, severe divergence (with several 1000 mGal amplitudes) prohibits accurate gravity modeling over most of the topography. As a key result, we formulate a new hypothesis to predict divergence: if the potential degree variances show a minimum, then the SH series expansions diverge somewhere inside the Brillouin sphere and modeling of the internal potential becomes relevant.
Feng, Shiqian; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George P; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Zhihong; Shao, Renfu
The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila is an important storage pest worldwide. The mitochondrial (mt) genome of an asexual strain (Beibei, China) of the L. bostrychophila comprises two chromosomes; each chromosome contains approximate half of the 37 genes typically found in bilateral animals. The mt genomes of two sexual strains of L. bostrychophila , however, comprise five and seven chromosomes, respectively; each chromosome contains one to six genes. To understand mt genome evolution in L. bostrychophila , and whether L. bostrychophila is a cryptic species, we sequenced the mt genomes of six strains of asexual L. bostrychophila collected from different locations in China, Croatia, and the United States. The mt genomes of all six asexual strains of L. bostrychophila have two chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of mt genome sequences divided nine strains of L. bostrychophila into four groups. Each group has a distinct mt genome organization and substantial sequence divergence (48.7-87.4%) from other groups. Furthermore, the seven asexual strains of L. bostrychophila , including the published Beibei strain, are more closely related to two other species of booklice, L. paeta and L. sculptilimacula , than to the sexual strains of L. bostrychophila Our results revealed highly divergent mt genomes in the booklouse, L. bostrychophila , and indicate that L. bostrychophila is a cryptic species. Copyright © 2018 Feng et al.
Full Text Available The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila is an important storage pest worldwide. The mitochondrial (mt genome of an asexual strain (Beibei, China of the L. bostrychophila comprises two chromosomes; each chromosome contains approximate half of the 37 genes typically found in bilateral animals. The mt genomes of two sexual strains of L. bostrychophila, however, comprise five and seven chromosomes, respectively; each chromosome contains one to six genes. To understand mt genome evolution in L. bostrychophila, and whether L. bostrychophila is a cryptic species, we sequenced the mt genomes of six strains of asexual L. bostrychophila collected from different locations in China, Croatia, and the United States. The mt genomes of all six asexual strains of L. bostrychophila have two chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of mt genome sequences divided nine strains of L. bostrychophila into four groups. Each group has a distinct mt genome organization and substantial sequence divergence (48.7–87.4% from other groups. Furthermore, the seven asexual strains of L. bostrychophila, including the published Beibei strain, are more closely related to two other species of booklice, L. paeta and L. sculptilimacula, than to the sexual strains of L. bostrychophila. Our results revealed highly divergent mt genomes in the booklouse, L. bostrychophila, and indicate that L. bostrychophila is a cryptic species.
João de Andrade Dutra Filho
/2008. A complete randomized block design with five replications was used. The variables analyzed were: pol tons per hectare (PTH, sugarcane tons per hectare (STH, fiber (FB, corrected pol % (CPP, purity (PTY, content of soluble solids (BX, reducing sugar (RS and total retrievable sugar (TRS. After analysis of variance and estimation of genetic parameters, the Mahalanobis distance was calculated for quantifying dissimilarity. We used average-linkage method (UPGMA and the optimization method of Tocher. The average coefficient of heritability was high for the variables PTH and STH indicating the possibility of success in selection for these characters. The methodology allowed identification of progenies with greater genetic divergence providing information for RIDESA sugarcane plant breeding on crosses to be made in the future.
Kops, M.S.; Kjaer, J.B.; Güntürkün, O.; Westphal, K.C.G.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H.; Olivier, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Korte, S.M.
Severe feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behavior causing welfare problems in laying hens. Divergent genetic selection for FP in White Leghorns resulted in strong differences in FP incidences between lines. More recently, it was shown that the high FP (HFP) birds have increased locomotor
Full Text Available The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. L. longipalpis s.l. is a species complex but until recently the existence of cryptic sibling species among Brazilian populations was a controversial issue. A fragment of paralytic (para, a voltage dependent sodium channel gene associated with insecticide resistance and courtship song production in Drosophila, was isolated and used as a molecular marker to study the divergence between two sympatric siblings of the L. longipalpis complex from Sobral, Brazil. The results revealed para as the first single locus DNA marker presenting fixed differences between the two species in this locality. In addition, two low frequency amino-acid changes in an otherwise very conserved region of the channel were observed, raising the possibility that it might be associated with incipient resistance in this vector. To the best of our knowledge, the present study represents the first population genetics analysis of insecticide resistance genes in this important leishmaniasis vector.
Full Text Available Abstract Selection for disease resistance related traits is a tool of choice for evidencing and exploring genetic variability and studying underlying resistance mechanisms. In this framework, chickens originating from a base population, homozygote for the B19 major histocompatibility complex (MHC were divergently selected for either progression or regression of tumors induced at 4 weeks of age by a SR-D strain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV. The first generation of selection was based on a progeny test and subsequent selections were performed on full-sibs. Data of 18 generations including a total of 2010 birds measured were analyzed for the tumor profile index (TPI, a synthetic criterion of resistance derived from recording the volume of the tumors and mortality. Response to selection and heritability of TPI were estimated using a restricted maximum likelihood method with an animal model. Significant progress was shown in both directions: the lines differing significantly for TPI and mortality becoming null in the "regressor" line. Heritability of TPI was estimated as 0.49 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.06 within the progressor and regressor lines respectively, and 0.46 ± 0.03 when estimated over lines. Preliminary results showed within the progressor line a possible association between one Rfp-Y type and the growth of tumors.
Isaacs, Sivan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering and TheIlse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); NEW CREATE Programme, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 CREATE Way, Research Wing, #02-06/08, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)
Using an insulator-metal-insulator structure with dielectric having refractive index (RI) larger than the analyte, long range surface plasmon (SP) resonance exhibiting ultra-high penetration depth is demonstrated for sensing applications of large bioentities at wavelengths in the visible range. Based on the diverging beam approach in Kretschmann-Raether configuration, one of the SP resonances is shown to shift in response to changes in the analyte RI while the other is fixed; thus, it can be used as a built in reference. The combination of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth and self-reference using the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth, self-reference, and the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected using large number of camera pixels with a smart algorithm for sub-pixel resolution, a sensor with ultra-low detection limit is demonstrated suitable for large bioentities.
van Schaik, J; Dekeukeleire, D; Kerth, G
Host-parasite interactions are ubiquitous in nature. However, how parasite population genetic structure is shaped by the interaction between host and parasite life history remains understudied. Studies comparing multiple parasites infecting a single host can be used to investigate how different parasite life history traits interplay with host behaviour and life history. In this study, we used 10 newly developed microsatellite loci to investigate the genetic structure of a parasitic bat fly (Basilia nana). Its host, the Bechstein's bat (Myotis bechsteinii), has a social system and roosting behaviour that restrict opportunities for parasite transmission. We compared fly genetic structure to that of the host and another parasite, the wing-mite, Spinturnix bechsteini. We found little spatial or temporal genetic structure in B. nana, suggesting a large, stable population with frequent genetic exchange between fly populations from different bat colonies. This contrasts sharply with the genetic structure of the wing-mite, which is highly substructured between the same bat colonies as well as temporally unstable. Our results suggest that although host and parasite life history interact to yield similar transmission patterns in both parasite species, the level of gene flow and eventual spatiotemporal genetic stability is differentially affected. This can be explained by the differences in generation time and winter survival between the flies and wing-mites. Our study thus exemplifies that the population genetic structure of parasites on a single host can vary strongly as a result of how their individual life history characteristics interact with host behaviour and life history traits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Renaut, S; Grassa, C J; Yeaman, S; Moyers, B T; Lai, Z; Kane, N C; Bowers, J E; Burke, J M; Rieseberg, L H
Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic divergence is lower in sympatric and parapatric comparisons, consistent with a role for gene flow in eroding neutral differences. However, genomic islands of divergence are numerous and small in all comparisons, and contrary to expectations, island number and size are not significantly affected by levels of interspecific gene flow. Rather, island formation is strongly associated with reduced recombination rates. Overall, our results indicate that the functional architecture of genomes plays a larger role in shaping genomic divergence than does the geography of speciation.
Kulish, Yu.V.; Rybachuk, E.V.
The currents for the interaction of the massive high-spin boson (J≥1) with two spinless particles are derived. These currents obey the theorem on currents and fields as well as the theorem on current asymptotics. In one-loop approximation the contributions of high-spin boson to the self-energy operator for a spinless particle are calculated. It is shown that in one loop approximation the high-spin boson contributions for any spin J and mass lead to finite self-energy operators of spinless-particle
Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P. sylveirae in a spatial-temporal framework was performed to investigate: the presence of genetic structure and its relationship with the geography, the evolution of distinct morphologic lineages and the possible historical event(s) in Neotropical region, which could explain the observed phylogeographic pattern. Individuals of P. sylveirae were obtained from populations of 16 areas throughout its distribution for DNA extraction and amplification of mitochondrial genes 12S, 16S and COI. Analysis of genetic diversity, construction of haplotype net, analysis of population structure and dating analysis of divergence time were performed. A morphometric analysis was also performed using 8 measures of the body of the adult (workers) to test if there are morphological distinction among populations. Thirty-five haplotypes were identified, most of them exclusively of a group and a high population structure was found. The possibility of genetic divergence because of isolation by distance was rejected. Morphological analysis pointed to a great uniformity in phenotypes, with only a small degree of differentiation between populations of south and the remaining. Divergence time analysis showed a Middle/Late Miocene origin, a period where an extensive marine ingression occurred in South America. Divergence of haplogroups began from the Plio/Pleistocene boundary
da Silva, Marjorie; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; E Castro, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa
Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P. sylveirae in a spatial-temporal framework was performed to investigate: the presence of genetic structure and its relationship with the geography, the evolution of distinct morphologic lineages and the possible historical event(s) in Neotropical region, which could explain the observed phylogeographic pattern. Individuals of P. sylveirae were obtained from populations of 16 areas throughout its distribution for DNA extraction and amplification of mitochondrial genes 12S, 16S and COI. Analysis of genetic diversity, construction of haplotype net, analysis of population structure and dating analysis of divergence time were performed. A morphometric analysis was also performed using 8 measures of the body of the adult (workers) to test if there are morphological distinction among populations. Thirty-five haplotypes were identified, most of them exclusively of a group and a high population structure was found. The possibility of genetic divergence because of isolation by distance was rejected. Morphological analysis pointed to a great uniformity in phenotypes, with only a small degree of differentiation between populations of south and the remaining. Divergence time analysis showed a Middle/Late Miocene origin, a period where an extensive marine ingression occurred in South America. Divergence of haplogroups began from the Plio/Pleistocene boundary
Full Text Available The spatial distribution of genetic diversity has been long considered as a key component of policy development for management and conservation of marine fishes. However, unraveling the population genetic structure of migratory fish species is challenging due to high potential for gene flow. Despite the shallow population differentiation revealed by putatively neutral loci, the higher genetic differentiation with panels of putatively adaptive loci could provide greater resolution for stock identification. Here, patterns of population differentiation of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis were investigated by genotyping 15 highly polymorphic microsatellites in 337 individuals of 15 geographic populations collected from both spawning and overwintering grounds. Outlier analyses indicated that the locus Lpol03 might be under directional selection, which showed a strong homology with Grid2 gene encoding the glutamate receptor δ2 protein (GluRδ2. Based on Lpol03, two distinct clusters were identified by both STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses, suggesting that there were two overwintering aggregations of L. polyactis. A novel migration pattern was suggested for L. polyactis, which was inconsistent with results of previous studies based on historical fishing yield statistics. These results provided new perspectives on the population genetic structure and migratory routes of L. polyactis, which could have significant implications for sustainable management and utilization of this important fishery resource.
Al Faress, Shaker; Cartet, Gaëlle; Ferraris, Olivier; Norder, Helene; Valette, Martine; Lina, Bruno
Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on their hemagglutinin (H1 to H15) and neuraminidase (N1 to N9) glycoproteins. Of these, three A subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 circulate in the human population. Influenza A viruses display a high antigenic variability called "antigenic drift" which allows the virus to escape antibody neutralization. Evaluate the mutations apparition that might predict a divergent antigenic evolution of hemagglutinin in influenza A H1N1 and A H1N2 viruses. During the three winters of 2001-2002 to 2003-2004, 58 A H1N1 and 23 A H1N2 subtypes have been isolated from patients with influenza-like illness in the south of France. The HA1 region was analyzed by RT-PCR and subsequently sequenced to compare the HA1 genetic evolution of influenza A H1N1 and A H1N2 subtypes. Our results showed that 28 amino acid substitutions have accumulated in the HA1 region since the circulation of A/New Caledonia/20/99-like viruses in France. Of these, fifteen were located in four antigenic sites (B, C, D and E). Six of them were observed only in the A H1N2 isolates, six only in the A H1N1 isolates and three in both subtypes. Furthermore, nine of twenty two A H1N2 isolates from the winter of 2002-2003 shared a T90A amino acid change which has not been observed in any A H1N1 isolate; resulting in the introduction of a new glycosylation site close to the antigenic site E. This might mask some antigenic E determinants and therefore, modify the A H1N2 antigenicity. The divergent genetic evolution of hemagglutinin may ultimately lead to a significant different antigenicity between A H1N1 and A H1N2 subtypes that would require the introduction of a new subtype in the vaccine batches.
Rodenburg, T Bas; de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm
Feather pecking (FP) remains a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. FP has been found to be related to other behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness. There are indications that fearful birds are more likely to develop FP. Furthermore, FP can lead to increased fearfulness...... in the victims. To investigate further the relationship between FP and fearfulness, feather damage and behavioural fear responses were recorded in three White Leghorn lines of laying hens: a line selected for high FP (HFP line), a line selected for low FP (LFP line) and an unselected control line (10th...... in fear responses between the HFP and LFP lines were not found, neither in the TI-test, nor in the HA or NO test. As expected, birds from the HFP line had considerably more feather damage than birds from the LFP line and birds from the unselected control line were intermediate. Cages that withdrew from...
Maciak, S; Bonda-Ostaszewska, E; Czarnołęski, M; Konarzewski, M; Kozłowski, J
Evolution of metabolic rates of multicellular organisms is hypothesized to reflect the evolution of their cell architecture. This is likely to stem from a tight link between the sizes of cells and nuclei, which are expected to be inversely related to cell metabolism. Here, we analysed basal metabolic rate (BMR), internal organ masses and the cell/nucleus size in different tissues of laboratory mice divergently selected for high/low mass-corrected BMR and four random-bred mouse lines. Random-bred lines had intermediate levels of BMR as compared to low- and high-BMR lines. Yet, this pattern was only partly consistent with the between-line differences in cell/nucleus sizes. Erythrocytes and skin epithelium cells were smaller in the high-BMR line than in other lines, but the cells of low-BMR and random-bred mice were similar in size. On the other hand, the size of hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubule cells and duodenum enterocytes were larger in high-BMR mice than other lines. All cell and nucleus sizes were positively correlated, which supports the role of the nucleus in cell size regulation. Our results suggest that the evolution of high BMR involves a reduction in cell size in specialized tissues, whose functions are primarily dictated by surface-to-volume ratios, such as erythrocytes. High BMR may, however, also incur an increase in cell size in tissues with an intense transcription and translation, such as hepatocytes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Overall, the results indicated some level of phenotypic divergence of the fish ... divergence cannot be partitioned between fishing mortality, genetic .... female fish was estimated from the egg counts ..... that greatly improved the quality of the.
The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multi-subunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components, necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme, appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomer (~600 kDa) and dimer (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits, a, b and d, can be identified from conserved structural features. Orthologs for these proteins are restricted to apicomplexan, chromerid and dinoflagellate species. Interestingly, their absence in ciliates indicates a major diversion, with respect to subunit composition of this enzyme, within the alveolate clade. Discovery of these highly diversified novel components of the apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase complex will facilitate the development of novel anti-parasitic agents. Structural and functional characterization of this unusual enzyme complex will advance our fundamental understanding of energy metabolism in apicomplexan species.
Kalmendal, R; Bessei, W
Earlier studies in laying hens have demonstrated a negative correlation between feather pecking and the dietary fiber content of the feed. However, the factors underlying this relationship are not fully understood. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that birds prone to feather pecking would prefer a diet supplemented with dietary fiber. Thus, the aim was to investigate the voluntary consumption of a wheat-soy control diet (CON) and a diet supplemented with 8% spelt hulls (FIB) on the expense of wheat in 20 individually caged hens selected for high feather pecking (HFP) behavior and 20 individually caged hens selected for low feather pecking (LFP) behavior. The proportional intake of FIB was 0.39 and significantly different from 0.50 (Phens (0.36; Phens had inferior plumage condition (Pfeed intake (Phens plucked more feathers from a simple inanimate feather-pecking model, but the number of feathers being pulled out did not correlate with the proportional intake of FIB. It was concluded that the preference for feed supplemented with spelt hulls was different between hens displaying different feather-pecking behavior. The underlying reason for such a difference needs further investigation.
Salunke, Rahul; Mourier, Tobias; Banerjee, Manidipa; Pain, Arnab; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran
The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multi-subunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components, necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme, appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomer (~600 kDa) and dimer (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits, a, b and d, can be identified from conserved structural features. Orthologs for these proteins are restricted to apicomplexan, chromerid and dinoflagellate species. Interestingly, their absence in ciliates indicates a major diversion, with respect to subunit composition of this enzyme, within the alveolate clade. Discovery of these highly diversified novel components of the apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase complex will facilitate the development of novel anti-parasitic agents. Structural and functional characterization of this unusual enzyme complex will advance our fundamental understanding of energy metabolism in apicomplexan species.
Full Text Available Studying closely related species and divergent populations provides insight into the process of speciation. Previous studies showed that the Sibiraea complex's evolutionary history on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP was confusing and could not be distinguishable on the molecular level. In this study, the genetic structure and gene flow of S. laevigata and S. angustata on the QTP was examined across 45 populations using 8 microsatellite loci. Microsatellites revealed high genetic diversity in Sibiraea populations. Most of the variance was detected within populations (87.45% rather than between species (4.39%. We found no significant correlations between genetic and geographical distances among populations. Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all individuals in the sympatric area of Sibiraea into one cluster and other individuals of S. angustata into another. Divergence history analysis based on the approximate Bayesian computation method indicated that the populations of S. angustata at the sympatric area derived from the admixture of 2 species. The assignment test assigned all individuals to populations of their own species rather than its congeneric species. Consistently, intraspecies were detected rather than interspecies ﬁrst-generation migrants. The bidirectional gene flow in long-term patterns between the 2 species was asymmetric, with more from S. angustata to S. laevigata. In conclusion, the Sibiraea complex was distinguishable on the molecular level using microsatellite loci. We found that the high genetic similarity of these 2 species resulted from huge bidirectional gene flow, especially on the sympatric area where population admixtures between the species occurred.
Francisco Hevilásio F. Pereira
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a divergência genética de acessos de taro pertencentes ao Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da UFV por meio dos caracteres morfo-qualitativos de inflorescências. O experimento foi conduzido a campo em Viçosa, de setembro/2000 a julho/2001. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e 36 tratamentos (clones, dos quais apenas 11 acessos (BGH 5920, BGH 5926, BGH 5927, BGH 6087, BGH 6089, BGH 6091, BGH 6093, BGH 6094, BGH 6136, BGH 6306 e BGH 6606 apresentaram florescimento espontâneo, passíveis de serem avaliados. A proporção entre o apêndice estéril e porção masculina foi em média de 1,02, variando de 0,4 (BGH 6136 a 1,4 (BGH 6087. A inflorescência é circundada por uma espata cuja coloração da parte superior (CL varia do amarelo claro, com ou sem a presença de manchas vermelhas, ao amarelo alaranjado. A cor da porção inferior da espata, contendo as flores femininas (tubo da inflorescência, varia do verde, com ou sem raias ou manchas escuras a púrpura. A espata, na antese, apresenta-se na forma aplanada (BGH 5920, BGH 5926, BGH 6091, BGH 6093, BGH 6094 e BGH 6306 ou encapuchada (BGH 5927, BGH 6087, BGH 6089, BGH 6136 e BGH 6606, com a porção masculina exposta ou envolta, respectivamente. A cor da haste das inflorescências (pedúnculo variou do verde claro ao púrpuro, com proporção entre comprimentos do pedúnculo e da inflorescência (PCPI média de 1,8, variando de 1,1 (BGH 5927 a 2,3 (BGH 6089. As inflorescências saem em número de 1 a 5 por axila foliar (NIAF e apresentam de 1 a 2 ramalhetes florais por planta (NRFP. Os acessos de taro, agrupados pelo método de Tocher, formaram quatro grupos: I (BGH 5920, BGH 6091, BGH 6093, BGH 6094, BGH 5926, BGH 6606 e BGH 6087, II (BGH 6089 e BGH 6306, III (BGH 6136 e IV (BGH 5927. Com base na dispersão dos últimos componentes principais, as variáveis NRFP, CL, PCPI e NIAF, demonstraram ser de pouca importância para a
Grahn, D.; Garriott, M.L.; Farrington, B.H.; Lee, C.H.; Russell, J.J.
The objectives of this project are: (1) to assess genetic hazards from testicular burdens of 239 Pu and determine its retention and microdistribution in the testis; (2) to compare effects of 239 Pu with single, weekly, and continuous 60 Co gamma irradiation and single and weekly fission neutron irradiation to develop a basis for estimating relative biological effectiveness (RBE); and (3) to develop detailed dose-response data for genetic end points of concern at low doses of neutrons and gamma rays. Comparatively short-term genetic end points are used, namely: (1) the dominant lethal mutation rate in premeiotic and postmeiotic cell stages; (2) the frequency of abnormal sperm head morphology measured at various times after irradiation; and (3) the frequency of reciprocal chromosome translocations induced in spermatogonia and measured at first meiotic metaphase. Male hybrid B6CF 1 mice, 120 days old, are used for all studies. Measures of the retention, microdistributionand pollutant related changes. Assessment of human risk associated with nuclearing collective dose commitment will result in more attention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal
Zhang, Huihui; Li, Jie; Yang, Bei; Ji, Tao; Long, Zhouting; Xing, Qiquan; Shao, Di; Bai, Huayu; Sun, Jiwei; Cao, Fenglin
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val 158 Met functional polymorphisms play a crucial role in the development of executive function (EF), but their effect may be moderated by environmental factors such as childhood adversity. The present study aimed at testing the divergent impact of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on EF in non-clinical adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity. A total of 341 participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the self-reported version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and self-administered questionnaires on familial function. The participants' COMT Val 158 Met genotype was determined. Associations among the variables were explored using latent class analysis and general linear models. We found that Val/Val homozygotes showed significantly worse performance on behavioral shift, relative to Met allele carriers (F=5.921, p=0.015, Partial η 2 =0.018). Moreover, three typical patterns of childhood adversity, namely, low childhood adversity (23.5%), childhood neglect (59.8%), and high childhood adversity (16.7%), were found. Both childhood neglect and high childhood adversity had a negative impact on each aspect of EF and on global EF performance. Importantly, these results provided evidence for significant interaction effects, as adolescents with the Val/Val genotype showed inferior behavioral shift performance than Met carriers (F=6.647, p=0.010, Partial η 2 =0.020) in the presence of high childhood adversity. Furthermore, there were no differences between the genotypes for childhood neglect and low childhood adversity. Overall, this is the first study to show that an interaction between the COMT genotype and childhood adversity affects EF in non-clinical adolescents. These results suggest that the COMT genotype may operate as a susceptibility gene vulnerable to an adverse environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of genetic algorithms ...
Full Text Available European populations of the geophilomorph centipede Haplophilus subterraneus show a high proportion of individuals with morphological anomalies, suggesting high levels of developmental instability. The broad geographic distribution of this phenomenon seems to exclude local environmental causes, but the source of instability is still to be identified. The goal of the present study was to collect quantitative data on the occurrence of phenodeviants in different populations, along with data on the patterns of genetic variation within and between populations, in order to investigate possible association between developmental instability and genetic features. In a sample of 11 populations of H. subterraneus, distributed in western and central Europe, we looked for phenodeviants, in particular with respect to trunk morphology, and studied genetic variation through the genotyping of microsatellite loci. Overall, no support was found to the idea that developmental instability in H. subterraneus is related to a specific patterns of genetic variation, including inbreeding estimates. We identified a major genetic partition that subdivides French populations from the others, and a low divergence among northwestern areas, which are possibly related to the post-glacial recolonization from southern refugia and/or to recent anthropogenic soil displacements. A weak correlation between individual number of leg bearing segments and the occurrence of trunk anomalies seems to support a trade-off between these two developmental traits. These results, complemented by preliminary data on developmental stability in two related species, suggest that the phenomenon has not a simple taxonomic distribution, while it exhibits an apparent localization in central and eastern Europe.
Johnson, Kevin P; Allen, Julie M; Olds, Brett P; Mugisha, Lawrence; Reed, David L; Paige, Ken N; Pittendrigh, Barry R
The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were positively correlated across genes. Because this correlation only occurred for substitutions that changed the amino acid, this pattern is probably produced by similar functional constraints across the same genes in humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasites.
Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L
Skeletal muscle is extremely adaptable to a variety of metabolic challenges, as both traditional moderate-intensity endurance (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases oxidative potential in a coordinated manner. Although these responses have been clearly demonstrated in healthy individuals, it remains to be determined whether both produce similar responses in the context of hypertension, one of the most prevalent and costly diseases worldwide. Therefore, in the current study, we used the Dahl sodium-sensitive rat, a model of hypertension, to determine the molecular responses to 4 wk of either ET or HIIT in the red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles. In the RG, both ET and HIIT increased the content of electron transport chain proteins and increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) content in type I fibers. Although both intensities of exercise shifted fiber type in RG (increased IIA, decreased IIX), only HIIT was associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an increase in HIF-1α proteins. In the WG, both ET and HIIT increased markers of the electron transport chain; however, HIIT decreased SDH content in a fiber-specific manner. ET increased type IIA, decreased IIB fibers, and increased capillarization, while, in contrast, HIIT increased the percentage of IIB fibers, decreased capillary-to-fiber ratios, decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and increased hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. Altogether, these data show that unlike in healthy animals, ET and HIIT have divergent effects in the skeletal muscle of hypertensive rats. This suggests ET may be optimal at improving the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in animals with hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cat that had ostensibly recovered from feline leukemia virus (FeLV infection, we observed the reappearance of the virus and the development of fatal lymphoma 8.5 years after the initial experimental exposure to FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The goals of the present study were to investigate this FeLV reoccurrence and molecularly characterize the progeny viruses. Results The FeLV reoccurrence was detected by the presence of FeLV antigen and RNA in the blood and saliva. The cat was feline immunodeficiency virus positive and showed CD4+ T-cell depletion, severe leukopenia, anemia and a multicentric monoclonal B-cell lymphoma. FeLV-A, but not -B or -C, was detectable. Sequencing of the envelope gene revealed three FeLV variants that were highly divergent from the virus that was originally inoculated (89-91% identity to FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. In the long terminal repeat 31 point mutations, some previously described in cats with lymphomas, were detected. The FeLV variant tissue provirus and viral RNA loads were significantly higher than the FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 loads. Moreover, the variant loads were significantly higher in lymphoma positive compared to lymphoma negative tissues. An increase in the variant provirus blood load was observed at the time of FeLV reoccurrence. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ostensibly recovered FeLV provirus-positive cats may act as a source of infection following FeLV reactivation. The virus variants that had largely replaced the inoculation strain had unusually heavily mutated envelopes. The mutations may have led to increased viral fitness and/or changed the mutagenic characteristics of the virus.
High-resolution melt-curve analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-HRM) for the characterisation of pathogenic leptospires: intra-serovar divergence, inter-serovar convergence, and evidence of attenuation in Leptospira reference collections.
Tulsiani, S M; Craig, S B; Graham, G C; Cobbold, R C; Dohnt, M F; Burns, M-A; Jansen, C C; Leung, L K-P; Field, H E; Smythe, L D
High-resolution melt-curve analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-HRM) is a novel technology that has emerged as a possible method to characterise leptospires to serovar level. RAPD-HRM has recently been used to measure intra-serovar convergence between strains of the same serovar as well as inter-serovar divergence between strains of different serovars. The results indicate that intra-serovar heterogeneity and inter-serovar homogeneity may limit the application of RAPD-HRM in routine diagnostics. They also indicate that genetic attenuation of aged, high-passage-number isolates could undermine the use of RAPD-HRM or any other molecular technology. Such genetic attenuation may account for a general decrease seen in titres of rabbit hyperimmune antibodies over time. Before RAPD-HRM can be further advanced as a routine diagnostic tool, strains more representative of the wild-type serovars of a given region need to be identified. Further, RAPD-HRM analysis of reference strains indicates that the routine renewal of reference collections, with new isolates, may be needed to maintain the genetic integrity of the collections.
Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Madsen, O.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.
The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an
Full Text Available Dipteryx alata is a native fruit tree species of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna that has great economic potential because of its multiple uses. Knowledge of how the genetic variability of this species is organized within and among populations would be useful for genetic conservation and breeding programs. We used nine simple sequence repeat (SSR primers developed for Dipteryx odorata to evaluate the genetic structure of three populations of D. alata located in central Brazil based on a leaf sample analysis from 101 adults. The outcrossing rate was evaluated using 300 open-pollinated offspring from 25 seed-trees. Pollen dispersal was measured by parentage analysis. We used spatial genetic structure (SGS to test the minimal distance for harvesting seeds in conservation and breeding programs. Our data indicate that the populations studied had a high degree of genetic diversity and population structure, as suggested by the high level of divergence among populations . The estimated outcrossing rate suggested a mixed mating system, and the intrapopulation fixation index was influenced by SGS. We conclude that seed harvesting for genetic conservation and breeding programs requires a minimum distance between trees of 196 m to avoid collecting seeds from related seed-trees.
Análise multivariada da divergência genética de genótipos de arroz sob estresse salino durante a fase vegetativa Multivariate analysis of genetic divergence of genotypes of rice under salt stress during the vegetative phase
Letícia Carvalho Benitez
of varieties with tolerance to high salinity. Hus the aim of this work is to evaluate genetic divergence among rice genotypes, aiming at the selection of genotypes tolerant to salinity during the vegetative phase. Seeds of 10 rice genotypes were grown in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 0 and 136 mM NaCl. After 21 days, six morphological characters were evaluated and the results subjected to multivariate analysis. The methods of Tocher, based on Mahalanobis distance, and graphic dispersion of canonic variables followed the same pattern of clustering structure, forming six groups. The characteristic of shoot fresh weight was the largest contributor to the genetic dissimilarity between genotypes by the method of Singh, while the other two canonic variables were sufficient to account for 91.27% of observed variation. Under the experimental conditions tested, the genotypes showed different degrees of salinity tolerance, while Colossus BRS, BRS Bojuru and BR IRGA 410, belonging to the groups three and four, were those who were more tolerant genotype and Moti, belonging to two what was more sensitive to salt stress.
Karen Cristina Leite Silva
Full Text Available The use of genetic diversity as a basis for identifying combinations which are superior to the parents, with a greater heterozygosity, is important in view of the difficulty when selecting promising genotypes for a breeding program. Given the above, the aim of this work was to evaluate genetic diversity in maize genotypes with and without a topdressing of nitrogen fertiliser, using characteristics of the growth stage of the crop. Two field experiments were carried out in Gurupi, in the south of the state of Tocantins, Brazil (TO, one with and another without a topdressing of N fertilizer (1 - no N topdressing, 2 - 150 kg N ha-1. The treatments consisted of 12 genotypes (six open-pollinated populations, and six S5 strains. In applying the technique of clustering to the genotypes, the Generalised Mahalanobis Distance (D2 was adopted as dissimilarity measure. To establish similar groups, the agglomerative hierarchical method of optimisation proposed by Tocher was applied. In addition, Singh’s criterion was used to quantify the relative contribution to genetic divergence of the characteristics under evaluation. The characteristics, Chlorophyll-a and total chlorophyll, displayed the greatest contribution to genetic divergence, when there was no topdressing of nitrogen fertiliser and with the use of 150 kg N ha-1 respectively. A topdressing of nitrogen influenced both the vegetative development of the genotypes, and the expression of their genetic variability. = A utilização da divergência genética como base para a identificação de combinações superiores aos progenitores, apresentando maior heterozigose, faz-se importante diante da dificuldade de escolha de genótipos promissores em um programa de melhoramento. Com base no exposto, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a divergência genética de genótipos de milho com e sem adubação nitrogenada em cobertura, utilizando características do estágio vegetativo da cultura, no sul do Estado
Limborg, Morten; Hanel, R.; Debes, P.
.) by combining inference from both mtDNA and microsatellite genetic markers throughout the species’ distribution. We compared effects from genetic drift and mutation for both genetic markers in shaping genetic differentiation across four transition zones. Microsatellite markers revealed significant isolation...... by distance and a complex population structure across the species0 distribution (overall yST¼0.038, Po0.01). Across transition zones markers indicated larger effects of genetic drift over mutations in the northern distribution of sprat contrasting a stronger relative impact of mutation in the species...
diversity in an urban population of Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii). J. Genet. 95, e19–e24. ... high quality habitat for this species (Boggie and Mannan. 2014) and the rapid ... The high densities of birds in urban populations can result in the ..... comparing urban and rural Cooper's hawk populations are mandatory to ...
Díaz, B G; Argollo, D M; Franco, M C; Nucci, S M; Siqueira, W J; de Laat, D M; Colombo, C A
Jatropha curcas L. is a highly promising oilseed for sustainable production of biofuels and bio-kerosene due to its high oil content and excellent quality. However, it is a perennial and incipiently domesticated species with none stable cultivar created until now despite genetic breeding programs in progress in several countries. Knowledge of the genetic structure and diversity of the species is a necessary step for breeding programs. The molecular marker can be used as a tool for speed up the process. This study was carried out to assess genetic diversity of a germplasm bank represented by J. curcas accessions from different provenance beside interspecific hybrid and backcrosses generated by IAC breeding programs using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. The molecular study revealed 271 bands of which 98.9% were polymorphic with an average of 22.7 polymorphic bands per primer. Genetic diversity of the germplasm evaluated was slightly higher than other germplasm around the world and ranged from 0.55 to 0.86 with an average of 0.59 (Jaccard index). Cluster analysis (UPGMA) revealed no clear grouping as to the geographical origin of accessions, consistent with genetic structure analysis using the Structure software. For diversity analysis between groups, accessions were divided into eight groups by origin. Nei's genetic distance between groups was 0.14. The results showed the importance of Mexican accessions, congeneric wild species, and interspecific hybrids for conservation and development of new genotypes in breeding programs.
Bruno F. Melo
Full Text Available Evidence that migration prevents population structure among Neotropical characiform fishes has been reported recently but the effects upon species diversification remain unclear. Migratory species of Prochilodus have complex species boundaries and intrincate taxonomy representing a good model to address such questions. Here, we analyzed 147 specimens through barcode sequences covering all species of Prochilodus across a broad geographic area of South America. Species delimitation and population genetic methods revealed very little genetic divergence among mitochondrial lineages suggesting that extensive gene flow resulted likely from the highly migratory behavior, natural hybridization or recent radiation prevent accumulation of genetic disparity among lineages. Our results clearly delimit eight genetic lineages in which four of them contain a single species and four contain more than one morphologically problematic taxon including a trans-Andean species pair and species of the P. nigricans group. Information about biogeographic distribution of haplotypes presented here might contribute to further research on the population genetics and taxonomy of Prochilodus.
Pearce, S L; Clarke, D F; East, P D
BACKGROUND: Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea are major caterpillar pests of Old and New World agriculture, respectively. Both, particularly H. armigera, are extremely polyphagous, and H. armigera has developed resistance to many insecticides. Here we use comparative genomics, transcriptom......BACKGROUND: Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea are major caterpillar pests of Old and New World agriculture, respectively. Both, particularly H. armigera, are extremely polyphagous, and H. armigera has developed resistance to many insecticides. Here we use comparative genomics......, transcriptomics and resequencing to elucidate the genetic basis for their properties as pests. RESULTS: We find that, prior to their divergence about 1.5 Mya, the H. armigera/H. zea lineage had accumulated up to more than 100 more members of specific detoxification and digestion gene families and more than 100...... lacks certain genes and alleles conferring insecticide resistance found in H. armigera. Non-synonymous sites in the expanded gene families above are rapidly diverging, both between paralogues and between orthologues in the two species. Whole genome transcriptomic analyses of H. armigera larvae show...
Jiandong YANG, Zhihe ZHANG, Fujun SHEN, Xuyu YANG, Liang ZHANG, Limin CHEN, Wenping ZHANG, Qing ZHU, Rong HOU
Full Text Available Understanding present patterns of genetic diversity is critical in order to design effective conservation and management strategies for endangered species. Tangjiahe Nature Reserve (NR is one of the most important national reserves for giant pandas Ailuropoda melanoleuca in China. Previous studies have shown that giant pandas in Tangjiahe NR may be threatened by population decline and fragmentation. Here we used 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess the genetic variability in the Tangjiahe population. The results indicate a low level of genetic differentiation between the Hongshihe and Motianling subpopulations in the reserve. Assignment tests using the Bayesian clustering method in STRUCTURE identified one genetic cluster from 42 individuals of the two subpopulations. All individuals from the same subpopulation were assigned to one cluster. This indicates high gene flow between subpopulations. F statistic analyses revealed a low FIS-value of 0.024 in the total population and implies a randomly mating population in Tangjiahe NR. Additionally, our data show a high level of genetic diversity for the Tangjiahe population. Mean allele number (A, Allelic richness (AR and mean expected heterozygosity (HE for the Tangjiahe population was 5.9, 5.173 and 0.703, respectively. This wild giant panda population can be restored through concerted effort [Current Zoology 57 (6: 717–724, 2011].
Vigna, Bianca Baccili Zanotto; de Oliveira, Fernanda Ancelmo; de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; da Silva, Carla Cristina; do Valle, Cacilda Borges; de Souza, Anete Pereira
Urochloa humidicola (Koronivia grass) is a polyploid (6x to 9x) species that is used as forage in the tropics. Facultative apospory apomixis is present in most of the genotypes of this species, although one individual has been described as sexual. Molecular studies have been restricted to molecular marker approaches for genetic diversity estimations and linkage map construction. The objectives of the present study were to describe and compare the leaf transcriptome of two important genotypes that are highly divergent in terms of their phenotypes and reproduction modes: the sexual BH031 and the aposporous apomictic cultivar BRS Tupi. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of Koronivia grass using an Illumina GAIIx system, which produced 13.09 Gb of data that consisted of 163,575,526 paired-end reads between the two libraries. We de novo-assembled 76,196 transcripts with an average length of 1,152 bp and filtered 35,093 non-redundant unigenes. A similarity search against the non-redundant National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database returned 65 % hits. We annotated 24,133 unigenes in the Phytozome database and 14,082 unigenes in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database, assigned 108,334 gene ontology terms to 17,255 unigenes and identified 5,324 unigenes in 327 known metabolic pathways. Comparisons with other grasses via a reciprocal BLAST search revealed a larger number of orthologous genes for the Panicum species. The unigenes were involved in C4 photosynthesis, lignocellulose biosynthesis and flooding stress responses. A search for functional molecular markers revealed 4,489 microsatellites and 560,298 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the RNA-seq expression analysis and allowed for the identification of transcriptomic differences between the two evaluated genotypes. Moreover, 192 unannotated sequences were classified as containing complete open reading frames, suggesting that the new
Seed, S.; Barozai, M.Y.K.; Ahmed, A.; Tareen, R.B.
Juniperusexcelsa (Cupressaceae) is an evergreen tree and the second most diverse group of the conifers distributed abundantly in high elevation zones of Balochistan. Genetic and phytochemical variations in three naturally occurring populations of J.excelsa were analysed. Genetic variability was assessed by different molecular markers (RAPD, ISSR and URP) with an objective to use genetic diversity as a key to conserve the taxon which is also known as living fossil as dominated in Mesozoic era. Genetic diversity was assessed by polymorphic bands to generate a dendrogram based on UPGMA. Using tested markers, 116 bands were amplified out of which 67 bands were polymorphic with an average value of 8.37 (57%) bands per primer. Based on data, a cluster dendrogram was prepared that exhibited the mean genetic similarity matrix as 0.57 and two major clusters diverge at 0.49. The genetic similarity coefficient among all accessions ranged from 0.35 to 0.90. In phytochemical analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated and compared among all accessions. Ecological characteristics of the study sites were measured to check their impact on genetic and chemical variation. Soil properties were analyzed for Principal Component Analysis. Chemical variation of J. excelsa of three sites revealed by dissimilarity matrix exhibiting genetic distance based on TPC and Flavonoids. Cluster analysis represent two major groups. Mean concentration of TPC and flavonoids were 56+-9.15 and 150+-27.9 mg/g respectively. PCA of soil considered three factors had Eigen values >1 and explain cumulatively 4.60 %, 26.02% and 10.36 % of the variance. First factor was positively correlated with second and fifth, but negatively correlated with other factors. In conclusion, molecular marker profiling together with phytochemical variation of total phenolic and flavonoid content in all accessions of Juniperusexcelsa and impact of ecological diversity on Genetic and chemical variation can be used
Kevin C. Deitz
Full Text Available Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression.
Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt
The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...
Vahidi, S.M.F.; Faruque, M.O.; Falahati Anbaran, M.; Afraz, F.; Mousavi, S.M.; Boettcher, P.; Joost, S.; Han, J.L.; Colli, L.; Periasamy, K.; Negrini, R.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.
Full text: Iranian livestock diversity is still largely unexplored, in spite of the interest in the populations historically reared in this country located near the Fertile Crescent, a major livestock domestication centre. In this investigation, the genetic diversity and differentiation of 10 Iranian indigenous fat-tailed sheep breeds were investigated using 18 microsatellite markers. Iranian breeds were found to host a high level of diversity. This conclusion is substantiated by the large number of alleles observed across loci (average 13.83, range 7–22) and by the high within-breed expected heterozygosity (average 0.75, range 0.72–0.76). Iranian sheep have a low level of genetic differentiation, as indicated by the analysis of molecular variance, which allocated a very small proportion (1.67%) of total variation to the between-population component, and by the small fixation index (FST = 0.02). Both Bayesian clustering and principal coordinates analysis revealed the absence of a detectable genetic structure. Also, no isolation by distance was observed through comparison of genetic and geographical distances. In spite of high within-breed variation, signatures of inbreeding were detected by the FIS indices, which were positive in all and statistically significant in three breeds. Possible factors explaining the patterns observed, such as considerable gene flow and inbreeding probably due to anthropogenic activities in the light of population management and conservation programmes are discussed. (author)
Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells
Pavlichin, Dmitri S.; Weissman, Tsachy
We define and characterize the “chained” Kullback-Leibler divergence minw D(p‖w) + D(w‖q) minimized over all intermediate distributions w and the analogous k-fold chained K-L divergence min D(p‖wk−1) + … + D(w2‖w1) + D(w1‖q) minimized over the entire path (w1,…,wk−1). This quantity arises in a large deviations analysis of a Markov chain on the set of types – the Wright-Fisher model of neutral genetic drift: a population with allele distribution q produces offspring with allele distribution w, which then produce offspring with allele distribution p, and so on. The chained divergences enjoy some of the same properties as the K-L divergence (like joint convexity in the arguments) and appear in k-step versions of some of the same settings as the K-L divergence (like information projections and a conditional limit theorem). We further characterize the optimal k-step “path” of distributions appearing in the definition and apply our findings in a large deviations analysis of the Wright-Fisher process. We make a connection to information geometry via the previously studied continuum limit, where the number of steps tends to infinity, and the limiting path is a geodesic in the Fisher information metric. Finally, we offer a thermodynamic interpretation of the chained divergence (as the rate of operation of an appropriately defined Maxwell’s demon) and we state some natural extensions and applications (a k-step mutual information and k-step maximum likelihood inference). We release code for computing the objects we study. PMID:29130024
Gross, D.J.; Periwal, V.
We prove that perturbation theory for the bosonic string diverges for arbitrary values of the coupling constant and is not Borel summable. This divergence is independent of the existence of the infinities that occur in the theory due to the presence of tachyons and dilaton tadpoles. We discuss the physical implications of such a divergence
Axelsson, E Petter; Iason, Glenn R; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Whitham, Thomas G
A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp.) that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch). Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members respond to host
E Petter Axelsson
Full Text Available A central issue in the field of community genetics is the expectation that trait variation among genotypes play a defining role in structuring associated species and in forming community phenotypes. Quantifying the existence of such community phenotypes in two common garden environments also has important consequences for our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions at the community level. The existence of community phenotypes has not been evaluated in the crowns of boreal forest trees. In this study we address the influence of tree genetics on needle chemistry and genetic x environment interactions on two gall-inducing adelgid aphids (Adelges spp. and Sacchiphantes spp. that share the same elongating bud/shoot niche. We examine the hypothesis that the canopies of different genotypes of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. support different community phenotypes. Three patterns emerged. First, the two gallers show clear differences in their response to host genetics and environment. Whereas genetics significantly affected the abundance of Adelges spp. galls, Sacchiphantes spp. was predominately affected by the environment suggesting that the genetic influence is stronger in Adelges spp. Second, the among family variation in genetically controlled resistance was large, i.e. fullsib families differed as much as 10 fold in susceptibility towards Adelges spp. (0.57 to 6.2 galls/branch. Also, the distribution of chemical profiles was continuous, showing both overlap as well as examples of significant differences among fullsib families. Third, despite the predicted effects of host chemistry on galls, principal component analyses using 31 different phenolic substances showed only limited association with galls and a similarity test showed that trees with similar phenolic chemical characteristics, did not host more similar communities of gallers. Nonetheless, the large genetic variation in trait expression and clear differences in how community members
Using Genome-Wide SNPs to Detect Structure in High-Diversity and Low-Divergence Populations of Severely Impacted Eastern Tropical Pacific Spinner (Stenella longirostris And Pantropical Spotted Dolphins (S. attenuata
Matthew Steven Leslie
Full Text Available Millions of spinner (Stenella longirostris and pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata died since the 1960’s as bycatch in tuna nets in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite three decades of protection, they show little-to-no sign of recovery (although recent fisheries-independent abundance estimates are not available. In efforts to establish biologically meaningful management boundaries for recovery, endemic subspecies and multiple stocks have been proposed. However, genetic differentiation among most of these units has been difficult to identify, possibly due to low statistical power stemming from large historical abundances, ongoing gene flow, and recent divergence. We tested for genetic structure at multiple hierarchical levels by analyzing the largest dataset to date brought to bear on these questions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were collected from nuclear DNA regions associated with the restriction enzyme site PstI from 72 spinner dolphins and 58 pantropical spotted dolphins using genotype-by-sequencing (GBS. Our results support the current subspecies for both species and indicate stock-level separation for Tres Marias spinner dolphins and the two offshore pantropical spotted dolphin stocks in this area. Although bycatch has been reduced a small fraction of pre-protection levels, incidental mortality continues to impact these populations. Our results are important for the ongoing management and recovery of these highly-impacted pelagic dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.
Lester M Shulman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substituted flavanoids interfere with uncoating of Enteroviruses including Sabin-2 polio vaccine strains. However flavanoid resistant and dependent, type-2 polio vaccine strains (minimally-diverged, emerged during in vitro infections. Between 1998-2009, highly-diverged (8 to >15% type-2, aVDPV(2s, from two unrelated persistent infections were periodically isolated from Israeli sewage. AIM: To determine whether highly evolved aVDPV(2s derived from persistent infections retained sensitivity to isoflavenes. METHODS: Sabin-2 and ten aVDPV(2 isolates from two independent Israeli sources were titered on HEp2C cells in the presence and absence of 3(2H- Isoflavene and 6-chloro-3(2H-Isoflavene. Neurovirulence of nine aVDPV(2s was measured in PVR-Tg-21 transgenic mice. Differences were related to unique amino acid substitutions within capsid proteins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The presence of either flavanoid inhibited viral titers of Sabin-2 and nine of ten aVDPV(2s by one to two log(10. The tenth aVDPV(2, which had unique amino acid substitution distant from the isoflavene-binding pocket but clustered at the three- and five-fold axies of symmetry between capsomeres, was unaffected by both flavanoids. Genotypic neurovirulence attenuation sites in the 5'UTR and VP1 reverted in all aVDPV(2s and all reacquired a full neurovirulent phenotype except one with amino acid substitutions flanking the VP1 site. CONCLUSION: Both isoflavenes worked equally well against Sabin 2 and most of the highly-diverged, Israeli, aVDPV(2s isolates. Thus, functionality of the hydrophobic pocket may be unaffected by selective pressures exerted during persistent poliovirus infections. Amino acid substitutions at sites remote from the drug-binding pocket and adjacent to a neurovirulence attenuation site may influence flavanoid antiviral activity, and neurovirulence, respectively.
Labonne, Jacques; Hendry, Andrew P
The standard predictions of ecological speciation might be nuanced by the interaction between natural and sexual selection. We investigated this hypothesis with an individual-based model tailored to the biology of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We specifically modeled the situation where a high-predation population below a waterfall colonizes a low-predation population above a waterfall. Focusing on the evolution of male color, we confirm that divergent selection causes the appreciable evolution of male color within 20 generations. The rate and magnitude of this divergence were reduced when dispersal rates were high and when female choice did not differ between environments. Adaptive divergence was always coupled to the evolution of two reproductive barriers: viability selection against immigrants and hybrids. Different types of sexual selection, however, led to contrasting results for another potential reproductive barrier: mating success of immigrants. In some cases, the effects of natural and sexual selection offset each other, leading to no overall reproductive isolation despite strong adaptive divergence. Sexual selection acting through female choice can thus strongly modify the effects of divergent natural selection and thereby alter the standard predictions of ecological speciation. We also found that under no circumstances did divergent selection cause appreciable divergence in neutral genetic markers.
Imoto, Junichi M; Saitoh, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Adachi, Jun; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hanzawa, Naoto
The distribution of freshwater taxa is a good biogeographic model to study pattern and process of vicariance and dispersal. The subfamily Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) consists of many species distributed widely in Eurasia and North America. Leuciscinae have been divided into two phyletic groups, leuciscin and phoxinin. The phylogenetic relationships between major clades within the subfamily are poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group. The origin of the Far Eastern phoxinin is an interesting question regarding the evolutionary history of Leuciscinae. Here we present phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Leuciscinae and outgroups based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the evolutionary history of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Far Eastern phoxinin species comprised the monophyletic clades Tribolodon, Pseudaspius, Oreoleuciscus and Far Eastern Phoxinus. The Far Eastern phoxinin clade was independent of other Leuciscinae lineages and was closer to North American phoxinins than European leuciscins. All of our analysis also suggested that leuciscins and phoxinins each constituted monophyletic groups. Divergence time estimation suggested that Leuciscinae species diverged from outgroups such as Tincinae to be 83.3 million years ago (Mya) in the Late Cretaceous and leuciscin and phoxinin shared a common ancestor 70.7 Mya. Radiation of Leuciscinae lineages occurred during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This period also witnessed the radiation of tetrapods. Reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates Leuciscinae species originated within Europe. Leuciscin species evolved in Europe and the ancestor of phoxinin was distributed in North America. The Far Eastern phoxinins would have dispersed from North America to Far East across the Beringia land bridge. The present study suggests important roles for the continental rearrangements during the
Joglekar, Payal; Sonnenburg, Erica D; Higginbottom, Steven K; Earle, Kristen A; Morland, Carl; Shapiro-Ward, Sarah; Bolam, David N; Sonnenburg, Justin L
Genomic differences between gut-resident bacterial strains likely underlie significant interindividual variation in microbiome function. Traditional methods of determining community composition, such as 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, fail to capture this functional diversity. Metagenomic approaches are a significant step forward in identifying strain-level sequence variants; however, given the current paucity of biochemical information, they too are limited to mainly low-resolution and incomplete functional predictions. Using genomic, biochemical, and molecular approaches, we identified differences in the fructan utilization profiles of two closely related Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strains. B. thetaiotaomicron 8736 ( Bt-8736 ) contains a fructan polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) with a divergent susC / susD homolog gene pair that enables it to utilize inulin, differentiating this strain from other characterized Bt strains. Transfer of the distinct pair of susC / susD genes from Bt-8736 into the noninulin using type strain B. thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 resulted in inulin use by the recipient strain, Bt ( 8736-2 ). The presence of the divergent susC / susD gene pair alone enabled the hybrid Bt ( 8736-2 ) strain to outcompete the wild-type strain in vivo in mice fed an inulin diet. Further, we discovered that the susC / susD homolog gene pair facilitated import of inulin into the periplasm without surface predigestion by an endo-acting enzyme, possibly due to the short average chain length of inulin compared to many other polysaccharides. Our data builds upon recent reports of dietary polysaccharide utilization mechanisms found in members of the Bacteroides genus and demonstrates how the acquisition of two genes can alter the functionality and success of a strain within the gut. IMPORTANCE Dietary polysaccharides play a dominant role in shaping the composition and functionality of our gut microbiota. Dietary interventions using these m icrobiota- a
Sandoval-Castro, Eduardo; Dodd, Richard S.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Enríquez-Paredes, Luis Manuel; Tovilla-Hernández, Cristian; López-Vivas, Juan Manuel; Aguilar-May, Bily; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel
Mangrove forests in the Gulf of California, Mexico represent the northernmost populations along the Pacific coast and thus they are likely to be source populations for colonization at higher latitudes as climate becomes more favorable. Today, these populations are relatively small and fragmented and prior research has indicated that they are poor in genetic diversity. Here we set out to investigate whether the low diversity in this region was a result of recent colonization, or fragmentation and genetic drift of once more extensive mangroves due to climatic changes in the recent past. By sampling the two major mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans, along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Mexico, we set out to test whether concordant genetic signals could elucidate recent evolution of the ecosystem. Genetic diversity of both mangrove species showed a decreasing trend toward northern latitudes along the Pacific coast. The lowest levels of genetic diversity were found at the range limits around the Gulf of California and the outer Baja California peninsula. Lack of a strong spatial genetic structure in this area and recent northern gene flow in A. germinans suggest recent colonization by this species. On the other hand, lack of a signal of recent northern dispersal in R. mangle, despite the higher dispersal capability of this species, indicates a longer presence of populations, at least in the southern Gulf of California. We suggest that the longer history, together with higher genetic diversity of R. mangle at the range limits, likely provides a gene pool better able to colonize northwards under climate change than A. germinans. PMID:24699389
Recknagel, Hans; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel
Cichlid fishes are an excellent model system for studying speciation and the formation of adaptive radiations because of their tremendous species richness and astonishing phenotypic diversity. Most research has focused on African rift lake fishes, although Neotropical cichlid species display much variability as well. Almost one dozen species of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) have been described so far and have formed repeated adaptive radiations in several Nicaraguan crater lakes. Here we apply double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing to obtain a high-density linkage map of an interspecific cross between the benthic Amphilophus astorquii and the limnetic Amphilophus zaliosus, which are sympatric species endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. A total of 755 RAD markers were genotyped in 343 F(2) hybrids. The map resolved 25 linkage groups and spans a total distance of 1427 cM with an average marker spacing distance of 1.95 cM, almost matching the total number of chromosomes (n = 24) in these species. Regions of segregation distortion were identified in five linkage groups. Based on the pedigree of parents to F(2) offspring, we calculated a genome-wide mutation rate of 6.6 × 10(-8) mutations per nucleotide per generation. This genetic map will facilitate the mapping of ecomorphologically relevant adaptive traits in the repeated phenotypes that evolved within the Midas cichlid lineage and, as the first linkage map of a Neotropical cichlid, facilitate comparative genomic analyses between African cichlids, Neotropical cichlids and other teleost fishes.
Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F.
Nonmodel rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift; so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. Here we use high throughput sequencing to demonstrate genetic divergence in three isolated colonies of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) even though they were all established recently from the same source. We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly “outbred” colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. We conclude that genetic divergence in isolated colonies may play an important role in the “replication crisis.” In a more positive light, divergent rodent colonies represent an opportunity to leverage genetically distinct individuals in genetic crossing experiments. In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. PMID:29242387
Various perturbation series are factorially divergent. The behavior of their high-order terms can be determined by Lipatov's method, which involves the use of instanton configurations of appropriate functional integrals. When the Lipatov asymptotic form is known and several lowest order terms of the perturbation series are found by direct calculation of diagrams, one can gain insight into the behavior of the remaining terms of the series, which can be resummed to solve various strong-coupling problems in a certain approximation. This approach is demonstrated by determining the Gell-Mann-Low functions in φ 4 theory, QED, and QCD with arbitrary coupling constants. An overview of the mathematical theory of divergent series is presented, and interpretation of perturbation series is discussed. Explicit derivations of the Lipatov asymptotic form are presented for some basic problems in theoretical physics. A solution is proposed to the problem of renormalon contributions, which hampered progress in this field in the late 1970s. Practical perturbation-series summation schemes are described both for a coupling constant of order unity and in the strong-coupling limit. An interpretation of the Borel integral is given for 'non-Borel-summable' series. Higher order corrections to the Lipatov asymptotic form are discussed
Lemoine, M.; Lucek, K.; Perrier, C.; Saladin, V.; Adriaensen, F.; Barba, E.; Belda, E.J.; Charmantier, A.; Cichoń, M.; Eeva, T.; Grégoire, A.; Hinde, C.A.; Johnsen, A.; Komdeur, J.; Mänd, R.; Matthysen, E.; Norte, A.C.; Pitala, N.; Sheldon, B.C.; Slagsvold, T.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Török, J.; Ubels, R.; van Oers, K.; Visser, M.E.; Doligez, Blandine; Richner, Heinz
Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing
Tobler, M; Plath, M; Riesch, R; Schlupp, I; Grasse, A; Munimanda, G K; Setzer, C; Penn, D J; Moodley, Y
The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and the presence of toxic hydrogen sulphide, representing highly divergent ecotypes or incipient species. Parasite communities differed significantly across populations, and populations with higher parasite loads had higher levels of diversity at class II MHC genes. However, despite different parasite communities, marked divergence in adaptive traits and in neutral genetic markers, we found MHC alleles to be remarkably similar among host populations. Our findings indicate that balancing selection from parasites maintains immunogenetic diversity of hosts, but this process does not promote MHC divergence in this system. On the contrary, we suggest that balancing selection on immunogenetic loci may outweigh divergent selection causing divergence, thereby hindering host divergence and speciation. Our findings support the hypothesis that balancing selection maintains MHC similarities among lineages during and after speciation (trans-species evolution). © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Fietz, Katharina; Rye Hintze, Christian Olaf; Skovrind, Mikkel; Kjærgaard Nielsen, Tue; Limborg, Morten T; Krag, Marcus A; Palsbøll, Per J; Hestbjerg Hansen, Lars; Rask Møller, Peter; Gilbert, M Thomas P
BACKGROUND: Deciphering the mechanisms governing population genetic divergence and local adaptation across heterogeneous environments is a central theme in marine ecology and conservation. While population divergence and ecological adaptive potential are classically viewed at the genetic level, it
Lauck, Michael; Switzer, William M; Sibley, Samuel D; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Taylor, Bill; Shankar, Anupama; Ting, Nelson; Chapman, Colin A; Friedrich, Thomas C; Goldberg, Tony L; O'Connor, David H
African non-human primates (NHPs) are natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), the zoonotic transmission of which led to the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2. However, our understanding of SIV diversity and evolution is limited by incomplete taxonomic and geographic sampling of NHPs, particularly in East Africa. In this study, we screened blood specimens from nine black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza occidentalis) from Kibale National Park, Uganda, for novel SIVs using a combination of serology and "unbiased" deep-sequencing, a method that does not rely on genetic similarity to previously characterized viruses. We identified two novel and divergent SIVs, tentatively named SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2, and assembled genomes covering the entire coding region for each virus. SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 were detected in three and four animals, respectively, but with no animals co-infected. Phylogenetic analyses showed that SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 form a lineage with SIVcol, previously discovered in black-and-white colobus from Cameroon. Although SIVkcol-1 and SIVkcol-2 were isolated from the same host population in Uganda, SIVkcol-1 is more closely related to SIVcol than to SIVkcol-2. Analysis of functional motifs in the extracellular envelope glycoprotein (gp120) revealed that SIVkcol-2 is unique among primate lentiviruses in containing only 16 conserved cysteine residues instead of the usual 18 or more. Our results demonstrate that the genetic diversity of SIVs infecting black-and-white colobus across equatorial Africa is greater than previously appreciated and that divergent SIVs can co-circulate in the same colobine population. We also show that the use of "unbiased" deep sequencing for the detection of SIV has great advantages over traditional serological approaches, especially for studies of unknown or poorly characterized viruses. Finally, the detection of the first SIV containing only 16 conserved cysteines in the extracellular envelope protein
Dray, Tevian; Hellaby, Charles
The divergence theorem in its usual form applies only to suitably smooth vector fields. For vector fields which are merely piecewise smooth, as is natural at a boundary between regions with different physical properties, one must patch together the divergence theorem applied separately in each region. We give an elegant derivation of the resulting "patchwork divergence theorem" which is independent of the metric signature in either region, and which is thus valid if the signature changes. (PA...
the paternal or maternal transmission, or carrying out the genetic disease studies based on the data of a small number of variants or partial genomic regions. In the study plan, first, we collected the genomic DNA of a representative Mongolian male individual, performed high coverage whole genome sequencing...... the pigmentation gene OCA2 play an important role in the convergent skin lightening of East Asians during recent human evolution. However, the genomics research on Mongolians, which attract strong research interests, still remains the levels of using the data of Y chromosome or Mitochondrial genome to explore...... the individual possesses a risk allele that may cause carnitine deficiency. Y haplogroup analysis located the paternal inheritance to the clade D3a, which is the one of oldest lineage in East Asians and present the most common in Tibeto- Burman populations. Through final population genetics analyses, we roughly...
Gollner, Sabine; Stuckas, Heiko; Kihara, Terue C; Laurent, Stefan; Kodami, Sahar; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro
Communities in spatially fragmented deep-sea hydrothermal vents rich in polymetallic sulfides could soon face major disturbance events due to deep-sea mineral mining, such that unraveling patterns of gene flow between hydrothermal vent populations will be an important step in the development of conservation policies. Indeed, the time required by deep-sea populations to recover following habitat perturbations depends both on the direction of gene flow and the number of migrants available for re-colonization after disturbance. In this study we compare nine dirivultid copepod species across various geological settings. We analyze partial nucleotide sequences of the mtCOI gene and use divergence estimates (FST) and haplotype networks to infer intraspecific population connectivity between vent sites. Furthermore, we evaluate contrasting scenarios of demographic population expansion/decline versus constant population size (using, for example, Tajima's D). Our results indicate high diversity, population expansion and high connectivity of all copepod populations in all oceans. For example, haplotype diversity values range from 0.89 to 1 and FST values range from 0.001 to 0.11 for Stygiopontius species from the Central Indian Ridge, Mid Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise, and Eastern Lau Spreading Center. We suggest that great abundance and high site occupancy by these species favor high genetic diversity. Two scenarios both showed similarly high connectivity: fast spreading centers with little distance between vent fields and slow spreading centers with greater distance between fields. This unexpected result may be due to some distinct frequency of natural disturbance events, or to aspects of individual life histories that affect realized rates of dispersal. However, our statistical performance analyses showed that at least 100 genomic regions should be sequenced to ensure accurate estimates of migration rate. Our demography parameters demonstrate that dirivultid
Lin, Chia-Chi; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Iang, Shan-Bei; Chao, Mei
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication is carried out by host RNA polymerases. Since homologous inter-genotypic RNA recombination is known to occur in HDV, possibly via a replication-dependent process, we hypothesized that the degree of sequence homology and the replication level should be related to the recombination frequency in cells co-expressing two HDV sequences. To confirm this, we separately co-transfected cells with three different pairs of HDV genomic RNAs and analyzed the obtained recombinants by RT-PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing analyses. The sequence divergence between the clones ranged from 24% to less than 0.1%, and the difference in replication levels was as high as 100-fold. As expected, significant differences were observed in the recombination frequencies, which ranged from 0.5% to 47.5%. Furthermore, varying the relative amounts of parental RNA altered the dominant recombinant species produced, suggesting that template switching occurs frequently during the synthesis of genomic HDV RNA. Taken together, these data suggest that during the host RNA polymerase-driven RNA recombination of HDV, both inter- and intra-genotypic recombination events are important in shaping the genetic diversity of HDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marques, J.F.; Wang, H.L.; Svensson, G.P.; Frago Clols, E.; Anderbrant, O.
The brown tail moth (BTM) Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a forest and ornamental pest in Europe and the United States. Its extreme polyphagy, and documented phenological shift associated with host use suggest the presence of distinct host-races. To test this
The structure of infrared divergences is studied in superrenormalizable interactions. It is conjectured that there is an extension of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp theorem which copes also with infrared divergences. The consequences of this conjecture on the singularities of the Borel transform in a massless asymptotic free field theory are discussed. The application of these ideas to gauge theories is briefly discussed. (Auth.)
Full Text Available Young women from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC families face a series of medical decisions regarding their cancer risk management and integrating this information into their life planning. This presents unique medical and psychosocial challenges that exist without comprehensive intervention. To help lay the groundwork for intervention, we conducted a qualitative study among young women from HBOC families (N = 12; Mean age = 22 and cancer genetic counselors (N = 12 to explicate domains most critical to caring for this population. Women and counselors were interviewed by telephone. The predominant interview themes included preventative care planning and risk management, decision making around the pros and cons of cancer risk assessment, medical management, and psychosocial stresses experienced. Young women endorsed psychosocial stress significantly more frequently than did counselors. Both groups noted the short- and long-term decision making challenges and the support and conflict engendered among familial relationships. Our results suggest young women value the support they receive from their families and their genetic counselors, but additional, external supports are needed to facilitate adaptation to HBOC risk. In feedback interviews focused on intervention planning with a subset of these young women (N = 9, they endorsed the predominant interview themes discovered as important intervention content, a structure that would balance discussion of medical information and psychosocial skill-building that could be tailored to the young women’s needs, and delivery by trained peers familiar with HBOC risk.
Close Timothy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice and barley are both members of Poaceae (grass family but have a marked difference in salt tolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference was previously unexplored. This study employs a comparative genomics approach to identify analogous and contrasting gene expression patterns between rice and barley. Results A hierarchical clustering approach identified several interesting expression trajectories among rice and barley genotypes. There were no major conserved expression patterns between the two species in response to salt stress. A wheat salt-stress dataset was queried for comparison with rice and barley. Roughly one-third of the salt-stress responses of barley were conserved with wheat while overlap between wheat and rice was minimal. These results demonstrate that, at transcriptome level, rice is strikingly different compared to the more closely related barley and wheat. This apparent lack of analogous transcriptional programs in response to salt stress is further highlighted through close examination of genes associated with root growth and development. Conclusion The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that conservation of transcriptional signatures in response to environmental cues depends on the genetic similarity among the genotypes within a species, and on the phylogenetic distance between the species.
Therriault, T W; Orlova, M I; Docker, M F; Macisaac, H J; Heath, D D
In recent years, the quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, native to the Dnieper and Bug Limans of the northern Black Sea, has been dispersed by human activities across the basin, throughout much of the Volga River system, and to the Laurentian Great Lakes. We used six published microsatellite markers to survey populations throughout its native and introduced range to identify relationships among potential source populations and introduced ones. Mussels from 12 sites in Eurasia, including the central Caspian Sea and one in North America (Lake Erie), were sampled. Field surveys in the Volga River basin suggested that the species first colonized the middle reach of the river near Kubyshev Reservoir, and thereafter spread both upstream and downstream. Evidence of considerable gene flow among populations was observed and genetic diversity was consistent with a larger, metapopulation that has not experienced bottlenecks or founder effects. We propose that high gene flow, possibly due to multiple invasions, has facilitated establishment of quagga mussel populations in the Volga River system. The Caspian Sea population (D. rostriformis rostriformis (=distincta)) was genetically more distinct than other populations, a finding that may be related to habitat differences. The geographical pattern of genetic divergence is not characteristic of isolation-by-distance but, rather, of long-distance dispersal, most likely mediated by commercial ships' ballast water transfer.
Audenaert, Koenraad M. R., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, S9, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)
In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.
Constance Valentin; Olga Boyko; Gilles Rey; Brigitte Mercier; Evaggelos Papalazarou; Laure Antonucci; Philippe Balcou
Complete test of publication follows. High Harmonic Generation (HHG) is very sensitive to pulse shape of the fundamental laser. We have first used an Acousto-Optic Programmable Dispersive Filter (AOPDF) in order to modify the spectral phase and second, a deformable mirror in order to modify the wavefront. We have optimized harmonic signal using a genetic algorithm coupled with both setups. We show the influence of macroscopic parameters for optimization process. Genetic algorithms have been already used to modify pulse shapes of the fundamental laser in order to optimize high harmonic signals, in order to change the emission wavelength of one harmonic or to modify the fundamental wavefront to optimize harmonic signals. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the optimization of harmonic signals using the AOPDF. Signal optimizations by a factor 2 to 10 have been measured depending of parameters of generation. For instance, one of the interesting result concerns the effect of macroscopic parameters as position of the entrance of the cell with respect to the focus of the IR laser when we change the pulse shapes. For instance, the optimization is higher when the cell entrance is above the focus where the intensity gradients are higher. Although the spectral phase of the IR laser is important for the response of one atom, the optimization depends also of phase-matching and especially of the effect intensity gradients. Other systematic studies have been performed as well as measurements of temporal profiles and wavefronts of the IR beam. These studies allow bringing out the behaviour of high harmonic generation with respect to the optimization process.
Ayelhan, Haysa; Guo, Yan; Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Ma, Yanwu
Based on combined data of mitochondrial COI, ND4 and 16S RNA genes, molecular phylogeny of 4 genera, 10 species or subspecies of Schizothoracinae fishes distributed in Xinjiang were analyzed. The molecular clock was calibrated by divergence time of Cyprininae and geological segregation event between the upper Yellow River and Qinghai Lake. Divergence time of Schizothoracinae fishes was calculated, and its relationship with the major geological events and the climate changes in surrounding areas of Tarim Basin was discussed. The results showed that genus Aspiorhynchus did not form an independent clade, but clustered with Schizothorax biddulphi and S. irregularis. Kimura 2-parameter model was used to calculate the genetic distance of COI gene, the genetic distance between genus Aspiorhynchus and Schizothorax did not reach genus level, and Aspiorhynchus laticeps might be a specialized species of genus Schizothorax. Cluster analysis showed a different result with morphological classification method, and it did not support the subgenus division of Schizothorax fishes. Divergence of two groups of primitive Schizothoracinae (8.18Ma) and divergence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Diptychus maculates (7.67Ma) occurred in late Miocene, which might be related with the separation of Kunlun Mountain and north Tianshan Mountain River system that was caused by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountain, and the aridification of Tarim Basin. The terrain of Tarim Basin that was affected by Quaternary Himalayan movement was high in west but low in east, as a result, Lop Nor became the center of surrounding mountain rivers in Tarim Basin, which shaped the distribution pattern of genus Schizothorax.
Ma, Yanbin; Duan, Defang; Shao, Ziji; Li, Da; Wang, Liyuan; Yu, Hongyu; Tian, Fubo; Xie, Hui; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian
Invigorated by the high temperature superconductivity in some binary hydrogen-dominated compounds, we systematically explored high-pressure phase diagrams and superconductivity of a ternary Mg-Ge-H system using ab initio methods. Stoichiometric MgGeH 6 with high hydrogen content exhibiting Pm3[combining macron] symmetry was predicted from a series of high-pressure synthesis paths. We performed an in-depth study on three distinct formation routes to MgGeH 6 , i.e., Mg + Ge + 3H 2 → MgGeH 6 , MgGe + 3H 2 → MgGeH 6 and MgH 2 + GeH 4 → MgGeH 6 at high pressures. By directly squeezing three elemental solids Mg + Ge + 3H 2 , we obtained ternary MgGeH 6 at 200 GPa. By adding a little bit of the MgGe alloy into hydrogen, we found that MgGeH 6 can form and stabilize at about 200 GPa. More intriguingly, upon compressing MgH 2 and GeH 4 to 250 GPa, we also predicted the same MgGeH 6 . Electron structure calculations reveal that the cubic MgGeH 6 is a good metal and takes on ionic character. Electron-phonon coupling calculation reveals a large λ = 1.16 for MgGeH 6 at 200 GPa. In particular, we found that ternary MgGeH 6 could be a potential high temperature superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature T c of ∼67 K at 200 GPa.
Full Text Available Data mining in computer science is the process of discovering interesting and useful patterns and relationships in large volumes of data. Most methods for mining problems is based on artificial intelligence algorithms. Neural network optimization based on three basic parameters topology, weights and the learning rate is a powerful method. We introduce optimal method for solving this problem. In this paper genetic algorithm with mutation and crossover operators change the network structure and optimized that. Dataset used for our work is stroke disease with twenty features that optimized number of that achieved by new hybrid algorithm. Result of this work is very well incomparison with other similar method. Low present of error show that our method is our new approach to efficient, high-performance data mining problems is introduced.
Previous studies suggest that the intraspecific variability of rice yield response to rising carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], could serve as a basis of selection to improve genotypes for future high CO2 conditions. However, assessment of responses to elevated [CO2] must consider air temperature,...
Full Text Available Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM. We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations.
Marcy, Ariel E; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Sherratt, Emma; Garland, Kathleen; Weisbecker, Vera
High morphological diversity can occur in closely related animals when selection favors morphologies that are subject to intrinsic biological constraints. A good example is subterranean rodents of the genus Thomomys, one of the most taxonomically and morphologically diverse mammalian genera. Highly procumbent, tooth-digging rodent skull shapes are often geometric consequences of increased body size. Indeed, larger-bodied Thomomys species tend to inhabit harder soils. We used geometric morphometric analyses to investigate the interplay between soil hardness (the main extrinsic selection pressure on fossorial mammals) and allometry (i.e. shape change due to size change; generally considered the main intrinsic factor) on crania and humeri in this fast-evolving mammalian clade. Larger Thomomys species/subspecies tend to have more procumbent cranial shapes with some exceptions, including a small-bodied species inhabiting hard soils. Counter to earlier suggestions, cranial shape within Thomomys does not follow a genus-wide allometric pattern as even regional subpopulations differ in allometric slopes. In contrast, humeral shape varies less with body size and with soil hardness. Soft-soil taxa have larger humeral muscle attachment sites but retain an orthodont (non-procumbent) cranial morphology. In intermediate soils, two pairs of sister taxa diverge through differential modifications on either the humerus or the cranium. In the hardest soils, both humeral and cranial morphology are derived through large muscle attachment sites and a high degree of procumbency. Our results show that conflict between morphological function and intrinsic allometric patterning can quickly and differentially alter the rodent skeleton, especially the skull. In addition, we found a new case of convergent evolution of incisor procumbency among large-, medium-, and small-sized species inhabiting hard soils. This occurs through different combinations of allometric and non-allometric changes
In order to select cowpea genotypes with high food value, 10 varieties were genetically screened in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) for seed crude protein and its soluble fractions contents. Five divergent lines were studied through a 5 x 5 half diallel cross mating. The genotypes presented a significant genetic variability for these ...
Mara Garcia Tavares
Full Text Available Allozyme, microsatellite and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD molecular markers were used to investigate the within and between population genetic variability and between population genetic differentiation of the Brazilian stingless bee uruçu amarela (nominally Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, 1836 present in savanna and Atlantic forest habitats of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG. We found low levels of within population variability, although there were a large number of private alleles that specifically characterized these populations. The F ST values indicated a high level of genetic diversity between populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed a high degree of population differentiation between the savanna and Atlantic forest habitats, confirmed by population pairwise F ST data. Principal coordinates analysis and unweighted pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA dendrograms also confirmed that in Minas Gerais the savanna populations (M. rufiventris were genetically distinct from those present in the Atlantic forest (M. mondury. In addition, populations from locations near the towns of Dom Bosco and Brasilândia de Minas were genetically different from those collected in other localities in the savanna. Our data indicate that populations of uruçu amarela found in the savanna and Atlantic forest habitats of Minas Gerais state should be treated separately for conservation purposes and that special attention should be given to the populations found in the region of Dom Bosco and Brasilândia de Minas until their taxonomic status is clarified.
Farhadi, Ahmad; Jeffs, Andrew G; Farahmand, Hamid; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam; Smith, Greg; Lavery, Shane D
There is increasing recognition of the concordance between marine biogeographic and phylogeographic boundaries. However, it is still unclear how population-level divergence translates into species-level divergence, and what are the principal factors that first initiate that divergence, and then maintain reproductive isolation. This study examines the likely forces driving population and lineage divergences in the broadly-distributed Indo-Pacific spiny lobster Panulirus homarus, which has peripheral divergent lineages in the west and east. The study focuses particularly on the West Indian Ocean, which is emerging as a region of unexpected diversity. Mitochondrial control region (mtCR) and COI sequences as well as genotypes of 9 microsatellite loci were examined in 410 individuals from 17 locations grouped into 7 regions from South Africa in the west, and eastward across to Taiwan and the Marquesas Islands. Phylogenetic and population-level analyses were used to test the significance and timing of divergences and describe the genetic relationships among populations. Analyses of the mtCR revealed high levels of divergence among the seven regions (Ф ST = 0.594, P Indo-Pacific that helps drive some of the regions' recognized biogeographic boundaries.
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit
The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…
Nunney, Leonard; Yuan, Xiaoli; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard
Documenting the role of novel mutation versus homologous recombination in bacterial evolution, and especially in the invasion of new hosts, is central to understanding the long-term dynamics of pathogenic bacteria. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to study this issue in Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca from Brazil, a bacterium causing citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and coffee leaf scorch (CLS). All 55 citrus isolates typed (plus one coffee isolate) defined three similar sequence types (STs) dominated by ST11 (85%), while the remaining 22 coffee isolates defined two STs, mainly ST16 (74%). This low level of variation masked unusually large allelic differences (>1% divergence with no intermediates) at five loci (leuA, petC, malF, cysG, and holC). We developed an introgression test to detect whether these large differences were due to introgression via homologous recombination from another X. fastidiosa subspecies. Using additional sequencing around these loci, we established that the seven randomly chosen MLST targets contained seven regions of introgression totaling 2,172 bp of 4,161 bp (52%), only 409 bp (10%) of which were detected by other recombination tests. This high level of introgression suggests the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca became pathogenic on citrus and coffee (crops cultivated in Brazil for several hundred years) only recently after it gained genetic variation via intersubspecific recombination, facilitating a switch from native hosts. A candidate donor is the subspecies infecting plum in the region since 1935 (possibly X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex). This hypothesis predicts that nonrecombinant native X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca (not yet isolated) does not cause disease in citrus or coffee.
Danias, J; Aslanides, I M; Eichenbaum, J W; Silverman, R H; Reinstein, D Z; Coleman, D J
AIMS: To elucidate changes in the anatomy of the anterior chamber associated with iridoschisis, a rare form of iris atrophy, and their potential contribution to angle closure glaucoma. METHODS: Both eyes of a 71-year-old woman with bilateral iridoschisis and fibrous dysplasia and her asymptomatic 50-year-old daughter were scanned with a very high frequency (50 MHz) ultrasound system. RESULTS: The symptomatic patient exhibited diffuse changes in the iris stoma with an intact posterior iris pigmented layer in both eyes. These changes were clinically compatible with the lack of iris transillumination defects. Additionally, iris bowing with a resultant narrowing of the angle occurred. The asymptomatic daughter showed discrete, but less severe iris stromal changes. CONCLUSION: This is the first detailed study of high frequency ultrasonic imaging of the iris in iridoschisis. The observed structural changes suggest angle narrowing by forward bowing of the anterior iris stroma may be a mechanism of IOP elevation in this condition. The ultrasonic detection of iris changes in the asymptomatic daughter of the symptomatic patient and the association of iridoschisis with fibrous dysplasia suggest a possible genetic component in the pathogenesis of this condition. Images PMID:9059271
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
Mar 16, 2016 ... diversity and (2) Investigate population structure and extent of admixture .... to estimate and partition genetic variation within and ... K between 1 and 40 and inferred its most optimal value ... populations of 0.84 ± 0.021 with the lowest mean in ..... on population stratification and the distribution of genetic.
Field trials were carried out to estimate resistance along with paddy yield in 55 rice germplasm lines (35 aromatic and 20 non-aromatic genotypes) for rice stem borers (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) to expose their potential in pest management approach. The results expressed significant differences for pest damage build-up and paddy yield among the rice germplasm lines. The findings clearly portrayed that based upon the percentage of pest invasions (dead hearts and white heads damage), no genotype was exclusively resistant to stem borers damage under field conditions. Two aromatic genotypes, Jajai-15A/97 and Basmati-Cr-34, exhibited least borers prevalence and amplified paddy yield while Sonehri Sugdasi (P) and Sada Gulab (P) pointed out a peak pest invasion and declined paddy yield. The estimation of pest incidence build-up and paddy productivity within non-aromatic genotypes confirmed that IR8 (P), IR6-15-2 and IR6 (P) were mainly proficient for bearing condensed pest invasion and augmented paddy yield. IR8-2.5-4, IR6-15-10 and IR6-20-9 demonstrated elevated pest susceptibility and gave poor yield. Rest of the germplasms appeared to be least tolerant or vulnerable to pest build-up and reduced paddy production. The tolerant and high yielding genotypes should be popularised in rice borers endemic areas and can be used in varietals resistance breeding strategy. The outcome of current studies necessitates the integration of existing host plant tolerance along with other management strategies to accomplish a suitable control of rice stem borers and enhance paddy yield. (author)
Hatch, C L; Bonner, W M
The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for the evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal H2A isoprotein, H2A.Z, have been determined for the rat, cow, and human. As a basal histone, H2A.Z is synthesized throughout the cell cycle at a constant rate, unlinked to DNA replication, and at a much lower rate in quiescent cells. Each of the cDNA isolates encodes the entire H2A.Z polypeptide. The human isolate is about 1.0 kilobases long. It contains a coding region of 387 nucleotides flanked by 106 nucleotides of 5'UTR and 376 nucleotides of 3'UTR, which contains a polyadenylation signal followed by a poly A tail. The bovine and rat cDNAs have 97 and 94% nucleotide positional identity to the human cDNA in the coding region and 98% in the proximal 376 nucleotides of the 3'UTR which includes the polyadenylation signal. A potential stem-forming sequence imbedded in a direct repeat is found centered at 261 nucleotides into the 3'UTR. Each of the cDNA clones could be transcribed and translated in vitro to yield H2A.Z protein. The mammalian H2A.Z cDNA coding sequences are approximately 80% similar to those in chicken and 75% to those in sea urchin.
Zhao, Yao; Vrieling, Klaas; Liao, Hui; Xiao, Manqiu; Zhu, Yongqing; Rong, Jun; Zhang, Wenju; Wang, Yuguo; Yang, Ji; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping
Habitat fragmentation weakens the connection between populations and is accompanied with isolation by distance (IBD) and local adaptation (isolation by adaptation, IBA), both leading to genetic divergence between populations. To understand the evolutionary potential of a population and to formulate proper conservation strategies, information on the roles of IBD and IBA in driving population divergence is critical. The putative ancestor of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is endangered in China due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We investigated the genetic variation in 11 Chinese Oryza rufipogon populations using 79 microsatellite loci to infer the effects of habitat fragmentation, IBD and IBA on genetic structure. Historical and current gene flows were found to be rare (mh = 0.0002-0.0013, mc = 0.007-0.029), indicating IBD and resulting in a high level of population divergence (FST = 0.343). High within-population genetic variation (HE = 0.377-0.515), relatively large effective population sizes (Ne = 96-158), absence of bottlenecks and limited gene flow were found, demonstrating little impact of recent habitat fragmentation on these populations. Eleven gene-linked microsatellite loci were identified as outliers, indicating local adaptation. Hierarchical AMOVA and partial Mantel tests indicated that population divergence of Chinese O. rufipogon was significantly correlated with environmental factors, especially habitat temperature. Common garden trials detected a significant adaptive population divergence associated with latitude. Collectively, these findings imply that IBD due to historical rather than recent fragmentation, followed by local adaptation, has driven population divergence in O. rufipogon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Honig, Jessica E.; Osborne, Jane C.; Nichol, Stuart T.
The genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) contains seven serogroups consisting of 34 predominantly tick-borne viruses, including several associated with severe human and livestock diseases [e.g., Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Nairobi sheep disease (NSD), respectively]. Before this report, no comparative genetic studies or molecular detection assays had been developed for this virus genus. To characterize at least one representative from each of the seven serogroups, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) primers targeting the L polymerase-encoding region of the RNA genome of these viruses were successfully designed based on conserved amino acid motifs present in the predicted catalytic core region. Sequence analysis showed the nairoviruses to be a highly diverse group, exhibiting up to 39.4% and 46.0% nucleotide and amino acid identity differences, respectively. Virus genetic relationships correlated well with serologic groupings and with tick host associations. Hosts of these viruses include both the hard (family Ixodidae) and soft (family Argasidae) ticks. Virus phylogenetic analysis reveals two major monophyletic groups: hard tick and soft tick-vectored viruses. In addition, viruses vectored by Ornithodoros, Carios, and Argas genera ticks also form three separate monophyletic lineages. The striking similarities between tick and nairovirus phylogenies are consistent with possible coevolution of the viruses and their tick hosts. Fossil and phylogenetic data placing the hard tick-soft tick divergence between 120 and 92 million years ago suggest an ancient origin for viruses of the genus Nairovirus
Adriaansen-Tennekes, R.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.
Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based
Divergent brain changes in two audiogenic rat strains: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging comparison of the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR).
Lee, Yichien; Rodriguez, Olga C; Albanese, Chris; Santos, Victor Rodrigues; Cortes de Oliveira, José Antônio; Donatti, Ana Luiza Ferreira; Fernandes, Artur; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; N'Gouemo, Prosper; Forcelli, Patrick A
Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as well as comorbid conditions, displays a close phenotypic overlap in these models. Whether these similarities arise from convergent or divergent structural changes in the brain remains unknown. Here, we examined the brain structure of Sprague Dawley (SD) and Wistar (WIS) rats, and quantified changes in the GEPR-3 and WAR, respectively. Brains from adult, male rats of each strain (n=8-10 per group) were collected, fixed, and embedded in agar and imaged using a 7 tesla Bruker MRI. Post-acquisition analysis included voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and manual volumetric tracing. In the VBM analysis, GEPR-3 displayed volumetric changes in brainstem structures known to be engaged by AGS (e.g., superior and inferior colliculus, periaqueductal grey) and in forebrain structures (e.g., striatum, septum, nucleus accumbens). WAR displayed volumetric changes in superior colliculus, and a broader set of limbic regions (e.g., hippocampus, amygdala/piriform cortex). The only area of significant overlap in the two strains was the midline cerebellum: both GEPR-3 and WAR showed decreased volume compared to their control strains. In the DTI analysis, GEPR-3 displayed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, posterior commissure and commissure of the inferior colliculus (IC). WAR displayed increased FA only in the commissure of IC. These data provide a biological basis for further comparative and mechanistic studies in the GEPR-3 and WAR models, as well as provide additional insight into commonalities in the pathways underlying AGS susceptibility and behavioral comorbidity. Copyright © 2017
Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity in diversity and intensity of parasitism is a typical feature of most host-parasite interactions, but understanding of the evolutionary implications of such variation is limited. One possible outcome of infection heterogeneities is parasite-mediated divergent selection between host populations, ecotypes or species which may facilitate the process of ecological speciation. However, very few studies have described infections in population-pairs along the speciation continuum from low to moderate or high degree of genetic differentiation that would address the possibility of parasite-mediated divergent selection in the early stages of the speciation process. Here we provide an example of divergent parasitism in freshwater fish ecotypes by examining macroparasite infections in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus of four Swiss lake systems each harbouring parapatric lake-stream ecotype pairs. We demonstrate significant differences in infections within and between the pairs that are driven particularly by the parasite taxa transmitted to fish from benthic invertebrates. The magnitude of the differences tended to correlate positively with the extent of neutral genetic differentiation between the parapatric lake and stream populations of stickleback, whereas no such correlation was found among allopatric populations from similar or contrasting habitats. This suggests that genetic differentiation is unrelated to the magnitude of parasite infection contrasts when gene flow is constrained by geographical barriers while in the absence of physical barriers, genetic differentiation and the magnitude of differences in infections tend to be positively correlated.
Karvonen, Anssi; Lucek, Kay; Marques, David A; Seehausen, Ole
Spatial heterogeneity in diversity and intensity of parasitism is a typical feature of most host-parasite interactions, but understanding of the evolutionary implications of such variation is limited. One possible outcome of infection heterogeneities is parasite-mediated divergent selection between host populations, ecotypes or species which may facilitate the process of ecological speciation. However, very few studies have described infections in population-pairs along the speciation continuum from low to moderate or high degree of genetic differentiation that would address the possibility of parasite-mediated divergent selection in the early stages of the speciation process. Here we provide an example of divergent parasitism in freshwater fish ecotypes by examining macroparasite infections in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) of four Swiss lake systems each harbouring parapatric lake-stream ecotype pairs. We demonstrate significant differences in infections within and between the pairs that are driven particularly by the parasite taxa transmitted to fish from benthic invertebrates. The magnitude of the differences tended to correlate positively with the extent of neutral genetic differentiation between the parapatric lake and stream populations of stickleback, whereas no such correlation was found among allopatric populations from similar or contrasting habitats. This suggests that genetic differentiation is unrelated to the magnitude of parasite infection contrasts when gene flow is constrained by geographical barriers while in the absence of physical barriers, genetic differentiation and the magnitude of differences in infections tend to be positively correlated.
Kindler, Eveline; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Heckel, Gerald
The grasshopper Oedaleus decorus is a thermophilic insect with a large, mostly south-Palaearctic distribution range, stretching from the Mediterranean regions in Europe to Central-Asia and China. In this study, we analyzed the extent of phylogenetic divergence and the recent evolutionary history of the species based on 274 specimens from 26 localities across the distribution range in Europe. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using sequences of two mitochondrial loci (ctr, ND2) with neighbour-joining and Bayesian methods. Additionally, genetic differentiation was analyzed based on mitochondrial DNA and 11 microsatellite markers using F-statistics, model-free multivariate and model-based Bayesian clustering approaches. Phylogenetic analyses detected consistently two highly divergent, allopatrically distributed lineages within O. decorus. The divergence among these Western and Eastern lineages meeting in the region of the Alps was similar to the divergence of each lineage to the sister species O. asiaticus. Genetic differentiation for ctr was extremely high between Western and Eastern grasshopper populations (F(ct)=0.95). Microsatellite markers detected much lower but nevertheless very significant genetic structure among population samples. The nuclear data also demonstrated a case of cytonuclear discordance because the affiliation with mitochondrial lineages was incongruent in Northern Italy. Taken together these results provide evidence of an ancient separation within Oedaleus and either historical introgression of mtDNA among lineages and/or ongoing sex-specific gene flow in this grasshopper. Our study stresses the importance of multilocus approaches for unravelling the history and status of taxa of uncertain evolutionary divergence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L. forms are numerous and common throughout the species distribution, offering an opportunity to examine these contrasting hypotheses in greater detail. This study reports on an interesting new contact zone located in a tidally influenced lake catchment in western Ireland, characterised by high polymorphism for lateral plate phenotypes. Using neutral and QTL-linked microsatellite markers, we tested whether the high diversity observed in this contact zone arose as a result of introgression or reproductive isolation between divergent forms: we found strong support for the latter hypothesis. Three phenotypic and genetic clusters were identified, consistent with two divergent resident forms and a distinct anadromous completely plated population that migrates in and out of the system. Given the strong neutral differentiation detected between all three morphotypes (mean FST = 0.12, we hypothesised that divergent selection between forms maintains reproductive isolation. We found a correlation between neutral genetic and adaptive genetic differentiation that support this. While strong associations between QTL linked markers and phenotypes were also observed in this wild population, our results support the suggestion that such associations may be more complex in some Atlantic populations compared to those in the Pacific. These findings provide an
Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)
. To identify usable oligonucleotide prim- ers, a trial study was conducted using parasite DNA and six different 10-mer primers. For amplification, we used a mix- ture including 0.125 ~I DNA polymerase (Takara Taq), 2.5 ~I.
Nov 16, 1998 ... Department of Zoology and Biology, University of the North. Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727 South Africa firstname.lastname@example.org. Received 16 November ... classification system of Feizullaev & Mirzoeva (1983), it would mean that these parasites are no different from C. com- p/anatumlc. vanderhorsli ...
Oka, Ayako; Shiroishi, Toshihiko
Postzygotic reproductive isolation is the reduction of fertility or viability in hybrids between genetically diverged populations. One example of reproductive isolation, hybrid male sterility, may be caused by genetic incompatibility between diverged genetic factors in two distinct populations. Genetic factors involved in hybrid male sterility are disproportionately located on the X chromosome. Recent studies showing the evolutionary divergence in gene regulatory networks or epigenetic effects suggest that the genetic incompatibilities occur at much broader levels than had previously been thought (e.g., incompatibility of protein-protein interactions). The latest studies suggest that evolutionary divergence of transcriptional regulation causes genetic incompatibilities in hybrid animals, and that such incompatibilities preferentially involve X-linked genes. In this review, we focus on recent progress in understanding hybrid sterility in mice, including our studies, and we discuss the evolutionary significance of regulatory divergence for speciation.
Pereira, Ricardo J; Barreto, Felipe S; Pierce, N Tessa; Carneiro, Miguel; Burton, Ronald S
Recent studies have revealed repeated patterns of genomic divergence associated with species formation. Such patterns suggest that natural selection tends to target a set of available genes, but is also indicative that closely related taxa share evolutionary constraints that limit genetic variability. Studying patterns of genomic divergence among populations within the same species may shed light on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we examine transcriptome-wide divergence and polymorphism in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, a species where allopatric evolution has led to replicate sets of populations with varying degrees of divergence and hybrid incompatibility. Our analyses suggest that relatively small effective population sizes have resulted in an exponential decline of shared polymorphisms during population divergence and also facilitated the fixation of slightly deleterious mutations within allopatric populations. Five interpopulation comparisons at three different stages of divergence show that nonsynonymous mutations tend to accumulate in a specific set of proteins. These include proteins with central roles in cellular metabolism, such as those encoded in mtDNA, but also include an additional set of proteins that repeatedly show signatures of positive selection during allopatric divergence. Although our results are consistent with a contribution of nonadaptive processes, such as genetic drift and gene expression levels, generating repeatable patterns of genomic divergence in closely related taxa, they also indicate that adaptive evolution targeting a specific set of genes contributes to this pattern. Our results yield insights into the predictability of evolution at the gene level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Walter, Greg M; Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel
Genetic correlations between traits can concentrate genetic variance into fewer phenotypic dimensions that can bias evolutionary trajectories along the axis of greatest genetic variance and away from optimal phenotypes, constraining the rate of evolution. If genetic correlations limit adaptation, rapid adaptive divergence between multiple contrasting environments may be difficult. However, if natural selection increases the frequency of rare alleles after colonization of new environments, an increase in genetic variance in the direction of selection can accelerate adaptive divergence. Here, we explored adaptive divergence of an Australian native wildflower by examining the alignment between divergence in phenotype mean and divergence in genetic variance among four contrasting ecotypes. We found divergence in mean multivariate phenotype along two major axes represented by different combinations of plant architecture and leaf traits. Ecotypes also showed divergence in the level of genetic variance in individual traits and the multivariate distribution of genetic variance among traits. Divergence in multivariate phenotypic mean aligned with divergence in genetic variance, with much of the divergence in phenotype among ecotypes associated with changes in trait combinations containing substantial levels of genetic variance. Overall, our results suggest that natural selection can alter the distribution of genetic variance underlying phenotypic traits, increasing the amount of genetic variance in the direction of natural selection and potentially facilitating rapid adaptive divergence during an adaptive radiation.
García-Pereira, María Jesús; Caballero, Armando; Quesada, Humberto
Using in silico amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints, we explore the relationship between sequence similarity and phylogeny accuracy to test when, in terms of genetic divergence, the quality of AFLP data becomes too low to be informative for a reliable phylogenetic reconstruction. We generated DNA sequences with known phylogenies using balanced and unbalanced trees with recent, uniform and ancient radiations, and average branch lengths (from the most internal node to the tip) ranging from 0.02 to 0.4 substitutions per site. The resulting sequences were used to emulate the AFLP procedure. Trees were estimated by maximum parsimony (MP), neighbor-joining (NJ), and minimum evolution (ME) methods from both DNA sequences and virtual AFLP fingerprints. The estimated trees were compared with the reference trees using a score that measures overall differences in both topology and relative branch length. As expected, the accuracy of AFLP-based phylogenies decreased dramatically in the more divergent data sets. Above a divergence of approximately 0.05, AFLP-based phylogenies were largely inaccurate irrespective of the distinct topology, radiation model, or phylogenetic method used. This value represents an upper bound of expected tree accuracy for data sets with a simple divergence history; AFLP data sets with a similar divergence but with unbalanced topologies and short ancestral branches produced much less accurate trees. The lack of homology of AFLP bands quickly increases with divergence and reaches its maximum value (100%) at a divergence of only 0.4. Low guanine-cytosine (GC) contents increase the number of nonhomologous bands in AFLP data sets and lead to less reliable trees. However, the effect of the lack of band homology on tree accuracy is surprisingly small relative to the negative impact due to the low information content of AFLP characters. Tree-building methods based on genetic distance displayed similar trends and outperformed parsimony
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide screening in human and mouse cells using RNA interference and open reading frame over-expression libraries is rapidly becoming a viable experimental approach for many research labs. There are a variety of gene expression modulation libraries commercially available, however, detailed and validated protocols as well as the reagents necessary for deconvolving genome-scale gene screens using these libraries are lacking. As a solution, we designed a comprehensive platform for highly multiplexed functional genetic screens in human, mouse and yeast cells using popular, commercially available gene modulation libraries. The Gene Modulation Array Platform (GMAP is a single microarray-based detection solution for deconvolution of loss and gain-of-function pooled screens. Results Experiments with specially constructed lentiviral-based plasmid pools containing ~78,000 shRNAs demonstrated that the GMAP is capable of deconvolving genome-wide shRNA "dropout" screens. Further experiments with a larger, ~90,000 shRNA pool demonstrate that equivalent results are obtained from plasmid pools and from genomic DNA derived from lentivirus infected cells. Parallel testing of large shRNA pools using GMAP and next-generation sequencing methods revealed that the two methods provide valid and complementary approaches to deconvolution of genome-wide shRNA screens. Additional experiments demonstrated that GMAP is equivalent to similar microarray-based products when used for deconvolution of open reading frame over-expression screens. Conclusion Herein, we demonstrate four major applications for the GMAP resource, including deconvolution of pooled RNAi screens in cells with at least 90,000 distinct shRNAs. We also provide detailed methodologies for pooled shRNA screen readout using GMAP and compare next-generation sequencing to GMAP (i.e. microarray based deconvolution methods.
Huang, Chao-Li; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Ge, Xue-Jun; Chen, Charles; Wu, Tai-Han; Chou, Chang-Hung; Huang, Hao-Jen; Gojobori, Takashi; Osada, Naoki; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh
Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.
Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.
Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica
The load of mutations disclosed by inbreeding, according to the ethnic group of the parents, has been analyzed in our data. Besides the total of the population, a sample with no alien ancestrals has also been analyzed. Genetic load has been studied for absortions, still births, pos-natal mortality, total mortality, anomalies, total mortality + anomalies, and abnormalities in general.
The load of mutations disclosed by inbreeding, according to the ethnic group of the parents, has been analyzed in our data. Besides the total of the population, a sample with no alien ancestrals has also been analyzed. Genetic load has been studied for absortions, still births, pos-natal mortality, total mortality, anomalies, total mortality + anomalies, and abnormalities in general [pt
Costin, Ovidiu; Dunne, Gerald V.
We show how to convert divergent series, which typically occur in many applications in physics, into rapidly convergent inverse factorial series. This can be interpreted physically as a novel resummation of perturbative series. Being convergent, these new series allow rigorous extrapolation from an asymptotic region with a large parameter, to the opposite region where the parameter is small. We illustrate the method with various physical examples, and discuss how these convergent series relate to standard methods such as Borel summation, and also how they incorporate the physical Stokes phenomenon. We comment on the relation of these results to Dyson’s physical argument for the divergence of perturbation theory. This approach also leads naturally to a wide class of relations between bosonic and fermionic partition functions, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac determinants.
Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David
We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.
Anasagasti, Ander; Barandika, Olatz; Irigoyen, Cristina; Benitez, Bruno A; Cooper, Breanna; Cruchaga, Carlos; López de Munain, Adolfo; Ruiz-Ederra, Javier
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) involves a group of genetically determined retinal diseases caused by a large number of mutations that result in rod photoreceptor cell death followed by gradual death of cone cells. Most cases of RP are monogenic, with more than 80 associated genes identified so far. The high number of genes and variants involved in RP, among other factors, is making the molecular characterization of RP a real challenge for many patients. Although HRM has been used for the analysis of isolated variants or single RP genes, as far as we are concerned, this is the first study that uses HRM analysis for a high-throughput screening of several RP genes. Our main goal was to test the suitability of HRM analysis as a genetic screening technique in RP, and to compare its performance with two of the most widely used NGS platforms, Illumina and PGM-Ion Torrent technologies. RP patients (n = 96) were clinically diagnosed at the Ophthalmology Department of Donostia University Hospital, Spain. We analyzed a total of 16 RP genes that meet the following inclusion criteria: 1) size: genes with transcripts of less than 4 kb; 2) number of exons: genes with up to 22 exons; and 3) prevalence: genes reported to account for, at least, 0.4% of total RP cases worldwide. For comparison purposes, RHO gene was also sequenced with Illumina (GAII; Illumina), Ion semiconductor technologies (PGM; Life Technologies) and Sanger sequencing (ABI 3130xl platform; Applied Biosystems). Detected variants were confirmed in all cases by Sanger sequencing and tested for co-segregation in the family of affected probands. We identified a total of 65 genetic variants, 15 of which (23%) were novel, in 49 out of 96 patients. Among them, 14 (4 novel) are probable disease-causing genetic variants in 7 RP genes, affecting 15 patients. Our HRM analysis-based study, proved to be a cost-effective and rapid method that provides an accurate identification of genetic RP variants. This approach is effective for
The moon jelly Aurelia aurita is one of the most common and widespread species of scyphomedusa in the Mediterranean Sea. In all, 18 allozyme loci were studied to investigate the genetic variation and population structure of 11 A. aurita populations from the Tunisian coast. Polymorphism was detected at 14 loci across the ...
Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In
Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica
Two methods to estimate the inbreeding load, employed in our analysis, are reviewed. Besides the total population, a sample constituted of individuals with no alien ancesters is also analyzed. The measurements by genetic load models show a clear effect of natural radioactivity (especially for abortions, pre-natal mortality, anomalies, and abnormalities in general). The results on stillbirths and post-natal and total mortalities are discussed and it is concluded that uncontrolled concomitant variables (if not chance alone) cause the differences.
Maas, Diede L; Prost, Stefan; Bi, Ke; Smith, Lydia L; Armstrong, Ellie E; Aji, Ludi P; Toha, Abdul Hamid A; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Becking, Leontine E
Striking genetic structure among marine populations at small spatial scales is becoming evident with extensive molecular studies. Such observations suggest isolation at small scales may play an important role in forming patterns of genetic diversity within species. Isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-environment and historical priority effects are umbrella terms for a suite of processes that underlie genetic structure, but their relative importance at different spatial and temporal scales remains elusive. Here, we use marine lakes in Indonesia to assess genetic structure and assess the relative roles of the processes in shaping genetic differentiation in populations of a bivalve mussel (Brachidontes sp.). Marine lakes are landlocked waterbodies of similar age (6,000-10,000 years), but with heterogeneous environments and varying degrees of connection to the sea. Using a population genomic approach (double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing), we show strong genetic structuring across populations (range F ST : 0.07-0.24) and find limited gene flow through admixture plots. At large spatial scales (>1,400 km), a clear isolation-by-distance pattern was detected. At smaller spatial scales (connection. We hypothesize that (incomplete) dispersal barriers can cause initial isolation, allowing priority effects to give the numerical advantage necessary to initiate strong genetic structure. Priority effects may be strengthened by local adaptation, which the data may corroborate by showing a high correlation between mussel genotypes and temperature. Our study indicates an often-neglected role of (evolution-mediated) priority effects in shaping population divergence. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Laurimäe, Teivi; Kinkar, Liina; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Haag, Karen Luisa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Garate, Teresa; Gonzàlez, Luis Miguel; Saarma, Urmas
Echinococcus granulosus is a taeniid cestode and the etiological agent of an infectious zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, including the Americas, where it is highly endemic in many regions. Echinococcus granulosus displays high intraspecific genetic variability and is divided into multiple genotypes (G1-G8, G10) with differences in their biology and etiology. Of these, genotype G1 is responsible for the majority of human and livestock infections and has the broadest host spectrum. However, despite the high significance to the public and livestock health, the data on genetic variability and regional genetic differences of genotype G1 in America are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and phylogeography of G1 in several countries in America by sequencing a large portion of the mitochondrial genome. We analysed 8279bp of mtDNA for 52 E. granulosus G1 samples from sheep, cattle and pigs collected in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, covering majority of countries in the Americas where G1 has been reported. The phylogenetic network revealed 29 haplotypes and a high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.903). The absence of phylogeographic segregation between different regions in America suggests the importance of animal transportation in shaping the genetic structure of E. granulosus G1. In addition, our study revealed many highly divergent haplotypes, indicating a long and complex evolutionary history of E. granulosus G1 in the Americas. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sapiro, Anne L.; Ihry, Robert J.; Buhr, Derek L.; Konieczko, Kevin M.; Ives, Sarah M.; Engstrom, Anna K.; Wleklinski, Nicholas P.; Kopish, Kristin J.; Bashirullah, Arash
Mutagenesis screens are a staple of classical genetics. Chemical-induced mutations, however, are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. Here, we report that recombination analysis with pairs of dominant visible markers provides a rapid and reliable strategy to map mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. This method requires only two generations and a total of six crosses in vials to estimate the genetic map position of the responsible lesion with high accuracy. This genetic map positio...
Katarzyna Marta Bocian-Ostrzycka
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori does not encode the classical DsbA/DsbB oxidoreductases that are crucial for oxidative folding of extracytoplasmic proteins. Instead, this microorganism encodes an untypical two proteins playing a role in disulfide bond formation – periplasmic HP0231, which structure resembles that of EcDsbC/DsbG, and its redox partner, a membrane protein HpDsbI (HP0595 with a -propeller structure. The aim of presented work was to assess relations between HP0231 structure and function.We showed that HP0231 is most closely related evolutionarily to the catalytic domain of DsbG, even though it possesses a catalytic motif typical for canonical DsbA proteins. Similarly, the highly diverged N-terminal dimerization domain is homologous to the dimerization domain of DsbG. To better understand the functioning of this atypical oxidoreductase, we examined its activity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that HP0231 exhibits oxidizing and chaperone activities but no isomerizing activity, even though H. pylori does not contain a classical DsbC. We also show that HP0231 is not involved in the introduction of disulfide bonds into HcpC (Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C, a protein involved in the modulation of the H. pylori interaction with its host. Additionally, we also constructed a truncated version of HP0231 lacking the dimerization domain, denoted HP0231m, and showed that it acts in E. coli cells in a DsbB-dependent manner. In contrast, HP0231m and classical monomeric EcDsbA (Escherichia coli DsbA protein were both unable to complement the lack of HP0231 in H. pylori cells, though they exist in oxidized forms. HP0231m is inactive in the insulin reduction assay and possesses high chaperone activity, in contrast to EcDsbA. In conclusion, HP0231 combines oxidative functions characteristic of DsbA proteins and chaperone activity characteristic of DsbC/DsbG, and it lacks isomerization activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Influenza A pandemic sustained by a new H1N1 variant (H1N1v started in Mexico and the USA at the end of April 2009 spreading worldwide in a few weeks. In this study we investigate the variability of the NS1 gene of the pandemic H1N1v strain with respect to previous seasonal strains circulating in humans and the potential selection of virus variants through isolation in cell culture. Methods During the period April 27th 2009-Jan 15th 2010, 1633 potential 2009 H1N1v cases have been screened at our center using the CDC detection and typing realtime RT-PCR assays. Virus isolation on MDCK cells was systematically performed in 1/10 positive cases. A subset of 51 H1N1v strains isolated in the period May-September 2009 was selected for NS1 gene sequencing. In addition, 15 H1N1 and 47 H3N2 virus isolates from three previous seasonal epidemics (2006-2009 were analyzed in parallel. Results A low variability in the NS1 amino acid (aa sequence among H1N1v isolates was shown (aa identity 99.5%. A slightly higher NS1 variability was observed among H1N1 and H3N2 strains from previous epidemics (aa identity 98.6% and 98.9%, respectively. The H1N1v strains were closely related (aa identity 92.1% to swine reference strain (A/swine/Oklahoma/042169/2008. In contrast, substantial divergence (aa identity 83.4% with respect to human reference strain A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 and previous epidemic strains H1N1 and H3N2 (aa identity 78.9% and 77.6%, respectively was shown. Specific sequence signatures of uncertain significance in the new virus variant were a C-terminus deletion and a T215P substitution. Conclusions The H1N1v NS1 gene was more conserved than that of previous epidemic strains. In addition, a closer genetic identity of H1N1v with the swine than the human reference strains was shown. Hot-spots were shown in the H1N1v NS1 aa sequence whose biologic relevance remains to be investigated.
Pillay, Neville; Rymer, Tasmin L
Behavioural compatibility between mates is fundamental for maintaining species boundaries and is achieved through appropriate communication between males and females. A breakdown in communication will lead to behavioural divergence and reduced interfertility. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on male signals and female perception of these signals, integrating the literature from several taxa. We advocate that signaller-perceiver coevolution, which is usually under strong stabilising selection to enable mating, forms the basis of species-specific mate recognition systems. The mechanisms (phylogeny, geography, ecology, biology) shaping signaller-perceiver systems are briefly discussed to demonstrate the factors underpinning the evolution of signaller-perceiver couplings. Since divergence and diversification of communication systems is driven by changes in the mechanical properties of sensory pathways and morphology of sensory organs, we highlight signal modalities (auditory, olfactory, visual, tactile) and their importance in communication, particularly in mate selection. Next, using available examples and generating a stylised model, we suggest how disruption (biological, ecological, stochastic) of signaller-perceiver systems drives behavioural divergence and consequently results in reduced interfertility and speciation. Future studies should adopt an integrative approach, combining multiple parameters (phylogeny, adaptive utility of communication systems, genetics and biomechanical/biochemical properties of signals and perception) to explore how disruption of signaller-perceiver systems results in behavioural divergence and reduced interfertility. Finally, we question the impact that rapid environmental change will have on disruption of communication systems, potentially interfering with signaller-perceiver couplings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Two methods to estimate the inbreeding load, employed in our analysis, are reviewed. Besides the total population, a sample constituted of individuals with no alien ancestral is also analysed. The measurements by genetic load models show any clear effect of natural radioactivity (especially for abortions, pre-natal mortality, anomalies, and abnormalities in general). The results on stillbirths and post-natal and total mortalities are discussed and it is concluded that uncontrolled concomitant variables (if not chance alone) cause the differences [pt
Hoseini Alinodehi, Seyed Pourya; Moshfe, Sajjad; Saber Zaeimian, Masoumeh; Khoei, Abdollah; Hadidi, Khairollah
In this paper, an ultrafast steady-state genetic algorithm processor (GAP) is presented. Due to the heavy computational load of genetic algorithms (GAs), they usually take a long time to find optimum solutions. Hardware implementation is a significant approach to overcome the problem by speeding up the GAs procedure. Hence, we designed a digital CMOS implementation of GA in [Formula: see text] process. The proposed processor is not bounded to a specific application. Indeed, it is a general-purpose processor, which is capable of performing optimization in any possible application. Utilizing speed-boosting techniques, such as pipeline scheme, parallel coarse-grained processing, parallel fitness computation, parallel selection of parents, dual-population scheme, and support for pipelined fitness computation, the proposed processor significantly reduces the processing time. Furthermore, by relying on a built-in discard operator the proposed hardware may be used in constrained problems that are very common in control applications. In the proposed design, a large search space is achievable through the bit string length extension of individuals in the genetic population by connecting the 32-bit GAPs. In addition, the proposed processor supports parallel processing, in which the GAs procedure can be run on several connected processors simultaneously.
Stenglein, Mark D; Sanders, Chris; Kistler, Amy L; Ruby, J Graham; Franco, Jessica Y; Reavill, Drury R; Dunker, Freeland; Derisi, Joseph L
Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious fatal disease of snakes typified by behavioral abnormalities, wasting, and secondary infections. At a histopathological level, the disease is identified by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple tissues. To date, no virus or other pathogen has been definitively characterized or associated with the disease. Using a metagenomic approach to search for candidate etiologic agents in snakes with confirmed IBD, we identified and de novo assembled the complete genomic sequences of two viruses related to arenaviruses, and a third arenavirus-like sequence was discovered by screening an additional set of samples. A continuous boa constrictor cell line was established and used to propagate and isolate one of the viruses in culture. Viral nucleoprotein was localized and concentrated within large cytoplasmic inclusions in infected cells in culture and tissues from diseased snakes. In total, viral RNA was detected in 6/8 confirmed IBD cases and 0/18 controls. These viruses have a typical arenavirus genome organization but are highly divergent, belonging to a lineage separate from that of the Old and New World arenaviruses. Furthermore, these viruses encode envelope glycoproteins that are more similar to those of filoviruses than to those of other arenaviruses. These findings implicate these viruses as candidate etiologic agents of IBD. The presence of arenaviruses outside mammals reveals that these viruses infect an unexpectedly broad range of species and represent a new reservoir of potential human pathogens. Inclusion body disease (IBD) is a common infectious disease of captive snakes. IBD is fatal and can cause the loss of entire animal collections. The cause of the disease has remained elusive, and no treatment exists. In addition to being important to pet owners, veterinarians, breeders, zoological parks, and aquariums, the study of animal disease is significant since animals are the source of
Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A; Fisher, Allison R; Schultz, Bryant; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D
The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered-two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117-0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow.
Thomson, Martin J.; Waddie, Andrew J.; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.
We present a genetic algorithm with small population sizes for the design of diffraction gratings in the rigorous domain. A general crossover and mutation scheme is defined, forming fifteen offspring from 3 parents, which enables the algorithm to be used for designing gratings with diverse optical properties by careful definition of the merit function. The initial parents are randomly selected and the parents of the subsequent generations are selected by survival of the fittest. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated by designing diffraction gratings with specific application to high power laser beam lines. Gratings are designed that act as beam deflectors, polarisers, polarising beam splitters, harmonic separation gratings and pulse compression gratings. By imposing fabrication constraints within the design process, we determine which of these elements have true potential for application within high power laser beam lines.
Variação, divergência e correlações genéticas entre caracteres silviculturais e densidade básica da madeira em progênies de Myracrodruon urundeuva (Engler Fr. Allem. Genetic variation, divergence and correlations among silvicultural traits and wood density in progenies of Myracrodruon urundeuva (Engler Fr. Allem.
Eduardo Luiz LONGUI
State, genetic parameters for wood density in three radials positions (pith, intermediary and bark, the Mahalanobis distance and genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth traits (total height, stem height and diameter at breast height – DBH and wood density were estimated. The population presented high wood density (0.75 g.cm-3 and heritability (0.64 for this trait in the medulla and intermediary positions, indicating strong genetic control and the possibility of improvement by selection. The results also showed that for the studied M. urundeuva populations, the progenies 1 and 14 must be used to explore the heterotic effects because these progenies presented the highest Mahalanobis distance; in contrast, the progenies 14 and 20 presented the lowest genetic distance and thus, the breeding may be obtained for backcross. These information are important to choose adequate methods of breeding and conservations genetics.
Slutz, S.A.; Lemke, R.W.; Pointon, T.D.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Filuk, A.; Bailey, J.
Magnetically insulated ion diodes are being developed to drive inertial confinement fusion. Ion beam microdivergence must be reduced to achieve the very high beam intensities required to achieve this goal. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that instability induced fluctuations can produce significant ion divergence during acceleration. These simulations exhibit a fast growing mode early in time, which has been identified as the diocotron instability. The divergence generated by this mode is modest due to the relatively high frequency (>1GHz). Later, a low-frequency low-phase-velocity instability develops. This instability couples effectively to the ions, since the frequency is approximately the reciprocal of the ion transit time, and can generate unacceptably large ion divergences (>30 mrad). Linear stability theory reveals that this mode requires perturbations parallel to the applied magnetic field and is related to the modified two stream instability. Measurements of ion density fluctuations and energy-momentum correlations have confirmed that instabilities develop in ion diodes and contribute to the ion divergence. In addition, spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ions have a significant transverse temperature very close to the emission surface. Passive lithium fluoride (LiF) anodes have larger transverse beam temperatures than laser irradiated active sources. Calculations of source divergence expected from the roughness of LiF surfaces and the possible removal of this layer is presented
Schaefer H Martin
Full Text Available Abstract Background While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Andes (here up to 6,900 m may constitute a formidable barrier to dispersal. In addition, this region was affected by cycles of intercalating arid/moist periods during the Upper/Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These factors may have been crucial in driving the phylogeographic structure of the vertebrate fauna of the region. Here we test these hypotheses in the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves, Psittaciformes across its wide distributional range in Chile and Argentina. Results Our data show a Chilean origin for this species, with a single migration event across the Andes during the Upper/Late Pleistocene, which gave rise to all extant Argentinean mitochondrial lineages. Analyses suggest a complex population structure for burrowing parrots in Argentina, which includes a hybrid zone that has remained stable for several thousand years. Within this zone, introgression by expanding haplotypes has resulted in the evolution of an intermediate phenotype. Multivariate regressions show that present day climatic variables have a strong influence on the distribution of genetic heterogeneity, accounting for almost half of the variation in the data. Conclusions Here we show how huge barriers like the Andes and the regional environmental conditions imposed constraints on the ability of a parrot species to colonise new habitats, affecting the way in which populations diverged and thus, genetic structure. When contact between divergent populations was re-established, a stable hybrid zone was formed, functioning as a channel for genetic exchange between populations.
George L Sutphin
Full Text Available The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs between 6 eukaryotic species-humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at http://wormhole.jax.org/.
Sutphin, George L.; Mahoney, J. Matthew; Sheppard, Keith; Walton, David O.; Korstanje, Ron
The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs) between 6 eukaryotic species—humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at http://wormhole.jax.org/. PMID:27812085
Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Ge, Xiaojia; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel; Scaramella, Laura V; Reiss, David
Little is known about how parenting might offset genetic risk to prevent the onset of child problems during toddlerhood. We used a prospective adoption design to separate genetic and environmental influences and test whether associations between structured parenting and toddler behavior problems were conditioned by genetic risk for psychopathology. The sample included 290 linked sets of adoptive families and birth mothers and 95 linked birth fathers. Genetic risk was assessed via birth mother and birth father psychopathology (anxiety, depression, antisociality, and drug use). Structured parenting was assessed via microsocial coding of adoptive mothers' behavior during a cleanup task. Toddler behavior problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Controlling for temperamental risk at 9 months, there was an interaction between birth mother psychopathology and adoptive mothers' parenting on toddler behavior problems at 18 months. The interaction indicated two pathways to child problems: structured parenting was beneficial for toddlers at high genetic risk but was related to behavior problems for toddlers at low genetic risk. This crossover interaction pattern was replicated with birth father psychopathology as the index of genetic risk. The effects of structured parenting on toddler behavior problems varied as a function of genetic risk. Children at genetic risk might benefit from parenting interventions during toddlerhood that enhance structured parenting.
Treur, Jorien L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ligthart, Lannie; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M
High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear whether this is due to shared genetic or environmental risk factors. We examined whether there are genetic influences on the consumption of sugar-containing drinks and whether genetic factors can explain the association with substance use. The frequency of consumption of sugar-containing drinks (e.g., cola, soft drinks, and energy drinks) and addictive substances (nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drugs) was obtained for 8586 twins who were registered at the Netherlands Twin Register (women: 68.7%; mean ± SD age: 33.5 ± 15.3 y). Participants were categorized as high or low sugar consumers (>1 compared with ≤1 SD above daily consumption in grams) and as high or low substance users (≥2 compared with <2 substances). Through bivariate genetic modeling, genetic and environmental influences on sugar consumption, substance use, and their association were estimated. Genetic factors explained 48% of the variation in high sugar consumption, whereas unique environmental factors explained 52%. For high substance use, these values were 62% and 38%, respectively. There was a moderate phenotypic association between high sugar consumption and high substance use (r = 0.2), which was explained by genetic factors (59%) and unique environmental factors (41%). The positive association between high sugar consumption and high substance use was partly due to unique environmental factors (e.g., social situations). Genetic factors were also of influence, suggesting that neuronal circuits underlying the development of addiction and obesity are related. Further research is needed to identify genes that influence sugar consumption and those that overlap with substance use. © 2016
Annika M E Noreen
Full Text Available Over the last 150 years, Singapore's primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter, 193 saplings (>1 yr, and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr of the canopy tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae. We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1 that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2 K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He = 0.843-0.854, high allelic richness (R = 16.7-19.5, low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS = 0.013-0.076, and a large proportion (30.1% of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%. However, spatial genetic structure (SGS analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0-10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult trees are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm = 0.961, calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss.
Aldaz, Jaime; García-Díaz, Juan; Calleros, Lucía; Sosa, Katia; Iraola, Gregorio; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Martín; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben
Canine parvovirus (CPV) comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) that are distributed globally with different frequencies and levels of genetic variability. CPVs from central Ecuador were herein analyzed to characterize the strains and to provide new insights into local viral diversity, evolution, and pathogenicity. Variant prevalence was analyzed by PCR and partial sequencing for 53 CPV-positive samples collected during 2011 and 2012. The full-length VP2 gene was sequenced in 24 selected strains and a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed using both Ecuadorian and worldwide strains. Ecuadorian CPVs have a remarkable genetic diversity that includes the circulation of all three variants and the existence of different evolutionary groups or lineages. CPV-2c was the most prevalent variant (54.7%), confirming the spread of this variant in America. Ecuadorian CPV-2c strains clustered in two lineages, which represent the first evidence of polyphyletic CPV-2c circulating in South America. CPV-2a strains constituted 41.5% of the samples and clustered in a single lineage. The two detected CPV-2b strains (3.8%) were clearly polyphyletic and appeared related to Ecuadorian CPV-2a or foreign CPV-2b strains. Besides the substitution at residue 426 that is used to identify the variants, two amino acid changes occurred in Ecuadorian strains: Val139Iso and Thr440Ser. Ser(440) occurred in a biologically relevant domain of VP2 and is here described for the first time in CPV. The associations of Ecuadorian CPV-2c and CPV-2a with clinical symptoms indicate that dull mentation, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and hypothermia occurred more frequently in infection with CPV-2c than with CPV-2a. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prajapati, Surendra Kumar; Joshi, Hema; Valecha, Neena
Malaria, an ancient human infectious disease caused by five species of Plasmodium, among them Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria species and causes huge morbidity to its host. Identification of genetic marker to resolve higher genetic diversity for an ancient origin organism is a crucial task. We have analyzed genetic diversity of P. vivax field isolates using highly polymorphic antigen gene merozoite surface protein-3 alpha (msp-3 alpha) and assessed its suitability as high-resolution genetic marker for population genetic studies. 27 P. vivax field isolates collected during chloroquine therapeutic efficacy study at Chennai were analyzed for genetic diversity. PCR-RFLP was employed to assess the genetic variations using highly polymorphic antigen gene msp-3 alpha. We observed three distinct PCR alleles at msp-3 alpha, and among them allele A showed significantly high frequency (53%, chi2 = 8.22, p = 0.001). PCR-RFLP analysis revealed 14 and 17 distinct RFLP patterns for Hha1 and Alu1 enzymes respectively. Further, RFLP analysis revealed that allele A at msp-3 alpha is more diverse in the population compared with allele B and C. Combining Hha1 and Alu1 RFLP patterns revealed 21 distinct genotypes among 22 isolates reflects higher diversity resolution power of msp-3 alpha in the field isolates. P. vivax isolates from Chennai region revealed substantial amount of genetic diversity and comparison of allelic diversity with other antigen genes and microsatellites suggesting that msp-3 alpha could be a high-resolution marker for genetic diversity studies among P. vivax field isolates.
Wilkins, Matthew Reed
A wealth of studies across diverse animal groups indicate the importance of sexual selection in shaping phenotypes within and across breeding populations. In recent decades, much research has focused on how divergent sexual selection pressures among populations may lead to speciation. For my first dissertation chapter, I performed a literature review on the causes and consequences of evolutionary divergence in acoustic signals and developed the acoustic window conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of selection, genetic drift, and evolutionary constraint to signal divergence. Further, I found that sexual selection explains acoustic differences between recently diverged populations of the best-studied taxa. However, the relative contributions of ecological selection, sexual selection, and drift to acoustic divergence have not typically been considered within the same study systems. The remainder of my dissertation used the Northern Hemisphere-distributed barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica) species complex as a model system to study sender-receiver dynamics, intra- and intersexual selection pressures, and visual and acoustic signal interactions at the local scale, and signal divergence across populations at the global scale. From song recordings taken across 19 sampling sites, spanning five of six described subspecies, I demonstrated considerable conservation in song structure. However, temporal traits were highly divergent across subspecies, and in particular, the speed of the terminal trill of songs. In a detailed study of the multimodal communication system of the barn swallow (including visual and acoustic traits), I demonstrated that males and females use different types of signals to mediate competition and mate choice. One of the only exceptions to this rule was trill rate, which was also implicated in song divergence across populations. In order to test the function of trill rate in communication, I performed a two-year playback study within the
Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Yamane, Noriko; Koyama, Yoshinori; Satou, Yuki; Kikuzato, Ikuya; Teruya, Morimi; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Imada, Yumi; Wachi, Youji; Miwa, Yukino; Yano, Shuichi; Tamano, Koichi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E.; Machida, Masayuki; Hirano, Takashi
Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in Japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of A. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. Characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of A. oryzae. Here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, A. oryzae RIB326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and compared the data with those of A. oryzae RIB40, a wild-type strain sequenced in 2005. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutation pressure on the non-syntenic blocks (NSBs) of the genome, which were previously identified through comparative genomic analysis of A. oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans. We found that genes within the NSBs of RIB326 accumulate mutations more frequently than those within the SBs, regardless of their distance from the telomeres or of their expression level. Our findings suggest that the high mutation frequency of NSBs might contribute to maintaining the diversity of the A. oryzae genome. PMID:22912434
Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Yamane, Noriko; Koyama, Yoshinori; Satou, Yuki; Kikuzato, Ikuya; Teruya, Morimi; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Imada, Yumi; Wachi, Youji; Miwa, Yukino; Yano, Shuichi; Tamano, Koichi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E; Machida, Masayuki; Hirano, Takashi
Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in Japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of A. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. Characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of A. oryzae. Here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, A. oryzae RIB326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and compared the data with those of A. oryzae RIB40, a wild-type strain sequenced in 2005. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutation pressure on the non-syntenic blocks (NSBs) of the genome, which were previously identified through comparative genomic analysis of A. oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans. We found that genes within the NSBs of RIB326 accumulate mutations more frequently than those within the SBs, regardless of their distance from the telomeres or of their expression level. Our findings suggest that the high mutation frequency of NSBs might contribute to maintaining the diversity of the A. oryzae genome.
Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation represent the most serious extinction threats for many species and have been demonstrated to be especially detrimental for mammals. Particularly, highly specialized species with low dispersal abilities will encounter a high risk of extinction in fragmented landscapes. Here we studied the edible dormouse (Glis glis, a small arboreal mammal that is distributed throughout Central Europe, where forests are mostly fragmented at different spatial scales. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic population structures using the example of edible dormouse populations inhabiting forest fragments in south western Germany. We genotyped 380 adult individuals captured between 2001 and 2009 in four different forest fragments and one large continuous forest using 14 species-specific microsatellites. We hypothesised, that populations in small forest patches have a lower genetic diversity and are more isolated compared to populations living in continuous forests. In accordance with our expectations we found that dormice inhabiting forest fragments were isolated from each other. Furthermore, their genetic population structure was more unstable over the study period than in the large continuous forest. Even though we could not detect lower genetic variability within individuals inhabiting forest fragments, strong genetic isolation and an overall high risk to mate with close relatives might be precursors to a reduced genetic variability and the onset of inbreeding depression. Results of this study highlight that connectivity among habitat fragments can already be strongly hampered before genetic erosion within small and isolated populations becomes evident.
Sachdeva, Himani; Barton, Nicholas H
Assortative mating is an important driver of speciation in populations with gene flow and is predicted to evolve under certain conditions in few-locus models. However, the evolution of assortment is less understood for mating based on quantitative traits, which are often characterized by high genetic variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium between trait loci. We explore this scenario for a two-deme model with migration, by considering a single polygenic trait subject to divergent viability selection across demes, as well as assortative mating and sexual selection within demes, and investigate how trait divergence is shaped by various evolutionary forces. Our analysis reveals the existence of sharp thresholds of assortment strength, at which divergence increases dramatically. We also study the evolution of assortment via invasion of modifiers of mate discrimination and show that the ES assortment strength has an intermediate value under a range of migration-selection parameters, even in diverged populations, due to subtle effects which depend sensitively on the extent of phenotypic variation within these populations. The evolutionary dynamics of the polygenic trait is studied using the hypergeometric and infinitesimal models. We further investigate the sensitivity of our results to the assumptions of the hypergeometric model, using individual-based simulations. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Freire-Maia, A.; Krieger, H.
Data have been obtained by a genetic-epidemiological survey of a population living in the State of Espirito Santo (Brazil), and subjected to mean levels of natural radiation, per locality, ranging from 7 to 133 μrad/hr. Multiple regression models have been applied to the data, and the results showed no detectable effect of natural radiation on the sex ratio at birth, on the occurrence of congenital anomalies, and on the numbers of pregnancy terminations, stillbirths, livebirths, and post-infant mortality in the children, as well as fecundity and fertility of the couples (these observations contradict some data from the literature, based on official records and without analyses of the concomitant effects of other variables). However, nonsignificant results cannot be considered as disproving harmful effects of natural radiation on mortality and morbidity. These results may simply mean that other causes of mortality and morbidity are so important, under the conditions of the study, that the contribution of low-level, chronic natural radiation is made negligible. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic divergence between invasive and native species may provide insight into the molecular basis underlying specific characteristics that drive the invasion and displacement of closely related species. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of an indigenous species, Asia II 3, of the Bemisia tabaci complex and compared its genetic divergence with the transcriptomes of two invasive whiteflies species, Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1 and Mediterranean (MED, respectively. Results More than 16 million reads of 74 base pairs in length were obtained for the Asia II 3 species using the Illumina sequencing platform. These reads were assembled into 52,535 distinct sequences (mean size: 466 bp and 16,596 sequences were annotated with an E-value above 10-5. Protein family comparisons revealed obvious diversification among the transcriptomes of these species suggesting species-specific adaptations during whitefly evolution. On the contrary, substantial conservation of the whitefly transcriptomes was also evident, despite their differences. The overall divergence of coding sequences between the orthologous gene pairs of Asia II 3 and MEAM1 is 1.73%, which is comparable to the average divergence of Asia II 3 and MED transcriptomes (1.84% and much higher than that of MEAM1 and MED (0.83%. This is consistent with the previous phylogenetic analyses and crossing experiments suggesting these are distinct species. We also identified hundreds of highly diverged genes and compiled sequence identify data into gene functional groups and found the most divergent gene classes are Cytochrome P450, Glutathione metabolism and Oxidative phosphorylation. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of genes related to metabolism might be the driving force of the MEAM1 and Asia II 3 differentiation. We also analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms within the orthologous gene pairs of indigenous and invasive whiteflies which are helpful for
Eremeev Anton V.
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to upper bounds on the expected first hitting times of the sets of local or global optima for non-elitist genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure. The results of this paper extend the range of situations where the upper bounds on the expected runtime are known for genetic algorithms and apply, in particular, to the Canonical Genetic Algorithm. The obtained bounds do not require the probability of fitness-decreasing mutation to be bounded by a constant which is less than one.
Coelho, G R C; Brondani, C; Hoffmann, L V; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Mendonça, J A; Rodrigues, L A; de Menezes, I P P
The objective of this study was to analyze the diversity and discrimination of high-performance Brazilian rice cultivars using microsatellite markers. Twenty-nine rice cultivars belonging to EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão germplasm bank in Brazil were genotyped by 24 SSR markers to establish their structure and genetic discrimination. It was demonstrated that the analyzed germplasm of rice presents an expressive and significant genetic diversity with low heterogeneity among the cultivars. All 29 cultivars were differentiated genetically, and were organized into two groups related to their upland and irrigated cultivation systems. These groups showed a high genetic differentiation, with greater diversity within the group that includes the cultivars for irrigated system. The genotyping data of these cultivars, with the morphological e phenotypical data, are valuable information to be used by rice breeding programs to develop new improved cultivars.
Jack, I.; Jones, D.R.T.
We present a detailed analysis of quadratic and quartic divergences in dimensionally regulated renormalisable theories. We perform explicit three-loop calculations for a general theory of scalars and fermions. We find that the higher-order quartic divergences are related to the lower-order ones by the renormalisation group β-functions. (orig.)
Gaither, Michelle R.
The pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge, family Pomacanthidae) are brightly colored species that occupy reef habitats in every tropical ocean. Some species are rarely observed because they occur below conventional scuba depths. Their striking coloration can command thousands of U.S. dollars in the aquarium trade, and closely related species are often distinguished only by coloration. These factors have impeded phylogenetic resolution, and every phylogeographic survey to date has reported discordance between coloration, taxonomy, and genetic partitions. Here we report a phylogenetic survey of 29 of the 34 recognized species (N= 94 plus 23 outgroups), based on two mtDNA and three nuclear loci, totaling 2272. bp. The resulting ML and Baysian trees are highly concordant and indicate that the genus Centropyge is paraphyletic, consistent with a previous analysis of the family Pomacanthidae. Two recognized genera (Apolemichthys and Genicanthus) nest within Centropyge, and two subgenera (Xiphypops and Paracentropyge) comprise monophyletic lineages that should be elevated to genus level. Based on an age estimate of 38. Ma for the family Pomacanthidae, Centropyge diverged from the closest extant genus Pygoplites about 33. Ma, three deep lineages within Centropyge diverged about 18-28. Ma, and four species complexes diverged 3-12. Ma. However, in 11 of 13 cases, putative species in these complexes are indistinguishable based on morphology and genetics, being defined solely by coloration. These cases indicate either emerging species or excessive taxonomic splitting based on brightly colored variants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Cristofari, Robin; Trucchi, Emiliano; Whittington, Jason D; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline
How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within a radius of a few meters. Yet, little reliable data are available on intra- and inter-colonial dispersal in this species. Here, we present the first fine-scale study of the genetic structure in a king penguin colony in the Crozet Archipelago. Samples were collected from individual chicks and analysed at 8 microsatellite loci. Precise geolocation data of hatching sites and selective pressures associated with habitat features were recorded for all sampling locations. We found that despite strong natal and breeding site fidelity, king penguins retain a high degree of panmixia and genetic diversity. Yet, genetic structure appears markedly heterogeneous across the colony, with higher-than-expected inbreeding levels, and local inbreeding and relatedness hotspots that overlap predicted higher-quality nesting locations. This points towards heterogeneous population structure at the sub-colony level, in which fine-scale environmental features drive local philopatric behaviour, while lower-quality patches may act as genetic mixing mechanisms at the colony level. These findings show how a lack of global genetic structuring can emerge from small-scale heterogeneity in ecological parameters, as opposed to the classical model of homogeneous dispersal. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling design for estimation of population parameters in colonial seabirds, as at high spatial resolution, basic genetic features are shown to be location-dependent. Finally, this study stresses the importance of
Full Text Available How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within a radius of a few meters. Yet, little reliable data are available on intra- and inter-colonial dispersal in this species. Here, we present the first fine-scale study of the genetic structure in a king penguin colony in the Crozet Archipelago. Samples were collected from individual chicks and analysed at 8 microsatellite loci. Precise geolocation data of hatching sites and selective pressures associated with habitat features were recorded for all sampling locations. We found that despite strong natal and breeding site fidelity, king penguins retain a high degree of panmixia and genetic diversity. Yet, genetic structure appears markedly heterogeneous across the colony, with higher-than-expected inbreeding levels, and local inbreeding and relatedness hotspots that overlap predicted higher-quality nesting locations. This points towards heterogeneous population structure at the sub-colony level, in which fine-scale environmental features drive local philopatric behaviour, while lower-quality patches may act as genetic mixing mechanisms at the colony level. These findings show how a lack of global genetic structuring can emerge from small-scale heterogeneity in ecological parameters, as opposed to the classical model of homogeneous dispersal. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling design for estimation of population parameters in colonial seabirds, as at high spatial resolution, basic genetic features are shown to be location-dependent. Finally, this study stresses the
Lee, Min-Young; Ku, Bo Mi; Kim, Hae Su; Lee, Ji Yun; Lim, Sung Hee; Sun, Jong-Mu; Lee, Se-Hoon; Park, Keunchil; Oh, Young Lyun; Hong, Mineui; Jeong, Han-Sin; Son, Young-Ik; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Ahn, Myung-Ju
Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) frequently involve genetic alterations. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic alterations and further explore the relationships between these genetic alterations and clinicopathological characteristics in a high-recurrence risk (node positive, N1) PTC group. Tumor tissue blocks were obtained from 240 surgically resected patients with histologically confirmed stage III/IV (pT3/4 or N1) PTCs. We screened gene fusions using NanoString's nCounter technology and mutational analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing. Data describing the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical courses were retrospectively collected. Of the 240 PTC patients, 207 (86.3%) had at least one genetic alteration, including BRAF mutation in 190 patients (79.2%), PIK3CA mutation in 25 patients (10.4%), NTRK1/3 fusion in six patients (2.5%), and RET fusion in 24 patients (10.0%). Concomitant presence of more than two genetic alterations was seen in 36 patients (15%). PTCs harboring BRAF mutation were associated with RET wild-type expression (p=0.001). RET fusion genes have been found to occur with significantly higher frequency in N1b stage patients (p=0.003) or groups of patients aged 45 years or older (p=0.031); however, no significant correlation was found between other genetic alterations. There was no trend toward favorable recurrence-free survival or overall survival among patients lacking genetic alterations. In the selected high-recurrence risk PTC group, most patients had more than one genetic alteration. However, these known alterations could not entirely account for clinicopathological features of high-recurrence risk PTC.
Morrissy, A. Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J. H.; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M. G.; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K.; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L.; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J. L.; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L.; Lee, John J. Y.; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C.; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K. A.; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y.; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D.; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C.; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E.; Fults, Daniel W.; Walter, Andrew W.; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V. Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Garvin, James H.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E.; Tirapelli, Daniela P. C.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R.; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Clifford, Steven C.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Cooper, Michael K.; Packer, Roger J.; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Weiss, William A.; Collier, Lara S.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T. W.; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Largaespada, David A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A.; Taylor, Michael D.
The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon–driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with ‘humanized’ in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213
Kohler, Christian G; Richard, Jan A; Brensinger, Colleen M; Borgmann-Winter, Karin E; Conroy, Catherine G; Moberg, Paul J; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Calkins, Monica E
A large body of literature has documented facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia. More recently, emotion perception has been investigated in persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis. This study compared emotion perception abilities in groups of young persons with schizophrenia, clinical high-risk, genetic risk and healthy controls. Groups, ages 13-25, included 24 persons at clinical high-risk, 52 first-degree relatives at genetic risk, 91 persons with schizophrenia and 90 low risk persons who completed computerized testing of emotion recognition and differentiation. Groups differed by overall emotion recognition abilities and recognition of happy, sad, anger and fear expressions. Pairwise comparisons revealed comparable impairments in recognition of happy, angry, and fearful expressions for persons at clinical high-risk and schizophrenia, while genetic risk participants were less impaired, showing reduced recognition of fearful expressions. Groups also differed for differentiation of happy and sad expressions, but differences were mainly between schizophrenia and control groups. Emotion perception impairments are observable in young persons at-risk for psychosis. Preliminary results with clinical high-risk participants, when considered along findings in genetic risk relatives, suggest social cognition abilities to reflect pathophysiological processes involved in risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The phenomenon of radiation resistance was studied using micrococci and Moraxella-Acinetobacter capable of surviving very high doses of gamma radiation which were isolated from foods. Physiological age, or growth phase, was found to be an important factor in making comparisons of radiation-resistance among different bacteria and their mutants. Radiation-resistant bacteria were highly resistant to the lethal effect of nitrosoguanidine used for mutagenesis. Studies of relative resistance of radiation-resistant bacteria, radiation-sensitive mutants, and nonradiation-resistant bacteria to killing by different chemical mutagens did not reveal a correlation between the traits of radiation resistance and mutagen resistance among different strains. Comparisons of plasmid profiles of radiation-resistant bacteria and selected radiation-sensitive mutants suggested the possibility that plasmids may carry genes involved in radiation resistance
Full Text Available To understand the function of genetic regulatory networks in the development of cellular systems, we must not only realise the individual network entities, but also the manner by which they interact. Multi-valued networks are a promising qualitative approach for modelling such genetic regulatory networks, however, at present they have limited formal analysis techniques and tools. We present a flexible formal framework for modelling and analysing multi-valued genetic regulatory networks using high-level Petri nets and logic minimization techniques. We demonstrate our approach with a detailed case study in which part of the genetic regulatory network responsible for the carbon starvation stress response in Escherichia coli is modelled and analysed. We then compare and contrast this multivalued model to a corresponding Boolean model and consider their formal relationship.
Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena
Roč. 54, č. 6 (2013), s. 695-703 ISSN 0007-1668 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) 0002701404 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : egg storage * embryo mortality * hatchability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2013
Runcie, Daniel E; Mukherjee, Sayan
Quantitative genetic studies that model complex, multivariate phenotypes are important for both evolutionary prediction and artificial selection. For example, changes in gene expression can provide insight into developmental and physiological mechanisms that link genotype and phenotype. However, classical analytical techniques are poorly suited to quantitative genetic studies of gene expression where the number of traits assayed per individual can reach many thousand. Here, we derive a Bayesian genetic sparse factor model for estimating the genetic covariance matrix (G-matrix) of high-dimensional traits, such as gene expression, in a mixed-effects model. The key idea of our model is that we need consider only G-matrices that are biologically plausible. An organism's entire phenotype is the result of processes that are modular and have limited complexity. This implies that the G-matrix will be highly structured. In particular, we assume that a limited number of intermediate traits (or factors, e.g., variations in development or physiology) control the variation in the high-dimensional phenotype, and that each of these intermediate traits is sparse - affecting only a few observed traits. The advantages of this approach are twofold. First, sparse factors are interpretable and provide biological insight into mechanisms underlying the genetic architecture. Second, enforcing sparsity helps prevent sampling errors from swamping out the true signal in high-dimensional data. We demonstrate the advantages of our model on simulated data and in an analysis of a published Drosophila melanogaster gene expression data set.
Full Text Available Squalus blainville is one of the least studied Mediterranean shark species. Despite being intensively fished in several locations, biological knowledge is limited and no genetic structure information is available. This is the first study to examine the genetic structure of S. blainville in the Mediterranean Sea. Considering the high dispersal potential inferred for other squalid sharks, the hypothesis of panmixia was tested based on a 585 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from 107 individuals and six nuclear microsatellite loci from 577 individuals. Samples were collected across the Ionian, Aegean and Libyan Seas and off the Balearic Islands. Twenty three additional sequences of Mediterranean and South African origin were retrieved from GenBank and included in the mitochondrial DNA analysis. The overall haplotype diversity was high, in contrast to the low nucleotide diversity. Low and non-significant pairwise ΦST and FST values along with a Bayesian cluster analysis suggested high connectivity with subsequent genetic homogeneity among the populations studied, and thus a high dispersal potential for S. blainville similar to other squalids. The historical demography of the species was also assessed, revealing a pattern of population expansion since the middle Pleistocene. These findings could be considered in species-specific conservation plans, although sampling over a larger spatial scale and more genetic markers are required to fully elucidate the genetic structure and dispersal potential of S. blainville.
Friesen, Phoebe; Lawrence, Ryan E; Brucato, Gary; Girgis, Ragy R; Dixon, Lisa
Genetic tests for schizophrenia could introduce both risks and benefits. Little is known about the hopes and expectations of young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis concerning genetic testing for schizophrenia, despite the fact that these youth could be among those highly affected by such tests. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis to ask about their interest, expectations, and hopes regarding genetic testing for schizophrenia. Most participants reported a high level of interest in genetic testing for schizophrenia, and the majority said they would take such a test immediately if it were available. Some expressed far-reaching expectations for a genetic test, such as predicting symptom severity and the timing of symptom onset. Several assumed that genetic testing would be accompanied by interventions to prevent schizophrenia. Participants anticipated mixed reactions on finding out they had a genetic risk for schizophrenia, suggesting that they might feel both a sense of relief and a sense of hopelessness. We suggest that genetic counseling could play an important role in counteracting a culture of genetic over-optimism and helping young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis understand the limitations of genetic testing. Counseling sessions could also invite individuals to explore how receiving genetic risk information might impact their well-being, as early evidence suggests that some psychological factors help individuals cope, whereas others heighten distress related to genetic test results.
Lawrence, Ryan E; Friesen, Phoebe; Brucato, Gary; Girgis, Ragy R; Dixon, Lisa
Genetic tests for schizophrenia may introduce risks and benefits. Among young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis, little is known about their concerns and how they assess potential risks. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis to ask about their concerns. Participants expressed concerns about test reliability, data interpretation, stigma, psychological harm, family planning, and privacy. Participants' responses showed some departure from the ethics literature insofar as participants were primarily interested in reporting their results to people to whom they felt emotionally close, and expressed little consideration of biological closeness. Additionally, if tests showed an increased genetic risk for schizophrenia, four clinical high-risk persons felt obligated to tell an employer and another three would "maybe" tell an employer, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. These findings suggest opportunities for clinicians and genetic counselors to intervene with education and support.
Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB still remains an important public health problem in Iran. The genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is expected to lead to a better understanding of M. tuberculosis transmission in Tehran, the most populated city of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 2300 clinical specimens were obtained from TB suspected patients who were referred to a TB center in Tehran from Jan 2014 to Dec 2016. Identification was performed using both conventional and molecular methods. The presence of resistance to rifampicin was examined by the GeneXpert MTB/RIF. The standard 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing method was applied to genotype of clinical isolates. Results: Of 2300 specimens, 80 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis by using biochemical and molecular tests. Of 80 M. tuberculosis isolates, 76 (95% had unique genotypic profiles and 4 (5% shared a profile with one or more other strains. Based on single loci variation (SLV 4 clonal complexes were observed. NEW-1 was found to be the most predominant lineage (22.5% followed by West African (1.25%, Central Asian (CAS/Delhi (1.25%, Bovis (1.25%, H37Rv (1.25% and multiple matches (1.25%. Loci MIRU10, MIRU26, MTUB21 and QUB26 were found as highly discriminative. No mutation was detected in the hotspot region of rifampicin by using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Conclusions: Our study findings show that there was considerable genotypic diversity among M. tuberculosis isolates in Tehran. The 15-locus MIRU-VNTR showed high HGDI and could be used as a first-line genotyping method for epidemiological studies. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Genotyping, MIRU-VNTR, Tehran, Iran
The structure of linear energy divergences is analysed on the example of one graph to 3-loop order. Such dangerous divergences do cancel when all graphs are added, but next to leading divergences do not cancel out.
Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing is a powerful technique for obtaining the reference sequence information of multiple organisms. Its use can be dramatically expanded to rapidly identify genomic variations, which can be linked with phenotypes to obtain biological insights. We explored these potential applications using the emerging next-generation sequencing platform Solexa Genome Analyzer, and the well-characterized model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Combining sequencing with experimental verification, we first improved the accuracy of the published sequence of the B. subtilis reference strain 168, then obtained sequences of multiple related laboratory strains and different isolates of each strain. This provides a framework for comparing the divergence between different laboratory strains and between their individual isolates. We also demonstrated the power of Solexa sequencing by using its results to predict a defect in the citrate signal transduction pathway of a common laboratory strain, which we verified experimentally. Finally, we examined the molecular nature of spontaneously generated mutations that suppress the growth defect caused by deletion of the stringent response mediator relA. Using whole-genome sequencing, we rapidly mapped these suppressor mutations to two small homologs of relA. Interestingly, stable suppressor strains had mutations in both genes, with each mutation alone partially relieving the relA growth defect. This supports an intriguing three-locus interaction module that is not easily identifiable through traditional suppressor mapping. We conclude that whole-genome sequencing can drastically accelerate the identification of suppressor mutations and complex genetic interactions, and it can be applied as a standard tool to investigate the genetic traits of model organisms.
Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.
Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.
Maldarelli, Frank; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Stephens, Robert; Mican, JoAnn; Polis, Michael A; Davey, Richard T; Kovacs, Joseph; Shao, Wei; Rock-Kress, Diane; Metcalf, Julia A; Rehm, Catherine; Greer, Sarah E; Lucey, Daniel L; Danley, Kristen; Alter, Harvey; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M
HIV infection is characterized by rapid and error-prone viral replication resulting in genetically diverse virus populations. The rate of accumulation of diversity and the mechanisms involved are under intense study to provide useful information to understand immune evasion and the development of drug resistance. To characterize the development of viral diversity after infection, we carried out an in-depth analysis of single genome sequences of HIV pro-pol to assess diversity and divergence and to estimate replicating population sizes in a group of treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals sampled at single (n = 22) or multiple, longitudinal (n = 11) time points. Analysis of single genome sequences revealed nonlinear accumulation of sequence diversity during the course of infection. Diversity accumulated in recently infected individuals at rates 30-fold higher than in patients with chronic infection. Accumulation of synonymous changes accounted for most of the diversity during chronic infection. Accumulation of diversity resulted in population shifts, but the rates of change were low relative to estimated replication cycle times, consistent with relatively large population sizes. Analysis of changes in allele frequencies revealed effective population sizes that are substantially higher than previous estimates of approximately 1,000 infectious particles/infected individual. Taken together, these observations indicate that HIV populations are large, diverse, and slow to change in chronic infection and that the emergence of new mutations, including drug resistance mutations, is governed by both selection forces and drift.
Pugh, Trevor J; Morozova, Olena; Attiyeh, Edward F; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Wei, Jun S; Auclair, Daniel; Carter, Scott L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Hanna, Megan; Kiezun, Adam; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S; Lichenstein, Lee; McKenna, Aaron; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Ramos, Alex H; Shefler, Erica; Sivachenko, Andrey; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Ally, Adrian; Birol, Inanc; Chiu, Readman; Corbett, Richard D; Hirst, Martin; Jackman, Shaun D; Kamoh, Baljit; Khodabakshi, Alireza Hadj; Krzywinski, Martin; Lo, Allan; Moore, Richard A; Mungall, Karen L; Qian, Jenny; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Zhao, Yongjun; Cole, Kristina A; Diamond, Maura; Diskin, Sharon J; Mosse, Yael P; Wood, Andrew C; Ji, Lingyun; Sposto, Richard; Badgett, Thomas; London, Wendy B; Moyer, Yvonne; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Smith, Malcolm A; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M; Gerhard, Daniela S; Hogarty, Michael D; Jones, Steven J M; Lander, Eric S; Gabriel, Stacey B; Getz, Gad; Seeger, Robert C; Khan, Javed; Marra, Marco A; Meyerson, Matthew; Maris, John M
Neuroblastoma is a malignancy of the developing sympathetic nervous system that often presents with widespread metastatic disease, resulting in survival rates of less than 50%. To determine the spectrum of somatic mutation in high-risk neuroblastoma, we studied 240 affected individuals (cases) using a combination of whole-exome, genome and transcriptome sequencing as part of the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) initiative. Here we report a low median exonic mutation frequency of 0.60 per Mb (0.48 nonsilent) and notably few recurrently mutated genes in these tumors. Genes with significant somatic mutation frequencies included ALK (9.2% of cases), PTPN11 (2.9%), ATRX (2.5%, and an additional 7.1% had focal deletions), MYCN (1.7%, causing a recurrent p.Pro44Leu alteration) and NRAS (0.83%). Rare, potentially pathogenic germline variants were significantly enriched in ALK, CHEK2, PINK1 and BARD1. The relative paucity of recurrent somatic mutations in neuroblastoma challenges current therapeutic strategies that rely on frequently altered oncogenic drivers.
Pugh, Trevor J.; Morozova, Olena; Attiyeh, Edward F.; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Wei, Jun S.; Auclair, Daniel; Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Hanna, Megan; Kiezun, Adam; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichenstein, Lee; McKenna, Aaron; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Ramos, Alex H.; Shefler, Erica; Sivachenko, Andrey; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Ally, Adrian; Birol, Inanc; Chiu, Readman; Corbett, Richard D.; Hirst, Martin; Jackman, Shaun D.; Kamoh, Baljit; Khodabakshi, Alireza Hadj; Krzywinski, Martin; Lo, Allan; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Karen L.; Qian, Jenny; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Zhao, Yongjun; Cole, Kristina A.; Diamond, Maura; Diskin, Sharon J.; Mosse, Yael P.; Wood, Andrew C.; Ji, Lingyun; Sposto, Richard; Badgett, Thomas; London, Wendy B.; Moyer, Yvonne; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Smith, Malcolm A.; Auvil, Jaime M. Guidry; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Hogarty, Michael D.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Getz, Gad; Seeger, Robert C.; Khan, Javed; Marra, Marco A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Maris, John M.
Neuroblastoma is a malignancy of the developing sympathetic nervous system that often presents with widespread metastatic disease, resulting in survival rates of less than 50%1. To determine the spectrum of somatic mutation in high-risk neuroblastoma, we studied 240 cases using a combination of whole exome, genome and transcriptome sequencing as part of the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) initiative. Here we report a low median exonic mutation frequency of 0.60 per megabase (0.48 non-silent), and remarkably few recurrently mutated genes in these tumors. Genes with significant somatic mutation frequencies included ALK (9.2% of cases), PTPN11 (2.9%), ATRX (2.5%, an additional 7.1% had focal deletions), MYCN (1.7%, a recurrent p.Pro44Leu alteration), and NRAS (0.83%). Rare, potentially pathogenic germline variants were significantly enriched in ALK, CHEK2, PINK1, and BARD1. The relative paucity of recurrent somatic mutations in neuroblastoma challenges current therapeutic strategies reliant upon frequently altered oncogenic drivers. PMID:23334666
Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.
Full Text Available Recent studies on highly mobile carnivores revealed cryptic population genetic structures correlated to transitions in habitat types and prey species composition. This led to the hypothesis that natal-habitat-biased dispersal may be responsible for generating population genetic structure. However, direct evidence for the concordant ecological and genetic differentiation between populations of highly mobile mammals is rare. To address this we analyzed stable isotope profiles (δ(13C and δ(15N values for Eastern European wolves (Canis lupus as a quantifiable proxy measure of diet for individuals that had been genotyped in an earlier study (showing cryptic genetic structure, to provide a quantitative assessment of the relationship between individual foraging behavior and genotype. We found a significant correlation between genetic distances and dietary differentiation (explaining 46% of the variation in both the marginal test and crucially, when geographic distance was accounted for as a co-variable. These results, interpreted in the context of other possible mechanisms such as allopatry and isolation by distance, reinforce earlier studies suggesting that diet and associated habitat choice are influencing the structuring of populations in highly mobile carnivores.
Gevaert, Scott D; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Donovan, Lisa A
Granite outcrops in the southeastern United States are rare and isolated habitats that support edaphically controlled communities dominated by herbaceous plants. They harbor rare and endemic species that are expected to have low genetic variability and high population structure due to small population sizes and their disjunct habitat. We test this expectation for an annual outcrop endemic, Helianthus porteri (Porter's sunflower). Contrary to expectation, H. porteri has relatively high genetic diversity (H e = 0.681) and relatively low genetic structure among the native populations (F ST = 0.077) when compared to 5 other Helianthus species (N = 288; 18 expressed sequence tag-SSR markers). These findings suggest greater gene flow than expected. The potential for gene flow is supported by the analysis of transplant populations established with propagules from a common source in 1959. One population established close to a native population (1.5 km) at the edge of the natural range is genetically similar to and shares rare alleles with the adjacent native population and is distinct from the central source population. In contrast, a transplant population established north of the native range has remained similar to the source population. The relatively high genetic diversity and low population structure of this species, combined with the long-term success of transplanted populations, bode well for its persistence as long as the habitat persists.
Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Yamane, Noriko; Koyama, Yoshinori; Satou, Yuki; Kikuzato, Ikuya; Teruya, Morimi; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Imada, Yumi; Wachi, Youji; Miwa, Yukino; Yano, Shuichi; Tamano, Koichi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E.
Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in Japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of A. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. Characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of A. oryzae. Here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, A. oryzae RIB326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and ...
such systems, for small pressure drop penalty and with good flow stability. .... ied the effect of divergence angle on mean and transient pressure/temperature distribution and .... supplying a fixed voltage and current using a power source meter.
Full Text Available The genetic consequences of living on the edge of distributional ranges have been the subject of a largely unresolved debate. Populations occurring along persistent low latitude ranges (rear-edge are expected to retain high and unique genetic diversity. In contrast, currently less favourable environmental conditions limiting population size at such range-edges may have caused genetic erosion that prevails over past historical effects, with potential consequences on reducing future adaptive capacity. The present study provides an empirical test of whether population declines towards a peripheral range might be reflected on decreasing diversity and increasing population isolation and differentiation. We compare population genetic differentiation and diversity with trends in abundance along a latitudinal gradient towards the peripheral distribution range of Saccorhiza polyschides, a large brown seaweed that is the main structural species of kelp forests in SW Europe. Signatures of recent bottleneck events were also evaluated to determine whether the recently recorded distributional shifts had a negative influence on effective population size. Our findings show decreasing population density and increasing spatial fragmentation and local extinctions towards the southern edge. Genetic data revealed two well supported groups with a central contact zone. As predicted, higher differentiation and signs of bottlenecks were found at the southern edge region. However, a decrease in genetic diversity associated with this pattern was not verified. Surprisingly, genetic diversity increased towards the edge despite bottlenecks and much lower densities, suggesting that extinctions and recolonizations have not strongly reduced diversity or that diversity might have been even higher there in the past, a process of shifting genetic baselines.
Full Text Available Genetic structure can be a consequence of recent population fragmentation and isolation, or a remnant of historical localised adaptation. This poses a challenge for conservationists since misinterpreting patterns of genetic structure may lead to inappropriate management. Of 17 species of reptile originally found in Mauritius, only five survive on the main island. One of these, Phelsuma guimbeaui (lowland forest day gecko, is now restricted to 30 small isolated subpopulations following severe forest fragmentation and isolation due to human colonisation. We used 20 microsatellites in ten subpopulations and two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers in 13 subpopulations to: (i assess genetic diversity, population structure and genetic differentiation of subpopulations; (ii estimate effective population sizes and migration rates of subpopulations; and (iii examine the phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes found in different subpopulations. Microsatellite data revealed significant population structure with high levels of genetic diversity and isolation by distance, substantial genetic differentiation and no migration between most subpopulations. MtDNA, however, showed no evidence of population structure, indicating that there was once a genetically panmictic population. Effective population sizes of ten subpopulations, based on microsatellite markers, were small, ranging from 44 to 167. Simulations suggested that the chance of survival and allelic diversity of some subpopulations will decrease dramatically over the next 50 years if no migration occurs. Our DNA-based evidence reveals an urgent need for a management plan for the conservation of P. guimbeaui. We identified 18 threatened and 12 viable subpopulations and discuss a range of management options that include translocation of threatened subpopulations to retain maximum allelic diversity, and habitat restoration and assisted migration to decrease genetic erosion and inbreeding for the viable
Among high-altitude natives there is evidence of a general hypoxia tolerance leading to enhanced performance and/or increased capacity in several important domains. These domains likely include an enhanced physical work capacity, an enhanced reproductive capacity, and an ability to resist several common pathologies of chronic high-altitude exposure. The "strength" of the high-altitude native in this regard may have both a developmental and a genetic basis, although there is better evidence for the former (developmental effects) than for the latter. For example, early-life hypoxia exposure clearly results in lung growth and remodeling leading to an increased O2 diffusing capacity in adulthood. Genetic research has yet to reveal a population genetic basis for enhanced capacity in high-altitude natives, but several traits are clearly under genetic control in Andean and Tibetan populations e.g., resting and exercise arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). This chapter reviews the effects of nature and nurture on traits that are relevant to the process of gas exchange, including pulmonary volumes and diffusion capacity, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the SaO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2) during exercise.
Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis, an ancient parasite that infects a number of piscivorous mammals, attracts significant public health interest due to zoonotic exposure risks in Asia. The available studies are insufficient to reflect the prevalence, geographic distribution, and intraspecific genetic diversity of C. sinensis in endemic areas. Here, a multilocus analysis based on eight genes (ITS1, act, tub, ef-1a, cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5 [4.986 kb] was employed to explore the intra-species genetic construction of C. sinensis in China. Two hundred and fifty-six C. sinensis isolates were obtained from environmental reservoirs from 17 provinces of China. A total of 254 recognized Multilocus Types (MSTs showed high diversity among these isolates using multilocus analysis. The comparison analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny supports separate clusters in a nuclear dendrogram. Genetic differentiation analysis of three clusters (A, B, and C showed low divergence within populations. Most isolates from clusters B and C are geographically limited to central China, while cluster A is extraordinarily genetically diverse. Further genetic analyses between different geographic distributions, water bodies and hosts support the low population divergence. The latter haplotype analyses were consistent with the phylogenetic and genetic differentiation results. A recombination network based on concatenated sequences showed a concentrated linkage recombination population in cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5, with spatial structuring in ITS1. Coupled with the history record and archaeological evidence of C. sinensis infection in mummified desiccated feces, these data point to an ancient origin of C. sinensis in China. In conclusion, we present a likely phylogenetic structure of the C. sinensis population in mainland China, highlighting its possible tendency for biogeographic expansion. Meanwhile, ITS1 was found to be an effective marker for tracking C. sinensis infection
Sun, Jiufeng; Huang, Yan; Huang, Huaiqiu; Liang, Pei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Mao, Qiang; Men, Jingtao; Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Chuanhuan; Zhou, Chenhui; Lv, Xiaoli; Zhou, Juanjuan; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ran; Tian, Yanli; Lei, Huali; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; XinbingYu
Clonorchis sinensis, an ancient parasite that infects a number of piscivorous mammals, attracts significant public health interest due to zoonotic exposure risks in Asia. The available studies are insufficient to reflect the prevalence, geographic distribution, and intraspecific genetic diversity of C. sinensis in endemic areas. Here, a multilocus analysis based on eight genes (ITS1, act, tub, ef-1a, cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5 [4.986 kb]) was employed to explore the intra-species genetic construction of C. sinensis in China. Two hundred and fifty-six C. sinensis isolates were obtained from environmental reservoirs from 17 provinces of China. A total of 254 recognized Multilocus Types (MSTs) showed high diversity among these isolates using multilocus analysis. The comparison analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny supports separate clusters in a nuclear dendrogram. Genetic differentiation analysis of three clusters (A, B, and C) showed low divergence within populations. Most isolates from clusters B and C are geographically limited to central China, while cluster A is extraordinarily genetically diverse. Further genetic analyses between different geographic distributions, water bodies and hosts support the low population divergence. The latter haplotype analyses were consistent with the phylogenetic and genetic differentiation results. A recombination network based on concatenated sequences showed a concentrated linkage recombination population in cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5, with spatial structuring in ITS1. Coupled with the history record and archaeological evidence of C. sinensis infection in mummified desiccated feces, these data point to an ancient origin of C. sinensis in China. In conclusion, we present a likely phylogenetic structure of the C. sinensis population in mainland China, highlighting its possible tendency for biogeographic expansion. Meanwhile, ITS1 was found to be an effective marker for tracking C. sinensis infection worldwide. Thus, the
The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)
Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R
Boerhaavia diffusa L is a medicinal herb with immense pharmaceutical significance. The plant is used by many herbalist, Ayurvedic and pharmaceutical industries for production biopharmaceuticals. It is among the 46 medicinal plant species in high trade sourced mainly from wastelands and generally found in temperate regions of the world. However, the commercial bulk of this plant shows genetic variations which are the main constraint to use this plant as medicinal ingredient and to obtain high value products of pharmaceutical interest from this plant. In this study, we have regenerated the plant of Boerhaavia diffusa L through nodal explants and evaluated genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L with the help of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The results obtained using RAPD showed monomorphic banding pattern revealing genetic stability among the mother plant and in vitro regenerated plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L.
McCormack, John E; Bowen, Bonnie S; Smith, Thomas B
Genetic tests of paleoecological hypotheses have been rare, partly because recent genetic divergence is difficult to detect and time. According to fossil plant data, continuous woodland in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico became fragmented during the last 10,000 years, as warming caused cool-adapted species to retreat to high elevations. Most genetic studies of resulting 'sky islands' have either failed to detect recent divergence or have found discordant evidence for ancient divergence. We test this paleoecological hypothesis for the region with intraspecific mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data from sky-island populations of a sedentary bird, the Mexican jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina). We predicted that populations on different sky islands would share common, ancestral alleles that existed during the last glaciation, but that populations on each sky island, owing to their isolation, would contain unique variants of postglacial origin. We also predicted that divergence times estimated from corrected genetic distance and a coalescence model would post-date the last glacial maximum. Our results provide multiple independent lines of support for postglacial divergence, with the predicted pattern of shared and unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes appearing in two independent sky-island archipelagos, and most estimates of divergence time based on corrected genetic distance post-dating the last glacial maximum. Likewise, an isolation model based on multilocus gene coalescence indicated postglacial divergence of five pairs of sky islands. In contrast to their similar recent histories, the two archipelagos had dissimilar historical patterns in that sky islands in Arizona showed evidence for older divergence, suggesting different responses to the last glaciation. This study is one of the first to provide explicit support from genetic data for a postglacial divergence scenario predicted by one of the best paleoecological records in the world. Our results