WorldWideScience

Sample records for high fluoride intake

  1. Fluoride intake in children living in a high-fluoride area in Ethiopia - intake through beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, M K; Zerihun, L; Julshamn, K; Bjorvatn, K

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted in Wonji Shoa, a sugar estate in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Drinking water in the area is provided either by the Awash River or by high-fluoride ground water wells. Defluoridation plants have been installed, but are not in regular use, and fluorosis, dental as well as skeletal, is endemic. The aim of this study was to assess daily fluoride intake from drinking water and beverages in children from neighbouring villages with varying fluoride concentration in the drinking water. Thirty families were selected from two of the plantation villages (A and K). The criterion for being included in the project was the presence in the household of at least one child, fully weaned and below the age of 5 years. For sampling of beverages, the duplicate portion technique was used. The fluoride concentration in the beverage samples was determined using standard methods, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Ten of the selected households in Village A fetched water from the Awash River (1.8 mg F-/L) while five relied upon water from a local well (2.1 mg F-/L). All 15 households in Village K used water from a local well with fluoride concentration of 14.4 mg/L. The mean daily fluoride intake from drinking water and beverages during the four days, varied from 1.2 to 1.5 mg and 5.9 to 8.8 mg in Village A and K, respectively. Low variety in types of beverages consumed was reported both during the study period and through the questionnaire. Only local water was used for beverage preparation. Children who consumed milk had a reduced fluoride intake. Tea, which was part of the children's diet, was not found to be a main source of fluoride. A2n effective defluoridation of the drinking water or a change of water source would seem to be the only options for avoidance of dental and possibly skeletal fluorosis.

  2. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

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    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  3. Effect of boron as an antidote on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization and fluorine balance in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) exposed to high fluoride ration.

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    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-12-01

    It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups of four male Murrah buffalo calves (body weight 98-100 kg, aged 6-8 month) each. Control animal was given only basal diet and concentrate mixture. However, treatment I animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, and F [as NaF, 60 ppm of dry matter (DM)]. The treatment II animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, F (as NaF, 60 ppm of DM), and B (as sodium tetraborate, 140 ppm of DM). After 90 days of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was conducted to study the treatment effect on nutrient utilization of proximate nutrients, absorption, excretion, and retention of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, and F. Dietary F significantly (p matter intake and increased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F. However, boron supplementation significantly (p matter intake, fecal excretion, and percent of absorbed F excreted via urine. Apparent digestibility of proximate nutrients (viz. DM, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract) was unaffected on either F or F+B treatment. However, absorption and excretion of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu were affected significantly (p < 0.05) on F or F+B treatment. These findings suggest that fluoride-containing diet for short duration has effect on nutrient utilization, and boron at 140-ppm dose level, in general, antagonized the absorption and retention of F and also improved the feed intake in buffalo calves.

  4. Urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after intake of fluoridated milk and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, M; Twetman, S; Hultgren Talvilahti, A

    2017-01-01

    toothpaste. The fluoride content in the piped drinking water was 0.5 mg F/L. Main outcome measure: Urinary fluoride excretion. Results: The 24-hour urinary fl uoride excretion/kg body weight varied from 0.014 mg F for the placebo intervention and non-fluoride toothpaste to 0.027 mg F for the 0.375 mg.......05). Conclusions: All sources of fluoride must be considered when designing community programs. With 0.5 mg F/L in the drinking water and daily use of fluoride toothpaste, most children had a fluoride intake optimal for dental health. In this setting, additional intake of fluoride milk was within safe limits up......Objective: To assess the urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after drinking fluoridated milk with 0.185 mg F and 0.375 mg F and to study the impact of use of fluoride toothpaste. Basic research design: Double-blind cross-over study. Participants: Nine healthy children, 2.5-4.5 years...

  5. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  6. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-02-26

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population.

  7. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  8. Relationship between fluoride intake in Serbian children living in two areas with different natural levels of fluorides and occurrence of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Antonijevic, Biljana; Lekic, Charles P; Carevic, Momir

    2009-06-01

    The amount of fluoride present naturally in drinking water is highly variable, being dependent upon the individual geological environment from which the water is obtained. Chronic exposure to exceeding fluoride doses induces set of toxic effects, i.e. fluorosis. The aim of this study was to examine fluoride content in water and in the most frequently used vegetables, potato and bean, grown in two different Serbian regions, i.e. control region (Valjevo) and high naturally occurring fluoride region (Vranjska Banja), and moreover, to correlate estimated daily intake with dental fluorosis occurrence as an adverse effect of fluoride exposure of schoolchildren in Serbia. Study confirmed significant difference in fluoride content in water, potato and bean, consumed by 12-year-old children in two investigated municipalities. Results of the study indicated positive and statistically significant correlation between daily intake of fluoride and dental fluorosis level in the fluorotic municipality of Vranjska Banja (r = 0.61; p = 0.000017). Obtained relationship could be evaluated by means of binary logistic regression analysis, whereas probability for fluorosis occurrence could be predicted using the following equation: fluorosis occurence (%) = (34.852 x Cwater -12.644 x Cpotato - 9.362 x Cbean - 7.673) x 100 (Chi-Square (3) = 33.033; p < 0.001).

  9. Timing of fluoride intake and dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth.

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    Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Levy, Steven M; Broffitt, Barbara; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Warren, John J

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have examined the relationship between timing of fluoride intake and development of dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth using period-specific fluoride intake information. This study examined this relationship using longitudinal fluoride intake information from the Iowa Fluoride Study. Participants' fluoride exposure and intake (birth to 10 years of age) from water, beverages, selected food products, dietary fluoride supplements, and fluoride toothpaste was collected using questionnaires sent to parents at 3- and 4- month intervals from birth to 48 months of age and every 6 months thereafter. Three trained and calibrated examiners used the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) categories to assess 16 late-erupting teeth among 465 study participants. A tooth was defined as having definitive fluorosis if any of the zones on that tooth had an FRI score of 2 or 3. Participants with questionable fluorosis were excluded from analyses. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the importance of fluoride intake during different time periods. Most dental fluorosis in the study population was mild, with only four subjects (1%) having severe fluorosis (FRI Score 3). The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 27.8%. Logistic regression analyses showed that fluoride intake from each of the individual years from age 2 to 8 plays an important role in determining the risk of dental fluorosis for most late-erupting permanent teeth. The strongest association for fluorosis on the late-erupting permanent teeth was with fluoride intake during the sixth year of life. Late-erupting teeth may be susceptible to fluorosis for an extended period from about age 2 to 8. Although not as visually prominent as the maxillary central incisors, some of the late-erupting teeth are esthetically important and this should be taken into consideration when making recommendations about dosing of fluoride intake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  10. An assessment of the relationship between excess fluoride intake from drinking water and essential hypertension in adults residing in fluoride endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Li, Bingyun; Li, Mang; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-01-15

    In this study, the relationships between high water fluoride exposure and essential hypertension as well as plasma ET-1 levels were investigated. A total of 487 residents aged 40 to 75 were randomly recruited from eight villages in Zhaozhou County from Heilongjiang Province in China and were divided into 4 groups according to the concentrations of fluoride in their water. Consumption levels of drinking water fluoride for normal, mild, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.84±0.26 mg/L, 1.55±0.22 mg/L, 2.49±0.30 mg/L, and 4.06±1.15 mg/L, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension in each group was 20.16%, 24.54%, 32.30%, and 49.23%, respectively. There were significant differences between all the groups; namely, with the increase in water fluoride concentrations, the risk of essential hypertension in adults grows in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant differences were observed in the plasma ET-1 levels between the different groups (Pwater fluoride concentrations (F(-)≥3.01 mg/L, OR(4/1)=2.84), age (OR(3/1)=2.63), and BMI (OR(2/1)=2.40, OR(3/1)=6.03) were closely associated with essential hypertension. In other words, the study not only confirmed the relationship between excess fluoride intake and essential hypertension in adults, but it also demonstrated that high levels of fluoride exposure in drinking water could increase plasma ET-1 levels in subjects living in fluoride endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluoride intake from meals served in daycare centres in municipalities with different fluoride concentrations in the water supply.

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    Pagliari Tiano, Ana Valéria; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Sumida, Dóris Hissako

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to determine the fluoride content in the meals served to children aged up to 36 months in daycare centres of two municipalities with different levels of fluoride in the water supply, (2) to calculate the mean fluoride ingested daily by the children when consuming those meals and (3) to analyse the contribution of this consumption to the development of dental fluorosis. Samples of the meals served to the children were collected during a whole week. The fluoride content of the samples of solid foods and milk was analysed using an ion-specific electrode combined with reference electrode after diffusion facilitated by hexamethyldisiloxane. Samples of beverages were buffered with an equal volume of total ionic strength adjustment buffer and analysed using a combined electrode. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Mean fluoride contents of the meals were of 0.204 +/- 0.179 and 0.322 +/- 0.242 microg F/mL (P 0.05). The children were not exposed to dental fluorosis in the daycare centres. However, the risk cannot be ignored, considering the meals and the use of fluoridated dentifrices at home may also contribute to fluoride intake.

  12. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

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    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  13. [Fluoride intake through consumption of water from municipal network in the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort].

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    Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Otazua, Mónica; Ayerdi, Mikel; Galarza, Ane; Gallastegi, Mara; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Molinuevo, Amaia; Anabitarte, Asier; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-05-22

    To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence

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    Seraj B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human and animal studies linking fluoride with diminished intelligence have been published. Although adverse effects of high intake of fluoride on intelligence and mental acuity continue to be reported, they are still controversial. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between fluoride in drinking water and children's intelligence. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 41 children were selected from the high fluoride area with 2.5mg/l (ppm fluoride in the drinking water and 85 children were selected from low fluoride area with 0.4mg/l (ppm fluoride in the drinking water. The intelligence quotient (IQ of each child was measured by the Raven's test. The history of illnesses affecting the nervous system, head trauma, birth weight (2.5kg or  2.5kg, residental history, age and sex of children were investigated by questionnaires completed by the children's parents. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In the high fluoride area the mean IQ of children (87.911 was significantly lower than in the low fluoride area (98.912.9 (P=0.025. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, exposure of children to high levels of fluoride may carry the risk of impaired development of intelligence.

  15. Associations between fluorosis of permanent incisors and fluoride intake from infant formula, other dietary sources and dentifrice during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Marshall, Teresa A.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M.; Warren, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The authors describe associations between dental fluorosis and fluoride intakes, with an emphasis on intake from fluoride in infant formula. Methods The authors administered periodic questionnaires to parents to assess early fluoride intake sources from beverages, selected foods, dentifrice and supplements. They assessed relationships between fluorosis of the permanent maxillary incisors and fluoride intake from beverages and other sources, both for individual time points and cumulatively using area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimates. The authors determined effects associated with fluoride in reconstituted powdered infant formulas, along with risks associated with intake of fluoride from dentifrice and other sources. Results Considering only fluoride intake from age 3 to 9 months, the authors found that participants with fluorosis (97 percent of which was mild) had significantly greater cumulative fluoride intake (AUC) from reconstituted powdered infant formula, other beverages with added water or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. For participants aged 16 to 36 months, participants with fluorosis had significantly higher fluoride intake from water by itself, dentifrice or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. In a model combining both the 3- to 9-month and 16- to 36-months age groups, the significant variables were fluoride intake from reconstituted powder concentrate formula (by participants aged 3–9 months), other beverages with added water (also by participants aged 3–9 months) and dentifrice (by participants aged 16–36 months). Conclusions Greater fluoride intakes from reconstituted powdered formulas (when participants were aged 3–9 months) and other water-added beverages (when participants were aged 3–9 months) increased fluorosis risk as did higher dentifrice intake by participants when aged 16 to 36 months. Clinical Implications Results suggest that prevalence of mild dental fluorosis could be

  16. Functioning of nitric oxide cycle in gastric mucosa of rats under excessive combined intake of sodium nitrate and fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ye. Akimov; V. O. Kostenko

    2016-01-01

    In the article the function of nitric oxide (·NO) cycle in rat’s gastric mucosa was assessed under excessive combined chronic fluoride and nitrate intake during 30 days. It was estimated that general nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS) was increased during excessive sodium fluoride intake meanwhile influence on gene­ral nitrate reduction was not statistically significant, but general nitrite reduction was increased. General arginase activity decreased. Excessive sodium nitrate intake decreas...

  17. Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen ... and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose ...

  18. Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature

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    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river was in the range mg/l 0.28–10.23. The average daily received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7–16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.

  19. [Fluoride emission from different soil minerals at high temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W; Xie, Z; Xu, J; Liu, C

    2001-03-01

    The emission characteristics of fluoride pollutants from montmorillonite, kaolinite, vermiculite, geothite and allophane were studied to elucidate the mechanism of fluoride-releasing from soils during brick and tile making at high temperatures from 300 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. The rate of fluoride emission varied with temperature, mineral type, heating time, specific surface area and cations added to minerals. The escape of crystalline water resulting from crystal lattice collapse at a certain high temperature was found to affect the rate of fluoride emission. Calcium compounds could decrease fluoride emission rate from montmorillonite. At 800 degrees C, the rate of fluoride emission from Ca-treated montmorillonite decreased by 59.6% compared to untreated montmorillonite. The order for fluoride-fixing capacity of the 5 calcium compounds at 800 degrees C was as follows: CaCO3 > CaO > Ca3(PO4)2 > Ca(OH)2 > CaSO4.

  20. Functioning of nitric oxide cycle in gastric mucosa of rats under excessive combined intake of sodium nitrate and fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, O Ye; Kostenko, V O

    2016-01-01

    In the article the function of nitric oxide (·NO) cycle in rat’s gastric mucosa was assessed under excessive combined chronic fluoride and nitrate intake during 30 days. It was estimated that general nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS) was increased during excessive sodium fluoride intake meanwhile influence on gene­ral nitrate reduction was not statistically significant, but general nitrite reduction was increased. General arginase activity decreased. Excessive sodium nitrate intake decreased NOS activity, but increased nitrate, nitrite reduction and general arginase activity. Combined sodium nitrate and fluoride intake increased NOS by 18.9%, nitrate reduction by 71.7%, nitrite by 161.5%, arginase activity increase by 61.4%. The highest amounts of peroxynitrite were obtained from excessive sodium fluoride intake group, excessive sodium nitrate intake showed the lowest levels and combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake levels had intermediate results. Summarizing the data obtained, the authors have made a conclusion that combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake creates optimal conditions for functioning of nitrate-nitrite reductases.

  1. Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children

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    Martins, Carolina Castro; Oliveira, Maria José; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2011-01-01

    It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F) intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months) was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children’s or family) and F dose (brush brush used” (OR: 27.20; p brushing” (p ≤ 0.004) had a statistically and synergistic effect over the daily F dose. The present study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children’s dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice. PMID:22163207

  2. Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children

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    Maria José Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children’s or family and F dose (< 0.05 and ≥0.05 mg F/Kg of body weight/day were associated with the independent variables (p < 0.05. No differences were found between children’s and family dentifrices regarding daily F intake (0.046 and 0.040 mg F/Kg/day, respectively; p = 0.513. The following were strong predictors for the use of a children’s dentifrice: studying at a private kindergarten (OR: 6.89; p < 0.001; age that the child begun to tooth brush < 2 years (OR: 2.93; p = 0.041, and the interaction between the variables “use of the same dentifrice as parents” and “type of tooth brush used” (OR: 27.20; p < 0.001. “The amount of dentifrice used” and “frequency of tooth brushing” (p ≤ 0.004 had a statistically and synergistic effect over the daily F dose. The present study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children’s dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice.

  3. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children′s intelligence in high and low fluoride areas of Delhi

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    Hansa Kundu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride is one of the indispensable elements for the living being. However, the intake of F above the threshold level can affect the central nervous system even before causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of fluoride in drinking water on the intelligence quotient (IQ of 8-12 years old school going children residing in high and low Fluoride (F areas of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children were selected, 100 from low F area and 100 from high F area. The IQ of the children was assessed using Ravens Standardized Progressive Matrices Test. Information for each child′s sociodemographic data, mother′s diet during pregnancy, duration of residency in the village, source of drinking water, and duration of drinking water from the source was entered on a specially designed proforma from mothers of children. Height and weight were also recorded for each child to assess the nutritional status. Independent t-test and Chi-square test was used to compare mean IQ scores in high and low fluoridated areas. Pearson′s correlation and multivariate linear regression were used to appraise the issue of all the study variables on IQ. Results: Comparison of mean IQ of children in both high (76.20 ± 19.10 and low F (85.80 ± 18.85 areas showed a significant difference (P = 0.013. Multiple regression analysis between child IQ and all other independent variables revealed that mother′s diet during pregnancy (P = 0.001 along with F in drinking water (P = 0.017 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child IQ variance (r2 = 0.417 without interaction with other variables. Conclusion: Fluoride in the drinking water was significantly related with the IQ of children. Along with fluoride, mother′s diet during pregnancy was also found to be significantly related with IQ of children. Researches in the same field are further advocated with large sample size and over a

  4. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  5. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  6. Fluoride in African groundwater: Occurrence and mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasak, S.; Griffioen, J.; Feenstra, L.

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride in groundwater has both natural and anthropogenic sources. Fluoride bearing minerals, volcanic gases and various industrial and agricultural activities can contribute to high concentrations. High intake of fluoride from drinking water is the main cause of fluorosis and may lead to many

  7. Studies on the comparative effect of sodium fluoride on collagen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride is an essential element for the normal development and growth of human beings. The main source of fluoride for humans is the intake of groundwater. At high levels, fluoride causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this study, control and sodium fluoride (NaF) treated groups of rats had significant (p < 0.05) higher ...

  8. High Fluoride Dentifrices for Elderly and Vulnerable Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this work is to present the available evidence that toothpastes containing >1,500 ppm fluoride (2,500-2,800 and 5,000 ppm F) provide an additional caries preventive effect on root caries lesions in elderly patients compared to traditional dentifrices (1,000-1,450 ppm F). The se......The primary aim of this work is to present the available evidence that toothpastes containing >1,500 ppm fluoride (2,500-2,800 and 5,000 ppm F) provide an additional caries preventive effect on root caries lesions in elderly patients compared to traditional dentifrices (1,000-1,450 ppm F......). The secondary aim of this paper is to discuss why high fluoride dentifrices in general should perform better than traditional F-containing toothpaste. When examining the few studies that have considered the preventive benefits of high fluoride products on root caries the relative risk appears to be around 0.......5, and the risk can thus be halved by exchanging traditional F-containing toothpaste for toothpaste containing 5,000 ppm F. There is reasonable evidence that high fluoride dentifrices significantly increase the fluoride concentration in saliva during the day and the fluoride concentration in plaque compared...

  9. Reconstructing temporal variation of fluoride uptake in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from a high-fluoride area by analysis of fluoride distribution in dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Rhede, Dieter; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Trace element profiling in the incrementally formed dentine of mammalian teeth can be applied to reconstruct temporal variation of incorporation of these elements into the tissue. Using an electron microprobe, this study analysed fluoride distribution in dentine of first and third mandibular molars of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a high-fluoride area, to assess temporal variation in fluoride uptake of the animals. Fluoride content in the early-formed dentine of first molars was significantly lower than in the late-formed dentine of these teeth, and was also lower than in both, the early and the late-formed dentine of third molars. As early dentine formation in M1 takes place prior to weaning, this finding indicates a lower dentinal fluoride uptake during the pre-weaning compared to the post-weaning period. This is hypothetically attributed to the action of a partial barrier to fluoride transfer from blood to milk in lactating females and a low bioavailability of fluoride ingested together with milk. Another factor contributing to lower plasma fluoride levels in juveniles compared to adults is the rapid clearance of fluoride from blood plasma in the former due to their intense skeletal growth. The combined action of these mechanisms is considered to explain why in kangaroos from high-fluoride areas, the (early-formed) first molars are not affected by dental fluorosis while the (later-formed) third and fourth molars regularly exhibit marked to severe fluorotic lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride-exposed wor......-exposed workers showed increased incidence of respiratory cancers.......Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  11. High Fluoride and Geothermal Activities In Continental Rift Zones, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldesenbet, S. F.; Wohnlich, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Main Ethiopian Rift basin is a continental rift system characterized by volcano-tectonic depression endowed with huge geothermal resource and associated natural geochemical changes on groundwater quality. Chemical composition of groundwater in the study area showed a well defined trend along flow from the highland and escarpment to the rift floor aquifer. The low TDS (water at recharge area in the highlands and escarpments evolve progressively into Ca-Na-HCO3 and Na-Ca-HCO3 type waters along the rift ward groundwater flow paths. These waters finally appear as moderate TDS (mean 960mg/l) Na-HCO3 type and as high TDS (> 1000 mg/l) Na-HCO3-Cl type in volcano-lacustrine aquifers of the rift floor. High concentrations of fluoride (up to 97.2 mg/l) and arsenic (up to 98μg/l) are recognized feature of groundwaters which occur mostly in the vicinity of the geothermal fields and the rift lakes in the basin. Fluoride and arsenic content of dry volcaniclastic sediments close to these areas are in the range 666-2586mg/kg and 10-13mg/kg respectively. The relationship between fluoride and calcium concentrations in groundwaters showed negative correlation. Near-equilibrium state attained between the mineral fluorite (CaF2) and the majority of fluoride-rich (>30mg/l) thermal groundwater and shallow cold groundwater. This indicated that the equilibrium condition control the high concentration of fluoride in the groundwaters. Whereas undersaturation state of fluorite in some relatively low-fluoride (waters indicated a dilution by cold waters. Laboratory batch leaching experiments showed that fast dissolution of fluoride from the sediment samples suddenly leached into the interacting water at the first one hour and then remain stable throughout the experiment. The concentrations of leached fluoride from the hot spring deposits, the lacustrine sediments, and the pyroclastic rock are usually low (1% of the total or less than the content in the sediment or rock) but

  12. Spatial analysis of fluoride concentrations in drinking water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Namibia, the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa, is largely reliant on groundwater for its potable water demand and groundwater is a major source of naturally-occurring fluoride. This study assessed the spatial distribution of fluoride in potable water and appraised the population at risk for high fluoride intake. Analysis of ...

  13. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  14. Separation of High Order Harmonics with Fluoride Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Wright, Travis; Hertlein, Marcus; Falcone, Roger; Belkacem, Ali

    2010-08-02

    The lower orders produced in high order harmonic generation can be effciently temporally separated into monochromatic pulses by propagation in a Fluoride window while still preserving their femtosecond pulse duration. We present calculations for MgF2, CaF2, and LiF windows for the third, fifth, and seventh harmonics of 800 nm. We demonstrate the use of this simple and inexpensive technique in a femtosecond pump/probe experiment using the fifth harmonic.

  15. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  16. Reversal of primary root caries lesions after daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and probiotic lactobacilli in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Lars G; Magnusson, Kerstin; Hakestam, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with fluoride and/or probiotic bacteria on primary root caries lesions (PRCL) in older adults. Materials and methods. After informed consent, 160 healthy subjects, 58-84 years of age, with at least two PRCL were recruited and randomly...... assigned to one of four parallel study groups drinking 200 ml milk once daily for 15 months. Group A consumed standard milk (placebo); Group B ingested milk supplemented with 5 ppm F and probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB21, 10(7) CFU/mL); Group C drank milk with only probiotic bacteria...... reported during intervention. Conclusion. Daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and/or probiotic bacteria may reverse soft and leathery PRCL in older adults....

  17. [Mechanisms of nitroxide-ergic dysregulation in tissues of parodontium in rats under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Богданов, Алексей В; Гришко, Юлия М; Костенко, Виталий А

    intake of inorganic nitrates is typically accompanied by production of excessive amount of nitric oxide (NO), which level is maintained by the mechanism of autoregulation known as the NO cycle. Hypothetically, this process may be disrupted with fluorides that are able to suppress arginase pathway of L-arginine metabolism, which competes with NO-synthase pathway. to study mechanisms of disregulation of oxidative (NO-synthase) and non-oxidative (arginase) metabolic pathways of L-arginine in the tissues of periodontium under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake. these investigations were carried out on 90 white Wistar rats. Homogenates of parodontium soft tissues were used to assess spectrophotometrically the total activities of NO-synthase (NOS), arginase, ornithine decarboxylase as well as the peroxynitrite concentration. typical for the isolated sodium nitrate administration inhibition of total NOS activity varies under combined administration of nitrate and sodium fluoride and is usually manifested by its hyperactivation that is accompanied by an increase in peroxynitrite concentration. At this time arginase and ornithine decarboxylase activity is observed to be substantially reduced. The administration of aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, (20 mg/kg, twice a week during the experiment) increases arginase and ornithine decarboxylase activities, and the administration of L-arginine (500 mg/kg, twice a week) results in the increase of arginase activity. The administration of L-selenomethionine, a peroxynitrite scavenger (3 mg/kg, twice a week), and JSH-23 (4-methyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl) benzene-1,2-diamine, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation (1 mg/kg, twice a week) for modeling binary nitrate and fluoride intoxication reduces the total concentration of NOS activity and peroxynitrite concentration, and increases ornithine decarboxylase activity. the combined effect of nitrate and sodium fluoride for 30 days leads to disregulatory increased activity of NO

  18. Substance Flow Analysis: A Case Study of Fluoride Exposure through Food and Beverages in Young Children Living in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Scheidegger, Ruth; Julshamn, Kåre; Bader, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Context Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Children are especially vulnerable to excessive fluoride intake because their permanent teeth are still being formed. Strategies to reduce the total fluoride intake by children are thus warranted. Case presentation By combining the results of field studies in Ethiopia, the relevant pathways for fluoride intake have been identified in 28 children 2–5 years of age living in two villages on the Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The focus of the present study was to simulate the fluoride intake of the children using the methods of material flow analysis (MFA) and substance flow analysis. Discussion With a model based on MFA, we quantified the potential reduction in total fluoride intake given different scenarios—for example, by reducing the fluoride intake from drinking water and cooking water. The results show clearly that only by removing fluoride completely from both drinking and cooking water does the probability of remaining below the daily tolerable upper intake level exceed 50%. Both prepared food and food ingredients must be taken into consideration when assessing the total fluoride intake by children living in high-fluoride areas. Relevance This knowledge will help health personnel, the government, and the food authorities to give scientifically based advice on strategies for reducing the total fluoride intake by children living in high-fluoride areas in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. PMID:21463976

  19. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  20. Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

  1. High amounts of fluoride induce apoptosis/cell death in matured ameloblast-like LS8 cells by downregulating Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Yanli; Li, Yanling; Hao, Ying; Zhou, Mi; Dong, Nan; Duan, Xiaohong

    2013-09-01

    Excessive fluoride intake during enamel formation may result in enamel fluorosis and apoptosis is regarded to be involved in the process by an unclear mechanism. We hypothesize that excessive fluoride might cause apoptosis in the ameloblasts and fluoride-induced apoptosis varies with the maturation stages of ameloblasts. We set up an in vitro differentiation model of ameloblasts by using retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone (DEX) to induce the maturation of mouse ameloblast-like LS8 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of two enamel matrix proteins and two enamel proteinases were downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in the RA/DEX induced cells, indicating RA/DEX induced cells possessed the characteristics of matured ameloblasts. The strengthened endocytosis function and decreased intracellular pH value inside RA/DEX treated ameloblasts confirmed the maturation inducing effect of RA/DEX on ameloblasts. Excessive fluoride inhibited cell proliferation of ameloblasts within 72h. High amounts of fluoride also induced more apoptosis/dead cells and reduced the expression of Bcl-2, but to a different degree in the non-induced cells and RA/DEX induced cells. We inferred that high doses of fluoride may easily target the transitional/early maturation ameloblasts and cause apoptosis or cell death. Bcl-2 might be involved in this process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1-10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Barker, Laurie; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1-10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988-1994 and from the 1950s. We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R(2)=0.005; adjusted: R(2)=0.023). Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature.

  3. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1–10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Methods Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1–10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988–1994 and from the 1950s. Results We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R2=0.005; adjusted: R2=0.023). Conclusion Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature. PMID:26346578

  4. Effect of fluoride ion on the stability of DNA hairpin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhai, Weili; Gong, Hongling; Liu, Yanhui; Chen, Hu

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride prevents tooth decay as an additive in oral hygiene products, while high dose intake of fluoride from contaminated drinking water leads to fluorosis. Here we studied the effect of fluoride ion on the stability of DNA double helix using magnetic tweezers. The equilibrium critical force decreases with increasing concentration of fluoride in the range from 1 mM to 100 mM. Our results give the first quantitative measurement of DNA stability in the presence of fluoride ion, which might disturb DNA-related biological processes to cause fluorosis.

  5. Dental fluorosis in the primary dentition and intake of manufactured soy-based foods with fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Cristiane Alves Paz; Zanlorenzi Nicodemo, César Augusto; Ferreira Mercadante, Daniela Cristiane; de Carvalho, Fábio Silva; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; de Carvalho Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena

    2013-06-01

    To identify manufactured soy-based products more recommended by pediatricians and nutritionists; to determine fluoride concentrations in these products; to evaluate children concerning fluorosis in primary teeth and its association with the consumption of soy-based products. Pediatricians and Nutritionists answered a questionnaire about soy-based products they most recommended to children. Fluoride concentrations of the 10 products more cited were analyzed with the ion-specific electrode. Dental fluorosis exams were performed in 315 4-6-year-old children. Dean's Index was used to assess fluorosis. Among the children examined, 26 had lactose intolerance. Their parents answered a questionnaire about children's and family's profile, besides permitting the identification of soy-based products use. Chi-squared and Multivariable Logistic Regression tests were used (p Dental fluorosis was detected in 11% of the children, with very mild and mild degrees. Dental fluorosis in primary teeth was associated with lactose intolerance (p dental fluorosis in primary teeth, which had a low prevalence and severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. High resolution mapping of reticulated water fluoride in Western Australia: opportunities to improve oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bloushi, N S; Trolio, R; Kruger, E; Tennant, M

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water with an optimum fluoride concentration is a recognized effective method to reduce dental decay. In this study normal suppliers of drinking water in Western Australia provided map data regarding the distribution of their supplies and the locations of their test points. These data were collated into a single unified map of Western Australian water supplies and fluoride levels. It is clear that the effect of prevention in regionally isolated communities is significant as the cost of providing service is anywhere between 2 and 4 times higher than that in high density regions. The current study found that although a very significant proportion of the population has access to water with fluoride concentrations that would be caries protective, most of these are large urban centre based. Those with high burdens of dental disease are mostly residential in rural and remote areas where water is either not fluoridated, nor regulated, or low in fluoride. However, it is acknowledged that water fluoridation, for many reasons, is not always feasible in rural and remote communities, and preventive efforts through alternative sources of fluoride (e.g. toothpaste) should be considered, even if less effective at community level. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  7. High yield combustion synthesis of nanomagnesia and its application for fluoride removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen M; Anshup; Antony, K R; Pradeep, T

    2010-04-15

    We describe a novel combustion synthesis for the preparation of Nanomagnesia (NM) and its application in water purification. The synthesis is based on the self-propagated combustion of the magnesium nitrate trapped in cellulose fibers. Various characterization studies confirmed that NM formed is crystalline with high phase purity, and the particle size varied in the range of 3-7nm. The fluoride scavenging potential of this material was tested as a function of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose. The result showed that fluoride adsorption by NM is highly favorable and the capacity does not vary in the pH range usually encountered in groundwater. The effects of various co-existing ions usually found in drinking water, on fluoride removal were also investigated. Phosphate was the greatest competitor for fluoride followed by bicarbonate. The presence of other ions studied did not affect the fluoride adsorption capacity of NM significantly. The adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium data are well predicted by Frendlich equation. Our experimental evidence shows that fluoride removal happened through isomorphic substitution of fluoride in brucite. A batch household defluoridation unit was developed using precipitation-sedimentation-filtration techniques, addressing the problems of high fluoride concentration as well as the problem of alkaline pH of the magnesia treated water. The method of synthesis reported here is advantageous from the perspectives of small size of the nanoparticle, cost-effective recovery of the material and improvement in the fluoride adsorption capacity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaka, L. A.; Musolff, A.; Mulch, A.; Olago, D.; Odada, E. O.

    2013-12-01

    Within the East African rift, groundwater recharge results from the complex interplay of geology, land cover, geomorphology, climate and on going volcano-tectonic processes across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The interrelationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, reliability and quality. The hydrochemical evolution of the waters is further complex due to the different climatic regimes and geothermal processes going on in this area. High fluoridic waters within the rift have been reported by few studies, while dental fluorosis is high among the inhabitants of the rift. The natural sources of fluoride in waters can be from weathering of fluorine bearing minerals in rocks, volcanic or fumarolic activities. Fluoride concentration in water depends on a number of factors including pH, temperature, time of water-rock formation contact and geochemical processes. Knowledge of the sources and dispersion of fluoride in both surface and groundwaters within the central Kenya rift and seasonal variations between wet and dry seasons is still poor. The Central Kenya rift is marked by active tectonics, volcanic activity and fumarolic activity, the rocks are majorly volcanics: rhyolites, tuffs, basalts, phonolites, ashes and agglomerates some are highly fractured. Major NW-SE faults bound the rift escarpment while the rift floor is marked by N-S striking faults We combine petrographic, hydrochemistry and structural information to determine the sources and enrichment pathways of high fluoridic waters within the Naivasha catchment. A total of 120 water samples for both the dry season (January-February2012) and after wet season (June-July 2013) from springs, rivers, lakes, hand dug wells, fumaroles and boreholes within the Naivasha catchment are collected and analysed for fluoride, physicochemical parameters and stable isotopes (δ2 H, δ18 O) in order to determine the origin and evolution of the waters. Additionally, 30 soil and

  9. Optical Properties of Lithium Terbium Fluoride and Implications for Performance in High Power Lasers (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0323 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF LITHIUM TERBIUM FLUORIDE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE IN HIGH POWER LASERS... AMERICA (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR...OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF LITHIUM TERBIUM FLUORIDE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE IN HIGH POWER LASERS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b

  10. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  11. Mn-Ce oxide as a high-capacity adsorbent for fluoride removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Liu, Han; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2011-02-28

    A novel Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent with high sorption capacity for fluoride was prepared via co-precipitation method in this study, and the granular adsorbent was successfully prepared by calcining the mixture of the Mn-Ce powder and pseudo-boehmite. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that the Mn-Ce adsorbent consisted of about 4.5 nm crystals, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the formation of solid solution by Mn species entering CeO(2) lattices. The surface hydroxyl group density on the Mn-Ce adsorbent was determined to be as high as 15.3 mmol g(-1), mainly responsible for its high sorption capacity for fluoride. Sorption isotherms showed that the sorption capacities of fluoride on the powdered and granular adsorbent were 79.5 and 45.5 mg g(-1) respectively at the equilibrium fluoride concentration of 1 mg L(-1), much higher than all reported adsorbents. Additionally, the adsorption was fast within the initial 1 h. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface were involved in the sorption of fluoride. Both anion exchange and electrostatic interaction were involved in the sorption of fluoride on the Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High throughput thermal conductivity of high temperature solid phases: The case of oxide and fluoride perovskites

    CERN Document Server

    van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Mingo, Natalio

    2016-01-01

    Using finite-temperature phonon calculations and machine-learning methods, we calculate the mechanical stability of about 400 semiconducting oxides and fluorides with cubic perovskite structures at 0 K, 300 K and 1000 K. We find 92 mechanically stable compounds at high temperatures -- including 36 not mentioned in the literature so far -- for which we calculate the thermal conductivity. We demonstrate that the thermal conductivity is generally smaller in fluorides than in oxides, largely due to a lower ionic charge, and describe simple structural descriptors that are correlated with its magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the thermal conductivities of most cubic perovskites decrease more slowly than the usual $T^{-1}$ behavior. Within this set, we also screen for materials exhibiting negative thermal expansion. Finally, we describe a strategy to accelerate the discovery of mechanically stable compounds at high temperatures.

  13. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  14. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noroozi Karbasdehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO1 Reverse Osmosis. process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK. The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  15. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process

    OpenAIRE

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO)1 Reverse Osmosis. process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  16. Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells--expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Anna; Berger, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalence in Senegalese children living in a high-fluoride area and consuming a poor fluoridated drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, M; Diawara, C K; Ndiaye, K R; Yam, A A

    2008-01-01

    The role of fluoride in dental caries prevention when applied at optimal levels is well established. However, ingestion of excessive fluoride during tooth development can cause structural changes in tooth enamel named fluorosis. At Gandiaye a city situated in the Senegalese endemic fluorosis area, the main water supply provided by a unique drilling with highly fluoridated water has broken down in 1996. Since then, the drinking water comes from wells which have poor levels of fluorides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and tooth decays in children born and reared continuously at Gandiaye after the stoppage of the drills and who were drinking water well. Water samples were collected from two wells and analyzed using a spectrometer and a specific fluoride electrode. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis was evaluated according to Dean's method, and the caries experience was measured using the DMF teeth index in 150 children aged from 6 to 8 years. The fluoride levels in the water well were comprised between 0.03 ppm and 0.09 ppm according to the method used. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 39.33% with the predominance of the very low to low fluorosis forms. The tooth decay prevalence was 48.66% and the mean DMF tooth was 0.98. A significant relationship was found between the dental fluorosis and the low caries levels. A low to moderate dental fluorosis associated with a significant decrease of caries prevalence was found in children living in a high-fluoride area and consuming poorly fluorided water.

  18. High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry compared with ion chromatography for quantitative determination of dissolved fluoride in river water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Philip; Sturm, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A; Meermann, Björn

    2017-10-03

    In addition to beneficial health effects, fluoride can also have adverse effects on humans, animals, and plants if the daily intake is strongly elevated. One main source of fluoride uptake is water, and thus several ordinances exist in Germany that declare permissible concentrations of fluoride in, for example, drinking water, mineral water, and landfill seepage water. Controlling the fluoride concentrations in aqueous matrices necessitate valid and fast analytical methods. In this work an alternative method for the determination of fluoride in surface waters based on high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFMAS) was applied. Fluoride detection was made possible by the formation of a diatomic molecule, GaF, and detection of characteristic molecular absorption. On HR-CS-GFMAS parameter optimization, the method was adapted to surface water sample analysis. The influence of potential main matrix constituents such as Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- as well as surface water sampling/storage conditions on the molecular absorption signal of GaF was investigated. Method validation demonstrated a low limit of detection (8.1 μg L-1) and a low limit of quantification (26.9 μg L-1), both sufficient for direct river water sample analysis after 0.45-μm filtration. The optimized HR-CS-GFMAS method was applied for the analysis of real water samples from the rivers Rhine and Moselle. For method validation, samples were also analyzed by an ion chromatography (IC) method. IC and HR-CS-GFMAS results both agreed well. In comparison with IC, HR-CS-GFMAS has higher sample throughput, a lower limit of detection and a lower limit of quantification, and higher selectivity, and is a very suitable method for the analysis of dissolved fluoride in river water. Graphical abstract High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFMAS) was applied for the quantitative analysis of dissolved fluoride in river

  19. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  20. High-Dose Fluoride Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Ameloblastin Secretion in Primary Rat Ameloblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Danyang

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to establish the in vitro culture system for rat primary ameloblast and to investigate the effects of fluoride on cell viability, apoptosis, and ameloblastin (AMBN) secretion of primary rat ameloblast in vitro. Ameloblast was isolated from the tooth germ of the maxillomandibular molar and cultured in vitro. Cells were treated with NaF at 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mM for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis was tested by flow cytometry. The activation of Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas pathway was detected using immunoblotting for FasL, Fas, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP. Secretion of AMBN in culture medium was measured using ELISA. Primary rat ameloblast was successfully isolated and cultured. The effects of low-dose fluoride on cell viability were bi-phasic, while high-dose fluoride resulted in decreased cell viability uniformly. Fluoride induced ameloblast apoptosis via activation of FasL/Fas signaling pathway and diminished secretion of AMBN by ameloblast. Fluoride could decrease ameloblast viability, induce ameloblast apoptosis via activating FasL/Fas signaling pathway, and reduce AMBN secretion.

  1. High-fluoride promoted phagocytosis-induced apoptosis in a matured ameloblast-like cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Yanli; Zheng, Dongdong; Hao, Ying; Snead, Malcolm L; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis and phagocytosis are important physiologic activities occurring during ameloblast differentiation. We have previously found that excess fluoride inhibited ameloblasts endocytotic functions. Here, we hypothesized that increasing amounts of fluoride may affect ameloblast phagocytotic function during their differentiation. Using cell culture, we first induced maturation of the mouse ameloblast-like LS8 cells by treatment with exogenous retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone (DEX). We measured their phagocytotic activity by fluorescent microscopy using a live cell visualization station. We found that ameloblast-like LS8 cells matured with RA/DEX treatment and the increasing amounts of fluoride demonstrated the up-regulated expression of the phagocytotic marker proteins, LAMP1 and CD68. A connection between phagocytosis and apoptosis was confirmed by the increased number of phagocytotic vacuole-like structures and the heterochromatin margination phenomenon observed in the RA/DEX with NaF treatment group. The increase in albumin uptake by ameloblasts was confirmed using whole organ culture of incisor tooth germs. Here, in fluoride treated tooth germs, mature canonical ameloblasts showed greater amounts of albumin uptake, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the anti-apoptosis marker, Bcl-2 along with up-regulated expression of CD68. From these observations, we inferred that high doses of fluoride may cause apoptosis by increasing the phagocytosis of protein particles in mature-stage ameloblasts and loss of Bcl-2 signals might be involved in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Periodontal health status among permanent residents of low, optimum and high fluoride areas in Kolar District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalamanegowdru, Jayachandra; Ankola, Anil V; Vathar, Jagadishchandra; Vishwakarma, Prashanthkumar; Dhanappa, Kirankumar B; Balappanavar, Aswini Y

    2012-01-01

    To assess and compare the periodontal health status among permanent residents of low, optimum and high fluoride areas in Kolar District, India. A house-to-house survey was conducted in a population consisting of 925 permanent residents aged 35 to 44 years in three villages having different levels of fluoride concentrations in the drinking water. The fluoride concentrations in selected villages were 0.48 ppm (low), 1.03 ppm (optimum) and 3.21 ppm (high). The ion selective electrode method was used to estimate the fluoride concentration in the drinking water. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA). Results were analysed using the chi-square test and logistic regression. The chi-square test was used to find the group differences and logistic regression to find association between the variables. The overall prevalence of periodontitis was 72.9%; specifically, prevalences were 95.4%, 76.3% and 45.7% in low, optimum and high fluoride areas, respectively. The number of sextants with shallow or deep pockets decreased (shallow pockets: 525, 438, 217; deep pockets: 183, 81, 34) from low to high fluoride areas (odds ratio: 71.3). The low fluoride area had a 7.9-fold higher risk of periodontitis than the optimum fluoride area and a 30-fold higher risk than the high fluoride area, which was highly significant (χ2 = 53.5, P periodontal disease is inversely associated with the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. This relation can provide an approach to fluoride treatments to reduce the prevalence or incidence of this disease.

  3. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  4. Dental fluorosis in children in areas with fluoride-polluted air, high-fluoride water, and low-fluoride water as well as low-fluoride air: A study of deciduous and permanent teeth in the Shaanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J.P.; Bardsen, A.; Astrom, A.N.; Huang, R.Z.; Wang, Z.L.; Bjorvatn, K. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Oral Science

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess dental fluorosis (DF) in the deciduous and permanent teeth of children in areas with high-F coal (area A) and high-F water (area C) compared to children from area B, with low-F water and coal. DF was found to be prevalent in both dentitions in areas A and C. Similarity in percentages of DF may indicate that indoor air with about to 60 {mu}g F/m{sup 3} and drinking water with 3.6 mg F/L are similarly toxic to developing permanent teeth. The percentage of deciduous teeth with DF was significantly lower in area A compared to area C. Where low-F coal and low-F water were used (area B), similar to 20% of permanent teeth had DF, indicating a relatively low tolerance to fluoride in Chinese children brought up under the present living conditions.

  5. Comparing methods for assessing beverage intake among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Eaton, Danice K; Park, Sohyun; Brener, Nancy D; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-01-01

    To compare 7 beverage intake survey questions against criterion data from 24-hour dietary recall interviews (24HrDRIs) among adolescents. Data were available from 610 US high school students completing a survey and ≥3 24HrDRIs. Analyses compared mean intake (times/day) calculated from the survey to intake (servings/day) from the 24HrDRIs. Proportions of students reporting intake of ≥1 times/day were compared to the 24HrDRI results. Survey data significantly correlated with 24HrDRI data (all corrected r: 0.26-0.49). Survey results differed from 24HrDRI results on reported intake of 5 beverages. Intake from these beverage questions should be reported in times/day, which is related to, but not a proxy for, servings/day. These questions are useful for population-level surveillance of beverage intake and monitoring trends over time.

  6. Effect of fluoridated salt intake in infancy: a blind caries and fluorosis study in 8th grade Hungarian pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, K W; Macpherson, L M; Gorzo, I; Gilmour, W H

    1999-06-01

    Salt fluoridation is effective at inhibiting caries, but fluorosis prevalence data are deficient. The purpose was to undertake a blind study of caries and tooth mottling in 8th grade school pupils from south-east Hungary who had resided (test) or not resided (control), until November 1985, in a 350 ppm F-/kg domestic salt-fluoridated area during their early years of life. In Szeged, blind clinical caries and anterior tooth mottling scoring (+10% repeats) of 49 previously salt-fluoridated (mean age 14.14 years) and 59 non-salt-fluoridated subjects (mean age 14.08 years) were undertaken by one examiner, in June 1997. In addition, radiographic and photographic recordings were taken. In Glasgow, four dental and two lay staff scored the projected 35 mm colour transparencies (+10% repeats) of each pupil's six upper anterior teeth, for tooth mottling. All clinical, radiographic and photographic data were then analysed. Mean DMFS scores were 9.18 (SD=10.72) for test users and 4.51 (SD=6.24) for control users (Pchildren had fluorosis of 10 teeth, with eight teeth in two controls. Photographic scoring by the clinical examiner gave a 97.2% clinical match, while photographic agreements for all four dentist pairs were 92.5%-97.2%, with lay observers' agreements at 89.8%. For both groups, 10% repeats produced 98.5% agreements. In a sole test case "fluorosis" photographic unanimity was obtained, and non-unanimous "possible fluorosis" was recorded by two to four panel members for only three other test and two control subjects. No evidence was found that significant anterior tooth fluorosis resulted in subjects exposed previously to 350 ppm F-/kg domestic salt from birth to 2.3-4.8 years of age. However, no caries benefit was demonstrated after the 11.5-year salt fluoridation gap. Caries differences seemed social class-related, city-based controls having less disease than rural test subjects, in spite of an identical F- tablet regimen in all schools from 1987, until subjects were

  7. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of slow-growingLandrace and a group of fast-growingLarge White boars were used to study their patterns of feed intake, growth rate and feed utilization. The pigswere fed ad libitum on a high-energydiet of a high protein content and quality. The data show no difference in mean daily feed intakes between the two.

  8. Evaluation of nutritional intake in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the nutritional intake of Canadian high-performance athletes. Prospective survey study. Canadian sport center athletes. Three hundred twenty-four high-performance athletes (114 males and 201 females; mean age 21.3 +/- 13 years) from 8 Canadian sport centers participated in the study. Subjects prospectively completed 3-day dietary records, reporting all food, fluid, and supplement consumption. Dietary records were analyzed for total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients for food alone and food plus supplements for all subjects collectively and according to gender and competitive event. Average daily energy intake was 2533 +/- 843 Kcal/day with males consuming more calories than females (2918 +/- 927 and 2304 +/- 713 Kcal/day, respectively; P Supplementation significantly increased athletes' energy, total carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. Of 17 micronutrients assessed, intake ranged between 120% and 366% of recommended daily intake with food alone and between 134% to 680% of recommended daily intake with supplements. Canadian high-performance athletes do not consume adequate energy or carbohydrates. However, their intake of micronutrients exceed current recommended daily intakes, even when supplements are not considered, indicating that athletes make high-quality food choices. Supplementation significantly increased energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake.

  9. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys to acid fluoride wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Mackey, D.B.; Pool, K.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Schwenk, E.B. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    TRUEX processing of Hanford Site waste will utilize potentially corrosive acid fluoride processing solutions. Appropriate construction materials for such a processing facility need to be identified. Toward this objective, candidate stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated acid fluoride process solutions at 333K. The high Ni-Cr alloys exhibited corrosion rates as low as 0.14 mm/y in a solution with an HF activity of about 1.2 M, much lower than the 19 to 94 mm/y observed for austenitic stainless steels. At a lower HF activity (about 0.008 M), stainless steels display delayed passivation while high Ni-Cr alloys display essentially no reaction.

  10. Radionuclides in primary coolant of a fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor during normal operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Guo-Qing; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Hai-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Wang; Peng, Chao; Cai, Jun; He, Zhao-Zhong; Chen, Kun

    2017-01-01

    The release of fission products from coated particle fuel to primary coolant, as well as the activation of coolant and impurities, were analysed for a fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR...

  11. Reversal of primary root caries lesions after daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and probiotic lactobacilli in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Lars G; Magnusson, Kerstin; Hakestam, Ulf; Baigi, Amir; Twetman, Svante

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with fluoride and/or probiotic bacteria on primary root caries lesions (PRCL) in older adults. After informed consent, 160 healthy subjects, 58-84 years of age, with at least two PRCL were recruited and randomly assigned to one of four parallel study groups drinking 200 ml milk once daily for 15 months. Group A consumed standard milk (placebo); Group B ingested milk supplemented with 5 ppm F and probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LB21, 10(7) CFU/mL); Group C drank milk with only probiotic bacteria and group D milk contained only fluoride. Primary endpoints were Root Caries Index (RCI) and electric resistance measurements (ECM) carried out by one blinded single examiner. Secondary endpoints were mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts in saliva and plaque estimated with chair-side tests. Data were compared within and between groups with non-parametric tests. The drop out rate was 38%. At baseline there were no statistical differences between the groups. Significantly higher numbers of RCI reversals were found in groups B, C and D compared with group A (p milk supplemented with fluoride and/or probiotic bacteria may reverse soft and leathery PRCL in older adults.

  12. Considerations of Alloy N for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) are a promising new class of thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors. The reactor structural materials must possess high-temperature strength and chemical compatibility with the liquid fluoride salt as well as with a power cycle fluid such as supercritical water while remaining resistant to residual air within the containment. Alloy N was developed for use with liquid fluoride salts and it possesses adequate strength and chemical compatibility up to about 700 C. A distinctive property of FHRs is that their maximum allowable coolant temperature is restricted by their structural alloy maximum service temperature. As the reactor thermal efficiency directly increases with the maximum coolant temperature, higher temperature resistant alloys are strongly desired. This paper reviews the current status of Alloy N and its relevance to FHRs including its design principles, development history, high temperature strength, environmental resistance, metallurgical stability, component manufacturability, ASME codification status, and reactor service requirements. The review will identify issues and provide guidance for improving the alloy properties or implementing engineering solutions.

  13. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-05-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) μ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  15. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-P...

  16. [The influence of high fluoride exposure in drinking water on endocrine hormone in female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jia-xiang; Yang, Yue-jin; Gong, Biao; Li, Shi-hong; Ding, Zhong; Wen, Shi-bao; Li, Shi-qun; Cheng, Xue-min; Cui, Liu-xin; Ba, Yue

    2013-02-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on reproductive hormones in female. Cross-sectional study was conducted in seven villages of a county in Henan province by using simple random sampling including high fluoride area, defluoridation project area and control area on April, 2011 based on the preliminary study results of fluoride concentration in drinking water. Women who were born and growth or lived in the village at least 5 years and aged 18-48 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. They were divided into high fluoride group (HFG, 116 subjects), defluoridation project group (DFPG, 132 subjects) and control group (CG, 227 subjects) in accordance with the above areas. All subjects accepted questionnaire and physical checkup. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The concentration of fluoride in urine was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method. The serum level of GnRH was detected using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) were determined by chemiluminesence immunoassay (CLIA). The average age was (39.44 ± 7.34), (38.84 ± 8.03), (37.45 ± 7.70) years old in female from DFPG, HFG and CG respectively, there were no significant differences among the three groups (F = 3.02, P = 0.05). The urine fluoride levels were (1.34 ± 1.07), (2.59 ± 1.57), (0.92 ± 0.46) mg/ml in female from DFPG, HFG and CG respectively, there was a significant difference among three groups (F = 105.38, P 0.05). The serum levels of E2 in Ovulatory period were 67.73, 58.09, 84.96 pg/ml in female from DFPG, HFG and CG respectively. It was lower in HFG than that in CG (H = 4.00, P 0.05). The serum levels of GnRH in Luteal phase were 24.09, 20.16, 23.50 ng/ml in female from DFPG, HFG and CG respectively. It was lower in HFG than that in DFPG (H = 14.14, P 0.05 respectively). The abnormal rates of E2 level were 22.73 (30

  17. Habitual Dietary Nitrate Intake in Highly Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Wardenaar, Floris C; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-04-01

    Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement among athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-hr dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2- to 4-week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature. These were then used to calculate each athlete's dietary nitrate intake from the web-based recalls. The median[IQR] habitual nitrate intake was 106[75-170] mg/d (range 19-525 mg/d). Nitrate intake correlated with energy intake (ρ = 0.28, p athletes (12.8[9.2-20.0] vs 9.4[6.2-13.8] mg/MJ; p athletes (150[88-236] vs 114[61-183] g/d; p athletes was 106 mg, with large interindividual variation. Dietary nitrate intake was strongly associated with the intake of vegetables. Increasing the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables in the diet might serve as an alternative strategy for nitrate supplementation.

  18. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  19. High Waste Contributes to Low Food Intake in Hospitalized Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Roosemalen, M.M.; Weijs, P.J.M.; Langius, J.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in hospital inpatients is high; many patients do not meet individual nutrition requirements while hospitalized. To better understand the reasons for inadequate nutrition intake, this study describes patient satisfaction, food provision, food

  20. 4-phenylbutyrate Mitigates Fluoride-Induced Cytotoxicity in ALC Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Suzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluoride over-exposure during pre-eruptive enamel development can cause dental fluorosis. Severe dental fluorosis is characterized by porous, soft enamel that is vulnerable to erosion and decay. The prevalence of dental fluorosis among the population in the USA, India and China is increasing. Other than avoiding excessive intake, treatments to prevent dental fluorosis remain unknown. We previously reported that high-dose fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and oxidative stress in ameloblasts. Cell stress induces gene repression, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. An aromatic fatty acid, 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA is a chemical chaperone that interacts with misfolded proteins to prevent ER stress. We hypothesized that 4PBA ameliorates fluoride-induced ER stress in ameloblasts. To determine whether 4PBA protects ameloblasts from fluoride toxicity, we analyzed gene expression of Tgf-β1, Bcl2/Bax ratio and cytochrome-c release in vitro. In vivo, we measured fluorosis levels, enamel hardness and fluoride concentration. Fluoride treated Ameloblast-lineage cells (ALC had decreased Tgf-β1 expression and this was reversed by 4PBA treatment. The anti-apoptotic Blc2/Bax ratio was significantly increased in ALC cells treated with fluoride/4PBA compared to fluoride treatment alone. Fluoride treatment induced cytochrome-c release from mitochondria into the cytosol and this was inhibited by 4PBA treatment. These results suggest that 4PBA mitigates fluoride-induced gene suppression, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage in vitro. In vivo, C57BL/6J mice were provided fluoridated water for six weeks with either fluoride free control-chow or 4PBA-containing chow (7 g/kg 4PBA. With few exceptions, enamel microhardness, fluorosis levels, and fluoride concentrations of bone and urine did not differ significantly between fluoride treated animals fed with control-chow or 4PBA-chow. Although 4PBA mitigated high-dose fluoride toxicity in vitro, a diet

  1. Band structure and phonon properties of lithium fluoride at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, J. M., E-mail: amitjignesh@yahoo.co.in [Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar 382028, Gujarat (India); Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Mitesh [Government Polytechnic for Girls, Athwagate, Surat395001, Gujarat (India); Gajjar, P. N., E-mail: pngajjar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-23

    High pressure structural and electronic properties of Lithium Fluoride (LiF) have been studied by employing an ab-initio pseudopotential method and a linear response scheme within the density functional theory (DFT) in conjunction with quasi harmonic Debye model. The band structure and electronic density of states conforms that the LiF is stable and is having insulator behavior at ambient as well as at high pressure up to 1 Mbar. Conclusions based on Band structure, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states are outlined.

  2. Saliva substitutes in combination with highly concentrated fluorides and brushing: in vitro effects on enamel subsurface lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschoppe, P; Siegel, A; Meyer-Lueckel, H

    2010-01-01

    Hyposalivation is often associated with high caries activity, in particular in patients undergoing irradiation in the head/neck area. Besides the use of saliva substitutes to relieve the oral symptoms, daily application of fluoride gels or toothpaste (5,000 μg F⁻/g) is recommended for caries prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate potentially remineralising effects of these fluoride agents in combination with saliva substitutes on enamel subsurface lesions. Demineralised bovine specimens were either stored in mineral water [control; saturation with respect to octacalcium phosphate (S(OCP)): 0.8], a demineralising saliva substitute (Glandosane; S(OCP): 0.3) or in a modified (with respect to S(OCP)) saliva substitute [Saliva natura (SN); S(OCP): 1.9] for 5 weeks (37°C). The following treatments were applied twice daily (11-13/group): no treatment (0), ProSchmelz fluoride gel (PS; 10 min application), Duraphat toothpaste (DP; 10 s; brushing with toothpaste/storage solution slurry), combination of DP+PS. Mineral parameters before/after storage were evaluated from microradiographs. Storage in Glandosane led to significant demineralisation (p fluoride agents neutralised the demineralising effect (p > 0.05). Storage in water alone resulted in no changes in mineral parameters (p > 0.05), whereas in combination with fluorides remineralisation could be shown (p fluorides were detected. Under the conditions chosen, the fluoride agents reduce the demineralising effects of Glandosane and promote the remineralisation of specimens stored in water. Remineralising effects of SN could not be enhanced by the fluorides. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. In Situ Chemical Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride/Metal Nanocomposite for High Capacity Prelithiation of Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongming; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Sun, Jie; Li, Yanbin; Cui, Yi

    2016-02-10

    The initial lithium loss during the formation stage is a critical issue that significantly reduces the specific capacity and energy density of current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). An effective strategy to solve this problem is using electrode prelithiation additives that can work as a secondary lithium source and compensate the initial lithium loss. Herein we show that nanocomposites of lithium fluoride and metal (e.g., LiF/Co and LiF/Fe) can be efficient cathode prelithiation materials. The thorough mixing of ultrafine lithium fluoride and metal particles (∼5 nm) allows lithium to be easily extracted from the nanocomposites via an inverse conversion reaction. The LiF/Co nanocomposite exhibits an open circuit voltage (OCV, 1.5 V) with good compatibility with that of existing cathode materials and delivers a high first-cycle "donor" lithium-ion capacity (516 mA h g(-1)). When used as an additive to a LiFePO4 cathode, the LiF/Co nanocomposite provides high lithium compensation efficiency. Importantly, the as-formed LiF/metal nanocomposites possess high stability and good compatibility with the regular solvent, binder, and existing battery processing conditions, in contrast with the anode prelithiation materials that usually suffer from issues of high chemical reactivity and instability. The facile synthesis route, high stability in ambient and battery processing conditions, and high "donor" lithium-ion capacity make the LiF/metal nanocomposites ideal cathode prelithiation materials for LIBs.

  4. A biocompatible and novelly-defined Al-HAP adsorption membrane for highly effective removal of fluoride from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junyong; Chen, Kai; Cai, Xingguo; Li, Yulian; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Kaisheng; Jin, Zhen; Meng, Fanli; Wang, Xuguang; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-03-15

    A biocompatible and novelly-defined adsorption membrane for rapid removal of fluoride was prepared. Both adsorption and membrane techniques were used in this research. Al(OH) 3 nanoparticles modified hydroxyapatite (Al-HAP) nanowires were developed and made into Al-HAP membrane. The adsorption data of Al-HAP adsorbent could be well described by Freundlich isotherm model while the adsorption kinetic followed pseudo-second-order model. The maximum of adsorption capacity was 93.84mg/g when the fluoride concentration was 200mg/L. The adsorption mechanism was anion exchanges and electrostatic interactions. The contribution rates of HAP nanowires and Al(OH) 3 nanoparticles in fluoride removal were 36.70% and 63.30%, respectively. The fixed-bed column test demonstrate that the Al-HAP was biocompatible and in a good stability during the process of water treatment. The fluoride removal abilities of Al-HAP membrane with 0.3mm thickness could reach 1568L/m 2 when fluoride concentrations were 5mg/L. This study indicated that the Al-HAP membrane could be developed into a very viable technology for highly effective removal of fluoride from drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of high oxidation state nickel fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, L.C. [Univ. of Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1997-12-01

    The research described in this thesis has mainly addressed the challenge of the synthesis of thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides, which cannot be made by traditional thermal methods. A low-temperature approach towards the synthesis of such transition metal fluorides exploits the greater thermodynamic stability of high oxidation states in anions and involves the use of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF) as a solvent. The general method consists of combining an aHF soluble starting material (e.g., K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6}) with a Lewis fluoroacid (e.g., BF{sub 3}), which precipitates a neutral polymeric solid state fluoride: 2 K{sup +} + NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} + BF{sub 3} {r_arrow} NiF{sub 4} + 2 BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} + 2 K{sup +}. At room temperature, this reaction yields a different structural phase, with composition K{sub x}NiF{sub 3} (x {approx} 0.18). This material has a pseudo-hexagonal tungsten bronze structure (H{sub 0}-K{sub x}NiF{sub 3}), and is an ionic conductor, probably due to K{sup +} ions hosted in the lattice channels. R-NiF{sub 3} is capable of fluorinating a wide range of inorganic and organic substrates. These reactions have probably shed light on the mechanism of the Simons Electrochemical Fluorination (ECF) Process, an important industrial method of fluorinating organic compounds. It has long been speculated that NiF{sub 3} plays a role in the ECF process, which uses nickel electrodes in aHF solvent. K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} also fluorinates organic compounds in aHF, but interestingly, yields different fluorinated products. The reduction of R-NiF{sub 3} and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 6} during fluorination reactions yields NiF{sub 2}. A method has been developed to regenerate NiF{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} from NiF{sub 2}.

  6. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling the high fluoride concentration in groundwater: a case study at the Boden block area, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, R K; Swain, S K; Mishra, Sulagna; Sharma, Prachi; Patnaik, Tanushree; Singh, V K; Dehury, B N; Jha, Usha; Patel, R K

    2012-05-01

    The present investigation reports the assessment of hydrochemical/geochemical processes controlling the concentration of fluoride in groundwater of a village in India (Boden block, Orissa). Boden block is one of the severely affected fluoride-contaminated areas in the state of Orissa (India). The sampling and subsequent analysis of water samples of the study area was carried out following standard prescribed methods. The results of the analysis indicate that 36.60% groundwater F(-) concentration exceeds the limit prescribed by the World Health Organization for drinking water. The rock interaction with groundwater containing high concentration of HCO(3)(-) and Na(+) at a higher pH value of the medium could be one of the important reasons for the release of F(-) from the aquatic matrix into groundwater. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on Chadha rectangular diagram shows that most of the groundwater samples having fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg L(-1) belongs to the Na-K-HCO(3) type. The saturation index values evaluated for the groundwater of the study area indicated that it is oversaturated with respect to calcite, whereas the same is undersaturated with respect to fluorite content. The deficiency of calcium ion concentration in the groundwater from calcite precipitation favors fluorite dissolution leading to excess of fluoride concentration. The risk index was calculated as a function of fluoride level in drinking water and morbidity of fluorosis categorizes high risk for villages of Amera and Karlakote panchayat of Boden block.

  7. Reduction in fluoride-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells after substituting high fluoride-containing water with safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Santosh; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2011-10-01

    Treatment of mice with 15 mg l(-1) sodium fluoride (NaF) for 30 days increased the number of cell death, chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and 'cells with chromatid breaks' (aberrant cells) compared with control. The present study was intended to determine whether the fluoride (F)-induced genotoxicity could be reduced by substituting high F-containing water after 30 days with safe drinking water, containing 0.1 mg F ions l(-1). A significant fall in percentage of CAs and aberrant cells after withdrawal of F-treatment following 30 days of safe water treatment in mice was observed which was highest after 90 days, although their levels still remained significantly high compared with the control group. This observation suggests that F-induced genotoxicity could be reduced by substituting high F-containing water with safe drinking water. Further study is warranted with different doses and extended treatment of safe water to determine whether the induced damages could be completely reduced or not. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, P V; Patel, S V; Bhalani, K D; Shah, D; Shah, V S; Mehta, K G

    2012-06-01

    Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings.

  10. Other Fluoride Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Basics Children’s Oral Health Protecting Your Child’s Teeth Brush Up on Healthy Teeth Adult Oral Health Oral Health for Older Americans ... benefit to persons not at high risk for tooth decay, especially those who drink ... with fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride Varnish Form Varnishes ...

  11. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Families Living in a Natural Highly Fluoridated Community at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    still appropriate. 3 Because Fort Irwin’s water supply is above the MCL for fluoride, the post partially defluoridates a portion of the water I supply...for drinking and cooking purposes. The process used in 3 defluoridation at Fort Irwin is called reverse osmosis (RO), and the RO water (0.6 - 0.7 ppm F...at Fort Irwin, which is a natural highly fluoridated area, to determine the type of water used for drinking and cooking purposes and to investigate

  12. Water Intake by Soil, Experiments for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969

    Presented are a variety of surface run-off experiments for high school students. The experiments are analogies to basic concepts about water intake, as related to water delivery, soil properties and management, floods, and conservation measures. The materials needed to perform the experiments are easily obtainable. The experiments are followed by…

  13. High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids

  14. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atish Korwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT materials. Materials and Methods: Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials.

  15. Adverse Effects of High Concentrations of Fluoride on Characteristics of the Ovary and Mature Oocyte of Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songna Yin

    Full Text Available Reproductive toxicity has been an exciting topic of research in reproductive biology in recent years. Soluble fluoride salts are toxic at high concentrations; their reproductive toxicity was assessed in this study by administering different fluoride salt concentrations to mice. Continuous feeding for five weeks resulted in damage to the histological architecture of ovaries. The expression of genes, including Dazl, Stra8, Nobox, Sohlh1, and ZP3 gene, associated with oocyte formation were much lower in the experimental group as compared with the control group. The number of in vitro fertilization of mature oocytes were also much lower in the experimental group as compared with control. Moreover, the fertility of female mice, as assessed by mating with normal male mice, was also lower in experimental compared with control groups. The expression of the oocyte-specific genes: Bmp15, Gdf9, H1oo, and ZP2, which are involved in oocyte growth and the induction of the acrosome reaction, decreased with the fluoride administration. DNA methylation and histone acetylation (H3K18ac and H3K9ac are indispensable for germline development and genomic imprinting in mammals, and fluoride administration resulted in reduced levels of H3K9ac and H3K18ac in the experimental group as compared with the control group, as detected by immunostaining. Our results indicate that the administration of high concentrations of fluoride to female mice significantly reduced the number of mature oocytes and hampered their development and fertilization. Thus, this study lays a foundation for future studies on fluoride-induced reproductive disorders in women.

  16. Cyclisation of citronellal over heterogeneous inorganic fluorides--highly chemo- and diastereoselective catalysts for (+/-)-isopulegol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Simona M; Patil, Pratap; Wuttke, Stefan; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2009-01-28

    Based on a fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis, nanoscopic metal fluorides and partly hydroxylated metal fluorides were synthesized; varying the F : OH ratio inside these solids yielded catalysts with different combinations and variable strength Lewis and Brønsted acid sites, which demonstrated unexpected catalytic properties for the diastereoselective synthesis of (+/-)-isopulegol.

  17. Histopathological Effects of Varied Fluoride Concentration on Cerebrum in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Hamid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorides have been a cause of concern for scientists and environmentalists for the long because of their harmful effects on the human and animal life but the problem was highlighted during the twentieth century because of great increase in the human population and industrialization. Since fluorides accumulate in calcified and hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth and can be detected easily in these tissues, so most of the previous studies focused on the effects of fluorides on these tissues. However, during the past decade researchers all over the world have felt that there is a need to study the effects of fluorides on various other tissues of the body including CNS as fluoride intake for prolonged period is known to cause abnormal behavioural pattern, grave implications for Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, Attention deficit disorder and reduced I.Q in children as the fluorides are known to cross blood brain barrier. Hence the present study has thrown light on the involvement of brain in chronic fluoride toxicity. The target organ of studied was cerebrum. In the Study, albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride (asNaF in drinking water for 3 months. Rats exposed to 30 ppm fluoride did not show any notable alterations in brain histology, whereas rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in lhe motor cortex.Changes included decrease in size and number of neurons in all the regions, signs of chromatolysis and gliosis in the motor cortex. These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake & on chronic use. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  18. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  19. Synthesis and properties of a high-capacity iron oxide adsorbent for fluoride removal from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Li, Yingzhen; Wang, Ting-Jie; Jiang, Yanping; Fok, Jason

    2017-12-01

    A novel iron oxide adsorbent with a high fluoride adsorption capacity was prepared by a facile wet-chemical precipitation method and ethanol treatment. The ethanol-treated adsorbent was amorphous and had a high specific surface area. The adsorption capacity of the treated adsorbent was much higher than that of untreated adsorbent. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent prepared at a low final precipitation pH (≤9.0) and treated with ethanol reached 60.8 mg/g. A fast adsorption rate was obtained, and 80% of the adsorption equilibrium capacity was achieved within 2 min. The adsorbent had high fluoride-removal efficiency for water in a wide initial pH range of 3.5-10.3 and had a high affinity for fluoride in the presence of common co-anions. The ethanol treatment resulted in structure transformation of the adsorbent by inhibiting the crystallization of the nano-precipitates. The adsorption was confirmed to be ion exchange between fluoride ions and the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface.

  20. Preliminary Safeguards Assessment for the Pebble-Bed Fluoride High-Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR) Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disser, Jay; Arthur, Edward; Lambert, Janine

    2016-09-01

    This report examines a preliminary design for a pebble bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (PB-FHR) concept, assessing it from an international safeguards perspective. Safeguards features are defined, in a preliminary fashion, and suggestions are made for addressing further nuclear materials accountancy needs.

  1. Natural fluoride levels in the drinking water, water fluoridation and estimated risk of dental fluorosis in a tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Silva, Fábia Danielle; Silva, Andréa Cristina; Machado, Ana Thereza; de Araújo, Demétrius Antônio; de Sousa, Erik Melo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the natural fluoride levels in the drinking water supplies of a tropical area of Brazil to identify the cities at risk of high prevalence of dental fluorosis and to provide data for future water fluoridation projects in the region. The present study was carried out in Paraíba, in the north-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 223 cities were selected, and local health workers were instructed to collect three samples of drinking water: one from the main public water supply and the other two from a public or residential tap with the same water source. Fluoride analyses were carried out in duplicate using a fluoride-specific electrode coupled to an ion analyser. A total of 167 cities (75%) provided water samples for analysis. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm (mg/l). Samples from most of the cities (n = 163, 73%) presented low levels of fluoride (fluoride levels (0.6 to 0.8 mg/l). Samples from one city (16,724 inhabitants) with 1.0 mg/l of fluoride in the water were above the recommended level (0.7 mg/l) for the local temperature. It can be concluded that the cities in this area of Brazil presented low natural fluoride levels in the drinking water and could implement controlled water fluoridation projects when technical requirements are accomplished. A high or a moderate prevalence of dental fluorosis due to the intake of natural fluoride in the drinking water is likely to take place in one city only.

  2. Mid-Infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lecaplain, C; Gorodetsky, M L; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-01-01

    Decades ago, the losses of glasses in the near infrared (near-IR) were investigated in views of developments for optical telecommunications. Today, properties in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) are of interest for molecular spectroscopy applications. In particular, high-sensitivity spectroscopic techniques based on high-finesse mid-IR cavities hold high promise for medical applications. Due to exceptional purity and low losses, whispering gallery mode microresonators based on polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals (i.e the $\\mathrm{XF_2}$ family, where X $=$ Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr,...) have attained ultra-high quality (Q) factor resonances (Q$>$10$^{8}$) in the near-IR and visible spectral ranges. Here we report for the first time ultra-high Q factors in the mid-IR using crystalline microresonators. Using an uncoated chalcogenide (ChG) tapered fiber, light from a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (QCL) is efficiently coupled to several crystalline microresonators at 4.4 $\\mu$m wavelength. We measure the optica...

  3. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  4. Lithium fluoride crystal as a novel high dynamic neutron imaging detector with microns scale spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaja Street 13/19, Moscow (Russian Federation); Matsubayashi, Masahito; Yasuda, Ryo; Iikura, Hiroshi; Nojima, Takehiro; Sakai, Takuro [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Shiozawa, Masahiro [Nippon SOKEN, Inc., Iwaya 14, Shimohasumi, Nishio, Aichi 445-0012 (Japan); Kato, Yoshiaki [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Recently, a new field of application of optically stimulated luminescence of color centers (CCs) in lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals was proposed - using them for high-performance neutron imaging - and promising results were obtained (Matsubayashi et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 622, 637 (2010) and Matsubayashi et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 651, 90 (2011)). Here we present the overview of main findings, which clearly demonstrated that the LiF crystal performs efficiently as neutron imaging detector in areas, where a high spatial resolution with a high image gradation resolution is needed. It was shown that the obtained neutron images are almost free from granular noises, have spatial resolution of {proportional_to} 6 {mu}m, and have practically linear response with the dynamic range of at least 10{sup 3}. It was also found that the LiF crystal detector offers a fairly good sensitivity. Moreover, detailed evaluation using a standard sensitivity indicator for neutron radiography showed that two holes with less than 2% transmittance differences could be distinguished. Additionally, we recently demonstrated that the high resolution neutron imaging with LiF crystals could be useful for quantitative characterizations of neutron sources and electric devices, comprising of low-Z elements, for example, such as fuel cells. All of this gives new opportunity for microns scale spatial resolution imaging by neutrons (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L. PMID:19440411

  6. Process for the production of high purity zirconium tetrafluoride and other fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, H.P.; Woytek, A.J.; Lileck, J.T.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a process for producing metal fluorides for low optical loss glass applications selected from the group. It comprises: aluminum trifluoride, hafnium tetrafluoride and zirconium tetrafluoride. The steps comprise: incompletely reacting reactants of a fluorinating agent selected from the group consisting of F{sub 2}, NF{sub 3}, N{sub 2}F{sub 2}, N{sub 2}F{sub 4}, ClF{sub 3}, BrF{sub 3}, IF{sub 5} and SF{sub 4} and a metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, hafnium and zirconium, or the corresponding metal's compound to produce a reaction product comprising the metal fluoride and at least an amount of the residual metal or its compound effective to react with any metal fluoride impurities in the reactants, and separating the metal fluoride from the reaction product by heating the reaction product to selectively vaporize the metal fluoride for separate recovery from the reaction product and to react the residual metal or its compound with the metal fluoride impurities.

  7. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  8. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... lactation. The number of total born piglets in the next litter was positively related to the number of piglets born in the previous litter. In conclusion, both a high feed intake and a high mobilization of body reserves was a prerequisite for a high milk production. The sows might be very close...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  9. Ingestão de flúor por crianças pela água e dentifrício Fluoride intake by children from water and dentifrice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ynara Bosco de Oliveira Lima

    2001-12-01

    . Fluoride was determined using an ion specific electrode. A 5% level of significance variance analysis (Anova was carried out. RESULTS: Children were exposed to a total fluoride dose of 0.090 mg/day/kg of body weight, of which 45% came from the diet and 55% from dentifrice. CONCLUSIONS: Assuming 0.07 mg/kg as a threshold value of fluoride systemic exposure, children were exposed to a risk dose for dental fluorosis. Thus, measures to reduce fluoride intake at the studied age range would be recommended. Reducing the amount of dentifrice used for tooth brushing seems to be the best measure, given the risk/benefits of fluoride use from the public health perspective.

  10. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 2: the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Taylor, Andrew; Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-08-21

    To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman's rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability.

  11. Story of Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fluoride > The Story of Fluoridation The Story of Fluoridation Main Content It started as an observation, that ... fluoridate its drinking water.The Grand Rapids water fluoridation study was originally sponsored by the U.S. Surgeon ...

  12. Pebble Bed Reactors Design Optimization Methods and their Application to the Pebble Bed Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Anselmo Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The Fluoride salt cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of advanced nuclear reactors that combine the robust coated particle fuel form from high temperature gas cooled reactors, direct reactor auxillary cooling system (DRACS) passive decay removal of liquid metal fast reactors, and the transparent, high volumetric heat capacitance liquid fluoride salt working fluids - flibe (33%7Li2F-67%BeF) - from molten salt reactors. This combination of fuel and coolant enables FHRs to operate i...

  13. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  14. Biomarkers for Chronic Kidney Disease Associated with High Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Hosohata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake has been related to the development to chronic kidney disease (CKD as well as hypertension. In its early stages, symptoms of CKD are usually not apparent, especially those that are induced in a “silent” manner in normotensive individuals, thereby providing a need for some kind of urinary biomarker to detect injury at an early stage. Because traditional renal biomarkers such as serum creatinine are insensitive, it is difficult to detect kidney injury induced by a high-salt diet, especially in normotensive individuals. Recently, several new biomarkers for damage of renal tubular epithelia such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1 have been identified. Previously, we found a novel renal biomarker, urinary vanin-1, in several animal models with renal tubular injury. However, there are few studies about early biomarkers of the progression to CKD associated with a high-salt diet. This review presents some new insights about these novel biomarkers for CKD in normotensives and hypertensives under a high salt intake. Interestingly, our recent reports using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY fed a high-salt diet revealed that urinary vanin-1 and NGAL are earlier biomarkers of renal tubular damage in SHR and WKY, whereas urinary Kim-1 is only useful as a biomarker of salt-induced renal injury in SHR. Clinical studies will be needed to clarify these findings.

  15. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  16. An Analysis of Testing Requirements for Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This report provides guidance on the component testing necessary during the next phase of fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) development. In particular, the report identifies and describes the reactor component performance and reliability requirements, provides an overview of what information is necessary to provide assurance that components will adequately achieve the requirements, and then provides guidance on how the required performance information can efficiently be obtained. The report includes a system description of a representative test scale FHR reactor. The reactor parameters presented in this report should only be considered as placeholder values until an FHR test scale reactor design is completed. The report focus is bounded at the interface between and the reactor primary coolant salt and the fuel and the gas supply and return to the Brayton cycle power conversion system. The analysis is limited to component level testing and does not address system level testing issues. Further, the report is oriented as a bottom-up testing requirements analysis as opposed to a having a top-down facility description focus.

  17. High-Curie-Temperature Ferromagnetism in (Sc,Fe)F3 Fluorides and its Dependence on Chemical Valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Huang, Qingzhen; Sanson, Andrea; Jiang, Zheng; Zhou, Mei; Rong, Yangchun; Wang, Yong; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2015-08-19

    A magnetic metal-fluoride system is shown for the first time to have a high Curie temperature (≈545 K). The magnetism correlates intimately with the Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratio. As the ratio increases, the weak magnetism displayed by unordered magnetic moments intensifies, and these magnetic moments align in parallel. Simultaneously, a magneto-volume effect is also shown to increase the lattice volume. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fluoride concentrations in the pineal gland, brain and bone of goosander (Mergus merganser) and its prey in Odra River estuary in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Bosiacka-Baranowska, Irena; Lanocha, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Krolaczyk, Katarzyna; Wilk, Aleksandra; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate fluoride concentrations in bone, brain and pineal gland of goosander Mergus merganser wintering in the Odra estuary (Poland) as well as in fish originating from its digestive tract. The fluoride concentrations were determined with potentiometric method. Medians of concentrations in goosander had the highest and the lowest values in pineal gland and brain (>760 and pineal gland was significantly greater than in the bone and the brain of the duck. In fish, the fluoride concentration ranged from 37 to 640 mg/kg and significant correlation was revealed between the fluoride concentration and fish weight and length. Based on own results and data of other authors, a daily fluoride intake by the goosander in the Odra estuary was estimated at 15 mg. So high fluoride concentrations like in the duck have not been found in mammal brains.

  19. Urinary fluoride output in children following the use of a dual-fluoride varnish formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Cardoso, Vanessa Eid da Silva; Bijella, Maria Fernanda Borro; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the bioavailability of fluoride after topical application of a dual-fluoride varnish commercially available in Brazil, when compared to Duraphat. The urinary fluoride output was evaluated in seven 5-year-old children after application of the fluoride varnishes, in two different phases. In the first phase (I), children received topical application of the fluoride varnish Duofluorid XII (2.92% fluorine, calcium fluoride + 2.71% fluorine, sodium fluoride, FGM). After 1-month interval (phase II), the same amount (0.2 mL) of the fluoride varnish Duraphat (2.26% fluorine, sodium fluoride, Colgate) was applied. Before each application all the volunteers brushed their teeth with placebo dentifrice for 7 days. Urinary collections were carried out 24 h prior up to 48 h after the applications. Fluoride intake from the diet was also estimated. Fluoride concentration in diet samples and urine was analyzed with the fluoride ion-specific electrode and a miniature calomel reference electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Data were tested by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (papplication of Duraphat caused a transitory increase in the urinary fluoride output, returning to baseline levels 48 h after its use. The tested varnish formulation, which has been shown to be effective in in vitro studies, also can be considered safe.

  20. Effects of fluoride on growth, body composition, and serum biochemical profile in a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjie; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Li, Yundong; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian

    2013-10-01

    Fluoride is ubiquitously distributed in natural waters. Elevated fluoride may cause histopathological changes and induce oxidative stress in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study further evaluates the effects of fluoride on growth performance, body composition, and biochemical measurements of C. carpio. The results showed that food intake, growth, serum osmolality, body composition, and biochemical measures in the blood were affected by fluoride. Weight gain rate and specific growth rate in the exposed fish decreased compared with those of the control fish. Levels of crude protein and crude lipids were reduced in the fluoride-exposed fish. The major ion levels in the sera of fluoride-exposed fish were severely disturbed, resulting in a lower osmolality. All the biochemical parameters measured in the blood were affected by the exposure to fluoride. Total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose in fish exposed to 63.6 mg/L, 77.7 mg/L, and 124.4 mg/L were lower than those in the control fish. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly increased in exposed fish compared with control. Taken together, the data showed that exposure to fluoride caused a suite of detrimental effects in C. carpio, which might lead to a decrease in growth and food utilization efficiency. The results of the present study indicated that high levels of fluoride could pose a threat to carp in the field. © 2013 SETAC.

  1. Highly Hydrophilic Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Ultrafiltration Membranes via Postfabrication Grafting of Surface-Tailored Silica Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai

    2013-07-24

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has drawn much attention as a predominant ultrafiltration (UF) membrane material due to its outstanding mechanical and physicochemical properties. However, current applications suffer from the low fouling resistance of the PVDF membrane due to the intrinsic hydrophobic property of the membrane. The present study demonstrates a novel approach for the fabrication of a highly hydrophilic PVDF UF membrane via postfabrication tethering of superhydrophilic silica nanoparticles (NPs) to the membrane surface. The pristine PVDF membrane was grafted with poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) by plasma induced graft copolymerization, providing sufficient carboxyl groups as anchor sites for the binding of silica NPs, which were surface-tailored with amine-terminated cationic ligands. The NP binding was achieved through a remarkably simple and effective dip-coating technique in the presence or absence of the N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking process. The properties of the membrane prepared from the modification without EDC/NHS cross-linking were comparable to those for the membrane prepared with the EDC/NHS cross-linking. Both modifications almost doubled the surface energy of the functionalized membranes, which significantly improved the wettability of the membrane and converted the membrane surface from hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. The irreversibly bound layer of superhydrophilic silica NPs endowed the membranes with strong antifouling performance as demonstrated by three sequential fouling filtration runs using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model organic foulant. The results suggest promising applications of the postfabrication surface modification technique in various membrane separation areas. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Sustainability of thorium-uranium in pebble-bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of thorium fuel in a Pebble-Bed Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (PB-FHR is investigated to find the feasible region of high discharge burnup and negative Flibe (2LiF-BeF2 salt Temperature Reactivity Coefficient (TRC. Dispersion fuel or pellet fuel with SiC cladding and SiC matrix is used to replace the tristructural-isotropic (TRISO coated particle system for increasing fuel loading and decreasing excessive moderation. To analyze the neutronic characteristics, an equilibrium calculation method of thorium fuel self-sustainability is developed. We have compared two refueling schemes (mixing flow pattern and directional flow pattern and two kinds of reflector materials (SiC and graphite. This method found that the feasible region of breeding and negative Flibe TRC is between 20 vol% and 62 vol% fuel loading in the fuel. A discharge burnup could be achieved up to about 200 MWd/kgHM. The case with directional flow pattern and SiC reflector showed superior burnup characteristics but the worst radial power peak factor, while the case with mixing flow pattern and SiC reflector, which was the best tradeoff between discharge burnup and radial power peak factor, could provide burnup of 140 MWd/kgHM and about 1.4 radial power peak factor with 50 vol% dispersion fuel. In addition, Flibe salt displays good neutron properties as a coolant of quasi-fast reactors due to the strong 9Be(n,2n reaction and low neutron absorption of 6Li (even at 1000 ppm in fast spectrum. Preliminary thermal hydraulic calculation shows good safety margin. The greatest challenge of this reactor may be the decades irradiation time of the pebble fuel.

  3. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, BJ; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many Danish communities, school-based fluoride programs are offered to children with high caries risk in adjunct to tooth brushing. The purpose of this field trial was to compare the caries-preventive effectiveness of two different fluoride programs in 6-12 year olds. BASIC RESEARCH...... week (FMR). All children received oral hygiene instructions and comprehensive dental care at the local Public Dental Clinics throughout the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Increment of caries lesions in permanent teeth at both cavitated and initial caries levels. RESULTS: The groups were balanced...

  4. Fluoride intake from drinking water and dentifrice by children living in a tropical area of Brazil Ingestão de flúor pela água e creme dental por crianças residentes de uma área de clima tropical do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria F. Omena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess fluoride (F- intake from water and toothpaste by children aged 18 to 36 months and to monitor the F- concentrations in the drinking water system in a tropical city of Brazil. METHODS: Children (n=58 aged 18-36 months, all lifetime residents of Penedo, state of Alagoas, Brazil, participated in this study. Water F- analyses were carried out in 7 different occasions at least a week apart. For 2 days all the water drunk by each child was accounted for. Fluoride intake from water for each child was estimated using the mean F- concentration of water in 7 different occasions. Fluoride intake from toothpaste was estimated by subtracting the recovered post-brushing F- from the original amount placed in the toothbrush. The F- intake from water and toothpaste was estimated by dividing the total amount of F- ingested by the weight of each child. RESULTS: The mean F- concentration in the drinking water was 0.94 ppm (mean range 0.78-1.1 ppm, which is above the 0.7 ppm recommended for this area of Brazil. Mean total F- intake from water and toothpaste was 0.128 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. The daily means of F- intake from water and toothpaste were 0.021 and 0.107 mg F-/Kg Body Weight, respectively. Ninety six percent of children showed F- intake above 0.07 mg F-/Kg Body Weight/day. CONCLUSIONS: Children in Penedo are at risk for developing dental fluorosis due to high F- intake from fluoridated toothpastes. Water fluoridation showed low contribution to the total F- intake. However, high water F- concentrations in the water indicate the need of surveillance of the artificial water fluoridation system.OBJETIVOS: determinar a ingestão de flúor (F- pela água e creme dental em crianças de 18 a 36 meses de idade que moram em uma cidade de clima tropical no Brasil e monitorar as concentrações de F- no sistema de água potável. MATERIAIS MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo crianças (n=58, 18-36 meses, todas residentes vitalícias de Penedo

  5. Highly efficient fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by nepheline prepared from kaolinite through alkali-hydrothermal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Li, Zishun; Tang, Xuekun; Li, Guangze

    2017-07-01

    A direct alkali-hydrothermal induced transformation process was adopted to prepare nepheline from raw kaolinite (shortened form RK in this paper) and NaOH solution in this paper. Structure and morphology characterizations of the synthetic product showed that the nepheline possessed high degree of crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. Specific surface area of nepheline is 18 m 2 /g, with a point of zero charge at around pH 5.0-5.5. The fluoride (F - ions) adsorption by the synthetic nepheline (shortened form SN in this paper) from aqueous solution was also investigated under different experimental conditions. The adsorption process well matched the Langmuir isotherm model with an amazing maximum adsorption capacity of 183 mg/g at 323 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , and ΔS 0 ) for adsorption on SN were also determined from the temperature dependence. The adsorption capacities of fluoride on SN increased with increasing of temperature and initial concentration. Initial pH value also had influence on adsorption process. Adsorption of fluoride was rapidly increased in 5-60 min and thereafter increased slowly to reach the equilibrium in about 90-180 min under all conditions. The adsorption followed a pseudo-second order rate law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High resolution crystal structure of a fluoride-inhibited organophosphate-degrading metallohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Christopher; Guddat, Luke W; Ollis, David L; Schenk, Gerhard; Pedroso, Marcelo Monteiro

    2017-12-01

    Metal ion-dependent, organophosphate-degrading enzymes (OP hydrolases) have received increasing attention due to their ability to degrade and thus detoxify commonly used pesticides and nerve agents such as sarin and VX. These enzymes thus garner strong potential as bioremediators. The OP hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (OpdA) is one of the most efficient members of this group of enzymes. Previous studies have indicated that the choice of the hydrolysis-initiating nucleophile may depend on the pH of the reaction, with a metal ion-bridging hydroxide being preferred at lower pH (i.e. pH≤8.5), and a terminally coordinated hydroxide at higher pH (i.e. pH>9.0). Furthermore, fluoride was shown to be a potent inhibitor of the reaction, but only at low pH. Here, the crystal structure (1.3Å, pH6) of OpdA in presence of fluoride is described. While the first coordination sphere in the active site displays minimal changes in the presence of fluoride, the hydrogen bonding network that connects the dimetallic metal center to the substrate binding pocket is disrupted. Thus, the structure of fluoride-inhibited OpdA demonstrates the significance of this hydrogen bond network in controlling the mechanism and function of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microcontact Printing onto Oxide-Free Silicon via Highly Reactive Acid Fluoride-Functionalized Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, L.M.W.; Maat, ter J.; Giesbers, M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a new route for patterning organic monolayers on oxide-free silicon by microcontact printing (µCP) on a preformed, reactive, acid-fluoride-terminated monolayer. This indirect printing approach is fast and easily preserves the oxide-free and well-defined monolayer-silicon

  8. A pilot-scale study of cryolite precipitation from high fluoride-containing wastewater in a reaction-separation integrated reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ke; Zhou, Kanggen; Yang, Youcai; Du, Hu

    2013-07-01

    Fluoride removal by traditional precipitation generates huge amounts of a water-rich sludge with low quality, which has no commercial or industrial value. The present study evaluated the feasibility of recovering fluoride as low water content cryolite from industrial fluoride-containing wastewater. A novel pilot-scale reaction-separation integrated reactor was designed. The results showed that the seed retention time in the reactor was prolonged to strengthen the induced crystallization process. The particle size of cryolite increased with increasing seed retention time, which decreased the water content. The recovery rate of cryolite was above 75% under an influent fluoride concentration of 3500 mg/L, a reaction temperature of 500C, and an influent flow of 40 L/hr. The cryolite products that precipitated from the reactor were small in volume, large in particle size, low in water content, high in crystal purity, and recyclable.

  9. Fate of fluoride-induced subameloblastic cysts in developing hamster molar tooth germs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Alberga, J.M.R.; Kwee, N.C.H.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Denbesten, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    White opacities and pits are developmental defects in enamel caused by high intake of fluoride (F) during amelogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that these enamel pits develop at locations where F induces the formation of sub-ameloblastic cysts. We followed the fate of these cysts during molar

  10. Validating a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ion Chromatography (HPLC-IC) Method with Conductivity Detection After Chemical Suppression for Water Fluoride Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondu, Joseph Dian; Selvakumar, R; Fleming, Jude Joseph

    2018-01-01

    A variety of methods, including the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE), have been used for estimation of fluoride levels in drinking water. But as these methods suffer many drawbacks, the newer method of IC has replaced many of these methods. The study aimed at (1) validating IC for estimation of fluoride levels in drinking water and (2) to assess drinking water fluoride levels of villages in and around Vellore district using IC. Forty nine paired drinking water samples were measured using ISE and IC method (Metrohm). Water samples from 165 randomly selected villages in and around Vellore district were collected for fluoride estimation over 1 year. Standardization of IC method showed good within run precision, linearity and coefficient of variance with correlation coefficient R2 = 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.027 ppm and limit of quantification was 0.083 ppm. Among 165 villages, 46.1% of the villages recorded water fluoride levels >1.00 ppm from which 19.4% had levels ranging from 1 to 1.5 ppm, 10.9% had recorded levels 1.5-2 ppm and about 12.7% had levels of 2.0-3.0 ppm. Three percent of villages had more than 3.0 ppm fluoride in the water tested. Most (44.42%) of these villages belonged to Jolarpet taluk with moderate to high (0.86-3.56 ppm) water fluoride levels. Ion Chromatography method has been validated and is therefore a reliable method in assessment of fluoride levels in the drinking water. While the residents of Jolarpet taluk (Vellore distict) are found to be at a high risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis.

  11. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dental Health Care Settings Single-Use (Disposable) Devices Sterilization Cleaning Monitoring Packaging & Storage Use & Handling of Toothbrushes ... Less pain and suffering because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists ...

  12. Assessment of potential health risk of fluoride consumption through rice, pulses, and vegetables in addition to consumption of fluoride-contaminated drinking water of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Piyal; Samal, Alok Chandra; Banerjee, Suman; Pyne, Jagadish; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2017-09-01

    A study was conducted in fluoride-affected Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal to assess the potential health risk from fluoride exposure among children, teenagers, and adults due to consumption of rice, pulses, and vegetables in addition to drinking water and incidental ingestion of soil by children. Higher mean fluoride contents (13-63 mg/kg dry weight) were observed in radish, carrot, onion bulb, brinjal, potato tuber, cauliflower, cabbage, coriander, and pigeon pea. The combined influence of rice, pulses, and vegetables to cumulative estimated daily intake (EDI) of fluoride for the studied population was found to be 9.5-16%. Results also showed that intake of ivy gourd, broad beans, rice, turnip, fenugreek leaves, mustard, spinach, and amaranth grown in the study area is safe at least for time being. The cumulative EDI values of fluoride (0.06-0.19 mg/kg-day) among different age group of people of the study area were evaluated to be ~104 times higher than those living in the control area; the values for children (0.19 and 0.52 mg/kg-day for CTE and RME scenarios, respectively) were also greater than the "Tolerable Upper Intake Level" value of fluoride. The estimated hazard index (HI) for children (3.2 and 8.7 for CTE and RME scenarios, respectively) living in the two affected districts reveals that they are at high risk of developing dental fluorosis due to the consumption of fluoride-contaminated rice, pulses, and vegetables grown in the study area in addition to the consumption of contaminated drinking water.

  13. High-fluoride acitivates the FasL signalling pathway and leads to damage of ameloblast ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Danyang

    2016-11-01

    High fluoride can induce stress-mediated apoptosis and degradation of ameloblasts. Fas ligand (FasL) has been regarded as a key regulator in intracellular responses for stress-induced apoptosis in reproductive or cancerous cell lineages. The objective of this study is to explore the role of FasL in the regulation of ameloblast ultrastructure damage. Primary ameloblasts were isolated from the molar tooth germ of 4-day-old SD rats. The ameloblasts were incubated with 3.2mM NaF or nothing. After incubation for different time arranging from 12h to 72h, ELISA was used to detected the secretion levels of FasL in the medium. Then at 48h post treatment, the ameloblast ultrastructure was detected with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and expression of apoptotic proteins and peroxidative enzymes/products were examined. Finally, a specific FasL inhibitor was applied to co-treat the ameloblasts with NaF, and the ameloblast ultrastructure was detected with TEM and SEM. The secretion of FasL was notably increased by 3.2mM NaF treatment, and the increase reached to the peak after incubation for 48h. High fluoride incubation damaged the ameloblast untrastructure manifesting a series of intracelluar stress responsing cell organelle destruction, and a marked increase in expression of apoptotic genes and oxidative stress. The FasL inhibitor treatment partially mitigated the untrastructure damage caused by high dose NaF. High-fluoride leads to damage of the ameloblast ultrastructure through paritially acitivating the FasL signalling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vortex Diode Analysis and Testing for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; De Leon, Gerardo I. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Fetterly, Caitlin N. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Ramos, Jorge A. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Cunningham, Richard Burns [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-02-01

    Fluidic diodes are presently being considered for use in several fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor designs. A fluidic diode is a passive device that acts as a leaky check valve. These devices are installed in emergency heat removal systems that are designed to passively remove reactor decay heat using natural circulation. The direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) uses DRACS salt-to-salt heat exchangers (DHXs) that operate in a path parallel to the core flow. Because of this geometry, under normal operating conditions some flow bypasses the core and flows through the DHX. A flow diode, operating in reverse direction, is-used to minimize this flow when the primary coolant pumps are in operation, while allowing forward flow through the DHX under natural circulation conditions. The DRACSs reject the core decay heat to the environment under loss-of-flow accident conditions and as such are a reactor safety feature. Fluidic diodes have not previously been used in an operating reactor system, and therefore their characteristics must be quantified to ensure successful operation. This report parametrically examines multiple design parameters of a vortex-type fluidic diode to determine the size of diode needed to reject a particular amount of decay heat. Additional calculations were performed to size a scaled diode that could be tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Salt Flow Loop. These parametric studies have shown that a 152.4 mm diode could be used as a test article in that facility. A design for this diode is developed, and changes to the loop that will be necessary to test the diode are discussed. Initial testing of a scaled flow diode has been carried out in a water loop. The 150 mm diode design discussed above was modified to improve performance, and the final design tested was a 171.45 mm diameter vortex diode. The results of this testing indicate that diodicities of about 20 can be obtained for diodes of this size. Experimental

  15. Development of highly porous flat sheet polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaery, Salim A.

    2017-05-01

    With the increase of population every year, fresh water scarcity has rapidly increased and it is reaching a risky level, particularly in Africa and the Middle East. Desalination of seawater is an essential process for fresh water generation. One of the methods for desalination is membrane distillation (MD). MD process separates an aqueous liquid feed across a porous hydrophobic membrane to produce pure water via evaporation. Polyvinlidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes reinforced with a polyester fabric were fabricated as potential candidates for MD. Non-solvent induced phase separation coupled with steam treatment was used to prepare the PVDF membranes. A portion of the prepared membrane was coated with Teflon (AF2400) to increase its hydrophobicity. In the first study, the fabricated membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other techniques, and they were evaluated using direct contact MD (DCMD). The fabricated membranes showed a porous sponge-like structure with some macrovoids. The macrovoid formation and the spongy structure in the membrane cross-sections contributed significantly to a high permeate flux as they provide a large space for vapor water transport. The modified PVDF membranes with steaming and coating exhibited a permeate flux of around 40 L/h m2 (i.e. 27-30% increase to the control PVDF membrane) at temperatures of 60 °C (feed) and 20 °C (permeate). This increase in the permeate flux for the modified membranes was mainly attributed to its larger pore size on the bottom surface. In the second study, the control PVDF membrane was tested in two different module designs (i.e. semi-circular pipe and rectangular duct module designs). The semi-circular module design (turbulent regime) exhibited a higher permeate flux, 3-fold higher than that of the rectangular duct module design (laminar regime) at feed temperature of 60 °C. Furthermore, a heat energy balance was performed for each module design to determine the temperature

  16. Direct measurement of gas solubility and diffusivity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) with a high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Zecchin, Nicoletta; Rubin, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We present solubility and diffusion data for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in the polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride). The polymer was cut from extruded piping intended for use in offshore oil and gas applications. Measurements were carried out using a purpose-built high-pressure microbalance....... These properties were determined in the temperature range 80-120degreesC and in the pressure range 50-150bar for methane and 20-40bar for carbon dioxide. In general, good agreement was obtained for similar measurements reported in the literature. Solubility follows a Henry's law (linear) dependence with pressure...

  17. Environmental monitoring of fluoride emissions using precipitation, dust, plant and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J; Hrenn, H; Schumm, C; Klumpp, A; Fangmeier, A

    2006-11-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride producing chemical plant in Germany. In all samples the influence of emissions was discernible up to a distance of 500 m from the plant. However, fluoride concentrations in plant bioindicators (leaves of birch and black berry) and in bulk precipitation showed a more pronounced relationship with the distance from the source than fluoride concentrations in soil. Vegetables sampled in the vicinity of the plant also had elevated concentrations of fluoride, but only the consumption of larger quantities of this material would lead to exceedances of recommended daily F-intake. The present study did not indicate the existence of low phytotoxicity thresholds for fluoride in the plant species used in the study. Even at very high fluoride concentrations in leaf tissue (963 ppm) plants did not show injury due to HF. Dust sampling downwind of the chemical plant confirmed that particulate fluoride was of minor importance in the study area.

  18. Distribution of fluoride in groundwater of Maku area, northwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Moghaddam, Asghar; Fijani, Elham

    2008-11-01

    High fluoride groundwater occurs in Maku area, in the north of West Azarbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the area residents. Groundwater samples were collected from 72 selected points including 40 basaltic and 32 nonbasaltic springs and wells, in two stages, during June and August 2006. The areas with high fluoride concentrations have been identified, and the possible causes for its variation have been investigated. Regional hydrogeochemical investigation indicates that water-rock interaction is probably the main reason for the high concentration of ions in groundwater. The concentration of F- in groundwater is positively correlated with that of HCO3 - and Na+, indicating that groundwater with high HCO3 - and Na+ concentrations help to dissolve some fluoride-rich minerals. All of the water samples, collected from the basaltic areas do not meet the water quality standards for fluoride concentration and some other parameters. Hence, it is not suitable for consumption without any prior treatment. Inhabitants of the area that obtain their drinking water supplies from basaltic springs and wells are suffering from dental fluorosis. The population of the study area is at a high risk due to excessive fluoride intake especially when they are unaware of the amount of fluoride being ingested due to lack of awareness.

  19. Correlation between Fluoride in Drinking Water and Its Levels in Breast Milk in Golestan Province, Northern Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Faraji; Ali Akbar Mohammadi; Behrouz Akbari-Adergani; Naimeh Vakili Saatloo; Gholamreza Lashkarboloki; Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is an essential element for human health. However, excess fluoride in drinking water may cause dental and/or skeletal fluorosis. Drinking water is the main route of fluoride intake. The aim of the present study was to measure fluoride levels in human breast milk collected from two regions of Golestan Province, northern Iran with different amount of fluoride concentration of drinking water in Bandar Gaz and Nokande cities and to correlate it with fluoride concentrations in...

  20. Magnetic interactions through fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Sigrist, Marc; Weihe, Høgni

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the magnetic interaction through fluoride in a simple, dinuclear manganese(III) complex (1), bridged by a single fluoride ion in a perfectly linear fashion, is established by experiment and density functional theory. The magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction...... and the manganese(III) zero-field-splitting parameters are unambiguously determined by inelastic neutron scattering to yield J = 33.0(2) cm(-1) (Ĥ = JŜ1·Ŝ2 Hamiltonian definition) and single-ion D = -4.0(1) cm(-1). Additionally, high-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic measurements...... support the parameter values and resolve |E| ≈ 0.04 cm(-1). The exchange coupling constant (J) is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that found in comparable systems with linear oxide bridging but comparable to typical magnitudes through cyanide, thus underlining the potential of fluoride complexes...

  1. Urinary fluoride output in children following the use of a dual-fluoride varnish formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the bioavailability of fluoride after topical application of a dual-fluoride varnish commercially available in Brazil, when compared to DuraphatTM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The urinary fluoride output was evaluated in seven 5-year-old children after application of the fluoride varnishes, in two different phases. In the first phase (I, children received topical application of the fluoride varnish Duofluorid XII (2.92% fluorine, calcium fluoride + 2.71% fluorine, sodium fluoride, FGM TM. After 1-month interval (phase II, the same amount (0.2 mL of the fluoride varnish Duraphat (2.26% fluorine, sodium fluoride, ColgateTM was applied. Before each application all the volunteers brushed their teeth with placebo dentifrice for 7 days. Urinary collections were carried out 24 h prior up to 48 h after the applications. Fluoride intake from the diet was also estimated. Fluoride concentration in diet samples and urine was analyzed with the fluoride ion-specific electrode and a miniature calomel reference electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Data were tested by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the urinary fluoride output between phases I and II. The use of Duofluorid XII did not significantly increase the urinary fluoride output, when compared to baseline levels. The application of Duraphat caused a transitory increase in the urinary fluoride output, returning to baseline levels 48 h after its use. CONCLUSIONS: The tested varnish formulation, which has been shown to be effective in in vitro studies, also can be considered safe.

  2. "Borderline" fluorotic region in Serbia: correlations among fluoride in drinking water, biomarkers of exposure and dental fluorosis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Evica; Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Milicevic, Nemanja; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Carevic, Momir; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2016-06-01

    This study explores relation between dental fluorosis occurrence in schoolchildren, residents of Ritopek, a small local community near Belgrade, and fluoride exposure via drinking water. Additionally, fluoride levels were determined in children's urine and hair samples, and efforts were made to correlate them with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence were examined in a total of 52 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years (29 boys and 23 girls). Fluoride levels in three types of samples were analyzed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Results showed high prevalence of dental fluorosis (34.6 %) and low prevalence of dental caries (23.1 %, mean DMFT 0.96) among children exposed to wide range of water fluoride levels (0.11-4.14 mg/L, n = 27). About 11 % of water samples exceeded 1.5 mg/L, a drinking-water quality guideline value for fluoride given by the World Health Organization (2006). Fluoride levels in urine and hair samples ranged between 0.07-2.59 (n = 48) and 1.07-19.83 mg/L (n = 33), respectively. Severity of dental fluorosis was positively and linearly correlated with fluoride levels in drinking water (r = 0.79). Fluoride levels in urine and hair were strongly and positively correlated with levels in drinking water (r = 0.92 and 0.94, respectively). Fluoride levels in hair samples appeared to be a potentially promising biomarker of fluoride intake via drinking water on one hand, and severity of dental fluorosis on the other hand. Based on community fluorosis index value of 0.58, dental fluorosis revealed in Ritopek can be considered as "borderline" public health issue.

  3. Performance of a Tungsten-Cerium Fluoride Sampling Calorimeter in High-Energy Electron Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, R.; Dissertori, G.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A.C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Cavallari, F.; Dafinei, I.; Diemoz, M.; Lope, C. Jorda; Meridiani, P.; Nuccetelli, M.; Paramatti, R.; Pellegrino, F.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Brianza, L.; Govoni, P.; Martelli, A.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Monti, V.; Pastrone, N.; Trapani, P.P.; Candelise, V.; Della Ricca, G.

    2015-12-21

    A prototype for a sampling calorimeter made out of cerium fluoride crystals interleaved with tungsten plates, and read out by wavelength-shifting fibres, has been exposed to beams of electrons with energies between 20 and 150 GeV, produced by the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator complex. The performance of the prototype is presented and compared to that of a Geant4 simulation of the apparatus. Particular emphasis is given to the response uniformity across the channel front face, and to the prototype's energy resolution.

  4. Poor early growth and high salt intake in Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Simonetta; Antolini, Laura; Orlando, Antonina; Brahmochary, Sujit; De Servi, Alessandra; Capelli, Silvia; Giussani, Marco; Nava, Elisa; Agostoni, Carlo; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    The influence of feeding patterns on the growth of infants and how salt is included in the diet are unknown in the area of West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional study was carried on 517 infants (median age 6.5 months). Negative Z-scores were observed for all anthropometric parameters. About 72.7% of infants aged 0-6 months received exclusive breastfeeding. In the 6-12-month-old group (n = 235), 91.5% had salt added to foods. In a regression model adjusted for age, a low salt diet resulted a significant factor in increasing weight-for-length and BMI for age z-scores, with increments equal to 0.637 SD (p = 0.037) and 0.650 SD (p = 0.036), respectively. In West Bengal infants showing poor growth, breastfeeding was associated with better anthropometric indexes, but early in life salt is added to their diet. Early life low weight coupled with high salt intake may be a risk factor for arterial hypertension in Indian children.

  5. Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

  6. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  7. The influence of varnish and high fluoride on erosion and abrasion in a laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar Sancakli, H; Austin, R S; Al-Saqabi, F; Moazzez, R; Bartlett, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of concentrated fluoride varnishes to reduce enamel loss from repeated cycles of citric acid erosion and toothbrush abrasion in vitro. Polished human enamel samples were exposed to fluoride varnishes: Bifluorid10® (NaF&CaF2- 45,200 ppmF), Duraphat® (NaF 22,600 ppmF), Fluor-Protector® (difluorsilane 1000 ppmF) and a control coating of copal ether varnish (0 ppmF) group and a deionized water group. For each group of 16 samples, nine cycles of erosion and nine cycles of erosion-abrasion [1 cycle=erosion (0.3% citric acid, pH 3.2, 5 min)+artificial saliva (1 h, pH 7.0)+abrasion (120 linear strokes in artificial saliva from Oral B medium soft brushes 300 g loading]. The change in the enamel surface was evaluated using optical profilometry. Duraphat® and Bifluorid10® applications had a median (IQR) step height of 4.21 um (1.59) and 5.01 um (1.02). This was statistically significantly less than Fluor-Protector® 6.83 um (1.25), copal ether 7.22 um (1.97) and water 7.39 um (1.96) (pDental Association.

  8. A Novel High-performance Electrospun Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Polystyrene Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyuan; He, Zeyue; Cao, Qi; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xianyou; Peng, Xiuxiang

    2017-01-01

    A novel high-performance gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polystyrene (PS) has been prepared. Its characteristics are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (DSC), universal testing machines (UTM), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The GPE based on TPU/PVDF/PS (10 wt.%) show a high ionic conductivity of 5.28 × 10-3 S cm-1 with the electrochemical stability window of 5.0 V. In addition, its first charge-discharge capacity reached to 169.5 mAh g-1, high mechanical strength and stability to allow safe operation in rechargeable lithium ion polymer batteries.

  9. Fumarate-based metal-organic frameworks as a new platform for highly selective removal of fluoride from brick tea

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Fei; Peng, Chuanyi; Zhang, Tian; Zhang, Mengran; Zhou, Chengyan; Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Junfa; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Adsorption and removal of fluoride from brick tea is very important but challenging. In this work, two fumarate-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized for the selective removal of fluoride from brick tea infusion. MOFs were examined for adsorption time, effect of dose, and uptake capacity at different initial concentrations and temperatures. Remarkably, over 80% fluoride removal was achieved by MOF-801 within 5 min at room temperature, while no significant adsorption occurred ...

  10. Nutritional intakes in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: high intakes of energy and protein based on high consumption of fish, vegetables and fruits provide sufficient micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Reiko; Hanamori, Kiyoko; Kadoya, Hiroko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2004-06-01

    is not an important determinant of dietary intake among apparently healthy elderly Japanese people aged 74 y. In addition, the high intake of energy and protein in the Japanese dietary pattern, based upon high consumption of fish and/or shellfish, vegetables, and fruits, provide sufficient minerals and vitamins.

  11. High iodine intake by preschool children in Miyagi prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Watanabe, Takao; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Izumi, Kana; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2014-09-01

    Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan 2010 (FCT) remain incomplete for iodine contents. This survey was initiated to develop a method to cope with this shortage and to find daily iodine intake of preschool children in Japan. Data were available for one-day food intake for 296 3- to 6-year-old children (the total cases). 128 samples (the selected cases) were analyzed by ICP-MS for iodine (the measured values). Iodine intake was also calculated using FCT assuming that iodine contents in missing items were zero (the calculated values). Measured and calculated values for the selected 125 cases (after exclusion of 3 extreme cases) gave geometric means (GM) of 117.6 and 101.8 μg/day. The measured/calculated ratio in GM, 117.6/101.8 = 1.155, was applied to the calculated values for total 296 cases to estimate iodine intake (the estimated values). GM for the estimated value was 175.2 μg/day and it was 8.93 μg/kg/day after adjustment for body weight for 296 children. There was no significant difference between boys and girls. The GM values for both the measured and estimated values (n = 125 pairs) were 117.6 μg/day. The agreement suggested that the factor employed, 1.155, was proper and adequate. Literature survey suggested that values on a body weight basis were comparable between the children and adults in Japan. The levels were higher than levels in east Asian countries. A correction method was developed for estimation of daily dietary iodine intake. The iodine intake level for preschoolers was comparable to levels for adult population.

  12. Highly selective and efficient removal of fluoride from ground water by layered Al-Zr-La Tri-metal hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Zhu, Wenkun; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Hongping; Zhang, Yongde; Lin, Xiaoyan; Luo, Xuegang

    2018-03-01

    A novel layered Zr-Al-La tri-metal composite (AZL) was fabricated via co-precipitation method for fluoride removal. The as-prepared adsorbent was characterized by various technologies, and its adsorption behaviors to fluoride were thoroughly carried out to investigate the fluoride removal performance. The results showed that the layered structure existed and the AZL exhibited the maximum adsorption capacity of 90.48 mg g-1 at 308 K and pH 3.0 from the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation, and the adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equation. Adsorption thermodynamics result was indicative of endothermic reaction in the process of adsorption of AZL to fluoride. The as-prepared AZL composite has excellent fluoride removal performance for the practical ground water and satisfies the permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water recommended by Chinese Standard. In addition, based on the characterization, the adsorption mechanism of fluoride on AZL was proposed, including electrostatic interaction between the protonated surface of AZL and fluoride, as well as ion-exchange by hydroxyl group and fluoride.

  13. Enamel pits in hamster molars, formed by a single high fluoride dose, are associated with a perturbation of transitional stage ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyaruu, D M; Vermeulen, L; Stienen, N; Bervoets, T J M; Denbesten, P K; Bronckers, A L J J

    2012-01-01

    Excessive intake of fluoride (F) by young children results in the formation of enamel subsurface porosities and pits, called enamel fluorosis. In this study, we used a single high dose of F administered to hamster pups to determine the stage of ameloblasts most affected by F and whether pit formation was related to F-related sub-ameloblastic cyst formation. Hamster pups received a single subcutaneous injection of either 20 mg or 40 mg NaF/kg body weight, were sacrificed 24 h later, and the number of cysts formed in the first molars were counted. Other pups were sacrificed 8 days after F injection, when the first molars had just erupted, to score for enamel defects. All F-injected pups formed enamel defects in the upper half of the cusps in a dose-dependent way. After injection of 20 mg NaF/kg, an average of 2.5 white spots per molar was found but no pits. At 40 mg NaF/kg, almost 4.5 spots per molar were counted as well as 2 pits per molar. The defects in erupted enamel were located in the upper half of the cusps, sites where cysts had formed at the transition stage of ameloblast differentiation. These results suggest that transitional ameloblasts, located between secretory- and maturation-stage ameloblasts, are most sensitive to the effects of a single high dose of F. F-induced cysts formed earlier at the pre-secretory stage were not correlated to either white spots or enamel pits, suggesting that damaged ameloblasts overlying a F-induced cyst regenerate and continue to form enamel. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITs of 950 and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITs ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo-generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  15. Bioactivity and fluoride release of strontium and fluoride modified Biodentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, Hazel O; Karpukhina, Natalia; Hill, Robert G

    2018-01-01

    Biodentine™ is a novel tricalcium silicate based material used both as a coronal dentine replacement and in pulp therapy. Its multiple use in sealing perforations, pulp capping and as a temporary restoration arises from its ability to promote dentine formation and to confer an excellent marginal seal. However, there is still room for improvement of this cement as it lacks the anticariogenic effect typically conferred by fluoride ion release as seen in glass ionomer cement based dental materials. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of bioactive glass addition to Biodentine™. was to compare the apatite formation capacity, specificity of the apatite type formed and fluoride ion release by Biodentine™ cements that have been modified by three different compositions of bioactive glasses. High fluoride, high strontium and high fluoride plus strontium containing bioactive glasses were synthesized, incorporated into Biodentine™ powder and four types of cements prepared. These cements were immersed in phosphate buffered saline solution and incubated for a period of 3 and 24h, 3, 7 and 14 days. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and fluoride ion release studies were performed. Bioactive glass addition to Biodentine™ led to pronounced formation of apatite. Where the bioactive glass contained fluoride, fluorapatite and fluoride ion release were demonstrated. Eliciting fluorapatite formation and fluoride ion release from Biodentine™ is an important development as fluoride is known to have antibacterial and anticariogenic effects. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is highly effective for excluding bone metastases even in patients with equivocal bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortot, Daniel C.; Amorim, Barbara J.; Oki, Glaucia C.; Santos, Allan O.; Lima, Mariana C.L.; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Ramos, Celso Dario [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Avenue Zeferino Vaz, S/N., PO Box 6149, Campinas (Brazil); Gapski, Sergio B. [Medicina Nuclear Diagnostico e Terapia, Nuclear Medicine Clinic, Campinas (Brazil); Barboza, Marycel F.; Mengatti, Jair [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN)-CNEN, Radiopharmacy Directory, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Bone scintigraphy (BS) has been used extensively for many years for the diagnosis of bone metastases despite its low specificity and significant rate of equivocal lesions. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT has been proven to have a high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant bone lesions, but its effectiveness in patients with inconclusive lesions on BS is not well documented. This study evaluated the ability of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT to exclude bone metastases in patients with various malignant primary tumours and nonspecific findings on BS. We prospectively studied 42 patients (34-88 years of age, 26 women) with different types of tumour. All patients had BS performed for staging or restaging purposes but with inconclusive findings. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT. All abnormalities identified on BS images were visually compared with their appearance on the PET/CT images. All the 96 inconclusive lesions found on BS images of the 42 patients were identified on PET/CT images. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT correctly excluded bone metastases in 23 patients (68 lesions). Of 19 patients (28 lesions) classified by PET/CT as having metastases, 3 (5 lesions) were finally classified as free of bone metastases on follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT were, respectively, 100 %, 88 %, 84 % and 100 % for the identification of patients with metastases (patient analysis) and 100 %, 82 % and 100 % for the identification of metastatic lesions (lesion analysis). The factors that make BS inconclusive do not affect {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT which shows a high sensitivity and negative predictive value for excluding bone metastases even in patients with inconclusive conventional BS. (orig.)

  17. Data on fluoride concentration levels in semi-arid region of Medak, Telangana, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimalla Narsimha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization recommendation, the optimal fluoride concentration levels in drinking water have to be in the range of 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L since this permissible range is essential for normal mineralization of bones and teeth as well as for dental enamel formation in human's body Bell and budwig, 1970; Adimalla and Venkatayogi, 2017; Narsimha and Sudarshan, 2013, 2016; 2017 [1,2,4,5,6]. If continues intake of high fluoride (>1.5 water can severely cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. The investigated area people majorly depend on groundwater for drinking purposes and fluoride concentration ranged from 0.2 to 7.4 mg/L with mean concentration of 2.7 mg/L and data was compared with WHO guidelines for drinking purposes. Overall, data reveals that the 57% of groundwater samples data was not safe for drinking purposes. Therefore, distribution of fluoride in the groundwater of Medak region in Telangana was suggested to intake drinking water, which are below level of fluoride concentration in the groundwater and take care about health implications.

  18. High dietary cholesterol intake during lactation promotes development of fatty liver in offspring of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu

    2016-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated in mice that a maternal high fat diet during lactation enhances the susceptibility of offspring to obesity and fatty liver. A causative molecule, however, is yet to be identified. Therefore, we examined the role of cholesterol, the dietary intake of which increases with consumption of a high fat diet. Excessive cholesterol intake is involved in the development of fatty liver, which in turn becomes a risk factor for metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. However, our knowledge of the influences on offspring of excessive maternal cholesterol intake alone during pregnancy and lactation is limited. We examined how excessive maternal cholesterol intake during lactation influences susceptibility of the offspring to metabolic syndrome in mice. High cholesterol intake promoted triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver of offspring (p lactation enhances the susceptibility of the offspring to development of fatty liver. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Influence of Individual Saliva Secretion on Fluoride Bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Naumova; Gaengler, P.; Zimmer, S.; Arnold, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to compare the individual saliva secretion rate with the fluoride bioavailability in saliva after using sodium fluoride and amine fluoride. Methods: To assess oral fluoride kinetics 10 highly trained volunteers brushed their teeth with one of the formulations and saliva was collected. The amount of saliva was measured, and the fluoride content was determined. Data underwent statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney-U test and Pearson correlation...

  20. A study of fluoride groundwater occurrence in Nathenje, Lilongwe, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msonda, K. W. M.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Fabiano, E.

    A study was carried out to determine fluoride concentration in groundwaters of Nathenje area situated in Lilongwe District in the central region of Malawi. Water samples were collected from 176 boreholes and shallow wells during different months in 2001 and 2002. Samples were then analysed for fluoride by using a fluoride electrode and an ion selective meter. The results showed that fluoride concentrations for the rainy season varied from dental fluorosis in areas where the fluoride concentration was high.

  1. High-Throughput Parallel Proteomic Sample Preparation Using 96-Well Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membranes and C18 Purification Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Steen, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    Meaningful proteomic-based biomarker discovery projects using primary human-derived specimens require the analysis of hundreds of samples in order to address the issue of interpersonal variability. Thus, robust high-throughput methods for the digestion of plasma samples are a prerequisite for such large clinical proteomic studies with hundreds of samples. Commonly used sample preparation methods are often difficult to parallelize and/or automate. Herein we describe a method for parallel 96-well plate-based sample preparation. Protein digestion is performed in 96-well polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane plates and the subsequent purification in 96-well reversed phase C18 purification plates, enabling the usage of multichannel pipettes in all steps. The protocol can be applied using neat or depleted plasma/serum samples, but has also proven effective with other sample types.

  2. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  3. [Enamel fluoride uptake following fluoride application and fluoride precipitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchalla, Wolfgang; Lennon, Aine M; Trage, Katrin; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study is on fluoride uptake into enamel following fluoride precipitation with calcium hydroxide. Five specimens each from 12 bovine incisors were polished, covered with a salivary pellicle, and distributed into five groups (n=12). A fluoride solution (43,500 ppm F from magnesiumfluorosilicate, copper-(II)-fluorosilicate and sodium-fluoride, pH 2; Tiefenfluorid Touchierlösung, Humanchemie) and Ca(OH)2-solution (Tiefenfluorid Nachtouchierlösung) were applied subsequently in group TN. "Touchierlosung" only was used in group T, sodium-fluoride (43,500 ppm F, pH 2) in group NaF, and aminefluoride (Elmex fluid, 10,000 ppm F, pH 4) in group EF. No fluoride was used in group NK (negative control). Following rinsing and 24 h storage in artificial saliva surface KOH-soluble fluoride content (KOHF), and structurally bound fluoride content (SBF) from three layers (0-33, 33-66 and 66-99 pm) was determined by fluoride electrode procedures. KOHF (median in microg/cm2) of NK was below the lower limit of quantification of the fluoride electrode. The other group values were significantly higher (Mann-Whitney test, p precipitation reaction with Ca(OH)2 following fluoridation did not increase enamel fluoride uptake.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Intelligence Quotient among Children Living in High and Low Fluoride Areas of Kutch, India-a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Pujara, Piyush; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Aapaliya, Pankaj; Bhanushali, Nikhil

    2013-08-01

    Long-term ingestion of large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems and neurological consequences. The study was conducted to assess and compare intelligence quotient of children living in high and low fluoride areas in Kutch, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 100 school children aged 8 to 10 years, living in Kutch District, Gujarat, India during July 2012. Mundra (2.4 to 3.5 mg/L) and Bhuj (0.5mg/L) were the two villages randomly selected to represent the high and low water fluoride areas respectively. Seguin Form Board Test was used to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) level of children. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test was used for analysis. Mean scores for average, shortest and total timing category were found to be significantly higher (P0.05). Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was observed to be associated with lower intelligence quotient.

  5. High Protein Intake Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Exacerbates Bone Resorption in Immobility (WISE Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Zwart, Sara R.; Baecker, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity, like bed rest (BR), causes insulin resistance (IR) and bone loss even in healthy subjects. High protein intake seems to mitigate this IR but might exacerbate bone loss. We hypothesized that high protein intake (animal:vegetable protein ratio: 60:40), isocaloric, compared to the control group plus high potassium intake would prevent IR without affecting bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 deg head-down-tilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) received 1g/kg body mass/d dietary protein. Nutrition subjects (NUT, n=8) received 1.45g/kg body mass/d dietary protein plus 7.2g branched chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received 1670 kcal/d. Bed rest decreased glucose disposal by 35% (pprotein intake prevented insulin resistance, but exacerbated bed rest induced increase in bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (> 30%) and Ntelopeptide (>20%) (both: pprotein intake. We conclude from these results that high protein intake might positively affect glucose tolerance, but might also foster bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory before high protein intake for diabetic patients, who have an increased fracture risk, might be recommended.

  6. Enhanced piezoresponse of highly aligned electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Bum; Won, Sang Hyuk; Im, Min Ji; Kim, Chan Ul; Park, Won Il; Baik, Jeong Min; Choi, Kyoung Jin

    2017-09-01

    Well-ordered nanostructure arrays with controlled densities can potentially improve material properties; however, their fabrication typically involves the use of complicated processing techniques. In this work, we demonstrate a uniaxial alignment procedure for fabricating poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) electrospun nanofibers (NFs) by introducing collectors with additional steps. The mechanism of the observed NF alignment, which occurs due to the concentration of lateral electric field lines around collector steps, has been elucidated via finite-difference time-domain simulations. The membranes composed of well-aligned PVDF NFs are characterized by a higher content of the PVDF β-phase, as compared to those manufactured from randomly orientated fibers. The piezoelectric energy harvester, which was fabricated by transferring well-aligned PVDF NFs onto flexible substrates with Ag electrodes attached to both sides, exhibited a 2-fold increase in the output voltage and a 3-fold increase in the output current as compared to the corresponding values obtained for the device manufactured from randomly oriented NFs. The enhanced piezoresponse observed for the aligned PVDF NFs is due to their higher β-phase content, denser structure, smaller effective radius of curvature during bending, greater applied strain, and higher fraction of contributing NFs.

  7. Adverse effects of fluoride towards thyroid hormone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggar Abdullah Idris MZ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An easily ionized fluoride compound like Sodium Fluoride (NaF has been used thus far as a dental caries prevention substance. However, fluoride ions also have a negative effect because it is very toxic. Several types of research on the effect of fluoride on guinea pigs and human beings indicate the presence synthesis obstruction of T3 and T4 that causes declined production, known as hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism condition may obstruct tissue growth process and metabolism so as to impact various body organ systems. Preventive efforts against hypothyroidism caused by fluoride include avoiding diffusible fluoride compound intake, like NaF, in a long run systemic use, whereas efforts to overcome fluoride intoxication include consuming food that is rich in calcium, vitamin D, and antioxidant.

  8. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Sunitha, S

    2015-01-01

    Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l), low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l) and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l) in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven's colored Progressive Matrices Test. In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children's intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  9. High dietary selenium intake is associated with less insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Lin, Meiju; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Du, Jianling; Vikram, Chandurkar; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2017-01-01

    As an essential nutrient, Selenium (Se) is involved in many metabolic activities including mimicking insulin function. Data on Se in various biological samples and insulin resistance are contradictory, moreover there is no large study available regarding the relationship of dietary Se intake with insulin resistance in the general population. To investigate the association between dietary Se intake and variation of insulin resistance in a large population based study, a total of 2420 subjects without diabetes from the CODING (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary Se intake was evaluated from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were used for the measurement of glucose and insulin. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analysis of covariance showed that high HOMA-IR groups in both males and females had the lowest dietary Se intake (μg/kg/day) (p < 0.01), being 18% and 11% lower than low HOMA-IR groups respectively. Insulin resistance decreased with the increase of dietary Se intake in females but not in males after controlling for age, total calorie intake, physical activity level, serum calcium, serum magnesium, and body fat percentage (p < 0.01). Partial correlation analysis showed that dietary Se intake was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for the Se confounding factors in subjects whose dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day (r = -0.121 for males and -0.153 for females, p < 0.05). However, the negative correlation was no longer significant when dietary Se intake was above 1.6 μg/kg/day. Our findings suggest that higher dietary Se intake is beneficially correlated with lower insulin resistance when total dietary Se intake was below 1.6 μg/kg/day. Above this cutoff, this beneficial effect disappears.

  10. Low vitamin C intake increases risk of pre-eclampsia in high pesticide exposure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifatul Masrikhiyah

    2016-08-01

    Low vitamin C intake played the most important role toward pre-eclampsia. Greater caution is needed when issuing recommendations regarding the consumption of vitamin supplements in pregnancy, as high doses of some vitamins may be deleterious.

  11. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  12. FLUORIDE IN BLACK AND GREEN TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ... mg/kg in black tea bags originated from United Kingdom, India, China, Japan, and ... salts are the main sources of the total fluoride intake of the population [20]. ..... older dust tea leaves which accumulate higher fluoride level through aging, ...

  13. Mechanisms of action of fluoride for caries control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Pessan, J.P.; Honório, H.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride was introduced into dentistry over 70 years ago, and it is now recognized as the main factor responsible for the dramatic decline in caries prevalence that has been observed worldwide. However, excessive fluoride intake during the period of tooth development can cause dental fluorosis. In

  14. Eu3+ doped α-sodium gadolinium fluoride luminomagnetic nanophosphor as a bimodal nanoprobe for high-contrast in vitro bioimaging and external magnetic field tracking applications†

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Satbir; Kumar, Pawan; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we introduce a novel strategy for the synthesis of Eu3+ doped α-sodium gadolinium fluoride (α-NaGd0.88F4:Eu0.123+) based luminomagnetic nanophosphors using hydrothermal route. The synthesized nanophosphor has exceptional luminescent and paramagnetic properties in a single host lattice, which is highly desirable for biomedical applications. This highly luminescent nanophosphor with an average particle size ∼ 5±3 nm enables high-contrast fluorescent imaging with decreased light scatteri...

  15. The fractional urinary fluoride excretion of adults consuming naturally and artificially fluoridated water and the influence of water hardness: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A; Cabezas, L; Anabalón, M; Rugg-Gunn, A

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether there was any significant difference in the average fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) values among adults consuming (NaF) fluoridated Ca-free water (reference water), naturally fluoridated hard water and an artificially (H2SiF6) fluoridated soft water. Sixty adult females (N=20 for each treatment) participated in this randomized, double-blind trial. The experimental design of this study provided an indirect estimation of the fluoride absorption in different types of water through the assessment of the fractional urinary fluoride excretion of volunteers. Average daily FUFE values (daily amount of fluoride excreted in urine/daily total fluoride intake) were not significantly different between the three treatments (Kruskal-Wallis; p = 0.62). The average 24-hour FUFE value (n=60) was 0.69; 95% C.I. 0.65-0.73. The results of this study suggest that the absorption of fluoride is not affected by water hardness.

  16. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, G C M; de Roos, N M; Sluijs, I; Bots, M L; Beulens, J W J; Geleijnse, J M; Witteman, J C; Grobbee, D E; Peeters, P H M; van der Schouw, Y T

    2009-09-01

    Vitamin K dependent proteins have been demonstrated to inhibit vascular calcification. Data on the effect of vitamin K intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, however, are scarce. To examine the relationship between dietary vitamins K(1) and K(2) intake, and its subtypes, and the incidence of CHD. We used data from the Prospect-EPIC cohort consisting of 16,057 women, enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and aged 49-70 years, who were free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Intake of vitamin K and other nutrients was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse the data. After a mean+/-SD follow-up of 8.1+/-1.6 years, we identified 480 incident cases of CHD. Mean vitamin K(1) intake was 211.7+/-100.3 microg/d and vitamin K(2) intake was 29.1+/-12.8 microg/d. After adjustment for traditional risk factors and dietary factors, we observed an inverse association between vitamin K(2) and risk of CHD with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 0.91 [95% CI 0.85-1.00] per 10 microg/d vitamin K(2) intake. This association was mainly due to vitamin K(2) subtypes MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9. Vitamin K(1) intake was not significantly related to CHD. A high intake of menoquinones, especially MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9, could protect against CHD. However, more research is necessary to define optimal intake levels of vitamin K intake for the prevention of CHD.

  17. Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of high energy nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-12-01

    The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P energy intake was 1.07 ± 0.34 MJ higher in the HENSD compared to PLACEBO. Plasma concentration of CCK and PYY and insulin and were significantly (P energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake among United States high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O'Toole, Terrence

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, availability of school vending machines, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, both overall and by type of SSB, among a nationally representative sample of high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,209 students (grades 9-12) were used. SSB intake was based on intake of 4 nondiet beverages [soda, other (i.e., fruit-flavored drinks, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, or flavored milk), sports drinks, and energy drinks]. Nationwide, 64.9% of high school students drank SSB ≥1 time/d, 35.6% drank SSB ≥2 times/d, and 22.2% drank SSB ≥3 times/d. The most commonly consumed SSB was regular soda. Factors associated with a greater odds for high SSB intake (≥3 times/d) were male gender [OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.41,1.95); P 2 h/d [OR = 1.70 (95% CI = 1.44, 2.01); P < 0.05]. Non-Hispanic other/multiracial [OR = 0.67 (95% CI = 0.47, 0.95); P < 0.05] and being physically active ≥60 min/d on <5 d/wk were associated with a lower odds for high SSB intake [OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.95); P < 0.05]. Weight status was not associated with SSB intake. Differences in predictors by type of SSB were small. Our findings of significant associations of high SSB intake with frequent fast-food restaurant use and sedentary behaviors may be used to tailor intervention efforts to reduce SSB intake among high-risk populations.

  19. SIMILAR 1-YEAR CARIES INCREMENT AFTER USE OF FLUORIDE OR NON-FLUORIDE TOOTHPASTE IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palinee Detsomboonrat; Chutima Trairatvorakul; Pagaporn Pantuwadee Pisarnturakit

    2016-01-01

    Although 1000 ppm fluoride (F) toothpaste is recommended for all age groups, many parents still choose 500 ppm F or non-F toothpaste for their toddlers to avoid the possibility of an excessive intake of F...

  20. Pre-Conceptual Design of a Fluoride-Salt-Cooled Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Cisneros, Anselmo T [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 2010 to explore the feasibility of small modular fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs). A preliminary reactor system concept, SmATHR (for Small modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor) is described, along with an integrated high-temperature thermal energy storage or salt vault system. The SmAHTR is a 125 MWt, integral primary, liquid salt cooled, coated particle-graphite fueled, low-pressure system operating at 700 C. The system employs passive decay heat removal and two-out-of-three , 50% capacity, subsystem redundancy for critical functions. The reactor vessel is sufficiently small to be transportable on standard commercial tractor-trailer transport vehicles. Initial transient analyses indicated the transition from normal reactor operations to passive decay heat removal is accomplished in a manner that preserves robust safety margins at all times during the transient. Numerous trade studies and trade-space considerations are discussed, along with the resultant initial system concept. The current concept is not optimized. Work remains to more completely define the overall system with particular emphasis on refining the final fuel/core configuration, salt vault configuration, and integrated system dynamics and safety behavior.

  1. Commercializing potassium terbium fluoride, KTF (KTb3F10) faraday crystals for high laser power optical isolator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Wolfgang; Stevens, Kevin; Foundos, Greg; Payne, Alexis

    2017-10-01

    Many scientific lasers and increasingly industrial laser systems operate in power regime, require high-performance optical isolators to prevent disruptive light feedback into the laser cavity. The optically active Faraday material is the key optical element inside the isolator. SYNOPTICS has been supplying the laser market with Terbium Gallium Garnet (TGG - Tb3Ga5O12) for many years. It is the most commonly used material for the 650-1100nm range and the key advantages for TGG include its cubic crystal structure for alignment free processing, little to no intrinsic birefringence, and ease of manufacture. However, for high-power laser applications TGG is limited by its absorption at 1064nm and its thermo-optic coefficient, dn/dT. Specifically, thermal lensing and depolarization effects become a limiting factor at high laser powers. While TGG absorption has improved significantly over the past few years, there is an intrinsic limit. Now, SYNOPTICS is commercializing the enhanced new crystal Potassium Terbium Fluoride KTF (KTb3F10) that exhibits much smaller nonlinear refractive index and thermo-optic coefficients, and still exhibits a Verdet constant near that of TGG. This cubic crystal has relatively low absorption and thermo-optic coefficients. It is now fully characterized and available for select production orders. At OPTIFAB in October 2017 we present recent results comparing the performance of KTF to TGG in optical isolators and show SYNOPTICS advances in large volume crystal growth and the production ramp up.

  2. Dental Fluorosis and Catalase Immunoreactivity of the Brain Tissues in Rats Exposed to High Fluoride Pre- and Postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Şirin; Uyar-Bozkurt, Süheyla; Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Menteş, Ali

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated dental fluorosis of the incisors and immunoreactivity in the brain tissues of rats given chronic fluoride doses pre- and postnatally. Female rats were given drinking water with 0, 30 or 100 ppm fluoride ad libitum throughout gestation and the nursing period. In addition, 63 male offspring were treated with the same water regimens as the mothers after weaning and were followed for 1, 3 or 5 months. The upper and lower incisors were collected, and all teeth were examined under a stereomicroscope and scored by two blinded examiners using a modified rodent enamel fluorosis index. Cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar brain samples were evaluated morphologically and immunohistochemically. All fluoride-treated pups were born with low body weight (p = 0.001). All animals from the fluoride groups had enamel fluorosis with defects of various degrees. The increase in the dental fluorosis scores in the fluoride treatment groups was significant (p dental fluorosis had catalase immunoreactivity in the brain tissues, which may reflect the neurobehavioral toxicity of fluoride.

  3. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  4. THE USE OF FLUORIDE AND ITS EFFECT ON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kanduti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual’s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment and is always present in our lives. However, the concentration differs from area to area. Exposure can occur through diet, respiration and fluoride supplements. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Drinking water in Slovenia is not fluoridated; the amount of naturally present fluoride is very low. Fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralisation and demineralisation of tooth enamel. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their cariostatic effect. 

  5. Efficacy of Four Fluoride Mouth Rinses on Streptococcus mutans in High Caries Risk Children - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perala, Shailaja Rao; Bhupathiraju, Prameela

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries has been traditionally described as a multifactorial disease that involves the interaction of various factors like host, agent, substrate and time. Landmark studies have established the fact that Mutans Streptococci are the primary etiologic agents of dental caries. The prevention of dental caries by fluoride supplements in various vehicles, such as water and toothpaste, constitutes one of the most successful prevention measures. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical efficacy of four fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans in high caries risk children and also to check the efficacy of the ingredient Triclosan which is present in two of the four mouth rinses. The study is double blinded, consisting of 1000 children in age group 6-14yrs who were screened from residential schools. Of the total, 200 children were categorized as high caries risk group based on caries risk assessment tool form given by American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) guidelines 2011. Prior to the study, salivary samples were collected and sent for microbial analysis to estimate Streptococcus mutans counts. Out of 200 salivary samples, 132 showed 106CFU of Streptococcus mutans and these children were included in the study. The 132 children from each group received the assigned mouth wash for 14 consecutive days. On 15th day the salivary samples were collected and sent for microbial analysis and the obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. All the mouth washes showed a significant reduction in Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans. Among the four groups Group D (S flo) showed greater percentage reduction of Streptococcus mutans followed by Group A (Act), B (Kidodent) and C (Zerocary). There was no stastically significance reduction of Streptococcus mutans among the Triclosan containing and non containing groups. The mean pre rinse CFU was significantly higher than post rinse CFU for all the study groups

  6. A 46 Years Old Woman with Gouty Arthritis, High Purin Intake and Work as a Servant

    OpenAIRE

    Perdana, Difitasari Cipta

    2014-01-01

    Gouty arthritis is a disease which one of its manifestation is joints inflammation and is affected by high purin intake. Family approach is important in management of purin intake and the biopsychosocial factors. Application of holistic and comprehensive family-approach for intern and extern factors identification of gouty arthritis. Problem solving based on Evident Based Medicine with family-approach and patient-centered. This was a case report. Primary data were obtained from anamnesis, ph...

  7. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  8. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

  9. Carbohydrate intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts Lindsay S; Sharma Sushma; Lustig Robert H; Fleming Sharon E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intakes of subgroups of energy-providing carbohydrate, and markers of cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American (AA) children. A cross sectional analysis was performed on data from a sample of 9-11 year old children (n = 95) with BMI greater than the 85th percentile. Fasting hematological and biochemical values for selected markers of cardiometabolic risk factors were related to intakes of carbohydrates an...

  10. Fluoride and Dental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforuk, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted under the widest variety of controlled conditions attest to the safety, efficacy, and cost benefits of fluoridation. A program that combines the use of systemic and topical fluoride results in maximum benefits. The author of this article reviews the metabolism of fluoride and its mechanism of action, and discusses practical modes of employing fluoride in caries prevention with special emphasis on the use of fluoride supplements for infants and young children in areas of non-...

  11. Understanding Nonlinear Dielectric Properties in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film at Both Low and High Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Ho, Janet; Wang, Jianchuan; Li, Zhong-Ming; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Zhu, Lei

    2016-01-13

    Understanding nonlinear dielectric behavior in polar polymers is crucial to their potential application as next generation high energy density and low loss dielectrics. In this work, we studied nonlinear dielectric properties of a biaxially oriented poly(vinylidene fluoride) (BOPVDF) film under both low and high electric fields. For fundamental nonlinear dielectric constants at low fields (dielectric spectroscopy (HVBDS) was accurate enough to measure up to the third harmonics. It was observed that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity for the BOPVDF disappeared above 10 Hz at room temperature, suggesting that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity originated from ionic migration of impurity ions rather than dipolar relaxation of the amorphous segments. Above the coercive field (EC ≈ 70 MV/m), bipolar electric displacement-electric field (D-E) loop tests were used to extract the nonlinear behavior for pure PVDF crystals, which had a clear origin of ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains and nonpolar-to-polar (α → δ → β) phase transformations. By using HVBDS, it was observed that the ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains in BOPVDF above the EC always took place between 20 and 500 Hz regardless of a broad range of temperature from -30 to 100 °C. This behavior was drastically different from that of the amorphous PVDF dipoles, which had a strong dependence on frequency over orders of magnitude.

  12. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations.

  13. Effects of water fluoridation on caries experience in the primary dentition in a high caries risk community in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Rongzhen; Pukallus, Margaret L; Newman, Bruce; Foley, Michael; Walsh, Laurence J; Seow, W Kim

    2015-01-01

    In December 2008, artificial water fluoridation was introduced for the first time to the Logan-Beaudesert district in the state of Queensland, Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation in the primary dentition in this community after a period of 36 months. Children aged 4-9 years with clinical examinations and bitewing radiographs (BWs) taken before water fluoridation (pre-F) were randomly selected as comparison controls for age matched children who had been exposed to a mean period of 36 months of water fluoridation (post-F). A total of 201 sets of pre-F BWs from children (mean age 6.95 ± 1.05 years) and 256 sets of post-F BWs from children (mean age 7.19 ± 1.23 years) attending schools in the district were randomly selected. Caries experience in the primary dentition was determined as decayed, missing or filled teeth/surfaces (dmft/dmfs). The caries prevalence for the pre-F group was 87% compared to 75% in the post-F group (Odds ratio (OR): 0.44, 95% CI: 0.27-0.72). Overall, there was a 19 percent reduction of mean dmft from 4.54 in the pre-F group to 3.66 in the post-F group (p = 0.005). After fluoridation, the dmfs was reduced from 6.68 to 5.17 (p = 0.0056). The distal surfaces of maxillary first primary molars experienced the greatest reduction (26%) in caries experience after water fluoridation (p water fluoridation there was a significant drop in caries prevalence from 87 to 75% and a 19% reduction in caries experience in a community with one of the highest caries rates in Australia.

  14. High salt intake causes adverse fetal programming--vascular effects beyond blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecha, Grzegorz; Koleganova, Nadezda; Ritz, Eberhard; Müller, Annett; Fedorova, Olga V; Bagrov, Alexei Y; Lutz, Diana; Schirmacher, Peter; Gross-Weissmann, Marie-Luise

    2012-09-01

    High salt intake causes hypertension, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and potentially also blood pressure (BP)-independent target organ damage. Excess salt intake in pregnancy is known to affect BP in the offspring. The present study was designed to assess whether high salt intake in pregnancy affects BP and vascular morphology in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard rodent diet with low-normal (0.15%) or high (8.0%) salt content during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, offspring were maintained on the same diet or switched to a high- or low-salt diet, respectively. Vascular geometry was assessed in male offspring at 7 and 12 weeks postnatally. Up to 12 weeks of age, there was no significant difference in telemetrically measured BP between the groups of offspring. At 12 weeks of age, wall thickness of central (aorta, carotid), muscular (mesenteric) and intrapulmonary arteries was significantly higher in offspring of mothers on a high-salt diet irrespective of the post-weaning diet. This correlated with increased fibrosis of the aortic wall, more intense nitrotyrosine staining as well as elevated levels of marinobufagenin (MBG) and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA). High salt intake in pregnant rats has long-lasting effects on the modeling of central and muscular arteries in the offspring independent of postnatal salt intake and BP. Circulating MBG and ADMA and local oxidative stress correlate with the adverse vascular modeling.

  15. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Lazo, Mariana; Appel, Lawrence J; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-02-01

    Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality, but little is known about risk associated with dietary phosphorus intake. We investigated the association between phosphorus intake and mortality in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults (NHANES III; 1998-1994). Study participants were 9686 nonpregnant adults aged 20-80 y without diabetes, cancer, or kidney or cardiovascular disease. Exposure to dietary phosphorus, which was assessed by using a 24-h dietary recall, was expressed as the absolute intake and phosphorus density (phosphorus intake divided by energy intake). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed through 31 December 2006. Median phosphorus intake was 1166 mg/d (IQR: 823-1610 mg/d); median phosphorus density was 0.58 mg/kcal (0.48-0.70 mg/kcal). Individuals who consumed more phosphorus-dense diets were older, were less often African American, and led healthier lifestyles (smoking, physical activity, and Healthy Eating Index). In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and energy intake, higher phosphorus intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality in individuals who consumed >1400 mg/d [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.09, 4.5) per 1-unit increase in ln(phosphorus intake); P = 0.03]. At phosphorus density and all-cause mortality at a phosphorus density amount >0.35 mg/kcal [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.27 (1.19, 4.33) per 0.1-mg/kcal increase in phosphorus density; P = 0.01]. At phosphorus density was associated with increased mortality risk. Phosphorus density was associated with cardiovascular mortality [adjusted HR (95% CI): 3.39 (1.43, 8.02) per 0.1 mg/kcal at >0.35 mg/kcal; P = 0.01], whereas no association was shown in analyses with phosphorus intake. Results were similar by subgroups of diet quality and in analyses adjusted for sodium and saturated fat intakes. High phosphorus intake is associated with increased mortality in a healthy US population. Because of current

  16. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Lazo, Mariana; Appel, Lawrence J; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality, but little is known about risk associated with dietary phosphorus intake. Objective: We investigated the association between phosphorus intake and mortality in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults (NHANES III; 1998–1994). Design: Study participants were 9686 nonpregnant adults aged 20–80 y without diabetes, cancer, or kidney or cardiovascular disease. Exposure to dietary phosphorus, which was assessed by using a 24-h dietary recall, was expressed as the absolute intake and phosphorus density (phosphorus intake divided by energy intake). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed through 31 December 2006. Results: Median phosphorus intake was 1166 mg/d (IQR: 823–1610 mg/d); median phosphorus density was 0.58 mg/kcal (0.48–0.70 mg/kcal). Individuals who consumed more phosphorus-dense diets were older, were less often African American, and led healthier lifestyles (smoking, physical activity, and Healthy Eating Index). In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and energy intake, higher phosphorus intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality in individuals who consumed >1400 mg/d [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.09, 4.5) per 1-unit increase in ln(phosphorus intake); P = 0.03]. At phosphorus density and all-cause mortality at a phosphorus density amount >0.35 mg/kcal [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.27 (1.19, 4.33) per 0.1-mg/kcal increase in phosphorus density; P = 0.01]. At phosphorus density was associated with increased mortality risk. Phosphorus density was associated with cardiovascular mortality [adjusted HR (95% CI): 3.39 (1.43, 8.02) per 0.1 mg/kcal at >0.35 mg/kcal; P = 0.01], whereas no association was shown in analyses with phosphorus intake. Results were similar by subgroups of diet quality and in analyses adjusted for sodium and saturated fat intakes. Conclusions: High phosphorus intake is associated with increased

  17. Substance Flow Analysis: A Case Study of Fluoride Exposure through Food and Beverages in Young Children Living in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Scheidegger, Ruth; Julshamn, Kåre; Bader, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Context Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Children are especially vulnerable to excessive fluoride intake because their permanent teeth are still being formed. Strategies to reduce the total fluoride intake by children are thus warranted. Case presentation By combining the results of field studies in Ethiopia, the relevant pathways for fluoride intake have been identified in 28 children 2–5 years of age living in two villages on the Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate...

  18. Facile fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanodot arrays for organic ferroelectric memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huajing; Yan, Qingfeng; Geng, Chong; Chan, Ngai Yui; Au, Kit; Yao, Jianjun; Ng, Sheung Mei; Leung, Chi Wah; Li, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Dai, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Nano-patterned ferroelectric materials have attracted significant attention as the presence of two or more thermodynamically equivalent switchable polarization states can be employed in many applications such as non-volatile memory. In this work, a simple and effective approach for fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays is demonstrated. By using a soft polydimethylsiloxane mold, we successfully transferred the 2D array pattern from the initial monolayer of colloidal polystyrene nanospheres to the imprinted P(VDF-TrFE) films via nanoimprinting. The existence of a preferred orientation of the copolymer chain after nanoimprinting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Local polarization switching behavior was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy, and each nanodot showed well-formed hysteresis curve and butterfly loop with a coercive field of ˜62.5 MV/m. To illustrate the potential application of these ordered P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays, the writing and reading process as non-volatile memory was demonstrated at a relatively low voltage. As such, our results offer a facile and promising route to produce arrays of ferroelectric polymer nanodots with improved piezoelectric functionality.

  19. Studying the properties and behaviour of high-level radioactive wastes from the BOR-60 reactor U-Pu and U spent fuel experimental gas-fluoride reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillovich, A.P.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.; Vorobej, M.P.; Pimonov, Yu.I.

    1982-07-01

    The results of investigations of physical-chemical and radiation properties of fluoride radioactive wastes produced during experimental reprocessing of spent oxide uranium-plutonium fuel as well as high-level radioactive waste behaviour in the process of their six-year controlled storage are presented. Radioactive gas release from solid wastes, gaseous phase composition, radionuclide leaching rate are determined. Investigations are performed at a special bench. Energy release of the spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes is determined by means of heat-conducting type calorimeter. Gas mixture composition in containers with wastes is determined by mass-spectrometric method at equilibrium temperature of high-level radioactive product self-heating and at external container heating up to 700 deg C. Thermal-physical characteristics of solid fluoride wastes are found by the differential thermography method under quasistationary heating. The results obtained show that about a half (44.8-60.9%) of fission product radioactivity is concentrated in fluorination wastes, specific heat release of which constitutes 50-52 W/kg, while ..beta..-activity exceeds 550 TBq/kg. Main contribution into ..beta..-activity is made by Ce, /sup 144/Pr, Ru, /sup 106/Rh, Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 137/Cs. With waste storage time increase their thermal stability increases. It is concluded that the investigation results can be used for calculating the conditions of safe storage of high-level radiactive solid fluoride wastes and optimization of the technological process of spent fuel gas-fluoride reprossing.

  20. Preliminary data describing the distribution of fluoride and silica in the water in the Ogallala Aquifer on the High Plains of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, R.L.; Perkins, S.G.; Waddell, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer of Texas historically has been known for elevated fluoride concentration, with many areas in excess of 4 milligrams per liter. In addition, on a regional scale, silica concentrations are also somewhat elevated, with concentrations averaging in the 40 to 50 milligrams per liter range. This aquifer provides a unique geochemical and epidemiological study area because it is completely contained within the High Plains physiographic province. (USGS)

  1. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves' disease in the young in a high iodine intake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Pedersen, K M; Vestergaard, H

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about the optimum level of iodine intake for iodine supplementation programmes, or about the effects of the high levels of iodine intake that are found in some countries. We compared the incidence of different types of hyperthyroidism in East-Jutland Denmark with a low average iod...

  2. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sunitha, S

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Three villages namely, Nerale (water fluoride 2.0 ppm), Belavadi (1.2 ppm) and Naganahally (0.4 ppm) were selected for the study. Then, a total of 405 children, 10-12-year-old (204 [50.4%] males and 201 [49.60%] females) were selected from three schools of the villages. Dean's fluorosis index recommended by World Health Organization was used to evaluate fluorosis among the study population. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 41.73%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) was higher among those living in high water fluoride area. A significantly positive correlation was found between CFI and water fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  3. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis. © 2012 APJPH.

  4. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.

  5. White New Zealand rabbits performance fed phosphorus sources containing high fluoride content Desempenho de coelhos Nova Zelândia variedade branca submetidos a fontes de fósforo com altas concentrações de flúor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Motta Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious effects of fluoride content from eight different phosphates were investigated using 30 days white New Zealand young rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Eight differents diet were formulated, each one using a different P source: calcinated bone meal, dicalcium phosphate, super triple phosphate, super simple phosphate, monoammonium phosphate, sulphur amonium phoshphate, ammoniated calcium polyphosphate and a bovine mineral supplement. The zootecnic parameters were followed during 42 days long. At the end of experiment, all animals were slaughtered and livers were collected and weighted. Animals receiving fluoride high level contents (phosphate of amonium and surphur, and bovine mineral salt have shown the worst results of weight gain feed intake and feed conversion.Os efeitos deletérios do flúor presente em oito diferentes fosfatos foram investigados, utilizando coelhos Oryctolagus cuniculus Nova Zelândia variedade branca na faixa de idade entre 30 até 72 dias. Oito dietas foram formuladas, de acordo com as fontes de fósforo: farinha de ossos calcinada, fosfato bicálcico, fosfato super triplo, fosfato super simples, fosfato mono-amônico, fosfosulfato de amônio, polifosfato de cálcio e amônio e um sal mineral bovino. As variáveis zootécnicas foram acompanhadas ao longo de 42 dias. Os animais foram abatidos e os fígados coletados e pesados. Os animais que receberam dietas formuladas com fosfatos de alto teor de flúor (fosfosulfato de amônio e sal mineral bovino apresentaram os piores resultados de ganho de peso, de consumo e de conversão alimentar.

  6. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation. PMID:22720834

  7. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Worthington, Helen V; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-06-21

    To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  8. The influence of eating rate on satiety and intake among participants exhibiting high dietary restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Privitera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies.To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR.Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1 or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2. Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals.Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eat fast or slow (Variation 1. In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences.Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.

  9. The influence of eating rate on satiety and intake among participants exhibiting high dietary restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Cooper, Kathryn C; Cosco, Alexis R

    2012-01-01

    Studies show inconsistent results with regards to whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake in a meal. Some methodological differences are apparent and could potentially explain why results are not consistent across studies. To determine whether eating slower can enhance satiety and reduce intake when rate of eating is manipulated and not manipulated in a kitchen setting using a sample of participants who exhibit high dietary restraint (HDR). Two samples of college students who exhibit HDR, which is a group likely to use behavioral strategies to manage intake, were selected in a prescreening session. Participants were told how fast or slow to eat (Variation 1) or allowed to eat at their own pace (Variation 2). Self-reported satiety during the meal and amount consumed was recorded. The types of foods, macronutrient intakes, weights of foods, order of food intakes, and the dimensions of foods were held constant between groups to control for group differences in the sensory and hedonic qualities of the meals. Eating slower enhanced mid-meal satiety ratings, but only when instructions were given to eat fast or slow (Variation 1). In both variations, eating slower did not reduce amount consumed in the meal, although each variation had sufficient power to detect differences. Eating slower is not likely to be an effective strategy to control intake in a meal among those exhibiting HDR.

  10. Skeletal Pathology of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Fluoride Levels in South-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Walker, G; Shen, P; Reynolds, E; Charles, J

    2015-01-01

    Significantly elevated bone fluoride concentrations have been reported in a population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near a fluoride-emitting aluminum smelter in southeastern Australia. This paper describes the skeletal and synovial joint lesions observed post mortem in the same sample of kangaroos (n = 76). The prevalence and severity of skeletal lesions, specifically the formation of multiple, large, smooth exostoses over the diaphysis of long bones (especially, but not exclusively, on the tibia, fibula and metatarsi), were positively associated with bone fluoride concentration. So too were lesions of degenerative joint disease, including periarticular osteophytosis, articular cartilage erosion/ulceration, synovial hyperplasia and joint capsular fibrosis. Joint lesions were most commonly seen in the knee, hock and metatarsophalangeal joints. This is the first study to describe in detail the full range of lesions induced by chronic fluorosis in a marsupial species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SITUATION OF FLUORIDES RATE IN WATERS AND MAJOR CONSUMED FOOD IN WILAYA EL-OUED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zobeidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mineral salts in the drinking water, beneficial or harmful depending on their concentration, are known for many years and thus the problem posed by fluoride ions in the waters of the region (Fluorosis Dental and skeletal. This study proposes, the estimated daily intake of fluoride from its water distribution and the main food consumed per capita in the region of El-Oued (dates, tea, couscous, lentils, carrots, potatoes, pumpkin ..., which has a significant content of fluoride in their composition. In addition to the arid climatic conditions, the air temperature is very high in summer, leads to a strong human perspiration. This preliminary result leads us to propose a standard fluoride-specific region of El-Oued. The results showed that the majority of water samples and analyzed the main foods of the region of El-Oued is charged fluoride ions and exceed the maximum dose recommended for adults from 0.05 to 0.07 mg / kg / day.

  12. SITUATION OF FLUORIDES RATE IN WATERS AND MAJOR CONSUMED FOOD IN WILAYA EL-OUED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zobeidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mineral salts in the drinking water, beneficial or harmful depending on their concentration, are known for many years and thus the problem posed                     by fluoride ions in the waters of the region (Fluorosis Dental and skeletal. This                  study proposes, the estimated daily intake of fluoride from its water distribution and           the main food consumed per capita in the region of El-Oued (dates, tea,                          couscous, lentils, carrots, potatoes, pumpkin ..., which has a significant content of fluoride in their composition. In addition to the arid climatic conditions, the air temperature is very high in summer, leads to a strong human perspiration. This preliminary result leads us to propose a standard fluoride-specific region of El-Oued. The results showed that the majority of water samples and analyzed the main foods of the region of El-Oued is charged fluoride ions and exceed the maximum dose recommended for adults from 0.05 to 0.07 mg / kg / day.

  13. Topical use of fluorides for caries control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Toumba, Kyriacos Jack; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Since the early findings on the protective effects of fluoride present in drinking water upon caries incidence and prevalence, intensive research has been conducted in order to determine the benefits, safety, as well as the cost-effectiveness of other modalities of fluoride delivery. The present chapter reviews the various forms of topical fluoride use - professionally and self-applied - with special emphasis on clinical efficacy and possible side effects. The most widely used forms of fluoride delivery have been subject of several systematic reviews, providing strong evidence supporting the use of dentifrices, gels, varnishes and mouth rinses for the control of caries progression. Dentifrices with fluoride concentrations of 1,000 ppm and above have been shown to be clinically effective in caries prevention when compared to a placebo treatment, but the evidence regarding formulations with 450-550 ppm is still subject of debate. Therefore, the recommendation for low-fluoride dentifrice use must take into account both risks and benefits. The evidence for the combined use of two modalities of fluoride application in comparison to a single modality is still inconsistent, implying that more studies with adequate methodology are needed to determine the real benefits of each method. Considering the currently available evidence and risk-benefit aspects, it seems justifiable to recommend the use of fluoridated dentifrices to individuals of all ages, and additional fluoride therapy should also be targeted towards individuals at high caries risk. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Caries prevention through the fluoridation of milk. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 50 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization from the early 1980s onwards. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in milk, and increased concentrations of fluoride in saliva, dental plaque, dental enamel and dentine, and urine, after consumption of fluoridated milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s--some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programs. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. At present, milk fluoridation programs are running continuously in about ten countries of the world. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk program. The program should aim to provide fluoridated milk for at least 200 days per year and should commence before the children are 4 years of age.

  15. Studies on the method for determination of fluoride concentration in rat hard tissues by neutron activation analysis using sup 20 F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakakura, Tadao (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis method (non disruptive analysis, short time period measurement) has been recognized as a high precision analysis of fluoride concentration in hard tissue. Heat neutron irradiation analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to investigate {sup 20}F concentration. Results were as follows. F concentration in a dried material of hard tissue using INAA method can be fixed by measuring the {sup 20}F's energy peak for 10 seconds after neutron irradiation under 1 x 10 n/cm{sup 2}center dots for 10 seconds. Non responding time that is caused by short half reduction time of {sup 20}F can be recovered enough by a revise calculation. Reproducibility of measured fluoride concentration using INAA method was well stabilized. Rat hard tissue which takes no fluoride can be determined fluoride concentration without sodium restriction. Femur fluoride concentrations using INAA method had significant correlation with conventional microdiffusion analysis method (r=0.997, regression line: Y=1.13X + 2.98). Increase of fluoride density in dentine of rat molars under growing period according to fluoride intake was 1/3 of femurs and mandibles. (author).

  16. Effect of acclimation to high ambient temperature of pigs selected for residual feed intake

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six Large White castrate males belonging to two divergent lines in residual feed intake, with average initial body weight of 50.5 ± 0.9 kg and approximately 92 days of age, were used to evaluate the effects of acclimation to high temperature on the performance, thermoregulatory responses and blood parameters of pigs divergently selected for low and high residual feed intake. The experiment was conducted in two successive replicates of 18 animals each. The first replicate was composed b...

  17. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of high-caloric intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake...... function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity....

  18. Highly selective luminescent sensing of fluoride and organic small-molecule pollutants based on novel lanthanide metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-Min; Shi, Wei; Xu, Na; Cheng, Peng

    2013-07-15

    Two novel isostructural lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), [Ln2(BPDC)(BDC)2(H2O)2]n (Ln = Eu (1) and Tb (2)), have been successfully synthesized via a mixed ligand approach using 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-dicarboxylic acid (H2BPDC) and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) under hydrothermal conditions. Structural analysis shows that two lanthanide ions are 4-fold linked by two κ(1)-κ(1)-μ2 carboxylates from BDC(2-) and the other two κ(2)-κ(1)-μ2 carboxylates from BPDC(2-) to form a binuclear core. The binuclear units are further connected by BDC(2-) and BPDC(2-) to build a three-dimensional framework possessing tfz-d topology with the short (Schläfli) vertex symbol {4(3)}2{4(6)·6(18)·8(4)}. Moreover, isostructural doped Ln-MOFs [Eu(2x)Tb2(1-x)(BPDC)(BDC)2(H2O)2]n (x = 0.1 (1a), 0.3 (1b), 0.5 (1c), 0.7 (1d), and 0.9 (1e)) were also successfully synthesized. Thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA) reveal high thermal stability of these Ln-MOFs. Luminescent measurements indicate that the characteristic sharp emission bands of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions are simultaneously observed in 1a-e. Further luminescent studies reveal that 1, 2, and 1a not only display a high-sensitivity sensing function with respect to fluoride but also exhibit significant solvent-dependent luminescent response to small-molecule pollutants, such as formaldehyde, acetonitrile, and acetone.

  19. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). However, to date, data from IR-exposed human populations are not available. We examined the intakes of these B vitamins and their food sources in relation to the frequency of chromosome translocations as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, in eighty-two male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semi-quantitative FFQ. Translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation whole-chromosome painting. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95 % CI, adjusted for age and occupational and lifestyle factors. We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0·02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with < median intake of whole grains (P = 0·03) and red and processed meat (P = 0·01): 0·69 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·96) and 1·56 (95 % CI 1·13, 2·16), respectively. Our data suggest that a high intake of niacin from food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  20. Fluoride ions vs removal technologies: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagvir Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature reported that drinking water is a precious and scarce resource and it has to be protected and kept free from any kind of contamination. Further, it has to be used carefully without wasting. Literature also reported that fluoride bearing rocks are abundant in India, as a result, fluoride leaches out and contaminates the adjacent water and soil resources. A high concentration of fluoride ions in ground water increases up to more than 30 mg/L. This high concentration of fluoride ions causes many harmful and dangerous effects on our datum. Fluoride ions in larger quantities i.e. 20–80 mg/day taken over a period of 10–20 years result in crippling and skeletal fluorosis, severely damaging the bone. In the present scenario, there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for the development of fluoride treatment technologies. Possibilities of reducing the high fluorine content in groundwater are by defluorination process/dilution with the surface water which is a very simple technique but the addition of Ca2+ ions to a solution in contact with fluorite when experimented in distilled water caused an appreciable decrease in fluoride concentration. In this review article, we emphasized the relationship between high concentrations of fluoride ions and their compounds and their health impact.

  1. Children’s Executive Function and High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low nutrient (HCLN) food. Design One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from larger randomized control trial Setting Southern California elementary schools Subjects Fourth and fifth grade children (n = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program Results Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.11/0.25, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02/0.10, p perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models’ convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. PMID:25194147

  2. Hair as Biomarker of Fluoride Exposure in a Fluoride Endemic Area and a Low Fluoridated Area

    OpenAIRE

    Parimi, Nalini; Viswanath, V; Kashyap, Bina; Patil, Pavan Uday

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine whether hair could be used as biomarker of fluoride exposure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 people living in an endemically fluoridated area and a low fluoridated area. Samples of hair from the occipital were taken and subjected to fluoride analysis by a fluoride ion electrode. Results: Lower fluoride levels in water supplies correlated with lower levels of fluoride in hair and more over higher fluoride levels in wate...

  3. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  4. Fluorescent Sensing of Fluoride in Cellular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Zhu, Baocun; Chen, Jihua; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride ions have the important roles in a lot of physiological activities related with biological and medical system, such as water fluoridation, caries treatment, and bone disease treatment. Great efforts have been made to develop new methods and strategies for F- detection in the past decades. Traditional methods for the detection of F- including ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and spectroscopic techniques have the limitations in the biomedicine research. The fluorescent probes for F- are very promising that overcome some drawbacks of traditional fluoride detection methods. These probes exhibit high selectivity, high sensitivity as well as quick response to the detection of fluoride anions. The review commences with a brief description of photophysical mechanisms for fluorescent probes for fluoride, including photo induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Followed by a discussion about common dyes for fluorescent fluoride probes, such as anthracene, naphalimide, pyrene, BODIPY, fluorescein, rhodamine, resorufin, coumarin, cyanine, and near-infrared (NIR) dyes. We divide the fluorescent probes for fluoride in cellular application systems into nine groups, for example, type of hydrogen bonds, type of cleavage of Si-O bonds, type of Si-O bond cleavage and cylization reactions, etc. We also review the recent reported carriers in the delivery of fluorescent fluoride probes. Seventy-four typical fluorescent fluoride probes are listed and compared in detail, including quantum yield, reaction medium, excitation and emission wavelengths, linear detection range, selectivity for F-, mechanism, and analytical applications. Finally, we discuss the future challenges of the application of fluorescent fluoride probes in cellular system and in vivo. We wish that more and more excellent fluorescent fluoride probes will be developed

  5. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Cury

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride—TSF in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80 or children’s toothpaste (n = 78. The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children’s toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p 0.05. The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children’s toothpaste is used.

  6. Effects of periodic fluoride treatment on fluoride ion release from fresh orthodontic adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bum-Soon; Lee, Shin-Jae; Lim, Young-Jun; Ahn, Sug-Joon

    2011-11-01

    Periodic fluoride treatment may contribute to the ability of fresh orthodontic adhesives to provide long-term F(-) release. The effects of periodic fluoride treatment on the amount of F(-) release from fresh orthodontic adhesives was investigated. F(-) release was measured from a nonfluoride-releasing composite, a fluoride-releasing composite, a polyacid-modified composite (compomer), and two resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) at 1, 2, and 5 days after one of the following treatments: 225 ppm F(-) solution, 900 ppm F(-) solution, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF), fluoridated dentifrice, and deionised water (control). F(-) release was measured in a 5-day cycle, which was repeated 9 consecutive times. The amount of F(-) release for each group was analysed using the repeated measures analysis of variance. Statistical significance was set at a level of α=0.05. Periodic fluoride treatment temporarily increased F(-) release in fresh fluoride-releasing orthodontic adhesives, but not in fresh nonfluoride-releasing composite. The order of effective fluoride-release was RMGICs>compomer>fluoride-releasing composite>nonfluoride-releasing composite. The application of APF or 900 ppm F(-) solution was the most effective way to maintain F(-) release from fresh orthodontic adhesives. However, the amount of F(-) release gradually decreased with increasing specimen age. Given the difficulty of routine use of APF at home, the results of this study show that a combination of RMGICs and high-dose fluoride mouth rinse is the most effective protocol to maintain F(-) release from fresh orthodontic adhesives. Most studies have investigated fluoride-uptake abilities using aged materials in which fluoride had been lost for at least 1 month. This study has found that periodic fluoride treatment altered the conventional F(-) release pattern of fresh fluoride-releasing materials and type of fluoride-containing medium plays a more critical role in fluoride recharging of the

  7. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  8. Effectiveness of early preventive intervention with semiannual fluoride varnish application in toddlers living in high-risk areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Maria; Dahllöf, Göran; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    a standardized oral health program once yearly between 1 and 3 years of age. The children in the test group received the same standard program supplemented with topical applications of fluoride varnish every 6 months. We compared the test group and the reference group for the prevalence and increment of caries...

  9. Influences of charcoal and bamboo charcoal amendment on soil-fluoride fractions and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjian; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2012-10-01

    High levels of fluoride in tea plants pose a potential health risk to humans who drink tea. It has been demonstrated that tea plant fluoride is closely related to the available fluoride in soil. But approaches that could be used to regulate the availability of fluoride in soil have been rarely seen. This study aims to investigate how the addition of charcoal and bamboo charcoal affected soil fluoride availability and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants. In a microcosm experiment, tea plants were grown in the tea garden soil mixed with different amounts of charcoal and bamboo charcoal [that is, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 % (w/w)]. Soil-fluoride fractions and fluoride accumulated in tea plants were determined using the sequential extraction and ion selective electrode method. Obtained results showed that both charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions significantly enhanced the concentrations of Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluoride, but significantly reduced the concentrations of water-soluble and exchangeable fluoride (p Charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions also significantly decreased the amounts of fluoride in tea roots and tea leaves (p charcoal and bamboo charcoal had no impacts on the tea quality, as indexed by the concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, and caffeine in tea leaves. These results suggested that application of charcoal and bamboo charcoal may provide a useful method to reduce the availability of fluoride in soil and the subsequent fluoride uptake by tea plants.

  10. Investigation of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films in identifying high-frequency vibration modes of flexible plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih; Liou, Hong-Cin; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2014-06-01

    Compared with piezoelectric ceramics such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, the low density and high compliance of the PVDF films make them a more suitable choice in modal testing, especially for detecting high-frequency modes in flexible or inflatable structures. In this work, dynamic sensing performances of PVDF films for flexible structures in modal testing are examined, with considerations including the repeatability of the impact source, the accuracy of the sensing responses, and the influences of the nodal lines on the frequency spectra of the transient responses. Two flexible plates with different boundary conditions and thickness are considered. Experimental results, compared with FEM computations or theoretical predictions, demonstrate the excellent dynamic sensing performance of the PVDF film in modal testing applications, especially for identification of high-frequency modes on flexible structures.

  11. The influence of saliva on the dissolution of calcium fluoride after application of different fluoride gels in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Elmar; Polydorou, Olga; Lussi, Adrian; Kielbassa, Andrej M; Altenburger, Markus J

    2010-10-01

    To determine the formation and dissolution of calcium fluoride on the enamel surface after application of two fluoride gel-saliva mixtures. From each of 80 bovine incisors, two enamel specimens were prepared and subjected to two different treatment procedures. In group 1, 80 specimens were treated with a mixture of an amine fluoride gel (1.25% F-; pH 5.2; 5 minutes) and human saliva. In group 2, 80 enamel blocks were subjected to a mixture of sodium fluoride gel (1.25% F; pH 5.5; 5 minutes) and human saliva. Subsequent to fluoride treatment, 40 specimens from each group were stored in human saliva and sterile water, respectively. Ten specimens were removed after each of 1 hour, 24 hours, 2 days, and 5 days and analyzed according to potassium hydroxide-soluble fluoride. Application of amine fluoride gel resulted in a higher amount of potassium hydroxide-soluble fluoride than did sodium fluoride gel 1 hour after application. Saliva exerted an inhibitory effect according to the dissolution rate of calcium fluoride. However, after 5 days, more than 90% of the precipitated calcium fluoride was dissolved in the amine fluoride group, and almost all potassium hydroxide-soluble fluoride was lost in the sodium fluoride group. Calcium fluoride apparently dissolves rapidly, even at almost neutral pH. Considering the limitations of an in vitro study, it is concluded that highly concentrated fluoride gels should be applied at an adequate frequency to reestablish a calcium fluoride-like layer.

  12. Drinking water quality and fluoride concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo; Peres, Marco A; Cury, Jaime A

    2011-10-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the fluoride concentration in drinking water, taking into account the balance between the benefits and risks to health, in order to produce scientific backing for the updating of the Brazilian legislation. Systematic reviews studies, official documents and meteorological data were examined. The temperatures in Brazilian state capitals indicate that fluoride levels should be between 0.6 and 0.9 mg F/l in order to prevent dental caries. Natural fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg F/l is tolerated for consumption in Brazil if there is no technology with an acceptable cost-benefit ratio for adjusting/removing the excess. Daily intake of water with a fluoride concentration > 0.9 mg F/l presents a risk to the dentition among children under the age of eight years, and consumers should be explicitly informed of this risk. In view of the expansion of the Brazilian water fluoridation program to regions with a typically tropical climate, Ordinance 635/75 relating to fluoride added to the public water supply should be revised.

  13. High-sugar intake does not exacerbate metabolic abnormalities or cardiac dysfunction in genetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Peter A; Galvao, Tatiana F; O'Shea, Karen M; Brown, Bethany H; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C

    2012-05-01

    A high-sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. Conversely, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging using the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that a high-sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial NADPH and ROS and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Six-week-old TO-2 hamsters, a non-hypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose plus fructose). After 24 wk, the δ-sarcoglycan-deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control 68.7 ± 4.5%, TO-2 starch 46.1 ± 3.7%, P sugar 58.0 ± 4.2%, NS, versus TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch 278 d, TO-2 sugar 318 d, P = 0.133). Although the high-sugar intake was expected to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly, there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared with starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (increased serum lipids and glucose and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) that were unaffected by diet. The high-sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but NADPH and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. A sugar-enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in superoxide production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calculated high-pressure structural properties, lattice dynamics and quasi particle band structures of perovskite fluorides KZnF3, CsCaF3 and BaLiF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitheeswaran, G; Kanchana, V; Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Yanming; Svane, A; Christensen, N E

    2016-08-10

    A detailed study of the high-pressure structural properties, lattice dynamics and band structures of perovskite structured fluorides KZnF3, CsCaF3 and BaLiF3 has been carried out by means of density functional theory. The calculated structural properties including elastic constants and equation of state agree well with available experimental information. The phonon dispersion curves are in good agreement with available experimental inelastic neutron scattering data. The electronic structures of these fluorides have been calculated using the quasi particle self-consistent [Formula: see text] approximation. The [Formula: see text] calculations reveal that all the fluorides studied are wide band gap insulators, and the band gaps are significantly larger than those obtained by the standard local density approximation, thus emphasizing the importance of quasi particle corrections in perovskite fluorides.

  15. Obesity, High-Calorie Food Intake, and Academic Achievement Trends among U.S. School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated children's self-reported high-calorie food intake in Grade 5 and its relationship to trends in obesity status and academic achievement over the first 6 years of school. They used 3-level hierarchical linear models in the large-scale database (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort). Findings indicated…

  16. Effect of a high fat intake on protein utilization during ontogenetic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová, M; Dibák, O

    1981-01-01

    Male rats (Wistar strain, Velaz, Prague) aged 30, 90 and 150 days were fed 14 days ad libitum on a high fat diet (containing 40% margarine) and their growth (PER, NPR) and utilization (NPU, LPU) parameters of protein (casein) biological value were compared with those of animals given a standard gel containing 10% margarine (the diets were isoenergetic). The course of gluconeogenesis in their liver was also determined by measuring phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity. A high fat intake had a negative effect on the growth parameters of protein biological value, PER and NPR, in all three age groups and on the utilization parameters NPU and LPU in 30- and 90-day-old rats. The nonsignificant increase in NPU and LPU in the oldest animals was evidently related to the equal protein intake compared with the control, indicating that proteins need to be utilized more economically in the presence of a raised fat intake; owing to their far lower fat intake compared with 90-day-old animals on a high fat diet, the fat had a less negative effect on their protein utilization than in the younger age group. The negative effect of a high fat intake was confirmed by high activation of gluconeogenesis in 30- and 90-day-old animals and by raised phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity in 150-day-old rats, in which the supposition that gluconeogenesis would be highly activated if the diet were administered for a period other than 14 days cannot be ignored. The biological and biochemical methods employed in this study can be used with a wider perceptual range of dietary nutrients to determine optimum nutrient values under different conditions.

  17. Usual Intake of Added Sugars and Saturated Fats Is High while Dietary Fiber Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Espinosa-Montero, Juan; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Campirano, Fabricio; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) was carried out in 2012. Information from the survey is used to design and evaluate food and nutrition policies in Mexico. The objective of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy and macronutrients in the Mexican population by using the ENSANUT 2012. Twenty-four-hour recall interviews were administered to a nationally representative subsample of 10,096 individuals aged ≥1 y from the ENSANUT 2012. Usual intake distributions and the prevalence of inadequate intakes were estimated by using the Iowa State University method. Student's t tests and tests on the equality of proportions were used to compare usual intakes and prevalence of inadequacy across socioeconomic status, area (rural or urban), and region of residence (North, Center, or South). Energy and macronutrient intakes and indicators of dietary adequacy are presented for children (ages 1-4 y and 5-11 y), adolescents (12-19 y), and adults (≥20 y). At the national level, the estimated mean fiber intake was below the Adequate Intake for all population subgroups, suggesting inadequacies. The estimated proportion with a usual added sugars intake of >10% of total energy intake was >64% in all age groups. The proportion with a usual saturated fat intake of >10% of total energy intake was estimated to be >78% in children, >66% in adolescents, and >50% in adults. Overall, fiber intake was lower and intakes of saturated fat and added sugars were higher in urban compared with rural areas, in the North compared with South regions, and among those with high compared with low socioeconomic status (P Fiber intake is lower and added sugar and saturated fat intakes are higher than recommended for >50% of the Mexican population aged ≥1 y. These results highlight the importance of improving the diets of the overall population to reduce the risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake.

  19. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Charles [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hu, Lin-wen [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Per [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-01-21

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) awarded a 3- year integrated research project (IRP) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its partners at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW). The IRP included Westinghouse Electric Company and an advisory panel chaired by Regis Matzie that provided advice as the project progressed. The first sentence of the proposal stated the goals: The objective of this Integrated Research Project (IRP) is to develop a path forward to a commercially viable salt-cooled solid-fuel high-temperature reactor with superior economic, safety, waste, nonproliferation, and physical security characteristics compared to light-water reactors. This report summarizes major results of this research.

  20. Estimation of fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks in Chandigarh city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride has a preventive action on dental caries. However, Excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. Aim: To estimate fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks available in Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Twelve different brands of commercially available soft drinks were purchased from three different places and divided into three groups. Fluoride levels were estimated using fluoride test strips Quantofix 37211 Fluka; Sigma-Aldrich. Results: Fluoride levels ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/dl F with the maximum level in Thumbs up and least in Diet Pepsi. Conclusion: The levels of fluoride varied in various carbonated soft drinks analyzed. This could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake from all sources and thus be an important risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis.

  1. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  2. Fluoride exposure and indicators of thyroid functioning in the Canadian population: implications for community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Hosein, F Shaun; Quiñonez, Carlos; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-10-01

    There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between fluoride from urine and tap water samples and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between fluoride exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (low/normal/high). Other available variables permitted additional exploratory analyses among the subset of participants for whom we could discern some fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products. There was no evidence of a relationship between fluoride exposure (from urine and tap water) and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. There was no statistically significant association between fluoride exposure and abnormal (low or high) TSH levels relative to normal TSH levels. Rerunning the models with the sample constrained to the subset of participants for whom we could discern some source(s) of fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products revealed no significant associations. These analyses suggest that, at the population level, fluoride exposure is not associated with impaired thyroid functioning in a time and place where multiple sources of fluoride exposure, including CWF, exist. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . Scientific opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    studies (performed before the 1970s) showing an inverse relationship between the fluoride concentration of water and caries prevalence. As the basis for defining the AI, estimates of mean fluoride intakes of children via diet and drinking water with fluoride concentrations at which the caries preventive...... confounded by the use of fluoride-containing dental hygiene products, and did not permit a conclusion to be drawn on a dose-response relationship between fluoride intake and caries risk. The AI of fluoride from all sources (including non-dietary sources) is 0.05 mg/kg body weight per day for both children...... and adults, including pregnant and lactating women. For pregnant and lactating women, the AI is based on the body weight before pregnancy and lactation. Reliable and representative data on the total fluoride intake of the European population are not available. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  4. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, M.; Tadano, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.; Chen, X. [Regional Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-0083 Ibaraki (Japan); Asanuma, S. [Japan Institute of Rural Medicine, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, T. [Matsumoto Dental College, Shiojiri, Nagano (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Otsuma Women' s University, Tama, Tokyo (Japan); Ji, R.; Liang, C.; Cao, S. [Institute of Environmental Health and Engineering, Beijing (China); Hong, Z. [Shanxi Maternity and Children' s Hospital, Taiyuan (China)

    2001-04-23

    Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the human respiratory tract. Major human fluoride exposure was caused by consumption of fluoride contaminated food, such as corn, chilies and potatoes. For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community. In the fluorosis areas, osteosclerosis in skeletal fluorosis patients was observed with a high prevalence. A biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline content was much higher in residents in China than in residents in Japan. It was suggested that bone resorption was stimulated to a greater extent in residents in China and fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Renal function especially glomerular filtration rate was very sensitive to fluoride exposure. Inorganic phosphate concentrations in urine were significantly lower in the residents in fluorosis areas in China than in non-fluorosis area in China and Japan. Since airborne fluoride from the combustion of coal pollutes extensively both the living environment and food, it is necessary to reduce fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

  5. Effects of changes in water intake on mood of high and low drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pross

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a change in water intake on mood and sensation in 22 habitual high-volume (HIGH; 2-4 L/d and 30 low-volume (LOW; <1.2 L/d drinkers who were asked to respectively decrease and increase their daily water intake. METHOD: During baseline HIGH consumed 2.5 L and LOW 1 L of water/day. During 3 controlled intervention days HIGH's water intake was restricted to 1 L/day whereas LOW's was increased to 2.5 L water/day. Several mood scales (Bond & Lader Visual Analog Scale (VAS, Profile of Mood States, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Thirst & Emotional VAS were administered at different time points during the study. ANOVA including intervention, time point and intervention by time point as fixed effects on mean values (i.e.; baseline data vs. mean of 3 intervention days for each mood scale was performed. RESULTS: At baseline HIGH and LOW were comparable in mood state, except for thirst scores (estimate = 17.16, p<0.001 and POMS depression-dejection scores (estimate = 0.55, p<0.05 which were both higher in the HIGH vs. LOW. In HIGH the restricted water intake resulted in a significant increase in thirst (p<0.001 and a decrease in contentedness (p<0.05, calmness (p<0.01, positive emotions (p<0.05 and vigor/activity (p<0.001. In LOW, increased water consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue/inertia (p<0.001, confusion/bewilderment (p = 0.05 and thirst (p<0.001 and a trend to lower sleepiness (p = 0.07 compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: Increasing water intake has beneficial effects in LOW, especially sleep/wake feelings, whereas decreasing water intake has detrimental effects on HIGH's mood. These deleterious effects in HIGH were observed in some sleep/wake moods as well as calmness, satisfaction and positive emotions.

  6. A new pyrene based highly sensitive fluorescence probe for copper(II) and fluoride with living cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Chakraborty, Shampa; Paul, Sima; Halder, Sandipan; Panja, Sukanya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti

    2014-05-21

    A new pyrene based fluorescence probe has been synthesized for fluorogenic detection of Cu(2+) in acetonitrile-aqueous media (7 : 3 CH3CN-HEPES buffer, v/v, at pH 7.5) with bioimaging in both prokaryotic (Candida albicans cells) and eukaryotic (Tecoma stans pollen cells) living cells. The anion recognition properties of the sensor have also been studied in acetonitrile by fluorescence methods which show remarkable sensitivity toward fluoride over other anions examined.

  7. Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high and low exposure communities in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Fumonisin (FB) intake can be high when maize is a dietary staple. We determined 1) urinary FB (UFB) in women consuming maize in high and low exposure communities in Guatemala, 2) the FB levels in maize, 3) the stoichiometric relationship between UFB and FB intake, and 4) the relative excreti...

  8. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  9. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  10. Eu3+ doped α-sodium gadolinium fluoride luminomagnetic nanophosphor as a bimodal nanoprobe for high-contrast in vitro bioimaging and external magnetic field tracking applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Kumar, Pawan; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    Herein, we introduce a novel strategy for the synthesis of Eu3+ doped α-sodium gadolinium fluoride (α-NaGd0.88F4:Eu0.123+) based luminomagnetic nanophosphors using hydrothermal route. The synthesized nanophosphor has exceptional luminescent and paramagnetic properties in a single host lattice, which is highly desirable for biomedical applications. This highly luminescent nanophosphor with an average particle size ∼ 5±3 nm enables high-contrast fluorescent imaging with decreased light scattering. In vitro cellular uptake is shown by fluorescent microscopy that envisages the characteristic hypersensitive red emission of Eu3+ doped α-sodium gadolinium fluoride centered at 608 nm (5D0-7F2) upon 465 nm excitation wavelength. No apparent cytotoxicity is observed. Furthermore, time- resolved emission spectroscopy and SQUID magnetic measurements successfully demonstrate a photoluminescence decay time in microseconds and enhanced paramagnetic behavior respectively, which promises the applications of nanophosphors in biomedical studies. Hence, the obtained results strongly suggest that this nanophosphor could be potentially used as a bimodal nanoprobe for high-contrast in vitro bio-imaging of HeLa cells and external magnetic field tracking applications of luminomagnetic nanophosphors using permanent magnet.

  11. Dietary intakes and biochemical markers of selected minerals: comparison of highly trained runners and untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Deuster, P A; Day, B A; Moser-Veillon, P B

    1990-02-01

    Mineral status of highly trained (HT) women runners (n = 14) and untrained (UT) women (n = 11), as determined from 3-day dietary records, blood, and urine samples, was compared. HT women had significantly higher energy (HT: 2331 +/- 121 vs UT: 1973 +/- 107 kcal/day; p less than 0.05), magnesium (Mg) (HT: 369 +/- 29 vs UT: 262 +/- 18 mg/day, p less than 0.05), and potassium (K) (HT: 3874 +/- 384 vs UT: 2646 +/- 244 mg/day; p less than 0.05) intakes than UT women. However, mean daily intakes of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and sodium (Na) were not different for the two groups. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of Ca, Mg, and Cu of HT and UT women did not differ. Plasma Fe concentrations of the two groups were also similar (HT: 21 +/- 2 vs UT: 22 +/- 1 mumol/L), and, although serum ferritin concentrations of HT women were lower than UT women (HT: 18 +/- 4 vs UT: 30 +/- 6 micrograms/L), the difference was not significant. Urinary Na excretion of the two groups did not differ. HT women had a higher K intake than UT women but urinary K excretion of the two groups did not differ. Whether present mineral intakes by HT women are adequate during periods of intensive training remains to be determined.

  12. Protein leverage affects energy intake of high-protein diets in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Eveline A; Lemmens, Sofie G; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-01

    The protein leverage hypothesis requires specific evidence that protein intake is regulated more strongly than energy intake. The objective was to determine ad libitum energy intake, body weight changes, and appetite profile in response to protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratio over 12 consecutive days and in relation to age, sex, BMI, and type of protein. A 12-d randomized crossover study was performed in 40 men and 39 women [mean ± SD age: 34.0 ± 17.6 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 23.7 ± 3.4] with the use of diets containing 5%, 15%, and 30% of energy from protein from a milk or plant source. Protein-content effects did not differ by age, sex, BMI, or type of protein. Total energy intake was significantly lower in the high-protein (7.21 ± 3.08 MJ/d) condition than in the low-protein (9.33 ± 3.52 MJ/d) and normal-protein (9.62 ± 3.51 MJ/d) conditions (P = 0.001), which was predominantly the result of a lower energy intake from meals (P = 0.001). Protein intake varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet (P = 0.001). The AUC of visual analog scale appetite ratings did not differ significantly, yet fluctuations in hunger (P = 0.019) and desire to eat (P = 0.026) over the day were attenuated in the high-protein condition compared with the normal-protein condition. We found evidence to support the protein leverage hypothesis in that individuals underate relative to energy balance from diets containing a higher protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratio. No evidence for protein leverage effects from diets containing a lower ratio of protein to carbohydrate + fat was obtained. It remains to be shown whether a relatively low protein intake would cause overeating or would be the effect of overeating of carbohydrate and fat. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01320189.

  13. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  14. [Differential approach to spring water choice regarding fluoride content for caries prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, I M; Protsenko, A S; Svistunova, E G

    2013-01-01

    The research includes an investigation of the tap water in different districts of Moscow. It was found out that Moscow tap water contains little fluoride, the difference between districts and okrugs is of no consequence. There is no centralized water fluoridization in Moscow therefore the authors suggest using bottled potable water with sufficient fluoride level. The fluoride concentration in one hundred of the most popular and wide-spread bottled potable water labels was examined. High in fluoride and low in fluoride labels were identified as well as the labels with the optimal fluoride content. Some practical guidelines for selection of bottled potable water depending on the quantity of liquid consummation were elaborated.

  15. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaechi, B.T.; van Loveren, C.

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride,

  16. High stress, lack of sleep, low school performance, and suicide attempts are associated with high energy drink intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although an association between energy drinks and suicide has been suggested, few prior studies have considered the role of emotional factors including stress, sleep, and school performance in adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the association of energy drinks with suicide, independent of possible confounders including stress, sleep, and school performance. Methods In total, 121,106 adolescents with 13–18 years olds from the 2014 and 2015 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were surveyed for age, sex, region of residence, economic level, paternal and maternal education level, sleep time, stress level, school performance, frequency of energy drink intake, and suicide attempts. Subjective stress levels were classified into severe, moderate, mild, a little, and no stress. Sleep time was divided into 6 groups: School performance was classified into 5 levels: A (highest), B (middle, high), C (middle), D (middle, low), and E (lowest). Frequency of energy drink consumption was divided into 3 groups: ≥ 3, 1–2, and 0 times a week. The associations of sleep time, stress level, and school performance with suicide attempts and the frequency of energy drink intake were analyzed using multiple and ordinal logistic regression analysis, respectively, with complex sampling. The relationship between frequency of energy drink intake and suicide attempts was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results Higher stress levels, lack of sleep, and low school performance were significantly associated with suicide attempts (each P high stress level, abnormal sleep time, and low school performance were also proportionally related with higher energy drink intake (P energy drink intake was significantly associated with suicide attempts in multiple logistic regression analyses (AOR for frequency of energy intake ≥ 3 times a week = 3.03, 95% CI = 2.64–3.49, P stress, inadequate sleep, and low school performance were related

  17. High stress, lack of sleep, low school performance, and suicide attempts are associated with high energy drink intake in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available Although an association between energy drinks and suicide has been suggested, few prior studies have considered the role of emotional factors including stress, sleep, and school performance in adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the association of energy drinks with suicide, independent of possible confounders including stress, sleep, and school performance.In total, 121,106 adolescents with 13-18 years olds from the 2014 and 2015 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were surveyed for age, sex, region of residence, economic level, paternal and maternal education level, sleep time, stress level, school performance, frequency of energy drink intake, and suicide attempts. Subjective stress levels were classified into severe, moderate, mild, a little, and no stress. Sleep time was divided into 6 groups: < 6 h; 6 ≤ h < 7; 7 ≤ h < 8; 8 ≤ h < 9; and ≥ 9 h. School performance was classified into 5 levels: A (highest, B (middle, high, C (middle, D (middle, low, and E (lowest. Frequency of energy drink consumption was divided into 3 groups: ≥ 3, 1-2, and 0 times a week. The associations of sleep time, stress level, and school performance with suicide attempts and the frequency of energy drink intake were analyzed using multiple and ordinal logistic regression analysis, respectively, with complex sampling. The relationship between frequency of energy drink intake and suicide attempts was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling.Higher stress levels, lack of sleep, and low school performance were significantly associated with suicide attempts (each P < 0.001. These variables of high stress level, abnormal sleep time, and low school performance were also proportionally related with higher energy drink intake (P < 0.001. Frequent energy drink intake was significantly associated with suicide attempts in multiple logistic regression analyses (AOR for frequency of energy intake ≥ 3 times a week = 3.03, 95

  18. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Grams

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy and calcium (73%. The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49, the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39 and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42 food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61 and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44 adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001, a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible

  19. Influence of the time of intake of a high fat diet on gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dibák, O

    1985-01-01

    Male Wistar rats aged 75 and 150 days were given high fat diet (36.5 weight % and 30 weight % fat) over a period of 14 days. The growth (PER, NPR) and utilization (NPU, LPU) parameters of protein biological value and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity were determined. In another experiment, the time dependence of liver gluconeogenesis enzyme (PEPCK and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase /FDP-ase/) and transaminase (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase /ALT, AST/) activities during 24 days' administration of the diet were determined. A 14 days' high fat intake had a negative effect on protein utilization in the organism of 75- and 150-day-old animals, which was more pronounced in the younger age group (a bigger drop in net protein utilization /NPU/ and greater stimulation of PEPCK activity). In 150-day-old animals the negative effect of a high fat intake was already manifested on the 6th to 10th day of the diet to the same degree as in the younger animals on the 14th day, as seen from the increase in all the enzyme activities. The paper presents findings on differences in the degree of the negative effect of a high fat intake on protein utilization with reference to age.

  20. [The effect of high fat intake in rats of different age categories on protein utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dibák, O

    1984-10-01

    Male rats of the Wistar strain, age 30, 75, 90 and 150 days, were given high-fat feeds (45%, 36.5%, 33% and 30%) ad libitum for 14 days. The net protein ratio (NPR), net protein utilization (NPU), and liver protein utilization (LPU) of the biological value of proteins were determined in comparison with diets considered as optimum for each age category. The specific activity of phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK (E.C..4.1.1.32) was measured in the liver of the animals. As demonstrated by the significantly reduced parameters of the biological value of proteins and the activated process of gluconeogenesis, a high intake of fats adversely affected the utilization of proteins in the organisms of 75 to 90 days old animals. The decrease in the NPR and NPU of the weanlings is insignificant; the increase in PEPCK is at the level of significance, which testifies to a good tolerance to the intake of fats by the animals after weaning, with respect to a similar composition of mothers' milk. In the animals with the slower growth and higher protein requirement for the maintenance of the organism (150 days old rats) the reduction of protein utilization and the increase in PEPCK activity as a result of a high fat intake are not so significant as in animals old 75 and 90 days. As suggested by the results, it is necessary to state another length of high-fat administration than 14 days.

  1. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  2. Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition: boron, silicon, and fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2009-11-01

    Boron may be beneficial for bone growth and maintenance, central nervous system function, and the inflammatory response, and silicon may be beneficial for bone maintenance and wound healing. Fluoride is not an essential element but amounts provided by contamination may be beneficial for bone strength. Fluoride toxicity may be a concern in parenteral nutrition. Further studies are warranted to determine whether there are optimal amounts of boron and silicon that should be delivered to typical and special population patients receiving parenteral nutrition. In addition, further studies are needed to determine whether providing the dietary guideline of adequate intake amounts of fluoride parenterally would prevent or treat parenteral nutrition osteopenia.

  3. Effects of Sleep Disruption and High Fat Intake on Glucose Metabolism in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jacqueline M.; Barf, R. Paulien; Opp, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high-fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmenta...

  4. Study of fluoride corrosion of nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, W. H.; Steindler, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Report contains the results of an investigation of the corrosion resistance of nickel and nickel alloys exposed to fluorine, uranium hexafluoride, and volatile fission product fluorides at high temperatures. Survey of the unclassified literature on the subject is included.

  5. Prevention of dental caries through the effective use of fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    , lifestyles, and the existence of preventive oral health programmes. Research conducted in high income countries documents that systematic use of fluoride reduces the burden of dental caries; such research is scarce in low and middle income countries. Objectives: This article reviews the evidence on effective...... use of fluoride, highlights the public health approach to fluoridation, and clarifies how automatic fluoridation contributes to breaking social inequities in dental caries. Data collection: Scientific publications on fluoride administration stored in PubMed/Medline and caries data from the WHO...... databank. Outcome: Dental caries identified from national surveys or country relevant data; extraction of scientific reports is based on their public health relevance. Conclusions: The article outlines the history of fluoridation programmes and describes the sound evidence on automatic fluoridation through...

  6. Determination of Fluoride in Organic and Non-organic Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Soraya; Jaudenes, Juan Ramón; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Rubio, Carmen; Hardisson, Arturo; Revert, Consuelo

    2017-07-01

    Fluorine is an element of great importance to human health, as it is considered to be an essential element. However, both a deficiency and an excess, it can cause various problems. It is for this reason that values have been established regarding the recommended daily intake (RDI) and acceptable daily intake (ADI). The largest source of incorporation of fluoride is water, but it can be found in other foods and beverages, such as vegetables, tea, and wine. The aim of the study was to establish the fluoride concentration in organic and non-organic wines from different appellations of origin of the Canary Islands and mainland Spain, in order to assess the contribution of fluoride and toxic risk. A total of 53 samples of red, white, and rosé wines, both organic and non-organic, from different appellations of origin were analyzed. They were analyzed by potentiometric determination with ion-selective electrode for fluoride using the method of standard addition. The wines analyzed are within the recommended limits set by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. RDI is not exceeded for adults, taking into account the data provided by the Spanish Agency for Consumer Affairs, Food Safety and Nutrition on the average consumption of "table wines" in Spain. Fluoride intake from wine poses no risk to the health of adults. The fluoride concentration of organic and non-organic wines is within the range of 0.03 to 0.70 mg/L.

  7. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of a high-caloric intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas P J; Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Karstoft, Kristian; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Thomsen, Carsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-02-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake. Therefore, healthy individuals on a high-caloric intake were randomized to either 10,000 or 1,500 steps/day for 14 days. Step number, total energy expenditure, dietary records, neuropsychological tests, maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max), whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with stable isotopes were performed before and after the intervention. Both study groups gained the same amount of body weight. However, the inactive group accumulated significantly more visceral fat compared with the active group. Following the 2-wk period, the inactive group also experienced a poorer glycemic control, increased endogenous glucose production, decreased hepatic insulin extraction, increased baseline plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, and a decreased cognitive function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity.

  8. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  9. High Spicy Food Intake and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Case–control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Heng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Evidence from case–control studies suggested that a higher level of spicy food intake may be associated with an increased incidence of cancer despite significant heterogeneity. More studies are warranted to clarify our understanding of the association between high spicy food intake and the risk of cancer.

  10. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration. Copyright © 2011

  11. Highly selective biaryl cross-coupling reactions between aryl halides and aryl Grignard reagents: a new catalyst combination of N-heterocyclic carbenes and iron, cobalt, and nickel fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takuji; Hashimoto, Sigma; Ishizuka, Kentaro; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2009-08-26

    Combinations of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and fluoride salts of the iron-group metals (Fe, Co, and Ni) have been shown to be excellent catalysts for the cross-coupling reactions of aryl Grignard reagents (Ar(1)MgBr) with aryl and heteroaryl halides (Ar(2)X) to give unsymmetrical biaryls (Ar(1)-Ar(2)). Iron fluorides in combination with SIPr, a saturated NHC ligand, catalyze the biaryl cross-coupling between various aryl chlorides and aryl Grignard reagents in high yield and high selectivity. On the other hand, cobalt and nickel fluorides in combination with IPr, an unsaturated NHC ligand, exhibit interesting complementary reactivity in the coupling of aryl bromides or iodides; in contrast, with these substrates the iron catalysts show a lower selectivity. The formation of homocoupling byproducts is suppressed markedly to less than 5% in most cases by choosing the appropriate metal fluoride/NHC combination. The present catalyst combinations offer several synthetic advantages over existing methods: practical synthesis of a broad range of unsymmetrical biaryls without the use of palladium catalysts and phosphine ligands. On the basis of stoichiometric control experiments and theoretical studies, the origin of the unique catalytic effect of the fluoride counterion can be ascribed to the formation of a higher-valent heteroleptic metalate [Ar(1)MF(2)]MgBr as the key intermediate in our proposed catalytic cycle. First, stoichiometric control experiments revealed the stark differences in chemical reactivity between the metal fluorides and metal chlorides. Second, DFT calculations indicate that the initial reduction of di- or trivalent metal fluoride in the wake of transmetalation with PhMgCl is energetically unfavorable and that formation of a divalent heteroleptic metalate complex, [PhMF(2)]MgCl (M = Fe, Co, Ni), is dominant in the metal fluoride system. The heteroleptic ate-complex serves as a key reactive intermediate, which undergoes oxidative addition with Ph

  12. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  13. Effects of high-fluoride dentifrice (5,000-ppm) on caries-related plaque and salivary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaa, Alaa; Carlén, Anette; Zaura, Egija; Buijs, Mark J; Bukhary, Sahar; Lingström, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the effects of a 5,000-ppm F toothpaste on caries-related factors in dental plaque and saliva. A 6-week clinical trial was designed with a total of 34 participants, of which 26 completed the study. The participants were assessed on four visits, 2 weeks apart. Sampling of approximal fluid for fluoride analysis and approximal plaque for organic acid analysis was performed. Chair-side tests were performed to register the lactic acid production rate on the tongue using Clinpro™ Cario L-Pop™, approximal plaque pH using the pH "strip method" and salivary buffer capacity and counts of cariogenic microorganisms using CRT Buffer(®) and CRT Bacteria(®). Six weeks' use of 5,000-ppm fluoridated (F) toothpaste significantly increased the approximal fluid F concentration (p interproximal plaque acidogenicity, including significant reductions in AUC(5.7), AUC(6.2) and maximum pH fall and an increase in minimum pH (p caries-related factors in dental plaque and saliva. The 5,000-ppm F toothpaste could be regarded as a possible effective regimen against caries in the near future.

  14. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720 had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754 were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373 were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L. Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.

  15. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba; SALIBA, Nemre Adas; SALIBA, Orlando; SUMIDA, Doris Hissako; de SOUZA, Neila Paula; CHIBA, Fernando Yamamoto; GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods: Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results: A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720) had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754) were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373) were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L). Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions: The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:23559106

  16. Musculoskeletal imaging using fluoride PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dorothee Rita

    2013-11-01

    The convenience of (18)F-fluoride imaging is undeniable both because of its favorable tracer and because of its technical characteristics, including high image quality and short examination times leading to increased patient comfort. Depending on the activity administered, the radiation dose to patients is about comparable to higher using (18)F-fluoride for bone imaging compared with conventional scintigraphy using 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. In times of molybdenum shortage, (18)F-fluoride represents a good alternative to 99mTc-based bone tracers. Besides malignant skeletal disease(18)F-fluoride PET/CT has in the last decade been investigated in a variety of non-oncologic musculoskeletal disorders of all parts of the skeleton. Studies included imaging of the skull with a special focus on bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients treated with bisphosphonates due to benign or malignant bone changes. Further studies evaluated the appendicular skeleton with emphasis on postsurgical changes including patients after knee and hip surgery and patients having received bone grafts of their limbs. Also, therapeutic effect of (18)F-fluoride PET/CT on patients with unclear foot pain was investigated. Finally imaging of the axial skeleton was analyzed including patients with ankylosing spondylitis and with Paget disease as well as patients after spine surgery including assessment of cage incorporation after cervical and lumbar spine fusion surgery. Furthermore, children suspected of child abuse as well as young patients with back pain were investigated by either (18)F-fluoride PET or PET/CT. Regarding its favorable technical aspects as well as study results presented, it is imaginable that (18)F-fluoride PET/(CT) will be increasingly used for non-oncologic musculoskeletal imaging in the future either as an adjunct or alternative to so far established imaging modalities and seems to be promising regarding decision making in the therapeutic management of

  17. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T; van Loveren, Cor

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Caffeine intake and CYP1A2 variants associated with high caffeine intake protect non-smokers from hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Dobrinas, Maria; Kutalik, Zoltán; Pruijm, Menno; Ehret, Georg; Maillard, Marc; Bergmann, Sven; Beckmann, Jacques S; Cusi, Daniele; Rizzi, Federica; Cappuccio, Franco; Cornuz, Jacques; Paccaud, Fred; Mooser, Vincent; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Waeber, Gérard; Burnier, Michel; Vollenweider, Peter; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2012-07-15

    The 15q24.1 locus, including CYP1A2, is associated with blood pressure (BP). The CYP1A2 rs762551 C allele is associated with lower CYP1A2 enzyme activity. CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine and is induced by smoking. The association of caffeine consumption with hypertension remains controversial. We explored the effects of CYP1A2 variants and CYP1A2 enzyme activity on BP, focusing on caffeine as the potential mediator of CYP1A2 effects. Four observational (n = 16 719) and one quasi-experimental studies (n = 106) including European adults were conducted. Outcome measures were BP, caffeine intake, CYP1A2 activity and polymorphisms rs762551, rs1133323 and rs1378942. CYP1A2 variants were associated with hypertension in non-smokers, but not in smokers (CYP1A2-smoking interaction P = 0.01). Odds ratios (95% CIs) for hypertension for rs762551 CC, CA and AA genotypes were 1 (reference), 0.78 (0.59-1.02) and 0.66 (0.50-0.86), respectively, P = 0.004. Results were similar for the other variants. Higher CYP1A2 activity was linearly associated with lower BP after quitting smoking (P = 0.049 and P = 0.02 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively), but not while smoking. In non-smokers, the CYP1A2 variants were associated with higher reported caffeine intake, which in turn was associated with lower odds of hypertension and lower BP (P = 0.01). In Mendelian randomization analyses using rs1133323 as instrument, each cup of caffeinated beverage was negatively associated with systolic BP [-9.57 (-16.22, -2.91) mmHg]. The associations of CYP1A2 variants with BP were modified by reported caffeine intake. These observational and quasi-experimental results strongly support a causal role of CYP1A2 in BP control via caffeine intake.

  19. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Kurt A; Morales, Jacobo; Vandusseldorp, Trisha A

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6-8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO 2 , RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    performance in trained young men. Method Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg−1 · min−1; means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion.......Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test...

  1. How Does Fluoride Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading How Does Fluoride Work? Is ... There's fluoride in your toothpaste and even in your water. But how does it work to keep teeth ...

  2. Exacerbation of Dermatitis Herpetiformis by Hen's Egg and Fluoride Tooth Paste

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithran, K.

    1988-01-01

    Exacerbation of skin lesions of dermatitis herpetiformis occurred after intake of hen′s eggs in a young female and after use of fluoride containing tooth paste in another patient. Elimination of eggs from the diet in the first case and evidence of fluoride containing tooth paste in the second case resulted in remission of the skin lesions.

  3. Exacerbation of Dermatitis Herpetiformis by Hen's Egg and Fluoride Tooth Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbation of skin lesions of dermatitis herpetiformis occurred after intake of hen′s eggs in a young female and after use of fluoride containing tooth paste in another patient. Elimination of eggs from the diet in the first case and evidence of fluoride containing tooth paste in the second case resulted in remission of the skin lesions.

  4. High proportions of older people with normal nutritional status have poor protein intake and low diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H H; Suominen, M H

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a well-validated instrument examining the nutritional status of older people. The aim of this study was to examine how older people's energy and nutrient intakes are associated with the MNA and to determine how sensitive and specific MNA is in identifying those having low energy and protein intakes. This cross-sectional study combined data from five nutritional studies (N=900): both home-dwelling and institutionalized older people without and with disabilities. Their nutritional status was assessed with MNA, and nutrient intakes were retrieved from 1 to 3day food diaries. Nutrient intakes were divided according to MNA status (normal nutritional status, at-risk of malnutrition, malnourished). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of MNA of various cut-off points were tested with recommended protein and energy intakes. ROC curves was constructed. Energy, protein and most nutrient intakes showed logical linear trends according to MNA classes. However, more than three-fourths of the participants with MNA>23.5 had lower than recommended protein intakes. Sensitivity of MNA ranged from 0.32 to 0.82 for recommended energy (F:1570kcal/d/M:2070kcal/d) and protein intakes (1.0g/kg BW or 1.2g/kgBW) cut-off points, and specificity from 0.75 to 0.25, respectively. AUC values were low (0.52-0.53). MNA status was consistently associated with nutrient intakes and diet quality. However, a high proportion of older people even with normal nutritional status had poor energy and protein intakes. Thus, MNA does not identify all those with poor nutrient intakes who may be at risk of developing malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of high iron intake on cognition and neurodegeneration in humans and in animal models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sonal; Berggren, Kiersten L; Marks, Eileen; Fox, Jonathan H

    2017-06-01

    Accumulation of brain iron is linked to aging and protein-misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. High iron intake may influence important brain health outcomes in later life. The aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence from animal and human studies of the effects of high iron intake or peripheral iron status on adult cognition, brain aging, and neurodegeneration. MEDLINE, Scopus, CAB Abstracts, the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and OpenGrey databases were searched. Studies investigating the effect of elevated iron intake at all postnatal life stages in mammalian models and humans on measures of adult brain health were included. Data were extracted and evaluated by two authors independently, with discrepancies resolved by discussion. Neurodegenerative disease diagnosis and/or behavioral/cognitive, biochemical, and brain morphologic findings were used to study the effects of iron intake or peripheral iron status on brain health. Risk of bias was assessed for animal and human studies. PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. Thirty-four preclinical and 14 clinical studies were identified from database searches. Thirty-three preclinical studies provided evidence supporting an adverse effect of nutritionally relevant high iron intake in neonates on brain-health-related outcomes in adults. Human studies varied considerably in design, quality, and findings; none investigated the effects of high iron intake in neonates/infants. Human studies are needed to verify whether dietary iron intake levels used in neonates/infants to prevent iron deficiency have effects on brain aging and neurodegenerative disease outcomes.

  6. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles' drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified, by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  7. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  8. Survey on Eating Disorders Related Thoughts, Behaviors and Dietary Intake in Female Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsai, Mei-Rong; Chang, Yu-Jhen; Lien, Pei-Ju; Wong, Yueching

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate body weight satisfaction, eating attitudes and dietary intake related to eating disorders of female junior high school students in Taiwan. Methods...

  9. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-01-01

    .... Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control...

  10. Factors associated with low water intake among US high school students - National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O'Toole, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    Drinking plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for reducing energy intake. Only a few studies have examined characteristics associated with plain water intake among US youth. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, dietary habits, and other behavior-related factors with plain water intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,049 students in grades 9 through 12 were used. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for variables associated with low water intake (water water intake were age ≤15 years (OR 1.1), consuming milk (OR 1.5), nondiet soda ≥1 time/day (OR 1.6), other sugar-sweetened beverages ≥1 time/day (OR 1.4), fruits and 100% fruit juice active ≥60 minutes/day on water intake (OR 0.7). The findings of these significant associations of low water intake with poor diet quality, frequent fast-food restaurant use, and physical inactivity may be used to tailor intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as a substitute for sugar-sweetened beverages and to promote healthy lifestyles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  12. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  13. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical

  14. Fluoride concentration from dental sealants: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus, G; Carta, G; Cagetti, M G; Bossù, M; Sale, S; Cocco, F; Conti, G; Nardone, M; Sanna, G; Strohmenger, L; Lingström, P

    2013-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed in schoolchildren (6-7 yrs) to evaluate fluoride concentration in interproximal fluid after the placement of 3 different sealants. The sample consisted of 2,776 children randomly divided: 926 in the high-viscosity Glass-ionomer Cement group (GIC group), 923 in the fluoride Resin-based group (fluoride-RB group), and 927 in the no-fluoride Resin-based group (RB group). In total, 2,640 children completed the trial. Sealants were applied following manufacturer's instructions. Interproximal fluid samples were collected at baseline and 2, 7, and 21 days after application of sealants, by insertion of a standardized paperpoint into the interproximal mesial space of the sealed tooth for 15 seconds. Fluoride concentration was evaluated by means of a fluoride ion-selective electrode. At 2 days after sealant application, fluoride concentration was significantly higher in GIC and fluoride-RB groups compared with that in the RB group (p sealants increased the fluoride concentrations in interproximal fluid more than did a Resin-based sealant containing fluoride.

  15. Effects of long term exposure to hydrogen fluoride on grapevines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, F.

    1984-01-01

    Grapevines Vitis vinifera L. Shiraz were exposed to hydrogen fluoride in open-top chambers for 189 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.27, 0.17 or 0.07 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions outside the chambers were exposed to a mean atmospheric fluoride concentration of 0.08 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/. The maximum leaf fluoride concentrations associated with these treatments were 62, 27, 9 and 15 ..mu..g Fg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was first observed on grapevines exposed to 0.27 and 0.17 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/ after 83 and 99 days, respectively. Exposure to fluoride increased the fluoride content of berries and peduncles, and reduced leaf chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll concentration at both mid-season and harvest. Exposure to 0.17 ..mu..g HF m/sup -3/ was associated with higher total acid content of grapes than other treatments. Fluoride had no significant effect on bunch weight, number of bunches, grape yield, grape water or potential alcohol content, leaf chlorophyll b or leaf protein concentration. The high accumulation of fluoride in peduncles, but low fluoride accumulation in berries, suggests that the peduncle acts to block the translocation of fluoride from sites of uptake to the fruit. 42 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  16. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolán Bánóczy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s – some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. Conclusion. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme.

  17. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Woodward, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s - some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  18. Comparison of in vitro fluoride uptake from whitening toothpastes and a conventional toothpaste in demineralised enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Markus J; Bernhart, Jasmin; Schicha, Thurid D; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the compatibility of abrasives and fluoride compounds deal exclusively with fluoride uptake and remineralization after storing the enamel specimens in a toothpaste-saliva mixture. The influence of brushing on the fluoride uptake when highly abrasive toothpastes are used has hardly been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate fluoride uptake in initially demineralised dental enamel after storage in, or brushing with, whitening toothpaste slurries, compared to a conventional toothpaste. For this purpose two widely available whitening toothpastes with ionically bound fluoride (sodium fluoride NaF), two with covalently-bound fluoride toothpastes (sodium monofluorophosphate, NaMFP) and a conventional amine fluoride toothpaste (AmF) were compared. The fluoride uptake after use of the AmF toothpaste was shown to be statistically significantly higher than that after application of the NaF toothpastes, which in turn was statistically significantly higher than the uptake resulting from NaMFP application. The fluoride uptake was slightly higher when the enamel samples were brushed with NaF toothpaste, rather than just stored in the respective toothpaste slurry. Brushing with highly abrasive toothpastes did not negatively influence fluoride uptake in demineralised dental enamel. The ionic form of the fluoride in toothpastes appears to be critical for increased fluoride uptake. The acidic components of the AmF toothpaste improved fluoride uptake compared to alkaline NaF toothpastes.

  19. A survey of diet self-efficacy and food intake in students with high and low perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastaskin, Robyn S; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2015-04-23

    Given the rise in obesity and obesity-related disorders, understanding the relationship between stress, self-efficacy and food choice in young adulthood may have implications for preventing negative health outcomes later in life that stem from poor eating habits. The current study examined whether stress levels and diet self-efficacy may be associated with unhealthy eating habits in young adults. Male and female undergraduate students (N = 136) completed questionnaires that tap into diet self-efficacy (DSE), perceived stress (PS), sodium, and fat intake. Sex differences in choice of food were predicted, and low levels of perceived stress and high diet self-efficacy were expected to be associated with lower fat and sodium intake. Findings indicate an interaction between perceived stress and diet self-efficacy on fat intake and a main effect for diet self-efficacy on sodium intake in this population. As expected, low levels of perceived stress and high diet self-efficacy were associated with the lowest levels of fat and sodium intake in students. Findings were driven by females. This study provides preliminary evidence that diet self-efficacy and perceived stress levels relate to nutrient intake in young adult females, and that increasing diet self-efficacy and reducing perceived stress in young adult females may lead to reductions in fat and sodium intake, leading to healthier eating habits.

  20. Cardiovascular effects of high-fructose intake in rats with nitric oxide deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemančíková Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO system damage in the deleterious effects of high-fructose intake in rats. Fructose was administered as 10% solution in drinking water to twelve-week-old male Wistar rats for the period of 8 weeks. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. After sacrificing the rats at the end of the treatment, relative weights of heart and liver and biochemical parameters in blood plasma were determined. Reactivity of isolated conduit arteries was measured using a force-displacement transducer for recording isometric tension. Fructose drinking rats had increased blood pressure and impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the thoracic aorta in comparison with control rats drinking just tap water. Relative liver weight and plasma concentrations of glucose and triglycerides were also elevated after fructose administration. In a further group of Wistar rats, inhibition of NO production by administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day was performed throughout fructose intake. L-NAME treatment itself induces increase in blood pressure and relative heart weight as well as impairment in arterial relaxation and contractility. However, in these rats, fructose administration did not cause further elevation of blood pressure and other abnormalities observed in rats receiving fructose without L-NAME. Our results showed that in the state of NO deficiency (induced by L-NAME administration fructose does not induce cardiovascular and metabolic alterations which develop in rats with a functional NO system. This indicates that impairment of the NO system may participate in many of the adverse effects induced by high-fructose intake.

  1. Matching energy intake to expenditure of isocaloric exercise at high- and moderate-intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian; Blannin, Andrew K

    2014-05-10

    Those seeking to manage their bodyweight use a variety of strategies, but the most common approaches involve attempting to exercise more and/or consume fewer calories. A poor comprehension of the energy cost of exercise and the energy content of food may contribute to weight-gain and the poor success rate of exercise weight-loss interventions. The purpose of this study is to investigate individuals' ability to consciously match energy intake with energy expenditure after isocaloric exercise at moderate and high intensities. In a counterbalanced cross-over study design, 14 low- to moderately-active, lean individuals (7 male, 7 female; mean age 23±3 years; mean BMI 22.0±3.2 kg·m(-2)) completed both a moderate-intensity (60% VO2max, MOD) and a high-intensity (90% VO2max, HIGH) exercise bout on a treadmill, matched for energy expenditure, EE (450 kcal). Participants were blinded to the intensity and duration of each bout. Thirty minutes post-exercise, participants were presented with a buffet, where they were asked to consume food in an attempt to match energy intake with the energy expended during the exercise bout. This was termed the "matching task," providing a matching task energy intake value (EI(MATCH)). Upon finishing the matching task, a verbal estimate of energy expenditure (EST) was obtained before the participant was allowed to return to the buffet to consume any more food, if desired. This intake was covertly measured and added to EI(MATCH) to obtain an ad libitum intake value (EI(AD LIB)). A significant condition × task interaction showed that, in MOD, EST was significantly lower than EE (298±156 kcal vs. 443±22 kcal, p=0.01). In the HIGH condition, EE, EI(MATCH) and EST were similar. In both conditions, participants tended to over-eat to a similar degree, relative to EST, with EI(MATCH) 20% and 22% greater than EST in MOD and HIGH respectively. Between-condition comparisons demonstrated that EI(MATCH) and EST were significantly lower in MOD

  2. Analysis of differentially expressed genes between fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-endurable individuals in midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Heying; Li, Gang; He, Qingling; Zhang, Huaguang; Xu, Anying

    2016-08-15

    Fluoride tolerance is an economically important trait of silkworm. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the dominant endurance to fluoride (Def) gene in Bombyx mori has been constructed before. Here, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of midgut of fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-endurable individuals of Def NILs by using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools, and identified differentially expressed genes between these individuals. A total of 3,612,399 and 3,567,631 clean tags for the libraries of fluoride-endurable and fluoride-sensitive individuals were obtained, which corresponded to 32,933 and 43,976 distinct clean tags, respectively. Analysis of differentially expressed genes indicates that 241 genes are differentially expressed between the two libraries. Among the 241 genes, 30 are up-regulated and 211 are down-regulated in fluoride-endurable individuals. Pathway enrichment analysis demonstrates that genes related to ribosomes, pancreatic secretion, steroid biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, and glycerolipid metabolism are down-regulated in fluoride-endurable individuals. qRT-PCR was conducted to confirm the results of the DGE. The present study analyzed differential expression of related genes and tried to find out whether the crucial genes were related to fluoride detoxification which might elucidate fluoride effect and provide a new way in the fluorosis research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein metabolism, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore steers with high and low residual feed intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes; Roberto Daniel Sainz; Paulo Roberto Leme

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate protein turnover, nitrogen balance, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore (B. indicus) cattle with high and low residual feed intake (RFI = actual minus expected dry matter intake). Seventy-two Nellore steers (16 to 21 months-old, 334±19 kg initial body weight) were fed a feedlot diet for 70 days ad libitum. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded individually and RFI was calculated. The 12 ste...

  4. An integrated model of tritium transport and corrosion in Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) – Part I: Theory and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John D., E-mail: john.stempien@inl.gov; Ballinger, Ronald G., E-mail: hvymet@mit.edu; Forsberg, Charles W., E-mail: cforsber@mit.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A model was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. • Model results match results of tritium diffusion experiments. • Corrosion simulations show reasonable agreement with molten salt loop experiments. • This is the only existing model of tritium transport and corrosion in FHRs. • Model enables proposing and evaluating tritium control options in FHRs. - Abstract: The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) is a pebble bed nuclear reactor concept cooled by a liquid fluoride salt known as “flibe” ({sup 7}LiF-BeF{sub 2}). A model of TRITium Diffusion EvolutioN and Transport (TRIDENT) was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. TRIDENT is the first model to integrate the effects of tritium production in the salt via neutron transmutation, with the effects of the chemical redox potential, tritium mass transfer, tritium diffusion through pipe walls, tritium uptake by graphite, selective chromium attack by tritium fluoride, and corrosion product mass transfer. While data from a forced-convection polythermal loop of molten salt containing tritium did not exist for comparison, TRIDENT calculations were compared to data from static salt diffusion tests in flibe and flinak (0.465LiF-0.115NaF-0.42KF) salts. In each case, TRIDENT matched the transient and steady-state behavior of these tritium diffusion experiments. The corrosion model in TRIDENT was compared against the natural convection flow-loop experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from the 1960s and early 1970s which used Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel-salt containing UF{sub 4}. Despite the lack of data required by TRIDENT for modeling the loops, some reasonable results were obtained. The TRIDENT corrosion rates follow the experimentally observed dependence on the square root of the product of the chromium solid-state diffusion coefficient with time. Additionally the TRIDENT model predicts mass

  5. The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 is involved in food intake regulation in mice fed a high-protein diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Nässl

    Full Text Available High-protein diets are effective in achieving weight loss which is mainly explained by increased satiety and thermogenic effects. Recent studies suggest that the effects of protein-rich diets on satiety could be mediated by amino acids like leucine or arginine. Although high-protein diets require increased intestinal amino acid absorption, amino acid and peptide absorption has not yet been considered to contribute to satiety effects. We here demonstrate a novel finding that links intestinal peptide transport processes to food intake, but only when a protein-rich diet is provided. When mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 were fed diets containing 8 or 21 energy% of protein, no differences in food intake and weight gain were observed. However, upon feeding a high-protein (45 energy% diet, Pept1(-/- mice reduced food intake much more pronounced than control animals. Although there was a regain in food consumption after a few days, no weight gain was observed which was associated with a reduced intestinal energy assimilation and increased fecal energy losses. Pept1(-/- mice on high-protein diet displayed markedly reduced plasma leptin levels during the period of very low food intake, suggesting a failure of leptin signaling to increase energy intake. This together with an almost two-fold elevated plasma arginine level in Pept1(-/- but not wildtype mice, suggests that a cross-talk of arginine with leptin signaling in brain, as described previously, could cause these striking effects on food intake.

  6. The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 is involved in food intake regulation in mice fed a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässl, Anna-Maria; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Sailer, Manuela; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-01-01

    High-protein diets are effective in achieving weight loss which is mainly explained by increased satiety and thermogenic effects. Recent studies suggest that the effects of protein-rich diets on satiety could be mediated by amino acids like leucine or arginine. Although high-protein diets require increased intestinal amino acid absorption, amino acid and peptide absorption has not yet been considered to contribute to satiety effects. We here demonstrate a novel finding that links intestinal peptide transport processes to food intake, but only when a protein-rich diet is provided. When mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 were fed diets containing 8 or 21 energy% of protein, no differences in food intake and weight gain were observed. However, upon feeding a high-protein (45 energy%) diet, Pept1(-/-) mice reduced food intake much more pronounced than control animals. Although there was a regain in food consumption after a few days, no weight gain was observed which was associated with a reduced intestinal energy assimilation and increased fecal energy losses. Pept1(-/-) mice on high-protein diet displayed markedly reduced plasma leptin levels during the period of very low food intake, suggesting a failure of leptin signaling to increase energy intake. This together with an almost two-fold elevated plasma arginine level in Pept1(-/-) but not wildtype mice, suggests that a cross-talk of arginine with leptin signaling in brain, as described previously, could cause these striking effects on food intake.

  7. Electronic media and beverage intake among United States high school students--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Park, Sohyun; Kann, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To describe electronic media exposure and its associations with beverage intake among United States high school students. School-based survey data from a nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study were analyzed using chi-square and multivariate logistic analyses. On an average school day, 23.5% of students used a computer or played video/computer games ≥ 3 h/d, 28.3% watched television (TV) ≥ 3 h/d, 79.9% had ≥ 3 TVs in the home, 70.2% had a TV in their bedroom, and 41.0% most of the time or always had a TV on while eating dinner at home. Students with high media exposure were more likely to drink sugar-sweetened beverages ≥ 3 times per day and less likely to drink water ≥ 3 times per day and drink ≥ 2 glasses of milk per day. Efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake among adolescents may include limiting exposure to electronic media. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Computer simulation of superionic fluorides

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglione, M

    2000-01-01

    experimentally gives an indication of the correlations between nearby defects is well-reproduced. The most stringent test of simulation model transferability is presented in the studies of lead tin fluoride, in which significant 'covalent' effects are apparent. Other similarly-structured compounds are also investigated, and the reasons behind the adoption of such an unusual layered structure, and the mobility and site occupation of the anions is quantified. In this thesis the nature of ion mobility in cryolite and lead fluoride based compounds is investigated by computer simulation. The phase transition of cryolite is characterised in terms of rotation of AIF sub 6 octahedra, and the conductive properties are shown to result from diffusion of the sodium ions. The two processes appear to be unrelated. Very good agreement with NMR experimental results is found. The Pb sup 2 sup + ion has a very high polarisability, yet treatment of this property in previous simulations has been problematic. In this thesis a mor...

  9. [Problems of fluoride dosing to infants for dental fluorosis prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, B N; Borinskaia, E Iu; Kushnir, S M; Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Beliaev, V V

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride content in drinking water, breast milk, cow milk, additional food for newborns prepared with water containing different amount of fluoride was determined. Fluoride excretion in urine since the first days of birth and up to 4 months of postnatal development was investigated in breast and artificially fed infants. When a neonate was fed with breast milk, fluoride was received in the amount no more than 20 mkg/day. The additional food contained fluoride which water mainly had. Water with high level of fluorine increased its content in the additional food up to the values not comparable to those in breast milk that presented danger of dental fluorosis development. Data on fluorine content in drinking water were absolutely necessary to calculate daily fluorides consumption by infants and to prevent dental fluorosis.

  10. High red meat intake and all-cause cardiovascular and cancer mortality: is the risk modified by fruit and vegetable intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Stilling, Frej; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-10-01

    High red meat consumption is associated with a shorter survival and higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is associated with a longer survival and lower mortality risk. Whether high FV consumption can counterbalance the negative impact of high red meat consumption is unknown. We evaluated 2 large prospective cohorts of Swedish men and women (the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men) to determine whether the association between red meat consumption and the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer-specific mortality differs across amounts of FV intake. The study population included 74,645 Swedish men and women. Red meat and FV consumption were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. We estimated HRs of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality according to quintiles of total red meat consumption. We next investigated possible interactions between red meat and FV consumption and evaluated the dose-response associations at low, medium, and high FV intake. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of total red meat consumption, those in the highest quintile had a 21% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.29), a 29% increased risk of CVD mortality (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.46), and no increase in the risk of cancer mortality (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.43). Results were remarkably similar across amounts of FV consumption, and no interaction between red meat and FV consumption was detected. High intakes of red meat were associated with a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. The increased risks were consistently observed in participants with low, medium, and high FV consumption. The Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698 and NCT01127711, respectively. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Short exposure to high levels of fluoride induces stage-dependent structural changes in ameloblasts and enamel mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyaruu, D M; Bervoets, T J M; Bronckers, A L J J

    2006-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the sensitivity of forming dental enamel to fluoride (F-) is ameloblast developmental stage-dependent and that enamel mineralization disturbances at the surface of fluorotic enamel are caused by damage to late-secretory- and transitional-stage ameloblasts. Four-day-old hamsters received a single intraperitoneal dose of 2.5-20 mg NaF/kg body weight and were examined, 24 h later, by histology and histochemistry. A single dose of >or=5 mg of NaF/kg induced the formation of a hyper- followed by a hypomineralized band in the secretory enamel, without changing the ameloblast structure. At 10 mg of NaF/kg, cystic lesions became apparent under isolated populations of distorted late-secretory- and transitional-stage ameloblasts. Staining with von Kossa stain showed that the enamel under these lesions was hypermineralized. At 20 mg of NaF/kg, cystic lesions containing necrotic cells were also found in the early stages of secretory amelogenesis and were also accompanied with hypermineralization of the enamel surface. We concluded that the sensitivity to F- is ameloblast developmental stage-dependent. Groups of transitional ameloblasts are most sensitive, followed by those at early secretory stages. These data suggest that a F-induced increase in cell death in the transitional-stage ameloblasts accompanies the formation of cystic lesions, which may explain the formation of enamel pits seen clinically in erupted teeth.

  12. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride): A high dielectric performance nano-composite for electrical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S.; Obaid, A.; Al-Marzouki, F. M.

    We have prepared films of polymer nano-composite (PNC) of poly[vinylidene-fluoride] (PVDF) and bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanoparticles. The α and γ electro-active phases were detected, and the addition of BiVO4 drastically increases the formation of the α-phase. Addition of BiVO4 produces up to 98% of electro-active phases. Robust electrostatic interactions arise between charges at the BiVO4-surfaces, and differences in electron affinity between CH2 and CF2 groups created dielectric dipoles. The addition of BiVO4 has not only enhanced the formation of the electrically active phases but also makes each dipole in the phase has its specific characteristics for example its own relaxation time. The AC-electrical permittivity showed that the dielectric constant of 10%wt- BiVO4 nanoparticles in PVDF has a value 44 ε0, which is four times more than the dielectric constant of the as-prepared PVDF films. These data show the importance of these polymers as easy, flexible, and durable energy storage materials.

  13. Energy utilization in pigs selected for high and low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, R; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Sellier, P; van Milgen, J; Noblet, J

    2010-06-01

    Genetic selection on residual feed intake (RFI) can be used as an alternative method to G:F to improve feed efficiency in pigs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of selection for RFI on digestive and metabolic utilization of energy in 2 lines of purebred French Large White castrated male pigs obtained from a divergent selection experiment over 6 generations. The RFI(+) (high RFI) line consumed more feed than predicted from performance compared with the RFI(-) (low RFI) line. Digestibility of energy and nutrients, total heat production (HP), HP related to physical activity, and energy and N balance were measured in respiration chambers for a 6-d period in pigs offered feed ad libitum. Pigs remained in the chamber for an additional day and did not receive any feed to estimate the fasting HP and calculate the thermic effect of feeding. Five pairs of 2 littermates from the same farrowing batch were used in each line. Because 2 respiration chambers were available for the trial, pigs were measured regularly during the 25- to 95-kg growing period. Two pigs per chamber were used until pigs reached 45 kg of BW, and 1 pig per chamber was used thereafter. Individual feed intake and BW gain were measured continuously from weaning to the end of the trial. Pigs were fed 3 diets with decreasing CP contents during the 25 to 45 (period 1), 45 to 65 (period 2), and 65 to 95 (period 3) kg of BW periods. Average daily feed intake was greater in RFI(+) pigs than in RFI(-) pigs between 25 and 65 kg of BW (2,128 vs. 1,891 g/d; P energy retention. The activity-related HP tended to be greater in RFI(+) pigs than in RFI(-) pigs (250 vs. 218 kJ.kg of BW(-0.60).d(-1); P = 0.09), and the fasting HP was 10% greater (P = 0.04) in RFI(+) pigs than in RFI(-) pigs (846 vs. 771 kJ.kg of BW(-0.60).d(-1)). The thermic effect of feeding, expressed as a percentage of ME intake, was the same for both lines of pigs (average, 14.7%). In conclusion, the RFI(+) pigs are energetically

  14. Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Bodhini

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs17782313 and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146 and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT (n = 821 and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D (n = 861 recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P = 0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day (Pinteraction = 0.0001 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, where the 'T' allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P = 0.008 and those in the highest tertile (P = 0.017 had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day (Pinteraction<0.0001 on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P = 0.024 and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P = 0.028 than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day on HDL

  15. Household water sources and their contribution towards fluoride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride is regarded as an essential element for the formation of healthy bones and teeth. However, high fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with high incidences of dental fluorosis. A 1996–1997 study in Njoro Division, Nakuru District, established that the groundwater used for cooking and drinking, ...

  16. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  17. Digestion and metabolism of low and high residual feed intake Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Branco, Renata Helena; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely; Monteiro, Fábio Morato; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the reasons why animals of similar performances have different feed requirements is important to increase profits for cattle producers and to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. This study was carried out aiming to identify the associations between residual feed intake (RFI) and animal performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites related to energy balance of young Nellore bulls during the finishing period. Animals previously classified as low (n = 13) and high RFI (n = 12), with average initial body weight of 398 kg and age of 503 days were used. Cattle were fed a high energy diet and were slaughtered when rib fat thickness measured by ultrasound between the 12th and 13th ribs reached the minimum of 4 mm. A completely randomized design was adopted, being data analyzed with a mixed model that included the random effect of slaughter group, the fixed effect of RFI class, and linear effect of the covariate feedlot time. No differences were found (p > 0.10) between RFI classes for performance, dry matter, and nutrients intake. However, dry (p = 0.0911) and organic matter (p = 0.0876) digestibility tended to be lower, and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (p = 0.0017), and total digestible nutrients (p = 0.0657) were lower for high RFI animals, indicating lesser capacity of food utilization. Difference between low and high RFI animals was also found for blood cortisol at the end of the trial (p = 0.0044), having low RFI animals lower cortisol concentrations. Differences in the ability to digest food can affect the efficiency of transforming feed into meat by Nellore cattle.

  18. Effect of high fiber intake in fish oil-treated patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J P; Wei, I W; Ulchaker, M; Tserng, K Y

    1997-11-01

    The short-term effect of high fiber intake on fish-oil treatment in 15 free-living, non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients was evaluated by using a controlled, sequential study design. During an 8-wk fish-oil-treatment period when patients received 20 g fish oil/d, the usual daily fiber intake was increased with a 15-g pectin supplement at midpoint. Fish oil alone lowered triacylglycerol and very-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations by 41% and 36%, respectively (both P fiber intake was increased, however, total and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly (P fish-oil treatment. The cholesterol ester fraction of plasma lipids was reduced by 34% when compared with fish oil alone (P fiber intake may be beneficial in fish oil-treated diabetic patients.

  19. Pit and fissure sealants or fluoride varnishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth. However longer follow-ups shows a reduction of the preventive effect [Tikhonova et al., 2015]. A review of 2013 pointed out how sealants are effective in high risk children, however information about the benefits of sealing in other conditions is still scant [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2013]. Fluoride varnishes are frequently used to prevent early childhood caries and reduce caries increment in very young children [Weintraub et al., 2006] and in the most vulnerable populations, where the prevalence of caries is higher and specialist visits are occasional [Chu et al., 2010]. Many studies have reported the effectiveness of different types and forms of fluoride agents in preventing dental caries among children and adolescents [Divaris et al., 2013]. A review clarifies that professional application of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish leads to remineralisation of early enamel caries in children. Solutions of 38% silver diamine fluoride are effective in arresting active dentine caries [Gao et al., 2016]. The last systematic review [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2016], comparing pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes explains that the pooled estimate slightly favours resin sealants over fluoride varnishes at two years. At four and nine years, the only comparative study (with high drop-out rates) found more caries on fluoride-varnished occlusal surfaces than on resin-sealed surfaces. There is evidence

  20. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  1. Pebble Bed Reactors Design Optimization Methods and their Application to the Pebble Bed Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Anselmo Tomas, Jr.

    The Fluoride salt cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of advanced nuclear reactors that combine the robust coated particle fuel form from high temperature gas cooled reactors, direct reactor auxillary cooling system (DRACS) passive decay removal of liquid metal fast reactors, and the transparent, high volumetric heat capacitance liquid fluoride salt working fluids---flibe (33%7Li2F-67%BeF)---from molten salt reactors. This combination of fuel and coolant enables FHRs to operate in a high-temperature low-pressure design space that has beneficial safety and economic implications. In 2012, UC Berkeley was charged with developing a pre-conceptual design of a commercial prototype FHR---the Pebble Bed- Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)---as part of the Nuclear Energy University Programs' (NEUP) integrated research project. The Mark 1 design of the PB-FHR (Mk1 PB-FHR) is 236 MWt flibe cooled pebble bed nuclear heat source that drives an open-air Brayton combine-cycle power conversion system. The PB-FHR's pebble bed consists of a 19.8% enriched uranium fuel core surrounded by an inert graphite pebble reflector that shields the outer solid graphite reflector, core barrel and reactor vessel. The fuel reaches an average burnup of 178000 MWt-d/MT. The Mk1 PB-FHR exhibits strong negative temperature reactivity feedback from the fuel, graphite moderator and the flibe coolant but a small positive temperature reactivity feedback of the inner reflector and from the outer graphite pebble reflector. A novel neutronics and depletion methodology---the multiple burnup state methodology was developed for an accurate and efficient search for the equilibrium composition of an arbitrary continuously refueled pebble bed reactor core. The Burnup Equilibrium Analysis Utility (BEAU) computer program was developed to implement this methodology. BEAU was successfully benchmarked against published results generated with existing equilibrium depletion codes VSOP

  2. High sodium intake is associated with important risk factors in a large cohort of chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerbass, F B; Pecoits-Filho, R; McIntyre, N J; McIntyre, C W; Taal, M W

    2015-07-01

    An increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is observed in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) even in early stages. Dietary sodium intake has been associated with important CVD and CKD progression risk factors such as hypertension and proteinuria in this population. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sodium intake and CVD or CKD progression risk factors in a large cohort of patients with CKD stage 3 recruited from primary care. A total of 1733 patients with previous estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-59 ml/min/1.73m(2), with a mean age 72.9±9.0 years, were recruited from 32 general practices in primary care in England. Medical history was obtained and participants underwent clinical assessment, urine and serum biochemistry testing. Sodium intake was estimated from three early-morning urine specimens using an equation validated for this study population. Sixty percent of participants who had estimated sodium intake above recommendation (>100 mmol/day or 6 g salt/day) also had higher diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, high-sensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid and used a greater number of anti-hypertensive drugs. In multivariable regression analysis, excessive sodium intake was an independent predictor of MAP (B=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-2.72; P=0.008) and albuminuria (B=1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.79; P=0.03). High sodium intake was associated with CVD and CKD progression risk factors in patients with predominantly early stages of CKD followed up in primary care. This suggests that dietary sodium intake could afffect CVD risk even in early or mild CKD. Intervention studies are warranted to investigate the potential benefit of dietary advice to reduce sodium intake in this population.

  3. High protein intake from meat as complementary food increases growth but not adiposity in breastfed infants: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghua; Krebs, Nancy F

    2014-11-01

    High intake of cow-milk protein in formula-fed infants is associated with higher weight gain and increased adiposity, which have led to recommendations to limit protein intake in later infancy. The impact of protein from meats for breastfed infants during complementary feeding may be different. We examined the effect of protein from meat as complementary foods on growth and metabolic profiles of breastfed infants. This was a secondary analysis from a trial in which exclusively breastfed infants (5-6 mo old from the Denver, CO, metro area) were randomly assigned to receive commercially available pureed meats (Meat group; n = 14) or infant cereal (Cereal group; n = 28) as their primary complementary feedings for ∼ 5 mo. Anthropometric measures and diet records were collected monthly from 5 to 9 mo of age; intakes from complementary feeding and breast milk were assessed at 9 mo of age. The Meat group had significantly higher protein intake, whereas energy, carbohydrate, and fat intakes from complementary feeding did not differ by group over time. At 9 mo of age, mean (± SEM) intakes of total (complementary feeding plus breast milk) protein were 2.9 ± 0.6 and 1.4 ± 0.4 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), ∼ 17% and ∼ 9% of daily energy intake, for Meat and Cereal groups, respectively (P Meat group (ΔWAZ: 0.24 ± 0.19; ΔLAZ: 0.14 ± 0.12) and decreased in the Cereal group (ΔWAZ: -0.07 ± 0.17; ΔLAZ: -0.27 ± 0.24) (P-group by time meats was associated with greater linear growth and weight gain but without excessive gain in adiposity, suggesting that potential risks of high protein intake may differ between breastfed and formula-fed infants and by the source of protein. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Carbohydrate intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lindsay S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intakes of subgroups of energy-providing carbohydrate, and markers of cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American (AA children. A cross sectional analysis was performed on data from a sample of 9-11 year old children (n = 95 with BMI greater than the 85th percentile. Fasting hematological and biochemical values for selected markers of cardiometabolic risk factors were related to intakes of carbohydrates and sugars. After adjusting for gender, pubertal stage and waist circumference, multivariate regression analysis showed that higher intakes of carbohydrate (with fat and protein held constant were associated with higher plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, and worse insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR. After dividing carbohydrate into non-sugar versus sugar fractions, sugars were significantly related to higher TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, lower adipocyte fatty acid insulin sensitivity (ISI-FFA, and was closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Similar trends were observed for sugars classified as added sugars, and for sugars included in beverages. Further dividing sugar according to the food group from which it was consumed showed that consuming more sugar from the candy/soda food group was highly significantly associated with increased TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C and closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Sugars consumed in all fruit-containing foods were significantly associated with lower ISI-FFA. Sugars consumed as fruit beverages was significantly associated with VLDL-C, IDL-C and ISI-FFA whereas sugars consumed as fresh, dried and preserved fruits did not show significant associations with these markers. Sugars consumed from in all dairy foods were significantly associated with higher TG, VLDL-C and IDL-C, and with significantly lower HDL-C and ISI-FFA. These effects were associated with sugars consumed

  5. Carbohydrate intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Roberts, Lindsay S; Lustig, Robert H; Fleming, Sharon E

    2010-02-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intakes of subgroups of energy-providing carbohydrate, and markers of cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American (AA) children.A cross sectional analysis was performed on data from a sample of 9-11 year old children (n = 95) with BMI greater than the 85th percentile. Fasting hematological and biochemical values for selected markers of cardiometabolic risk factors were related to intakes of carbohydrates and sugars.After adjusting for gender, pubertal stage and waist circumference, multivariate regression analysis showed that higher intakes of carbohydrate (with fat and protein held constant) were associated with higher plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG), VLDL-C, IDL-C, and worse insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR). After dividing carbohydrate into non-sugar versus sugar fractions, sugars were significantly related to higher TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, lower adipocyte fatty acid insulin sensitivity (ISI-FFA), and was closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Similar trends were observed for sugars classified as added sugars, and for sugars included in beverages. Further dividing sugar according to the food group from which it was consumed showed that consuming more sugar from the candy/soda food group was highly significantly associated with increased TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C and closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Sugars consumed in all fruit-containing foods were significantly associated with lower ISI-FFA. Sugars consumed as fruit beverages was significantly associated with VLDL-C, IDL-C and ISI-FFA whereas sugars consumed as fresh, dried and preserved fruits did not show significant associations with these markers.Sugars consumed from in all dairy foods were significantly associated with higher TG, VLDL-C and IDL-C, and with significantly lower HDL-C and ISI-FFA. These effects were associated with sugars consumed in sweetened dairy products

  6. Fluoride availability from natural resources in The Gambia--implications for oral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rainer A; Markovic, Ljubisa; Gaengler, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Changing food patterns in combination with ineffective oral hygiene measures and insufficient bioavailability of fluoride from drinking water and other sources seem to impair the dental health status in developing countries, especially in the younger population. Therefore, preventive programmes in controlling dental caries progression should be based on local conditions. For mapping the drinking water fluoride content throughout The Gambia, samples of water from rural community wells, public water taps, commercial mineral water, and from the Gambia-River were measured. Additionally, fluoride concentrations of locally extracted table salt and green tea were determined. Showed the need for supplementary fluoride intake, because natural dietary fluoride availability is very low. Age-related recommendations for oral health care and for additional fluoride bioavailability are given, taking into account local socio-economic conditions in the Republic of The Gambia and similar developing countries.

  7. Association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and dietary intake in Vietnamese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ahra; Kim, Hyesook; Han, Chan-Jung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Chung, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a strong independent predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the relationship between hsCRP and dietary intake in apparently healthy young women living in southern Vietnam. SUBJECTS/METHODS Serum hsCRP was measured and dietary intake data were obtained using the 1-day 24-hour recall method in women (n = 956; mean age, 25.0 ± 5.7 years) who participated in the International Collaboration Study for the Construction of Asian Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) in 2011. RESULTS Women in the high risk group (> 3 mg/L) consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, total plant food, potassium, and folate than those in the low risk group (< 1 mg/L). A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed a significant negative association between hsCRP and fruit and vegetable consumption. A logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of having a high hsCRP level in women with the highest quartiles of consumption of fruits and vegetables [OR, 0.391; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.190-0.807], potassium [OR, 0.425; 95% CI, 0.192-0.939] and folate [OR, 0.490; 95% CI, 0.249-0.964] were significantly lower than those in the lowest quartiles. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that, in young Vietnamese women, an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables might be beneficial for serum hsCRP, a risk factor for future CVD events. PMID:25110566

  8. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Saurabh [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands); Krishnan, Sunderrajan [INREM Foundation (India); Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l{sup −1}. Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  9. Fluoride retention by kaolin clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of kaolin clay liners in storage of fluoride contaminated waste, an experimental study of the sorption and desorption behaviour of fluoride in kaolin clay was conducted. The degree of fluoride sorption by kaolin was found to depend on solution p......H and available fluoride concentration with equilibrium being achieved within 24 h. A site activation process involving the uptake of fluoride was also observed at the initial stages of sorption. This behaviour was attributed to a layer expansion process of the clay during sorption. The maximum fluoride sorption...

  10. Global Measurements of Atmospheric Sulfuryl Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühle, J.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; Miller, B. R.; Weiss, R. F.; Porter, L. W.; Fraser, P. J.; Greally, B. R.; O'Doherty, S.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is used increasingly as a fumigant, but information about its emissions to the atmosphere is limited. Its atmospheric fate and lifetime are uncertain, with hydrolysis in the basic surface waters of the oceans a likely dominant sink, and its roles as a greenhouse gas and as a sulfur source to the stratosphere are unknown. We present here the first results of two years of high-frequency high-precision in situ observations of sulfuryl fluoride in the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) global measurement program. At La Jolla, California, baseline conditions are rarely achieved, and pollution events of up to 1.7 ppb (the exposure limit is 5 ppm) from nearby structural fumigation are common. At the Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Grim, Tasmania, AGAGE stations, baseline conditions are observed with mixing ratios at the beginning of 2005 of ~1.0 ppt and ~0.9 ppt, respectively. Measured growth rates at these stations are ~0.06 ppt per year and ~0.04 ppt per year, respectively. Using these preliminary results and assuming no significant emissions in the southern hemisphere, a simple 2-box model can be used to estimate the tropospheric lifetime of sulfuryl fluoride as about one and a half decades, which is substantially longer than previous industry estimates. The corresponding modeled sulfuryl fluoride flux to the troposphere is ~2 x 109 g per year. Based on these initial measurements, the current global warming contribution of sulfuryl fluoride is likely small. Although the lifetime of sulfuryl fluoride is longer than that of carbonyl sulfide, sulfuryl fluoride is likely less important as source of sulfur to the stratosphere, due to its low atmospheric mixing ratio.

  11. Highly durable piezo-electric energy harvester by a super toughened and flexible nanocomposite: effect of laponite nano-clay in poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wahida; Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Ranjan Middya, Tapas; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-09-01

    A highly durable piezoelectric energy harvester is introduced by integrating the toughness and flexibility of a non-electrically poled, laponite nano-clay mineral-induced γ-phase (up to 98%) in a poly(vinylidene-fluoride) (PVDF) matrix by a simple solvent evaporation technique. Owing to a superior electromechanical coupling effect, PVDF/laponite nanocomposites retain excellent biomechanical energy harvesting capabilities under external vibration (as high as 6 V output voltage and 70 nA output current under a compressive force of 300 N) and charge storage properties under an external high electric field (maximum 0.8~ \\text{J} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} of discharged energy density at a breakdown strength of 302 MV m-1). As a proof of concept, the fabricated nanogenerator (NG) possesses a high output power density (~6.3 mW m-2) that directly drives several consumer electronics without using any storage system or batteries. It paves the way for potential applicability in next generation electronics, particularly as a self-powered device and to configure sustainable internet of things (IoT) sensor networks.

  12. AGARD WG13 aerodynamics of high speed air intakes: Assessment of CFD results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, N. C.; Benson, T. J.; Bradley, R. G., Jr.

    1992-09-01

    A brief review of the work accomplished by the numerical subgroup of AGARD Working Group 13 on the aerodynamics of high speed air intakes is presented. This work comprised the selection of test cases for which experimental data were available. The test cases were chosen to range in complexity from normal-shock/boundary-layer interaction to full forebody-inlet combinations. Computations for these test cases were solicited from a large number of organizations and individual researchers within the NATO countries. The computation methods reached from Euler solvers (with and without boundary layer corrections) to full Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes. The group compared these results with the test data available for each test case. A short overview of the CFD methods employed, a description of the test cases selected, and some of the comparisons between CFD solutions and test data are presented. The conclusions and recommendations drawn from this assessment are given.

  13. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  14. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014. Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  15. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014 Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  16. Fluoride geochemistry of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. Aqueous fluoride speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Blaine, McCleskey R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal water samples from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have a wide range of pH (1–10), temperature, and high concentrations of fluoride (up to 50 mg/l). High fluoride concentrations are found in waters with field pH higher than 6 (except those in Crater Hills) and temperatures higher than 50 °C based on data from more than 750 water samples covering most thermal areas in YNP from 1975 to 2008. In this study, more than 140 water samples from YNP collected in 2006–2009 were analyzed for free-fluoride activity by ion-selective electrode (ISE) method as an independent check on the reliability of fluoride speciation calculations. The free to total fluoride concentration ratio ranged from 99% at high pH. The wide range in fluoride activity can be explained by strong complexing with H+ and Al3+ under acidic conditions and lack of complexing under basic conditions. Differences between the free-fluoride activities calculated with the WATEQ4F code and those measured by ISE were within 0.3–30% for more than 90% of samples at or above 10−6 molar, providing corroboration for chemical speciation models for a wide range of pH and chemistry of YNP thermal waters. Calculated speciation results show that free fluoride, F−, and major complexes (HF(aq)0">HF(aq)0, AlF2+, AlF2+">AlF2+and AlF30">AlF30) account for more than 95% of total fluoride. Occasionally, some complex species like AlF4-">AlF4-, FeF2+, FeF2+">FeF2+, MgF+ and BF2(OH)2-">BF2(OH)2- may comprise 1–10% when the concentrations of the appropriate components are high. According to the simulation results by PHREEQC and calculated results, the ratio of main fluoride species to total fluoride varies as a function of pH and the concentrations and ratios of F and Al.

  17. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves' disease in the young in a high iodine intake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Pedersen, K M; Vestergaard, H

    1991-01-01

    were over 50 years of age. By contrast, the incidence of Graves' disease was significantly higher in Iceland than in East-Jutland. This difference was most marked in the younger age groups, in which hyperthyroidism was more than twice as common in Iceland as in East-Jutland. These results demonstrate...... iodine deficiency, otherwise Graves' disease may be induced in the young population....... iodine intake but no endemic goitre, and the incidence in Iceland with a relatively high iodine intake. Hyperthyroidism was more common in East-Jutland than in Iceland, due to a much higher incidence of multinodular toxic goitre and also of single toxic adenoma. Most of the patients with these diseases...

  18. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  19. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that RFI is reasonably repeatable for a wide range of dietary starch levels fed to mid-lactation cows, so that cows that have low RFI

  20. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Shuai Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW and left ventricular mass index (LVMI of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  1. Fluoride concentrations in groundwater and impact on human health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-04

    Jul 4, 2010 ... tal fluorosis in the Free State, North West, KwaZulu-Natal and. Western Cape Provinces was also assessed by Ncube and ... of fluoride-rich groundwater in the North-West and Limpopo. Provinces of South Africa. High fluoride ..... water of South Korea. Sci. Total Environ. 385 272–283. CLARKE S (2000) ...

  2. Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water in the Rift Valley, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the amount of Fluoride in ground, potable water in Njoro division, Nakuru district and some parts outside the division was conducted to determine the concentration of Fluoride the residents are consuming through water. This area is situated in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa, which is known to have high levels ...

  3. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane with highly effective blood compatibility via atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung; Chang, Wan-Ju; Shih, Yu-Ju; Wei, Ta-Chin; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2011-04-01

    Development of nonfouling membranes to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is critical for many biomedical applications. It is always a challenge to control the surface graft copolymerization of a highly polar monomer from the highly hydrophobic surface of a fluoropolymer membrane. In this work, the blood compatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with surface-grafted electrically neutral zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), from atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization, was studied. The effect of surface composition and graft morphology, electrical neutrality, hydrophilicity and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Blood compatibility of the zwitterionic PVDF membranes was systematically evaluated by plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, plasma-clotting time, and blood cell hemolysis. It was found that the nonfouling nature and hydration capability of grafted PSBMA polymers can be effectively controlled by regulating the grafting coverage and charge balance of the PSBMA layer on the PVDF membrane surface. Even a slight charge bias in the grafted zwitterionic PSBMA layer can induce electrostatic interactions between proteins and the membrane surfaces, leading to surface protein adsorption, platelet activation, plasma clotting and blood cell hemolysis. Thus, the optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and the best antifouling, anticoagulant, and antihemolytic activities when comes into contact with human blood. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Panchal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  5. Effects of fluoride in drinking water on health of deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Duška; Stojšin Ivana

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION High incidence of decayed deciduous teeth, as well as lack of adequate therapy, makes tooth decay prevention very important. One of the simplest ways to reduce tooth decay is fluoridation of drinking water. The optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water is 1 ppm/l, and many waters naturally contain this quantity. Waters in Vojvodina are mainly poor in fluoride, except in a few regions. It has long been postulated that fluoride has a prophyilactic effect during intrauteri...

  6. Studies on fluoridated toothpicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, H

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the wooden toothpick as a vehicle for the delivery of fluoride to the approximal area. After two minutes use in vivo, the release of fluoride from the pointed section of a toothpick impregnated in 4% NaF was estimated to 0.15 mg. Toothpicks produced similar or somewhat higher fluoride concentrations in the approximal area compared with other fluoride-containing products, like dentifrice, mouthrinse solution and tablet. The mean fluoride concentration in an approximal area treated for two minutes with a toothpick impregnated in 4% NaF was around 11 mM/l. Toothpicks impregnated in 4% NaF, 8% SnF2 or 2% chlorhexidine had an effect on the proportion of mutans streptococci and on the decline of pH in dental plaque, but it was small and only of short duration. The recolonization of mutans streptococci was, however, slower after using the SnF2- and chlorhexidine-impregnated toothpicks than after using the NaF- and non-impregnated toothpicks. The effect of fluoridated toothpicks on the degree of de- and remineralization of enamel and dentine was measured using transversal microradiography in an in situ study. Four weeks' use of toothpicks, especially of NaF-impregnated toothpicks, reduced the degree of demineralization of enamel and dentine at approximal sites. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was also used to determine the fluoride content in the outer surface of dentine, which increased more than 10 times after using fluoride toothpicks compared with non-impregnated toothpicks. In a second in situ study, 4% NaF-, 2% chlorhexidine- and non-impregnated toothpicks had a similar effect on sound and demineralized enamel and on demineralized dentine. However, the NaF toothpicks were superior in terms of their effect on sound dentine. The effect on mutans streptococci and plaque-pH, on the other hand, was the same for all three types of toothpicks. The main conclusion from this thesis is that the wooden toothpick is a suitable vehicle for

  7. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluoride, such as drinking water at school or daycare, and fluoride toothpaste. It is not currently feasible ... 2015 Content source: Division of Oral Health , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email ...

  8. Prediction for new magnetoelectric fluorides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenert, G.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    We use symmetry considerations in order to predict new magnetoelectric fluorides. In addition to these magnetoelectric properties, we discuss which among these fluorides are the ones susceptible to present multiferroic properties. We emphasize that several materials exhibit ferromagnetic properties.

  9. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandalia, M; Garg, A; Lutjohann, D; von Bergmann, K; Grundy, S M; Brinkley, L J

    2000-05-11

    The effect of increasing the intake of dietary fiber on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is controversial. In a randomized, crossover study, we assigned 13 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to follow two diets, each for six weeks: a diet containing moderate amounts of fiber (total, 24 g; 8 g of soluble fiber and 16 g of insoluble fiber), as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and a high-fiber diet (total, 50 g; 25 g of soluble fiber and 25 g of insoluble fiber), containing foods not fortified with fiber (unfortified foods). Both diets, prepared in a research kitchen, had the same macronutrient and energy content. We compared the effects of the two diets on glycemic control and plasma lipid concentrations. Compliance with the diets was excellent. During the sixth week, the high-fiber diet, as compared with the the sixth week of the ADA diet, mean daily preprandial plasma glucose concentrations were 13 mg per deciliter [0.7 mmol per liter] lower (95 percent confidence interval, 1 to 24 mg per deciliter [0.1 to 1.3 mmol per liter]; P=0.04) and mean median difference, daily urinary glucose excretion 1.3 g (0.23; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.03 to 1.83 g; P= 0.008). The high-fiber diet also lowered the area under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, which were measured every two hours, by 10 percent (P=0.02) and 12 percent (P=0.05), respectively. The high-fiber diet reduced plasma total cholesterol concentrations by 6.7 percent (P=0.02), triglyceride concentrations by 10.2 percent (P=0.02), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 12.5 percent (P=0.01). A high intake of dietary fiber, particularly of the soluble type, above the level recommended by the ADA, improves glycemic control, decreases hyperinsulinemia, and lowers plasma lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (dietary fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  11. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael

    2009-01-01

    affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat...... fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding....

  12. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  13. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, G.C.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Sluijs, van der I.; Bots, M.L.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Witteman, J.C.; Grobbee, D.E.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Vitamin K dependent proteins have been demonstrated to inhibit vascular calcification. Data on the effect of vitamin K intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, however, are scarce. To examine the relationship between dietary vitamins K-1 and K-2 intake, and its subtypes, and

  14. Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States–Mexico Border Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCompared to the general United States (U.S. population, Arizona counties along the U.S.–Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health.ObjectiveTo evaluate the levels of fluoride in tap and bottled water as well as the use of fluoride supplements in an Arizona border community.MethodsLow-income Latino households (n = 90 who report use of bottled water as their primary source of water intake were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire about their and their children’s dental histories and use of fluoride supplements. Water samples (bottled and tap were collected from a subset of households (n = 30 for analysis of fluoride.ResultsFluoride detection levels were significantly greater (p = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test in tap water (average = 0.49 mg/dL than in bottled water, yet, the majority (22/30 were below the range for optimal dental health (0.7–1.2 mg/L. Concentration of fluoride in the majority (29/30 of bottled water samples was below the quantitative detection limit of 0.4 mg/L. Children were significantly less likely to have dental caries if they received fluoride varnishing treatments (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, lived in households that reported using fluoridated mouthwash (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test, their parents received fluoride education (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, and their parents reported visiting a dentist yearly (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test. Furthermore, none of the participants reported receiving recommendations from health-care providers about fluoride supplementation or variance in content by the type of water consumed.ConclusionAlthough fluoride was significantly more

  15. Highly efficient gel-state dye-sensitized solar cells prepared using propionitrile and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Shanmuganathan; Hidayati, Noor; Liu, I.-Ping; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-12-01

    Propionitrile (PPN) solvent based iodide/triiodide liquid-electrolyte is utilized to prepare highly efficient poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells, aiming at improving the energy conversion efficiency as well as the stability of gel-state DSSCs. The concentrations effect of the PVdF-HFP on the properties of PGEs and the performance of the corresponding cells are studied. The results show that the in-situ gelation is performed for the PVdF-HFP concentration range of 8-18% at room temperature. However, increasing the concentration of polymer in the PGEs triggers a decrease in the diffusivity and conductivity of the PGEs, but an increase in the phase transition temperature of the PGEs. A high phase transition temperature is obtained for the PGEs with 18 wt% PVdF-HFP, which increase the long-term stability of the gel-state DSSC. By using the 18 wt% PVdF-HFP in the presence of 5 wt% TiO2 nanofillers (NFs), gel-state cells with an efficiency of 8.38% can be obtained, which is higher than that achieved by liquid-state cells (7.55%). After 1000 h test at room temperature (RT) and 50 °C, the cell can retain 96% and 82%, respectively, of its initial efficiency.

  16. Highly selective "turn-on" fluorescent sensing of fluoride ion based on a conjugated polymer thin film-Fe3+ complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wanchuan; Xu, Jingkun; Wen, Yangping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Hongtao; Zhang, Zhouxiang

    2017-05-15

    We designed a new fluorescent conjugated polymer thin film sensor via direct electropolymerization of the corresponding electroactive monomer M onto the surface of ITO electrode, and the thin film-Fe3+ complex was used for the highly-selective detection of fluoride ion (F-) in water environmental samples. The as-obtained thin film could effectively detect Fe3+ as a selective turn-off fluorescent sensor, and exhibited outstanding reversibility. This film in the presence of Fe3+ showed a highly selective turn-on response toward F- over other anions with a 5-fold enhancement in the fluorescence intensity. F- with a relatively wide concentration range from 10 μM to 3 mM could be determined in a rather simple and sensitive manner with a detection limit of 6.78 μM (0.128 ppm). Analytical applicability of the film-Fe3+ complex for determining the levels of F- in environmental water samples has been successfully demonstrated by fluorescent analysis with satisfactory results. This strategy will provide a new approach for the facile design of new molecular sensing devices and practical application in environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L(-1). Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short Stature Is Associated With Overweight but Not With High Energy Intake in Low-Income Quilombola Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Luna, Andreza A; Florêncio, Telma Maria M T; Assunção, Monica L; Horta, Bernardo L

    2017-06-01

    Population exposed to chronic undernutrition in early life seems to be more susceptible to obesity in adulthood due to the development of mechanisms that improve the efficiency of energy use. Therefore, these individuals have relatively reduced energy requirements (thrifty phenotype). To investigate, among women living on severe socioeconomic vulnerability, whether short stature, a marker for undernutrition in early life, is associated with excess body weight but not with a high energy intake. This cross-sectional study, carried out between July and November 2008, evaluated 1308 women from all (N = 39) Quilombola communities of Alagoas. Adequacy of energy intake was estimated by the ratio between energetic ingestion and the estimated energy requirement (EER). The prevalence of short stature (≤ 154.8 cm) was 43.0% and 52.4% had excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ), being that 33.1% were overweight and 19.3% obese. Excess body weight was higher among women with short stature (56.6% vs 49.2%; P = .008), even after adjusting for age, energy intake, and per capita income (prevalence ratio = 1.16; 95% confidence interval = 1.04; 1.28). The ratio of energy intake/EER was independent of women's stature. Excess body weight among Quilombola women represents a serious health problem. Short stature was significantly associated with excess body weight but not with a high energy intake. "Thrifty phenotype" may be one of the plausible explanations for this finding.

  19. Gut microbiome diversity and high-fibre intake are related to lower long-term weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menni, C; Jackson, M A; Pallister, T; Steves, C J; Spector, T D; Valdes, A M

    2017-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that the microbes in the human gut have a role in obesity by influencing the human body's ability to extract and store calories. The aim of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between change in body weight over time and gut microbiome composition. We analysed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data derived from the faecal samples of 1632 healthy females from TwinsUK to investigate the association between gut microbiome measured cross-sectionally and longitudinal weight gain (adjusted for caloric intake and baseline body mass index). Dietary fibre intake was investigated as a possible modifier. Less than half of the variation in long-term weight change was found to be heritable (h 2 =0.41 (0.31, 0.47)). Gut microbiota diversity was negatively associated with long-term weight gain, whereas it was positively correlated with fibre intake. Nine bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly associated with weight gain after adjusting for covariates, family relatedness and multiple testing (false discovery rate diversity. High gut microbiome diversity, high-fibre intake and OTUs implicated in animal models of improved energy metabolism are all correlated with lower term weight gain in humans independently of calorie intake and other confounders.

  20. Fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Fluoride has been used as the most effective anti-caries agent for over five decades. It functions not only on the dental hard tissues, but also as an antimicrobial agent. It is known that oral bacteria are able to develop resistance to fluoride, which may affect the effectiveness of fluoride in

  1. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after an el...... brushing with fluoride toothpaste....

  2. Nutritional Intake of Young Italian High-Level Soccer Players: Under-Reporting is the Essential Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cameletti, Barbara; Cavallaro, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    It is recognized that much of the dietary data on adolescents and athletes is prone to reporting error, mostly through under-reporting. Nevertheless, in the majority of studies assessing the nutritional intake of young soccer players under-reporting has not been taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary intake of a sample of young male Italian high-level soccer players on two time points to evaluate the degree of under- reporting. Seventy-five male high level soccer players (age range: 15-17 years) completed 4-day food records on two separate occasions (T0; T1, 3 months after T0). Under-reporting was assessed by the ratio of reported estimated energy intake (EEI) to estimated energy expenditure (EEE). Forty- three subjects, whose food records were judged accurate enough both at T0 and T1, were included in the data analysis (inclusion rate 57.3%). No significant weight changes were documented between T0 and T1 and in the two weeks preceding both T0 and T1. Reported mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than mean estimated daily energy expenditure both at T0 and T1 (p soccer players was in line with the available data on this age group. This study emphasizes that under-reporting is a critical issue in the evaluation of young athletes dietary intake, which should be considered in the interpretation of data, particularly when energy inadequacies are reported. Further studies with uniformed methods are needed, in order to reduce the degree of under-reporting, obtain reliable data on the dietary intake of young soccer players and evaluate the efficacy of targeted nutrition education programs. Key pointsUnder-reporting is a critical issue in the evaluation of young athletes’ dietary intake, which should be always considered in the interpretation of data.The young athletes’ motivation and parents’ co-operation are key points that should be enhanced in this kind of studies.The nutritional intakes of young Italian high

  3. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ≥3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants

  4. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement. PMID:28212284

  5. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub- elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  6. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  7. Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2013-02-01

    Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

  8. Hydrolysis of iron and chromium fluorides: mechanism and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, José L; Dufour, Javier; Negro, Carlos; López-Mateos, Federico

    2008-06-15

    Fluoride complexes of metallic ions are one of the main problems when processing industrial effluents with high content of fluoride anion. The most important case is derived from pickling treatment of stainless steel, which is performed with HNO3/HF mixtures to remove oxides scale formed over the metal surface. Waste from this process, spent pickling liquor, must be treated for recovering metallic and acid content. Conventional treatments produce a final effluent with high quantity of fluoride complexes of iron and chromium. This work proposes a hydrolysis treatment of these solid metal fluorides by reacting them with a basic agent. Metal oxides are obtained, while fluoride is released to solution as a solved salt, which can be easily recovered as hydrofluoric acid. Solid iron and chromium fluorides, mainly K2FeF5(s) and CrF3(s), obtained in the UCM treatment process, were employed in this work. Optimal hydrolysis operating conditions were obtained by means of a factorial design: media must be basic but pH cannot be higher than 9.5, temperature from 40 to 70 degrees C and alkali concentration (potassium hydroxide) below 1.1 mol L(-1). Secondary reactions have been detected, which are probably due to fluoride adsorption onto obtained oxides surface. Mechanism of reaction consists of several stages, involving solid fluoride dissolution and complexes decomposition. Hydrolysis kinetics has been modeled with classical crystal dissolution kinetics, based on mass transfer phenomena.

  9. High dietary salt intake exacerbates Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Jennifer A; Radin, Jana N; Loh, John T; Zhang, Feng; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Algood, Holly M Scott; Cover, Timothy L

    2013-06-01

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, and H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis is dependent on the actions of a bacterial oncoprotein known as CagA. Epidemiological studies have shown that high dietary salt intake is also a risk factor for gastric cancer. To investigate the effects of a high-salt diet, we infected Mongolian gerbils with a wild-type (WT) cagA(+) H. pylori strain or an isogenic cagA mutant strain and maintained the animals on a regular diet or a high-salt diet. At 4 months postinfection, gastric adenocarcinoma was detected in 100% of the WT-infected/high-salt-diet animals, 58% of WT-infected/regular-diet animals, and none of the animals infected with the cagA mutant strain (P diet had more severe gastric inflammation, higher gastric pH, increased parietal cell loss, increased gastric expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and decreased gastric expression of hepcidin and hydrogen potassium ATPase (H,K-ATPase) compared to those on a regular diet. Previous studies have detected upregulation of CagA synthesis in response to increased salt concentrations in the bacterial culture medium, and, concordant with the in vitro results, we detected increased cagA transcription in vivo in animals fed a high-salt diet compared to those on a regular diet. Animals infected with the cagA mutant strain had low levels of gastric inflammation and did not develop hypochlorhydria. These results indicate that a high-salt diet potentiates the carcinogenic effects of cagA(+) H. pylori strains.

  10. Compressive strength, surface roughness, fluoride release and recharge of four new fluoride-releasing fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaloglu Cildir, Sule; Sandalli, Nuket

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the compressive strength and surface roughness of two glass ionomer cements and two resin-based fissure sealants before and after fluoride release and recharge. Twenty-one specimens were prepared and divided into three groups for each material. First group was loaded in compression until failure. Fluoride released was measured from the remaining specimens, and then the second group of seven specimens was loaded at 28th day. The remaining seven specimens were exposed to 0.05% NaF solution and 1.23% APF gel. Fluoride amount was measured, and the last group was loaded at 70th day. Surface roughness measurement of five more disk-shaped specimens from each material was also carried out. After exposure to APF gel, all materials were recharged. At the end of experimental period, it was found that surface roughness increased, whereas compressive strength decreased, over time. In conclusion, fluoride-releasing fissure sealants could act as show, rechargeable fluoride release systems. However, if a fissure sealant exhibited high fluoride release, it had inferior mechanical properties.

  11. Systemic effect of water fluoridation on dental caries prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jae; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Deok-Young; Jung, Se-Hwan; Lee, Heung-Soo; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic effect of water fluoridation on dental caries prevalence and experience in Cheongju, South Korea, where water fluoridation ceased 7 years previously. A cross-sectional survey was employed at two schools where water fluoridation had ceased (WF-ceased area) and at two schools where the water had never been fluoridated (non-WF area). The schools in the non-WF area were of a similar population size to the schools in the WF-ceased area. Children of three age groups were examined in both areas: aged 6 (n = 505), 8 (n = 513), and 11 years (n = 467). The differences in the mean number of decayed or filled primary teeth (dft) and the mean number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) scores between areas after adjusting for oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors were analyzed by a Poisson regression model. The regression model showed that the DMFT ratio for children aged 11 years in the WF-ceased area was 0.581 (95% CI 0.450-0.751). In contrast, the dft ratio for age 6 in the WF-ceased area was 1.158 (95% CI 1.004-1.335). Only the DMFT ratio for age 8 (0.924, 95% CI 0.625-1.368) was not significant. While 6-year-old children who had not ingested fluoridated water showed higher dft in the WF-ceased area than in the non-WF area, 11-year-old children in the WF-ceased area who had ingested fluoridated water for approximately 4 years after birth showed significantly lower DMFT than those in the non-WF area. This suggests that the systemic effect of fluoride intake through water fluoridation could be important for the prevention of dental caries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Clinical Relevance of 18F-Sodium Fluoride Positron-Emission Tomography in Noninvasive Identification of High-Risk Plaque in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Myung; Bang, Ji-In; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Hwang, Doyeon; Park, Jonghanne; Zhang, Jinlong; Yaliang, Tong; Suh, Minseok; Paeng, Jin Chul; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Kubo, Takashi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron-emission tomography has been introduced as a potential noninvasive imaging tool to identify plaques with high-risk characteristics in patients with coronary artery disease. We sought to evaluate the clinical relevance of 18F-NaF uptake using optical coherence tomography (OCT), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and coronary computed tomography angiography in patients with coronary artery disease. The target population consisted of 51 prospectively enrolled patients (93 stenoses) who underwent 18F-NaF positron-emission tomography before invasive coronary angiography. 18F-NaF uptake was compared with IVUS- and OCT-derived plaque characteristics. In the coronary computed tomography angiography subgroup (46 lesions), qualitative lesion characteristics were compared between 18F-NaF-positive and 18F-NaF-negative plaques using adverse plaque characteristics. The plaques with 18F-NaF uptake showed significantly higher plaque burden, more frequent posterior attenuation and positive remodeling in IVUS, and significantly higher maximum lipid arc and more frequent microvessels in OCT (all PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02388412. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Coolant Compatibility Studies for Fusion and Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor Concepts: Corrosion of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron-Chromium Steels and Tantalum in High Temperature Molten Fluoride Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); El-dasher, Bassem [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferreira, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caro, Magdalena Serrano de [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kimura, Akihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    2010-05-04

    Alloys such as 12YWT & 14YWT have exceptional high-temperature strength at temperatures greater than 550 C. This class of materials has also demonstrated relatively little radiation induced swelling at damage levels of at least 75 dpa in sodium-cooled fast reactors. However, corrosion of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactor systems, including some fusion and fusionfission hybrid systems that are now under consideration. This paper reports corrosion studies of ODS steel in molten fluoride salts at temperatures ranging from 600 to 900 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to measure the temperature dependence of charge transfer kinetics in situ, while an environmental electron microscope (ESEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used for postexposure examination of test samples. ODS steel experienced corrosion in the molten fluoride salts at 550 to 900 C, even in carefully controlled glove-box environments with very low levels of oxygen and moisture. The observed rate of attack was found to accelerate dramatically at temperatures above 800 C. Tantalum and tantalum-based alloys such as Ta-1W and Ta-10W have exceptional high temperature strength, far better than ODS steels. Unlike ODS steels, tantalum has been found to exhibit some immunity to corrosive attack by molten fluoride salts at temperatures as high as 900 C, though there is some indication that grain boundary attack may have occurred. Unfortunately, tantalum alloys are known to become brittle during irradiation and exposure to hydrogen, both of which are important in fusion applications.

  14. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of combined use of topical fluoride products are essential issues that must be monitored. AIM: To assess urinary excretion of fluoride after application of two different dental varnishes containing 2.26% fluoride in 3- to 4-year-old children and to compare the ...

  15. Habituation to low or high protein intake does not modulate basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, S.H.; Horstman, Astrid; Franssen, Rinske; Kouw, I.W.; Wall, B.T.; Burd, N.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high

  16. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research Needs for... Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature. The document is... literature was undertaken to identify the potential adverse health effects for which further research might...

  17. High-NaCl intake impairs dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in ANG II-infused rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Marcussen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) in ANG II-infused rats and the influence of high-NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received ANG II (250 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) or saline vehicle (sham) for 14 days after which acute renal clearance experiments...

  18. Low Vitamin D Status and Inadequate Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children in a Highly Educated Pacific Northwest Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…

  19. High calorie, low nutrient food/beverage intake and video gaming in children as potential signals for addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  20. Sirt1 overexpression suppresses fluoride-induced p53 acetylation to alleviate fluoride toxicity in ameloblasts responsible for enamel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maiko; Ikeda, Atsushi; Bartlett, John D

    2017-11-28

    Low-dose fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but high-dose fluoride is an environmental health hazard that causes skeletal and dental fluorosis. Treatments to prevent fluorosis and the molecular pathways responsive to fluoride exposure remain to be elucidated. Previously we showed that fluoride activates SIRT1 as an adaptive response to protect cells. Here, we demonstrate that fluoride induced p53 acetylation (Ac-p53) [Lys379], which is a SIRT1 deacetylation target, in ameloblast-derived LS8 cells in vitro and in enamel organ in vivo. Here we assessed SIRT1 function on fluoride-induced Ac-p53 formation using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Sirt1 knockout (LS8Sirt/KO) cells or CRISPR/dCas9/SAM-mediated Sirt1 overexpressing (LS8Sirt1/over) cells. NaF (5 mM) induced Ac-p53 formation and increased cell cycle arrest via Cdkn1a/p21 expression in Wild-type (WT) cells. However, fluoride-induced Ac-p53 was suppressed by the SIRT1 activator resveratrol (50 µM). Without fluoride, Ac-p53 persisted in LS8Sirt/KO cells, whereas it decreased in LS8Sirt1/over. Fluoride-induced Ac-p53 formation was also suppressed in LS8Sirt1/over cells. Compared to WT cells, fluoride-induced Cdkn1a/p21 expression was elevated in LS8Sirt/KO and these cells were more susceptible to fluoride-induced growth inhibition. In contrast, LS8Sirt1/over cells were significantly more resistant. In addition, fluoride-induced cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 activation were suppressed in LS8Sirt1/over cells. Fluoride induced expression of the DNA double strand break marker γH2AX in WT cells and this was augmented in LS8Sirt1/KO cells, but was attenuated in LS8Sirt1/over cells. Our results suggest that SIRT1 deacetylates Ac-p53 to mitigate fluoride-induced cell growth inhibition, mitochondrial damage, DNA damage and apoptosis. This is the first report implicating Ac-p53 in fluoride toxicity.

  1. Poisoning by coal smoke containing arsenic and fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, D.; He, Y.G.; Hu, Q.X. [Guizhou Sanitary and Epidemiological Station, Guiyang (China)

    1997-02-01

    An investigation was made into a disease involving skin pigmentation, keratosis of the hands and feet, dental discoloration, and generalized bone and joint pain, stiffness and rigidity, in the village of Bazhi, Zhijin County, Ghizhou Province, People`s Republic of China. Measurements were made of the arsenic and fluoride levels of coal, water, air, food, urine and hair in Bazhi and a control village, Xinzhai, in which coal with a low arsenic content was used. Up to 188 people, including children, in Bazhi and 752 in Xinzhai, were examined for the presence of chronic arsenium, skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis and electrocardiogram abnormalities. The coal in Bazhi was found to contain high levels of arsenic and fluoride resulting, after burning in homes without an adequate chimney systems, in pollution of air and food with arsenic and fluoride. The coal in Xinzhai did not cause arsenic pollution but did produce a higher level of fluoride pollution. It was concluded that the endemic disease in Bazhi was caused by pollution by coal smoke containing arsenic and fluoride. It is suggested that arsenic may act synergistically with fluoride so that a lower level of fluoride may produce fluoride toxicity with dental and skeletal fluorosis.

  2. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  3. Prevention of dental caries through the effective use of fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that dental caries is a severe public health problem across the world. The current global and regional patterns of dental caries reflect distinct risk profiles of countries which relate to the structure of the society, living conditions......, lifestyles, and the existence of preventive oral health programmes. Research conducted in high income countries documents that systematic use of fluoride reduces the burden of dental caries; such research is scarce in low and middle income countries. Objectives: This article reviews the evidence on effective...... use of fluoride, highlights the public health approach to fluoridation, and clarifies how automatic fluoridation contributes to breaking social inequities in dental caries. Data collection: Scientific publications on fluoride administration stored in PubMed/Medline and caries data from the WHO...

  4. Fluoride induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium overload in ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, KaiQiang; Ma, Lin; Gu, HeFeng; Li, Jian; Lei, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and intracellular calcium overload on the development of dental fluorosis. We cultured and exposed rat ameloblast HAT-7 cells to various concentrations of fluoride and measured apoptosis with flow cytometry and intracellular Ca2+ changes using confocal microscopy, investigated the protein levels of GRP78, calreticulin, XBP1 and CHOP by western blotting, and their transcriptional levels with RT-PCR. We also created an in vivo model of dental fluorosis by exposing animals to various concentrations of fluoride. Subsequently, thin dental tissue slices were analyzed with H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay was also performed on dental tissue slices for assessment of apoptosis. High fluoride concentration was associated with decreased ameloblast proliferation, elevated ameloblast apoptosis, and increased intracellular Ca2+ in vitro. The translation and transcription of the proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress were significantly elevated with high concentrations of fluoride. Based on immunohistochemical staining, these proteins were also highly expressed in animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Histologically, we found significant fluorosis-like changes in tissues from animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy cytology indicated significant apoptotic changes in tissues exposed to high concentrations of fluoride. These results indicate that exposure to high levels of fluoride led to endoplasmic reticulum stress which induced apoptosis in cultured ameloblasts and in vivo rat model, suggesting an important role of calcium overload and endoplasmic reticulum stress triggered by high concentrations of fluoride in the development of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Floris Wardenaar; Naomi Brinkmans; Ingrid Ceelen; Bo Van Rooij; Marco Mensink; Renger Witkamp; Jeanne De Vries

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requireme...

  6. Adverse effect of high added sugar consumption on dietary intake in American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Mitchell, Diane

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)-recommended added sugar intake levels on nutrient and food group consumption by preschoolers. This was a cross-sectional study of 2- to 5-year-olds in the United States Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), 1994 to 1996, and 1998 (n = 5437). Main food sources of added sugar were established. For five categories (25%), mean nutrient and food group consumption and proportion of children not meeting the DRI were ascertained. The nonparametric test for trend indicated significance of changes. Analysis was stratified by age (2- to 3-year-olds versus 4- to 5-year-olds), and survey design corrected to maintain the nationally representative character of the data. The majority of children consumed less than 25% of energy from added sugar; the main sources were fruit and or soft drinks and desserts. Increasing added sugar consumption was paralleled by decreasing nutrient and food group intakes and increasing proportions of children with intakes below the DRI. Calcium intake was insufficient in large proportions of children consuming 16% or more from added sugar. In preschoolers, the new DRI for added sugar are reason for concern. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of the DRI on diet quality, body weight, and health status in young children.

  7. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  8. Lunch Salad Bars in New Orleans' Middle and High Schools: Student Intake of Fruit and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carolyn C; Myers, Leann; Mundorf, Adrienne R; O'Malley, Keelia; Spruance, Lori Andersen; Harris, Diane M

    2017-04-13

    The school lunch salad bar (SB) is a recommended food environmental strategy to increase access to, and consumption of fruit and vegetables (F/V). In a study to examine use of school lunch SBs, middle and high school students provided data via the Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) tool for kids (ASA24-Kids-2012), a web-based data collection platform. Kilocalories were computed, food groups were assigned and F/V sources were obtained. Students (n = 718) from 12 schools with SBs and nine schools without SBs were approximately 87% African American, over 64% female and most were 7th and 8th graders. SB school students had higher median energy consumption at lunch but a higher percent of non-SB students reported eating fruit at lunch compared to SB students. Most students reporting eating F/V at lunch obtained F/V from the cafeteria main line; only 19.6% reported eating F/V exclusively from the SB. In SB schools median intake of cups F/V was higher among students using the SB (0.92) compared to those not using the SB (0.53). Results of this study are mixed, but encouraging. Additional factors, e.g., nutrition education, marketing, and kinds of foods offered on the SB need to be examined for potential influence on SB use.

  9. Lunch Salad Bars in New Orleans’ Middle and High Schools: Student Intake of Fruit and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Mundorf, Adrienne R.; O’Malley, Keelia; Spruance, Lori Andersen; Harris, Diane M.

    2017-01-01

    The school lunch salad bar (SB) is a recommended food environmental strategy to increase access to, and consumption of fruit and vegetables (F/V). In a study to examine use of school lunch SBs, middle and high school students provided data via the Automated Self-Administered 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) tool for kids (ASA24-Kids-2012), a web-based data collection platform. Kilocalories were computed, food groups were assigned and F/V sources were obtained. Students (n = 718) from 12 schools with SBs and nine schools without SBs were approximately 87% African American, over 64% female and most were 7th and 8th graders. SB school students had higher median energy consumption at lunch but a higher percent of non-SB students reported eating fruit at lunch compared to SB students. Most students reporting eating F/V at lunch obtained F/V from the cafeteria main line; only 19.6% reported eating F/V exclusively from the SB. In SB schools median intake of cups F/V was higher among students using the SB (0.92) compared to those not using the SB (0.53). Results of this study are mixed, but encouraging. Additional factors, e.g., nutrition education, marketing, and kinds of foods offered on the SB need to be examined for potential influence on SB use. PMID:28406472

  10. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  11. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  12. Effects of high dose coffee intake on aerobic power in dragon female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabani Ramin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : There are few studies that consider the effect of high doses of caffeine on aerobic power (VO2max. Also, to date, no study examined the effect of coffee intake on dragon boat paddler specifically on women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of espresso coffee on improvement of aerobic power of dragon boat paddler. Material : Twenty women athletes of Guilan dragon bout team members of Malavan club of port city of Anzali (mean ±SD age, 23.60± 3.49 years; BMI,23.77±1.88kg/m2; body fat, 30.32±4.65% were recruited to this study, after they completed a primary test without consuming any coffee, they consumed 6mg/kg of coffee (espresso or decaffeinated and following that they completed two experimental trials. A randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures, design was employed whereby paddlers complete a 2000m paddling dragon boat ergo-meter. Results : Coffee could improve VO2max (Without coffee =74.40± QUOTE 4.99, Espresso coffee =90.10± QUOTE 6.19, Decaffeinated coffee =91.00± QUOTE 5.67, P≤ QUOTE 0.05. VO2max amount after exercise were significantly higher for both espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee, when compared with without coffee condition. No significant differences were observed between espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee (P≤ QUOTE 0.05. Conclusion : The present study shows that both high doses of caffeine (espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee can enhance VO2max during aerobic exercise including 2000m dragon boat paddling. It seems that some compounds except caffeine in decaffeinated coffee can act improve VO2max. Further studies needed for considering the effect of high doses of coffee on endurance exercises. Also in other age ranges of women athletes and other sport athletes.

  13. High-intensity intermittent exercise training with chlorella intake accelerates exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Uchida, Masataka; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tabata, Izumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic chlorella intake alone or in combination with high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the four groups: sedentary control, chlorella intake (0.5% chlorella powder in normal feed), HIIE training, and combination of HIIE training and chlorella intake for 6 wk ( n = 10 each group). HIIE training comprised 14 repeats of a 20-s swimming session with a 10-s pause between sessions, while bearing a weight equivalent to 16% of body weight, 4 days/week. Exercise performance was tested after the interventions by measuring the maximal number of HIIE sessions that could be completed. Chlorella intake and HIIE training significantly increased the maximal number of HIIE sessions and enhanced the expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1, MCT4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α concomitantly with the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome- c oxidase (COX) in the red region of the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the combination further augmented the increased exercise performance and the enhanced expressions and activities. By contrast, in the white region of the muscle, MCT1 expression and LDH, CS, and COX activities did not change. These results showed that compared with only chlorella intake and only HIIE training, chlorella intake combined with HIIE training has a more pronounced effect on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, in particular, lactate metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Fluoride treatment in corticosteroid induced osteoporosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rejou, F; Dumas, R; Belon, C; Meunier, P J; Edouard, C

    1986-01-01

    Severe osteoporosis with multiple vertebral fractures occurred in two girls receiving prolonged high dose corticosteroids for relapsing dermatomyositis. Sodium fluoride, supplemented with calcium and vitamin D, helped control secondary osteoporosis in one case and should be considered as part of the curative treatment of corticoid induced osteoporosis.

  15. Fluoride removal using lanthanum incorporated chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansiwal, Amit; Thakre, Dilip; Labhshetwar, Nitin; Meshram, Siddharth; Rayalu, Sadhana

    2009-11-01

    Highly selective material based on naturally occurring biomaterial namely chitosan has been designed for the defluoridation of water. Lanthanum incorporated chitosan beads (LCB) were prepared using precipitation method. The synthesis was optimized by varying different synthesis parameters namely lanthanum loading, complexation and precipitation time, strength of ammonia solution used for precipitation, drying time, etc. Lanthanum incorporated chitosan beads were characterized using SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDX. Surface area of LCB was observed to be 2.76 m(2)g(-1). The equilibrium adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm and showing maximum fluoride adsorption capacity of 4.7 mg g(-1) with negligible lanthanum release. Kinetic study reveals that adsorption of fluoride is fast and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The effect of pH was also studied and the best efficiency was observed at pH 5. Presence of sulphate, nitrate and chloride marginally affected the removal efficiency, however drastic reduction in fluoride uptake was observed in the presence of carbonate and bicarbonate. Negative value of change in free energy (DeltaG degrees) and positive value of change in entropy (DeltaS degrees) suggest the adsorption of fluoride by LCB is feasible and spontaneous process. Positive value of change in enthalpy (DeltaH degrees) suggests the process of fluoride adsorption is endothermic in nature. Regeneration study reveals that 1M ammonium chloride solution appears to be the promising regeneration media showing 81.22% regeneration. The adsorption capacity of LCB was similar in fluoride-contaminated ground water collected from Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India, as compared to simulated water.

  16. Thermally stimulated processes in Li and Cu doped alkali fluorides irradiated with electron beams of ultra-high dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamytbekov, Zh K.; Tcherepanov, A. N.; Slesarev, A. I.; Kidibaev, M. M.; Shi, Q.; Ivanovskikh, K. V.; Ivanov, V. Yu; Egamberdieva, A. A.; Shulgin, B. V.

    2017-05-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and exoemission (TSE) in Li and Cu doped NaF and LiF single crystals irradiated with electron high energy electron beams of (10 MeV, doses 0.75 and 2 MGy) have been investigated. The results obtained reveal important properties that suggest that the crystals have a sufficient radiation stability and sensitivity for high energy electron beams and are promising for application as high-dose detectors of electron radiation.

  17. The effect of a very high daily plant stanol ester intake on serum lipids, carotenoids, and fat-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Helena; Hallikainen, Maarit; Nissinen, Markku J; Miettinen, Tatu A

    2010-02-01

    Intake of 2-3 g/d of plant stanols as esters lowers LDL cholesterol level, but there is no information about the efficacy and safety of a respective very high daily intake. We studied the effects of 8.8 g/d of plant stanols as esters on serum lipids and safety variables in subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study the intervention (n=25) and control (n=24) groups consumed spread and drink enriched or not with plant stanol esters for 10 weeks. Plant stanols reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations by 12.8 and 17.3% from baseline and by 12.0 and 17.1% from controls (Pvitamins A, D, and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, and the ratios of alpha-tocopherol to cholesterol were unchanged. Serum beta-carotene concentrations decreased significantly from baseline and were different from controls even when adjusted for cholesterol. Serum alpha-carotene concentration and alpha-carotene/cholesterol ratio were not different from controls. High intake of plant stanols reduced LDL cholesterol values without any other side effects than reduction of serum beta-carotene concentration. However, the end product, serum vitamin A levels, were unchanged. The results suggest that plant stanol ester intake can be increased to induce a greater cholesterol lowering effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. High Dry Bean Intake and Reduced Risk of Advanced Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence among Participants in the Polyp Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl J.; Albert, Paul S.; Shields, Rusty; Slattery, Martha; Caan, Bette; Paskett, Electra; Iber, Frank; Kikendall, James Walter; Lance, Peter; Daston, Cassandra; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was suggested to protect against colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas; however, several recent prospective studies reported no association. We examined the association between fruits and vegetables and adenomatous polyp recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT). The PPT was a low-fat, high-fiber, high-fruit, and vegetable dietary intervention trial of adenoma recurrence, in which there were no differences in the rate of adenoma recurrence in parti...

  19. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  20. Use of fluorides in dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Mei, May L; Lo, Edward C M

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is commonly and widely used to prevent and even arrest caries. The clinical effects of fluorides depend on the chemical compounds utilized and the methods used to apply the fluoride ion to the surface of the tooth. Fluorosis has been reported in conjunction with increased doses of fluoride. A coordinated approach to fluoride delivery is essential to avoid the risk of fluorosis.

  1. A study of the mechanism of fluoride adsorption from aqueous solutions onto Fe-impregnated chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Nan; Tang, Zheng; Yu, Yang; Hu, Qili; Feng, Chuanping

    2015-05-14

    The adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solutions onto an Fe-impregnated chitosan (Fe-CTS) granular adsorbent was studied, and the adsorption capacity was determined to be 1.9736 mg g(-1) at an initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg L(-1). The effects of the initial fluoride concentration, dosage, and temperature were investigated using factorial design and analysis. The results indicated that high initial fluoride concentrations, low dosages, and low temperatures could enhance the fluoride adsorption capacity. In addition, Fe-CTS exhibited high selectivity for fluoride removal in the presence of high levels of several coexisting anions (nitrate, chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate), except carbonate and sulfate. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir model at low fluoride concentrations and the Freundlich model at high initial fluoride concentrations. The data also fit the pseudo-second-order model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy were used to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. The FTIR and EXAFS analyses revealed that Fe was chelated with -NH2 and -OH groups on the CTS, and fluoride adsorption on the Fe-CTS occurred due to ion exchange between chloride and fluoride. a granular Fe-impregnated chitosan (Fe-CTS) adsorbent was synthesized via chelation of Fe ions to -OH and -NH2 groups of CTS. The Fe-CTS granular adsorbent exhibited high performance for the adsorption of fluoride. The mechanism of fluoride adsorption on Fe-CTS was elucidated using EXAFS and FTIR analyses. Fluoride adsorption on Fe-CTS occurred via ion exchange between chloride and fluoride.

  2. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  3. High Salt Intake Increases Copeptin but Salt Sensitivity Is Associated with Fluid Induced Reduction of Copeptin in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tasevska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if copeptin is affected by high salt intake and whether any salt-induced changes in copeptin are related to the degree of salt sensitivity. The study was performed on 20 men and 19 women. In addition to meals containing 50 mmol NaCl daily, capsules containing 100 mmol NaCl and corresponding placebo capsules were administered during 4 weeks each, in random order. Measurements of 24 h blood pressure, body weight, 24 h urinary volume, and fasting plasma copeptin were performed at high and low salt consumption. Copeptin increased after a high compared to low dietary salt consumption in all subjects 3,59 ± 2,28 versus 3,12 ± 1,95 (P = 0,02. Copeptin correlated inversely with urinary volume, at both low (r = −0,42; P = 0,001 and high (r = −0,60; P < 0,001 salt consumption, as well as with the change in body weight (r = −0,53; P < 0,001. Systolic salt sensitivity was inversely correlated with salt-induced changes of copeptin, only in females (r = −0,58; P = 0,017. As suppression of copeptin on high versus low salt intake was associated with systolic salt sensitivity in women, our data suggest that high fluid intake and fluid retention may contribute to salt sensitivity.

  4. Somatostatin Neurons in the Basal Forebrain Promote High-Calorie Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global issue, and the overconsumption of food is thought to be a major contributor. However, the regulatory neural circuits that regulate palatable food consumption remain unclear. Here, we report that somatostatin (SOM neurons and GABAergic (VGAT neurons in the basal forebrain (BF play specific roles in regulating feeding. Optogenetic stimulation of BF SOM neurons increased fat and sucrose intake within minutes and promoted anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of projections from BF SOM neurons to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA selectively resulted in fat intake. In addition, activation of BF VGAT neurons rapidly induced general food intake and gnawing behaviors. Whole-brain mapping of inputs and outputs showed that BF SOM neurons form bidirectional connections with several brain areas important in feeding and regulation of emotion. Collectively, these results suggest that BF SOM neurons play a selective role in hedonic feeding.

  5. Investigation of an IC Engine Intake Flow Based on Highly Resolved LES and PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce emissions and fuel consumption, the current generation of gasoline engines uses technologies such as direct injection, downsizing and supercharging. All of them require a strong vortical in-cylinder charge motion, usually described as “tumble”, to improve fuel-air mixing and enhance flame propagation. The tumble development strongly depends on the flow field during the intake stroke. This flow field is dominated by the intake jet, which has to be captured well in the simulation. This work investigates the intake jet on a steady-state flow bench, especially in the vicinity of the intake valve. At first, the general flow dynamics of the intake jet for three different valve lifts and three different mass flows were investigated experimentally. For the smallest valve lift (3 mm, flow-field measurements using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV show that the orientation of the intake jet significantly depends on the air flow rate, attaching to the pent roof for low flow rates. This phenomenon is less pronounced for higher valve lifts. An intermediate valve lift and flow rate were chosen for further investigations by scale-resolving simulations. Three different meshes (coarse, medium and fine and two turbulence models (Sigma and Detached Eddy Simulation-Shear Stress Transport (DES-SST are applied to consider their effect on the numerical results. An ad-hoc post-processing methodology based on the ensemble-averaged velocity field is presented capturing the jet centerline’s mean velocity and velocity fluctuations as well as its orientation, curvature and penetration depth. The simulation results are compared to each other as well as to measurements by PIV.

  6. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  7. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  8. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  9. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  10. Comparison of Fluoridated Miswak and Toothbrushing with Fluoridated Toothpaste on Plaque Removal and Fluoride Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeshen, Hosam; Salahuddin, Sabin; Dam, Robel; Zawawi, Khalid H; Birkhed, Dowen

    2017-04-01

    Dental caries and periodontal diseases are all induced by oral biofilm (dental plaque). This study was conducted to evaluate if fluoride-impregnated miswak is as effective in plaque removal and fluoride release as toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. This single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted at the Department of Cariology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, from February 2010 to January 2011. Fifteen healthy subjects participated in this study. The participants were instructed to use the following: (1) 0.5% NaF-impregnated miswak, (2) nonfluoridated miswak, (3) toothbrush with nonfluoride toothpaste, and (4) toothbrush with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Each method was used twice a day for 1 week after which plaque amount and fluoride concentration in resting saliva were measured. There was a 1-week washout period between each method. No significant difference between miswak and tooth-brushing was found regarding plaque removal on buccal and lingual surfaces. A somewhat higher fluoride concentration in resting saliva was found after using impregnated miswak when compared with toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste (p toothbrushing showed the same plaque removing effect on buccal and lingual surfaces. Miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF resulted in a higher concentration of fluoride in saliva than brushing with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF and toothbrushing results in comparable plaque removal and about the same fluoride concentration in saliva even it was somewhat higher for impregnated miswak.

  11. Metal Fluoride Complexes of Na,K-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2011-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase belongs to the P-type ATPase family of primary active cation pumps. Metal fluorides like magnesium-, beryllium-, and aluminum fluoride act as phosphate analogues and inhibit P-type ATPases by interacting with the phosphorylation site, stabilizing conformations that are analogous to specific phosphoenzyme intermediates. Cardiotonic steroids like ouabain used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias specifically inhibit the Na,K-ATPase, and the detailed structure of the highly conserved binding site has recently been described by the crystal structure of the shark Na,K-ATPase in a state analogous to E2·2K+·Pi with ouabain bound with apparently low affinity (1). In the present work inhibition, and subsequent reactivation by high Na+, after treatment of shark Na,K-ATPase with various metal fluorides are characterized. Half-maximal inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity by metal fluorides is in the micromolar range. The binding of cardiotonic steroids to the metal fluoride-stabilized enzyme forms was investigated using the fluorescent ouabain derivative 9-anthroyl ouabain and compared with binding to phosphorylated enzyme. The fastest binding was to the Be-fluoride stabilized enzyme suggesting a preformed ouabain binding cavity, in accord with results for Ca-ATPase where Be-fluoride stabilizes the E2-P ground state with an open luminal ion access pathway, which in Na,K-ATPase could be a passage for ouabain. The Be-fluoride stabilized enzyme conformation closely resembles the E2-P ground state according to proteinase K cleavage. Ouabain, but not its aglycone ouabagenin, prevented reactivation of this metal fluoride form by high Na+ demonstrating the pivotal role of the sugar moiety in closing the extracellular cation pathway. PMID:21708939

  12. Effects of amino acids and energy intake during late gestation of high-performing gilts and sows on litter and reproductive performance under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M A D; Gourley, K M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Bello, N M; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of AA and energy intake during late gestation on piglet birth weight and reproductive performance of high-performing (14.5 total born) gilts and sows housed under commercial conditions. At d 90 of gestation, a total of 1,102 females (PIC 1050) were housed in pens by parity group (gilts or sows) with approximately 63 gilts and 80 sows in each pen, blocked by BW within each pen, and each female was randomly assigned to dietary treatments within BW block. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA intakes (10.7 or 20.0 g/d SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC [2012] recommendations) and 2 energy intakes (4.50 or 6.75 Mcal/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models specified to recognize pen as the experimental unit for parity and the individual female as the experimental unit for dietary treatments. Results indicate an overall positive effect of high energy intake on BW gain during late gestation, although this effect was more manifest under conditions of high, as opposed to low, AA intake (interaction, gilts. Sows fed high energy intake had a reduced probability of piglets born alive ( gilts. This can be explained by an increased probability ( = 0.002) of stillborns in sows fed high energy intake vs. sows fed low energy intake. There were no evidences for differences among dietary treatments in litter birth weight and individual piglet birth weight of total piglets born. However, individual born alive birth weight was approximately 30 ± 8.2 g heavier ( = 0.011) for females fed high, as opposed to low, energy intake. Furthermore, piglets born alive were approximately 97 ± 9.5 g heavier ( gilts. Preweaning mortality was decreased ( = 0.034) for females fed high AA intake compared with females fed low AA intake regardless of energy level. In conclusion, 1) BW gain of gilts and sows depended not

  13. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  14. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in post-menopausal women >/= 50 years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate i...

  15. Long-Term Intake of a High-Protein Diet Affects Body Phenotype, Metabolism, and Plasma Hormones in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, John P; Luong, Leon; Parsons, William F; Oh, Suwan; Sanford, Daniel; Gabalski, Arielle; Lighton, John Rb; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2017-12-01

    Background: High-protein diets (HPDs) recently have been used to obtain body weight and fat mass loss and expand muscle mass. Several studies have documented that HPDs reduce appetite and food intake.Objective: Our goal was to determine the long-term effects of an HPD on body weight, energy intake and expenditure, and metabolic hormones.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 wk old) were fed either an HPD (60% of energy as protein) or a control diet (CD; 20% of energy as protein) for 12 wk. Body composition and food intakes were determined, and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in mice after being fed and after overnight feed deprivation at several time points.Results: HPD mice had significantly lower body weight (in means ± SEMs; 25.73 ± 1.49 compared with 32.5 ± 1.31 g; P = 0.003) and fat mass (9.55% ± 1.24% compared with 15.78% ± 2.07%; P = 0.05) during the first 6 wk compared with CD mice, and higher lean mass throughout the study starting at week 2 (85.45% ± 2.25% compared with 75.29% ± 1.90%; P = 0.0001). Energy intake, total energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were significantly lower in HPD compared with CD mice as shown by cumulative energy intake and eating rate. Water vapor was significantly higher in HPD mice during both dark and light phases. In HPD mice, concentrations of leptin [feed-deprived: 41.31 ± 11.60 compared with 3041 ± 683 pg/mL (P = 0.0004); postprandial: 112.5 ± 102.0 compared with 8273 ± 1415 pg/mL (P weight and fat mass loss, but throughout the study preserved body lean mass and significantly reduced energy intake and expenditure as well as leptin and GLP-1 concentrations while elevating postprandial glucagon concentrations. This study suggests that long-term use of HPDs may be an effective strategy to decrease energy intake and expenditure and to maintain body lean mass. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Fluoride exposure in public drinking water and childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Natalie P; Napier, Thomas S; Villanacci, John F

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between fluoride levels in public drinking water and childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas; to date, studies examining this relationship have been equivocal. Using areas with high and low naturally occurring fluoride, as well as areas with optimal fluoridation, we examined a wide range of fluoride levels in public drinking water. This was a population-based case-control study, with both cases and controls obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Eligible cases were Texas children and adolescents water fluoride exposure levels based on the fluoride levels of their residence's public water system (PWS). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association between osteosarcoma and public drinking water fluoride level, adjusting for several demographic risk factors. Three hundred and eight osteosarcoma cases, 598 leukemia controls, and 604 CNS tumor controls met selection criteria and were assigned a corresponding PWS fluoride level. PWS fluoride level was not associated with osteosarcoma, either in a univariable analysis or after adjusting for age, sex, race, and poverty index. Stratified analyses by sex were conducted; no association between PWS fluoride level and osteosarcoma was observed among either males or females. No relationship was found between fluoride levels in public drinking water and childhood/adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas.

  17. Community water fluoridation and health outcomes in England: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicholas; Newton, John; Morris, John; Morris, Joan; Langford, John; Iloya, Jonathan; Edwards, Diane; Makhani, Semina; Verne, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Six million people in England live in areas where the level of fluoride in water is adjusted to reduce the significant public health burden of dental caries. The dental effects of fluoride are well established, but evidence for suggested adverse health effects is limited, with a lack of rigorous small area population studies that control for confounding. This study aims to test the association between water fluoridation schemes and selected health outcomes using the best available routine data sources. Ecological level exposure to fluoridated water was estimated for standard small areas and administrative districts in England using Geographical Information Systems and digitized boundaries based on known patterns of water supply. The association between fluoridation and dental and nondental health indicators was tested using multivariable regression models including ecological level confounding variables. Health indicator data were obtained from routine sources. There was strong evidence of lower prevalence of dental caries (P fluoridated areas, they also had fewer teeth affected on average (P fluoridation and hip fracture, Down syndrome, all-cancer, all-cause mortality or osteosarcoma. Fluoridation was negatively associated with the incidence of renal stones (7.9% lower; 95% CI-9.6%,-6.2%; P fluoridation is a safe and highly effective public health measure to reduce dental decay. Although lower rates of certain nondental outcomes were found in fluoridated areas, the ecological, observational design prohibits any conclusions being drawn regarding a protective role of fluoridation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of a high intake of conjugated linoleic acid on lipoprotein levels in healthy human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Wanders

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of trans fatty acids from ruminants are less clear. We investigated the effect on blood lipids of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a trans fatty acid largely restricted to ruminant fats.Sixty-one healthy women and men were sequentially fed each of three diets for three weeks, in random order, for a total of nine weeks. Diets were identical except for 7% of energy (approximately 20 g/day, which was provided either by oleic acid, by industrial trans fatty acids, or by a mixture of 80% cis-9, trans-11 and 20% trans-10, cis-12 CLA. After the oleic acid diet, mean (+/- SD serum LDL cholesterol was 2.68+/-0.62 mmol/L compared to 3.00+/-0.66 mmol/L after industrial trans fatty acids (p<0.001, and 2.92+/-0.70 mmol/L after CLA (p<0.001. Compared to oleic acid, HDL-cholesterol was 0.05+/-0.12 mmol/L lower after industrial trans fatty acids (p = 0.001 and 0.06+/-0.10 mmol/L lower after CLA (p<0.001. The total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was 11.6% higher after industrial trans fatty acids (p<0.001 and 10.0% higher after CLA (p<0.001 relative to the oleic acid diet.High intakes of an 80:20 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA raise the total to HDL cholesterol ratio in healthy volunteers. The effect of CLA may be somewhat less than that of industrial trans fatty acids.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00529828.

  19. Anionic chromogenic chemosensors highly selective for fluoride or cyanide based on 4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoleti, Celso R.; Marini, Vanderleia G.; Zimmermann, Lizandra M.; Machado, Vanderlei G., E-mail: vanderlei.machado@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol was used in two strategies allowing the highly selective detection of F{sup -} and CN{sup -}. Firstly, the compound in acetonitrile acts as a chromogenic chemosensor based on the idea that more basic anions cause its deprotonation (colorless solution), generating a colored solution containing phenolate. The discrimination of CN{sup -} over F{sup -} was obtained by adding 1.4% water to acetonitrile: water preferentially solvates F{sup -}, leaving the CN{sup -} free to deprotonate the compound. Another strategy involved an assay comprised of the competition between phenolate dye and the analyte for calyx[4]pyrrole in acetonitrile, a receptor highly selective for F{sup -}. Phenolate and calyx[4]pyrrole form a hydrogen-bonded complex, which changes the color of the medium. On the addition of various anions, only F{sup -} was able to restore the original color corresponding to phenolate in solution due to the fact that the anion dislodges phenolate from the complexation site. (author)

  20. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  1. Fluoride gases damages on agricultural and ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, V.; Padalino, O.

    1968-01-01

    Reports are presented concerning fluoride gases from a brick furnace, damaging agricultural and ornamental plants: Prunus armeniaca L. var. Reale d'Imola, Vitis vinifera L. var. Cardinal, Gladiolus spp., Pinus pinea L., Iris germanica L., that are particularly sensitive to these gases. There are descriptions of the morphological alterations and the authors have proven the presence of fluoride in the chemically analyzed samples. There is a list of plants found near the brick furnace that have been classified as (I) highly sensitive; (II) moderately sensitive; (III) very little sensitivity; (IV) immune to fluoride gases. 10 references, 9 figures.

  2. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Donna Spruijt-Metz; Chih Ping Chou; Mary Ann Pentz

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction s...

  3. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  4. Comments on: High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Sabico S, O'Hare JP, Ceriello A, Saravanan P, Kumar S, McTernan PG. High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb; 35(2: 375-82

  5. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  6. A high sodium intake reduces antiproteinuric response to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfá, Elena; Rodrigo, Emilio; Belmar, Lara; Sango, Cristina; Moussa, Fozi; Ruiz San Millán, Juan Carlos; Piñera, Celestino; Fernández-Fresnedo, Gema; Arias, Manuel

    Post-transplant proteinuria is associated with lower graft and patient survival. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers are used to reduce proteinuria and improve renal outcome. Although it is known that a high salt intake blunts the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI and ARB drugs in non-transplant patients, this effect has not been studied in kidney transplant recipients. To analyse the relationship between sodium intake and the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI/ARB drugs in kidney transplant recipients. We selected 103 kidney transplant recipients receiving ACEI/ARB drugs for more than 6 months due to proteinuria>1 g/day. Proteinuria was analysed at baseline and at 6 months after starting ACEI/ARB treatment. Salt intake was estimated by urinary sodium to creatinine ratio (uNa/Cr). Proteinuria fell to less than 1g/day in 46 patients (44.7%). High uNa/Cr was associated with a smaller proteinuria decrease (r=-0.251, P=.011). The percentage proteinuria reduction was significantly lower in patients in the highest uNa/Cr tertile [63.9% (IQR 47.1%), 60.1% (IQR 55.4%), 38.9% (IQR 85.5%), P=.047]. High uNa/Cr independently relates (OR 2.406 per 100 mEq/g, 95% CI: 1.008-5.745, P=.048) to an antiproteinuric response <50% after renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. A high salt intake results in a smaller proteinuria decrease in kidney transplant recipients with proteinuria treated with ACEI/ARB drugs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Isocaloric intake of diets differing in macronutrient content (high protein or high fat) in adult rats indicate adverse effects as analysed by hepatic transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Schothorst, van Evert; Keijer, Jaap; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular

  8. Comparative evaluation of enamel remineralization potential of processed cheese, calcium phosphate-based synthetic agent, and a fluoride-containing toothpaste: An in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Grewal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel remineralization potential of variety of products has been established, but there is a lack of evidence of comparison of remineralization potential of natural versus synthetic products. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the enamel remineralization potential of saliva, cheese, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP-based synthetic agent, and fluoride toothpaste. Design: In situ study was carried out on sixty individuals who wore an intraoral appliance containing demineralized enamel slabs for each agent. One out of six slabs was kept as a control so as to record the baseline values (neither subjected to demineralization nor remineralization. Experimental agents were applied on the designated enamel slabs on day 1, 4, 7, and 10 with a crossover wash out period of 7 days. Quantitative values of mineral content of slab were measured using energy dispersive X-ray and qualitative changes in surface topography of slab were seen under scanning electron microscope at ×20K magnification. Results: Highly significant changes from baseline values were seen in calcium and phosphorus content of slabs treated with cheese and CPP-ACP-based agent whereas levels of fluoride were significantly higher in enamel slabs treated with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Conclusion: Cheese is an organic, economical, and user-friendly option over prescribed synthetic agents. A synergistic effect of fluoride-containing toothpaste with intake of cheese could be a good enamel remineralization protocol.

  9. Innovative Monitoring of Atmospheric Gaseous Hydrogen Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dugheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen fluoride (HF is a basic raw material for a wide variety of industrial products, with a worldwide production capacity of more than three million metric tonnes. A novel method for determining particulate fluoride and gaseous hydrogen fluoride in air is presented herewith. Air was sampled using miniaturised 13 mm Swinnex two-stage filter holders in a medium-flow pumping system and through the absorption of particulate fluoride and HF vapours on cellulose ester filters uncoated or impregnated with sodium carbonate. Furthermore, filter desorption from the holders and the extraction of the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivative based on solid-phase microextraction were performed using an innovative robotic system installed on an xyz autosampler on-line with gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS. After generating atmospheres of a known concentration of gaseous HF, we evaluated the agreement between the results of our sampling method and those of the conventional preassembled 37 mm cassette (±8.10%; correlation coefficient: 0.90. In addition, precision (relative standard deviation for n=10, 4.3%, sensitivity (0.2 μg/filter, and linearity (2.0–4000 μg/filter; correlation coefficient: 0.9913 were also evaluated. This procedure combines the efficiency of GC/MS systems with the high throughput (96 samples/day and the quantitative accuracy of pentafluorobenzyl bromide on-sample derivatisation.

  10. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM.

  11. High beverage sugar as well as high animal protein intake at infancy may increase overweight risk at 8 years: a prospective longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Baar Nicolien M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined effects of early exposure to beverage sugar and animal protein and later life overweight risk have not been studied. Methods A prospective longitudinal study was initiated in 2001 with 226 infants between 4 and 13 months of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a 2 day food record. Also information on infant body weight and socio-economic status was obtained at baseline. At 8 year follow-up in 2009, children were surveyed again. Main outcome measure was overweight at 8 years as defined by BMIsds > = +1.0. Also maternal BMI, present dietary intake and physical activity, were obtained by questionnaire and 2-day food record. Results At the 8 year follow up, 120 children (53% were surveyed again. Of those, questionnaires and food records were completed for 63 children, for the other 57 children only weight and height at 8 years was available; 20 out of 120 children (17% were self-reported overweight at 8 years of age. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI for overweight at 8 years were 1.10 (1.02, 1.18 for beverage sugar intake per one percent of energy intake and 4.06 (1.50, 11.00 for the highest tertile of animal protein intake at infancy compared to the lowest two tertiles. After adjustment for sex, age, infant weight, breastfed at intake assessment, and socio-economic status, odds ratios were 1.13 (1.03, 1.24 for beverage sugar, and 9.67 (2.56, 36.53 for highest tertile of animal protein intake. In the subgroup with completed questionnaire (n = 63 ORs were also adjusted for current maternal overweight, more than 2 months full breastfeeding, physical activity, and energy intake, but ORs remained significantly associated with overweight at 8 years. Conclusions A high intake of sugar containing beverages as well as animal protein in the first year of life may increase the risk of overweight at 8 years. The results of this pilot investigation should be confirmed in a larger cohort.

  12. Facile fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanodot arrays for organic ferroelectric memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Huajing [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) Hunghom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yan, Qingfeng, E-mail: yanqf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: jiyan.dai@polyu.edu.hk; Geng, Chong; Li, Qiang [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chan, Ngai Yui; Au, Kit; Ng, Sheung Mei; Leung, Chi Wah; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Dai, Jiyan, E-mail: yanqf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: jiyan.dai@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) Hunghom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yao, Jianjun [Asylum Research, Oxford Instruments, Shanghai 200233 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-07

    Nano-patterned ferroelectric materials have attracted significant attention as the presence of two or more thermodynamically equivalent switchable polarization states can be employed in many applications such as non-volatile memory. In this work, a simple and effective approach for fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays is demonstrated. By using a soft polydimethylsiloxane mold, we successfully transferred the 2D array pattern from the initial monolayer of colloidal polystyrene nanospheres to the imprinted P(VDF-TrFE) films via nanoimprinting. The existence of a preferred orientation of the copolymer chain after nanoimprinting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Local polarization switching behavior was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy, and each nanodot showed well-formed hysteresis curve and butterfly loop with a coercive field of ∼62.5 MV/m. To illustrate the potential application of these ordered P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays, the writing and reading process as non-volatile memory was demonstrated at a relatively low voltage. As such, our results offer a facile and promising route to produce arrays of ferroelectric polymer nanodots with improved piezoelectric functionality.

  13. [Exposure to fluorides from drinking water in the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Vázquez, R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2001-08-01

    Determine the fluoride content in all the wells that supply drinking water to the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico, in order to establish the population's degree of exposure. The fluoride content of the 126 wells that supply drinking water to the city of Aguascalientes was determined, using the SPADNS method, in accordance with two Mexican regulations, NMX-AA-77-1982 and NMX-014-SSAI-1993. Using that data, we created fluoride isopleth maps showing the distribution of fluoride concentrations in the water supplies for the city of Aguascalientes. We also estimated exposure doses for the city's inhabitants. The mean analysis uncertainty was 3.9%. Seventy-three wells had a fluoride concentration of" 1.5 mg/L, which was the maximum permissible value set by the Mexican standards then in effect. All the maximum exposure doses surpassed the minimum risk level set by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) of the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States of America. In the children under 1 year of age, even the minimum does was slightly higher than the ATSDR risk level. From estimating the fluoride exposure doses caused by water consumption in the city of Aguascalientes and comparing those doses with ones from other states in Mexico, we concluded that the fluoride intake in Aguascalientes represents a potential risk for inhabitants' health. The fluoride content of the city's drinking water should be reduced to 0.69 mg/L.

  14. Use of bauxite from active Iranian mines for the removal of fluoride from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride plays an important role in bone and dentin mineralization; however, excess fluoride intake is harmful to mankind. Methods: This study evaluated the performance of bauxite from active Iranian mines in removing fluoride from drinking water. The effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and fluoride concentration on defluoridation and removal efficiency were determined. Kinetics and adsorption isotherms were studied. Fluoride levels were measured using SPADNS. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. Results: Bauxite from the Jajarm mine had the lowest adsorbency (20 g/L and required the shortest contact time (90 minutes to reach equilibrium compared with the ore from bauxite mines evaluated in another study which had greater efficiency rates in removing fluoride from drinking water (58.15%. The fluoride removal efficiency rates of the other bauxite mines were as follows: Mendon > Sadrabad > Khidabas > Khezri > Shahbalaghi > Tash > Biglar. Bauxite from Shomal-e Yazd, Hasanabad, and Shahid Nilchian mines could not achieve the required efficiency to remove fluoride from drinking water without initial preparation and modification. The removal efficiency rates of actual samples were much lower than the synthetic samples because of confounding factors. Conclusion: As a result of the low cost and abundant availability of bauxite and the fact that its use does not require a particular expertise or sophisticated technology, the removal efficiency of this adsorbent can be increased to desirable levels through the use of corrective methods such as heating, acidifying, particle crushing, or the mixing of two or more removal systems.

  15. Fluoride content of several breakfast cereals and snacks found in Brazil Conteúdo de flúor em diversos cereais matinais e salgadinhos encontrados no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Eid da Silva Cardoso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast cereals and snacks are foodstuffs highly appreciated by children, and the possibility that they contain substantial amounts of fluoride, associated with their widespread consume, may make them important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the fluoride content on several breakfast cereals (A and snacks (B purchased in Brazil. The analysis were made after HMDS-facilitated diffusion (Taves using the ion-specific electrode (9609. Mean fluoride concentrations ± SD (range, unit mg F/g were: A= 0.76 ± 0.60 (0.08-1.86, n=15 and B= 0.32 ± 0.09 (0.22-0.55, n=18. Our results suggest that the total amount of fluoride available in some products may contribute to the total daily fluoride intake. The product labels should provide information on their fluoride content to prevent fluorosis at the age of risk.Cereais matinais e salgadinhos são guloseimas altamente apreciadas pelas crianças, e a possibilidade de conterem quantidades substanciais de flúor, associada ao seu indiscriminado consumo, pode torná-los importantes contribuintes para a ingestão diária total de flúor. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o conteúdo de flúor em diversos cereais matinais (A e salgadinhos (B adquiridos no Brasil. As análises foram feitas após difusão facilitada por HMDS (Taves, usando o eletrodo íon específico (9609. As concentrações médias de flúor ± SD (amplitude, unidade mg F/g foram: A= 0,76 ± 0,60 (0,08-1,86, n=15 e B= 0,32 ± 0,09 (0,22-0,55, n=18. Nossos resultados sugerem que a quantidade de flúor presente em alguns produtos pode contribuir com a ingestão diária total de flúor. Os rótulos dos produtos deveriam informar seu conteúdo de flúor para prevenir fluorose no período de risco.

  16. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Huh

    Full Text Available Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans.We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010. The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI and fatty liver index (FLI. BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD.The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001. Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values.High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  17. NUTRITIONAL INTAKE OF YOUNG ITALIAN HIGH-LEVEL SOCCER PLAYERS: UNDER-REPORTING IS THE ESSENTIAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Caccialanza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized that much of the dietary data on adolescents and athletes is prone to reporting error, mostly through under-reporting. Nevertheless, in the majority of studies assessing the nutritional intake of young soccer players under-reporting has not been taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary intake of a sample of young male Italian high-level soccer players on two time points to evaluate the degree of under- reporting. Seventy-five male high level soccer players (age range: 15-17 years completed 4-day food records on two separate occasions (T0; T1, 3 months after T0. Under-reporting was assessed by the ratio of reported estimated energy intake (EEI to estimated energy expenditure (EEE. Forty- three subjects, whose food records were judged accurate enough both at T0 and T1, were included in the data analysis (inclusion rate 57.3%. No significant weight changes were documented between T0 and T1 and in the two weeks preceding both T0 and T1. Reported mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than mean estimated daily energy expenditure both at T0 and T1 (p < 0.001. The average EEI/EEE ratio was 0.75 + 0.2 both at T0 and T1. It was < 80% in 27 subjects (62.8% at T0 and in 23 (53.4% at T1; it reached 50% in 4 subjects both at T0 and T1. The degree of under- reporting of the young soccer players was in line with the available data on this age group. This study emphasizes that under-reporting is a critical issue in the evaluation of young athletes dietary intake, which should be considered in the interpretation of data, particularly when energy inadequacies are reported. Further studies with uniformed methods are needed, in order to reduce the degree of under-reporting, obtain reliable data on the dietary intake of young soccer players and evaluate the efficacy of targeted nutrition education programs

  18. Drinking water fluoridation and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allolio, B; Lehmann, R

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water fluoridation has an established role in the prevention of dental caries, but may also positively or negatively affect bone. In bone fluoride is incorporated into hydroxylapatite to form the less soluble fluoroapatite. In higher concentrations fluoride stimulates osteoblast activity leading to an increase in cancellous bone mass. As optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/l) is widely used, it is of great interest, whether long-term exposition to artificial water fluoridation has any impact on bone strength, bone mass, and -- most importantly -- fracture rate. Animal studies suggest a biphasic pattern of the effect of drinking water fluoridation on bone strength with a peak strength at a bone fluoride content of 1200 ppm followed by a decline at higher concentrations eventually leading to impaired bone quality. These changes are not paralleled by changes in bone mass suggesting that fluoride concentrations remain below the threshold level required for activation of osteoblast activity. Accordingly, in most epidemiological studies in humans bone mass was not altered by optimal drinking water fluoridation. In contrast, studies on the effect on hip fracture rate gave conflicting results ranging from an increased fracture incidence to no effect, and to a decreased fracture rate. As only ecological studies have been performed, they may be biased by unknown confounding factors -- the so-called ecological fallacy. However, the combined results of these studies indicate that any increase or decrease in fracture rate is likely to be small. It has been calculated that appropriately designed cohort studies to solve the problem require a sample size of >400,000 subjects. Such studies will not be performed in the foreseeable future. Future investigations in humans should, therefore, concentrate on the effect of long-term drinking water fluoridation on bone fluoride content and bone strength.

  19. Relationship between residual feed intake and digestibility for lactating Holstein cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2017-01-01

    We determined if differences in digestibility among cows explained variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 4 crossover design experiments. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 120±30d in milk; mean ± SD) were fed diets high (HS) or low (LS) in starch. The HS diets were 30% (±1.8%) starch and 27% (±1.2%) neutral detergent fiber (NDF); LS diets were 14% (±2.2%) starch and 40% (±5.3%) NDF. Each experiment consisted of two 28-d treatment periods, with apparent total-tract digestibility measured using indigestible NDF as an internal marker during the last 5d of each period. Individual cow dry matter (DM) intake and milk yield were recorded daily, body weight was measured 3 to 5 times per week, and milk components were analyzed 2 d/wk. Individual DM intake was regressed on milk energy output, metabolic body weight, body energy gain, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort (a group of cows that received treatments in the same sequence) nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment, with the residual being RFI. High RFI cows ate more than expected and were deemed less efficient. Residual feed intake correlated negatively with digestibility of starch for both HS (r=-0.31) and LS (r=-0.23) diets, and with digestibilities of DM (r=-0.30) and NDF (r=-0.23) for LS diets but was not correlated with DM or NDF digestibility for HS diets. For each cohort within an experiment, cows were classified as high RFI (HRFI; >0.5 SD), medium RFI (MRFI; ±0.5 SD), and low RFI (LRFI; energy density, as determined from individual cow performance, indicating that digestibility explains some of the between-animal differences for the ability to convert gross energy into net energy. Some of the differences in digestibility between HRFI and LRFI were expected because cows with high RFI eat at a greater multiple of maintenance, and greater intake is associated with increased passage rate and digestibility depression. Based on these data, we conclude that a cow

  20. Favorable cardio-metabolic outcomes following high carbohydrate intake in accordance with the Daniel Fast: A review of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bloomer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Daniel Fast is a biblically inspired dietary program rich in carbohydrate, most closely resembling a vegan diet but with additional restrictions, including the elimination of processed foods, white flour products, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol. While no specific requirements are placed on the ingestion of specific percentages of macronutrients, the mean daily carbohydrate intake is by default approximately 60%, while protein and fat intake are 15% and 25%, respectively. Despite a relatively high carbohydrate intake, multiple favorable cardio-metabolic effects are noted when following the plan, in as few as three weeks. This includes improvements in HOMA-IR, which may be at least in part due to the lower glycemic load and high dietary fiber content of the foods consumed. Other notable changes include reductions in systemic inflammation, total and LDL-cholesterol, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and body weight/body fat. Short and moderate-term compliance to the program is excellent-better than most dietary programs, perhaps due to the ad libitum nature of this plan. This paper presents an overview of the Daniel Fast, a carbohydrate-rich dietary program, including relevant findings from both human and animal investigations using this dietary model.

  1. Raspberry ketone in food supplements – High intake, few toxicity data – A cause for safety concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies...... on raspberry ketone are limited to acute and subchronic studies in rats. When the lowest recommended daily dose of raspberry ketone (100 mg) as a food supplement is consumed, it is 56 times the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of 1800 μg/day for Class 1 substances. The margin of safety (MOS...... effects and potential effects on reproduction/development. Taking into account the high intake via supplements, the compound's toxic potential should be clarified with further experimental studies. In UK the pure compound is regarded as novel food requiring authorisation prior to marketing but raspberry...

  2. Exposure to Fluoride in Smelter Workers in a Primary Aluminum Industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Susheela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride is used increasingly in a variety of industries in India. Emission of fluoride dust and fumes from the smelters of primary aluminum producing industries is dissipated in the work environment and poses occupational health hazards. Objective: To study the prevalence of health complaints and its association with fluoride level in body fluids of smelter workers in a primary aluminum producing industry. Methods: In an aluminum industry, health status of 462 smelter workers, 60 supervisors working in the smelter unit, 62 non-smelter workers (control group 1 and 30 administration staff (control group 2 were assessed between 2007 and 2009. Their health complaints were recorded and categorized into 4 groups: 1 gastro-intestinal complaints; 2 non-skeletal manifestations; 3 skeletal symptoms; and (4 respiratory problems. Fluoride level in body fluids, nails, and drinking water was tested by an ion selective electrode; hemoglobin level was tested using HemoCue. Results: The total complaints reported by study groups were significantly higher than the control groups. Smelter workers had a significantly (p<0.001 higher urinary and serum fluoride level than non-smelter workers; the nail fluoride content was also higher in smelter workers than non-smelter workers (p<0.001. The smelter workers with higher hemoglobin level had a significantly (p<0.001 lower urinary fluoride concentration and complained less frequently of health problems. Only 1.4% of the smelter workers were consuming water with high fluoride concentrations. A high percentage of participants was using substances with high fluoride contents. Conclusions: Industrial emission of fluoride is not the only important sources of fluoride exposure—consumption of substance with high levels of fluoride is another important route of entry of fluoride into the body. Measurement of hemoglobin provides a reliable indicator for monitoring the health status of employees at risk of fluorosis.

  3. Sorption of sulfuryl fluoride by food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriranjini, Venkata-rao; Rajendran, Somiahnadar

    2008-08-01

    The use of sulfuryl fluoride, a structural fumigant for termite and woodborer control, has recently been expanded to treating stored food commodities and food facilities. There is, however, a lack of data on the sorption of sulfuryl fluoride by food commodities. Knowledge about sorption is important in the context of effective treatment and residues. When sulfuryl fluoride was applied at a dose of 50 g m(-3) to various food commodities (total 68) with 300 g per replicate in 0.75 L gas wash bottles (fumigation chambers) at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, in most cases (81%) the gas concentrations in the free space of the commodities exceeded 50 g m(-3) (range 51-80 g m(-3)) at the end of 24 h exposure. In chambers without the substrate, an average concentration of 49.7 g m(-3) was recorded. About 54% of the commodities showed low-level ( sulfuryl fluoride, 34% showed medium-level (26-50%) sorption and only 12% were highly sorptive (>50%). The latter include white oats (terminal gas concentration 17.8 g m(-3)), some of the decorticated split pulses (24.0-29.3 g m(-3)), chickpea flour (26.3 g m(-3)), dried ginger (29.0 g m(-3)), refined wheat flour (30.3 g m(-3)) and coriander powder (40.5 g m(-3)). In unfumigated control commodities, owing to interfering volatiles, Fumiscope readings in the range 0-13 were noted. Sulfuryl fluoride has the advantage of a low or moderate level of sorption with the majority of the food commodities.

  4. Nitrogen metabolism and rumen microbial enumeration in lactating cows with divergent residual feed intake fed high-digestibility pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, A G; Kittelmann, S; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C; Janssen, P H; Sikkema, E

    2012-09-01

    Dairy cattle selected for negative residual feed intake (n-RFI; efficient) should maintain production while reducing dry matter intake over a lactation because of improvements in feed digestion and efficient use of nutrients. The objective of this study was to measure nitrogen (N) digestibility and rumen microbial community composition over a short period during early lactation in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows selected previously for divergent RFI. It was proposed that n-RFI cows would have greater apparent digestibility of N than the positive RFI (p-RFI; inefficient) animals, to compensate for the lower dry matter intake determined during selection for divergence. Sixteen 3-yr-old rumen-cannulated, lactating cows (56 ± 10d in milk) selected for n-RFI (n = 8) and p-RFI (n = 8) were housed in metabolism stalls and fed fresh vegetative ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pasture ad libitum as a sole diet during an 8-d digestibility study. Intake of nutrients and outputs of milk, feces, and urine were determined. Rumen parameters were determined by removing, weighing, and sampling digesta, and by cobalt-EDTA dilution. Intakes of N, dry matter, organic matter, or its components did not differ with RFI. Compared with p-RFI cows, n-RFI cows had a greater apparent N digestibility (77.2 vs. 75.5%), and a tendency toward greater dry matter and organic matter digestibilities. The n-RFI cows had a lower fecal N output (126 vs. 138 g/d) and a lower partition of feed N to fecal N (23.1 vs. 24.7%) compared with p-RFI animals. We found no differences between phenotypes in the partition of N to urinary N or milk crude protein but did observe a trend for n-RFI cows to partition less N to milk casein (16.8 vs. 17.9%). Rumen digesta mass was similar for both groups, despite differences in calculated fractional liquid outflow rates, and most bacterial, archaeal, protozoal, and fungal communities were similar for both phenotype groups. In conclusion, dry matter intake and rumen function

  5. Treating hypersensitivity with fluoride varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, A

    1999-01-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity results when stimulation causes the fluid in open dentinal tubules to undergo pressure changes, which activates mechanoreceptor nerves and results in pain. Treatment with fluoride varnish forms a protective layer of calcium fluoride that prevents this fluid flow, thereby reducing dentinal sensitivity.

  6. Treating hypersensitivity with fluoride varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, A

    1998-11-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity results when stimulation causes the fluid in open dentinal tubules to undergo pressure changes, which activates mechanoreceptor nerves and results in pain. Treatment with fluoride varnish forms a protective layer of calcium fluoride that prevents this fluid flow, thereby reducing dentinal sensitivity.

  7. Prediction for new magnetoelectric fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Nenert, G.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    We use symmetry considerations in order to predict new magnetoelectric fluorides. In addition to these magnetoelectric properties, we discuss which among these fluorides are the ones susceptible to present multiferroic properties. We emphasize that several materials exhibit ferromagnetic properties. This ferromagnetism should enhance the interplay between the magnetic and dielectric properties in these materials.

  8. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  9. Estimación de la exposición a fluoruros en Los Altos de Jalisco, México Estimation of exposure to fluoride in "Los Altos de Jalisco", México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hurtado-Jiménez

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la exposición a fluoruros y riesgos potenciales a la salud humana en Los Altos de Jalisco, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se midió electroquímicamente la concentración de fluoruros en 105 pozos y seis tomas de agua potable, en los Altos de Jalisco, de mayo a julio de 2002. Se estimó la dosis de exposición y la ingestión total de fluoruros para: bebés de 10 kg, niños de 20 kg y adultos de 70 kg. RESULTADOS: La concentración de fluoruros en las muestras de agua varió entre 0.1 y 17.7 mg/l. El 45% de las muestras excede el límite permitido por la normatividad (1.5 mg/l. La ingestión total y dosis de exposición a fluoruros estimados están en los rangos de 0.5-18.4 mg/d y 0.04-1.8 mg/kg/d, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Una parte importante de la población está expuesta a fluorosis dental, fluorosis esquelética y fracturas óseas. Para reducir los riesgos se debe evitar el consumo de sal fluorada, pastas dentales con flúor y agua potable cuya concentración de fluoruros sea mayor de 0.7 mg/l.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the level of fluoride exposure and human health risks in Los Altos de Jalisco (Jalisco State Heights region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted between May and July 2002. The fluoride concentrations of 105 water wells and six tap water samples were electrochemically measured. Exposure doses to fluoride and total intake of fluoride were estimated for babies (10 kg, children (20 kg, and adults (70 kg. RESULTS: The fluoride concentration of the water samples ranged from 0.1 to 17.7 mg/l. More than 45% of the water samples exceeded the national guideline value for fluoride of 1.5 mg/l. The estimated values of the exposure doses to fluoride and total intake of fluoride were in the range of 0.04-1.8 mg/kg/d and 0.5-18.4 mg/d, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and bone fractures are some of the potential health risks due to the intake of high doses of fluoride for the

  10. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  11. [Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Su-Yin; Li, Ping; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution.

  12. A high-protein breakfast prevents body fat gain, through reductions in daily intake and hunger, in "Breakfast skipping" adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Higgins, Kelly A; Shafer, Rebecca S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs. high-protein (HP) breakfast meals improves appetite control, food intake, and body composition in "breakfast skipping" young people with overweight/obesity. Fifty-seven adolescents (age: 19 ± 1 years; BMI: 29.7 ± 4.6 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized controlled trial in which the adolescents consumed either a 1,464 kJ NP breakfast (13 g protein) or a HP breakfast (35 g protein) or continued to skip breakfast (CON). Pre- and post-study appetite, food intake, body weight, and body composition were assessed. Time-by-group interactions (P breakfast improved indices of weight management as illustrated by the prevention of body fat gain, voluntary reductions in daily intake, and reductions in daily hunger in breakfast skipping adolescents with overweight/obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R. Riggs

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.

  14. Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anna L; Sun, Guifan; Zhang, Ying; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Although fluoride may cause neurotoxicity in animal models and acute fluoride poisoning causes neurotoxicity in adults, very little is known of its effects on children's neurodevelopment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to investigate the effects of increased fluoride exposure and delayed neurobehavioral development. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Water Resources Abstracts, and TOXNET databases through 2011 for eligible studies. We also searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, because many studies on fluoride neurotoxicity have been published in Chinese journals only. In total, we identified 27 eligible epidemiological studies with high and reference exposures, end points of IQ scores, or related cognitive function measures with means and variances for the two exposure groups. Using random-effects models, we estimated the standardized mean difference between exposed and reference groups across all studies. We conducted sensitivity analyses restricted to studies using the same outcome assessment and having drinking-water fluoride as the only exposure. We performed the Cochran test for heterogeneity between studies, Begg's funnel plot, and Egger test to assess publication bias, and conducted meta-regressions to explore sources of variation in mean differences among the studies. The standardized weighted mean difference in IQ score between exposed and reference populations was -0.45 (95% confidence interval: -0.56, -0.35) using a random-effects model. Thus, children in high-fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ scores than those who lived in low-fluoride areas. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses also indicated inverse associations, although the substantial heterogeneity did not appear to decrease. The results support the possibility of an adverse effect of high fluoride exposure on children's neurodevelopment. Future research should include detailed individual-level information on prenatal

  15. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-18

    fluoridated) or non-fluoridated water. We used an adaptation of the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess risk of bias in the included studies.We included the following caries indices in the analyses: decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft (deciduous dentition) and DMFT (permanent dentition)), and proportion caries free in both dentitions. For dmft and DMFT analyses we calculated the difference in mean change scores between the fluoridated and control groups. For the proportion caries free we calculated the difference in the proportion caries free between the fluoridated and control groups.For fluorosis data we calculated the log odds and presented them as probabilities for interpretation. A total of 155 studies met the inclusion criteria; 107 studies provided sufficient data for quantitative synthesis.The results from the caries severity data indicate that the initiation of water fluoridation results in reductions in dmft of 1.81 (95% CI 1.31 to 2.31; 9 studies at high risk of bias, 44,268 participants) and in DMFT of 1.16 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.61; 10 studies at high risk of bias, 78,764 participants). This translates to a 35% reduction in dmft and a 26% reduction in DMFT compared to the median control group mean values. There were also increases in the percentage of caries free children of 15% (95% CI 11% to 19%; 10 studies, 39,966 participants) in deciduous dentition and 14% (95% CI 5% to 23%; 8 studies, 53,538 participants) in permanent dentition. The majority of studies (71%) were conducted prior to 1975 and the widespread introduction of the use of fluoride toothpaste.There is insufficient information to determine whether initiation of a water fluoridation programme results in a change in disparities in caries across socioeconomic status (SES) levels.There is insufficient information to determine the effect of stopping water fluoridation programmes on caries levels.No studies that aimed to determine the effectiveness of water fluoridation for preventing caries in adults

  16. Fluoride Consumption and Its Impact on Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Jacinto-Alemán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries and dental fluorosis among Mexican preschoolers and school-aged children in a non-endemic zone for fluorosis and to measure its biological indicators. Methods. DMFT, DMFS, dmft, dmfs, and CDI indexes were applied. Fluoride urinary excretion and fluoride concentrations in home water, table salt, bottled water, bottled drinks, and toothpaste were determined. Results. Schoolchildren presented fluorosis (CDI = 0.96 and dental caries (DMFT = 2.64 and DMFS = 3.97. Preschoolers presented dmft = 4.85 and dmfs = 8.80. DMFT and DMFS were lower in children with mild to moderate dental fluorosis (DF. Variable fluoride concentrations were found in the analyzed products (home water = 0.18–0.44 ppm F, table salt = 0–485 ppm F, bottled water = 0.18–0.47 ppm F, juices = 0.08–1.42 ppm F, nectars = 0.07–1.30 ppm F, bottled drinks = 0.10–1.70 ppm F, toothpaste = 0–2,053 ppm F. Mean daily fluoride excretion was 422 ± 176 µg/24 h for schoolchildren and 367 ± 150 µg/24 h for preschoolers. Conclusions. Data from our study show that, despite values of excretion within an optimal fluoride intake range, the prevalence of caries was significant in both groups, and 60% of the 11- to 12-year-old children presented with dental fluorosis. In addition, variable fluoride concentrations in products frequently consumed by children were found.

  17. Fluoride Consumption and Its Impact on Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Farfán, María Dolores; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Juárez-López, Lilia Adriana; Jacinto-Alemán, Luis Fernando; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries and dental fluorosis among Mexican preschoolers and school-aged children in a non-endemic zone for fluorosis and to measure its biological indicators. Methods DMFT, DMFS, dmft, dmfs, and CDI indexes were applied. Fluoride urinary excretion and fluoride concentrations in home water, table salt, bottled water, bottled drinks, and toothpaste were determined. Results Schoolchildren presented fluorosis (CDI = 0.96) and dental caries (DMFT = 2.64 and DMFS = 3.97). Preschoolers presented dmft = 4.85 and dmfs = 8.80. DMFT and DMFS were lower in children with mild to moderate dental fluorosis (DF). Variable fluoride concentrations were found in the analyzed products (home water = 0.18–0.44 ppm F, table salt = 0–485 ppm F, bottled water = 0.18–0.47 ppm F, juices = 0.08–1.42 ppm F, nectars = 0.07–1.30 ppm F, bottled drinks = 0.10–1.70 ppm F, toothpaste = 0–2,053 ppm F). Mean daily fluoride excretion was 422 ± 176 μg/24 h for schoolchildren and 367 ± 150 μg/24 h for preschoolers. Conclusions Data from our study show that, despite values of excretion within an optimal fluoride intake range, the prevalence of caries was significant in both groups, and 60% of the 11- to 12-year-old children presented with dental fluorosis. In addition, variable fluoride concentrations in products frequently consumed by children were found. PMID:21318021

  18. Protein metabolism, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore steers with high and low residual feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate protein turnover, nitrogen balance, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore (B. indicus cattle with high and low residual feed intake (RFI = actual minus expected dry matter intake. Seventy-two Nellore steers (16 to 21 months-old, 334±19 kg initial body weight were fed a feedlot diet for 70 days ad libitum. Daily dry matter intake (DMI and average daily gain (ADG were recorded individually and RFI was calculated. The 12 steers of lowest (Low-RFI, most efficient RFI and the 12 ones of highest RFI (High-RFI, least efficient were evaluated with respect to their behavior patterns and plasma cortisol concentration. Urine was collected for determination of daily 3-methylhistidine excretion (3MH and myofibrillar protein breakdown rates. Urinary, gaseous and fecal energy losses were determined as well as the N retention and excretion. High-RFI steers tended to have shorter lying and idle periods and greater feeding time and plasma cortisol levels than low-RFI cattle. No RFI effects were seen for urine 3MH excretion and for rates of protein degradation and synthesis. No effects of efficiency class were observed for N excretion or N retention. No RFI effects were observed for dry matter digestibility, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content and DE/ME ratio. Methane energy losses were lower for low-compared with high-RFI steers. Protein turnover seems not to affect feed efficiency in Nellore steers. Improved RFI in Nellore steers is probably associated with lower degrees of activity and responsiveness to stress and lower losses of dietary energy as methane.

  19. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  20. Acute Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar Intake on Some Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Setorki M; Nazari B; Asgary S; Eidi A; Haeri Rohani A

    2010-01-01

    .... Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed...

  1. Fluorides in dental public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jayanth V; Moss, Mark E

    2008-04-01

    The use of fluorides in dental public health programs has a long history. With the availability of fluoridation and other forms of fluorides, dental caries have declined dramatically in the United States. This article reviews some of the ways fluorides are used in public health programs and discusses issues related to their effectiveness, cost, and policy.

  2. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  3. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetti, Raghu; Raghuveer, C V; Mallikarjuna, Rao C

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. High throughput study of fuel cell proton exchange membranes: Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic polyelectrolyte blends and nanocomposites with zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata B., Pedro Jose

    Sustainability is perhaps one of the most heard buzzwords in the post-20 th century society; nevertheless, it is not without a reason. Our present practices for energy supply are largely unsustainable if we consider their environmental and social impact. In view of this unfavorable panorama, alternative sustainable energy sources and conversion approaches have acquired noteworthy significance in recent years. Among these, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being considered as a pivotal building block in the transition towards a sustainable energy economy in the 21st century. The polyelectrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a vital component, as well as a performance-limiting factor, of the PEMFC. Consequently, the development of high-performance PEM materials is of utmost importance for the advance of the PEMFC field. In this work, alternative PEM materials based on semi-interpenetrated networks from blends of poly(vinyledene fluoride) (PVDF) (inert phase) and sulfonated crosslinked acrylic polyelectrolytes (PE) (proton-conducting phase), as well as tri-phase PVDF/PE/zirconium-based composites, are studied. To alleviate the burden resulting from the vast number of possible combinations of the different precursors utilized in the preparation of the membranes (PVDF: 5x, PE: 2x, Nanoparticle: 3x), custom high-throughput (HT) screening systems have been developed for their characterization. By coupling the data spaces obtained via these systems with the appropriate statistical and data analysis tools it was found that, despite not being directly involved in the proton transport process, the inert PVDF phase plays a major role on proton conductivity. Particularly, a univocal inverse correlation between the PVDF crystalline characteristics (i.e., crystallinity and crystallite size) and melt viscosity, and membrane proton conductivity was discovered. Membranes based on highly crystalline and viscous PVDF homopolymers exhibited reduced proton

  5. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svandis Erna Jonsdottir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR. Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. Objective: To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. Design: A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE. Participants (n=175 were 30–65 years of age, with BMI 27–38 kg/m2 and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants’ 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Results: Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Conclusion: Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  6. Assessing regional variation of environmental fluoride concentrations in Western Germany by analysis of antler fluoride content in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierdorf, U.; Kierdorf, H. [University of Giessen, Giessen (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    To assess regional variation in ambient fluoride levels, the fluoride content of 188 antlers of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) killed between 1990 and 1999 in 14 areas of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany were analyzed. Individual antler fluoride concentrations ranged between 113 and 11,995 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, and sample means differed significantly (p {lt} 0.0001) among the study areas. Low average concentrations (geometric means of 262 and 277 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, respectively) were found in antler samples from two control areas, located quite remote to major fluoride emission sources. The highest geometric mean fluoride content (1,677 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash) was recorded for an antler sample from a study area exposed to fluoride emissions from an aluminium smelter and two mineral coal-fired power stations. In eight antlers obtained from roe deer living in the direct vicinity of the aluminium smelter, fluoride values ranged between 2,067 and 11,995 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, thereby demonstrating the strong impact of this emission source on its surroundings. The study showed that by analyzing antler fluoride concentrations, large-scale surveys of environmental contamination by fluoride can be performed in a standardized and cost-effective way in areas inhabited by deer. Due to its rather narrow home range, abundance, and high adaptability, the roe deer is particularly suited for such studies.

  7. Residual feed intake of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows predicted from high-density genotypes and phenotyping of growing heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C; Spelman, R J

    2014-03-01

    A genomic prediction for residual feed intake (RFI) developed in growing dairy heifers (RFIgro) was used to predict and test breeding values for RFI in lactating cows (RFIlac) from an independent, industry population. A selection of 3,359 cows, in their third or fourth lactation during the study, of above average genetic merit for milk production, and identified as at least 15/16ths Holstein-Friesian breed, were selected for genotyping from commercial dairy herds. Genotyping was carried out using the bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) on DNA extracted from ear-punch tissue. After quality control criteria were applied, genotypes were imputed to the 624,930 single nucleotide polymorphisms used in the growth study. Using these data, genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) for RFIgro were calculated in the selected cow population based on a genomic prediction for RFIgro estimated in an independent group of growing heifers. Cows were ranked by GEBV and the top and bottom 310 identified for possible purchase. Purchased cows (n=214) were relocated to research facilities and intake and body weight (BW) measurements were undertaken in 99 "high" and 98 "low" RFIgro animals in 4 consecutive groups [beginning at d 61 ± 1.0 standard error (SE), 91 ± 0.5 SE, 145 ± 1.3 SE, and 191 ± 1.5 SE d in milk, respectively] to measure RFI during lactation (RFIlac). Each group of ~50 cows (~25 high and ~25 low RFIgro) was in a feed intake facility for 35 d, fed pasture-alfalfa cubes ad libitum, milked twice daily, and weighed every 2 to 3 d. Milk composition was determined 3 times weekly. Body weight change and BW at trial mid-point were estimated by regression of pre- and posttrial BW measurements. Residual feed intake in lactating cows was estimated from a linear model including BW, BW change, and milk component yield (as MJ/d); RFIlac differed consistently between the high and low selection classes, with the overall means for RFIlac being +0.32 and -0.31 kg of

  8. Is complying with the recommendations of sodium intake beneficial for health in individuals at high cardiovascular risk? Findings from the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Fitó, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Bulló, Mònica; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Moñino, Manuel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Razquin, Cristina; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Sorlí, José V; Muñoz, Miguel A; Pintó, Xavier; Masana, Luis; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Excess sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is unknown whether decreasing sodium intake to DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial included 3982 participants at high CVD risk. Sodium intake was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and categorized as low (2300 to ≤3400 mg/d), or very high (>3400 mg/d). Subsequently, 1-y and 3-y changes in sodium intake were calculated. Multivariate relative risks were assessed by using Cox proportional hazards ratios. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting were used to test the effect of changes in sodium intake and the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). We documented 125 CVD events and 131 deaths after a 4.8-y median follow-up. Sodium intake 2300 mg/d was associated with a higher risk of CVD. Our observational data suggest that sodium intake <2300 mg/d was associated with an enhanced beneficial effect of the MedDiet on CVD. These results should be interpreted with caution, and other confirmatory studies are necessary. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. High salt intake reprioritizes osmolyte and energy metabolism for body fluid conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Kento; Daub, Steffen; Zhang, Yahua; Klein, Janet D; Nakano, Daisuke; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Lantier, Louise; LaRocque, Lauren M; Marton, Adriana; Neubert, Patrick; Schröder, Agnes; Rakova, Natalia; Jantsch, Jonathan; Dikalova, Anna E; Dikalov, Sergey I; Harrison, David G; Müller, Dominik N; Nishiyama, Akira; Rauh, Manfred; Harris, Raymond C; Luft, Friedrich C; Wassermann, David H; Sands, Jeff M; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake. We observed that the renal concentration mechanism couples natriuresis with correspondent renal water reabsorption, limits natriuretic osmotic diuresis, and results in concurrent extracellular volume conservation and concentration of salt excreted into urine. This water-conserving mechanism of dietary salt excretion relies on urea transporter-driven urea recycling by the kidneys and on urea production by liver and skeletal muscle. The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. This natriuretic-ureotelic, water-conserving principle relies on metabolism-driven extracellular volume control and is regulated by concerted liver, muscle, and renal actions.

  10. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency.