Sample records for high fidelity simulations

  1. High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Su Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report describes the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) work conducted for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 milestone THM.CFD.P13.03: High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulation. High fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) was conducted to investigate the applicability and robustness performance of BWR closures. As a preliminary study, a CFD model with simplified Ferrule spacer grid geometry of NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) benchmark has been implemented. Performance of multiphase segregated solver with baseline boiling closures has been evaluated. Although the mean values of void fraction and exit quality of CFD result for BFBT case 4101-61 agreed with experimental data, the local void distribution was not predicted accurately. The mesh quality was one of the critical factors to obtain converged result. The stability and robustness of the simulation was mainly affected by the mesh quality, combination of BWR closure models. In addition, the CFD modeling of fully-detailed spacer grid geometry with mixing vane is necessary for improving the accuracy of CFD simulation.

  2. High-Fidelity Roadway Modeling and Simulation (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Papelis, Yiannis; Shen, Yuzhong; Unal, Ozhan; Cetin, Mecit


    Roads are an essential feature in our daily lives. With the advances in computing technologies, 2D and 3D road models are employed in many applications, such as computer games and virtual environments. Traditional road models were generated by professional artists manually using modeling software tools such as Maya and 3ds Max. This approach requires both highly specialized and sophisticated skills and massive manual labor. Automatic road generation based on procedural modeling can create road models using specially designed computer algorithms or procedures, reducing the tedious manual editing needed for road modeling dramatically. But most existing procedural modeling methods for road generation put emphasis on the visual effects of the generated roads, not the geometrical and architectural fidelity. This limitation seriously restricts the applicability of the generated road models. To address this problem, this paper proposes a high-fidelity roadway generation method that takes into account road design principles practiced by civil engineering professionals, and as a result, the generated roads can support not only general applications such as games and simulations in which roads are used as 3D assets, but also demanding civil engineering applications, which requires accurate geometrical models of roads. The inputs to the proposed method include road specifications, civil engineering road design rules, terrain information, and surrounding environment. Then the proposed method generates in real time 3D roads that have both high visual and geometrical fidelities. This paper discusses in details the procedures that convert 2D roads specified in shape files into 3D roads and civil engineering road design principles. The proposed method can be used in many applications that have stringent requirements on high precision 3D models, such as driving simulations and road design prototyping. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Status report on high fidelity reactor simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiotti, G.; Smith, M.; Rabiti, C.; Lewis, E.; Yang, W.; Leclere,M.; Siegel, A.; Fischer, P.; Kaushik, D.; Ragusa, J.; Lottes, J.; Smith, B.


    This report presents the effort under way at Argonne National Laboratory toward a comprehensive, integrated computational tool intended mainly for the high-fidelity simulation of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The main activities carried out involved neutronics, thermal hydraulics, coupling strategies, software architecture, and high-performance computing. A new neutronics code, UNIC, is being developed. The first phase involves the application of a spherical harmonics method to a general, unstructured three-dimensional mesh. The method also has been interfaced with a method of characteristics. The spherical harmonics equations were implemented in a stand-alone code that was then used to solve several benchmark problems. For thermal hydraulics, a computational fluid dynamics code called Nek5000, developed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division for coupled hydrodynamics and heat transfer, has been applied to a single-pin, periodic cell in the wire-wrap geometry typical of advanced burner reactors. Numerical strategies for multiphysics coupling have been considered and higher-accuracy efficient methods proposed to finely simulate coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic reactor transients. Initial steps have been taken in order to couple UNIC and Nek5000, and simplified problems have been defined and solved for testing. Furthermore, we have begun developing a lightweight computational framework, based in part on carefully selected open source tools, to nonobtrusively and efficiently integrate the individual physics modules into a unified simulation tool.

  4. High-fidelity simulation enhances ACLS training. (United States)

    Langdorf, Mark I; Strom, Suzanne L; Yang, Luanna; Canales, Cecilia; Anderson, Craig L; Amin, Alpesh; Lotfipour, Shahram


    Medical student training and experience in cardiac arrest situations is limited. Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) teaching methods are largely unrealistic with rare personal experience as team leader. Yet Postgraduate Year 1 residents may perform this role shortly after graduation. We expanded our ACLS teaching to a "Resuscitation Boot Camp" where we taught 2010 ACLS to 19 pregraduation students in didactic (12 hours) and experiential (8 hours) format. Immediately before the course, we recorded students performing an acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation (VF) scenario. As a final test, we recorded the same scenario for each student. Primary outcomes were time to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation (DF). Secondary measures were total scenario score, dangerous actions, proportion of students voicing "ventricular fibrillation," 12-lead ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) interpretation, and care necessary for return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Two expert ACLS instructors scored both performances on a 121-point scale, with each student serving as their own control. We used t tests and McNemar tests for paired data with statistical significance at pmask ventilation before DF. After instruction, students scored 97±4/121 points (p<.0001) with no dangerous actions. Before training, only 4 of 19 (21%) students performed both CPR and DF within 2 minutes, and 3 of these had ROSC. After training, 14 of 19 (74%) achieved CPR+DF≤2 minutes (p=.002), and all had ROSC. Before training, 5 of 19 (26%) students said "VF" and 4 of 19 obtained an ECG, but none identified STEMI. After training, corresponding performance was 13 of 19 "VF" (68%, p=021) and 100% ECG and STEMI identification (p<.05). This course significantly improved knowledge and psychomotor skills. Critical actions required for resuscitation were much more common after training. ACLS training including high-fidelity simulation decreases time to CPR and DF and

  5. Simulation Basics: How to Conduct a High-Fidelity Simulation. (United States)

    Willhaus, Janet


    Well-planned and conducted health care simulation scenarios provide opportunities for staff development in areas such as communication, patient care, and teamwork. Consideration of resources, the location for the training, preparation of learners, and use of either a high-fidelity mannequin or a trained actor (eg, a standardized patient) are all part of the operational attentions needed to conduct a simulation training scenario. In order for participants to meet training objectives, the execution of the simulation session must be both planned and purposeful.

  6. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays (United States)


    ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L Bravo...ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L...Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) L Bravo, CB Ivey, D

  7. Interprofessional education in pharmacology using high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Meyer, Brittney A; Seefeldt, Teresa M; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Hendrickx, Lori D; Lubeck, Paula M; Farver, Debra K; Heins, Jodi R


    This study examined the feasibility of an interprofessional high-fidelity pharmacology simulation and its impact on pharmacy and nursing students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge. Pharmacy and nursing students participated in a pharmacology simulation using a high-fidelity patient simulator. Faculty-facilitated debriefing included discussion of the case and collaboration. To determine the impact of the activity on students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and their ability to apply pharmacology knowledge, surveys were administered to students before and after the simulation. Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams scale (ATHCT) scores improved from 4.55 to 4.72 on a scale of 1-6 (p = 0.005). Almost all (over 90%) of the students stated their pharmacology knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge improved following the simulation. A simulation in pharmacology is feasible and favorably affected students' interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge perceptions. Pharmacology is a core science course required by multiple health professions in early program curricula, making it favorable for incorporation of interprofessional learning experiences. However, reports of high-fidelity interprofessional simulation in pharmacology courses are limited. This manuscript contributes to the literature in the field of interprofessional education by demonstrating that an interprofessional simulation in pharmacology is feasible and can favorably affect students' perceptions of interprofessionalism. This manuscript provides an example of a pharmacology interprofessional simulation that faculty in other programs can use to build similar educational activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Manufacturing High-Fidelity Lunar Agglutinate Simulants (United States)

    Gutafson, R. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Rickman, D. L.


    The lunar regolith is very different from many naturally occurring material on Earth because it forms in the unique, impact-dominated environment of the lunar surface. Lunar regolith is composed of five basic particle types: mineral fragments, pristine crystalline rock fragments, breccia fragments, glasses of various kinds, and agglutinates (glass-bonded aggregates). Agglutinates are abundant in the lunar regolith, especially in mature regoliths where they can be the dominant component.This presentation will discuss the technical feasibility of manufacturing-simulated agglutinate particles that match many of the unique properties of lunar agglutinates.

  9. The theatre of high-fidelity simulation education. (United States)

    Roberts, Debbie; Greene, Leah


    High-fidelity simulation is a useful mechanism to aid progression, development and skill acquisition in nurse education. However, nurse lecturers are daunted by sophisticated simulation technology. This paper presents a new method of introducing human patient simulation to students and educators, whilst seeking to demystify the roles, responsibilities and underpinning pedagogy. The analogy of simulation as theatre outlines the concepts of the theatre and stage (simulation laboratory); the play itself (Simulated Clinical Experience, SCE); the actors (nursing students); audience (peer review panel); director (session facilitator); and the production team (technical coordinators). Performing in front of people in a safe environment, repeated practice and taking on a new role teaches students to act, think and be like a nurse. This in turn supports student learning and enhances self confidence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing pediatric clinical competency with high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Birkhoff, Susan D; Donner, Carol


    In today's tertiary pediatric hospital setting, the increased complexity of patient care demands seamless coordination and collaboration among multidisciplinary team members. In an effort to enhance patient safety, clinical competence, and teamwork, simulation-based learning has become increasingly integrated into pediatric clinical practice as an innovative educational strategy. The simulated setting provides a risk-free environment where learners can incorporate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill acquisition without fear of harming patients. One pediatric university hospital in Southeastern Pennsylvania has enhanced the traditional American Heart Association (AHA) Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course by integrating high-fidelity simulation into skill acquisition, while still functioning within the guidelines and framework of the AHA educational standards. However, very little research with reliable standardized testing methods has been done to measure the effect of simulation-based learning. This article discusses the AHA guidelines for PALS, evaluation of PALS and nursing clinical competencies, communication among a multidisciplinary team, advantages and disadvantages of simulation, incorporation of high-fidelity simulation into pediatric practice, and suggestions for future practice. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly


    High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Importance of debriefing in high-fidelity simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Karnjuš


    Full Text Available Debriefing has been identified as one of the most important parts of a high-fidelity simulation learning process. During debriefing, the mentor invites learners to critically assess the knowledge and skills used during the execution of a scenario. Regardless of the abundance of studies that have examined simulation-based education, debriefing is still poorly defined.The present article examines the essential features of debriefing, its phases, techniques and methods with a systematic review of recent publications. It emphasizes the mentor’s role, since the effectiveness of debriefing largely depends on the mentor’s skills to conduct it. The guidelines that allow the mentor to evaluate his performance in conducting debriefing are also presented. We underline the importance of debriefing in clinical settings as part of continuous learning process. Debriefing allows the medical teams to assess their performance and develop new strategies to achieve higher competencies.Although the debriefing is the cornerstone of high-fidelity simulation learning process, it also represents an important learning strategy in the clinical setting. Many important aspects of debriefing are still poorly explored and understood, therefore this part of the learning process should be given greater attention in the future.

  13. Supporting the lecturer to deliver high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Dowie, Iwan; Phillips, Cheryl

    In response to a shortage of clinical practice placements for pre-registration nurses and midwives, nursing faculties have been examining alternative ways to support students to develop their clinical skills, with simulation being one of the more popular methods. In a nursing context, simulation is often used to replicate a clinical setting, such as a hospital ward or the patient's home. Some universities have introduced clinical suites that enable replication of clinical environments and offer the use of human patient simulators to mimic patient-focused scenarios. This article describes a small informal review that aimed to identify how lecturers felt about simulation in one faculty using high-fidelity simulated scenarios to inform the development of a subsequent research study. The results indicate that although many staff use simulation and believe it is a beneficial approach to learning, many also lack confidence and do not feel sufficiently prepared in its use. Most participants felt that the development of a simulation module for lecturers would increase their confidence.

  14. Real-time High-fidelity Surface Flow Simulation. (United States)

    Ren, Bo; Yuan, Tailing; Li, Chenfeng; Xu, Kun; Hu, Shi-Min


    Surface flow phenomena, such as rain water flowing down a tree trunk and progressive water front in a shower room, are common in real life. However, compared with the 3D spatial fluid flow, these surface flow problems have been much less studied in the graphics community. To tackle this research gap, we present an efficient, robust and high-fidelity simulation approach based on the shallow-water equations. Specifically, the standard shallow-water flow model is extended to general triangle meshes with a feature-based bottom friction model, and a series of coherent mathematical formulations are derived to represent the full range of physical effects that are important for real-world surface flow phenomena. In addition, by achieving compatibility with existing 3D fluid simulators and by supporting physically realistic interactions with multiple fluids and solid surfaces, the new model is flexible and readily extensible for coupled phenomena. A wide range of simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the new approach.

  15. Concept Maps: A Tool to Prepare for High Fidelity Simulation in Nursing (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.; Beman, Sarah Black; Morgan, Sarah; Kennedy, Linda; Sheriff, Mandy


    In this study, the use of concept mapping as a method to prepare for high fidelity simulated learning experiences was investigated. Fourth year baccalaureate nursing students were taught how to use concept maps as a way to prepare for high fidelity simulated nursing experiences. Students prepared concept maps for two simulated experiences…

  16. Realism in paediatric emergency simulations: A prospective comparison of in situ, low fidelity and centre-based, high fidelity scenarios. (United States)

    O'Leary, Fenton; Pegiazoglou, Ioannis; McGarvey, Kathryn; Novakov, Ruza; Wolfsberger, Ingrid; Peat, Jennifer


    To measure scenario participant and faculty self-reported realism, engagement and learning for the low fidelity, in situ simulations and compare this to high fidelity, centre-based simulations. A prospective survey of scenario participants and faculty completing in situ and centre-based paediatric simulations. There were 382 responses, 276 from scenario participants and 106 from faculty with 241 responses from in situ and 141 from centre-based simulations. Scenario participant responses showed significantly higher ratings for the centre-based simulations for respiratory rate (P = 0.007), pulse (P = 0.036), breath sounds (P = 0.002), heart sounds (P realism for engagement and learning. © 2017 The Authors Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  17. Using high-fidelity simulation as a learning strategy in an undergraduate intensive care course. (United States)

    Badir, Aysel; Zeybekoğlu, Zuhal; Karacay, Pelin; Göktepe, Nilgün; Topcu, Serpil; Yalcin, Begüm; Kebapci, Ayda; Oban, Gül


    Using high-fidelity simulations to facilitate student learning is an uncommon practice in Turkish nursing programs. The aim of the present study was to understand students' perceptions of the use of simulation in nursing courses. Subjects included 36 senior nursing students taking an intensive care course. This study revealed that high-fidelity simulation is an ideal method of promoting learning by helping students transfer theory into practice, build confidence and teamwork, and raise professional awareness.

  18. High-Fidelity Simulation for Neonatal Nursing Education: An Integrative Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Cooper, Allyson


    The lack of safe avenues to develop neonatal nursing competencies using human subjects leads to the notion that simulation education for neonatal nurses might be an ideal form of education. This integrative literature review compares traditional, teacher-centered education with high-fidelity simulation education for neonatal nurses. It examines the theoretical frameworks used in neonatal nursing education and outlines the advantages of this type of training, including improving communication and teamwork; providing an innovative pedagogical approach; and aiding in skill acquisition, confidence, and participant satisfaction. The importance of debriefing is also examined. High-fidelity simulation is not without disadvantages, including its significant cost, the time associated with training, the need for very complex technical equipment, and increased faculty resource requirements. Innovative uses of high-fidelity simulation in neonatal nursing education are suggested. High-fidelity simulation has great potential but requires additional research to fully prove its efficacy.

  19. High-fidelity simulation effects on CPR knowledge, skills, acquisition, and retention in nursing students. (United States)

    Aqel, Ahmad A; Ahmad, Muayyad M


    There is a gap in the literature regarding learning outcomes linked to the use of high-fidelity simulators compared to that of traditional teaching methods. To examine the effect of using high-fidelity simulators on knowledge and skills acquisition and retention with university students. A randomized two-arm trial using two different educational approaches on 90 nursing students assigned randomly to two groups was used at two points of time. The results showed significant differences in favor of the participants in the high-fidelity simulator group on both the acquisition and retention of knowledge and skills over time. However, a significant loss of cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills occurred at 3 months after training in both groups. The findings of this study may assist educators in integrating high-fidelity simulators in education and training. In addition, the findings may help nursing educators to arrange additional cardiopulmonary resuscitation training sessions in order to improve cardiac arrested patients' outcomes. High-fidelity simulation (HFS) provides students with interactive learning experiences in a safe controlled environment. HFS enables teachers to implement critical clinical scenarios, such as cardiac arrest, without risk to patients. Integrating the simulation training into nursing curricula will help to overcome the challenges that face many courses, specifically the shortage of clinical areas for training and the increase in numbers of nursing students. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Examining the impact of high and medium fidelity simulation experiences on nursing students' knowledge acquisition. (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Lapkin, Samuel; Hoffman, Kerry; Arthur, Carol; Roche, Jan


    This paper describes a study that measured and compared knowledge acquisition in nursing students exposed to medium or high fidelity human patient simulation manikins. In Australia and internationally the use of simulated learning environments has escalated. Simulation requires a significant investment of time and money and in a period of economic rationalisation this investment must be justified. Assessment of knowledge acquisition with multiple choice questions is the most common approach used to determine the effectiveness of simulation experiences. This study was conducted in an Australian school of nursing; 84 third year nursing students participated. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of the level of manikin fidelity on knowledge acquisition. Data were collected at three points in time: prior to the simulation, immediately following and two weeks later. Differences in mean scores between the control (medium fidelity) and experimental (high fidelity) groups for Tests 1, 2 and 3 were calculated using independent t tests and were not statistically significant. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to determine whether changes in knowledge scores occurred over time and, while an improvement in scores was observed, it was not statistically significant. The results of this study raise questions about the value of investing in expensive simulation modalities when the increased costs associated with high fidelity manikins may not be justified by a concomitant increase learning outcomes. This study also suggests that multiple choice questions may not be the most appropriate measure of simulation effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using High-Fidelity Simulation to Assess Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes in Nurses Performing CRRT. (United States)

    Przybyl, Heather; Androwich, Ida; Evans, Jill


    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an acute therapy for critically ill patients. There are many life-threatening complications that can occur; therefore, it is imperative that nurses are highly trained in the use and troubleshooting of CRRT. A structured simulation exercise was added to an existing CRRT education program by developing and implementing an annual assessment of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) using high-fidelity simulation. The use of high-fidelity simulation as an intervention during annual evaluation of KSAs was shown to be effective in increasing nurse satisfaction, understanding of CRRT principles, and critical thinking skills with the operation of CRRT.

  2. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Benz, Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandia’s simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandia’s current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  3. Fidelity in clinical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne; Nøhr, Christian; Rasmussen, Stine Loft


    Clinical simulation may be used to identify user needs for context sensitive functionalities in e-Health. The objective with this paper is to describe how user requirements and use cases in a large EHR-platform procurement may be validated by clinical simulation using a very low-fidelity prototype...... without any existing test data. Instead of using test scenarios and use cases, the healthcare professionals who are participating in the clinical simulation are generating both scenario and patient data themselves. We found that this approach allows for an imaginative discussion, not restricted by known...... functionalities and limitations, of the ideal EHR-platform. Subsequently, we discuss benefits and challenges of using an extremely low fidelity environment and discuss the degree of fidelity necessary for conducting clinical simulation....

  4. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers. (United States)

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver


    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  5. High-fidelity simulation among bachelor students in simulation groups and use of different roles. (United States)

    Thidemann, Inger-Johanne; Söderhamn, Olle


    Cost limitations might challenge the use of high-fidelity simulation as a teaching-learning method. This article presents the results of a Norwegian project including two simulation studies in which simulation teaching and learning were studied among students in the second year of a three-year bachelor nursing programme. The students were organised into small simulation groups with different roles; nurse, physician, family member and observer. Based on experiences in different roles, the students evaluated the simulation design characteristics and educational practices used in the simulation. In addition, three simulation outcomes were measured; knowledge (learning), Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning. The simulation was evaluated to be a valuable teaching-learning method to develop professional understanding and insight independent of roles. Overall, the students rated the Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning as high. Knowledge about the specific patient focus increased after the simulation activity. Students can develop practical, communication and collaboration skills, through experiencing the nurse's role. Assuming the observer role, students have the potential for vicarious learning, which could increase the learning value. Both methods of learning (practical experience or vicarious learning) may bridge the gap between theory and practice and contribute to the development of skills in reflective and critical thinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low vs. high fidelity: the importance of 'realism' in the simulation of a stone treatment procedure. (United States)

    Sarmah, Piyush; Voss, Jim; Ho, Adrian; Veneziano, Domenico; Somani, Bhaskar


    Simulation training for stone surgery is now increasingly used as part of training curricula worldwide. A combination of low and high fidelity simulators has been used with varying degrees of 'realism' provided by them. In this review, we discuss low and high fidelity simulators used for ureteroscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) stone procedures with their advantages, disadvantages and future direction for endourological simulation surgery. The final goal will be to understand whether or not 'realism' has to be considered as a critical element in simulation for this field. There is a wide range of simulators available for URS and PCNL training ranging from basic bench-type model to advanced virtual reality and cadaveric models, all providing various levels of realism. Although basic models might be more useful to novices, advanced models allow for complex and more realistic simulation training. With a wide variety of simulators now available and given the latest novelties in modular training curriculums, combination of low and high fidelity simulators that provide a realistic and cost-effective option seems to be the way forward. It is unavoidable that simulators will play an increasing role in endourological training.

  7. A New European High Fidelity Solar Array Simulator for Near Earth and Deep Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorvardarson Hjalti Pall


    Full Text Available Following an intensive design, development, and testing effort of almost 3 years, Rovsing with ESA assistance succeeded in the development of a new European high fidelity Solar Array Simulator (SAS for near Earth and deep space applications. ESA now has a versatile, highly modular and efficient SAS at its disposition that serves at simulating modern high power solar arrays for Earth observation, science or telecom satellites as well as for future deep space missions.

  8. High Fidelity Regolith Simulation Tool for ISRU Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has serious unmet needs for simulation tools capable of predicting the behavior of lunar regolith in proposed excavation, transport and handling systems....

  9. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study (United States)

    Olson, Susan L.


    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  10. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.


    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  11. Creation and Validation of a Novel Mobile Simulation Laboratory for High Fidelity, Prehospital, Difficult Airway Simulation. (United States)

    Bischof, Jason J; Panchal, Ashish R; Finnegan, Geoffrey I; Terndrup, Thomas E


    Introduction Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a complex clinical skill complicated by the inherent challenge of providing care in the prehospital setting. Literature reports a low success rate of prehospital ETI attempts, partly due to the care environment and partly to the lack of consistent standardized training opportunities of prehospital providers in ETI. Hypothesis/Problem The availability of a mobile simulation laboratory (MSL) to study clinically critical interventions is needed in the prehospital setting to enhance instruction and maintain proficiency. This report is on the development and validation of a prehospital airway simulator and MSL that mimics in situ care provided in an ambulance. The MSL was a Type 3 ambulance with four cameras allowing audio-video recordings of observable behaviors. The prehospital airway simulator is a modified airway mannequin with increased static tongue pressure and a rigid cervical collar. Airway experts validated the model in a static setting through ETI at varying tongue pressures with a goal of a Grade 3 Cormack-Lehane (CL) laryngeal view. Following completion of this development, the MSL was launched with the prehospital airway simulator to distant communities utilizing a single facilitator/driver. Paramedics were recruited to perform ETI in the MSL, and the detailed airway management observations were stored for further analysis. Nineteen airway experts performed 57 ETI attempts at varying tongue pressures demonstrating increased CL views at higher tongue pressures. Tongue pressure of 60 mm Hg generated 31% Grade 3/4 CL view and was chosen for the prehospital trials. The MSL was launched and tested by 18 paramedics. First pass success was 33% with another 33% failing to intubate within three attempts. The MSL created was configured to deliver, record, and assess intubator behaviors with a difficult airway simulation. The MSL created a reproducible, high fidelity, mobile learning environment for assessment of

  12. Exploration of high-fidelity simulation: Nurse educators' perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four themes emerged from the educators' experiences and perceptions. The use and benefits of HFS were generally accepted by educators. They valued its positive impact on learning outcomes in learners and the ability to simulate more complex scenarios during training. Lack of prior planning, inadequate training and ...

  13. A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation. (United States)

    Breton, S-P; Sumner, J; Sørensen, J N; Hansen, K S; Sarmast, S; Ivanell, S


    Large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms have the capability to provide valuable and detailed information about the dynamics of wind turbine wakes. For this reason, their use within the wind energy research community is on the rise, spurring the development of new models and methods. This review surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple wake situations is also supplied. Some typical results for wind turbine and wind farm flows are presented to illustrate best practices for carrying out high-fidelity LES of wind farms under various atmospheric and terrain conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation (United States)

    Breton, S.-P.; Sumner, J.; Sørensen, J. N.; Hansen, K. S.; Sarmast, S.; Ivanell, S.


    Large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms have the capability to provide valuable and detailed information about the dynamics of wind turbine wakes. For this reason, their use within the wind energy research community is on the rise, spurring the development of new models and methods. This review surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple wake situations is also supplied. Some typical results for wind turbine and wind farm flows are presented to illustrate best practices for carrying out high-fidelity LES of wind farms under various atmospheric and terrain conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  15. A high-fidelity approach towards simulation of pool boiling (United States)

    Yazdani, Miad; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios; Alahyari, Abbas A.


    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change. The particular focus is to develop a simulation technique that is capable of predicting the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics of nucleate boiling and the transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution addressing a critical need to design enhanced boiling heat transfer surfaces. The macro-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The micro-scale of the microlayer, which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation near the wall, is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the sub-grid surface roughness is represented stochastically through probabilistic density functions and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is then represented based on the thermodynamics of nucleation process. This combination of deterministic CFD, local approximation, and stochastic representation allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against experimental measurements as well as reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface orientations. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement feature design on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces.

  16. A study on the usefulness of high fidelity patient simulation in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramjit Pal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Innovative simulation training solutions are now being used to train medical professionals in an attempt to reduce the number of safety concerns that have adverse effects on the patients. Objectives: (a To determine its usefulness as a teaching or learning tool for management of surgical emergencies, both in the short term and medium term by students’ perception. (b To plan future teaching methodology regarding hi-fidelity simulation based on the study outcomes and re-assessment of the current training modules. Methods: Quasi-experimental time series design with pretest-posttest interventional study. Quantitative data was analysed in terms of Mean, Standard Deviation and standard error of Mean. Statistical tests of significance like Repeated Measure of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were used for comparisons. P value < 0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The students opined that the simulated sessions on high fidelity simulators had encouraged their active participation which was appropriate to their current level of learning. It helped them to think fast and the training sessions resembled a real life situation. The study showed that learning had progressively improved with each session of simulation with corresponding decrease in stress. Conclusion: Implementation of high fidelity simulation based learning in our Institute had been perceived favourably by a large number of students in enhancing their knowledge over time in management of trauma and surgical emergencies.

  17. Towards developing high-fidelity simulated learning environment training modules in audiology. (United States)

    Dzulkarnain, A A; Rahmat, S; Mohd Puzi, N A F; Badzis, M


    This discussion paper reviews and synthesises the literature on simulated learning environment (SLE) from allied health sciences, medical and nursing in general and audiology specifically. The focus of the paper is on discussing the use of high-fidelity (HF) SLE and describing the challenges for developing a HF SLE for clinical audiology training. Through the review of the literature, this paper discusses seven questions, (i) What is SLE? (ii) What are the types of SLEs? (iii) How is SLE classified? (iv) What is HF SLE? (v) What types of SLEs are available in audiology and their level of fidelity? (vi) What are the components needed for developing HF SLE? (vii) What are the possible types of HF SLEs that are suitable for audiology training? Publications were identified by structured searches from three major databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsychInfo and from the reference lists of relevant articles. The authors discussed and mapped the levels of fidelity of SLE audiology training modules from the literature and the learning domains involved in the clinical audiology courses. The discussion paper has highlighted that most of the existing SLE audiology training modules consist of either low- or medium-fidelity types of simulators. Those components needed to achieve a HF SLE for audiology training are also highlighted. Overall, this review recommends that the combined approach of different levels and types of SLE could be used to obtain a HF SLE training module in audiology training.

  18. Principal considerations for the contemporary high-fidelity endovascular simulator design used in training and evaluation. (United States)

    Eslahpazir, Benjamin A; Goldstone, Jerry; Allemang, Matthew T; Wang, John C; Kashyap, Vikram S


    The simulation and rehearsal of virtual endovascular procedures are anticipated to improve the outcomes of actual procedures. Contemporary, high-fidelity simulation is based on feedback systems that combine concepts of mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems engineering to reproduce an interactive endovascular case. These sophisticated devices also include psychometric instruments for objective surgical skill assessment. The goal of this report is to identify the design characteristics of commercially available simulators for endovascular procedures and to provide a cross-section comparison across all devices to aid in the simulator selection process. Data were obtained (1) by a standard questionnaire issued to four simulator companies prompting for relevant design details of each model for the expressed purpose of publication, (2) from each manufacturer's respective website including appended sales brochures and specification sheets, and (3) by an evaluation of peer-reviewed literature. Focus topics include haptic technology, vessel segmentation, physiologic feedback, performance feedback, and physical logistics (ie, weight, dimensions, and portability). All data sources were surveyed between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. All of the commercially available, high-fidelity endovascular simulators use interactive virtual environments with preprogrammed physics and physiology models for accurate reproduction of surgical reality. The principal differences between devices are the number of access sites and haptic devices, the ability to reconstruct patient-specific anatomy for preprocedural rehearsal, and the available peripheral training modalities. Hardware and software options can also vary within the same device in comparing patient-specific with generic cases. Despite our limited knowledge about the potential of high-fidelity simulation within the endovascular world, today's currently available simulators successfully provide high-fidelity

  19. High Fidelity Simulation of Liquid Jet in Cross-flow Using High Performance Computing (United States)

    Soteriou, Marios; Li, Xiaoyi


    High fidelity, first principles simulation of atomization of a liquid jet by a fast cross-flowing gas can help reveal the controlling physics of this complicated two-phase flow of engineering interest. The turn-around execution time of such a simulation is prohibitively long using typically available computational resources today (i.e. parallel systems with ~O(100) CPUs). This is due to multiscale nature of the problem which requires the use of fine grids and time steps. In this work we present results from such a simulation performed on a state of the art massively parallel system available at Oakridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Scalability of the computational algorithm to ~2000 CPUs is demonstrated on grids of up to 200 million nodes. As a result, a simulation at intermediate Weber number becomes possible on this system. Results are in agreement with detailed experiment measurements of liquid column trajectory, breakup location, surface wavelength, onset of surface stripping as well as droplet size and velocity after primary breakup. Moreover, this uniform grid simulation is used as a base case for further code enhancement by evaluating the feasibility of employing Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) near the liquid-gas interface as a means of mitigating computational cost.

  20. Low-cost PC-based high-fidelity infrared signature modelling and simulation


    Baqar, S.


    In the light of the increasing terrorist SAMs threat to civil and military aircraft, the need of a high-fidelity, low-cost, IR signature scene modelling and simulation capability that could be used for development, testing and evaluation of IRCM systems cannot be overlooked. The performance evaluation, training and testing of IR missiles or other IR based weapon systems, is very expensive and is also dependent upon atmospheric factors. Whereas, the computer based non-destruc...

  1. A Method to Achieve High Fidelity in Internet-Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (United States)


    considered as the reference signal changing as a result of the ILC action. Thus, designing the learning function ( ),m mi if u e properly is...the advantage of not requiring a model of the system as part of the design process [45-54], which is particularly suitable for the ID-HIL paradigm...sequential turbochargers , and exhaust gas recirculation. A high-fidelity, AC electric dynamometer couples the physical engine with the simulation

  2. High-Fidelity Simulations of Electromagnetic Propagation and RF Communication Systems (United States)


    ER D C TR -1 7- 2 Military Engineering Applied Research High-Fidelity Simulations of Electromagnetic Propagation and RF Communication ...Propagation and RF Communication Systems T53 Final Report Samuel S. Streeter, Daniel J. Breton, and Michele L. Maxson U.S. Army Engineer Research...output in terms of received RF power, which is related to the likelihood of successful communication . Because the API is thread safe, multiple Tx-Rx

  3. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks (Plus-Up)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia has built a strong reputation in scalable network simulation and emulation for cyber security studies to protect our nation’s critical information infrastructures. Georgia Tech has preeminent reputation in academia for excellence in scalable discrete event simulations, with strong emphasis on simulating cyber networks. Many of the experts in this field, such as Dr. Richard Fujimoto, Dr. George Riley, and Dr. Chris Carothers, have strong affiliations with Georgia Tech. The collaborative relationship that we intend to immediately pursue is in high fidelity simulations of practical large-scale wireless networks using ns-3 simulator via Dr. George Riley. This project will have mutual benefits in bolstering both institutions’ expertise and reputation in the field of scalable simulation for cyber-security studies. This project promises to address high fidelity simulations of large-scale wireless networks. This proposed collaboration is directly in line with Georgia Tech’s goals for developing and expanding the Communications Systems Center, the Georgia Tech Broadband Institute, and Georgia Tech Information Security Center along with its yearly Emerging Cyber Threats Report. At Sandia, this work benefits the defense systems and assessment area with promise for large-scale assessment of cyber security needs and vulnerabilities of our nation’s critical cyber infrastructures exposed to wireless communications.

  4. High-fidelity simulation in the nonmedical domain: practices and potential transferable competencies for the medical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carron PN


    Full Text Available Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Lionel Trueb, Bertrand YersinEmergency Service, University Hospital Center, Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: Simulation is a promising pedagogical tool in the area of medical education. High-fidelity simulators can reproduce realistic environments or clinical situations. This allows for the practice of teamwork and communication skills, thereby enhancing reflective reasoning and experiential learning. Use of high-fidelity simulators is not limited to the medical and aeronautical fields, but has developed in a large number of nonmedical organizations as well. The techniques and pedagogical tools which have evolved through the use of nonmedical simulations serve not only as teaching examples but also as avenues which can help further the evolution of the concept of high-fidelity simulation in the field of medicine. This paper presents examples of high-fidelity simulations in the military, maritime, and aeronautical fields. We compare the implementation of high-fidelity simulation in the medical and nonmedical domains, and discuss the possibilities and limitations of simulators in medicine, based on recent nonmedical applications.Keywords: high-fidelity simulation, crew resource management, experiential learning

  5. The centricity of presence in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation: a model. (United States)

    Dunnington, Renee M


    Enhancing immersive presence has been shown to have influence on learning outcomes in virtual types of simulation. Scenario-based human patient simulation, a mixed reality form, may pose unique challenges for inducing the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. A model for enhancing the centricity of presence in scenario-based human patient simulation is presented here. The model represents a theoretical linkage among the interaction of pedagogical, individual, and group factors that influence the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. Presence may have an important influence on the learning experiences and learning outcomes in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation. This report is a follow-up to an article published in 2014 by the author where connections were made to the theoretical basis of presence as articulated by nurse scholars. © The Author(s) 2014.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Botros N.; Dinh, Nam T.; Bolotnov, Igor A.


    Nuclear reactor safety analysis requires identifying various credible accident scenarios and determining their consequences. For a full-scale nuclear power plant system behavior, it is impossible to obtain sufficient experimental data for a broad range of risk-significant accident scenarios. In single-phase flow convective problems, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can provide us with high fidelity results when physical data are unavailable. However, these methods are computationally expensive and cannot be afforded for simulation of long transient scenarios in nuclear accidents despite extraordinary advances in high performance scientific computing over the past decades. The major issue is the inability to make the transient computation parallel, thus making number of time steps required in high-fidelity methods unaffordable for long transients. In this work, we propose to apply a high fidelity simulation-driven approach to model sub-grid scale (SGS) effect in Coarse Grained Computational Fluid Dynamics CG-CFD. This approach aims to develop a statistical surrogate model instead of the deterministic SGS model. We chose to start with a turbulent natural convection case with volumetric heating in a horizontal fluid layer with a rigid, insulated lower boundary and isothermal (cold) upper boundary. This scenario of unstable stratification is relevant to turbulent natural convection in a molten corium pool during a severe nuclear reactor accident, as well as in containment mixing and passive cooling. The presented approach demonstrates how to create a correction for the CG-CFD solution by modifying the energy balance equation. A global correction for the temperature equation proves to achieve a significant improvement to the prediction of steady state temperature distribution through the fluid layer.

  7. Are Simulation Stethoscopes a Useful Adjunct for Emergency Residents' Training on High-Fidelity Mannequins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Warrington


    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency medicine residents use simulation training for many reasons, such as gaining experience with critically ill patients and becoming familiar with disease processes. Residents frequently criticize simulation training using current high-fidelity mannequins due to the poor quality of physical exam findings present, such as auscultatory findings, as it may lead them down an alternate diagnostic or therapeutic pathway. Recently wireless remote programmed stethoscopes (simulation stethoscopes have been developed that allow wireless transmission of any sound to a stethoscope receiver, which improves the fidelity of a physical examination and the simulation case. Methods: Following institutional review committee approval, 14 PGY1-3 emergency medicine residents were assessed during 2 simulation-based cases using pre-defined scoring anchors on multiple actions, such as communication skills and treatment decisions (Appendix 1. Each case involved a patient presenting with dyspnea requiring management based off physical examination findings. One case was a patient with exacerbation of heart failure, while the other was a patient with a tension pneumothorax. Each resident was randomized into a case associated with the simulation stethoscope. Following the cases residents were asked to fill out an evaluation questionnaire. Results: Residents perceived the most realistic physical exam findings on those associated with the case using the simulation stethoscope (13/14, 93%. Residents also preferred the simulation stethoscope as an adjunct to the case (13/14, 93%, and they rated the simulation stethoscope case to have significantly more realistic auscultatory findings (4.4/5 vs. 3.0/5 difference of means 1.4, P = 0.0007. Average scores of residents were significantly better in the simulation stethoscope-associated case (2.5/3 vs. 2.3/3 difference of means 0.2, P = 0.04. There was no considerable difference in the total time taken per case

  8. Improving the self-confidence level of medical undergraduates during emergencies using high fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Muniandy, R K; Nyein, K K; Felly, M


    Medical practice involves routinely making critical decisions regarding patient care and management. Many factors influence the decision-making process, and self-confidence has been found to be an important factor in effective decision-making. With the proper transfer of knowledge during their undergraduate studies, selfconfidence levels can be improved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of High Fidelity Simulation as a component of medical education to improve the confidence levels of medical undergraduates during emergencies. Study participants included a total of 60 final year medical undergraduates during their rotation in Medical Senior Posting. They participated in a simulation exercise using a high fidelity simulator, and their confidence level measured using a self-administered questionnaire. The results found that the confidence levels of 'Assessment of an Emergency Patient', 'Diagnosing Arrhythmias', 'Emergency Airway Management', 'Performing Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation', 'Using the Defibrillator' and 'Using Emergency Drugs' showed a statistically significant increase in confidence levels after the simulation exercise. The mean confidence levels also rose from 2.85 to 3.83 (pundergraduates.

  9. High-fidelity simulation as an experiential model for teaching root cause analysis. (United States)

    Quraishi, Sadeq A; Kimatian, Stephen J; Murray, W Bosseau; Sinz, Elizabeth H


    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation for teaching root cause analysis (RCA) in graduate medical education. Thirty clinical anesthesiology-1 through clinical anesthesiology-3 residents were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A participants received a 10-minute lecture on RCA and participated in a simulation exercise where a medical error occurs, and group B participants received the 10-minute lecture on RCA only. Participants completed baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up assessments, and they were evaluated on their attitude toward as well as understanding of RCA and "systems-based" care. All 30 residents completed the surveys. Baseline attitudes and knowledge scores were similar between groups. Postintervention knowledge scores were also similar between groups; however, group B was significantly more skeptical (P strategies. Six months later, group A demonstrated retained knowledge scores and unchanged attitude, whereas group B demonstrated significantly worse knowledge scores (P  =  .001) as well as continued skepticism toward a systems-based approach (P didactics is an effective strategy for teaching RCA and systems theory in graduate medical education. Our findings also suggest that there is greater retention of knowledge and increased positive attitude toward systems improvement when focused didactics are coupled with a high-fidelity simulation exercise.

  10. High-Fidelity Simulation Use in Preparation of Physician Assistant Students for Neonatal and Obstetric Care. (United States)

    Donkers, Kelly; Truscott, Judy; Garrubba, Carl; DeLong, Deborah


    The study attempts to determine whether a simulation experience would increase physician assistant (PA) students' comfort level in caring for obstetric patients and assessing a neonate with an Apgar score. First-year PA students who are in the didactic phase of their education were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after a hybrid simulation scenario, in which they aided in estimating cervical dilation, delivering a neonate, and assessing the Apgar score of a neonate. The simulation included high-fidelity simulation for 2 portions of the experience and task-trainer simulation for the remaining portion of the experience. The questionnaire asked students to rate their comfort level before and after the simulation and provide information regarding their clinical experience level with obstetrics, gynecology, or pediatrics. Comfort levels were significantly increased according to presession and postsession scores for each of the 3 portions of the simulation experience. Prior experience level did not affect the results of this group. Results indicate that regardless of experience, there was a statistically significant increase between presession and postsession comfort levels. Simulation training in obstetric and neonatal assessment increases students' comfort level to perform these difficult tasks. Physician assistant programs that are not performing simulation currently, or have not used it to train in these specialty areas should consider doing so as part of their curriculum.

  11. High-fidelity simulation in Neonatology and the Italian experience of Nina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cuttano


    Full Text Available The modern methodology of simulation was born in the aeronautical field. In medicine, anesthetists showed great attention for technological advances and simulation, closely followed by surgeons with minimally invasive surgery. In Neonatology training in simulation is actually useful in order to face unexpected dramatic events, to minimize clinical risk preventing errors and to optimize team work. Critical issues in simulation are: teachers-learners relationship, focus on technical and non-technical skills, training coordination, adequate scenarios, effective debriefing. Therefore, the quality of a simulation training center is multi-factorial and is not only related to the mannequin equipment. High-fidelity simulation is the most effective method in education. In Italy simulation for education in Medicine has been used for a few years only. In Pisa we founded Nina (that is the acronymous for the Italian name of the Center, CeNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale, the first neonatal simulation center dedicated but integrated within a Hospital Unit in Italy. This paper describes how we manage education in Nina Center, in order to offer a model for other similar experiences.

  12. Faculty and Student Perceptions of Preparation for and Implementation of High Fidelity Simulation Experiences in Associate Degree Nursing Programs (United States)

    Conejo, Patricia E.


    High fidelity simulation technology is being used as an alternative way to expose students to complex patient care. Research has shown that simulation experiences can improve critical thinking skills and increase students' self-confidence (Jeffries & Rizzolo, 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine nurse educator and nursing student…

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, David E.,


    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  14. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hong G [University of Michigan; Trouve, Arnaud [University of Maryland; Rutland, Christopher J [University of Wisconsin; Chen, Jacqueline H [Sandia National Laboratories


    The TSTC project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of our approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. The code named S3D, developed and shared with Chen and coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for spray dynamics, combustion, and pollutant formation processes in turbulent combustion. Major accomplishments include improved characteristic boundary conditions, fundamental studies of auto-ignition in turbulent stratified reactant mixtures, flame-wall interaction, and turbulent flame extinction by water spray. The overarching scientific issue in our recent investigations is to characterize criticality phenomena (ignition/extinction) in turbulent combustion, thereby developing unified criteria to identify ignition and extinction conditions. The computational development under TSTC has enabled the recent large-scale 3D turbulent combustion simulations conducted at Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. High fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model effects on race vehicle performance predictions using multi-body simulation (United States)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.


    We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.

  16. High Fidelity Aeroelasticity Simulations of Aircraft and Turbomachinery with Fully-Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (United States)

    Gan, Jiaye

    The purpose of this research is to develop high fidelity numerical methods to investigate the complex aeroelasticity fluid-structural problems of aircraft and aircraft engine turbomachinery. Unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinates are solved to simulate the complex fluid dynamic problems in aeroelasticity. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used as a Riemann solver to capture shock waves in transonic and supersonic flows. An improved hybrid turbulence modeling, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES), is implemented to simulate shock induced separation and rotating stall flows. High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structures, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. A rotor/stator sliding interpolation technique is developed to accurately capture the blade rows interaction at the interface with general grid distribution. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are applied to consider the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI methodology. The accuracy and robustness of RANS, URANS and DDES turbulence models with high order schemes for predicting the lift and drag of the DLR-F6 configuration are verified. The DDES predicts the drag very well whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. DDES of a finned projectile base flows is conducted to further validate the high fidelity methods with vortical flow. The

  17. Embedding Microethical Dilemmas in High-Fidelity Simulation Scenarios: Preparing Nursing Students for Ethical Practice. (United States)

    Krautscheid, Lorretta C


    Despite the inclusion of ethics education in the formal curriculum, students felt ill-prepared to manage ethical issues and protect patients' health and well-being. Nursing students reported knowing what should be done to promote optimal patient care; however, they also reported an inability to act on their convictions due to fear of reprisal, powerlessness, and low confidence. Bloom's Taxonomy guided the development and implementation of experiential-applied ethics education via microethical dilemmas embedded in existing high-fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios. Students were unaware that ethical dilemmas would be presented, replicating complex and spontaneous practice environments. Students reported that the educational strategy was powerful, increasing ethical decision-making confidence, empowering effective advocacy, and building courage to overcome fears and defend ethical practice. Simulation extends ethics education beyond the cognitive domain, ensuring the purposeful integration of affective and psychomotor learning, which promotes congruence between knowing what to do and acting on one's convictions. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(1):55-58.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. The Lived Experience of Nursing Students Participating in High-Fidelity Simulation at a School Grounded in Caring (United States)

    Ward, Gail Dove


    The education of nursing students in traditional clinical settings has become increasing challenging because of a multitude of factors affecting healthcare delivery. A decreasing number of clinical sites has precipitated a corresponding increase in the use of high-fidelity simulation-based learning experiences (HFSLEs). Because HFSLEs are being…

  19. The Effect of High-Fidelity Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Simulation on Athletic Training Student Knowledge, Confidence, Emotions, and Experiences (United States)

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue


    Context: High-fidelity simulation is widely used in healthcare for the training and professional education of students though literature of its application to athletic training education remains sparse. Objective: This research attempts to address a wide-range of data. This includes athletic training student knowledge acquisition from…

  20. The Effects of Moderate- and High-Fidelity Patient Simulator Use on Critical Thinking in Associate Degree Nursing Students (United States)

    Vieck, Jana


    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of moderate- and high-fidelity patient simulator use on the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students. This quantitative study used a quasi-experimental design and the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) to evaluate the critical thinking skills of third semester nursing…

  1. High fidelity simulation of non-synchronous vibration for aircraft engine fan/compressor (United States)

    Im, Hong-Sik

    The objectives of this research are to develop a high fidelity simulation methodology for turbomachinery aeromechanical problems and to investigate the mechanism of non-synchronous vibration (NSV) of an aircraft engine axial compressor. A fully conservative rotor/stator sliding technique is developed to accurately capture the unsteadiness and interaction between adjacent blade rows. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are implemented to take into account the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structure, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. An advanced mesh deformation method that generates the blade tip block mesh moving with the blade displacement is developed to ensure the mesh quality. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme as a Riemann solver designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used with an improved hybrid RANS/LES turbulence strategy, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES). High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI simulation methodology. The validated cases include: (1) DDES of NACA 0012 airfoil at high angle of attack with massive separation. The DDES accurately predicts the drag whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. (2) The AGARD Wing 445.6 flutter boundary is accurately predicted including the point at supersonic incoming flow. (3) NASA Rotor 67 validation for steady state speed line and radial profiles at peak efficiency point and near stall point. The

  2. Inquir into concepts of flight simulation fidelity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhi-Gang [China Flight Test Establishment, Xian (China)


    In this paper, the author points that just considering the accuracy of aerodynamic characteristics is not enough to define flight simulation fidelity. According to his experience, the definition of fidelity ought to be based on the analysis of pilot-aircraft controlling loop. Both the controlling loops in real flight and in simulation are introduced here. Comparing the two loops, it is find that a certain degree of infidelity is unavoidable for an aircraft simulator, so that some compromises have to be made between the need and possibility. Some definitions of fidelity, Open Loop fidelity and Close Loop fidelity, White Box fidelity and Black Box fidelity, Original fidelity and Final fidelity, and the approaches of verifying and improving flight simulation fidelity are also described.

  3. Advancing interprofessional education through the use of high fidelity human patient simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane-Gill SL


    Full Text Available Background: Modern medical care increasingly requires coordinated teamwork and communication between healthcare professionals of different disciplines. Unfortunately, healthcare professional students are rarely afforded the opportunity to learn effective methods of interprofessional (IP communication and teamwork strategies during their education. The question of how to best incorporate IP interactions in the curricula of the schools of health professions remains unanswered.Objective: We aim to solve the lack of IP education in the pharmacy curricula through the use of high fidelity simulation (HFS to allow teams of medical, pharmacy, nursing, physician assistant, and social work students to work together in a controlled environment to solve cases of complex medical and social issues.Methods: Once weekly for a 4-week time period, students worked together to complete complex simulation scenarios in small IP teams consisting of pharmacy, medical, nursing, social work, and physician assistant students. Student perception of the use of HFS was evaluated by a survey given at the conclusion of the HFS sessions. Team communication was evaluated through the use of Communication and Teamwork Skills (CATS Assessment by 2 independent evaluators external to the project.Results: The CATS scores improved from the HFS sessions 1 to 2 (p = 0.01, 2 to 3 (p = 0.035, and overall from 1 to 4 (p = 0.001. The inter-rater reliability between evaluators was high (0.85, 95% CI 0.71, 0.99. Students perceived the HFS improved: their ability to communicate with other professionals (median =4; confidence in patient care in an IP team (median=4. It also stimulated student interest in IP work (median=4.5, and was an efficient use of student time (median=4.5Conclusion: The use of HFS improved student teamwork and communication and was an accepted teaching modality. This method of exposing students of the health sciences to IP care should be incorporated throughout the

  4. Investigation of the impact of high liquid viscosity on jet atomization in crossflow via high-fidelity simulations (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Gao, Hui; Soteriou, Marios C.


    Atomization of extremely high viscosity liquid can be of interest for many applications in aerospace, automotive, pharmaceutical, and food industries. While detailed atomization measurements usually face grand challenges, high-fidelity numerical simulations offer the advantage to comprehensively explore the atomization details. In this work, a previously validated high-fidelity first-principle simulation code HiMIST is utilized to simulate high-viscosity liquid jet atomization in crossflow. The code is used to perform a parametric study of the atomization process in a wide range of Ohnesorge numbers (Oh = 0.004-2) and Weber numbers (We = 10-160). Direct comparisons between the present study and previously published low-viscosity jet in crossflow results are performed. The effects of viscous damping and slowing on jet penetration, liquid surface instabilities, ligament formation/breakup, and subsequent droplet formation are investigated. Complex variations in near-field and far-field jet penetrations with increasing Oh at different We are observed and linked with the underlying jet deformation and breakup physics. Transition in breakup regimes and increase in droplet size with increasing Oh are observed, mostly consistent with the literature reports. The detailed simulations elucidate a distinctive edge-ligament-breakup dominated process with long surviving ligaments for the higher Oh cases, as opposed to a two-stage edge-stripping/column-fracture process for the lower Oh counterparts. The trend of decreasing column deflection with increasing We is reversed as Oh increases. A predominantly unimodal droplet size distribution is predicted at higher Oh, in contrast to the bimodal distribution at lower Oh. It has been found that both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz linear stability theories cannot be easily applied to interpret the distinct edge breakup process and further study of the underlying physics is needed.

  5. The effectiveness of high fidelity simulation on medical-surgical registered nurses' ability to recognise and respond to clinical emergencies. (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas; Gordon, Christopher


    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the efficacy in preparing medical-surgical nurses to respond to patients with acutely deteriorating conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate registered nurses' ability to respond to the deteriorating patient in clinical practise following training using immersive simulation and use of a high fidelity simulator. This study was a follow-up survey of medical-surgical graduate nurses following immersive high fidelity simulation training. Thirty eight registered nurses practising in medical-surgical areas completed the simulation as part of university graduate study. A follow-up survey of the graduate medical-surgical registered nurses conducted three months following completion of a high fidelity simulation-based learning experience. Outcomes consisted of the number of times skills were used in practise and the usefulness of simulation in preparing for actual emergency events. Participants reported a total of 164 clinical patient emergencies in the follow-up time period including: 46% cardiac, 32% respiratory, 10% neurological, 7% cardiac arrest and 5% related to electrolyte disturbances. The ability to respond in a systematic way, handover to the emergency team and airway management were identified as the skills most improved during patient emergencies following simulation. The most useful aspects of the simulation experience identified were scenario debriefing and assertiveness training. Participants with less years of clinical experience were more likely to report practising the team leader role and debriefing as the most useful aspects of simulation. The skills practised in simulation were highly relevant to participants practise in medical-surgical areas. Non-technical skills, including assertiveness skills should be considered in future emergency training courses for nurses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-fidelity hybrid simulation of allergic emergencies demonstrates improved preparedness for office emergencies in pediatric allergy clinics. (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Jones, Stacie M; Porter, Nicholas; White, Marjorie L; Gephardt, Grace; Hill, Travis; Cantrell, Mary; Nick, Todd G; Melguizo, Maria; Smith, Chris; Boateng, Beatrice A; Perry, Tamara T; Scurlock, Amy M; Thompson, Tonya M


    Simulation models that used high-fidelity mannequins have shown promise in medical education, particularly for cases in which the event is uncommon. Allergy physicians encounter emergencies in their offices, and these can be the source of much trepidation. To determine if case-based simulations with high-fidelity mannequins are effective in teaching and retention of emergency management team skills. Allergy clinics were invited to Arkansas Children's Hospital Pediatric Understanding and Learning through Simulation Education center for a 1-day workshop to evaluate skills concerning the management of allergic emergencies. A Clinical Emergency Preparedness Team Performance Evaluation was developed to evaluate the competence of teams in several areas: leadership and/or role clarity, closed-loop communication, team support, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills. Four cases, which focus on common allergic emergencies, were simulated by using high-fidelity mannequins and standardized patients. Teams were evaluated by multiple reviewers by using video recording and standardized scoring. Ten to 12 months after initial training, an unannounced in situ case was performed to determine retention of the skills training. Clinics showed significant improvements for role clarity, teamwork, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills during the 1-day workshop (all P Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High fidelity numerical simulation of airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on flapping airfoil propulsion (United States)

    Yu, Meilin; Wang, Z. J.; Hu, Hui


    High-fidelity numerical simulations with the spectral difference (SD) method are carried out to investigate the unsteady flow over a series of oscillating NACA 4-digit airfoils. Airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the flapping airfoil propulsion are highlighted. It is confirmed that the aerodynamic performance of airfoils with different thickness can be very different under the same kinematics. Distinct evolutionary patterns of vortical structures are analyzed to unveil the underlying flow physics behind the diverse flow phenomena associated with different airfoil thickness and kinematics and reveal the synthetic effects of airfoil thickness and kinematics on the propulsive performance. Thickness effects at various reduced frequencies and Strouhal numbers for the same chord length based Reynolds number (=1200) are then discussed in detail. It is found that at relatively small Strouhal number (=0.3), for all types of airfoils with the combined pitching and plunging motion (pitch angle 20°, the pitch axis located at one third of chord length from the leading edge, pitch leading plunge by 75°), low reduced frequency (=1) is conducive for both the thrust production and propulsive efficiency. Moreover, relatively thin airfoils (e.g. NACA0006) can generate larger thrust and maintain higher propulsive efficiency than thick airfoils (e.g. NACA0030). However, with the same kinematics but at relatively large Strouhal number (=0.45), it is found that airfoils with different thickness exhibit diverse trend on thrust production and propulsive efficiency, especially at large reduced frequency (=3.5). Results on effects of airfoil thickness based Reynolds numbers indicate that relative thin airfoils show superior propulsion performance in the tested Reynolds number range. The evolution of leading edge vortices and the interaction between the leading and trailing edge vortices play key roles in flapping airfoil propulsive performance.

  8. Evaluation of Heart Rate Assessment Timing, Communication, Accuracy, and Clinical Decision-Making during High Fidelity Simulation of Neonatal Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Boon


    Full Text Available Objective. Accurate heart rate (HR determination during neonatal resuscitation (NR informs subsequent NR actions. This study’s objective was to evaluate HR determination timeliness, communication, and accuracy during high fidelity NR simulations that house officers completed during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU rotations. Methods. In 2010, house officers in NICU rotations completed high fidelity NR simulation. We reviewed 80 house officers’ videotaped performance on their initial high fidelity simulation session, prior to training and performance debriefing. We calculated the proportion of cases congruent with NR guidelines, using chi square analysis to evaluate performance across HR ranges relevant to NR decision-making: <60, 60–99, and ≥100 beats per minute (bpm. Results. 87% used umbilical cord palpation, 57% initiated HR assessment within 30 seconds, 70% were accurate, and 74% were communicated appropriately. HR determination accuracy varied significantly across HR ranges, with 87%, 57%, and 68% for HR <60, 60–99, and ≥100 bpm, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusions. Timeliness, communication, and accuracy of house officers’ HR determination are suboptimal, particularly for HR 60–100 bpm, which might lead to inappropriate decision-making and NR care. Training implications include emphasizing more accurate HR determination methods, better communication, and improved HR interpretation during NR.

  9. High fidelity medical simulation in the difficult environment of a helicopter: feasibility, self-efficacy and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland Carolyn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the feasibility, self-efficacy and cost of providing a high fidelity medical simulation experience in the difficult environment of an air ambulance helicopter. Methods Seven of 12 EM residents in their first postgraduate year participated in an EMS flight simulation as the flight physician. The simulation used the Laerdal SimMan™ to present a cardiac and a trauma case in an EMS helicopter while running at flight idle. Before and after the simulation, subjects completed visual analog scales and a semi-structured interview to measure their self-efficacy, i.e. comfort with their ability to treat patients in the helicopter, and recognition of obstacles to care in the helicopter environment. After all 12 residents had completed their first non-simulated flight as the flight physician; they were surveyed about self-assessed comfort and perceived value of the simulation. Continuous data were compared between pre- and post-simulation using a paired samples t-test, and between residents participating in the simulation and those who did not using an independent samples t-test. Categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test. Cost data for the simulation experience were estimated by the investigators. Results The simulations functioned correctly 5 out of 7 times; suggesting some refinement is necessary. Cost data indicated a monetary cost of $440 and a time cost of 22 hours of skilled instructor time. The simulation and non-simulation groups were similar in their demographics and pre-hospital experiences. The simulation did not improve residents' self-assessed comfort prior to their first flight (p > 0.234, but did improve understanding of the obstacles to patient care in the helicopter (p = 0.029. Every resident undertaking the simulation agreed it was educational and it should be included in their training. Qualitative data suggested residents would benefit from high fidelity simulation in other

  10. Teaching childbirth with high-fidelity simulation. Is it better observing the scenario during the briefing session? (United States)

    Cuerva, Marcos J; Piñel, Carlos S; Martin, Lourdes; Espinosa, Jose A; Corral, Octavio J; Mendoza, Nicolás


    The design of optimal courses for obstetric undergraduate teaching is a relevant question. This study evaluates two different designs of simulator-based learning activity on childbirth with regard to respect to the patient, obstetric manoeuvres, interpretation of cardiotocography tracings (CTG) and infection prevention. This randomised experimental study which differs in the content of their briefing sessions consisted of two groups of undergraduate students, who performed two simulator-based learning activities on childbirth. The first briefing session included the observations of a properly performed scenario according to Spanish clinical practice guidelines on care in normal childbirth by the teachers whereas the second group did not include the observations of a properly performed scenario, and the students observed it only after the simulation process. The group that observed a properly performed scenario after the simulation obtained worse grades during the simulation, but better grades during the debriefing and evaluation. Simulator use in childbirth may be more fruitful when the medical students observe correct performance at the completion of the scenario compared to that at the start of the scenario. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? There is a scarcity of literature about the design of optimal high-fidelity simulation training in childbirth. It is known that preparing simulator-based learning activities is a complex process. Simulator-based learning includes the following steps: briefing, simulation, debriefing and evaluation. The most important part of high-fidelity simulations is the debriefing. A good briefing and simulation are of high relevance in order to have a fruitful debriefing session. What do the results of this study add? Our study describes a full simulator-based learning activity on childbirth that can be reproduced in similar facilities. The findings of this study add that high-fidelity simulation training in

  11. The effect of high-fidelity patient simulation on the critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills of new graduate nurses. (United States)

    Maneval, Rhonda; Fowler, Kimberly A; Kays, John A; Boyd, Tiffany M; Shuey, Jennifer; Harne-Britner, Sarah; Mastrine, Cynthia


    This study was conducted to determine whether the addition of high-fidelity patient simulation to new nurse orientation enhanced critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills. A pretest-posttest design was used to assess critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills in two groups of graduate nurses. Compared with the control group, the high-fidelity patient simulation group did not show significant improvement in mean critical thinking or clinical decision-making scores. When mean scores were analyzed, both groups showed an increase in critical thinking scores from pretest to posttest, with the high-fidelity patient simulation group showing greater gains in overall scores. However, neither group showed a statistically significant increase in mean test scores. The effect of high-fidelity patient simulation on critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills remains unclear. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. High-fidelity simulations of moving and flexible airfoils at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visbal, Miguel R.; Gordnier, Raymond E.; Galbraith, Marshall C. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Computational Sciences Branch, Air Vehicles Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)


    The present paper highlights results derived from the application of a high-fidelity simulation technique to the analysis of low-Reynolds-number transitional flows over moving and flexible canonical configurations motivated by small natural and man-made flyers. This effort addresses three separate fluid dynamic phenomena relevant to small fliers, including: laminar separation and transition over a stationary airfoil, transition effects on the dynamic stall vortex generated by a plunging airfoil, and the effect of flexibility on the flow structure above a membrane airfoil. The specific cases were also selected to permit comparison with available experimental measurements. First, the process of transition on a stationary SD7003 airfoil section over a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack is considered. Prior to stall, the flow exhibits a separated shear layer which rolls up into spanwise vortices. These vortices subsequently undergo spanwise instabilities, and ultimately breakdown into fine-scale turbulent structures as the boundary layer reattaches to the airfoil surface. In a time-averaged sense, the flow displays a closed laminar separation bubble which moves upstream and contracts in size with increasing angle of attack for a fixed Reynolds number. For a fixed angle of attack, as the Reynolds number decreases, the laminar separation bubble grows in vertical extent producing a significant increase in drag. For the lowest Reynolds number considered (Re{sub c} = 10 {sup 4}), transition does not occur over the airfoil at moderate angles of attack prior to stall. Next, the impact of a prescribed high-frequency small-amplitude plunging motion on the transitional flow over the SD7003 airfoil is investigated. The motion-induced high angle of attack results in unsteady separation in the leading edge and in the formation of dynamic-stall-like vortices which convect downstream close to the airfoil. At the lowest value of Reynolds number (Re{sub c}=10 {sup 4

  13. Nursing students' perceptions of learning after high fidelity simulation: Effects of a Three-step Post-simulation Reflection Model. (United States)

    Lestander, Örjan; Lehto, Niklas; Engström, Åsa


    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) has become a bridge between theoretical knowledge and practical skills. A safe and realistic environment is commonly used in nursing education to improve cognitive, affective and psychomotor abilities. Debriefing following a simulation experience provides opportunities for students to analyze and begin to reflect upon their decisions, actions and results. The nursing literature highlights the need to promote the concept of reflective practice and to assist students in reflection, and research indicates the need to refine and develop debriefing strategies, which is the focus of the current paper. To explore the value of reflections after HFS by investigating nursing students' perceptions of their learning when a Three-step Post-simulation Reflection Model is used. A qualitative descriptive research approach was applied. A Three-step Post-simulation Reflection Model that combined written and verbal reflections was used after an HFS experience in a second-year course in the Bachelor Program in Nursing at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. Reflective texts written before and after a verbal group reflection were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The main theme in the first written reflections was identified as "Starting to act as a nurse", with the following categories: feeling stressed, inadequate and inexperienced; developing an awareness of the importance of never compromising patient safety; planning the work and prioritizing; and beginning to understand and implement nursing knowledge. The main theme in the second written reflections was identified to be "Maturing in the profession", with the following categories: appreciating colleagues, good communication and thoughtfulness; gaining increased self-awareness and confidence; and beginning to understand the profession. The Three-step Post-simulation Reflection Model fostered an appreciation of clear and effective communication. Having time for thoughtfulness and

  14. Web-Based versus High-Fidelity Simulation Training for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists in the Management of High Risk/Low Occurrence Anesthesia Events (United States)

    Kimemia, Judy


    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to compare web-based to high-fidelity simulation training in the management of high risk/low occurrence anesthesia related events, to enhance knowledge acquisition for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs). This project was designed to answer the question: Is web-based training as effective as…

  15. High-fidelity medical simulation training improves medical students' knowledge and confidence levels in septic shock resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vattanavanit V


    Full Text Available Veerapong Vattanavanit, Jarernporn Kawla-ied, Rungsun Bhurayanontachai Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Septic shock resuscitation bundles have poor compliance worldwide partly due to a lack of knowledge and clinical skills. High-fidelity simulation-based training is a new teaching technology in our faculty which may improve the performance of medical students in the resuscitation process. However, since the efficacy of this training method in our institute is limited, we organized an extra class for this evaluation.Purpose: The aim was to evaluate the effect on medical students’ knowledge and confidence levels after the high-fidelity medical simulation training in septic shock management.Methods: A retrospective study was performed in sixth year medical students during an internal medicine rotation between November 2015 and March 2016. The simulation class was a 2-hour session of a septic shock management scenario and post-training debriefing. Knowledge assessment was determined by a five-question pre-test and post-test examination. At the end of the class, the students completed their confidence evaluation questionnaire.Results: Of the 79 medical students, the mean percentage score ± standard deviation (SD of the post-test examination was statistically significantly higher than the pre-test (66.83%±19.7% vs 47.59%±19.7%, p<0.001. In addition, the student mean percentage confidence level ± SD in management of septic shock was significantly better after the simulation class (68.10%±12.2% vs 51.64%±13.1%, p<0.001. They also strongly suggested applying this simulation class to the current curriculum.Conclusion: High-fidelity medical simulation improved the students’ knowledge and confidence in septic shock resuscitation. This simulation class should be included in the curriculum of the sixth year medical students

  16. Fusion of psychiatric and medical high fidelity patient simulation scenarios: effect on nursing student knowledge, retention of knowledge, and perception. (United States)

    Kameg, Kirstyn M; Englert, Nadine Cozzo; Howard, Valerie M; Perozzi, Katherine J


    High fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) has become an increasingly popular teaching methodology in nursing education. To date, there have not been any published studies investigating HFPS scenarios incorporating medical and psychiatric nursing content. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design to assess if HFPS improved student knowledge and retention of knowledge utilizing three parallel 30-item Elsevier HESI(TM) Custom Exams. A convenience sample of 37 senior level nursing students participated in the study. The results of the study revealed the mean HESI test scores decreased following the simulation intervention although an analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined the difference was not statistically significant (p = .297). Although this study did not reveal improved student knowledge following the HFPS experiences, the findings did provide preliminary evidence that HFPS may improve knowledge in students who are identified as "at-risk." Additionally, students responded favorably to the simulations and viewed them as a positive learning experience.

  17. Perceived benefits and challenges of repeated exposure to high fidelity simulation experiences of first degree accelerated bachelor nursing students. (United States)

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Vandyke, Olga; Smallwood, Christopher; Gonzalez, Kristen Mathieu


    This study explored perceptions of first-degree entry-level accelerated bachelor nursing students regarding benefits and challenges of exposure to multiple high fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios, which has not been studied to date. These perceptions conformed to some research findings among Associate Degree, traditional non-accelerated, and second-degree accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students faced with one to two simulations. However, first-degree accelerated BSN students faced with multiple complex simulations perceived improvements on all outcomes, including critical thinking, confidence, competence, and theory-practice integration. On the negative side, some reported feeling overwhelmed by the multiple HFS scenarios. Evidence from this study supports HFS as an effective teaching and learning method for nursing students, along with valuable implications for many other fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning advanced cardiac life support: a comparison study of the effects of low- and high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Hoadley, Theresa A


    To increase cardiopulmonary arrest survival, the American Heart Association developed basic and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) courses that expose participants to realistic learning situations. This experimental study compared results of two ACLS classes on measures of knowledge (content exam) and resuscitation skills (performance exam). Both the control and experimental groups consisted of physicians, nurses, emergency medical technicians, respiratory therapists, and advanced health care providers. The control group used low-fidelity simulation (LFS); the experimental group was exposed to enhanced realism via high-fidelity simulation (HFS). The findings showed a positive correlation between enhanced practice and learning but no significant correlation between posttest and skills test scores for the LFS and HFS groups. The HFS group did score higher on both cognitive and behavioral tests, but the difference was not statistically significant. Participants from both groups indicated satisfaction with their forms of simulation experience and course design. In addition, participants' self-confidence to care for a victim of cardiopulmonary arrest was increased after completing their course; profession and work experience had no effect on responses. The largest difference noted was in verbal responses to course satisfaction. The experimental group stated that learning using HFS was enjoyable and adamantly recommended that ACLS should only be taught using HFS. Further study is required to assess if practicing beyond the course enhances short- and long-term retention of ACLS techniques.

  19. Impact of high-fidelity simulation on the development of clinical judgment and motivation among Lebanese nursing students. (United States)

    Fawaz, Mirna A; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M


    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) offers a strategy to facilitate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes and motivate the new generation of students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of using high-fidelity simulation on the development of clinical judgment and motivation among Lebanese nursing students. A post-test, quasi-experimental design was used. Two private universities in Lebanon were targeted to implement the intervention. A convenience sample of 56 nursing students from two private universities in Lebanon were recruited. Data were collected using the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric and the Motivated Strategies for Learning questionnaires. Nursing students exhibited significant improvement in clinical judgment and motivation due to exposure to HFS. There was a significant difference post HFS between the intervention group and the control group in clinical judgment intervention (t=5.23, pmotivation for academic achievement (t=-6.71, pmotivation (198.6, SD=10.5) in the intervention group than in the control group (161.6, SD=20). The analysis related to differences between the intervention and control groups in motivation and clinical judgment; controlling for previous experience in health care services, the analysis showed no significant difference (Wilk's lambda =0.77, F=1.09, p=0.374). There is a need for nursing educators to implement HFS in nursing curricula, where its integration can bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and nursing practice and enhance critical thinking and motivation among nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Evaluation of the impact and efficiency of high-fidelity simulation for neonatal resuscitation in midwifery education]. (United States)

    Coyer, C; Gascoin, G; Sentilhes, L; Savagner, C; Berton, J; Beringue, F


    Prompt initiation of appropriate neonatal resuscitation skills is critical for the neonate experiencing difficulty transitioning to extra-uterine life. Expertise in neonatal resuscitation is essential for personnel involved in the care of newborns, above all for midwives who are sometimes alone to initiate the first resuscitation. The use of simulation training is considered to be an indispensable tool to address these challenges, not only in continuing education but also in midwifery education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact and efficiency of high-fidelity simulation for neonatal resuscitation in midwifery education. This was a prospective monocentric study conducted in the Angers university hospital between October and December 2012 and included two groups of midwifery students (n=40) who received high-fidelity simulation as part of their basic midwifery education. Participants' perceptions of the knowledge, skills, and confidence gained following training in high-fidelity simulation for neonatal resuscitation were determined using a pre-/post-test questionnaire design completed during the training and also several months after the course, as well as after the students had begun working. A satisfaction survey to evaluate this training was also completed at the same time. With a good participation rate (67.5%), the survey showed a high degree of satisfaction among the participants. This training was described as facilitating their hire in one third of cases. A significant increase in self-assessment of skills scores was observed between the pre-test and post-test (Phigher than that obtained on the pre-test (P=0.03). The significant improvement in knowledge during the session and its preservation after a few months confirmed the efficacy of this teaching method. The simulation training increased the participants' perceptions of their knowledge, skills, and confidence in conducting neonatal resuscitation. These preliminary results are very

  1. Effect of High-Fidelity Ice Accretion Simulations on the Performance of a Full-Scale Airfoil Model (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Bragg, Michael B.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Moens, Frederic; Guffond, Didier


    The simulation of ice accretion on a wing or other surface is often required for aerodynamic evaluation, particularly at small scale or low-Reynolds number. While there are commonly accepted practices for ice simulation, there are no established and validated guidelines. The purpose of this article is to report the results of an experimental study establishing a high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance database. This research was conducted as a part of a larger program with the goal of developing subscale aerodynamic simulation methods for iced airfoils. Airfoil performance testing was carried out at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel using a 72-in. (1828.8-mm) chord NACA 23012 airfoil over a Reynolds number range of 4.5x10(exp 6) to 16.0 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.10 to 0.28. The high-fidelity, ice-casting simulations had a significant impact on the aerodynamic performance. A spanwise-ridge ice shape resulted in a maximum lift coefficient of 0.56 compared to the clean value of 1.85 at Re = 15.9x10(exp 6) and M = 0.20. Two roughness and streamwise shapes yielded maximum lift values in the range of 1.09 to 1.28, which was a relatively small variation compared to the differences in the ice geometry. The stalling characteristics of the two roughness and one streamwise ice simulation maintained the abrupt leading-edge stall type of the clean NACA 23012 airfoil, despite the significant decrease in maximum lift. Changes in Reynolds and Mach number over the large range tested had little effect on the iced-airfoil performance.

  2. [High fidelity simulation : a new tool for learning and research in pediatrics]. (United States)

    Bragard, I; Farhat, N; Seghaye, M-C; Schumacher, K


    Caring for a sick child represents a high risk activity that requires technical and non-technical skills related to several factors such as the rarity of certain events or the stress of caring for a child. As regard these conditions, medi¬cal simulation provides a learning environment without risk, the control of variables, the reproducibility of situations, and the confrontation with rare events. In this article, we des¬cribe the steps of a simulation session and outline the current knowledge of the use of simulation in paediatrics. A session of simulation includes seven phases following the model of Peter Dieckmann, particularly the scenario and the debriefing that form the heart of the learning experience. Several studies have shown the advantages of simulation for paediatric trai¬ning in terms of changes in attitudes, skills and knowledge. Some studies have demonstrated a beneficial transfer to prac¬tice. In conclusion, simulation provides great potential for training and research in paediatrics. The establishment of a collaborative research program by the whole simulation com¬munity would help ensure that this type of training improves the quality of care.

  3. High Fidelity, “Faster than Real-Time” Simulator for Predicting Power System Dynamic Behavior - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Alex [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)


    The “High Fidelity, Faster than Real­Time Simulator for Predicting Power System Dynamic Behavior” was designed and developed by Illinois Institute of Technology with critical contributions from Electrocon International, Argonne National Laboratory, Alstom Grid and McCoy Energy. Also essential to the project were our two utility partners: Commonwealth Edison and AltaLink. The project was a success due to several major breakthroughs in the area of large­scale power system dynamics simulation, including (1) a validated faster than real­ time simulation of both stable and unstable transient dynamics in a large­scale positive sequence transmission grid model, (2) a three­phase unbalanced simulation platform for modeling new grid devices, such as independently controlled single­phase static var compensators (SVCs), (3) the world’s first high fidelity three­phase unbalanced dynamics and protection simulator based on Electrocon’s CAPE program, and (4) a first­of­its­ kind implementation of a single­phase induction motor model with stall capability. The simulator results will aid power grid operators in their true time of need, when there is a significant risk of cascading outages. The simulator will accelerate performance and enhance accuracy of dynamics simulations, enabling operators to maintain reliability and steer clear of blackouts. In the long­term, the simulator will form the backbone of the newly conceived hybrid real­time protection and control architecture that will coordinate local controls, wide­area measurements, wide­area controls and advanced real­time prediction capabilities. The nation’s citizens will benefit in several ways, including (1) less down time from power outages due to the faster­than­real­time simulator’s predictive capability, (2) higher levels of reliability due to the detailed dynamics plus protection simulation capability, and (3) more resiliency due to the three­ phase unbalanced simulator’s ability to

  4. High-fidelity simulation of compressible flows for hypersonic propulsion applications (United States)

    Otis, Collin C.

    In the first part of this dissertation, the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. The SFMDF is a sub-grid scale closure and is simulated via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo solver. US3D is an Eulerian finite volume code and has proven very effective for compressible flow simulations. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows. The consistency and accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. In the second part of this dissertation, a new methodology is developed for accurate capturing of discontinuities in multi-block finite difference simulations of hyperbolic partial differential equations. The fourth-order energy-stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory (ESWENO) scheme on closed domains is combined with simultaneous approximation term (SAT) weak interface and boundary conditions. The capability of the methodology is demonstrated for accurate simulations in the presence of significant and abrupt changes in grid resolution between neighboring subdomains. Results are presented for the solutions of linear scalar hyperbolic wave equations and the Euler equations in one and two dimensions. Strong discontinuities are passed across subdomain interfaces without significant distortions. It is demonstrated that the methodology provides stable and accurate solutions even when large differences in the grid-spacing exist, whereas strong imposition of the interface conditions causes noticeable oscillations. Keywords: Large eddy simulation, filtered density function, turbulent reacting flows, multi-block finite difference schemes, high-order numerical methods, WENO shock-capturing, computational fluid dynamics.

  5. Implementation and outcome evaluation of high-fidelity simulation scenarios to integrate cognitive and psychomotor skills for Korean nursing students. (United States)

    Ahn, Heejung; Kim, Hyun-Young


    This study is involved in designing high-fidelity simulations reflecting the Korean nursing education environment. In addition, it evaluated the simulations by nursing students' learning outcomes and perceptions of the simulation design features. A quantitative design was used in two separate phases. For the first phase, five nursing experts participated in verifying the appropriateness of two simulation scenarios that reflected the intended learning objectives. For the second phase, 69 nursing students in the third year of a bachelor's degree at a nursing school participated in evaluating the simulations and were randomized according to their previous course grades. The first phase verified the two simulation scenarios using a questionnaire. The second phase evaluated students' perceptions of the simulation design, self-confidence, and critical thinking skills using a quasi-experimental post-test design. ANCOVA was used to compare the experimental and control groups, and correlation coefficient analysis was used to determine the correlation among them. We created 2 simulation scenarios to integrate cognitive and psychomotor skills according to the learning objectives and clinical environment in Korea. The experimental group had significantly higher scores on self-confidence in the first scenario. The positive correlations between perceptions of the simulation design features, self-confidence, and critical thinking skill scores were statistically significant. Students with a more positive perception of the design features of the simulations had better learning outcomes. Based on this result, simulations need to be designed and implemented with more differentiation in order to be perceived more appropriately by students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of High-Fidelity Simulation on Salivary Cortisol Levels in SRNA Students: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Jones


    Full Text Available The use of clinical simulation in graduate level nursing education provides the opportunity for students to learn and apply theoretical practices of nursing care in a safe and controlled environment. It was postulated that laboratory simulation would mimic the stress levels of a real clinical situation as measured by the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-fidelity simulation approximates the stress experienced by nurse anesthesia students in the operating room. Participants (n = 21 were recruited from an accredited nurse anesthesia program in the southern U.S. Saliva was collected for 3 days under controlled conditions for baseline data. Next, saliva was collected for 3 days: the day before, the day of, and the day after simulation. The same process was repeated for the first clinical day in the operating room. The participants acted as their own control. There was a significant (p 0.05, and levels were lower than levels during simulation. Laboratory simulation of patient scenarios raised the stress hormone cortisol level threefold above baseline levels in nurse anesthesia students, while actual clinical experience did not.

  7. Development of a High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Shadow-Mode Assessments of Air Traffic Concepts (United States)

    Robinson, John E., III; Lee, Alan; Lai, Chok Fung


    This paper describes the Shadow-Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) Test Bed. The SMART-NAS Test Bed is an air traffic simulation platform being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The SMART-NAS Test Bed's core purpose is to conduct high-fidelity, real-time, human-in-the-loop and automation-in-the-loop simulations of current and proposed future air traffic concepts for the United States' Next Generation Air Transportation System called NextGen. The setup, configuration, coordination, and execution of realtime, human-in-the-loop air traffic management simulations are complex, tedious, time intensive, and expensive. The SMART-NAS Test Bed framework is an alternative to the current approach and will provide services throughout the simulation workflow pipeline to help alleviate these shortcomings. The principle concepts to be simulated include advanced gate-to-gate, trajectory-based operations, widespread integration of novel aircraft such as unmanned vehicles, and real-time safety assurance technologies to enable autonomous operations. To make this possible, SNTB will utilize Web-based technologies, cloud resources, and real-time, scalable, communication middleware. This paper describes the SMART-NAS Test Bed's vision, purpose, its concept of use, and the potential benefits, key capabilities, high-level requirements, architecture, software design, and usage.

  8. A high-fidelity, six-degree-of-freedom batch simulation environment for tactical guidance research and evaluation (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.


    A batch air combat simulation environment, the tactical maneuvering simulator (TMS), is presented. The TMS is a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics, but it can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS can simulate air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics, and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulations. Data bases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system, the tactical autopilot (TA), is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands by computerized maneuvering logics from desired angle of attack and wind-axis bank-angle inputs to the inner loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. The capabilities and operation of the TMS and the TA are described.

  9. Using High-Fidelity Simulation and Video-Assisted Debriefing to Enhance Obstetrical Hemorrhage Mock Code Training. (United States)

    Jacobs, Peggy J

    The purpose of this descriptive, one-group posttest study was to explore the nursing staff's perception of the benefits of using high-fidelity simulation during mandated obstetrical hemorrhage mock code training. In addition, the use of video-assisted debriefing was used to enhance the nursing staff's evaluation of their communication and teamwork processes during a simulated obstetrical crisis. The convenience sample of 84 members of the nursing staff consented to completing data collection forms and being videotaped during the simulation. Quantitative results for the postsimulation survey showed that 93% of participants agreed or totally agreed that the use of SimMan made the simulation more realistic and enhanced learning and that debriefing and the use of videotaped playback improved their evaluation of team communication. Participants derived greatest benefit from reviewing their performance on videotape and discussing it during postsimulation debriefing. Simulation with video-assisted debriefing offers hospital educators the ability to evaluate team processes and offer support to improve teamwork with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes during obstetrical hemorrhage.

  10. Design and Optimization of Large Accelerator Systems through High-Fidelity Electromagnetic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Cho; Akcelik, Volkan; Candel, Arno; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar1, Ravi; Xiao1, Liling; Ko1, Kwok; Austin, T.; Cary, J.R.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Smith, D.N.; Werner, G.R.; Bellantoni, L.; /SLAC /TechX Corp. /Fermilab


    SciDAC1, with its support for the 'Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology' (AST) project, witnessed dramatic advances in electromagnetic (EM) simulations for the design and optimization of important accelerators across the Office of Science. In SciDAC2, EM simulations continue to play an important role in the 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation' (ComPASS), through close collaborations with SciDAC CETs/Institutes in computational science. Existing codes will be improved and new multi-physics tools will be developed to model large accelerator systems with unprecedented realism and high accuracy using computing resources at petascale. These tools aim at targeting the most challenging problems facing the ComPASS project. Supported by advances in computational science research, they have been successfully applied to the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the JLab 12-GeV Upgrade in Nuclear Physics (NP), as well as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of GPs when using an early-intervention decision support system: a high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Porat, Talya; Corrigan, Derek; Mahmoud, Samhar; Delaney, Brendan C


    Observational and experimental studies of the diagnostic task have demonstrated the importance of the first hypotheses that come to mind for accurate diagnosis. A prototype decision support system (DSS) designed to support GPs' first impressions has been integrated with a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system. To evaluate the prototype DSS in a high-fidelity simulation. Within-participant design: 34 GPs consulted with six standardised patients (actors) using their usual EHR. On a different day, GPs used the EHR with the integrated DSS to consult with six other patients, matched for difficulty and counterbalanced. Entering the reason for encounter triggered the DSS, which provided a patient-specific list of potential diagnoses, and supported coding of symptoms during the consultation. At each consultation, GPs recorded their diagnosis and management. At the end, they completed a usability questionnaire. The actors completed a satisfaction questionnaire after each consultation. There was an 8-9% absolute improvement in diagnostic accuracy when the DSS was used. This improvement was significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13 to 1.77, P<0.01). There was no associated increase of investigations ordered or consultation length. GPs coded significantly more data when using the DSS (mean 12.35 with the DSS versus 1.64 without), and were generally satisfied with its usability. Patient satisfaction ratings were the same for consultations with and without the DSS. The DSS prototype was successfully employed in simulated consultations of high fidelity, with no measurable influences on patient satisfaction. The substantially increased data coding can operate as motivation for future DSS adoption. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  12. Predicting growth of graphene nanostructures using high-fidelity atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, Keven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, Donald K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schultz, Peter A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bartelt, Norman Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In this project we developed t he atomistic models needed to predict how graphene grows when carbon is deposited on metal and semiconductor surfaces. We first calculated energies of many carbon configurations using first principles electronic structure calculations and then used these energies to construct an empirical bond order potentials that enable s comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation of growth. We validated our approach by comparing our predictions to experiments of graphene growth on Ir, Cu and Ge. The robustness of ou r understanding of graphene growth will enable high quality graphene to be grown on novel substrates which will expand the number of potential types of graphene electronic devices.

  13. [Team dynamics and clinical performance of medical students in web-based and high-fidelity simulations]. (United States)

    Bang, Jae Beum; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Lee, Young Hwan; Lee, Sam Beom


    The importance of team dynamics with regard to clinical performance is being emphasized to improve patient safety and the quality of health care. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation and differences in team dynamics and team clinical performance in a web-based simulation (WS) and high-fidelity simulation (HS) in the medical students. The simulations were held for 15 teams of fourth year medical students (n=52). They were given two clinical cases, dyspnea (case 1) and chest pain (case 2) by WS and then HS. The scores on the team dynamics and the team's clinical performance were analyzed by paired t-test and multiple regression using SPSS version 21.0 (IBM Corp.). The teamwork scores on case 2 (22.67 ± 6.58) were higher than for case 1 in the HS (20.47 ± 7.22). Team clinical performance scores were the same the WS and HS. Team clinical performances were significantly associated with team dynamics in both cases by HS. Teamwork scores of team dynamics were each explanation on case 1 (74.9%), case 2 (63.4%) in the HS. The team dynamics and clinical performance can improve if undergraduate medical students have more opportunities. They should be trained in these endeavors to become future doctors for which scenario-based simulations could be valuable.

  14. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III


    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  15. Comparison of fresh-frozen cadaver and high-fidelity virtual reality simulator as methods of laparoscopic training. (United States)

    Sharma, Mitesh; Horgan, Alan


    The aim of this study was to compare fresh-frozen cadavers (FFC) with a high-fidelity virtual reality simulator (VRS) as training tools in minimal access surgery for complex and relatively simple procedures. A prospective comparative face validity study between FFC and VRS (LAP Mentor(™)) was performed. Surgeons were recruited to perform tasks on both FFC and VRS appropriately paired to their experience level. Group A (senior) performed a laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy, Group B (intermediate) performed a laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, and Group C (junior) performed basic laparoscopic tasks (BLT) (camera manipulation, hand-eye coordination, tissue dissection and hand-transferring skills). Each subject completed a 5-point Likert-type questionnaire rating the training modalities in nine domains. Data were analysed using nonparametric tests. Forty-five surgeons were recruited to participate (15 per skill group). Median scores for subjects in Group A were significantly higher for evaluation of FFC in all nine domains compared to VRS (p < 0.01). Group B scored FFC significantly better (p < 0.05) in all domains except task replication (p = 0.06). Group C scored FFC significantly better (p < 0.01) in eight domains but not on performance feedback (p = 0.09). When compared across groups, juniors accepted VRS as a training model more than did intermediate and senior groups on most domains (p < 0.01) except team work. Fresh-frozen cadaver is perceived as a significantly overall better model for laparoscopic training than the high-fidelity VRS by all training grades, irrespective of the complexity of the operative procedure performed. VRS is still useful when training junior trainees in BLT.

  16. High-Fidelity Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aircraft System Simulation Development for Trajectory Prediction Under Off-Nominal Flight Dynamics (United States)

    Foster, John V.; Hartman, David C.


    The NASA Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project is conducting research to enable civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. A goal of this project is to develop probabilistic methods to quantify risk during failures and off nominal flight conditions. An important part of this effort is the reliable prediction of feasible trajectories during off-nominal events such as control failure, atmospheric upsets, or navigation anomalies that can cause large deviations from the intended flight path or extreme vehicle upsets beyond the normal flight envelope. Few examples of high-fidelity modeling and prediction of off-nominal behavior for small UAS (sUAS) vehicles exist, and modeling requirements for accurately predicting flight dynamics for out-of-envelope or failure conditions are essentially undefined. In addition, the broad range of sUAS aircraft configurations already being fielded presents a significant modeling challenge, as these vehicles are often very different from one another and are likely to possess dramatically different flight dynamics and resultant trajectories and may require different modeling approaches to capture off-nominal behavior. NASA has undertaken an extensive research effort to define sUAS flight dynamics modeling requirements and develop preliminary high fidelity six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulations capable of more closely predicting off-nominal flight dynamics and trajectories. This research has included a literature review of existing sUAS modeling and simulation work as well as development of experimental testing methods to measure and model key components of propulsion, airframe and control characteristics. The ultimate objective of these efforts is to develop tools to support UTM risk analyses and for the real-time prediction of off-nominal trajectories for use in the UTM Risk Assessment Framework (URAF). This paper focuses on modeling and simulation efforts for a generic quad-rotor configuration typical

  17. Ventilator caregiver education through the use of high-fidelity pediatric simulators: a pilot study. (United States)

    Tofil, Nancy M; Rutledge, Chrystal; Zinkan, J Lynn; Youngblood, Amber Q; Stone, Julie; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; Slayton, Donna; Makris, Chris; Magruder, Terri; White, Marjorie Lee


    Introduction. Home ventilator programs (HVP) have been developed to train parents of critically ill children. Simulators are used in health care, but not often for parents. We added simulation to our HVP and assessed parents' response. Methods. In July 2008, the HVP at Children's of Alabama added simulation to parent training. Debriefing was provided after the training session to reinforce correct skills and critical thinking. Follow-up surveys were completed after training. Results. Fifteen families participated. All parents were confident in changing tracheostomies, knowing signs of breathing difficulties, and responding to alarms. 71% strongly agree that simulation resulted in feeling better prepared to care for their child. 86% felt simulation improved their confidence in taking care of their child. Conclusion. Simulators provide a crucial transition between learned skills and application. This novel use of simulation-based education improves parents' confidence in emergencies and may lead to shortened training resulting in cost savings.

  18. Comparison of recidivism rates for a teenage trauma prevention program after the addition of high-fidelity patient simulation. (United States)

    White, Marjorie Lee; Zinkan, J Lynn; Smith, Geni; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; Youngblood, Amber Q; Dodd, Ashley; Parker, Walter; Strachan, Samuel; Sloane, Peter; Tofil, Nancy


    We evaluated the benefits of adding high-fidelity simulation to a teenage trauma prevention program to decrease recidivism rates and encourage teens to discuss actionable steps toward safe driving. A simulated pediatric trauma scenario was integrated into an established trauma prevention program. Participants were recruited because they were court-ordered to attend this program after misdemeanor convictions for moving violations. The teenage participants viewed this simulation from the emergency medical services (EMS) handoff to complete trauma care. Participants completed a postsimulation knowledge assessment and care evaluation, which included narrative data about the experience. Qualitative analysis of color-coded responses identified common themes and experiences in participants' answers. Court records were reviewed 6 years after course completion to determine short- and long-term recidivism rates, which were then compared to our program's historical rate. One hundred twenty-four students aged 16-20 years participated over a 2-year study period. Narrative responses included general reflection, impressions, and thoughts about what they might change as a result of the course. Participants reported that they would decrease speed (30%), wear seat belts (15%), decrease cell phone use (11%), and increase caution (28%). The recidivism rate was 55% within 6 years. At 6 months it was 8.4%, at 1 year it was 20%, and it increased approximately 5-8% per year after the first year. Compared with our programs, for historical 6-month and 2-year recidivism rates, no significant difference was seen with or without simulation. Adding simulation is well received by participants and leads to positive reflections regarding changes in risk-taking behaviors but resulted in no changes to the high recidivism rates This may be due to the often ineffectiveness of fear appeals.

  19. Severe Trauma Stress Inoculation Training for Combat Medics using High Fidelity Simulation (United States)


    Interservice/Jndustry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (/1/ TSEC ) 20/3 responding to lED victims. He has led the development of several...environment. The course is based 13067 Paper No. Page 4 of 12 lnterservicellndustry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (/1/ TSEC ) 2013 on known...Simulation, and Education Conference (1/! TSEC ) 2013 positive made from it, which a sculptor used to finalize the final casting model. From this positive, a

  20. High-Fidelity Space-Time Adaptive Multiphysics Simulations in Nuclear Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solin, Pavel [Univ. of Reno, NV (United States); Ragusa, Jean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    We delivered a series of fundamentally new computational technologies that have the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art of computer simulations of transient multiphysics nuclear reactor processes. These methods were implemented in the form of a C++ library, and applied to a number of multiphysics coupled problems relevant to nuclear reactor simulations.

  1. Virtual reality simulation training in a high-fidelity procedure suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lönn, Lars; Edmond, John J; Marco, Jean


    To assess the face and content validity of a novel, full physics, full procedural, virtual reality simulation housed in a hybrid procedure suite.......To assess the face and content validity of a novel, full physics, full procedural, virtual reality simulation housed in a hybrid procedure suite....

  2. High-Fidelity Simulation and Analysis of Ignition Regimes and Mixing Characteristics for Low Temperature Combustion Engine Application (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh

    Computational singular perturbation (CSP) technique is applied as an automated diagnostic tool to classify ignition regimes, especially spontaneous ignition front and deflagration in low temperature combustion (LTC) engine environments. Various model problems representing LTC are simulated using high-fidelity computation with detailed chemistry for hydrogen-air, and the simulation data are then analyzed by CSP. The active reaction zones are first identified by the locus of minimum number of fast exhausted time scales. Subsequently, the relative importance of transport and chemistry is determined in the region ahead of the reaction zone. A new index IT, defined as the sum of the absolute values of the importance indices of diffusion and convection of temperature to the slow dynamics of temperature, serves as a criterion to differentiate spontaneous ignition from deflagration regimes. The same strategy is then used to gain insights into classification of ignition regimes in n-heptane air mixtures. Parametric studies are conducted using high-fidelity simulations with detailed chemistry and transport. The mixture at non-NTC conditions shows initially a deflagration front which is subsequently transitioned into a spontaneous ignition front. For the mixtures at the NTC conditions which exhibit two-stage ignition behavior, the 1 st stage ignition front is found to be more likely in the deflagration regime. On the other hand, the 2nd stage ignition front occurs almost always in the spontaneous regime because the upstream mixture contains active radical species produced by the preceding 1st stage ignition front. The effects of differently correlated equivalence ratio stratification are also considered and the results are shown to be consistent with previous findings. 2D turbulent auto-ignition problems corresponding to NTC and non-NTC chemistry yield similar qualitative results. Finally, we look into the modeling of turbulent mixing, in particular, the scalar dissipation

  3. The effects of model composition design choices on high-fidelity simulations of motoneuron recruitment and firing behaviors. (United States)

    Allen, John M; Elbasiouny, Sherif M


    Computational models often require tradeoffs, such as balancing detail with efficiency; yet optimal balance should incorporate sound design features that do not bias the results of the specific scientific question under investigation. The present study examines how model design choices impact simulation results. We developed a rigorously-validated high-fidelity computational model of the spinal motoneuron pool to study three long-standing model design practices which have yet to be examined for their impact on motoneuron recruitment, firing rate, and force simulations. The practices examined were the use of: 1) Generic cell models to simulate different motoneuron types, 2) discrete property ranges for different motoneuron types, and 3) biological homogeneity of cell properties within motoneuron types. Our results show that each of these practices accentuates conditions of motoneuron recruitment based on the size principle, and minimizes conditions of mixed and reversed recruitment orders, which have been observed in animal and human recordings. Specifically, strict motoneuron orderly size recruitment occurs, but in a compressed range, after which mixed and reverse motoneuron recruitment occurs due to the overlap in electrical properties of different motoneuron types. Additionally, these practices underestimate the motoneuron firing rates and force data simulated by existing models. Our results indicate that current modeling practices increase conditions of motoneuron recruitment based on the size principle, and decrease conditions of mixed and reversed recruitment order, which, in turn, impacts the predictions made by existing models on motoneuron recruitment, firing rate, and force. Additionally, mixed and reverse motoneuron recruitment generated higher muscle force than orderly size motoneuron recruitment in these simulations and represents one potential scheme to increase muscle efficiency. The examined model design practices, as well as the present results, are

  4. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Kuo, Calvin; Jain, Abhi; Grip, Havard; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Overholt, Jim


    This paper reports on a collaborative project between U.S. Army TARDEC and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) simulation model using the ROAMS vehicle modeling framework. Besides modeling the physical suspension of the vehicle, the sensing and navigation of the HMMWV vehicle are simulated. Using models of urban and off-road environments, the HMMWV simulation was tested in several ways, including navigation in an urban environment with obstacle avoidance and the performance of a lane change maneuver.

  5. High Fidelity Multi-Scale Regolith Simulation Tool for ISRU Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has serious unmet needs for simulation tools capable of predicting the behavior of lunar regolith in proposed excavation, transport and handling systems....

  6. High Fidelity Simulation of Jet Noise Emissions from Rectangular Nozzles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR Phase II program will lead to the validation of a state-of-the-art Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model, coupled with a Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings...

  7. Robust High Fidelity Large Eddy Simulation Tool for Gas Turbine Combustors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to develop and demonstrate the use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for computations of gas turbine combustor flow and transport processes, using the...

  8. About the prediction of Organic Rankine Cycles performances integrating local high-fidelity turbines simulation and uncertainties (United States)

    Congedo, Pietro; de Santis, Dante; Geraci, Gianluca


    Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are of key-importance when exploiting energy systems with a high efficiency. The variability of renewable heat sources makes more complex the global performance prediction of a cycle. The thermodynamic properties of the complex fluids used in the process are another source of uncertainty. The need for a predictive and robust simulation tool of ORCs remains strong. A high-order accurate Residual Distribution scheme has been recently developed for efficiently computing a turbine stage on unstructured grids, including advanced equations of state in order to take into account the complex fluids used in ORCs. Advantages in using high-order methods have been highlighted, in terms of number of degrees of freedom and computational time used, for computing the numerical solution with a greater accuracy compared to lower-order methods, even for shocked flows. The objective of this work is to quantify the numerical error with respect to the various sources of uncertainty of the ORC turbine, thus providing a very high-fidelity prediction in the coupled physical/stochastic space.

  9. Neurology Education for Critical Care Fellows Using High-Fidelity Simulation. (United States)

    Braksick, Sherri A; Kashani, Kianoush; Hocker, Sara


    Simulation is becoming a more common modality in medical education. The data regarding effectiveness of simulation in critical care neurology education are limited. We administered a three-scenario simulation course to critical care fellowship trainees at a large academic medical center as a part of their core curriculum requirement. Pre- and posttests assessing medical knowledge and trainee confidence in managing neurologic disease were completed by all trainees. Overall satisfaction and effectiveness were evaluated following the course. Change in trainee knowledge and confidence before and after the course was assessed for improvement. Sixteen trainees completed the simulation course. Prior to completion, medical knowledge was 5.2 ± 0.9 (of 8 possible correct answers) and following the course was 6.4 ± 1.3 (p = 0.002). Overall confidence improved from 15.4 ± 4.9 (of 30 possible points) to 20.7 ± 3.3 (p = Simulation is an effective means of neurologic education for critical care trainees, with improvement in both medical knowledge and trainee confidence after completion of a three-scenario simulation experience. This course ensures the exposure of critical care trainees to neurologic diseases that are required curricular milestones to successfully complete the fellowship training program.

  10. Comparison of Satisfaction, Self-Confidence, and Engagement of Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using Defined Observational Roles and Expectations versus Traditional Role Assignments in High Fidelity Simulation and Debriefing (United States)

    Howard, Sheri


    The purpose of this study is to compare satisfaction, self-confidence, and engagement of baccalaureate nursing students using defined observational roles and expectations versus traditional observer role assignments in high fidelity simulation and debriefing and to evaluate student perceptions of these constructs. The NLN/Jeffries Simulation…

  11. The effect of task load on the occurrence of cognitive lockup in a high-fidelity flight simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looije, R.; Mioch, T.


    Motivation To analyse human errors and determine the underlying reason for these errors, in particular by investigating the error production mechanism cognitive lockup. Research approach A within subjects experiment has been conducted with 16 pilots in a high-fidelity and realistic environment. The

  12. High-fidelity simulation of a standing-wave thermoacoustic-piezoelectric engine

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jeffrey; Hesselink, Lambertus


    We have carried out wall-resolved fully unstructured Navier--Stokes simulations of a complete standing-wave thermoacoustic piezoelectric (TAP) engine model inspired by the experimental work of Smoker et al. (2012). The computational model is axisymmetric and comprises a 51 cm long cylindrical resonator divided into two sections: one of 19.5 mm in diameter, enclosing a thermoacoustic stack where a linear temperature distribution is imposed via isothermal boundary conditions; the other of 71 mm in diameter, capped by a piezoelectric diaphragm modelled via multi-oscillator broadband time-domain impedance boundary conditions (TDIBCs) matching the measured electromechanical impedance of a PZT-5A diaphragm tuned to the thermoacoustically amplified mode (388 Hz) for maximization of acoustic energy extraction. Simulations were first carried out without energy extraction from quiescent conditions to a limit cycle, for hot-to-cold temperature differences in the range $\\Delta T = 340 - 490\\textrm{ K}$, achieving acousti...

  13. High-fidelity simulations of blast loadings in urban environments using an overset meshing strategy (United States)

    Wang, X.; Remotigue, M.; Arnoldus, Q.; Janus, M.; Luke, E.; Thompson, D.; Weed, R.; Bessette, G.


    Detailed blast propagation and evolution through multiple structures representing an urban environment were simulated using the code Loci/BLAST, which employs an overset meshing strategy. The use of overset meshes simplifies mesh generation by allowing meshes for individual component geometries to be generated independently. Detailed blast propagation and evolution through multiple structures, wave reflection and interaction between structures, and blast loadings on structures were simulated and analyzed. Predicted results showed good agreement with experimental data generated by the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Loci/BLAST results were also found to compare favorably to simulations obtained using the Second-Order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code (SHAMRC). The results obtained demonstrated that blast reflections in an urban setting significantly increased the blast loads on adjacent buildings. Correlations of computational results with experimental data yielded valuable insights into the physics of blast propagation, reflection, and interaction under an urban setting and verified the use of Loci/BLAST as a viable tool for urban blast analysis.

  14. Effects of the Use of High-Fidelity Human Simulation in Nursing Education: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Oh, Pok-Ja


    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high-fidelity human simulation (HFHS) on cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes of learning. PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Korean databases were searched. The RevMan program was used for analysis. A meta-analysis was conducted of 26 controlled trials, with a total of 2,031 nursing students. The use of HFHS tended to have beneficial effects on cognitive and psychomotor domains of learning. In analysis of cognitive outcomes, the weighted average effect size across studies was -0.97 for problem-solving competency, -0.67 for critical thinking, and -2.15 for clinical judgment. The effect size for clinical competence of the psychomotor domain was -0.81. Use of HFHS might positively impact a high level of cognitive skill and clinical skill acquisition. Further research is required to determine the effectiveness of use of HFHS as an educational strategy to improve knowledge acquisition and communication skills. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. A comparison of live tissue training and high-fidelity patient simulator: A pilot study in battlefield trauma training. (United States)

    Savage, Erin C; Tenn, Catherine; Vartanian, Oshin; Blackler, Kristen; Sullivan-Kwantes, Wendy; Garrett, Michelle; Blais, Ann-Renee; Jarmasz, Jerzy; Peng, Henry; Pannell, Dylan; Tien, Homer C


    Trauma procedural and management skills are often learned on live tissue. However, there is increasing pressure to use simulators because their fidelity improves and as ethical concerns increase. We randomized military medical technicians (medics) to training on either simulators or live tissue to learn combat casualty care skills to determine if the choice of modality was associated with differences in skill uptake. Twenty medics were randomized to trauma training using either simulators or live tissue. Medics were trained to perform five combat casualty care tasks (surgical airway, needle decompression, tourniquet application, wound packing, and intraosseous line insertion). We measured skill uptake using a structured assessment tool. The medics also completed exit questionnaires and interviews to determine which modality they preferred. We found no difference between groups trained with live tissue versus simulators in how they completed each combat casualty care skill. However, we did find that the modality of assessment affected the assessment score. Finally, we found that medics preferred trauma training on live tissue because of the fidelity of tissue handling in live tissue models. However, they also felt that training on simulators also provided additional training value. We found no difference in performance between medics trained on simulators versus live tissue models. Even so, medics preferred live tissue training over simulation. However, more studies are required, and future studies need to address the measurement bias of measuring outcomes in the same model on which the study participants are trained. Therapeutic/care management study, level II.

  16. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Allison, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)


    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  17. Education to address medical error--a role for high fidelity patient simulation. (United States)

    Garden, Alexander; Robinson, Brian; Weller, Jennifer; Wilson, Leona; Crone, Denholm


    To describe and evaluate a simulation based course that emphasizes the role of teamwork in the management of both crises and errors. The course allowed participants to experience and manage simulated crises. Emphasis was placed on important error management strategies such as communication, leadership and delegation of workload. A computerized mannequin that is physiologically and pharmacologically responsive was used to run life-like crisis scenarios. The scenarios were videotaped and reviewed during a debriefing discussion after each crisis. Scenarios were alternated with tutorials that addressed error management, communication and medico-legal issues. Participants evaluated the courses using 5-point Likert scales and free comments. In 1999 and 2000, 172 participants (34% of New Zealand anaesthetists) attended one of these courses. Evaluation forms were received from 151 participants (88%). The global evaluations had median scores of 4 or 5 and all respondents would recommend the course to others. The responses from 50 participants indicated that the course should be repeated at least every two years. New Zealand anaesthetists found this an acceptable and useful form of training. Teamwork is an effective strategy in crisis management and error reduction and is worthy of consideration within the broader context of medical education.

  18. Basic critical care echocardiography: How many studies equate to competence? A pilot study using high fidelity echocardiography simulation. (United States)

    Bowcock, Emma M; Morris, Idunn S; Mclean, Anthony S; Orde, Sam R


    Assessment of competence in basic critical care echocardiography is complex. Competence relies on not only imaging accuracy but also interpretation and appropriate management decisions. The experience to achieve these skills, real-time, is likely more than required for imaging accuracy alone. We aimed to assess the feasibility of using simulation to assess number of studies required to attain competence in basic critical care echocardiography. This is a prospective pilot study recruiting trainees at various degrees of experience in basic critical care echocardiography using experts as reference standard. We used high fidelity simulation to assess speed and accuracy using total time taken, total position difference and total angle difference across the basic acoustic windows. Interpretation and clinical application skills were assessed using a clinical scenario. 'Cut-off' values for number of studies required for competence were estimated. Twenty-seven trainees and eight experts were included. The subcostal view was achieved quickest by trainees (median 23 s, IQR 19-37). Eighty-seven percent of trainees did not achieve accuracy across all views; 81% achieved accuracy with the parasternal long axis and the least accurate was the parasternal short axis (44% of trainees). Fewer studies were required to be considered competent with imaging acquisition compared with competence in correct interpretation and integration (15 vs. 40 vs. 50, respectively). The use of echocardiography simulation to determine competence in basic critical care echocardiography is feasible. Competence in image acquisition appears to be achieved with less experience than correct interpretation and correct management decisions. Further studies are required.

  19. A New Coupled CFD/Neutron Kinetics System for High Fidelity Simulations of LWR Core Phenomena: Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pérez Mañes


    Full Text Available The Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT is investigating the application of the meso- and microscale analysis for the prediction of local safety parameters for light water reactors (LWR. By applying codes like CFD (computational fluid dynamics and SP3 (simplified transport reactor dynamics it is possible to describe the underlying phenomena in a more accurate manner than by the nodal/coarse 1D thermal hydraulic coupled codes. By coupling the transport (SP3 based neutron kinetics (NK code DYN3D with NEPTUNE-CFD, within a parallel MPI-environment, the NHESDYN platform is created. The newly developed system will allow high fidelity simulations of LWR fuel assemblies and cores. In NHESDYN, a heat conduction solver, SYRTHES, is coupled to NEPTUNE-CFD. The driver module of NHESDYN controls the sequence of execution of the solvers as well as the communication between the solvers based on MPI. In this paper, the main features of NHESDYN are discussed and the proof of the concept is done by solving a single pin problem. The prediction capability of NHESDYN is demonstrated by a code-to-code comparison with the DYNSUB code. Finally, the future developments and validation efforts are highlighted.

  20. Developing and Testing a High-Fidelity Simulation Scenario for an Uncommon Life-Threatening Disease: Severe Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kestler


    Full Text Available Background. Severe malaria is prevalent globally, yet it is an uncommon disease posing a challenge to education in nonendemic countries. High-fidelity simulation (sim may be well suited to teaching its management. Objective. To develop and evaluate a teaching tool for severe malaria, using sim. Methods. A severe malaria sim scenario was developed based on 5 learning objectives. Sim sessions, conducted at an academic center, utilized METI ECS mannequin. After sim, participants received standardized debriefing and completed a test assessing learning and a survey assessing views on sim efficacy. Results. 29 participants included 3rd year medical students (65%, 3rd year EM residents (28%, and EM nurses (7%. Participants scored average 85% on questions related to learning objectives. 93% felt that sim was effective or very effective in teaching severe malaria, and 83% rated it most effective. All respondents felt that sim increased their knowledge on malaria. Conclusion. Sim is an effective tool for teaching severe malaria in and may be superior to other modalities.

  1. Self vs expert assessment of technical and non-technical skills in high fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Arora, Sonal; Miskovic, Danilo; Hull, Louise; Moorthy, Krishna; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Johannsson, Helgi; Gautama, Sanjay; Kneebone, Roger; Sevdalis, Nick


    Accurate assessment is imperative for learning, feedback and progression. The aim of this study was to examine whether surgeons can accurately self-assess their technical and nontechnical skills compared with expert faculty members' assessments. Twenty-five surgeons performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in a simulated operating room. Technical and nontechnical performance was assessed by participants and faculty members using the validated Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) and the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons scale (NOTSS). Assessment of technical performance correlated between self and faculty members' ratings for experienced (median score, 30.0 vs 31.0; ρ = .831; P = .001) and inexperienced (median score, 22.0 vs 28.0; ρ = .761; P = .003) surgeons. Assessment of nontechnical skills between self and faculty members did not correlate for experienced surgeons (median score, 8.0 vs 10.5; ρ = -.375; P = .229) or their more inexperienced counterparts (median score, 9.0 vs 7.0; ρ = -.018; P = .953). Surgeons can accurately self-assess their technical skills in virtual reality LC. Conversely, formal assessment with faculty members' input is required for nontechnical skills, for which surgeons lack insight into their behaviours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid High Fidelity Modeling of Radar Scenarios Using Atemporal, Discrete Event, and Time Step Simulation (United States)


    McDonald, who gave me guidance on using the data analysis application created by JMP Pro software. A special thank you is owed to NPS Hamming the "Referee". Figure 2.18 shows the event graph of the cookie-cutter sensor mediator. The mediator determines tD , the time to schedule the...model, the "Detect" event gets scheduled with time delay tD = 0. The "UnDetect" event gets scheduled when the "ExitRange" event is scheduled by the

  3. Assessment of a high-fidelity mobile simulator for intrauterine contraception training in ambulatory reproductive health centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Dodge


    Full Text Available Objectives. Little is known about the utility of simulation-based training in office gynaecology. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-reported effectiveness and acceptability of the PelvicSim™ (VirtaMed, a high-fidelity mobile simulator, to train clinicians in intrauterine device (IUD insertion. Methods. Clinicians at ambulatory healthcare centres participated in a PelvicSim IUD training programme and completed a self-administered survey. The survey assessed prior experience with IUD insertion, pre- and post-training competency and comfort and opinions regarding the acceptability of the PelvicSim. Results. The 237 participants were primarily female (97.5% nurse practitioners (71.3%. Most had experience inserting the levonorgestrel LNG20 IUD and the copper T380A device, but only 4.1% had ever inserted the LNG14 IUD. For all three devices, participants felt more competent following training, with the most striking change reported for insertion of the LNG14 IUD. The majority of participants reported increased comfort with uterine sounding (57.7%, IUD insertion on a live patient (69.8%, and minimizing patient pain (72.8% following training. Of the respondents, 89.6% reported the PelvicSim IUD insertion activities as “valuable” or “very valuable.” All participants would recommend the PelvicSim for IUD training, and nearly all (97.2% reported that the PelvicSim was a better method to teach IUD insertion than the simple plastic models supplied by IUD manufacturers. Conclusions. These findings support the use of the PelvicSim for IUD training, though whether it is superior to traditional methods and improves patient outcomes requires evaluation.

  4. Future space-based direct imaging platforms: high fidelity simulations and instrument testbed development (United States)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Eberhardt, Andrew; SAINT, VNC, LUVOIR


    The direct detection and characterization of habitable zone (HZ) Earth-like exoplanets is predicated on light gathering power of a large telescope operating with tens of millicarcsecond angular resolution, and at contrast scales on the order of 0.1 ppb. Accessing a statistically significant sample of planets to search for habitable worlds will likely build on the knowledge and insfrastructure gained through JWST, later advancing to assembly in space or formation flying approaches that may eventually be used to achieve even greater photometric sensitivity or resolution. in order to address contrast, a means of starlight suppression is needed that contends with complex aperture diffraction. The Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) is one such approach that destructively interferes starlight to enable detection and characterization of extrasolar objects.The VNC is being incorporated into an end-to-end telescope-coronagraph system demonstrator called the Segmented Aperture Interferometric Nulling Testbed (SAINT). Development of the VNC has a rich legacy, and successfully demonstrating its capability with SAINT will mark milestones towards meeting the high-contrast direct imaging needs of future large space telescopes. SAINT merges the VNC with an actively-controlled segmented aperture telescope via a fine pointing system and aims to demonstrate 1e-8 contrast nulling of a segmented aperture at an inner working angle of four diffraction radii over a 20 nm visible bandpass. The system comprises four detectors for wavefront sensing, one of which is the high-contrast focal plane. The detectors provide feedback to control the segmented telescope primary mirror, a fast steering mirror, a segmented deformable mirror, and a delay stage. All of these components must work in concert with passive optical elements that are designed, fabricated, and aligned pairwise to achieve the requisite wavefront symmetry needed to push the state of the art in broadband destructive interferometric

  5. Comparison of standardized patients with high-fidelity simulators for managing stress and improving performance in clinical deterioration: A mixed methods study. (United States)

    Ignacio, Jeanette; Dolmans, Diana; Scherpbier, Albert; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Chan, Sally; Liaw, Sok Ying


    The use of standardized patients in deteriorating patient simulations adds realism that can be valuable for preparing nurse trainees for stress and enhancing their performance during actual patient deterioration. Emotional engagement resulting from increased fidelity can provide additional stress for student nurses with limited exposure to real patients. To determine the presence of increased stress with the standardized patient modality, this study compared the use of standardized patients (SP) with the use of high-fidelity simulators (HFS) during deteriorating patient simulations. Performance in managing deteriorating patients was also compared. It also explored student nurses' insights on the use of standardized patients and patient simulators in deteriorating patient simulations as preparation for clinical placement. Fifty-seven student nurses participated in a randomized controlled design study with pre- and post-tests to evaluate stress and performance in deteriorating patient simulations. Performance was assessed using the Rescuing A Patient in Deteriorating Situations (RAPIDS) rating tool. Stress was measured using salivary alpha-amylase levels. Fourteen participants who joined the randomized controlled component then participated in focus group discussions that elicited their insights on SP use in patient deterioration simulations. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) results showed no significant difference (p=0.744) between the performance scores of the SP and HFS groups in managing deteriorating patients. Amylase levels were also not significantly different (p=0.317) between the two groups. Stress in simulation, awareness of patient interactions, and realism were the main themes that resulted from the thematic analysis. Performance and stress in deteriorating patient simulations with standardized patients did not vary from similar simulations using high-fidelity patient simulators. Data from focus group interviews, however, suggested that the use of

  6. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation. (United States)

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua


    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. ARC Code TI: Multi-Fidelity Simulator (MFSim) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-Fidelity Simulator, MFSim is a pluggable framework for creating an air traffic flow simulator at multiple levels of fidelity. The framework is designed to...

  8. Comparing the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone on behaviors by undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Grant, Joan S; Dawkins, Denise; Molhook, Lori; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E


    Complex healthcare, less resources, high-level medical equipment, and fewer available clinical settings have led many health professionals to use simulation as a method to further augment educational experiences for nursing students. While debriefing is recommended in the literature as a key component of simulation, the optimal format in which to conduct debriefing is unknown. This pre- and posttest two-group randomized quasi-experimental design compared the effectiveness of video-assisted oral debriefing (VAOD) and oral debriefing alone (ODA) on behaviors of 48 undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. Further, this study examined whether roles (e.g., team leader, medication nurse), type of scenarios (i.e., pulmonary and cardiac scenarios), and student simulation team membership (i.e., VAOD and ODA groups) influenced these behaviors. Behaviors observed in this study related to patient safety, communication among team members, basic- and problem-focused assessment, prioritization of care, appropriate interventions, and delegation to healthcare team members. Both human patient simulator practice and guidance using video-assisted oral debriefing and oral debriefing alone appeared to be comparable regarding behaviors, regardless of roles, type of scenarios, and student simulation team membership. These findings suggest that nurse educators may use either video-assisted oral debriefing or oral debriefing alone to debrief undergraduate nursing students during high-fidelity simulation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. VarSim: a high-fidelity simulation and validation framework for high-throughput genome sequencing with cancer applications. (United States)

    Mu, John C; Mohiyuddin, Marghoob; Li, Jian; Bani Asadi, Narges; Gerstein, Mark B; Abyzov, Alexej; Wong, Wing H; Lam, Hugo Y K


    VarSim is a framework for assessing alignment and variant calling accuracy in high-throughput genome sequencing through simulation or real data. In contrast to simulating a random mutation spectrum, it synthesizes diploid genomes with germline and somatic mutations based on a realistic model. This model leverages information such as previously reported mutations to make the synthetic genomes biologically relevant. VarSim simulates and validates a wide range of variants, including single nucleotide variants, small indels and large structural variants. It is an automated, comprehensive compute framework supporting parallel computation and multiple read simulators. Furthermore, we developed a novel map data structure to validate read alignments, a strategy to compare variants binned in size ranges and a lightweight, interactive, graphical report to visualize validation results with detailed statistics. Thus far, it is the most comprehensive validation tool for secondary analysis in next generation sequencing. Code in Java and Python along with instructions to download the reads and variants is at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. The effects of using high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients on the thorax, lung, and cardiac examination skills of undergraduate nursing students. (United States)

    Tuzer, Hilal; Dinc, Leyla; Elcin, Melih


    Existing research literature indicates that the use of various simulation techniques in the training of physical examination skills develops students' cognitive and psychomotor abilities in a realistic learning environment while improving patient safety. The study aimed to compare the effects of the use of a high-fidelity simulator and standardized patients on the knowledge and skills of students conducting thorax-lungs and cardiac examinations, and to explore the students' views and learning experiences. A mixed-method explanatory sequential design. The study was conducted in the Simulation Laboratory of a Nursing School, the Training Center at the Faculty of Medicine, and in the inpatient clinics of the Education and Research Hospital. Fifty-two fourth-year nursing students. Students were randomly assigned to Group I and Group II. The students in Group 1 attended the thorax-lungs and cardiac examination training using a high-fidelity simulator, while the students in Group 2 using standardized patients. After the training sessions, all students practiced their skills on real patients in the clinical setting under the supervision of the investigator. Knowledge and performance scores of all students increased following the simulation activities; however, the students that worked with standardized patients achieved significantly higher knowledge scores than those that worked with the high-fidelity simulator; however, there was no significant difference in performance scores between the groups. The mean performance scores of students on real patients were significantly higher compared to the post-simulation assessment scores (pthorax-lungs and cardiac examinations; however, practice on real patients increased performance scores of all students without any significant difference in two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Numerical Nuclear Reactor for High-Fidelity Integrated Simulation of Neutronic, Thermal-Hydraulic, and Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Ju, H. G.; Jeon, T. H. and others


    A comprehensive high fidelity reactor core modeling capability has been developed for detailed analysis of current and advanced reactor designs as part of a US-ROK collaborative I-NERI project. High fidelity was accomplished by integrating highly refined solution modules for the coupled neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and thermo-mechanical phenomena. Each solution module employs methods and models that are formulated faithfully to the first-principles governing the physics, real geometry, and constituents. Specifically, the critical analysis elements that are incorporated in the coupled code capability are whole-core neutron transport solution, ultra-fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics/heat transfer solution, and finite-element-based thermo-mechanics solution, all obtained with explicit (fuel pin cell level) heterogeneous representations of the components of the core. The vast computational problem resulting from such highly refined modeling is solved on massively parallel computers, and serves as the 'numerical nuclear reactor'. Relaxation of modeling parameters were also pursued to make problems run on clusters of workstations and PCs for smaller scale applications as well.

  12. Effect of High-Fidelity Simulation on Medical Students' Knowledge about Advanced Life Support: A Randomized Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cortegiani

    Full Text Available High-fidelity simulation (HFS is a learning method which has proven effective in medical education for technical and non-technical skills. However, its effectiveness for knowledge acquisition is less validated. We performed a randomized study with the primary aim of investigating whether HFS, in association with frontal lessons, would improve knowledge about advanced life support (ALS, in comparison to frontal lessons only among medical students. The secondary aims were to evaluate the effect of HFS on knowledge acquisition of different sections of ALS and personal knowledge perception. Participants answered a pre-test questionnaire consisting of a subjective (evaluating personal perception of knowledge and an objective section (measuring level of knowledge containing 100 questions about algorithms, technical skills, team working/early warning scores/communication strategies according to ALS guidelines. All students participated in 3 frontal lessons before being randomized in group S, undergoing a HFS session, and group C, receiving no further interventions. After 10 days from the end of each intervention, both groups answered a questionnaire (post-test with the same subjective section but a different objective one. The overall number of correct answers of the post-test was significantly higher in group S (mean 74.1, SD 11.2 than in group C (mean 65.5, SD 14.3, p = 0.0017, 95% C.I. 3.34 - 13.9. A significantly higher number of correct answers was reported in group S than in group C for questions investigating knowledge of algorithms (p = 0.0001; 95% C.I 2.22-5.99 and team working/early warning scores/communication strategies (p = 0.0060; 95% C.I 1.13-6.53. Students in group S showed a significantly higher score in the post-test subjective section (p = 0.0074. A lower proportion of students in group S confirmed their perception of knowledge compared to group C (p = 0.0079. HFS showed a beneficial effect on knowledge of ALS among medical students

  13. Objective fidelity evaluation in multisensory virtual environments: auditory cue fidelity in flight simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F Meyer

    Full Text Available We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues.

  14. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)


    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies

  15. Observed improvements in an intern's ability to initiate critical emergency skills in different cardiac arrest scenarios using high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Starmer, David J; Duquette, Sean A; Guiliano, Dominic; Tibbles, Anthony; Miners, Andrew; Finn, Kevin; Stainsby, Brynne E


    Objective : The objective of this study was to report observed changes in an intern's ability to initiate critical emergency skills in different cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity simulation over a 10-month period. Methods : One intern's performance was retrospectively analyzed using video recordings of 4 simulations at different stages in the training program. The key outcome was the duration of time expired for 4 critical skills, including activating the emergency response system, initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), using an automated external defibrillator (AED), and passively administrating oxygen. Results : The intern became more efficient in each subsequent simulation for activating the emergency response system and initiating CPR. The time to use the AED stayed relatively constant. The administration of oxygen was inconsistent. Conclusion : An improvement in the speed of applying emergency critical skills was observed with this intern. These improvements in skill may improve patient outcomes and survival rates. We propose further educational research with high-fidelity simulation in the area of assessing emergency skills.

  16. High-fidelity quantum driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Mark George; Viteau, Matthieu; Malossi, Nicola


    Accurately controlling a quantum system is a fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and the coherent manipulation of molecular systems. The ultimate goal in quantum control is to prepare a desired state with the highest fidelity allowed by the available resources and the experi......Accurately controlling a quantum system is a fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and the coherent manipulation of molecular systems. The ultimate goal in quantum control is to prepare a desired state with the highest fidelity allowed by the available resources...... with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In the opposite limit, we realize the recently proposed transitionless superadiabatic protocols in which the system follows the instantaneous adiabatic ground state nearly perfectly. We demonstrate that superadiabatic protocols are extremely robust against control parameter...

  17. The effect of clinical experience, judgment task difficulty and time pressure on nurses’ confidence calibration in a high fidelity clinical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huiqin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Misplaced or poorly calibrated confidence in healthcare professionals’ judgments compromises the quality of health care. Using higher fidelity clinical simulations to elicit clinicians’ confidence 'calibration' (i.e. overconfidence or underconfidence in more realistic settings is a promising but underutilized tactic. In this study we examine nurses’ calibration of confidence with judgment accuracy for critical event risk assessment judgments in a high fidelity simulated clinical environment. The study also explores the effects of clinical experience, task difficulty and time pressure on the relationship between confidence and accuracy. Methods 63 student and 34 experienced nurses made dichotomous risk assessments on 25 scenarios simulated in a high fidelity clinical environment. Each nurse also assigned a score (0–100 reflecting the level of confidence in their judgments. Scenarios were derived from real patient cases and classified as easy or difficult judgment tasks. Nurses made half of their judgments under time pressure. Confidence calibration statistics were calculated and calibration curves generated. Results Nurse students were underconfident (mean over/underconfidence score −1.05 and experienced nurses overconfident (mean over/underconfidence score 6.56, P = 0.01. No significant differences in calibration and resolution were found between the two groups (P = 0.80 and P = 0.51, respectively. There was a significant interaction between time pressure and task difficulty on confidence (P = 0.008; time pressure increased confidence in easy cases but reduced confidence in difficult cases. Time pressure had no effect on confidence or accuracy. Judgment task difficulty impacted significantly on nurses’ judgmental accuracy and confidence. A 'hard-easy' effect was observed: nurses were overconfident in difficult judgments and underconfident in easy judgments. Conclusion Nurses were poorly calibrated

  18. Hybrid High-Fidelity Auscultation Scope Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Johnson Space Center's need for a space auscultation capability, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a Hybrid High-Fidelity...

  19. An exploration of the relationship between knowledge and performance-related variables in high-fidelity simulation: designing instruction that promotes expertise in practice. (United States)

    Hauber, Roxanne P; Cormier, Eileen; Whyte, James


    Increasingly, high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) is becoming essential to nursing education. Much remains unknown about how classroom learning is connected to student decision-making in simulation scenarios and the degree to which transference takes place between the classroom setting and actual practice. The present study was part of a larger pilot study aimed at determining the relationship between nursing students' clinical ability to prioritize their actions and the associated cognitions and physiologic outcomes of care using HFPS. In an effort to better explain the knowledge base being used by nursing students in HFPS, the investigators explored the relationship between common measures of knowledge and performance-related variables. Findings are discussed within the context of the expert performance approach and concepts from cognitive psychology, such as cognitive architecture, cognitive load, memory, and transference.

  20. Quantum simulation using fidelity-profile optimization (United States)

    Manu, V. S.; Kumar, Anil


    Experimental quantum simulation of a Hamiltonian H requires unitary operator decomposition (UOD) of its evolution unitary U =exp(-iHt) in terms of native unitary operators of the experimental system. Here, using a genetic algorithm, we numerically evaluate the most generic UOD (valid over a continuous range of Hamiltonian parameters) of the unitary operator U , termed fidelity-profile optimization. The optimization is obtained by systematically evaluating the functional dependence of experimental unitary operators (such as single-qubit rotations and time-evolution unitaries of the system interactions) to the Hamiltonian (H) parameters. Using this technique, we have solved the experimental unitary decomposition of a controlled-phase gate (for any phase value), the evolution unitary of the Heisenberg XY interaction, and simulation of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction in the presence of the Heisenberg XY interaction. Using these decompositions, we studied the entanglement dynamics of a Bell state in the DM interaction and experimentally verified the entanglement preservation procedure of Hou et al. [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 327, 292 (2012), 10.1016/j.aop.2011.08.004] in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor.

  1. A Review of the Literature on Training Simulators: Translators: Transfer of Training and Simulator Fidelity. (United States)


    400 high environmental fidelity degree of 5 imul at i oi equipment fidelity low procedure familia - skill training rization training training...depicted a venture in which a nuclear -power-plant malfunction analyzer was built by JO. q.400 * 56 using advanced graphics technology. Levin and Fletcher...Experiments with Computer Simulations, Humnn Fa s, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 271-276, June 1982. ... ’ - 43. Kaplan, G., Nuclear -power-plant Malfunction

  2. Finding the Needles in the Haystacks: High-fidelity Models of the Modern and Archean Solar System for Simulating Exoplanet Observations (United States)

    Roberge, Aki; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Lincowski, Andrew P.; Arney, Giada N.; Stark, Christopher C.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Snyder, Gregory F.; Pueyo, Laurent; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Jansen, Tiffany; Nesvold, Erika R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Turnbull, Margaret C.


    We present two state-of-the-art models of the solar system, one corresponding to the present day and one to the Archean Eon 3.5 billion years ago. Each model contains spatial and spectral information for the star, the planets, and the interplanetary dust, extending to 50 au from the Sun and covering the wavelength range 0.3-2.5 μm. In addition, we created a spectral image cube representative of the astronomical backgrounds that will be seen behind deep observations of extrasolar planetary systems, including galaxies and Milky Way stars. These models are intended as inputs to high-fidelity simulations of direct observations of exoplanetary systems using telescopes equipped with high-contrast capability. They will help improve the realism of observation and instrument parameters that are required inputs to statistical observatory yield calculations, as well as guide development of post-processing algorithms for telescopes capable of directly imaging Earth-like planets.

  3. A metric-based analysis of structure and content of telephone consultations of final-year medical students in a high-fidelity emergency medicine simulation. (United States)

    Henn, Patrick; Power, David; Smith, Simon D; Power, Theresa; Hynes, Helen; Gaffney, Robert; McAdoo, John D


    In this study we aimed to analyse the structure and content of telephone consultations of final-year medical students in a high-fidelity emergency medicine simulation. The purpose was to identify any areas of deficiency within structure and content in the effective transfer of clinical information via the telephone of final-year medical students. An educational study. Simulation centre in a medical school. 113 final-year medical students. The primary outcome was to analyse the structure and content of telephone consultations of final-year medical students in a high-fidelity emergency medicine simulation. The secondary outcome was to identify any areas of deficiency within structure and content in the effective transfer of clinical information via the telephone of final-year medical students. During phone calls to a senior colleague 30% of students did not positively identify themselves, 29% did not identify their role, 32% did not positively identify the recipient of the phone call, 59% failed to positively identify the patient, 49% did not read back the recommendations of their senior colleague and 97% did not write down the recommendations of their senior colleague. We identified a deficiency in our students skills to communicate relevant information via the telephone, particularly failure to repeat back and write down instructions. We suggest that this reflects a paucity of opportunities to practice this skill in context during the undergraduate years. The assumption that this skill will be acquired following qualification constitutes a latent error within the healthcare system. The function of undergraduate medical education is to produce graduates who are fit for purpose at the point of graduation.

  4. Effectiveness of simulation-based nursing education depending on fidelity: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Kim, Junghee; Park, Jin-Hwa; Shin, Sujin


    Simulation-based nursing education is an increasingly popular pedagogical approach. It provides students with opportunities to practice their clinical and decision-making skills through various real-life situational experiences. However, simulation approaches fall along a continuum ranging from low-fidelity to high-fidelity simulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect size of simulation-based educational interventions in nursing and compare effect sizes according to the fidelity level of the simulators through a meta-analysis. This study explores the quantitative evidence published in the electronic databases EBSCO, Medline, ScienceDirect, ERIC, RISS, and the National Assembly Library of Korea database. Using a search strategy including the search terms "nursing," "simulation," "human patient," and "simulator," we identified 2279 potentially relevant articles. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the analysis. This meta-analysis showed that simulation-based nursing education was effective in various learning domains, with a pooled random-effects standardized mean difference of 0.70. Subgroup analysis revealed that effect sizes were larger for high-fidelity simulation (0.86), medium-fidelity simulation (1.03), and standardized patients (0.86) than they were for low-fidelity and hybrid simulations. In terms of cognitive outcomes, the effect size was the largest for high-fidelity simulation (0.50). Regarding affective outcome, high-fidelity simulation (0.80) and standardized patients (0.73) had the largest effect sizes. These results suggest that simulation-based nursing educational interventions have strong educational effects, with particularly large effects in the psychomotor domain. Since the effect is not proportional to fidelity level, it is important to use a variety of educational interventions to meet all of the educational goals.

  5. Communication during handover in the pre-hospital/hospital interface in Italy: from evaluation to implementation of multidisciplinary training through high-fidelity simulation. (United States)

    Dojmi Di Delupis, Francesco; Pisanelli, Paolo; Di Luccio, Giovanni; Kennedy, Maura; Tellini, Sabrina; Nenci, Nadia; Guerrini, Elisa; Pini, Riccardo; Franco Gensini, Gian


    Communication failures in the pre-hospital/hospital interface have been identified as a major preventable cause of patient harm. This interface has not adequately been studied in Italy. In this study, we: (1) evaluated the communication of pre-hospital and hospital providers during handover through the analysis of simulation sessions; (2) identified the critical information that should be routinely communicated during handover with a survey administered to emergency triage nurses; (3) measured communication within this interface through the adaptation of an existing tool from a multidisciplinary focus group; (4) validated the adapted tool with the inter-rater agreement of physicians who reviewed video recordings from multidisciplinary simulations sessions; and (5) developed a handover training for pre-hospital providers and evaluated the communication improvement between pre- and post-training. In our simulations we found an absence of standardization of the handover communication process, marked variability in information communicated, and a lack of formal transfer of responsibility of patient care. We adapted existing handover communication tools for local use and developed a checklist for the evaluation of handover communication that had good inter-rater reliability. Lectures coupled with high-fidelity simulation exercises on handover did result in a statistically significant improvement in handover communication.

  6. Effects of Low- Versus High-Fidelity Simulations on the Cognitive Burden and Performance of Entry-Level Paramedicine Students: A Mixed-Methods Comparison Trial Using Eye-Tracking, Continuous Heart Rate, Difficulty Rating Scales, Video Observation and Interviews. (United States)

    Mills, Brennen W; Carter, Owen B-J; Rudd, Cobie J; Claxton, Louise A; Ross, Nathan P; Strobel, Natalie A


    High-fidelity simulation-based training is often avoided for early-stage students because of the assumption that while practicing newly learned skills, they are ill suited to processing multiple demands, which can lead to "cognitive overload" and poorer learning outcomes. We tested this assumption using a mixed-methods experimental design manipulating psychological immersion. Thirty-nine randomly assigned first-year paramedicine students completed low- or high-environmental fidelity simulations [low-environmental fidelity simulations (LF(en)S) vs. high-environmental fidelity simulation (HF(en)S)] involving a manikin with obstructed airway (SimMan3G). Psychological immersion and cognitive burden were determined via continuous heart rate, eye tracking, self-report questionnaire (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index), independent observation, and postsimulation interviews. Performance was assessed by successful location of obstruction and time-to-termination. Eye tracking confirmed that students attended to multiple, concurrent stimuli in HF(en)S and interviews consistently suggested that they experienced greater psychological immersion and cognitive burden than their LF(en)S counterparts. This was confirmed by significantly higher mean heart rate (P students who ultimately revived the patient (58% vs. 30%, P students did so significantly more quickly (P students had low immersion resulting in greater assessment anxiety. High-environmental fidelity simulation engendered immersion and a sense of urgency in students, whereas LF(en)S created assessment anxiety and slower performance. We conclude that once early-stage students have learned the basics of a clinical skill, throwing them in the "deep end" of high-fidelity simulation creates significant additional cognitive burden but this has considerable educational merit.

  7. Validation of High-Fidelity CFD/CAA Framework for Launch Vehicle Acoustic Environment Simulation against Scale Model Test Data (United States)

    Liever, Peter A.; West, Jeffrey S.; Harris, Robert E.


    A hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CAA) modeling framework has been developed for launch vehicle liftoff acoustic environment predictions. The framework couples the existing highly-scalable NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin solver developed in the same production framework, Loci/THRUST, to accurately resolve and propagate acoustic physics across the entire launch environment. Time-accurate, Hybrid RANS/LES CFD modeling is applied for predicting the acoustic generation physics at the plume source, and a high-order accurate unstructured mesh Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is employed to propagate acoustic waves away from the source across large distances using high-order accurate schemes. The DG solver is capable of solving 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order Euler solutions for non-linear, conservative acoustic field propagation. Initial application testing and validation has been carried out against high resolution acoustic data from the Ares Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) series to evaluate the capabilities and production readiness of the CFD/CAA system to resolve the observed spectrum of acoustic frequency content. This paper presents results from this validation and outlines efforts to mature and improve the computational simulation framework.

  8. The High Fidelity Plasma Speaker (United States)

    McGall, James


    A plasma speaker is a device that uses ionized gas as the driving source of sound production, rather than the traditional magnetic coil and membrane setup found on a standard speaker. Similar to how lightning produces sound, or even a small static shock, a plasma speaker uses a modulating electric arc between two electrodes to produce sound. An electric circuit is built that allows the variance of the high voltage electric potential to be controlled by a 3.5 mm standard audio headphone jack, allowing sound energy to be transferred from the plasma to the air by means of pulse width modulation. For my summer project I have built two different models of plasma speakers and am working on a third. The speaker benefits from having a nearly massless driver, and I hypothesize that it should show a response rate faster than that of a traditional speaker and a decreased impulse response while having the drawbacks of inefficiency and a low maximum decibel output. The speakers are currently being optimized with magnetic stabilization of the plasma and will be tested soon for impulse response, frequency generation, efficiency, and audio coloration. Bridges for SUCCESS Grant at Salisbury University under Ph.D. Matthew Bailey.

  9. The students' perspective in examining the use of high-fidelity simulators in a podiatric medical curriculum. (United States)

    Smith, Kevin M; Geletta, Simon; Juels, Christopher


    We sought to assess the perceptions that podiatric medical students had of the use of simulators after completing a third-year simulation rotation. This type of analysis has not been reported in the podiatric medicine educational literature. Another goal of this study was to influence the podiatric medical community to increase studies that help demonstrate the effectiveness of simulation in the podiatric medical curriculum. Data from rotation evaluations of 44 students from the 2011-2012 academic year included student responses to 11 quantitative items and textual analysis of the students' written comments. Basic descriptive statistics of student responses to the quantitative items allowed for the analysis of central tendencies and variations. Textual analysis was performed on comments that were coded into themes based on similar properties and characteristics that the comments shared. The analysis revealed that the simulation sessions were well liked. All of the students who responded to the survey rated the overall simulation rotation as "superior." Textual analysis of the students' comments showed that students enjoy simulation as an educational tool because it helps enhance their clinical skills while also applying their didactic education to a practical experience. Clear evidence was presented that students want more cases and time to spend in the simulation laboratory to continue increasing their medical skills. The student perception of simulation is that it is an effective educational tool. Further testing is needed to prove simulation efficacy in a podiatric medical curriculum.

  10. Effectiveness of using high-fidelity simulation to teach the management of general anesthesia for Cesarean delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balki, Mrinalini; Chakravarty, Subrata; Salman, Aliya; Wax, Randy S


    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a teaching plan consisting of didactic teaching and repeated simulations on the performance of anesthesia residents in the management of general anesthesia (GA...

  11. Developing a tool for observing group critical thinking skills in first-year medical students: a pilot study using physiology-based, high-fidelity patient simulations. (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa; Ben Khallouq, Bertha; Schuster, Amanda; Beevers, Christopher; Dil, Nyla; Kay, Denise; Kibble, Jonathan D; Harris, David M


    Most assessments of physiology in medical school use multiple choice tests that may not provide information about a student's critical thinking (CT) process. There are limited performance assessments, but high-fidelity patient simulations (HFPS) may be a feasible platform. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether a group's CT process could be observed over a series of HFPS. An instrument [Critical Thinking Skills Rating Instrument CTSRI)] was designed with the IDEAS framework. Fifteen groups of students participated in three HFPS that consisted of a basic knowledge quiz and introduction, HFPS session, and debriefing. HFPS were video recorded, and two raters reviewed and scored all HFPS encounters with the CTSRI independently. Interrater analysis suggested good reliability. There was a correlation between basic knowledge scores and three of the six observations on the CTSRI providing support for construct validity. The median CT ratings significantly increased for all observations between the groups' first and last simulation. However, there were still large percentages of video ratings that indicated students needed substantial prompting during the HFPS. The data from this pilot study suggest that it is feasible to observe CT skills in HFPS using the CTSRI. Based on the findings from this study, we strongly recommend that first-year medical students be competent in basic knowledge of the relevant physiology of the HFPS before participating, to minimize the risk of a poor learning experience. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Effects of high-fidelity patient simulation led clinical reasoning course: Focused on nursing core competencies, problem solving, and academic self-efficacy. (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Lee, Yoonju; Lee, Senah; Bae, Juyeon


    To examine the effects of high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) led clinical reasoning course among undergraduate nursing students. A quasi-experimental study of non-equivalent control group pretest-post test design was applied. A total of 49 senior nursing students participated in this study. The experimental group consisted of the students who took the "clinical reasoning" course (n = 23) while the control group consisted of students who did not (n = 26). Self-administered scales including the nursing core competencies, problem solving, academic self-efficacy, and Kolb learning style inventory were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS version 20.0. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ancova due to a significant difference in nursing core competencies between the experimental group and control group. There was a significant improvement in nursing core competencies in the experimental group (F = 7.747, P = 0.008). The scores of problem solving and academic self-efficacy were higher in the experimental group after the HFPS led clinical reasoning course without statistical difference. There is a need for the development of effective instructional methods to improve learning outcomes in nursing education. Future research is needed related to simulation education as well as management strategies so that learning outcomes can be achieved within different students' learning style. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. High fidelity computational simulation of thrombus formation in Thoratec HeartMate II continuous flow ventricular assist device. (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Yang, Fang; Wu, Jingchun; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F


    Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) provide a life-saving therapy for severe heart failure. However, in recent years, the incidence of device-related thrombosis (resulting in stroke, device-exchange surgery or premature death) has been increasing dramatically, which has alarmed both the medical community and the FDA. The objective of this study was to gain improved understanding of the initiation and progression of thrombosis in one of the most commonly used cfVADs, the Thoratec HeartMate II. A computational fluid dynamics simulation (CFD) was performed using our recently updated mathematical model of thrombosis. The patterns of deposition predicted by simulation agreed well with clinical observations. Furthermore, thrombus accumulation was found to increase with decreased flow rate, and can be completely suppressed by the application of anticoagulants and/or improvement of surface chemistry. To our knowledge, this is the first simulation to explicitly model the processes of platelet deposition and thrombus growth in a continuous flow blood pump and thereby replicate patterns of deposition observed clinically. The use of this simulation tool over a range of hemodynamic, hematological, and anticoagulation conditions could assist physicians to personalize clinical management to mitigate the risk of thrombosis. It may also contribute to the design of future VADs that are less thrombogenic.

  14. Development of High Fidelity Mobility Simulation of an Autonomous Vehicle in an Off-Road Scenario Using Integrated Sensor, Controller, and Multi-Body Dynamics (United States)


    rather than for training or other real-time applications. TARDEC is interested in using this capability as a design tool that can efficiently improve...traffic scenarios using a database of road sections, infrastructure components (trees, buildings, traffic signs) and road users (cars, trucks, cyclists simulation, running in real time, may be used for additional testing and training of operators. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors of this paper

  15. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; La Cava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A. R.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.


    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential design parameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  16. Hybrid High-Fidelity Modeling of Radar Scenarios Using Atemporal, Discrete-Event, and Time-Step Simulation (United States)


    Surveillance, and Reconnaissance CI Confidence Interval CPA Closest Point of Approach CV Cross Validation DES Discrete-Event Simulation DoE Design of...cox-power-transformation/ [72] Cross- validation . (n.d.). Perception Sensing Instrumentation Lab, Texas A&M University. [Online]. Available: http...Operation Research , Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, spring 2016. [74] Using validation . (n.d.). jmp SAS online support. [Online]. Available

  17. Relaxation before Debriefing during High-fidelity Simulation Improves Memory Retention of Residents at Three Months: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study. (United States)

    Lilot, Marc; Evain, Jean-Noel; Bauer, Christian; Cejka, Jean-Christophe; Faure, Alexandre; Balança, Baptiste; Vassal, Olivia; Payet, Cécile; Bui Xuan, Bernard; Duclos, Antoine; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Rimmelé, Thomas


    High-fidelity simulation is known to improve participant learning and behavioral performance. Simulation scenarios generate stress that affects memory retention and may impact future performance. The authors hypothesized that more participants would recall three or more critical key messages at three months when a relaxation break was performed before debriefing of critical event scenarios. Each resident actively participated in one scenario and observed another. Residents were randomized in two parallel-arms. The intervention was a 5-min standardized relaxation break immediately before debriefing; controls had no break before debriefing. Five scenario-specific messages were read aloud by instructors during debriefings. Residents were asked by telephone three months later to recall the five messages from their two scenarios, and were scored for each scenario by blinded investigators. The primary endpoint was the number of residents participating actively who recalled three or more messages. Secondary endpoints included: number of residents observing who recalled three or more messages, anxiety level, and debriefing quality. In total, 149 residents were randomized and included. There were 52 of 73 (71%) residents participating actively who recalled three or more messages at three months in the intervention group versus 35 of 76 (46%) among controls (difference: 25% [95% CI, 10 to 40%], P = 0.004). No significant difference was found between groups for observers, anxiety or debriefing quality. There was an additional 25% of active participants who recalled the critical messages at three months when a relaxation break was performed before debriefing of scenarios. Benefits of relaxation to enhance learning should be considered for medical education.

  18. Accelerated Simulation of Discrete Event Dynamic Systems via a Multi-Fidelity Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Han Choi


    Full Text Available Simulation analysis has been performed for simulation experiments of all possible input combinations as a “what-if” analysis, which causes the simulation to be extremely time-consuming. To resolve this problem, this paper proposes a multi-fidelity modeling framework for enhancing simulation speed while minimizing simulation accuracy loss. A target system for this framework is a discrete event dynamic system. The dynamic property of the system facilitates the development of variable fidelity models for the target system due to its high computational cost; and the discrete event property allows for determining when to change the fidelity within a simulation scenario. For formal representation, the paper defines several key concepts such as an interest region, a fidelity change condition, and a selection model. These concepts are integrated into the framework to allow for the achievement of a condition-based disjunction of high- and low-fidelity simulations within a scenario. The proposed framework is applied to two case studies: unmanned underwater and urban transportation vehicles. The results show that simulation speed increases at least 1.21 times with a 5% accuracy loss. We expect that the proposed framework will resolve a computationally expensive problem in the simulation analysis of discrete event dynamic systems.

  19. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development (United States)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin


    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  20. High-fidelity simulation-based team training in urology: evaluation of technical and nontechnical skills of urology residents during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. (United States)

    Abdelshehid, Corollos S; Quach, Stephen; Nelson, Corey; Graversen, Joseph; Lusch, Achim; Zarraga, Jerome; Alipanah, Reza; Landman, Jaime; McDougall, Elspeth M


    The use of low-risk simulation training for resident education is rapidly expanding as teaching centers integrate simulation-based team training (SBTT) sessions into their education curriculum. SBTT is a valuable tool in technical and communication skills training and assessment for residents. We created a unique SBTT scenario for urology residents involving a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy procedure. Urology residents were randomly paired with a certified registered nurse anesthetists or an anesthesia resident. The scenario incorporated a laparoscopic right partial nephrectomy utilizing a unique polyvinyl alcohol kidney model with an embedded 3cm lower pole exophytic tumor and the high-fidelity SimMan3G mannequin. The Urology residents were instructed to pay particular attention to the patient's identifying information provided at the beginning of the case. Two scripted events occurred, the patient had an anaphylactic reaction to a drug and, after tumor specimen was sent for a frozen section, the confederate pathologist called into the operating room (OR) twice, first with the wrong patient name and subsequently with the wrong specimen. After the scenario was complete, technical performance and nontechnical performance were evaluated and assessed. A debriefing session followed the scenario to discuss and assess technical performance and interdisciplinary nontechnical communication between the team. All Urology residents (n = 9) rated the SBTT scenario as a useful tool in developing communication skills among the OR team and 88% rated the model as useful for technical skills training. Despite cuing to note patient identification, only 3 of 9 (33%) participants identified that the wrong patient information was presented when the confederate "pathologist" called in to report pathology results. All urology residents rated SBTT sessions as useful for the development of communication skills between different team members and making residents aware of unlikely but

  1. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng


    needed for repository modeling are severely lacking. In addition, most of existing reactive transport codes were developed for non-radioactive contaminants, and they need to be adapted to account for radionuclide decay and in-growth. The accessibility to the source codes is generally limited. Because the problems of interest for the Waste IPSC are likely to result in relatively large computational models, a compact memory-usage footprint and a fast/robust solution procedure will be needed. A robust massively parallel processing (MPP) capability will also be required to provide reasonable turnaround times on the analyses that will be performed with the code. A performance assessment (PA) calculation for a waste disposal system generally requires a large number (hundreds to thousands) of model simulations to quantify the effect of model parameter uncertainties on the predicted repository performance. A set of codes for a PA calculation must be sufficiently robust and fast in terms of code execution. A PA system as a whole must be able to provide multiple alternative models for a specific set of physical/chemical processes, so that the users can choose various levels of modeling complexity based on their modeling needs. This requires PA codes, preferably, to be highly modularized. Most of the existing codes have difficulties meeting these requirements. Based on the gap analysis results, we have made the following recommendations for the code selection and code development for the NEAMS waste IPSC: (1) build fully coupled high-fidelity THCMBR codes using the existing SIERRA codes (e.g., ARIA and ADAGIO) and platform, (2) use DAKOTA to build an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS), and build a modular code architecture and key code modules for performance assessments. The key chemical calculation modules will be built by expanding the existing CANTERA capabilities as well as by extracting useful components from other existing codes.

  2. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.


    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  3. High Fidelity Tool for Turbulent Combustion in Liquid Launch Propulsion Systems Based on Spray-Flamelet Methodology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a high-performance, high-fidelity simulation capability for simulating liquid rocket spray combustion based on a novel spray-flamelet...

  4. High fidelity wireless network evaluation for heterogeneous cognitive radio networks (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Sagduyu, Yalin; Yackoski, Justin; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Li, Jason; Levy, Renato; Melodia, Tammaso


    We present a high fidelity cognitive radio (CR) network emulation platform for wireless system tests, measure- ments, and validation. This versatile platform provides the configurable functionalities to control and repeat realistic physical channel effects in integrated space, air, and ground networks. We combine the advantages of scalable simulation environment with reliable hardware performance for high fidelity and repeatable evaluation of heterogeneous CR networks. This approach extends CR design only at device (software-defined-radio) or lower-level protocol (dynamic spectrum access) level to end-to-end cognitive networking, and facilitates low-cost deployment, development, and experimentation of new wireless network protocols and applications on frequency- agile programmable radios. Going beyond the channel emulator paradigm for point-to-point communications, we can support simultaneous transmissions by network-level emulation that allows realistic physical-layer inter- actions between diverse user classes, including secondary users, primary users, and adversarial jammers in CR networks. In particular, we can replay field tests in a lab environment with real radios perceiving and learning the dynamic environment thereby adapting for end-to-end goals over distributed spectrum coordination channels that replace the common control channel as a single point of failure. CR networks offer several dimensions of tunable actions including channel, power, rate, and route selection. The proposed network evaluation platform is fully programmable and can reliably evaluate the necessary cross-layer design solutions with configurable op- timization space by leveraging the hardware experiments to represent the realistic effects of physical channel, topology, mobility, and jamming on spectrum agility, situational awareness, and network resiliency. We also provide the flexibility to scale up the test environment by introducing virtual radios and establishing seamless signal

  5. Long-Distance High-Fidelity Teleportation Using Singlet States


    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.


    A quantum communication system is proposed that uses polarization-entangled photons and trapped-atom quantum memories. This system is capable of long-distance, high-fidelity teleportation, and long-duration quantum storage.

  6. Body-Sized Wideband High Fidelity Invisibility Cloak (United States)

    Cohen, Nathan


    A human-sized microwave invisibility cloak has been realized. The invisibility cloak uses fractal metamaterials with two cloaking layers to achieve a high fidelity re-attainment of the intensity of an unobstructed direct path over a better than 50% bandwidth. A human subject was cloaked demonstrating a new milestone in diverted imaging capabilities: electrically large; high fidelity; and broad bandwidth. Transformational optics must now be considered less limiting in the guidance of practical applications.

  7. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study. (United States)

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona


    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-fidelity quantum state preparation using neighboring optimal control (United States)

    Peng, Yuchen; Gaitan, Frank


    We present an approach to single-shot high-fidelity preparation of an n-qubit state based on neighboring optimal control theory. This represents a new application of the neighboring optimal control formalism which was originally developed to produce single-shot high-fidelity quantum gates. To illustrate the approach, and to provide a proof-of-principle, we use it to prepare the two-qubit Bell state |β _{01}\\rangle = (1/√{2})[ |01\\rangle + |10\\rangle ] with an error probability ɛ ˜ 10^{-6} (10^{-5}) for ideal (non-ideal) control. Using standard methods in the literature, these high-fidelity Bell states can be leveraged to fault-tolerantly prepare the logical state |\\overline{β }_{01}\\rangle.

  9. High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits (United States)

    Mower, Jacob; Harris, Nicholas C.; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Lahini, Yoav; Englund, Dirk


    We propose and analyze the design of a programmable photonic integrated circuit for high-fidelity quantum computation and simulation. We demonstrate that the reconfigurability of our design allows us to overcome two major impediments to quantum optics on a chip: it removes the need for a full fabrication cycle for each experiment and allows for compensation of fabrication errors using numerical optimization techniques. Under a pessimistic fabrication model for the silicon-on-insulator process, we demonstrate a dramatic fidelity improvement for the linear optics controlled-not and controlled-phase gates and, showing the scalability of this approach, the iterative phase estimation algorithm built from individually optimized gates. We also propose and simulate an experiment that the programmability of our system would enable: a statistically robust study of the evolution of entangled photons in disordered quantum walks. Overall, our results suggest that existing fabrication processes are sufficient to build a quantum photonic processor capable of high-fidelity operation.

  10. The Creation of a CPU Timer for High Fidelity Programs (United States)

    Dick, Aidan A.


    Using C and C++ programming languages, a tool was developed that measures the efficiency of a program by recording the amount of CPU time that various functions consume. By inserting the tool between lines of code in the program, one can receive a detailed report of the absolute and relative time consumption associated with each section. After adapting the generic tool for a high-fidelity launch vehicle simulation program called MAVERIC, the components of a frequently used function called "derivatives ( )" were measured. Out of the 34 sub-functions in "derivatives ( )", it was found that the top 8 sub-functions made up 83.1% of the total time spent. In order to decrease the overall run time of MAVERIC, a launch vehicle simulation program, a change was implemented in the sub-function "Event_Controller ( )". Reformatting "Event_Controller ( )" led to a 36.9% decrease in the total CPU time spent by that sub-function, and a 3.2% decrease in the total CPU time spent by the overarching function "derivatives ( )".

  11. Satisfaction and self-confidence with nursing clinical simulation: Novice learners, medium-fidelity, and community settings. (United States)

    Lubbers, Jaclynn; Rossman, Carol


    Simulation is fast becoming a normative pedagogy for a portion of clinical time in undergraduate nursing programs in the U.S. Studies have shown positive outcomes in increasing self-confidence and satisfaction with simulation. The questions remain as to which fidelity of simulation best matches which learners, how early can simulation begin with novice students, and in which contexts can simulation be best used for these early learners. This study was undertaken to find out if novice students were able to demonstrate increased satisfaction and self-confidence with medium fidelity simulation in community based roles, as these students have no knowledge of acute care skills at this point in their learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of medium fidelity simulation by measuring self-confidence and satisfaction among novice learners and to demonstrate the feasibility of using community based scenarios in simulation. A quasi-experimental design using 61 undergraduate nursing students at a Midwestern college. Data was collected using three NLN simulation instruments known as the Educational Practices Questionnaire, Self-Confidence in Learning Questionnaire, and Simulation Design Scale (Jeffries and Rizzolo, 2006) following a five-week pediatric community-based simulation course. Students were concurrently enrolled in pediatric theory courses and their first acute care clinical course and skills lab while completing this community-based simulation course. The results revealed that students were satisfied and self-confident following their simulation experience. They also reported high levels of satisfaction with the fidelity of the simulation experience. Medium fidelity community based pediatric simulation can be used effectively among novice nursing students. This pedagogy is an effective way to bridge theory instruction with clinical instruction while providing students with necessary community experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Economical Unsteady High-Fidelity Aerodynamics for Structural Optimization with a Flutter Constraint (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Stanford, Bret K.


    Structural optimization with a flutter constraint for a vehicle designed to fly in the transonic regime is a particularly difficult task. In this speed range, the flutter boundary is very sensitive to aerodynamic nonlinearities, typically requiring high-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations. However, the repeated application of unsteady computational fluid dynamics to guide an aeroelastic optimization process is very computationally expensive. This expense has motivated the development of methods that incorporate aspects of the aerodynamic nonlinearity, classical tools of flutter analysis, and more recent methods of optimization. While it is possible to use doublet lattice method aerodynamics, this paper focuses on the use of an unsteady high-fidelity aerodynamic reduced order model combined with successive transformations that allows for an economical way of utilizing high-fidelity aerodynamics in the optimization process. This approach is applied to the common research model wing structural design. As might be expected, the high-fidelity aerodynamics produces a heavier wing than that optimized with doublet lattice aerodynamics. It is found that the optimized lower skin of the wing using high-fidelity aerodynamics differs significantly from that using doublet lattice aerodynamics.

  13. Multi-fidelity uncertainty quantification in large-scale predictive simulations of turbulent flow (United States)

    Geraci, Gianluca; Jofre-Cruanyes, Lluis; Iaccarino, Gianluca


    The performance characterization of complex engineering systems often relies on accurate, but computationally intensive numerical simulations. It is also well recognized that in order to obtain a reliable numerical prediction the propagation of uncertainties needs to be included. Therefore, Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) plays a fundamental role in building confidence in predictive science. Despite the great improvement in recent years, even the more advanced UQ algorithms are still limited to fairly simplified applications and only moderate parameter dimensionality. Moreover, in the case of extremely large dimensionality, sampling methods, i.e. Monte Carlo (MC) based approaches, appear to be the only viable alternative. In this talk we describe and compare a family of approaches which aim to accelerate the convergence of standard MC simulations. These methods are based on hierarchies of generalized numerical resolutions (multi-level) or model fidelities (multi-fidelity), and attempt to leverage the correlation between Low- and High-Fidelity (HF) models to obtain a more accurate statistical estimator without introducing additional HF realizations. The performance of these methods are assessed on an irradiated particle laden turbulent flow (PSAAP II solar energy receiver). This investigation was funded by the United States Department of Energy's (DoE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under the Predicitive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) II at Stanford University.

  14. The impact of constructive feedback on training in gastrointestinal endoscopy using high-fidelity Virtual-Reality simulation: a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Kruglikova, Irina; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Drewes, Asbjorn M; Funch-Jensen, Peter


    Recently, virtual reality computer simulators have been used to enhance traditional endoscopy teaching. Previous studies have demonstrated construct validity of these systems and transfer of virtual skills to the operating room. However, to date no simulator-training curricula have been designed and there is very little evidence on the impact of external feedback on acquisition of endoscopic skills. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of external feedback on the learning curves on a VR colonoscopy simulator using inexperienced trainees. 22 trainees, without colonoscopy experience were randomised to a group which received structured feedback provided by an experienced supervisor and a controlled group. All participants performed 15 repetitions of task 3 from the Introduction colonoscopy module of the Accu Touch Endoscopy simulator. Retention/transfer tests on simulator were performed 4-6 weeks after the last repetition. The proficiency levels were based on the performance of eight experienced colonoscopists. All subjects were able to complete the procedure on the simulator. There were no perforations in the feedback group versus seven in the non-feedback group. Subjects in the feedback group reached expert proficiency levels in percentage of mucosa visualised and time to reach the caecum significantly faster compared with the control group. None of the groups demonstrated significant degradation of performance in simulator retention/transfer tests. Concurrent feedback given by supervisor concur an advantage in acquisition of basic colonoscopy skills and achieving of proficiency level as compared to independent training.

  15. Innovative Varied-Fidelity Simulation Mobile Teaching Cart and Education Project. (United States)

    Harding, Andrew D; Cullinane Whalen, Kathryn; Silverman, Bradley S


    The use of a varied-fidelity simulation mobile teaching cart is a teaching tool that offers unique advantages in the acute care setting. The cart is used to demonstrate the use of patient monitoring devices, and there are a variety of software tools available with the monitoring technology to ensure that the outputs, including electrocardiographic waves, are analyzed appropriately by nursing staff using this varied-fidelity simulation mobile teaching cart. Bringing varied-fidelity simulation to the nurses' work area is a unique application setting. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Aircraft Configurations (United States)

    Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Kenway, Gaetan K. W.; Burdette, David; Jonsson, Eirikur; Kennedy, Graeme J.


    To evaluate new airframe technologies we need design tools based on high-fidelity models that consider multidisciplinary interactions early in the design process. The overarching goal of this NRA is to develop tools that enable high-fidelity multidisciplinary design optimization of aircraft configurations, and to apply these tools to the design of high aspect ratio flexible wings. We develop a geometry engine that is capable of quickly generating conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations including the internal structure. This geometry engine features adjoint derivative computation for efficient gradient-based optimization. We also added overset capability to a computational fluid dynamics solver, complete with an adjoint implementation and semiautomatic mesh generation. We also developed an approach to constraining buffet and started the development of an approach for constraining utter. On the applications side, we developed a new common high-fidelity model for aeroelastic studies of high aspect ratio wings. We performed optimal design trade-o s between fuel burn and aircraft weight for metal, conventional composite, and carbon nanotube composite wings. We also assessed a continuous morphing trailing edge technology applied to high aspect ratio wings. This research resulted in the publication of 26 manuscripts so far, and the developed methodologies were used in two other NRAs. 1

  17. High-Fidelity RF Gun Simulations with the Parallel 3D Finite Element Particle-In-Cell Code Pic3P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candel, A; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; /SLAC


    SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the first parallel Finite Element 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code, Pic3P, for simulations of RF guns and other space-charge dominated beam-cavity interactions. Pic3P solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations and thus includes space charge, retardation and wakefield effects from first principles. Pic3P uses higher-order Finite Elementmethods on unstructured conformal meshes. A novel scheme for causal adaptive refinement and dynamic load balancing enable unprecedented simulation accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next generation of accelerator facilities. Application to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) RF gun is presented.

  18. Final Report: Quantifying Prediction Fidelity in Multiscale Multiphysics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin [Texas Tech University


    We have developed algorithms and software in support of uncertainty quantification in nonlinear multiphysics simulations. This work includes high-level, high-performance software for large-scale, matrix-free linear algebra and a new algorithm for fast computation of transcendental functions of stochastic variables.

  19. Nursing students' evaluation of a new feedback and reflection tool for use in high-fidelity simulation - Formative assessment of clinical skills. A descriptive quantitative research design. (United States)

    Solheim, Elisabeth; Plathe, Hilde Syvertsen; Eide, Hilde


    Clinical skills training is an important part of nurses' education programmes. Clinical skills are complex. A common understanding of what characterizes clinical skills and learning outcomes needs to be established. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a new reflection and feedback tool for formative assessment. The study has a descriptive quantitative design. 129 students participated who were at the end of the first year of a Bachelor degree in nursing. After highfidelity simulation, data were collected using a questionnaire with 19 closed-ended and 2 open-ended questions. The tool stimulated peer assessment, and enabled students to be more thorough in what to assess as an observer in clinical skills. The tool provided a structure for selfassessment and made visible items that are important to be aware of in clinical skills. This article adds to simulation literature and provides a tool that is useful in enhancing peer learning, which is essential for nurses in practice. The tool has potential for enabling students to learn about reflection and developing skills for guiding others in practice after they have graduated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching elliptical excision skills to novice medical students: A randomized controlled study comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai


    Full Text Available Background: The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. Aims : To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Materials and Methods: Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills′ training (n = 8: didactic materials (control; organic bench model (low-fidelity; ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity; chicken legs′ skin bench model (high-fidelity; or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity. Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. Results : The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P 0.05 between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills′ training was considered large (>0.80 in all measurements. Conclusion : The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials.

  1. Teaching elliptical excision skills to novice medical students: a randomized controlled study comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models. (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Oshiiwa, Marie; Saad-Hossne, Rogério


    The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills' training (n = 8): didactic materials (control); organic bench model (low-fidelity); ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity); chicken legs' skin bench model (high-fidelity); or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity). Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P 0.05) between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills' training) was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements. The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials.

  2. Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.


    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.

  3. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Lacava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.


    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential designparameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  4. High-Fidelity Buckling Analysis of Composite Cylinders Using the STAGS Finite Element Code (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.


    Results from previous shell buckling studies are presented that illustrate some of the unique and powerful capabilities in the STAGS finite element analysis code that have made it an indispensable tool in structures research at NASA over the past few decades. In particular, prototypical results from the development and validation of high-fidelity buckling simulations are presented for several unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells along with a discussion on the specific methods and user-defined subroutines in STAGS that are used to carry out the high-fidelity simulations. These simulations accurately account for the effects of geometric shell-wall imperfections, shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and elastic boundary conditions. The analysis procedure uses a combination of nonlinear quasi-static and transient dynamic solution algorithms to predict the prebuckling and unstable collapse response characteristics of the cylinders. Finally, the use of high-fidelity models in the development of analysis-based shell-buckling knockdown (design) factors is demonstrated.

  5. High Fidelity Simulations of Littoral Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, Richard


    .... With the end of the cold war, DoD's focus has shifted from a land/sea battle scenario with a monolithic global adversary to dealing with low-intensity conflicts in the near-coastal or littoral regions...

  6. High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulant Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The severity of the lunar dust problems encountered during the Apollo missions were consistently underestimated by ground tests, illustrating the need to develop...

  7. Annual Report 2015: High Fidelity Modeling of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters (United States)


    Field-Reversed Configuration ( FRC ) Thrusters 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Justin Koo 5d...simultaneously. The low‐fidelity simulation capability for the formation process in RMF  FRC  thrusters (based on  the Hugrass model) and a multifluid capability for both theta‐pinch and RMF  FRCs  provides us with  both an extremely rapid engineering‐level code to quickly simulate

  8. Advances in coupled safety modeling using systems analysis and high-fidelity methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    The potential for a sodium-cooled fast reactor to survive severe accident initiators with no damage has been demonstrated through whole-plant testing in EBR-II and FFTF. Analysis of the observed natural protective mechanisms suggests that they would be characteristic of a broad range of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing metal fuel. However, in order to demonstrate the degree to which new, advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designs will possess these desired safety features, accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will be required. One of the objectives of the advanced safety-modeling component of the Reactor IPSC is to develop a science-based advanced safety simulation capability by utilizing existing safety simulation tools coupled with emerging high-fidelity modeling capabilities in a multi-resolution approach. As part of this integration, an existing whole-plant systems analysis code has been coupled with a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics code to assess the impact of high-fidelity simulations on safety-related performance. With the coupled capabilities, it is possible to identify critical safety-related phenomenon in advanced reactor designs that cannot be resolved with existing tools. In this report, the impact of coupling is demonstrated by evaluating the conditions of outlet plenum thermal stratification during a protected loss of flow transient. Outlet plenum stratification was anticipated to alter core temperatures and flows predicted during natural circulation conditions. This effect was observed during the simulations. What was not anticipated, however, is the far-reaching impact that resolving thermal stratification has on the whole plant. The high temperatures predicted at the IHX inlet due to thermal stratification in the outlet plenum forces heat into the intermediate system to the point that it eventually becomes a source of heat for the primary system. The results also suggest that flow stagnation in the

  9. The Need for High-Fidelity Robotics Sensor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J. Durst


    Full Text Available Simulations provide a safe, controlled setting for testing and are therefore ideal for rapidly developing and testing autonomous mobile robot behaviors. However, algorithms for mobile robots are notorious for transitioning poorly from simulations to fielded platforms. The difficulty can in part be attributed to the use of simplistic sensor models that do not recreate important phenomena that affect autonomous navigation. The differences between the output of simple sensor models and true sensors are highlighted using results from a field test exercise with the National Robotics Engineering Center's Crusher vehicle. The Crusher was manually driven through an area consisting of a mix of small vegetation, rocks, and hay bales. LIDAR sensor data was collected along the path traveled and used to construct a model of the area. LIDAR data were simulated using a simple point-intersection model for a second, independent path. Cost maps were generated by the Crusher autonomy system using both the real-world and simulated sensor data. The comparison of these cost maps shows consistencies on most solid, large geometry surfaces such as the ground, but discrepancies around vegetation indicate that higher fidelity models are required to truly capture the complex interactions of the sensors with complex objects.

  10. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.


    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  11. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  12. High fidelity, radiation tolerant analog-to-digital converters (United States)

    Wang, Charles Chang-I (Inventor); Linscott, Ivan Richard (Inventor); Inan, Umran S. (Inventor)


    Techniques for an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using pipeline architecture includes a linearization technique for a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) over 80 deciBels. In some embodiments, sampling rates exceed a megahertz. According to a second approach, a switched-capacitor circuit is configured for correct operation in a high radiation environment. In one embodiment, the combination yields high fidelity ADC (>88 deciBel SFDR) while sampling at 5 megahertz sampling rates and consuming ADC displays no latchup up to a highest tested linear energy transfer of 63 million electron Volts square centimeters per milligram at elevated temperature (131 degrees C.) and supply (2.7 Volts, versus 2.5 Volts nominal).

  13. Urinary retention: implications of low-fidelity simulation training on the self-confidence of nurses. (United States)

    Meska, Mateus Henrique Gonçalves; Mazzo, Alessandra; Jorge, Beatriz Maria; Souza-Junior, Valtuir Duarte de; Negri, Elaine Cristina; Chayamiti, Emília Maria Paulina Campos


    This was a quasi-experimental study carried out among nurses stationed in municipal care units in the interior of São Paulo State. Data were collected during the course of a pedagogical workshop that used low-fidelity simulation training. The study included 42 nurses, mostly female with over 15 years of experience. After low-fidelity simulation training, nurses showed a significant increase (precurso efetivo no aprimoramento de enfermeiros no que diz respeito à assistência de enfermagem na retenção urinária.

  14. High-Fidelity Preservation of Quantum Information During Trapped-Ion Transport (United States)

    Kaufmann, Peter; Gloger, Timm F.; Kaufmann, Delia; Johanning, Michael; Wunderlich, Christof


    A promising scheme for building scalable quantum simulators and computers is the synthesis of a scalable system using interconnected subsystems. A prerequisite for this approach is the ability to faithfully transfer quantum information between subsystems. With trapped atomic ions, this can be realized by transporting ions with quantum information encoded into their internal states. Here, we measure with high precision the fidelity of quantum information encoded into hyperfine states of a Yb171 + ion during ion transport in a microstructured Paul trap. Ramsey spectroscopy of the ion's internal state is interleaved with up to 4000 transport operations over a distance of 280 μ m each taking 12.8 μ s . We obtain a state fidelity of 99.9994 (-7+6) % per ion transport.

  15. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools (United States)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory


    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  16. Derivation Of Probabilistic Damage Definitions From High Fidelity Deterministic Computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, L D


    This paper summarizes a methodology used by the Underground Analysis and Planning System (UGAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the derivation of probabilistic damage curves for US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). UGAPS uses high fidelity finite element and discrete element codes on the massively parallel supercomputers to predict damage to underground structures from military interdiction scenarios. These deterministic calculations can be riddled with uncertainty, especially when intelligence, the basis for this modeling, is uncertain. The technique presented here attempts to account for this uncertainty by bounding the problem with reasonable cases and using those bounding cases as a statistical sample. Probability of damage curves are computed and represented that account for uncertainty within the sample and enable the war planner to make informed decisions. This work is flexible enough to incorporate any desired damage mechanism and can utilize the variety of finite element and discrete element codes within the national laboratory and government contractor community.

  17. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong


    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  18. Comparative performance of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy: Are all models effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant Mishra


    Full Text Available Objective: We performed a comparative study of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy (URS. Our objective was to determine whether high-fidelity non-virtual reality (VR models are as effective as the VR model in teaching flexible URS skills. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one trained urologists without clinical experience of flexible URS underwent dry lab simulation practice. After a warm-up period of 2 h, tasks were performed on a high-fidelity non-VR (Uro-scopic Trainer TM ; Endo-Urologie-Modell TM and a high-fidelity VR model (URO Mentor TM . The participants were divided equally into three batches with rotation on each of the three stations for 30 min. Performance of the trainees was evaluated by an expert ureteroscopist using pass rating and global rating score (GRS. The participants rated a face validity questionnaire at the end of each session. Results: The GRS improved statistically at evaluation performed after second rotation (P<0.001 for batches 1, 2 and 3. Pass ratings also improved significantly for all training models when the third and first rotations were compared (P<0.05. The batch that was trained on the VR-based model had more improvement on pass ratings on second rotation but could not achieve statistical significance. Most of the realistic domains were higher for a VR model as compared with the non-VR model, except the realism of the flexible endoscope. Conclusions: All the models used for training flexible URS were effective in increasing the GRS and pass ratings irrespective of the VR status.

  19. High-fidelity multiactor emergency preparedness training for patient care providers. (United States)

    Scott, Lancer A; Maddux, P Tim; Schnellmann, Jennifer; Hayes, Lauren; Tolley, Jessica; Wahlquist, Amy E


    Providing comprehensive emergency preparedness training (EPT) for patient care providers is important to the future success of emergency preparedness operations in the United States. Disasters are rare, complex events involving many patients and environmental factors that are difficult to reproduce in a training environment. Few EPT programs possess both competency-driven goals and metrics to measure life-saving performance during a multiactor simulated disaster. The development of an EPT curriculum for patient care providers-provided first to medical students, then to a group of experienced disaster medical providers-that recreates a simulated clinical disaster using a combination of up to 15 live actors and six high-fidelity human simulators is described. Specifically, the authors detail the Center for Health Professional Training and Emergency Response's (CHPTER's) 1-day clinical EPT course including its organization, core competency development, medical student self-evaluation, and course assessment. Two 1-day courses hosted by CHPTER were conducted in a university simulation center. Students who completed the course improved their overall knowledge and comfort level with EPT skills. The authors believe this is the first published description of a curriculum method that combines high-fidelity, multiactor scenarios to measure the life-saving performance of patient care providers utilizing a clinical disaster scenario with > 10 patients at once. A larger scale study, or preferably a multicenter trial, is needed to further study the impact of this curriculum and its potential to protect provider and patient lives.

  20. High Fidelity, High Volume Agglutinate Manufacturing Process Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Up to 65% of the lunar soils are comprised of agglutinates. Although the importance of agglutinate in simulants is often debated, the fact is that agglutinates...

  1. The Effects of Various Fidelity Factors on Simulated Helicopter Hover (United States)


    generally be educated guesses which can seldom be supported by hard facts." There exists a vast literature on motion cuing (see for instance a given situation. Nevertheless, educated guesses can be based on the nature of the flying task, the system being simulated, and the performance...1979. I Albery, W. B. and Gill, R. T. Development and validation of drive concepts for an advanced g-cui.g system. AIAA Stimulation Tecnologies

  2. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Enhanced for Multiphase Particulate Materials (United States)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.


    This 3-year effort involves the development of a comprehensive micromechanics model and a related computer code, capable of accurately estimating both the average response and the local stress and strain fields in the individual phases, assuming both elastic and inelastic behavior. During the first year (fiscal year 2001) of the investigation, a version of the model called the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) was successfully completed for the thermo-inelastic response of continuously reinforced multiphased materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures (refs. 1 and 2). The model s excellent predictive capability for both the macroscopic response and the microlevel stress and strain fields was demonstrated through comparison with exact analytical and finite element solutions. This year, HFGMC was further extended in two technologically significant ways. The first enhancement entailed the incorporation of fiber/matrix debonding capability into the two-dimensional version of HFGMC for modeling the response of unidirectionally reinforced composites such as titanium matrix composites, which exhibit poor fiber/matrix bond. Comparison with experimental data validated the model s predictive capability. The second enhancement entailed further generalization of HFGMC to three dimensions to enable modeling the response of particulate-reinforced (discontinuous) composites in the elastic material behavior domain. Next year, the three-dimensional version will be generalized to encompass inelastic effects due to plasticity, viscoplasticity, and damage, as well as coupled electromagnetothermomechanical (including piezoelectric) effects.

  3. Use of Low-Fidelity Simulation Laboratory Training for Teaching Radiology Residents CT-Guided Procedures. (United States)

    Picard, Melissa; Nelson, Rachel; Roebel, John; Collins, Heather; Anderson, M Bret


    To determine the benefit of the addition of low-fidelity simulation-based training to the standard didactic-based training in teaching radiology residents common CT-guided procedures. This was a prospective study involving 24 radiology residents across all years in a university program. All residents underwent standard didactic lecture followed by low-fidelity simulation-based training on three common CT-guided procedures: random liver biopsy, lung nodule biopsy, and drain placement. Baseline knowledge, confidence, and performance assessments were obtained after the didactic session and before the simulation training session. Approximately 2 months later, all residents participated in a simulation-based training session covering all three of these procedures. Knowledge, confidence, and performance data were obtained afterward. These assessments covered topics related to preprocedure workup, intraprocedure steps, and postprocedure management. Knowledge data were collected based on a 15-question assessment. Confidence data were obtained based on a 5-point Likert-like scale. Performance data were obtained based on successful completion of predefined critical steps. There was significant improvement in knowledge (P = .005), confidence (P training to the standard didactic curriculum for all procedures. This study suggests that the addition of low-fidelity simulation-based training to a standard didactic-based curriculum is beneficial in improving resident knowledge, confidence, and tested performance of common CT-guided procedures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene


    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  5. Fidelity considerations for simulation-based usability assessments of mobile ICT for hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Yngve; Alsos, Ole A; Svanæs, Dag


    Controlled laboratory-based usability assessments of mobile information and communications technologies (ICT) for hospitals have been conducted. As part of these assessments, clinicians have acted out mobile work scenarios and used the systems to solve related tasks. The evaluations show...... that relevant usability issues go beyond those of graphical user interfaces. Many of these usability issues only show up when the real-world context of use is replicated in the laboratory to a high degree of fidelity. The complexity of the context of use for mobile ICT in hospitals has motivated us to explore...... for hospitals. Our argument is substantiated by using the identified set of fidelity dimensions in a retrospective analysis of two usability assessments. The analysis explains how the configuration of fidelity dimensions, each reflecting various degrees of realism vis-à-vis the actual performance context...

  6. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong


    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  7. Electro-Optic Frequency Beam Splitters and Tritters for High-Fidelity Photonic Quantum Information Processing (United States)

    Lu, Hsuan-Hao; Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Odele, Ogaga D.; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.; Lougovski, Pavel


    We report the experimental realization of high-fidelity photonic quantum gates for frequency-encoded qubits and qutrits based on electro-optic modulation and Fourier-transform pulse shaping. Our frequency version of the Hadamard gate offers near-unity fidelity (0.999 98 ±0.000 03 ), requires only a single microwave drive tone for near-ideal performance, functions across the entire C band (1530-1570 nm), and can operate concurrently on multiple qubits spaced as tightly as four frequency modes apart, with no observable degradation in the fidelity. For qutrits, we implement a 3 ×3 extension of the Hadamard gate: the balanced tritter. This tritter—the first ever demonstrated for frequency modes—attains fidelity 0.9989 ±0.0004 . These gates represent important building blocks toward scalable, high-fidelity quantum information processing based on frequency encoding.

  8. Design of High-Fidelity Testing Framework for Secure Electric Grid Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL


    A solution methodology and implementation components are presented that can uncover unwanted, unintentional or unanticipated effects on electric grids from changes to actual electric grid control software. A new design is presented to leapfrog over the limitations of current modeling and testing techniques for cyber technologies in electric grids. We design a fully virtualized approach in which actual, unmodified operational software under test is enabled to interact with simulated surrogates of electric grids. It enables the software to influence the (simulated) grid operation and vice versa in a controlled, high fidelity environment. Challenges in achieving such capability include achieving low-overhead time control mechanisms in hypervisor schedulers, network capture and time-stamping, translation of network packets emanating from grid software into discrete events of virtual grid models, translation back from virtual sensors/actuators into data packets to control software, and transplanting the entire system onto an accurately and efficiently maintained virtual-time plane.

  9. High fidelity system modeling for high quality image reconstruction in clinical CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synho Do

    Full Text Available Today, while many researchers focus on the improvement of the regularization term in IR algorithms, they pay less concern to the improvement of the fidelity term. In this paper, we hypothesize that improving the fidelity term will further improve IR image quality in low-dose scanning, which typically causes more noise. The purpose of this paper is to systematically test and examine the role of high-fidelity system models using raw data in the performance of iterative image reconstruction approach minimizing energy functional. We first isolated the fidelity term and analyzed the importance of using focal spot area modeling, flying focal spot location modeling, and active detector area modeling as opposed to just flying focal spot motion. We then compared images using different permutations of all three factors. Next, we tested the ability of the fidelity terms to retain signals upon application of the regularization term with all three factors. We then compared the differences between images generated by the proposed method and Filtered-Back-Projection. Lastly, we compared images of low-dose in vivo data using Filtered-Back-Projection, Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space, and the proposed method using raw data. The initial comparison of difference maps of images constructed showed that the focal spot area model and the active detector area model also have significant impacts on the quality of images produced. Upon application of the regularization term, images generated using all three factors were able to substantially decrease model mismatch error, artifacts, and noise. When the images generated by the proposed method were tested, conspicuity greatly increased, noise standard deviation decreased by 90% in homogeneous regions, and resolution also greatly improved. In conclusion, the improvement of the fidelity term to model clinical scanners is essential to generating higher quality images in low-dose imaging.

  10. Cascading signaling pathways improve the fidelity of a stochastically and deterministically simulated molecular RS latch. (United States)

    Mills, Evan; Truong, Kevin


    While biological systems have often been compared with digital systems, they differ by the strong effect of crosstalk between signals due to diffusivity in the medium, reaction kinetics and geometry. Memory elements have allowed the creation of autonomous digital systems and although biological systems have similar properties of autonomy, equivalent memory mechanisms remain elusive. Any such equivalent memory system, however, must silence the effect of crosstalk to maintain memory fidelity. Here, we present a system of enzymatic reactions that behaves like an RS latch (a simple memory element in digital systems). Using both a stochastic molecular simulator and ordinary differential equation simulator, we showed that crosstalk between two latches operating in the same spatial localization disrupts the memory fidelity of both latches. Crosstalk was reduced or silenced when simple reaction loops were replaced with multiple step or cascading reactions, showing that cascading signaling pathways are less susceptible to crosstalk. Thus, the common biological theme of cascading signaling pathways is advantageous for maintaining the fidelity of a memory latch in the presence of crosstalk. The experimental implementation of such a latch system will lead to novel approaches to cell control using synthetic proteins and will contribute to our understanding of why cells behave differently even when given the same stimulus.

  11. Cascading signaling pathways improve the fidelity of a stochastically and deterministically simulated molecular RS latch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Kevin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While biological systems have often been compared with digital systems, they differ by the strong effect of crosstalk between signals due to diffusivity in the medium, reaction kinetics and geometry. Memory elements have allowed the creation of autonomous digital systems and although biological systems have similar properties of autonomy, equivalent memory mechanisms remain elusive. Any such equivalent memory system, however, must silence the effect of crosstalk to maintain memory fidelity. Results Here, we present a system of enzymatic reactions that behaves like an RS latch (a simple memory element in digital systems. Using both a stochastic molecular simulator and ordinary differential equation simulator, we showed that crosstalk between two latches operating in the same spatial localization disrupts the memory fidelity of both latches. Crosstalk was reduced or silenced when simple reaction loops were replaced with multiple step or cascading reactions, showing that cascading signaling pathways are less susceptible to crosstalk. Conclusion Thus, the common biological theme of cascading signaling pathways is advantageous for maintaining the fidelity of a memory latch in the presence of crosstalk. The experimental implementation of such a latch system will lead to novel approaches to cell control using synthetic proteins and will contribute to our understanding of why cells behave differently even when given the same stimulus.

  12. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic (United States)

    Weigle, Eric H [Los Alamos, NM


    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  13. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part 1: Perception of Sound and Music. (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.


    Presents the first of a series of articles that discuss the perception of sound and music. This series of articles is intended to provide an introduction to the broad subject of high-fidelity sound recording and reproduction. (HM)

  14. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.


    In the traditional aerospace vehicle design process, each successive design phase is accompanied by an increment in the modeling fidelity of the disciplinary analyses being performed. This trend follows a corresponding shrinking of the design space as more and more design decisions are locked in. The correlated increase in knowledge about the design and decrease in design freedom occurs partly because increases in modeling fidelity are usually accompanied by significant increases in the computational expense of performing the analyses. When running high fidelity analyses, it is not usually feasible to explore a large number of variations, and so design space exploration is reserved for conceptual design, and higher fidelity analyses are run only once a specific point design has been selected to carry forward. The designs produced by this traditional process have been recognized as being limited by the uncertainty that is present early on due to the use of lower fidelity analyses. For example, uncertainty in aerodynamics predictions produces uncertainty in trajectory optimization, which can impact overall vehicle sizing. This effect can become more significant when trajectories are being shaped by active constraints. For example, if an optimal trajectory is running up against a normal load factor constraint, inaccuracies in the aerodynamic coefficient predictions can cause a feasible trajectory to be considered infeasible, or vice versa. For this reason, a trade must always be performed between the desired fidelity and the resources available. Apart from this trade between fidelity and computational expense, it is very desirable to use higher fidelity analyses earlier in the design process. A large body of work has been performed to this end, led by efforts in the area of surrogate modeling. In surrogate modeling, an up-front investment is made by running a high fidelity code over a Design of Experiments (DOE); once completed, the DOE data is used to create a

  15. High-Fidelity Modeling for Health Monitoring in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures (United States)

    Luchinsky, Dimitry G.; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Tyson, Richard W.; Walker, James L.; Miller, Jimmy L.


    High-Fidelity Model of the sandwich composite structure with real geometry is reported. The model includes two composite facesheets, honeycomb core, piezoelectric actuator/sensors, adhesive layers, and the impactor. The novel feature of the model is that it includes modeling of the impact and wave propagation in the structure before and after the impact. Results of modeling of the wave propagation, impact, and damage detection in sandwich honeycomb plates using piezoelectric actuator/sensor scheme are reported. The results of the simulations are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the model is suitable for analysis of the physics of failure due to the impact and for testing structural health monitoring schemes based on guided wave propagation.

  16. Restless Tuneup of High-Fidelity Qubit Gates (United States)

    Rol, M. A.; Bultink, C. C.; O'Brien, T. E.; de Jong, S. R.; Theis, L. S.; Fu, X.; Luthi, F.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; de Sterke, J. C.; Bruno, A.; Deurloo, D.; Schouten, R. N.; Wilhelm, F. K.; DiCarlo, L.


    We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of nondemolition measurements interleaving gate operations without pause. Applying the protocol on a transmon qubit achieves 0.999 average Clifford fidelity in one minute, as independently verified using randomized benchmarking and gate-set tomography. The adjustable sensitivity of the cost function allows the detection of fractional changes in the gate error with a nearly constant signal-to-noise ratio. The restless concept demonstrated can be readily extended to the tuneup of two-qubit gates and measurement operations.

  17. Use of simulated data sets to evaluate the fidelity of Metagenomicprocessing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Barry, Kerri; Shapiro, Harris; Goltsman, Eugene; McHardy, Alice C.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Salamov, Asaf; Korzeniewski, Frank; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Grigoriev, Igor; Richardson, Paul; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.


    Metagenomics is a rapidly emerging field of research for studying microbial communities. To evaluate methods presently used to process metagenomic sequences, we constructed three simulated data sets of varying complexity by combining sequencing reads randomly selected from 113 isolate genomes. These data sets were designed to model real metagenomes in terms of complexity and phylogenetic composition. We assembled sampled reads using three commonly used genome assemblers (Phrap, Arachne and JAZZ), and predicted genes using two popular gene finding pipelines (fgenesb and CRITICA/GLIMMER). The phylogenetic origins of the assembled contigs were predicted using one sequence similarity--based (blast hit distribution) and two sequence composition--based (PhyloPythia, oligonucleotide frequencies) binning methods. We explored the effects of the simulated community structure and method combinations on the fidelity of each processing step by comparison to the corresponding isolate genomes. The simulated data sets are available online to facilitate standardized benchmarking of tools for metagenomic analysis.

  18. High fidelity analysis of BWR fuel assembly with COBRA-TF/PARCS and trace codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, (ISIRYM/UPV), (Spain). Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety; Concejal, A.; Melara, J.; Albendea, M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Iberdrola, Madrid (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: [SEA Propulsion SL, Madrid (Spain)


    The growing importance of detailed reactor core and fuel assembly description for light water reactors (LWRs) as well as the sub-channel safety analysis requires high fidelity models and coupled neutronic/thermalhydraulic codes. Hand in hand with advances in the computer technology, the nuclear safety analysis is beginning to use a more detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics. Previously, a PWR core and a 16 by 16 fuel assembly models were developed to test and validate our COBRA-TF/PARCS v2.7 (CTF/PARCS) coupled code. In this work, a comparison of the modeling and simulation advantages and disadvantages of modern 10 by 10 BWR fuel assembly with CTF/PARCS and TRACE codes has been done. The objective of the comparison is making known the main advantages of using the sub-channel codes to perform high resolution nuclear safety analysis. The sub-channel codes, like CTF, permits obtain accurate predictions, in two flow regime, of the thermalhydraulic parameters important to safety with high local resolution. The modeled BWR fuel assembly has 91 fuel rods (81 full length and 10 partial length fuel rods) and a big square central water rod. This assembly has been modeled with high level of detail with CTF code and using the BWR modeling parameters provided by TRACE. The same neutronic PARCS's model has been used for the simulation with both codes. To compare the codes a coupled steady state has be performed. (author)

  19. Low fidelity, high quality: a model for e-learning. (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Chandratilake, Madawa; Baker, Paul


    E-learning continues to proliferate as a method to deliver continuing medical education. The effectiveness of e-learning has been widely studied, showing that it is as effective as traditional forms of education. However, most reports focus on whether the e-learning is effective, rather than discussing innovations to allow clinical educators to ask 'how' and 'why' it is effective, and to facilitate local reproduction. Previous work has set out a number of barriers to the introduction of e-learning interventions. Cost, the time to produce interventions, and the training requirements for educators and trainees have all been identified as barriers. We set out to design an e-learning intervention on paediatric prescribing that could address these issues using a low-fidelity approach, and report our methods so as to allow interested readers to use a similar approach. Using low-cost, readily accessible tools and applying appropriate educational theory, the intervention was produced in a short period of time. As part of a randomised controlled trial, long-term retention of prescribing skills was demonstrated, with significantly higher prescribing skill scores in the e-learning group at 4 and 12 weeks (p e-learning. The design model described is simple and can be used by clinical teachers to support local development. Further research could investigate the experiences of these clinicians using this method of instructional design. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An Automatic Medium to High Fidelity Low-Thrust Global Trajectory Toolchain; EMTG-GMAT (United States)

    Beeson, Ryne T.; Englander, Jacob A.; Hughes, Steven P.; Schadegg, Maximillian


    Solving the global optimization, low-thrust, multiple-flyby interplanetary trajectory problem with high-fidelity dynamical models requires an unreasonable amount of computational resources. A better approach, and one that is demonstrated in this paper, is a multi-step process whereby the solution of the aforementioned problem is solved at a lower-fidelity and this solution is used as an initial guess for a higher-fidelity solver. The framework presented in this work uses two tools developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) and the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). EMTG is a medium to medium-high fidelity low-thrust interplanetary global optimization solver, which now has the capability to automatically generate GMAT script files for seeding a high-fidelity solution using GMAT's local optimization capabilities. A discussion of the dynamical models as well as thruster and power modeling for both EMTG and GMAT are given in this paper. Current capabilities are demonstrated with examples that highlight the toolchains ability to efficiently solve the difficult low-thrust global optimization problem with little human intervention.

  1. Rapid High-Fidelity Single-Shot Dispersive Readout of Superconducting Qubits (United States)

    Walter, T.; Kurpiers, P.; Gasparinetti, S.; Magnard, P.; Potočnik, A.; Salathé, Y.; Pechal, M.; Mondal, M.; Oppliger, M.; Eichler, C.; Wallraff, A.


    The speed of quantum gates and measurements is a decisive factor for the overall fidelity of quantum protocols when performed on physical qubits with a finite coherence time. Reducing the time required to distinguish qubit states with high fidelity is, therefore, a critical goal in quantum-information science. The state-of-the-art readout of superconducting qubits is based on the dispersive interaction with a readout resonator. Here, we bring this technique to its current limit and demonstrate how the careful design of system parameters leads to fast and high-fidelity measurements without affecting qubit coherence. We achieve this result by increasing the dispersive-interaction strength, by choosing an optimal linewidth of the readout resonator, by employing a Purcell filter, and by utilizing phase-sensitive parametric amplification. In our experiment, we measure 98.25% readout fidelity in only 48 ns, when minimizing readout time, and 99.2% in 88 ns, when maximizing the fidelity, limited predominantly by the qubit lifetime of 7.6 μ s . The presented scheme is also expected to be suitable for integration into a multiplexed readout architecture.

  2. DSMC study of oxygen shockwaves based on high-fidelity vibrational relaxation and dissociation models (United States)

    Borges Sebastião, Israel; Kulakhmetov, Marat; Alexeenko, Alina


    This work evaluates high-fidelity vibrational-translational (VT) energy relaxation and dissociation models for pure O2 normal shockwave simulations with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The O2-O collisions are described using ab initio state-specific relaxation and dissociation models. The Macheret-Fridman (MF) dissociation model is adapted to the DSMC framework by modifying the standard implementation of the total collision energy (TCE) model. The O2-O2 dissociation is modeled with this TCE+MF approach, which is calibrated with O2-O ab initio data and experimental equilibrium dissociation rates. The O2-O2 vibrational relaxation is modeled via the Larsen-Borgnakke model, calibrated to experimental VT rates. All the present results are compared to experimental data and previous calculations available in the literature. It is found that, in general, the ab initio dissociation model is better than the TCE model at matching the shock experiments. Therefore, when available, efficient ab initio models are preferred over phenomenological models. We also show that the proposed TCE + MF formulation can be used to improve the standard TCE model results when ab initio data are not available or limited.

  3. The use of hi fidelity simulation to enhance nursing students' therapeutic communication skills. (United States)

    Sleeper, Justin A; Thompson, Cesarina


    Nursing students entering psychiatric settings for clinical practice need a solid foundation of therapeutic communication skills. This article presents an innovative strategy for nursing students to practice therapeutic communication skills with psychiatric patients by using hi fidelity simulation with Laerdal SimMan. Using the SimMan vocal function enabled nurse educators to develop communication algorithms that allowed students to interact with SimMan as they would with psychiatric patients. The SimMan algorithms can be designed to mimic many scenarios typically found in psychiatric settings. Nursing students can use this technology to take the therapeutic communication skills they have learned in the classroom and practice them in a safe laboratory environment before entering actual psychiatric settings. The ability of students to practice communication skills prior to entering psychiatric settings can promote effective therapeutic communication skills and decrease student anxiety.

  4. A New Design for Airway Management Training with Mixed Reality and High Fidelity Modeling. (United States)

    Shen, Yunhe; Hananel, David; Zhao, Zichen; Burke, Daniel; Ballas, Crist; Norfleet, Jack; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert


    Restoring airway function is a vital task in many medical scenarios. Although various simulation tools have been available for learning such skills, recent research indicated that fidelity in simulating airway management deserves further improvements. In this study, we designed and implemented a new prototype for practicing relevant tasks including laryngoscopy, intubation and cricothyrotomy. A large amount of anatomical details or landmarks were meticulously selected and reconstructed from medical scans, and 3D-printed or molded to the airway intervention model. This training model was augmented by virtually and physically presented interactive modules, which are interoperable with motion tracking and sensor data feedback. Implementation results showed that this design is a feasible approach to develop higher fidelity airway models that can be integrated with mixed reality interfaces.

  5. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program (United States)

    Beebe, Rosella I.


    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…

  6. Demonstration of deterministic and high fidelity squeezing of quantum information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, J-I.; Hayashi, T-; Akiyama, T.


    , and an ancillary squeezed vacuum state, thus direct interaction between a strong pump and the quantum state is circumvented. We demonstrate three different squeezing levels for a coherent state input. This scheme is highly suitable for the fault-tolerant squeezing transformation in a continuous variable quantum...

  7. High-Fidelity Numerical Modeling of Compressible Flow (United States)


    source of much of the aero-thermo- acoustic load that a high-speed vehicle must resist. In recent work, we have addressed several aspects of the...region is tiled with boxes of size r, and the number of boxes N that contain the boundary is counted. For a self-similar fractal, this number is N(r...resolution outside the boundary layer to accommodate acoustic disturbances as they travelled through the inviscid core flow and where reflected back into

  8. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits. (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J


    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  9. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao


    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  10. Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. (United States)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho


    Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of photonic polarization entanglement over quantum channels with two types of decoherence, amplitude damping and polarization-mode dispersion, via qubit transduction between polarization qubits and dual-rail qubits. These results represent a significant breakthrough in quantum communication over decoherence channels as the protocol is input-state independent, requires no ancillary photons and symmetries, and has near-unity success probability.

  11. A Novel Low Temperature PCR Assured High-Fidelity DNA Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Zhou


    Full Text Available As previously reported, a novel low temperature (LoTemp polymerase chain reaction (PCR catalyzed by a moderately heat-resistant (MHR DNA polymerase with a chemical-assisted denaturation temperature set at 85 °C instead of the conventional 94–96 °C can achieve high-fidelity DNA amplification of a target DNA, even after up to 120 PCR thermal cycles. Furthermore, such accurate amplification is not achievable with conventional PCR. Now, using a well-recognized L1 gene segment of the human papillomavirus (HPV type 52 (HPV-52 as the template for experiments, we demonstrate that the LoTemp high-fidelity DNA amplification is attributed to an unusually high processivity and stability of the MHR DNA polymerase whose high fidelity in template-directed DNA synthesis is independent of non-existent 3'–5' exonuclease activity. Further studies and understanding of the characteristics of the LoTemp PCR technology may facilitate implementation of DNA sequencing-based diagnostics at the point of care in community hospital laboratories.

  12. Framework for Multidisciplinary Analysis, Design, and Optimization with High-Fidelity Analysis Tools (United States)

    Orr, Stanley A.; Narducci, Robert P.


    A plan is presented for the development of a high fidelity multidisciplinary optimization process for rotorcraft. The plan formulates individual disciplinary design problems, identifies practical high-fidelity tools and processes that can be incorporated in an automated optimization environment, and establishes statements of the multidisciplinary design problem including objectives, constraints, design variables, and cross-disciplinary dependencies. Five key disciplinary areas are selected in the development plan. These are rotor aerodynamics, rotor structures and dynamics, fuselage aerodynamics, fuselage structures, and propulsion / drive system. Flying qualities and noise are included as ancillary areas. Consistency across engineering disciplines is maintained with a central geometry engine that supports all multidisciplinary analysis. The multidisciplinary optimization process targets the preliminary design cycle where gross elements of the helicopter have been defined. These might include number of rotors and rotor configuration (tandem, coaxial, etc.). It is at this stage that sufficient configuration information is defined to perform high-fidelity analysis. At the same time there is enough design freedom to influence a design. The rotorcraft multidisciplinary optimization tool is built and substantiated throughout its development cycle in a staged approach by incorporating disciplines sequentially.

  13. Development of a stiffness-based chemistry load balancing scheme, and optimization of I/O and communication, to enable massively parallel high-fidelity internal combustion engine simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Harms, Kevin; Srivastava, Priyesh; Som, Sibendu; Quan, Shaoping; Richards, Keith; Garcia, Marta


    A closed-cycle gasoline compression ignition engine simulation near top dead center (TDC) was used to profile the performance of a parallel commercial engine computational fluid dynamics code, as it was scaled on up to 4096 cores of an IBM Blue Gene/Q supercomputer. The test case has 9 million cells near TDC, with a fixed mesh size of 0.15 mm, and was run on configurations ranging from 128 to 4096 cores. Profiling was done for a small duration of 0.11 crank angle degrees near TDC during ignition. Optimization of input/output performance resulted in a significant speedup in reading restart files, and in an over 100-times speedup in writing restart files and files for post-processing. Improvements to communication resulted in a 1400-times speedup in the mesh load balancing operation during initialization, on 4096 cores. An improved, “stiffness-based” algorithm for load balancing chemical kinetics calculations was developed, which results in an over 3-times faster run-time near ignition on 4096 cores relative to the original load balancing scheme. With this improvement to load balancing, the code achieves over 78% scaling efficiency on 2048 cores, and over 65% scaling efficiency on 4096 cores, relative to 256 cores.

  14. High-Fidelity Battery Model for Model Predictive Control Implemented into a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sockeel


    Full Text Available Power management strategies have impacts on fuel economy, greenhouse gasses (GHG emission, as well as effects on the durability of power-train components. This is why different off-line and real-time optimal control approaches are being developed. However, real-time control seems to be more attractive than off-line control because it can be directly implemented for managing power and energy flows inside an actual vehicle. One interesting illustration of these power management strategies is the model predictive control (MPC based algorithm. Inside a MPC, a cost function is optimized while system constraints are validated in real time. The MPC algorithm relies on dynamic models of the vehicle and the battery. The complexity and accuracy of the battery model are usually neglected to benefit the development of new cost functions or better MPC algorithms. The contribution of this manuscript consists of developing and evaluating a high-fidelity battery model of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV that has been used for MPC. Via empirical work and simulation, the impact of a high-fidelity battery model has been evaluated and compared to a simpler model in the context of MPC. It is proven that the new battery model reduces the absolute voltage, state of charge (SoC, and battery power loss error by a factor of 3.2, 1.9 and 2.1 on average respectively, compared to the simpler battery model.

  15. An exact and consistent adjoint method for high-fidelity discretization of the compressible flow equations (United States)

    Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme

  16. Collaboratively Adaptive Vibration Sensing System for High-fidelity Monitoring of Structural Responses Induced by Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijia Pan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaboratively adaptive vibration monitoring system that captures high-fidelity structural vibration signals induced by pedestrians. These signals can be used for various human activities’ monitoring by inferring information about the impact sources, such as pedestrian footsteps, door opening and closing, and dragging objects. Such applications often require high-fidelity (high resolution and low distortion signals. Traditionally, expensive high resolution and high dynamic range sensors are adopted to ensure sufficient resolution. However, for sensing systems that use low-cost sensing devices, the resolution and dynamic range are often limited; hence this type of sensing methods is not well explored ubiquitously. We propose a low-cost sensing system that utilizes (1 a heuristic model of the investigating excitations and (2 shared information through networked devices to adapt hardware configurations and obtain high-fidelity structural vibration signals. To further explain the system, we use indoor pedestrian footstep sensing through ambient structural vibration as an example to demonstrate the system performance. We evaluate the application with three metrics that measure the signal quality from different aspects: the sufficient resolution rate to present signal resolution improvement without clipping, the clipping rate to measure the distortion of the footstep signal, and the signal magnitude to quantify the detailed resolution of the detected footstep signal. In experiments conducted in a school building, our system demonstrated up to 2× increase on the sufficient resolution rate and 2× less error rate when used to locate the pedestrians as they walk along the hallway, compared to a fixed sensing setting.

  17. Simulation Learning PC Screen-Based vs. High Fidelity (United States)


    Post-test questions Attachment D. Data Collection Sheet Tripler Army Medical Center Judy Carlson, EdD, FNP -BC, Kristine Qureshi, RN, CEN, DNSc, and...INFORMATION: For questions about the study, contact the principal investigator: Dr. Judy Carlson, EdD, FNP -BC Nursing Research, Pacific Regional

  18. Advances in High-Fidelity Multi-Physics Simulation Techniques (United States)


    kinetic, multitranslational temperature model for a monoatomic gas has been developed by solving equations derived from the Boltzmann equation with a first...Diatomic Molecules in a Monoatomic Inert Gas,” Combustion, Explosion and Shock Waves, Translated from Fizika Goreniya i Vzryva, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1974, pp

  19. High-Fidelity Simulation of Turbofan Noise Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broadband fan noise ? closely tied to turbulent flow on and around the fan blades ? represents a key challenge to the noise reduction community due to the...

  20. Towards a Multi-Fidelity Approach for CFD Simulations of Vortex Generator Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentie, L.; Van Zuijlen, A.H.; Bijl, H.


    This paper is the starting point for the development of a multi-fidelity modeling approach for vortex generators (VG) arrays, where a fully resolved VG model will be coupled with an approximate model in order to improve both accuracy and flexibility without increasing the required computational

  1. Multi-fidelity stochastic collocation method for computation of statistical moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xueyu, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Linebarger, Erin M., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Xiu, Dongbin, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    We present an efficient numerical algorithm to approximate the statistical moments of stochastic problems, in the presence of models with different fidelities. The method extends the multi-fidelity approximation method developed in . By combining the efficiency of low-fidelity models and the accuracy of high-fidelity models, our method exhibits fast convergence with a limited number of high-fidelity simulations. We establish an error bound of the method and present several numerical examples to demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the multi-fidelity algorithm.

  2. The range and intensity of backscattered electrons for use in the creation of high fidelity electron beam lithography patterns. (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A; Holt, Martin V; Ocola, Leonidas E


    We present a set of universal curves that predict the range and intensity of backscattered electrons which can be used in conjunction with electron beam lithography to create high fidelity nanoscale patterns. The experimental method combines direct write dose, backscattered dose, and a self-reinforcing pattern geometry to measure the dose provided by backscattered electrons to a nanoscale volume on the substrate surface at various distances from the electron source. Electron beam lithography is used to precisely control the number and position of incident electrons on the surface of the material. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure the height of the negative electron beam lithography resist. Our data shows that the range and the intensity of backscattered electrons can be predicted using the density and the atomic number of any solid material, respectively. The data agrees with two independent Monte Carlo simulations without any fitting parameters. These measurements are the most accurate electron range measurements to date.

  3. The range and intensity of backscattered electrons for use in the creation of high fidelity electron beam lithography patterns (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A.; Holt, Martin V.; Ocola, Leonidas E.


    We present a set of universal curves that predict the range and intensity of backscattered electrons which can be used in conjunction with electron beam lithography to create high fidelity nanoscale patterns. The experimental method combines direct write dose, backscattered dose, and a self-reinforcing pattern geometry to measure the dose provided by backscattered electrons to a nanoscale volume on the substrate surface at various distances from the electron source. Electron beam lithography is used to precisely control the number and position of incident electrons on the surface of the material. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure the height of the negative electron beam lithography resist. Our data shows that the range and the intensity of backscattered electrons can be predicted using the density and the atomic number of any solid material, respectively. The data agrees with two independent Monte Carlo simulations without any fitting parameters. These measurements are the most accurate electron range measurements to date.

  4. HYDRA: High Speed Simulation Architecture for Precision Spacecraft Formation Flying (United States)

    Martin, Bryan J.; Sohl, Garett A.


    This viewgraph presentation describes HYDRA, which is architecture to facilitate high-fidelity and real-time simulation of formation flying missions. The contents include: 1) Motivation; 2) Objective; 3) HYDRA-Description and Overview; 4) HYDRA-Hierarchy; 5) Communication in HYDRA; 6) Simulation Specific Concerns in HYDRA; 7) Example application (Formation Acquisition); and 8) Sample Problem Results.

  5. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Koashi, Masato [Photon Science Center, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8656 (Japan)


    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion.

  6. Research on characteristic spectrum extracting and matching for high-fidelity reproduction. (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-wei; Liu, Zhen; Wu, Ming-guang; Zhang, Zhen-jie


    Reconstructing the spectrum rapidly and accurately is the key to the research on high-fidelity reproduction. A characteristic spectrum extracting and matching method for high-fidelity printing is proposed aiming at the problem of complex conversion between spectrum and ink combination caused by multi-color. The method filters and extracts feature bands of primary ink through derivative spectrum, and a characteristic spectrum multi-threshold coding method is proposed. Considering the problem of subarea judgment in hi-fi printing, an average derivative spectrum is taken as characteristic spectrum of each subarea and a spectrum matching method between target spectrum and average derivative spectrum of sub-spaces is proposed. The results show that the feature bands extracted can represent spectral characteristic of primary color significantly and the precision of color conversion model based on feature bands is higher than the model based on full bands. The spectrum matching method can achieve a high accuracy in sub-space judgments and greatly improve the efficiency of color convention. The spectrum extracting and matching method has the high practicability.

  7. Generation of a Genetically Stable High-Fidelity Influenza Vaccine Strain. (United States)

    Naito, Tadasuke; Mori, Kotaro; Ushirogawa, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Naoki; Nobusawa, Eri; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Ohniwa, Ryosuke L; Nagata, Kyosuke; Saito, Mineki


    Vaccination is considered the most effective preventive means for influenza control. The development of a master virus with high growth and genetic stability, which may be used for the preparation of vaccine viruses by gene reassortment, is crucial for the enhancement of vaccine performance and efficiency of production. Here, we describe the generation of a high-fidelity and high-growth influenza vaccine master virus strain with a single V43I amino acid change in the PB1 polymerase of the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) master virus. The PB1-V43I mutation was introduced to increase replication fidelity in order to design an H1N1 vaccine strain with a low error rate. The PR8-PB1-V43I virus exhibited good replication compared with that of the parent PR8 virus. In order to compare the efficiency of egg adaptation and the occurrence of gene mutations leading to antigenic alterations, we constructed 6:2 genetic reassortant viruses between the A(H1N1)pdm09 and the PR8-PB1-V43I viruses; hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) were from the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, and the other genes were from the PR8 virus. Mutations responsible for egg adaptation mutations occurred in the HA of the PB1-V43I reassortant virus during serial egg passages; however, in contrast, antigenic mutations were introduced into the HA gene of the 6:2 reassortant virus possessing the wild-type PB1. This study shows that the mutant PR8 virus possessing the PB1 polymerase with the V43I substitution may be utilized as a master virus for the generation of high-growth vaccine viruses with high polymerase fidelity, low error rates of gene replication, and reduced antigenic diversity during virus propagation in eggs for vaccine production. IMPORTANCE Vaccination represents the most effective prophylactic option against influenza. The threat of emergence of influenza pandemics necessitates the ability to generate vaccine viruses rapidly. However, as the influenza virus exhibits a high mutation rate

  8. High-fidelity spin measurement on the nitrogen-vacancy center (United States)

    Hanks, Michael; Trupke, Michael; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae


    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are versatile candidates for many quantum information processing tasks, ranging from quantum imaging and sensing through to quantum communication and fault-tolerant quantum computers. Critical to almost every potential application is an efficient mechanism for the high fidelity readout of the state of the electronic and nuclear spins. Typically such readout has been achieved through an optically resonant fluorescence measurement, but the presence of decay through a meta-stable state will limit its efficiency to the order of 99%. While this is good enough for many applications, it is insufficient for large scale quantum networks and fault-tolerant computational tasks. Here we explore an alternative approach based on dipole induced transparency (state-dependent reflection) in an NV center cavity QED system, using the most recent knowledge of the NV center’s parameters to determine its feasibility, including the decay channels through the meta-stable subspace and photon ionization. We find that single-shot measurements above fault-tolerant thresholds should be available in the strong coupling regime for a wide range of cavity-center cooperativities, using a majority voting approach utilizing single photon detection. Furthermore, extremely high fidelity measurements are possible using weak optical pulses.

  9. A High-Fidelity Virtual Environment for the Study of Paranoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Broome


    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants (n=32 entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists.

  10. A High-Fidelity Virtual Environment for the Study of Paranoia (United States)

    Broome, Matthew R.; Zányi, Eva; Selmanovic, Elmedin; Czanner, Silvester; Birchwood, Max; Chalmers, Alan; Singh, Swaran P.


    Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR) environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants (n = 32) entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists. PMID:24455255

  11. High-fidelity DNA replication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on a trinuclear zinc center. (United States)

    Baños-Mateos, Soledad; van Roon, Anne-Marie M; Lang, Ulla F; Maslen, Sarah L; Skehel, J Mark; Lamers, Meindert H


    High-fidelity DNA replication depends on a proofreading 3'-5' exonuclease that is associated with the replicative DNA polymerase. The replicative DNA polymerase DnaE1 from the major pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) uses its intrinsic PHP-exonuclease that is distinct from the canonical DEDD exonucleases found in the Escherichia coli and eukaryotic replisomes. The mechanism of the PHP-exonuclease is not known. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Mtb DnaE1 polymerase. The PHP-exonuclease has a trinuclear zinc center, coordinated by nine conserved residues. Cryo-EM analysis reveals the entry path of the primer strand in the PHP-exonuclease active site. Furthermore, the PHP-exonuclease shows a striking similarity to E. coli endonuclease IV, which provides clues regarding the mechanism of action. Altogether, this work provides important insights into the PHP-exonuclease and reveals unique properties that make it an attractive target for novel anti-mycobacterial drugs.The polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain in the DNA polymerase DnaE1 is essential for mycobacterial high-fidelity DNA replication. Here, the authors determine the DnaE1 crystal structure, which reveals the PHP-exonuclease mechanism that can be exploited for antibiotic development.

  12. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie


    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super

  13. Error correction in multi-fidelity molecular dynamics simulations using functional uncertainty quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Samuel Temple; Strachan, Alejandro, E-mail:


    We use functional, Fréchet, derivatives to quantify how thermodynamic outputs of a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation depend on the potential used to compute atomic interactions. Our approach quantifies the sensitivity of the quantities of interest with respect to the input functions as opposed to its parameters as is done in typical uncertainty quantification methods. We show that the functional sensitivity of the average potential energy and pressure in isothermal, isochoric MD simulations using Lennard–Jones two-body interactions can be used to accurately predict those properties for other interatomic potentials (with different functional forms) without re-running the simulations. This is demonstrated under three different thermodynamic conditions, namely a crystal at room temperature, a liquid at ambient pressure, and a high pressure liquid. The method provides accurate predictions as long as the change in potential can be reasonably described to first order and does not significantly affect the region in phase space explored by the simulation. The functional uncertainty quantification approach can be used to estimate the uncertainties associated with constitutive models used in the simulation and to correct predictions if a more accurate representation becomes available.

  14. The use of high-fidelity manikins for advanced life support training--A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Lockey, Andrew; Bhanji, Farhan; Lin, Yiqun; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Lang, Eddy


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high versus low fidelity manikins in the context of advanced life support training for improving knowledge, skill performance at course conclusion, skill performance between course conclusion and one year, skill performance at one year, skill performance in actual resuscitations, and patient outcomes. A systematic search of Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases was conducted through January 31, 2014. We included two-group non-randomized and randomized studies in any language comparing high versus low fidelity manikins for advanced life support training. Reviewers worked in duplicate to extract data on learners, study design, and outcomes. The GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to evaluate the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. 3840 papers were identified from the literature search of which 14 were included (13 randomized controlled trials; 1 non-randomized controlled trial). Meta-analysis of studies reporting skill performance at course conclusion demonstrated a moderate benefit for high fidelity manikins when compared with low fidelity manikins [Standardized Mean Difference 0.59; 95% CI 0.13-1.05]. Studies measuring skill performance at one year, skill performance between course conclusion and one year, and knowledge demonstrated no significant benefit for high fidelity manikins. The use of high fidelity manikins for advanced life support training is associated with moderate benefits for improving skills performance at course conclusion. Future research should define the optimal means of tailoring fidelity to enhance short and long term educational goals and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long lifetime and high-fidelity quantum memory of photonic polarization qubit by lifting Zeeman degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhongxiao; Tian, Long; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Zhiying; Yan, Zhihui; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi


    Receiving a photonic qubit, storing it with long lifetime and retrieving it with high fidelity are crucial for constructing quantum networks. Photonic polarization qubits (PPQs) are extensively used for encoding and transmitting quantum information since they are easily manipulated and analyzed. Dynamic Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atoms is an efficient process to store PPQs which has been studied. However, due to the decoherence induced by magnetic field fluctuations, the lifetime of the qubit memory is limited and the achieved longest lifetime in EIT based system is only about 470us, so far. Here we present an EIT based millisecond storage in which a moderate magnetic field is applied on a cold atom cloud to lift Zeeman degeneracy. PPQ states can be stored as two magnetic field insensitive spin waves and the influence of magnetic field sensitive spin waves on the storage is almost totally avoided. The measured average fidelity of polarization states is 0.986 at 200us and 0.784 at 4.5ms.

  16. A high-fidelity approach towards heat transfer prediction of pool boiling (United States)

    Yazdani, Miad; Alahyari, Abbas; Radcliff, Thomas


    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change with an unprecedented fidelity and cost. The particular focus is to predict the heat transfer coefficient of pool-boiling regime and its transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution. The large-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The small-scale of the microlayer which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the surface roughness and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is represented based on thermodynamics of nucleation process which allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the model's prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface alignment. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement features on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces.

  17. Intermittent Urinary Catheterization: The Impact of Training on a Low-Fidelity Simulator on the Self-Confidence of Patients and Caregivers. (United States)

    Silva, Dayane R A; Mazzo, Alessandra; Jorge, Beatriz M; Souza Júnior, Valtuir D; Fumincelli, Laís; Almeida, Rodrigo G S

    The purpose of this study was to identify how training on a low-fidelity simulator impacts the confidence of caregivers and patients with neurogenic bladder who use clean intermittent urinary catheterization. Quasi-experimental study. Developed in a rehabilitation center in Brazil including patients who use clean intermittent urinary catheterization and caregivers from September to November 2013. After Ethics approval (Opinion 146/2012) during the nursing consultation, data were collected before and after training on a low-fidelity simulator. A total of 36 respondents (72.0%) patients and 14 (28.0%) caregivers participated. The self-confidence acquired after training on low-fidelity simulators was significant. In this study sample, low-fidelity simulation was demonstrated to be an effective strategy for the development of self-confidence. Low-fidelity simulation training enables patients and caregivers to increase their self-confidence when performing clean intermittent urinary catheterization and should be used as a training strategy by healthcare professionals.

  18. Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Through High-Fidelity Weather Information Distribution and Presentation (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Shafer, Daniel B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.


    In February 1997, the US President announced a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the Aviation Safety Program to develop technologies needed to meet this aggressive goal. Because weather has been identified (is a causal factor in approximately 30% of all aviation accidents, a project was established for the development of technologies that will provide accurate, time and intuitive information to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers to enable the detection and avoidance of atmospheric hazards. This project addresses the weather information needs of general, corporate, regional, and transport aircraft operators. An overview and status of research and development efforts for high-fidelity weather information distribution and presentation is discussed with emphasis on weather information in the cockpit.

  19. Superlocalization of single molecules and nanoparticles in high-fidelity optical imaging microfluidic devices. (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning


    Superlocalization of single molecules and nanoparticles with a precision of subnanometer to a few tens of nanometers is crucial for elucidating nanoscale structures and movements in biological and chemical systems. A novel design of ultraflat and ultrathin glass/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid microdevices is introduced to provide almost uncompromised optical imaging quality for on-chip superlocalization and super-resolution imaging of single molecules and nanoparticles under a variety of microscopy modes. The performance of the high-fidelity (Hi-Fi) optical imaging microfluidic device was validated by precisely mapping micronecklaces made of fluorescent microtubules and 40 nm gold nanoparticles and by demonstrating the activation and excitation cycles of single Alexa Fluor 647 dyes for direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy in PDMS-based microchannels for the first time. Furthermore, the microdevice's feasibility for multimodality microscopy imaging was demonstrated by a vertical scan of live cells in epi-fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy modes simultaneously.

  20. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED. (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan


    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths.

  1. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan


    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths. PMID:26804326

  2. A Secure and High-Fidelity Live Animal Model for Off-Pump Coronary Bypass Surgery Training. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaopeng; Yang, Yan; Meng, Qiang; Sun, Jiakang; Luo, Fuliang; Cui, Yongchun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Yue


    Existing simulators for off-pump coronary artery (CA) bypass grafting training are unable to provide cardiac surgery residents all necessary skills they need entering the operation room. In this study, we introduced a secure and high-fidelity live animal model to supplement the in vitro simulators for off-pump CA bypass grafting training. The left internal thoracic artery (ITA) of 3 Chinese miniature pigs was grafted to the left anterior descending CA using an end-to-side anastomosis. The free segment of the ITA was fixed on the ventricle surface, making it a simulative CA beating in synchrony with the heart. A total of 6 to 8 training anastomoses were made on each ITA. Animal Experiment Center in Fuwai Hospital. In total, 19 resident surgeons with at least 3 years of cardiac surgery work experience were trained using the new model. Their performances were recorded and reviewed. Simulative coronary arteries were successfully constructed in all 3 animals with no adverse event observed. A total of 19 anastomoses were then completed, 1 pig of 7 anastomoses and the other 2 animals of 6 anastomoses. Time consumption for the anastomosis was 782 ± 107 seconds. Anastomotic leakage was observed in 10/19 procedures. The most frequency site (7/10) was at the toe of the anastomosis. Further, the most common cause was uneven spacing or small margin of the stitches or both. Emergencies occurred during the training process included hypotension (7 procedures), tachyarrhythmia (4 procedures), and low blood oxygen saturation (1 procedure). This study demonstrated the safety and feasibility of our new live pig model in training resident surgeons. The simulative arteries can be easily accomplished and were long enough to place at least 6 anastomoses. Both on lumen diameter and motion status, they were proven to be a good substitution of the CA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A novel craniotomy simulation system for evaluation of stereo-pair reconstruction fidelity and tracking (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W.; Conley, Rebekah H.; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Miga, Michael I.


    Brain shift compensation using computer modeling strategies is an important research area in the field of image-guided neurosurgery (IGNS). One important source of available sparse data during surgery to drive these frameworks is deformation tracking of the visible cortical surface. Possible methods to measure intra-operative cortical displacement include laser range scanners (LRS), which typically complicate the clinical workflow, and reconstruction of cortical surfaces from stereo pairs acquired with the operating microscopes. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a craniotomy simulation device that permits simulating realistic cortical displacements designed to measure and validate the proposed intra-operative cortical shift measurement systems. The device permits 3D deformations of a mock cortical surface which consists of a membrane made of a Dragon Skin® high performance silicone rubber on which vascular patterns are drawn. We then use this device to validate our stereo pair-based surface reconstruction system by comparing landmark positions and displacements measured with our systems to those positions and displacements as measured by a stylus tracked by a commercial optical system. Our results show a 1mm average difference in localization error and a 1.2mm average difference in displacement measurement. These results suggest that our stereo-pair technique is accurate enough for estimating intra-operative displacements in near real-time without affecting the surgical workflow.

  4. Comparison of High-Fidelity Computational Tools for Wing Design of a Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Viken, Sally A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Stoll, Alex M.


    A variety of tools, from fundamental to high order, have been used to better understand applications of distributed electric propulsion to aid the wing and propulsion system design of the Leading Edge Asynchronous Propulsion Technology (LEAPTech) project and the X-57 Maxwell airplane. Three high-fidelity, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes used during the project with results presented here are FUN3D, STAR-CCM+, and OVERFLOW. These codes employ various turbulence models to predict fully turbulent and transitional flow. Results from these codes are compared for two distributed electric propulsion configurations: the wing tested at NASA Armstrong on the Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed truck, and the wing designed for the X-57 Maxwell airplane. Results from these computational tools for the high-lift wing tested on the Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed truck and the X-57 high-lift wing presented compare reasonably well. The goal of the X-57 wing and distributed electric propulsion system design achieving or exceeding the required ?? (sub L) = 3.95 for stall speed was confirmed with all of the computational codes.

  5. A Scalable Gene Synthesis Platform Using High-Fidelity DNA Microchips (United States)

    Kosuri, Sriram; Eroshenko, Nikolai; LeProust, Emily; Super, Michael; Way, Jeffrey; Li, Jin Billy; Church, George M.


    Development of cheap, high-throughput, and reliable gene synthesis methods will broadly stimulate progress in biology and biotechnology1. Currently, the reliance on column-synthesized oligonucleotides as a source of DNA limits further cost reductions in gene synthesis2. Oligonucleotides from DNA microchips can reduce costs by at least an order of magnitude3,4,5, yet efforts to scale their use have been largely unsuccessful due to the high error rates and complexity of the oligonucleotide mixtures. Here we use high-fidelity DNA microchips, selective oligonucleotide pool amplification, optimized gene assembly protocols, and enzymatic error correction to develop a highly parallel gene synthesis platform. We tested our platform by assembling 47 genes, including 42 challenging therapeutic antibody sequences, encoding a total of ~35 kilo-basepairs of DNA. These assemblies were performed from a complex background containing 13,000 oligonucleotides encoding ~2.5 megabases of DNA, which is at least 50 times larger than previously published attempts. PMID:21113165

  6. Development of high-fidelity multiphysics system for light water reactor analysis (United States)

    Magedanz, Jeffrey W.

    There has been a tendency in recent years toward greater heterogeneity in reactor cores, due to the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, burnable absorbers, and longer cycles with consequently higher fuel burnup. The resulting asymmetry of the neutron flux and energy spectrum between regions with different compositions causes a need to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, instead of the traditional diffusion approximation. Furthermore, the presence of both MOX and high-burnup fuel in the core increases the complexity of the heat conduction. The heat transfer properties of the fuel pellet change with irradiation, and the thermal and mechanical expansion of the pellet and cladding strongly affect the size of the gap between them, and its consequent thermal resistance. These operational tendencies require higher fidelity multi-physics modeling capabilities, and this need is addressed by the developments performed within this PhD research. The dissertation describes the development of a High-Fidelity Multi-Physics System for Light Water Reactor Analysis. It consists of three coupled codes -- CTF for Thermal Hydraulics, TORT-TD for Neutron Kinetics, and FRAPTRAN for Fuel Performance. It is meant to address these modeling challenges in three ways: (1) by resolving the state of the system at the level of each fuel pin, rather than homogenizing entire fuel assemblies, (2) by using the multi-group Discrete Ordinates method to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, and (3) by using a fuel-performance code, rather than a Thermal Hydraulics code's simplified fuel model, to account for the material behavior of the fuel and its feedback to the hydraulic and neutronic behavior of the system. While the first two are improvements, the third, the use of a fuel-performance code for feedback, constitutes an innovation in this PhD project. Also important to this work is the manner in which such coupling is written. While coupling involves combining

  7. Effects of simulation fidelity on user experience in virtual fear of public speaking training - an experimental study. (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola


    Realistic models in virtual reality training applications are considered to positively influence presence and performance. The experimental study presented, analyzed the effect of simulation fidelity (static vs. animated audience) on presence as a prerequisite for performance in a prototype virtual fear of public speaking application with a sample of N = 40 academic non-phobic users. Contrary to the state of research, no influence was shown on virtual presence and perceived realism, but an animated audience led to significantly higher effects in anxiety during giving a talk. Although these findings could be explained by an application that might not have been realistic enough, they still question the role of presence as a mediating factor in virtual exposure applications.

  8. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number (United States)

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.


    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted.

  9. Hydropower Optimization Using Artificial Neural Network Surrogate Models of a High-Fidelity Hydrodynamics and Water Quality Model (United States)

    Shaw, Amelia R.; Smith Sawyer, Heather; LeBoeuf, Eugene J.; McDonald, Mark P.; Hadjerioua, Boualem


    Hydropower operations optimization subject to environmental constraints is limited by challenges associated with dimensionality and spatial and temporal resolution. The need for high-fidelity hydrodynamic and water quality models within optimization schemes is driven by improved computational capabilities, increased requirements to meet specific points of compliance with greater resolution, and the need to optimize operations of not just single reservoirs but systems of reservoirs. This study describes an important advancement for computing hourly power generation schemes for a hydropower reservoir using high-fidelity models, surrogate modeling techniques, and optimization methods. The predictive power of the high-fidelity hydrodynamic and water quality model CE-QUAL-W2 is successfully emulated by an artificial neural network, then integrated into a genetic algorithm optimization approach to maximize hydropower generation subject to constraints on dam operations and water quality. This methodology is applied to a multipurpose reservoir near Nashville, Tennessee, USA. The model successfully reproduced high-fidelity reservoir information while enabling 6.8% and 6.6% increases in hydropower production value relative to actual operations for dissolved oxygen (DO) limits of 5 and 6 mg/L, respectively, while witnessing an expected decrease in power generation at more restrictive DO constraints. Exploration of simultaneous temperature and DO constraints revealed capability to address multiple water quality constraints at specified locations. The reduced computational requirements of the new modeling approach demonstrated an ability to provide decision support for reservoir operations scheduling while maintaining high-fidelity hydrodynamic and water quality information as part of the optimization decision support routines.

  10. A High-Fidelity Haze Removal Method Based on HOT for Visible Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jiang


    Full Text Available Spatially varying haze is a common feature of most satellite images currently used for land cover classification and mapping and can significantly affect image quality. In this paper, we present a high-fidelity haze removal method based on Haze Optimized Transformation (HOT, comprising of three steps: semi-automatic HOT transform, HOT perfection and percentile based dark object subtraction (DOS. Since digital numbers (DNs of band red and blue are highly correlated in clear sky, the R-squared criterion is utilized to search the relative clearest regions of the whole scene automatically. After HOT transform, spurious HOT responses are first masked out and filled by means of four-direction scan and dynamic interpolation, and then homomorphic filter is performed to compensate for loss of HOT of masked-out regions with large areas. To avoid patches and halo artifacts, a procedure called percentile DOS is implemented to eliminate the influence of haze. Scenes including various land cover types are selected to validate the proposed method, and a comparison analysis with HOT and Background Suppressed Haze Thickness Index (BSHTI is performed. Three quality assessment indicators are selected to evaluate the haze removed effect on image quality from different perspective and band profiles are utilized to analyze the spectral consistency. Experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method for haze removal and the superiority of it in preserving the natural color of object itself, enhancing local contrast, and maintaining structural information of original image.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Translesion DNA Synthesis Catalyzed by a High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase. (United States)

    Dasari, Anvesh; Deodhar, Tejal; Berdis, Anthony J


    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is the ability of DNA polymerases to incorporate nucleotides opposite and beyond damaged DNA. TLS activity is an important risk factor for the initiation and progression of genetic diseases such as cancer. In this study, we evaluate the ability of a high-fidelity DNA polymerase to perform TLS with 8-oxo-guanine (8-oxo-G), a highly pro-mutagenic DNA lesion formed by reactive oxygen species. Results of kinetic studies monitoring the incorporation of modified nucleotide analogs demonstrate that the binding affinity of the incoming dNTP is controlled by the overall hydrophobicity of the nucleobase. However, the rate constant for the polymerization step is regulated by hydrogen-bonding interactions made between the incoming nucleotide with 8-oxo-G. Results generated here for replicating the miscoding 8-oxo-G are compared to those published for the replication of the non-instructional abasic site. During the replication of both lesions, binding of the nucleotide substrate is controlled by energetics associated with nucleobase desolvation, whereas the rate constant for the polymerization step is influenced by the physical nature of the DNA lesion, that is, miscoding versus non-instructional. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of nucleobase desolvation as a key physical feature that enhances the misreplication of structurally diverse DNA lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High Fidelity Solar and Heliospheric Imaging at Low Radio Frequencies: Progress and Future Prospects (United States)

    Lonsdale, C.; Oberoi, D.; Kozarev, K. A.; Morgan, J.; Benkevitch, L. V.; Erickson, P. J.; Crowley, M.; McCauley, P.; Cairns, I.


    The latest generation of low frequency interferometric arrays is revolutionizing solar and heliospheric imaging capabilities. Via a combination of large numbers of independent antennas and greatly increased computing capacity, sufficient information can now be gathered and processed to generate high fidelity images at high time and frequency resolution. For the first time, it is possible to reconstruct spatially, temporally and spectrally complex solar emissions in detail, to measure interplanetary scintillation for many sources simultaneously over wide fields of view, and to track heliospheric disturbances via rapidly evolving propagation effects. These new and rapidly improving capabilities will help to address a range of long-standing scientific questions in the field. We review the current state of the art of low frequency imaging instruments, with particular emphasis on, and examples from, the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). The limitations and challenges of such arrays are explored, and the prospects for next-generation ground and space based arrays yielding additional major advances in capability are reviewed.

  13. Automated discrete electron tomography – Towards routine high-fidelity reconstruction of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuge, Xiaodong [Computational Imaging, Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Science park 123, 1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jinnai, Hiroshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Migunov, Vadim [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Bals, Sara [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Cool, Pegie [Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bons, Anton-Jan [European Technology Center, ExxonMobil Chemical Europe Inc., Hermeslaan 2, B-1831 Machelen (Belgium); Batenburg, Kees Joost [Computational Imaging, Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Science park 123, 1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Electron tomography is an essential imaging technique for the investigation of morphology and 3D structure of nanomaterials. This method, however, suffers from well-known missing wedge artifacts due to a restricted tilt range, which limits the objectiveness, repeatability and efficiency of quantitative structural analysis. Discrete tomography represents one of the promising reconstruction techniques for materials science, potentially capable of delivering higher fidelity reconstructions by exploiting the prior knowledge of the limited number of material compositions in a specimen. However, the application of discrete tomography to practical datasets remains a difficult task due to the underlying challenging mathematical problem. In practice, it is often hard to obtain consistent reconstructions from experimental datasets. In addition, numerous parameters need to be tuned manually, which can lead to bias and non-repeatability. In this paper, we present the application of a new iterative reconstruction technique, named TVR-DART, for discrete electron tomography. The technique is capable of consistently delivering reconstructions with significantly reduced missing wedge artifacts for a variety of challenging data and imaging conditions, and can automatically estimate its key parameters. We describe the principles of the technique and apply it to datasets from three different types of samples acquired under diverse imaging modes. By further reducing the available tilt range and number of projections, we show that the proposed technique can still produce consistent reconstructions with minimized missing wedge artifacts. This new development promises to provide the electron microscopy community with an easy-to-use and robust tool for high-fidelity 3D characterization of nanomaterials. - Highlights: • Automated discrete electron tomography capable of consistently delivering reconstructions with significantly reduced missing wedge artifacts and requires significantly

  14. Biochemical properties of a high fidelity DNA ligase from Thermus species AK16D. (United States)

    Tong, J; Cao, W; Barany, F


    NAD+-dependent DNA ligases from thermophilic bacteria Thermus species are highly homologous with amino acid sequence identities ranging from 85 to 98%. Thermus species AK16D ligase, the most divergent of the seven Thermus isolates collected worldwide, was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. This Thermus ligase is similar to Thermus thermophilus HB8 ligase with respect to pH, salt, NAD+, divalent cation profiles and steady-state kinetics.However, the former is more discriminative toward T/G mismatches at the 3'-side of the ligation junction, as judged by the ratios of initial ligation rates of matched and mismatched substrates. The two wild-type Thermus ligases and a Tth ligase mutant (K294R) demonstrate 1-2 orders of magnitude higher fidelity than viral T4 DNA ligase. Both Thermus ligases are active with either the metal cofactor Mg2+, Mn2+or Ca2+but not with Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+or Zn2+. While the nick closure step with Ca2+becomes rate-limiting which results in the accumulation of DNA-adenylate intermediate, Ni2+only supports intermediate formation to a limited extent. Both Thermus ligases exhibit enhanced mismatch ligation when Mn2+is substituted for Mg2+, but the Tsp. AK16D ligase remains more specific toward perfectly matched substrate. PMID:9889274

  15. Analysis of Fiber Clustering in Composite Materials Using High-Fidelity Multiscale Micromechanics (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Arnold, Steven M.


    A new multiscale micromechanical approach is developed for the prediction of the behavior of fiber reinforced composites in presence of fiber clustering. The developed method is based on a coupled two-scale implementation of the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells theory, wherein both the local and global scales are represented using this micromechanical method. Concentration tensors and effective constitutive equations are established on both scales and linked to establish the required coupling, thus providing the local fields throughout the composite as well as the global properties and effective nonlinear response. Two nondimensional parameters, in conjunction with actual composite micrographs, are used to characterize the clustering of fibers in the composite. Based on the predicted local fields, initial yield and damage envelopes are generated for various clustering parameters for a polymer matrix composite with both carbon and glass fibers. Nonlinear epoxy matrix behavior is also considered, with results in the form of effective nonlinear response curves, with varying fiber clustering and for two sets of nonlinear matrix parameters.

  16. Effective gene editing by high-fidelity base editor 2 in mouse zygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puping Liang


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Targeted point mutagenesis through homologous recombination has been widely used in genetic studies and holds considerable promise for repairing disease-causing mutations in patients. However, problems such as mosaicism and low mutagenesis efficiency continue to pose challenges to clinical application of such approaches. Recently, a base editor (BE system built on cytidine (C deaminase and CRISPR/Cas9 technology was developed as an alternative method for targeted point mutagenesis in plant, yeast, and human cells. Base editors convert C in the deamination window to thymidine (T efficiently, however, it remains unclear whether targeted base editing in mouse embryos is feasible. In this report, we generated a modified high-fidelity version of base editor 2 (HF2-BE2, and investigated its base editing efficacy in mouse embryos. We found that HF2-BE2 could convert C to T efficiently, with up to 100% biallelic mutation efficiency in mouse embryos. Unlike BE3, HF2-BE2 could convert C to T on both the target and non-target strand, expanding the editing scope of base editors. Surprisingly, we found HF2-BE2 could also deaminate C that was proximal to the gRNA-binding region. Taken together, our work demonstrates the feasibility of generating point mutations in mouse by base editing, and underscores the need to carefully optimize base editing systems in order to eliminate proximal-site deamination.

  17. Client predictors of employment outcomes in high-fidelity supported employment: a regression analysis. (United States)

    Campbell, Kikuko; Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E; McHugo, Gregory J; Xie, Haiyi


    Research on vocational rehabilitation for clients with severe mental illness over the past 2 decades has yielded inconsistent findings regarding client factors statistically related to employment. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between baseline client characteristics and competitive employment outcomes-job acquisition and total weeks worked during an 18-month follow-up-in Individual Placement and Support (IPS). Data from 4 recent randomized controlled trials of IPS were aggregated for within-group regression analyses. In the IPS sample (N = 307), work history was the only significant predictor for job acquisition, but receiving Supplemental Security Income-with or without Social Security Disability Insurance-was associated with fewer total weeks worked (2.0%-2.8% of the variance). In the comparison sample (N = 374), clients with a diagnosis of mood disorder or with less severe thought disorder symptoms were more likely to obtain competitive employment. The findings confirm that clients with severe mental illness interested in competitive work best benefit from high-fidelity supported employment regardless of their work history and sociodemographic and clinical background, and highlight the needs for changes in federal policies for disability income support and insurance regulations.

  18. Low-Fidelity Haptic Simulation Versus Mental Imagery Training for Epidural Anesthesia Technical Achievement in Novice Anesthesiology Residents: A Randomized Comparative Study. (United States)

    Lim, Grace; Krohner, Robert G; Metro, David G; Rosario, Bedda L; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Sakai, Tetsuro


    There are many teaching methods for epidural anesthesia skill acquisition. Previous work suggests that there is no difference in skill acquisition whether novice learners engage in low-fidelity (LF) versus high-fidelity haptic simulation for epidural anesthesia. No study, however, has compared the effect of LF haptic simulation for epidural anesthesia versus mental imagery (MI) training in which no physical practice is attempted. We tested the hypothesis that MI training is superior to LF haptic simulation training for epidural anesthesia skill acquisition. Twenty Post-Graduate Year 2 (PGY-2) anesthesiology residents were tested at the beginning of the training year. After a didactic lecture on epidural anesthesia, they were randomized into 2 groups. Group LF had LF simulation training for epidural anesthesia using a previously described banana simulation technique. Group MI had guided, scripted MI training in which they initially were oriented to the epidural kit components and epidural anesthesia was described stepwise in detail, followed by individual mental rehearsal; no physical practice was undertaken. Each resident then individually performed epidural anesthesia on a partial-human task trainer on 3 consecutive occasions under the direct observation of skilled evaluators who were blinded to group assignment. Technical achievement was assessed with the use of a modified validated skills checklist. Scores (0-21) and duration to task completion (minutes) were recorded. A linear mixed-effects model analysis was performed to determine the differences in scores and duration between groups and over time. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups for scores and duration to task completion. Both groups showed similarly significant increases (P = 0.0015) in scores over time (estimated mean score [SE]: group MI, 15.9 [0.55] to 17.4 [0.55] to 18.6 [0.55]; group LF, 16.2 [0.55] to 17.7 [0.55] to 18.9 [0.55]). Time to complete the procedure decreased

  19. The Importance of Water for High Fidelity Information Processing and for Life (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Pohorille, Andrew


    Is water an absolute prerequisite for life? Life depends on a variety of non-covalent interactions among molecules, the nature of which is determined as much by the solvent in which they occur as by the molecules themselves. Catalysis and information processing, two essential functions of life, require non-covalent molecular recognition with very high specificity. For example, to correctly reproduce a string consisting of 600,000 units of information (e.g ., 600 kilobases, equivalent to the genome of the smallest free living terrestrial organisms) with a 90% success rate requires specificity > 107 : 1 for the target molecule vs. incorrect alternatives. Such specificity requires (i) that the correct molecular association is energetically stabilized by at least 40 kJ/mol relative to alternatives, and (ii) that the system is able to sample among possible states (alternative molecular associations) rapidly enough to allow the system to fall under thermodynamic control and express the energetic stabilization. We argue that electrostatic interactions are required to confer the necessary energetic stabilization vs. a large library of molecular alternatives, and that a solvent with polarity and dielectric properties comparable to water is required for the system to sample among possible states and express thermodynamic control. Electrostatic associations can be made in non-polar solvents, but the resulting complexes are too stable to be "unmade" with sufficient frequency to confer thermodynamic control on the system. An electrostatic molecular complex representing 3 units of information (e.g., 3 base pairs) with specificity > 107 per unit has a stability in non-polar solvent comparable to that of a carbon-carbon bond at room temperature. These considerations suggest that water, or a solvent with properties very like water, is necessary to support high-fidelity information processing, and can therefore be considered a critical prerequisite for life.

  20. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru-Shan Wu, Xiao-Bi Xie, Thorne Lay


    In this project, we develop new theories and methods for multi-domain one-way wave-equation based propagators, and apply these techniques to seismic modeling, seismic imaging, seismic illumination and model parameter estimation in 3D complex environments. The major progress of this project includes: (1) The development of the dual-domain wave propagators. We continue to improve the one-way wave-equation based propagators. Our target is making propagators capable of handling more realistic velocity models. A wide-angle propagator for transversely isotropic media with vertically symmetric axis (VTI) has been developed for P-wave modeling and imaging. The resulting propagator is accurate for large velocity perturbations and wide propagation angles. The thin-slab propagator for one-way elastic-wave propagation is further improved. With the introduction of complex velocities, the quality factors Qp and Qs have been incorporated into the thin-slab propagator. The resulting viscoelastic thin-slab propagator can handle elastic-wave propagation in models with intrinsic attenuations. We apply this method to complex models for AVO modeling, random media characterization and frequency-dependent reflectivity simulation. (2) Exploring the Information in the Local Angle Domain. Traditionally, the local angle information can only be extracted using the ray-based method. We develop a wave-equation based technique to process the local angle domain information. The approach can avoid the singularity problem usually linked to the high-frequency asymptotic method. We successfully apply this technique to seismic illumination and the resulting method provides a practical tool for three-dimensional full-volume illumination analysis in complex structures. The directional illumination also provides information for angle-domain imaging corrections. (3) Elastic-Wave Imaging. We develop a multicomponent elastic migration method. The application of the multicomponent one-way elastic propagator

  1. Factors affecting high school teacher adoption, sustainability, and fidelity to the "Youth@Work: Talking Safety" curriculum. (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Casteel, Carri; Bush, Diane; Myers, Douglas J


    Our objective was to identify individual- and organizational-level factors that affect high school teacher adoption, sustainability, and fidelity to the occupational safety and health curriculum, "Youth@Work: Talking Safety." We analyzed survey data collected from 104 high school teachers across the US who were trained in the curriculum since 2004. Linear and Cox regression were used to examine bivariate associations between individual and organizational-level factors and the outcomes of interest. Except for perceived complexity, all individual-level factors (acceptance, enthusiasm, teaching methods fit, and self-efficacy) were associated with one or more outcomes of interest (P-values ranged from sustainability and number of lessons delivered, respectively. Consistent with the literature, individual-level factors influenced teacher adoption and, to a lesser extent, sustainability, and fidelity to the Youth@Work: Talking Safety curriculum and should be considered in attempts to promote the curriculum's use in high schools. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum States using delocalized single photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C


    states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can...

  3. Thermophysical properties of Almahata Sitta meteorites (asteroid 2008 TC3) for high-fidelity entry modeling (United States)

    Loehle, Stefan; Jenniskens, Peter; Böhrk, Hannah; Bauer, Thomas; Elsäßer, Henning; Sears, Derek W.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Shaddad, Muawia H.


    Asteroid 2008 TC3 was characterized in a unique manner prior to impacting Earth's atmosphere, making its October 7, 2008, impact a suitable field test for or validating the application of high-fidelity re-entry modeling to asteroid entry. The accurate modeling of the behavior of 2008 TC3 during its entry in Earth's atmosphere requires detailed information about the thermophysical properties of the asteroid's meteoritic materials at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to the point of ablation (T 1400 K). Here, we present measurements of the thermophysical properties up to these temperatures (in a 1 atm. pressure of argon) for two samples of the Almahata Sitta meteorites from asteroid 2008 TC3: a thick flat-faced ureilite suitably shaped for emissivity measurements and a thin flat-faced EL6 enstatite chondrite suitable for diffusivity measurements. Heat capacity was determined from the elemental composition and density from a 3-D laser scan of the sample. We find that the thermal conductivity of the enstatite chondrite material decreases more gradually as a function of temperature than expected, while the emissivity of the ureilitic material decreases at a rate of 9.5 × 10-5 K-1 above 770 K. The entry scenario is the result of the actual flight path being the boundary to the load the meteorite will be affected with when entering. An accurate heat load prediction depends on the thermophysical properties. Finally, based on these data, the breakup can be calculated accurately leading to a risk assessment for ground damage.

  4. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene


    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  5. A protocol for evaluating progressive levels of simulation fidelity in the development of technical skills, integrated performance and woman centred clinical assessment skills in undergraduate midwifery students (United States)


    Background Simulation as a pedagogical approach has been used in health professional education to address the need to safely develop effective clinical skills prior to undertaking clinical practice. However, evidence for the use of simulation in midwifery is largely anecdotal, and research evaluating the effectiveness of different levels of simulation fidelity are lacking. Woman centred care is a core premise of the midwifery profession and describes the behaviours of an individual midwife who demonstrates safe and effective care of the individual woman. Woman centred care occurs when the midwife modifies the care to ensure the needs of each individual woman are respected and addressed. However, a review of the literature demonstrates an absence of a valid and reliable tool to measure the development of woman centred care behaviours. This study aims to determine which level of fidelity in simulated learning experiences provides the most effective learning outcomes in the development of woman centred clinical assessment behaviors and skills in student midwives. Methods/Design Three-arm, randomised, intervention trial. In this research we plan to: a) trial three levels of simulation fidelity - low, medium and progressive, on student midwives performing the procedure of vaginal examination; b) measure clinical assessment skills using the Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Integrated Procedural Performance Instrument (IPPI); and c) pilot the newly developed Woman Centred Care Scale (WCCS) to measure clinical behaviors related to Woman-Centredness. Discussion This project aims to enhance knowledge in relation to the appropriate levels of fidelity in simulation that yield the best educational outcomes for the development of woman centred clinical assessment in student midwives. The outcomes of this project may contribute to improved woman centred clinical assessment for student midwives, and more broadly influence decision making regarding education resource allocation for

  6. Modeling and numerical techniques for high-speed digital simulation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.


    Conventional computing methods are contrasted with newly developed high-speed and low-cost computing techniques for simulating normal and accidental transients in nuclear power plants. Six principles are formulated for cost-effective high-fidelity simulation with emphasis on modeling of transient two-phase flow coolant dynamics in nuclear reactors. Available computing architectures are characterized. It is shown that the combination of the newly developed modeling and computing principles with the use of existing special-purpose peripheral processors is capable of achieving low-cost and high-speed simulation with high-fidelity and outstanding user convenience, suitable for detailed reactor plant response analyses.

  7. Effects of Virtual Human Appearance Fidelity on Emotion Contagion in Affective Inter-Personal Simulations. (United States)

    Volante, Matias; Babu, Sabarish V; Chaturvedi, Himanshu; Newsome, Nathan; Ebrahimi, Elham; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Fasolino, Tracy


    Realistic versus stylized depictions of virtual humans in simulated inter-personal situations and their ability to elicit emotional responses in users has been an open question for artists and researchers alike. We empirically evaluated the effects of near visually realistic vs. non-realistic stylized appearance of virtual humans on the emotional response of participants in a medical virtual reality system that was designed to educate users in recognizing the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. In a between-subjects experiment protocol, participants interacted with one of three different appearances of a virtual patient, namely visually realistic, cartoon-shaded and charcoal-sketch like conditions in a mixed reality simulation. Emotional impact were measured via a combination of quantitative objective measures were gathered using skin Electrodermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and quantitative subjective measures such as the Differential Emotion Survey (DES IV), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and Social Presence questionnaire. The emotional states of the participants were analyzed across four distinct time steps during which the medical condition of the virtual patient deteriorated (an emotionally stressful interaction), and were contrasted to a baseline affective state. Objective EDA results showed that in all three conditions, male participants exhibited greater levels of arousal as compared to female participants. We found that negative affect levels were significantly lower in the visually realistic condition, as compared to the stylized appearance conditions. Furthermore, in emotional dimensions of interest-excitement, surprise, anger, fear and guilt participants in all conditions responded similarly. However, in social emotional constructs of shyness, presence, perceived personality, and enjoyment-joy, we found that participants responded differently in the visually realistic condition as compared to the cartoon and sketch conditions. Our

  8. High-fidelity phase and amplitude control of phase-only computer generated holograms using conjugate gradient minimisation (United States)

    Bowman, D.; Harte, T. L.; Chardonnet, V.; De Groot, C.; Denny, S. J.; Le Goc, G.; Anderson, M.; Ireland, P.; Cassettari, D.; Bruce, G. D.


    We demonstrate simultaneous control of both the phase and amplitude of light using a conjugate gradient minimisation-based hologram calculation technique and a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). A cost function which incorporates the inner product of the light field with a chosen target field within a defined measure region is efficiently minimised to create high fidelity patterns in the Fourier plane of the SLM. A fidelity of $F=0.999997$ is achieved for a pattern resembling an $LG^{0}_{1}$ mode with a calculated light-usage efficiency of $41.5\\%$. Possible applications of our method in optical trapping and ultracold atoms are presented and we show uncorrected experimental realisation of our patterns with $F = 0.97$ and $7.8\\%$ light efficiency.

  9. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Shao, Bin, E-mail: [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, Lian-Ao [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, The Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)


    Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.

  10. High-fidelity phase and amplitude control of phase-only computer generated holograms using conjugate gradient minimisation. (United States)

    Bowman, D; Harte, T L; Chardonnet, V; De Groot, C; Denny, S J; Le Goc, G; Anderson, M; Ireland, P; Cassettari, D; Bruce, G D


    We demonstrate simultaneous control of both the phase and amplitude of light using a conjugate gradient minimisation-based hologram calculation technique and a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). A cost function, which incorporates the inner product of the light field with a chosen target field within a defined measure region, is efficiently minimised to create high fidelity patterns in the Fourier plane of the SLM. A fidelity of F = 0.999997 is achieved for a pattern resembling an LG10 mode with a calculated light-usage efficiency of 41.5%. Possible applications of our method in optical trapping and ultracold atoms are presented and we show uncorrected experimental realisation of our patterns with F = 0.97 and 7.8% light efficiency.

  11. Nursing leadership competencies: low-fidelity simulation as a teaching strategy. (United States)

    Pollard, Cheryl L; Wild, Carol


    Nurses must demonstrate leadership and followership competencies within complex adaptive team environments to ensure patient and staff safety, effective use of resources, and an adaptive health care system. These competencies are demonstrated through the use of communication strategies that are embedded within a relational practice. Health care professionals, regardless of formal position, need to assert their opinions and perspectives using a communication style that demonstrates value of all team members in open discussions about quality patient care, appropriate access, and stewardship. Challenges to effective communication and relational practice are the individual and organizational patterns of behavior, and the subsequent impact that these behaviors have on others. Students articulate situational awareness when they conduct a critical analysis of individual, team, and organizational functioning, and then use this information and evidence gained from a critical literature review to develop recommendations to improve individual, team, and/or organizational performance. Leadership and followership simulation exercises, inclusive of public feedback and debriefing, are used as a pedagogical/andragogical strategy in a nursing baccalaureate senior leadership course to facilitate learning of team communication skills and improve situational awareness. We view this strategy as an alternative to traditional classroom learning activities which provide little opportunity for recursive learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. State-of-the-art, Multi-Fidelity Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Tool for Nonlinear Aeroelasticity Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed for the development of a state-of-the-art computational aeroelastic tool. This tool will include various levels of fidelity and the ability to...

  13. High Fidelity Computational and Wind Tunnel Models in Support of Certification Airworthiness of Control Surfaces with Freeplay and Other Nonlinear Features Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work will establish high fidelity computational methods and wind tunnel test model in support of new freeplay criteria for the design, construction and...

  14. Cluster-state quantum computing enhanced by high-fidelity generalized measurements. (United States)

    Biggerstaff, D N; Kaltenbaek, R; Hamel, D R; Weihs, G; Rudolph, T; Resch, K J


    We introduce and implement a technique to extend the quantum computational power of cluster states by replacing some projective measurements with generalized quantum measurements (POVMs). As an experimental demonstration we fully realize an arbitrary three-qubit cluster computation by implementing a tunable linear-optical POVM, as well as fast active feedforward, on a two-qubit photonic cluster state. Over 206 different computations, the average output fidelity is 0.9832+/-0.0002; furthermore the error contribution from our POVM device and feedforward is only of O(10(-3)), less than some recent thresholds for fault-tolerant cluster computing.

  15. Cluster-State Quantum Computing Enhanced by High-Fidelity Generalized Measurements (United States)

    Biggerstaff, D. N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Weihs, G.; Rudolph, T.; Resch, K. J.


    We introduce and implement a technique to extend the quantum computational power of cluster states by replacing some projective measurements with generalized quantum measurements (POVMs). As an experimental demonstration we fully realize an arbitrary three-qubit cluster computation by implementing a tunable linear-optical POVM, as well as fast active feedforward, on a two-qubit photonic cluster state. Over 206 different computations, the average output fidelity is 0.9832±0.0002; furthermore the error contribution from our POVM device and feedforward is only of O(10-3), less than some recent thresholds for fault-tolerant cluster computing.

  16. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model. (United States)

    Turner, Sean W D; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano


    An important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction of change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~-5 to +5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~5-20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~5-15%) without investing in new power generation facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulating the fidelity and the three Mg mechanism of pol η and clarifying the validity of transition state theory in enzyme catalysis. (United States)

    Yoon, Hanwool; Warshel, Arieh


    Pol η belongs to the important Y family of DNA polymerases that can catalyze translesion synthesis across sites of damaged DNA. This activity involves the reduced fidelity of Pol η for 8-oxo-7,8-dhyedro-2'-deoxoguanosin(8-oxoG). The fundamental interest in Pol η has grown recently with the demonstration of the importance of a 3rd Mg2+ ion. The current work explores both the fidelity of Pol η and the role of the 3rd metal ion, by using empirical valence bond (EVB) simulations. The simulations reproduce the observed trend in fidelity and shed a new light on the role of the 3rd metal ion. It is found that this ion does not lead to a major catalytic effect, but most probably plays an important role in reducing the product release barrier. Furthermore, it is concluded, in contrast to some implications, that the effect of this metal does not violate transition state theory, and the evaluation of the catalytic effect must conserve the molecular composition upon moving from the reactant to the transition state. Proteins 2017; 85:1446-1453. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  19. Simulation Learning: PC-Screen Based (PCSB) versus High Fidelity Simulation (HFS) (United States)


    training method (PCSB and HF). The project was conducted at two research sites, namely:   the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), and the  Tripler  Army...Principal Investigator  Dr. Judy Carlson, EdD, APRN, FNP, BCIA,C  Center for Nursing Science & Clinical Inquiry  Tripler  Army Medical Center   Nursing...insertion   NPC   Net Present Cost  PCSB  PC screen‐based  PI  Principal Investigator  PIN  Pacific Institute of Nursing  TAMC  Tripler  Army Medical

  20. Simulation Learning: PC-Screen Based (PCSB) versus High Fidelity Simulation (HFS) (United States)


    time on task, learning setting, and environment), and (5) outcome factors (knowledge, psychomotor skills , self confidence, judgment, and problem...assigned nurses will receive an orientation to use of both PCSB and HFS method to assure equivalent baseline psychomotor skills for each method...learning). Learnin2 Outcome . PCSB evaluation tools BFS maooeouin tools . Knowledge Written pre- and post- Written pre- and post-test test Psychomotor

  1. A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breton, Simon-Philippe; Sumner, J.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple...

  2. Development of high fidelity soot aerosol dynamics models using method of moments with interpolative closure

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Subrata P.


    The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) for soot formation and growth provides a detailed modeling framework maintaining a good balance in generality, accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency. This study presents several computational issues in the development and implementation of the MOMIC-based soot modeling for direct numerical simulations (DNS). The issues of concern include a wide dynamic range of numbers, choice of normalization, high effective Schmidt number of soot particles, and realizability of the soot particle size distribution function (PSDF). These problems are not unique to DNS, but they are often exacerbated by the high-order numerical schemes used in DNS. Four specific issues are discussed in this article: the treatment of soot diffusion, choice of interpolation scheme for MOMIC, an approach to deal with strongly oxidizing environments, and realizability of the PSDF. General, robust, and stable approaches are sought to address these issues, minimizing the use of ad hoc treatments such as clipping. The solutions proposed and demonstrated here are being applied to generate new physical insight into complex turbulence-chemistry-soot-radiation interactions in turbulent reacting flows using DNS. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  3. Mapping high-fidelity volume rendering for medical imaging to CPU, GPU and many-core architectures. (United States)

    Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Holmes, David; Chhugani, Jatin; Larson, Alan; Carmean, Douglas M; Hanson, Dennis; Dubey, Pradeep; Augustine, Kurt; Kim, Daehyun; Kyker, Alan; Lee, Victor W; Nguyen, Anthony D; Seiler, Larry; Robb, Richard


    Medical volumetric imaging requires high fidelity, high performance rendering algorithms. We motivate and analyze new volumetric rendering algorithms that are suited to modern parallel processing architectures. First, we describe the three major categories of volume rendering algorithms and confirm through an imaging scientist-guided evaluation that ray-casting is the most acceptable. We describe a thread- and data-parallel implementation of ray-casting that makes it amenable to key architectural trends of three modern commodity parallel architectures: multi-core, GPU, and an upcoming many-core Intel architecture code-named Larrabee. We achieve more than an order of magnitude performance improvement on a number of large 3D medical datasets. We further describe a data compression scheme that significantly reduces data-transfer overhead. This allows our approach to scale well to large numbers of Larrabee cores.

  4. Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics to Help Design a Wind Turbine Wake Measurement Experiment (United States)

    Churchfield, M.; Wang, Q.; Scholbrock, A.; Herges, T.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.


    We describe the process of using large-eddy simulations of wind turbine wake flow to help design a wake measurement campaign. The main goal of the experiment is to measure wakes and wake deflection that result from intentional yaw misalignment under a variety of atmospheric conditions at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Lubbock, Texas. Prior simulation studies have shown that wake deflection may be used for wind-plant control that maximizes plant power output. In this study, simulations are performed to characterize wake deflection and general behavior before the experiment is performed to ensure better upfront planning. Beyond characterizing the expected wake behavior, we also use the large-eddy simulation to test a virtual version of the lidar we plan to use to measure the wake and better understand our lidar scan strategy options. This work is an excellent example of a “simulation-in-the-loop” measurement campaign.

  5. Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics to Help Design a Wind Turbine Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churchfield, Matthew J.; Wang, Qi; Scholbrock, A.


    We describe the process of using large-eddy simulations of wind turbine wake flow to help design a wake measurement campaign. The main goal of the experiment is to measure wakes and wake deflection that result from intentional yaw misalignment under a variety of atmospheric conditions at the Scaled...... Wind Farm Technology facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Lubbock, Texas. Prior simulation studies have shown that wake deflection may be used for wind-plant control that maximizes plant power output. In this study, simulations are performed to characterize wake deflection and general...

  6. Application of a High-Fidelity Icing Analysis Method to a Model-Scale Rotor in Forward Flight (United States)

    Narducci, Robert; Orr, Stanley; Kreeger, Richard E.


    An icing analysis process involving the loose coupling of OVERFLOW-RCAS for rotor performance prediction and with LEWICE3D for thermal analysis and ice accretion is applied to a model-scale rotor for validation. The process offers high-fidelity rotor analysis for the noniced and iced rotor performance evaluation that accounts for the interaction of nonlinear aerodynamics with blade elastic deformations. Ice accumulation prediction also involves loosely coupled data exchanges between OVERFLOW and LEWICE3D to produce accurate ice shapes. Validation of the process uses data collected in the 1993 icing test involving Sikorsky's Powered Force Model. Non-iced and iced rotor performance predictions are compared to experimental measurements as are predicted ice shapes.

  7. From High Fidelity (1995 to Funny Girl (2014 or What Makes Nick Hornby’s Novels so Popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Chifane


    Full Text Available From High Fidelity (1995 to Funny Girl (2014 or What Makes Nick Hornby’s Novels so Popular Abstract  The common and perhaps the most fascinating characteristic of all Nick Hornby’s novels is that they tackle contemporary problems of ordinary people. As a consequence, the readers will plunge into a world of failed relationships; fear of commitment; depression; lack of emotional stability; teenage anger and imbalance; frustration and obsession; invented maladies, sons or parties; disappointment and self-pity as well as useless single or group therapies. In spite of their dark problematic, Hornby’s novels have enjoyed popularity and continue to exert the sort of fascination that only brilliant literary pieces may produce. From such a point of view, this paper will try to solve the puzzle called Nick Hornby constructing and deconstructing the elements that make up his unique writing style.

  8. Mystic: Implementation of the Static Dynamic Optimal Control Algorithm for High-Fidelity, Low-Thrust Trajectory Design (United States)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.


    Mystic software is designed to compute, analyze, and visualize optimal high-fidelity, low-thrust trajectories, The software can be used to analyze inter-planetary, planetocentric, and combination trajectories, Mystic also provides utilities to assist in the operation and navigation of low-thrust spacecraft. Mystic will be used to design and navigate the NASA's Dawn Discovery mission to orbit the two largest asteroids, The underlying optimization algorithm used in the Mystic software is called Static/Dynamic Optimal Control (SDC). SDC is a nonlinear optimal control method designed to optimize both 'static variables' (parameters) and dynamic variables (functions of time) simultaneously. SDC is a general nonlinear optimal control algorithm based on Bellman's principal.

  9. Advanced Unsteady Turbulent Combustion Simulation Capability for Space Propulsion Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a high performance, high fidelity simulation capability to enable accurate, fast and robust simulation of unsteady turbulent,...

  10. Effects of two different high-fidelity DNA polymerases on genetic analysis of the cyanobacterial community structure in a subtropical deep freshwater reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhen, Zhuo; Liu, Jingwen; Rensing, Christopher Günther T


    The use of molecular methods to investigate the community structure and diversity of microalgae has largely replaced the previous morphological methods that were routinely carried out by microscopy. Different DNA polymerases can lead to bias in PCR amplification and affect the downstream community...... and diversity analysis. In this study, two clone libraries were constructed with two different DNA polymerases, Q5 high-fidelity DNA polymerase and exTaq polymerase, to compare the differences in their capability to accurately reflect the cyanobacterial community structure and diversity in a subtropical deep......-fidelity DNA polymerase. It is noteworthy that so far Q5 high-fidelity DNA polymerase was the first time to be employed in the genetic analysis of cyanobacterial community. And it is for the first time that the cyanobacterial community structure in Dongzhen reservoir was analyzed using molecular methods...

  11. Unsteady Flow Simulation of High-speed Turbopumps (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey A.


    Computation of high-speed hydrodynamics requires high-fidelity simulation to resolve flow features involving transient flow, cavitation, tip vortex and multiple scales of unsteady fluctuations. One example of this type in aerospace is related to liquid-fueled rocket turbopump. Rocket turbopumps operate under severe conditions at very high rotational speeds typically at thousands of rpm. For example, the Shuttle orbiter low-pressure-fuel-turbopump creates transient flow features associated with reverse flows, tip clearance effects, secondary flows, vortex shedding, junction flows, and cavitation effects. Flow unsteadiness originating from the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the flow liners just upstream of the LPFTP. The reverse flow generated at the tip of the inducer blades travels upstream and interacts with the bellows cavity. Simulation procedure for this type high-speed hydrodynamic problems requires a method for quantifying multi-scale and multi-phase flow as well as an efficient high-end computing strategy. The current paper presents a high-fidelity computational procedure for unsteady hydrodynamic problems using a high-speed liquid-fueled rocket turbopump.

  12. High-fidelity numerical modeling of the Upper Mississippi River under extreme flood condition (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Le, Trung; DeWall, Petra; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    We present data-driven numerical simulations of extreme flooding in a large-scale river coupling coherent-structure resolving hydrodynamics with bed morphodynamics under live-bed conditions. The study area is a ∼ 3.2 km long and ∼ 300 m wide reach of the Upper Mississippi River, near Minneapolis MN, which contains several natural islands and man-made hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Rivers) model, a recently developed in-house code, to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 100-year flood event. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. We integrate data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), sub-aqueous sonar apparatus on-board a boat and in-situ laser scanners to construct a digital elevation model of the river bathymetry and surrounding flood plain, including islands and bridge piers. A field campaign under base-flow condition is also carried out to collect mean flow measurements via Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to validate the hydrodynamic module of the VFS-Rivers model. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river under the 100-year flood reveal complex sediment transport dynamics near the bridge piers consisting of both scour and refilling events due to the continuous passage of sand dunes. We find that the scour depth near the bridge piers can reach to a maximum of ∼ 9 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems.

  13. A novel silicon patch-clamp chip permits high-fidelity recording of ion channel activity from functionally defined neurons. (United States)

    Py, Christophe; Denhoff, Mike W; Martina, Marzia; Monette, Robert; Comas, Tanya; Ahuja, Tarun; Martinez, Dolores; Wingar, Simon; Caballero, Juan; Laframboise, Sylvain; Mielke, John; Bogdanov, Alexei; Luk, Collin; Syed, Naweed; Mealing, Geoff


    We report on a simple and high-yield manufacturing process for silicon planar patch-clamp chips, which allow low capacitance and series resistance from individually identified cultured neurons. Apertures are etched in a high-quality silicon nitride film on a silicon wafer; wells are opened on the backside of the wafer by wet etching and passivated by a thick deposited silicon dioxide film to reduce the capacitance of the chip and to facilitate the formation of a high-impedance cell to aperture seal. The chip surface is suitable for culture of neurons over a small orifice in the substrate with minimal leak current. Collectively, these features enable high-fidelity electrophysiological recording of transmembrane currents resulting from ion channel activity in cultured neurons. Using cultured Lymnaea neurons we demonstrate whole-cell current recordings obtained from a voltage-clamp stimulation protocol, and in current-clamp mode we report action potentials stimulated by membrane depolarization steps. Despite the relatively large size of these neurons, good temporal and spatial control of cell membrane voltage was evident. To our knowledge this is the first report of recording of ion channel activity and action potentials from neurons cultured directly on a planar patch-clamp chip. This interrogation platform has enormous potential as a novel tool to readily provide high-information content during pharmaceutical assays to investigate in vitro models of disease, as well as neuronal physiology and synaptic plasticity. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Electromagnetic Extended Finite Elements for High-Fidelity Multimaterial Problems LDRD Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefert, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kramer, Richard Michael Jack [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Voth, Thomas Eugene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Surface effects are critical to the accurate simulation of electromagnetics (EM) as current tends to concentrate near material surfaces. Sandia EM applications, which include exploding bridge wires for detonator design, electromagnetic launch of flyer plates for material testing and gun design, lightning blast-through for weapon safety, electromagnetic armor, and magnetic flux compression generators, all require accurate resolution of surface effects. These applications operate in a large deformation regime, where body-fitted meshes are impractical and multimaterial elements are the only feasible option. State-of-the-art methods use various mixture models to approximate the multi-physics of these elements. The empirical nature of these models can significantly compromise the accuracy of the simulation in this very important surface region. We propose to substantially improve the predictive capability of electromagnetic simulations by removing the need for empirical mixture models at material surfaces. We do this by developing an eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and an associated Conformal Decomposition Finite Element Method (CDFEM) which satisfy the physically required compatibility conditions at material interfaces. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods for diffusion and diffusion-like problems on node, edge and face elements in 2D and 3D. We also present preliminary work on h -hierarchical elements and remap algorithms.

  15. High-Fidelity Aerothermal Engineering Analysis for Planetary Probes Using DOTNET Framework and OLAP Cubes Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Subrahmanyam


    Full Text Available This publication presents the architecture integration and implementation of various modules in Sparta framework. Sparta is a trajectory engine that is hooked to an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP database for Multi-dimensional analysis capability. OLAP is an Online Analytical Processing database that has a comprehensive list of atmospheric entry probes and their vehicle dimensions, trajectory data, aero-thermal data and material properties like Carbon, Silicon and Carbon-Phenolic based Ablators. An approach is presented for dynamic TPS design. OLAP has the capability to run in one simulation several different trajectory conditions and the output is stored back into the database and can be queried for appropriate trajectory type. An OLAP simulation can be setup by spawning individual threads to run for three types of trajectory: Nominal, Undershoot and Overshoot trajectory. Sparta graphical user interface provides capabilities to choose from a list of flight vehicles or enter trajectory and geometry information of a vehicle in design. DOTNET framework acts as a middleware layer between the trajectory engine and the user interface and also between the web user interface and the OLAP database. Trajectory output can be obtained in TecPlot format, Excel output or in a KML (Keyhole Markup Language format. Framework employs an API (application programming interface to convert trajectory data into a formatted KML file that is used by Google Earth for simulating Earth-entry fly-by visualizations.

  16. Design of high-fidelity haptic display for one-dimensional force reflection applications (United States)

    Gillespie, Brent; Rosenberg, Louis B.


    This paper discusses the development of a virtual reality platform for the simulation of medical procedures which involve needle insertion into human tissue. The paper's focus is the hardware and software requirements for haptic display of a particular medical procedure known as epidural analgesia. To perform this delicate manual procedure, an anesthesiologist must carefully guide a needle through various layers of tissue using only haptic cues for guidance. As a simplifying aspect for the simulator design, all motions and forces involved in the task occur along a fixed line once insertion begins. To create a haptic representation of this procedure, we have explored both physical modeling and perceptual modeling techniques. A preliminary physical model was built based on CT-scan data of the operative site. A preliminary perceptual model was built based on current training techniques for the procedure provided by a skilled instructor. We compare and contrast these two modeling methods and discuss the implications of each. We select and defend the perceptual model as a superior approach for the epidural analgesia simulator.

  17. High-fidelity artifact correction for cone-beam CT imaging of the brain (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Xu, J.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Yorkston, J.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V.; Siewerdsen, J. H.


    CT is the frontline imaging modality for diagnosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), involving the detection of fresh blood in the brain (contrast of 30-50 HU, detail size down to 1 mm) in a non-contrast-enhanced exam. A dedicated point-of-care imaging system based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) could benefit early detection of TBI and improve direction to appropriate therapy. However, flat-panel detector (FPD) CBCT is challenged by artifacts that degrade contrast resolution and limit application in soft-tissue imaging. We present and evaluate a fairly comprehensive framework for artifact correction to enable soft-tissue brain imaging with FPD CBCT. The framework includes a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based scatter estimation method complemented by corrections for detector lag, veiling glare, and beam hardening. The fast MC scatter estimation combines GPU acceleration, variance reduction, and simulation with a low number of photon histories and reduced number of projection angles (sparse MC) augmented by kernel de-noising to yield a runtime of ~4 min per scan. Scatter correction is combined with two-pass beam hardening correction. Detector lag correction is based on temporal deconvolution of the measured lag response function. The effects of detector veiling glare are reduced by deconvolution of the glare response function representing the long range tails of the detector point-spread function. The performance of the correction framework is quantified in experiments using a realistic head phantom on a testbench for FPD CBCT. Uncorrected reconstructions were non-diagnostic for soft-tissue imaging tasks in the brain. After processing with the artifact correction framework, image uniformity was substantially improved, and artifacts were reduced to a level that enabled visualization of ~3 mm simulated bleeds throughout the brain. Non-uniformity (cupping) was reduced by a factor of 5, and contrast of simulated bleeds was improved from ~7 to 49.7 HU, in good agreement

  18. High-fidelity modelling of an exciplex pumped alkali laser with radiative transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla, Andrew D; Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T [CU Aerospace, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Heaven, Michael C, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)


    The exciplex-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, and ethane by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). Because of the addition of atomic collision pairs and exciplex states, modelling of the XPAL system is far more complicated than the modelling of the classic diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL). In this paper, we discuss BLAZE-V time-dependent multi-dimensional modelling of this new laser system including radiative transport and parasitic loss effects. A two-dimensional, time-dependent baseline simulation of a pulsed XPAL is presented and compared to data. Good agreement is achieved on a laser pulse full width at half-maximum and laser pulse rise time. Parametric simulations of pulsed XPAL system configurations similar to that of the baseline case, given both four- and five-level laser operation, are presented in which good agreement is obtained with outcoupled laser energy as a function of absorbed pump energy data. The potential impact of parasitic losses on modelled system configurations is discussed.

  19. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND) (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve


    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  20. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part III: The Components of a Sound-Reproducing System: Amplifiers and Loudspeakers. (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.


    Described are the components for a high-fidelity sound-reproducing system which focuses on various program sources, the amplifier, and loudspeakers. Discussed in detail are amplifier power and distortion, air suspension, loudspeaker baffles and enclosures, bass-reflex enclosure, drone cones, rear horn and acoustic labyrinth enclosures, horn…

  1. Rectification of artificial molecular recombination with the use of high fidelity enzyme in the amplification of 16S rDNA sequences from Stool sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Nema


    Full Text Available Reliance on routinely used taq polymerases for amplification may generate spurious sequences, especially in metagenomic studies utilizing complex mixtures of various DNA templates. Use of high fidelity enzymes and verification of the sequences using various software tools before submission to the databases ensures better quality and confidence.

  2. High Fidelity Computational Analysis of CO2 Trapping at Pore Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod


    With an alarming rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from anthropogenic sources, CO2 sequestration has become an attractive choice to mitigate the emission. Some popular storage media for CO{sub 2} are oil reservoirs, deep coal-bed, and deep oceanic-beds. These have been used for the long term CO{sub 2} storage. Due to special lowering viscosity and surface tension property of CO{sub 2}, it has been widely used for enhanced oil recovery. The sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration or enhanced oil recovery mostly consist of porous rocks. Lack of knowledge of molecular mobility under confinement and molecule-surface interactions between CO2 and natural porous media results in generally governed by unpredictable absorption kinetics and total absorption capacity for injected fluids, and therefore, constitutes barriers to the deployment of this technology. Therefore, it is important to understand the flow dynamics of CO{sub 2} through the porous microstructures at the finest scale (pore-scale) to accurately predict the storage potential and long-term dynamics of the sequestered CO{sub 2}. This report discusses about pore-network flow modeling approach using variational method and analyzes simulated results this method simulations at pore-scales for idealized network and using Berea Sandstone CT scanned images. Variational method provides a promising way to study the kinetic behavior and storage potential at the pore scale in the presence of other phases. The current study validates variational solutions for single and two-phase Newtonian and single phase non-Newtonian flow through angular pores for special geometries whose analytical and/or empirical solutions are known. The hydraulic conductance for single phase flow through a triangular duct was also validated against empirical results derived from lubricant theory.

  3. Reduced-order LPV model of flexible wind turbines from high fidelity aeroelastic codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Sønderby, Ivan Bergquist; Hansen, Morten Hartvig


    Linear aeroelastic models used for stability analysis of wind turbines are commonly of very high order. These high-order models are generally not suitable for control analysis and synthesis. This paper presents a methodology to obtain a reduced-order linear parameter varying (LPV) model from a se...

  4. High Fidelity Measurement and Modeling of Interactions between Acoustics and Heat Release in Highly-Compact, High-Pressure Flames (United States)


    systematic and rigorous means for comparison. Introduction The issue of combustion instability is a common recurring problem for bi- propellant rocket...the combustion of propellants to the acoustic energy field is the primary mechanism that creates acoustically coupled combustion instability. Chamber...T. and Sattelmayer, T., “On the Use of OH Radiation as a Marker for the Heat Release Rate in High- Pressure Hydrogen-Oxygen Liquid Rocket Combustion

  5. High-Fidelity Prediction of Launch Vehicle Liftoff Acoustic Fields Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The high-intensity level acoustic load generated by large launch vehicle lift-off propulsion is of major concern for the integrity of the launch complex and the...

  6. Geodetic Inversion Analysis Method of Coseismic Slip Distribution Using a Three-dimensional Finite Element High-fidelity Model (United States)

    Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, T.; Hyodo, M.; Hori, M.


    -spline function is used (Yabuki and Matu'ura, 1992). However in our method, if the trench axis and unit fault slip overlap each other, the value of unit slip displacement whose location is beyond the trench axis are made 0. This method enables estimation of coseismic slip distribution which is discontinuous in the location of the trench axis. The proposed method is applied to Tohoku region. We perform two comparisons between the proposed method and conventional methods; comparison between the case with a high-fidelity model and a simplified model; comparison between the case with discontinuous unit slip and without it. Both of the comparisons show a large difference in the estimation results. It indicates the importance of using higher fidelity models and considering fault slip near the trench axis by using the proposed method. For future work, we are planning to improve the regularization method of the kernel matrix in the inversion method to enhance the estimation result. Also, more complex material heterogeneity will be introduced in the shallower layers of crustal structure.

  7. High fidelity computational characterization of the mechanical response of thermally aged polycarbonate (United States)

    Zhang, Zesheng; Zhang, Lili; Jasa, John; Li, Wenlong; Gazonas, George; Negahban, Mehrdad


    A representative all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) system of polycarbonate (PC) is built and conditioned to capture and predict the behaviours of PC in response to a broad range of thermo-mechanical loadings for various thermal aging. The PC system is constructed to have a distribution of molecular weights comparable to a widely used commercial PC (LEXAN 9034), and thermally conditioned to produce models for aged and unaged PC. The MD responses of these models are evaluated through comparisons to existing experimental results carried out at much lower loading rates, but done over a broad range of temperatures and loading modes. These experiments include monotonic extension/compression/shear, unilaterally and bilaterally confined compression, and load-reversal during shear. It is shown that the MD simulations show both qualitative and quantitative similarity with the experimental response. The quantitative similarity is evaluated by comparing the dilatational response under bilaterally confined compression, the shear flow viscosity and the equivalent yield stress. The consistency of the in silico response to real laboratory experiments strongly suggests that the current PC models are physically and mechanically relevant and potentially can be used to investigate thermo-mechanical response to loading conditions that would not easily be possible. These MD models may provide valuable insight into the molecular sources of certain observations, and could possibly offer new perspectives on how to develop constitutive models that are based on better understanding the response of PC under complex loadings. To this latter end, the models are used to predict the response of PC to complex loading modes that would normally be difficult to do or that include characteristics that would be difficult to measure. These include the responses of unaged and aged PC to unilaterally confined extension/compression, cyclic uniaxial/shear loadings, and saw-tooth extension/compression/shear.

  8. High-Fidelity Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation for Mechanics Characterization of Polycrystalline Materials (United States)


    and anisotropic quadrilateral meshes, which can be used as the control mesh for high-order T- spline surface modeling. Archival publications (published...Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation. Springer Publisher. Editor: Yongjie (Jessica) Zhang, 2013. (Review Article ) 4. J. Leng, G. Xu, Y. Zhang, J. Qian...anisotropic T-meshes for the further T- spline surface construction. Finally, a gradient flow-based method is developed to improve the T-mesh quality

  9. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds

    KAUST Repository

    Seow, Wei Yang


    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing.

  10. Transparent crosslinked ultrashort peptide hydrogel dressing with high shape-fidelity accelerates healing of full-thickness excision wounds (United States)

    Seow, Wei Yang; Salgado, Giorgiana; Lane, E. Birgitte; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.


    Wound healing is a major burden of healthcare systems worldwide and hydrogel dressings offer a moist environment conducive to healing. We describe cysteine-containing ultrashort peptides that self-assemble spontaneously into hydrogels. After disulfide crosslinking, the optically-transparent hydrogels became significantly stiffer and exhibited high shape fidelity. The peptide sequence (LIVAGKC or LK6C) was then chosen for evaluation on mice with full-thickness excision wounds. Crosslinked LK6C hydrogels are handled easily with forceps during surgical procedures and offer an improvement over our earlier study of a non-crosslinked peptide hydrogel for burn wounds. LK6C showed low allergenic potential and failed to provoke any sensitivity when administered to guinea pigs in the Magnusson-Kligman maximization test. When applied topically as a dressing, the medium-infused LK6C hydrogel accelerated re-epithelialization compared to controls. The peptide hydrogel is thus safe for topical application and promotes a superior rate and quality of wound healing.

  11. High-fidelity X-ray micro-tomography reconstruction of siderite-hosted Carboniferous arachnids (United States)

    Garwood, Russell; Dunlop, Jason A.; Sutton, Mark D.


    A new approach to maximize data recovery from siderite-hosted fossils is presented. Late Carboniferous trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) from Coseley, UK, were chosen to assess the potential of high-resolution X-ray micro-tomography (XMT). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction visualizes the animals at 20 µm or better resolution, resolving subtle and previously unseen details. Novel data recovered includes (possibly plesiomorphic) retention of endites on leg coxae of Cryptomartus hindi (Anthracomartidae) and highlights further similarities between this family and the Devonian Palaeocharinidae. Also revealed is a flattened body with robust anterior limbs, implying a hunting stance similar to modern crab spiders (Thomisidae). Eophrynus prestvicii (Eophrynidae) had more gracile limbs but a heavily ornamented body, with newly identified upward-pointing marginal spines on the opisthosoma. Its habitus is comparable with certain modern laniatorid harvestmen (Opiliones). These findings demonstrate the potential of XMT to revolutionize the study of siderite-hosted Coal Measures fossils. PMID:19656861

  12. High-fidelity X-ray micro-tomography reconstruction of siderite-hosted Carboniferous arachnids. (United States)

    Garwood, Russell; Dunlop, Jason A; Sutton, Mark D


    A new approach to maximize data recovery from siderite-hosted fossils is presented. Late Carboniferous trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) from Coseley, UK, were chosen to assess the potential of high-resolution X-ray micro-tomography (XMT). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction visualizes the animals at 20 microm or better resolution, resolving subtle and previously unseen details. Novel data recovered includes (possibly plesiomorphic) retention of endites on leg coxae of Cryptomartus hindi (Anthracomartidae) and highlights further similarities between this family and the Devonian Palaeocharinidae. Also revealed is a flattened body with robust anterior limbs, implying a hunting stance similar to modern crab spiders (Thomisidae). Eophrynus prestvicii (Eophrynidae) had more gracile limbs but a heavily ornamented body, with newly identified upward-pointing marginal spines on the opisthosoma. Its habitus is comparable with certain modern laniatorid harvestmen (Opiliones). These findings demonstrate the potential of XMT to revolutionize the study of siderite-hosted Coal Measures fossils.

  13. High fidelity--no evidence for extra-pair paternity in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). (United States)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Merilä, Juha


    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus) breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n=1029 offspring) covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living) in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity.

  14. High fidelity--no evidence for extra-pair paternity in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available Extra-pair paternity (EPP in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n=1029 offspring covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity.

  15. High Fidelity – No Evidence for Extra-Pair Paternity in Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus) (United States)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Merilä, Juha


    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus) breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n = 1029 offspring) covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living) in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity. PMID:20711255

  16. High Fidelity Haptic Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Otaduy, Miguel A


    The human haptic system, among all senses, provides unique and bidirectional communication between humans and their physical environment. Yet, to date, most human-computer interactive systems have focused primarily on the graphical rendering of visual information and, to a lesser extent, on the display of auditory information. Extending the frontier of visual computing, haptic interfaces, or force feedback devices, have the potential to increase the quality of human-computer interaction by accommodating the sense of touch. They provide an attractive augmentation to visual display and enhance t

  17. Using High-Fidelity Analysis Methods and Experimental Results to Account for the Effects of Imperfections on the Buckling Response of Composite Shell Structures (United States)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Hilburger, Mark W.


    The results of an experimental and analytical study of the effects of initial imperfections on the buckling response of unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells are presented. The analytical results include the effects of traditional and nontraditional initial imperfections and uncertainties in the values of selected shell parameters on the buckling loads of the shells. The nonlinear structural analysis results correlate very well with the experimental results. The high-fidelity nonlinear analysis procedure used to generate the analytical results can also be used to form the basis of a new shell design procedure that could reduce the traditional dependence on empirical results in the shell design process. KEYWORDS: high-fidelity nonlinear structural analysis, composite shells, shell stability, initial imperfections

  18. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft (United States)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  19. HYDRA : High-speed simulation architecture for precision spacecraft formation simulation (United States)

    Martin, Bryan J.; Sohl, Garett.


    e Hierarchical Distributed Reconfigurable Architecture- is a scalable simulation architecture that provides flexibility and ease-of-use which take advantage of modern computation and communication hardware. It also provides the ability to implement distributed - or workstation - based simulations and high-fidelity real-time simulation from a common core. Originally designed to serve as a research platform for examining fundamental challenges in formation flying simulation for future space missions, it is also finding use in other missions and applications, all of which can take advantage of the underlying Object-Oriented structure to easily produce distributed simulations. Hydra automates the process of connecting disparate simulation components (Hydra Clients) through a client server architecture that uses high-level descriptions of data associated with each client to find and forge desirable connections (Hydra Services) at run time. Services communicate through the use of Connectors, which abstract messaging to provide single-interface access to any desired communication protocol, such as from shared-memory message passing to TCP/IP to ACE and COBRA. Hydra shares many features with the HLA, although providing more flexibility in connectivity services and behavior overriding.

  20. Fiberoptic oral intubation: the effect of model fidelity on training for transfer to patient care. (United States)

    Chandra, Deven B; Savoldelli, Georges L; Joo, Hwan S; Weiss, Israel D; Naik, Viren N


    Previous studies have indicated that fiberoptic orotracheal intubation (FOI) skills can be learned outside the operating room. The purpose of this study was to determine which of two educational interventions allows learners to gain greater capacity for performing the procedure. Respiratory therapists were randomly assigned to a low-fidelity or high-fidelity training model group. The low-fidelity group was guided by experts, on a nonanatomic model designed to refine fiberoptic manipulation skills. The high-fidelity group practiced their skills on a computerized virtual reality bronchoscopy simulator. After training, subjects performed two consecutive FOIs on healthy, anesthetized patients with predicted "easy" intubations. Each subject's FOI was evaluated by blinded examiners, using a validated global rating scale and checklist. Success and time were also measured. Data were analyzed using a two-way mixed design analysis of variance. There was no significant difference between the low-fidelity (n = 14) and high-fidelity (n = 14) model groups when compared with the global rating scale, checklist, time, and success at achieving tracheal intubation (all P = not significant). Second attempts in both groups were significantly better than first attempts (P reality model with respect to transfer of FOI skills to intraoperative patient care. Second attempts in both groups were significantly better than first attempts. Low-fidelity models for FOI training outside the operating room are an alternative for programs with budgetary constraints.

  1. Information processing, specificity of practice, and the transfer of learning: considerations for reconsidering fidelity. (United States)

    Grierson, Lawrence E M


    Much has been made in the recent medical education literature of the incorrect characterization of simulation along a continuum of low to high fidelity (Cook et al. JAMA 306(9): 978-988, 2011; Norman et al. Med Educ 46(7): 636-647, 2012; Teteris et al. Adv Health Sci Educ 17(1): 137-144, 2012). For the most part, the common definition within the medical education community has been that simulations that present highly realistic performance characteristics, contexts, and scenarios are referred to as high-fidelity, while simulations that reduce to-be-learned skills to simpler constructs or constituent parts are referred to as low-fidelity. The issue with this is that highly-realistic has tended to mean the degree to which the simulation looks like the criterion context with little regard for what features of the simulation are in fact relevant to the skill that the educator hopes to teach. The inherent assumption that high fidelity simulations lead to better learning-an assumption for which there is a lack of supporting evidence (Norman et al. Med Educ 46(7): 636-647, 2012)-only exacerbates the problem. So much so that some have suggested that the term be abandoned all together (Hamstra et al. Acad Med J Assoc Am Med Coll 2014). While, it is true that fidelity and its importance are misconstrued in the medical education literature, the construct, defined classically as the degree of faithfulness that exists between two entities, is still fundamental to understanding the effectiveness that any one simulation might have in preparing learners for clinical performance. However, the concept of simulation fidelity must be recast in terms of the fundamental information processing events that underpin human performance.

  2. Turbulence statistics in a spectral element code: a toolbox for High-Fidelity Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinuesa, Ricardo [KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC), Stockholm (Sweden); Fick, Lambert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Negi, Prabal [KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC), Stockholm (Sweden); Marin, Oana [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Merzari, Elia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlatter, Phillip [KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC), Stockholm (Sweden)


    In the present document we describe a toolbox for the spectral-element code Nek5000, aimed at computing turbulence statistics. The toolbox is presented for a small test case, namely a square duct with Lx = 2h, Ly = 2h and Lz = 4h, where x, y and z are the horizontal, vertical and streamwise directions, respectively. The number of elements in the xy-plane is 16 X 16 = 256, and the number of elements in z is 4, leading to a total of 1,204 spectral elements. A polynomial order of N = 5 is chosen, and the mesh is generated using the Nek5000 tool genbox. The toolbox presented here allows to compute mean-velocity components, the Reynolds-stress tensor as well as turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and Reynolds-stress budgets. Note that the present toolbox allows to compute turbulence statistics in turbulent flows with one homogeneous direction (where the statistics are based on time-averaging as well as averaging in the homogeneous direction), as well as in fully three-dimensional flows (with no periodic directions, where only time-averaging is considered).

  3. Utilizing High Fidelity Simulations in Multidisciplinary Optimization of Aircraft Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls,...

  4. Runtime Performance and Virtual Network Control Alternatives in VM-Based High-Fidelity Network Simulations (United States)


    network emulation systems have been proposed, such as V-eM (Apostolopoulos and Hasapis 2006), DieCast (Gupta et al. 2008), VENICE (Liu, Raju, and...Proceedings of the 2006 3rd Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI’06), San Jose, CA, USA. Gupta, D., et al. 2008. “ DieCast

  5. A new meaning to 'flying the desk'. [high fidelity cockpit simulator (United States)

    Sexton, G. A.


    A unique advanced transport flight station design is described. The various systems and displays of the design are described, including: the configuration; switches; tailored logic/artificial intelligence; primary flight controllers; front panel displays; primary flight/navigation display; engine power/status, approach charts, and weather display; the Advisory, Caution, and Warning System/Cockpit Display of Traffic Information display; checklist/functional systems display; head-up display; voice command and response system; Flight Management Computer system; and integrated communications/navigation system. The application of the flight station to military research is briefly discussed.

  6. High fidelity real-time simulator with mixed real and virtual sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Dorrepaal, M.; Thean, A.H.C.; Elk, M.G. van


    The advance in interactive/cooperative robotics and integration of robots into populated environments puts emphasis on robot-robot and robot-environment (incl. human) interactions. Sensing and sensory data interpretation play ever increasing role because sensing becomes the primary way of collecting

  7. Integrated Variable-Fidelity Tool Set For Modeling and Simulation of Aeroservothermoelasticity -Propulsion (ASTE-P) Effects For Aerospace Vehicles Ranging From Subsonic to Hypersonic Flight Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research program aims at developing a variable-fidelity software tool set for aeroservothermoelastic-propulsive (ASTE-P) modeling that can be routinely...

  8. Integrated Variable-Fidelity Tool Set for Modeling and Simulation of Aeroservothermoelasticity-Propulsion (ASTE-P) Effects for Aerospace Vehicles Ranging From Subsonic to Hypersonic Flight Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research program aims at developing a variable-fidelity software tool set for aeroservothermoelastic-propulsive (ASTE-P) modeling that can be routinely...

  9. Evaluating display fidelity and interaction fidelity in a virtual reality game. (United States)

    McMahan, Ryan P; Bowman, Doug A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael B


    In recent years, consumers have witnessed a technological revolution that has delivered more-realistic experiences in their own homes through high-definition, stereoscopic televisions and natural, gesture-based video game consoles. Although these experiences are more realistic, offering higher levels of fidelity, it is not clear how the increased display and interaction aspects of fidelity impact the user experience. Since immersive virtual reality (VR) allows us to achieve very high levels of fidelity, we designed and conducted a study that used a six-sided CAVE to evaluate display fidelity and interaction fidelity independently, at extremely high and low levels, for a VR first-person shooter (FPS) game. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the effects of fidelity on the user in a complex, performance-intensive context. The results of our study indicate that both display and interaction fidelity significantly affect strategy and performance, as well as subjective judgments of presence, engagement, and usability. In particular, performance results were strongly in favor of two conditions: low-display, low-interaction fidelity (representative of traditional FPS games) and high-display, high-interaction fidelity (similar to the real world).

  10. CATCC/AATCC Simulator (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 15G30 CATCC/AATCC simulator provides high fidelity training for Navy Air Traffic Control (ATC) trainees in a realistic shipboard air traffic control environment....

  11. Laser Welding Process Parameters Optimization Using Variable-Fidelity Metamodel and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chaochao


    Full Text Available An optimization methodology based on variable-fidelity (VF metamodels and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II for laser bead-on-plate welding of stainless steel 316L is presented. The relationships between input process parameters (laser power, welding speed and laser focal position and output responses (weld width and weld depth are constructed by VF metamodels. In VF metamodels, the information from two levels fidelity models are integrated, in which the low-fidelity model (LF is finite element simulation model that is used to capture the general trend of the metamodels, and high-fidelity (HF model which from physical experiments is used to ensure the accuracy of metamodels. The accuracy of the VF metamodel is verified by actual experiments. To slove the optimization problem, NSGA-II is used to search for multi-objective Pareto optimal solutions. The results of verification experiments show that the obtained optimal parameters are effective and reliable.

  12. Simulator Fidelity: A Concept Paper (United States)


    training programs, it should be possible to screen out those trainees who do not possess the required abilities to benefit from a given training program...Iq5LQ.H AIIN: AIiLA-LSi I (IS AotMY AYN NO~i LIbRARY AITN: 4LMI&1 LIHI44AHIA14 I USAAu’fJC ATTN.- ATIU-U I iUS t4iLlIAHy ACAI ~t.Y UIHLLIUI4 01

  13. High Fidelity, Efficiency and Functionalization of Ds-Px Unnatural Base Pairs in PCR Amplification for a Genetic Alphabet Expansion System. (United States)

    Okamoto, Itaru; Miyatake, Yuya; Kimoto, Michiko; Hirao, Ichiro


    Genetic alphabet expansion of DNA using an artificial extra base pair (unnatural base pair) could augment nucleic acid and protein functionalities by increasing their components. We previously developed an unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and 2-nitro-4-propynylpyrrole (Px), which exhibits high fidelity as a third base pair in PCR amplification. Here, the fidelity and efficiency of Ds-Px pairing using modified Px bases with functional groups, such as diol, azide, ethynyl and biotin, were evaluated by an improved method with optimized PCR conditions. The results revealed that all of the base pairs between Ds and either one of the modified Px bases functioned with high amplification efficiency (0.76-0.81), high selectivity (≥99.96% per doubling), and less sequence dependency, in PCR using 3'-exonuclease-proficient Deep Vent DNA polymerase. We also demonstrated that the azide-Px in PCR-amplified DNA was efficiently modified with any functional groups by copper-free click reaction. This genetic alphabet expansion system could endow nucleic acids with a wide variety of increased functionalities by the site-specific incorporation of modified Px bases at desired positions in DNA.

  14. Modeling for Fidelity: virtual mentorship by scientists fosters teacher self-efficacy and promotes implementation of novel high school biomedical curricula. (United States)

    Malanson, Katherine; Jacque, Berri; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina F


    This small-scale comparison case study evaluates the impact of an innovative approach to teacher professional development designed to promote implementation of a novel cutting edge high school neurological disorders curriculum. 'Modeling for Fidelity' (MFF) centers on an extended mentor relationship between teachers and biomedical scientists carried out in a virtual format in conjunction with extensive online educative materials. Four teachers from different diverse high schools in Massachusetts and Ohio who experienced MFF contextualized to a 6-week Neurological Disorders curriculum with the same science mentor were compared to a teacher who had experienced an intensive in-person professional development contextualized to the same curriculum with the same mentor. Fidelity of implementation was measured directly using an established metric and indirectly via student performance. The results show that teachers valued MFF, particularly the mentor relationship and were able to use it effectively to ensure critical components of the learning objectives were preserved. Moreover their students performed equivalently to those whose teacher had experienced intensive in-person professional development. Participants in all school settings demonstrated large (Cohen's d>2.0) and significant (p1.5, pteachers that are scalable and not geographically constrained, facilitating teacher implementation of novel cutting-edge curricula.

  15. Incorporating Realistic Acoustic Propagation Models in Simulation of Underwater Acoustic Networks: A Statistical Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Geoffrey; Gibson, John; Diaz-Gonzalez, Leopoldo


    .... The validity of the simulation results becomes questionable. There are, though, very high fidelity models developed by acoustic engineers and physicists for predicting acoustic propagation characteristics...

  16. Developing effective serious games: the effect of background sound on visual fidelity perception with varying texture resolution. (United States)

    Rojas, David; Kapralos, Bill; Cristancho, Sayra; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Conati, Cristina; Dubrowski, Adam


    Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on the perception of visual fidelity (defined with respect to texture resolution). Results suggest that the perception of visual fidelity is dependent on ambient sound and more specifically, white noise can have detrimental effects on our perception of high quality visuals. The results of this study will guide future studies that will ultimately aid in developing an understanding of the role that fidelity, and multi-modal interactions play with respect to knowledge transfer and retention for users of virtual simulations and serious games.

  17. Porous polymer coatings as substrates for the formation of high-fidelity micropatterns by quill-like pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hirtz


    Full Text Available We explored the potentials of microarray printing using quill-like microcantilevers onto solid supports that are typically used in microspot printing, including paper, polymeric nitrocellulose and nylon membranes. We compared these membranes with a novel porous poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate support (HEMA with narrow pore size distribution in the 150 nm range, which demonstrated advantages in pattern definition, spot homogeneity, and consistent spot delivery of different dyes (phloxine B and bromophenol blue with diameters of several micrometres. The bromophenol blue arrays on HEMA support were used to detect the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA. In the presence of BSA, the fluorescence spectrum observed from the bromophenol blue microarray exhibited a significant red shift of the maximum emission wavelength. Our results show that the porous HEMA substrates can improve the fidelity and quality of microarrays prepared by using the quill-like microcantilevers. The presented method sets the stage for further studies using chemical and biochemical recognition elements, along with colorimetric and fluorometric sensors that can be spotted by this method onto flat porous polymer substrates.

  18. Simulations of highly reactive fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, L E; Manaa, M R; Reed, E J


    We report density functional molecular dynamics simulations to determine the early chemical events of hot (T = 3000 K) and dense (1.97 g/cm{sup 3}, V/V{sub 0} = 0.68) nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}). The first step in the decomposition process is an intermolecular proton abstraction mechanism that leads to the formation of CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}H and the aci ion H{sub 2}CNO{sub 2}{sup -}, in support of evidence from static high-pressure and shock experiments. An intramolecular hydrogen transfer that transforms nitromethane into the aci acid form, CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}H, accompanies this event. This is the first confirmation of chemical reactivity with bond selectivity for an energetic material near the condition of fully reacted specimen. We also report the decomposition mechanism followed up to the formation of H{sub 2}O as the first stable product.

  19. Using the Moon as a high-fidelity analogue environment to study biological and behavioral effects of long-duration space exploration (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roma, Peter G.; De Boever, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Hargens, Alan R.; Loeppky, Jack A.; Evans, Joyce M.; Peter Stein, T.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Reitz, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.


    Due to its proximity to Earth, the Moon is a promising candidate for the location of an extra-terrestrial human colony. In addition to being a high-fidelity platform for research on reduced gravity, radiation risk, and circadian disruption, the Moon qualifies as an isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment suitable as an analog for studying the psychosocial effects of long-duration human space exploration missions and understanding these processes. In contrast, the various Antarctic research outposts such as Concordia and McMurdo serve as valuable platforms for studying biobehavioral adaptations to ICE environments, but are still Earth-bound, and thus lack the low-gravity and radiation risks of space. The International Space Station (ISS), itself now considered an analog environment for long-duration missions, better approximates the habitable infrastructure limitations of a lunar colony than most Antarctic settlements in an altered gravity setting. However, the ISS is still protected against cosmic radiation by the Earth magnetic field, which prevents high exposures due to solar particle events and reduces exposures to galactic cosmic radiation. On Moon the ICE environments are strengthened, radiations of all energies are present capable of inducing performance degradation, as well as reduced gravity and lunar dust. The interaction of reduced gravity, radiation exposure, and ICE conditions may affect biology and behavior - and ultimately mission success - in ways the scientific and operational communities have yet to appreciate, therefore a long-term or permanent human presence on the Moon would ultimately provide invaluable high-fidelity opportunities for integrated multidisciplinary research and for preparations of a manned mission to Mars.

  20. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko


    We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

  1. Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems. (United States)

    Wimberger, Sandro


    We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular-chaotic phase space. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. High fidelity remote sensing of snow properties from MODIS and the Airborne Snow Observatory: Snowflakes to Terabytes (United States)

    Painter, T.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Bryant, A. C.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Rittger, K. E.; Seidel, F. C.; Zimdars, P. A.


    The response of the cryosphere to climate forcings largely determines Earth's climate sensitivity. However, our understanding of the strength of the simulated snow albedo feedback varies by a factor of three in the GCMs used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, mainly caused by uncertainties in snow extent and the albedo of snow-covered areas from imprecise remote sensing retrievals. Additionally, the Western US and other regions of the globe depend predominantly on snowmelt for their water supply to agriculture, industry and cities, hydroelectric power, and recreation, against rising demand from increasing population. In the mountains of the Upper Colorado River Basin, dust radiative forcing in snow shortens snow cover duration by 3-7 weeks. Extended to the entire upper basin, the 5-fold increase in dust load since the late-1800s results in a 3-week earlier peak runoff and a 5% annual loss of total runoff. The remotely sensed dynamics of snow cover duration and melt however have not been factored into hydrological modeling, operational forecasting, and policymaking. To address these deficiencies in our understanding of snow properties, we have developed and validated a suite of MODIS snow products that provide accurate fractional snow covered area and radiative forcing of dust and carbonaceous aerosols in snow. The MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) algorithms, developed and transferred from imaging spectroscopy techniques, leverage the complete MODIS surface reflectance spectrum. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. We have created the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete

  3. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation: Linking hindcast fidelity to simulated diabatic heating and moistening: DIABATIC PROCESSES IN MJO HINDCASTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingaman, Nicholas P. [National Centre for Atmospheric Science and Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading UK; Woolnough, Steven J. [National Centre for Atmospheric Science and Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading UK; Jiang, Xianan [Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles California USA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena California USA; Waliser, Duane [Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles California USA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena California USA; Xavier, Prince K. [UK Met Office, Exeter UK; Petch, Jon [UK Met Office, Exeter UK; Caian, Mihaela [Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping Sweden; Hannay, Cecile [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Kim, Daehyun [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Washington USA; Ma, Hsi-Yen [Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California USA; Merryfield, William J. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, Victoria British Columbia Canada; Miyakawa, Tomoki [Department of Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land Process Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka Japan; Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Tokyo University, Toyko Japan; Pritchard, Mike [Department of Earth System Sciences, University of California, Irvine California USA; Ridout, James A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey California USA; Roehrig, Romain [CNRM-GAME, Météo-France and CNRS, Toulouse France; Shindo, Eiki [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba Japan; Vitart, Frederic [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading UK; Wang, Hailan [National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Cavanaugh, Nicholas R. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla California USA; Mapes, Brian E. [Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Coral Gables Florida USA; Shelly, Ann [UK Met Office, Exeter UK; Zhang, Guang J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla California USA


    Many theories for the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) focus on diabatic processes, particularly the evolution of vertical heating and moistening. Poor MJO performance in weather and climate models is often blamed on biases in these processes and their interactions with the large-scale circulation. We introduce one of the three components of a model evaluation project, which aims to connect MJO fidelity in models to their representations of several physical processes, focusing on diabatic heating and moistening. This component consists of 20 day hindcasts, initialized daily during two MJO events in winter 2009–2010. The 13 models exhibit a range of skill: several have accurate forecasts to 20 days lead, while others perform similarly to statistical models (8–11 days). Models that maintain the observed MJO amplitude accurately predict propagation, but not vice versa. We find no link between hindcast fidelity and the precipitation-moisture relationship, in contrast to other recent studies. There is also no relationship between models' performance and the evolution of their diabatic heating profiles with rain rate. A more robust association emerges between models' fidelity and net moistening: the highest-skill models show a clear transition from low-level moistening for light rainfall to midlevel moistening at moderate rainfall and upper level moistening for heavy rainfall. The midlevel moistening, arising from both dynamics and physics, may be most important. Accurately representing many processes may be necessary but not sufficient for capturing the MJO, which suggests that models fail to predict the MJO for a broad range of reasons and limits the possibility of finding a panacea.

  4. Simulating neural systems with Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Warrender, Christina E.; Aimone, James Bradley; Teeter, Corinne; Duda, Alex M.


    Sandias parallel circuit simulator, Xyce, can address large scale neuron simulations in a new way extending the range within which one can perform high-fidelity, multi-compartment neuron simulations. This report documents the implementation of neuron devices in Xyce, their use in simulation and analysis of neuron systems.

  5. Particle infectivity of HIV-1 full-length genome infectious molecular clones in a subtype C heterosexual transmission pair following high fidelity amplification and unbiased cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deymier, Martin J., E-mail: [Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Claiborne, Daniel T., E-mail: [Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Ende, Zachary, E-mail: [Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Ratner, Hannah K., E-mail: [Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Kilembe, William, E-mail: [Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project (ZEHRP), B22/737 Mwembelelo, Emmasdale Post Net 412, P/BagE891, Lusaka (Zambia); Allen, Susan, E-mail: [Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project (ZEHRP), B22/737 Mwembelelo, Emmasdale Post Net 412, P/BagE891, Lusaka (Zambia); Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hunter, Eric, E-mail: [Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 impedes high throughput, large-scale sequencing and full-length genome cloning by common restriction enzyme based methods. Applying novel methods that employ a high-fidelity polymerase for amplification and an unbiased fusion-based cloning strategy, we have generated several HIV-1 full-length genome infectious molecular clones from an epidemiologically linked transmission pair. These clones represent the transmitted/founder virus and phylogenetically diverse non-transmitted variants from the chronically infected individual's diverse quasispecies near the time of transmission. We demonstrate that, using this approach, PCR-induced mutations in full-length clones derived from their cognate single genome amplicons are rare. Furthermore, all eight non-transmitted genomes tested produced functional virus with a range of infectivities, belying the previous assumption that a majority of circulating viruses in chronic HIV-1 infection are defective. Thus, these methods provide important tools to update protocols in molecular biology that can be universally applied to the study of human viral pathogens. - Highlights: • Our novel methodology demonstrates accurate amplification and cloning of full-length HIV-1 genomes. • A majority of plasma derived HIV variants from a chronically infected individual are infectious. • The transmitted/founder was more infectious than the majority of the variants from the chronically infected donor.

  6. Implantation and Recovery of Long-Term Archival Transceivers in a Migratory Shark with High Site Fidelity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Haulsee

    Full Text Available We developed a long-term tagging method that can be used to understand species assemblages and social groupings associated with large marine fishes such as the Sand Tiger shark Carcharias taurus. We deployed internally implanted archival VEMCO Mobile Transceivers (VMTs; VEMCO Ltd. Nova Scotia, Canada in 20 adult Sand Tigers, of which two tags were successfully recovered (10%. The recovered VMTs recorded 29,646 and 44,210 detections of telemetered animals respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a method for long-term (~ 1 year archival acoustic transceiver tag implantation, retention, and recovery in a highly migratory marine fish. Results show low presumed mortality (n = 1, 5%, high VMT retention, and that non-lethal recovery after almost a year at liberty can be achieved for archival acoustic transceivers. This method can be applied to study the social interactions and behavioral ecology of large marine fishes.

  7. A New View on Interstellar Dust - High Fidelity Studies of Interstellar Dust Analogue Tracks in Stardust Flight Spare Aerogel (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Postberg F.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bugiel, S.; hide


    In 2000 and 2002 the Stardust Mission exposed aerogel collector panels for a total of about 200 days to the stream of interstellar grains sweeping through the solar system. The material was brought back to Earth in 2006. The goal of this work is the laboratory calibration of the collection process by shooting high speed [5 - 30km/s] interstellar dust (ISD) analogues onto Stardust aerogel flight spares. This enables an investigation into both the morphology of impact tracks as well as any structural and chemical modification of projectile and collector material. First results indicate a different ISD flux than previously assumed for the Stardust collection period.

  8. BeamDyn: A High-Fidelity Wind Turbine Blade Solver in the FAST Modular Framework: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Sprague, M.; Jonkman, J.; Johnson, N.


    BeamDyn, a Legendre-spectral-finite-element implementation of geometrically exact beam theory (GEBT), was developed to meet the design challenges associated with highly flexible composite wind turbine blades. In this paper, the governing equations of GEBT are reformulated into a nonlinear state-space form to support its coupling within the modular framework of the FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool. Different time integration schemes (implicit and explicit) were implemented and examined for wind turbine analysis. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this new beam solver. An example analysis of a realistic wind turbine blade, the CX-100, is also presented as validation.

  9. High fidelity visualization of cell-to-cell variation and temporal dynamics in nascent extracellular matrix formation (United States)

    McLeod, Claire M.; Mauck, Robert L.


    Extracellular matrix dynamics are key to tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis, injury, and repair. The spatiotemporal organization of this matrix has profound biological implications, but is challenging to monitor using standard techniques. Here, we address these challenges by using noncanonical amino acid tagging to fluorescently label extracellular matrix synthesized in the presence of bio-orthogonal methionine analogs. This strategy labels matrix proteins with high resolution, without compromising their distribution or mechanical function. We demonstrate that the organization and temporal dynamics of the proteinaceous matrix depend on the biophysical features of the microenvironment, including the biomaterial scaffold and the niche constructed by cells themselves. Pulse labeling experiments reveal that, in immature constructs, nascent matrix is highly fibrous and interdigitates with pre-existing matrix, while in more developed constructs, nascent matrix lacks fibrous organization and is retained in the immediate pericellular space. Inhibition of collagen crosslinking increases matrix synthesis, but compromises matrix organization. Finally, these data demonstrate marked cell-to-cell heterogeneity amongst both chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells undergoing chondrogenesis. Collectively, these results introduce fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging as a strategy to investigate spatiotemporal matrix organization, and demonstrate its ability to identify differences in phenotype, microenvironment, and matrix assembly at the single cell level. PMID:27941914

  10. Toward high fidelity spectral sensing and RF signal processing in silicon photonic and nano-opto-mechanical platforms (United States)

    Siddiqui, Aleem; Reinke, Charles; Shin, Heedeuk; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew L.; Rakich, Peter


    The performance of electronic systems for radio-frequency (RF) spectrum analysis is critical for agile radar and communications systems, ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) operations in challenging electromagnetic (EM) environments, and EM-environment situational awareness. While considerable progress has been made in size, weight, and power (SWaP) and performance metrics in conventional RF technology platforms, fundamental limits make continued improvements increasingly difficult. Alternatively, we propose employing cascaded transduction processes in a chip-scale nano-optomechanical system (NOMS) to achieve a spectral sensor with exceptional signal-linearity, high dynamic range, narrow spectral resolution and ultra-fast sweep times. By leveraging the optimal capabilities of photons and phonons, the system we pursue in this work has performance metrics scalable well beyond the fundamental limitations inherent to all electronic systems. In our device architecture, information processing is performed on wide-bandwidth RF-modulated optical signals by photon-mediated phononic transduction of the modulation to the acoustical-domain for narrow-band filtering, and then back to the optical-domain by phonon-mediated phase modulation (the reverse process). Here, we rely on photonics to efficiently distribute signals for parallel processing, and on phononics for effective and flexible RF-frequency manipulation. This technology is used to create RF-filters that are insensitive to the optical wavelength, with wide center frequency bandwidth selectivity (1-100GHz), ultra-narrow filter bandwidth (1-100MHz), and high dynamic range (70dB), which we will present. Additionally, using this filter as a building block, we will discuss current results and progress toward demonstrating a multichannel-filter with a bandwidth of < 10MHz per channel, while minimizing cumulative optical/acoustic/optical transduced insertion-loss to ideally < 10dB. These proposed metric

  11. Validation of High-Fidelity Reactor Physics Models for Support of the KJRR Experimental Campaign in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nielsen, Joseph W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Norman, Daren R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is currently in the process of qualifying a Low-Enriched Uranium fuel element design for the new Ki-Jang Research Reactor (KJRR). As part of this effort, a prototype KJRR fuel element was irradiated for several operating cycles in the Northeast Flux Trap of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. The KJRR fuel element contained a very large quantity of fissile material (618g 235U) in comparison with historical ATR experiment standards (<1g 235U), and its presence in the ATR flux trap was expected to create a neutronic configuration that would be well outside of the approved validation envelope for the reactor physics analysis methods used to support ATR operations. Accordingly it was necessary, prior to high-power irradiation of the KJRR fuel element in the ATR, to conduct an extensive set of new low-power physics measurements with the KJRR fuel element installed in the ATR Critical Facility (ATRC), a companion facility to the ATR that is located in an immediately adjacent building, sharing the same fuel handling and storage canal. The new measurements had the objective of expanding the validation envelope for the computational reactor physics tools used to support ATR operations and safety analysis to include the planned KJRR irradiation in the ATR and similar experiments that are anticipated in the future. The computational and experimental results demonstrated that the neutronic behavior of the KJRR fuel element in the ATRC is well-understood, both in terms of its general effects on core excess reactivity and fission power distributions, its effects on the calibration of the core lobe power measurement system, as well as in terms of its own internal fission rate distribution and total fission power per unit ATRC core power. Taken as a whole, these results have significantly extended the ATR physics validation envelope, thereby enabling an entire new class of irradiation experiments.

  12. Site fidelity and longevity of the Karoo Thrush Turdus smithi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated site fidelity and longevity of an urban T. smithi population at the University of Pretoria main campus in Gauteng. Thrushes were ringed with unique colour ring combinations and identified by resighting them later. We found that T. smithi individuals have high site fidelity, with some thrushes ...

  13. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa


    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  14. Flow simulation and high performance computing (United States)

    Tezduyar, T.; Aliabadi, S.; Behr, M.; Johnson, A.; Kalro, V.; Litke, M.


    Flow simulation is a computational tool for exploring science and technology involving flow applications. It can provide cost-effective alternatives or complements to laboratory experiments, field tests and prototyping. Flow simulation relies heavily on high performance computing (HPC). We view HPC as having two major components. One is advanced algorithms capable of accurately simulating complex, real-world problems. The other is advanced computer hardware and networking with sufficient power, memory and bandwidth to execute those simulations. While HPC enables flow simulation, flow simulation motivates development of novel HPC techniques. This paper focuses on demonstrating that flow simulation has come a long way and is being applied to many complex, real-world problems in different fields of engineering and applied sciences, particularly in aerospace engineering and applied fluid mechanics. Flow simulation has come a long way because HPC has come a long way. This paper also provides a brief review of some of the recently-developed HPC methods and tools that has played a major role in bringing flow simulation where it is today. A number of 3D flow simulations are presented in this paper as examples of the level of computational capability reached with recent HPC methods and hardware. These examples are, flow around a fighter aircraft, flow around two trains passing in a tunnel, large ram-air parachutes, flow over hydraulic structures, contaminant dispersion in a model subway station, airflow past an automobile, multiple spheres falling in a liquid-filled tube, and dynamics of a paratrooper jumping from a cargo aircraft.

  15. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Malene Warming; Makransky, Guido


    . The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between......, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning...

  16. Modeling and Depletion Simulations for a High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle with a Representative Experiment Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Betzler, Ben [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Hirtz, Gregory John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Sunny, Eva [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division


    The purpose of this report is to document a high-fidelity VESTA/MCNP High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core model that features a new, representative experiment loading. This model, which represents the current, high-enriched uranium fuel core, will serve as a reference for low-enriched uranium conversion studies, safety-basis calculations, and other research activities. A new experiment loading model was developed to better represent current, typical experiment loadings, in comparison to the experiment loading included in the model for Cycle 400 (operated in 2004). The new experiment loading model for the flux trap target region includes full length 252Cf production targets, 75Se production capsules, 63Ni production capsules, a 188W production capsule, and various materials irradiation targets. Fully loaded 238Pu production targets are modeled in eleven vertical experiment facilities located in the beryllium reflector. Other changes compared to the Cycle 400 model are the high-fidelity modeling of the fuel element side plates and the material composition of the control elements. Results obtained from the depletion simulations with the new model are presented, with a focus on time-dependent isotopic composition of irradiated fuel and single cycle isotope production metrics.

  17. Fidelity in Archaeal Information Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de B.; Blombach, F.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.


    A key element during the flow of genetic information in living systems is fidelity. The accuracy of DNA replication influences the genome size as well as the rate of genome evolution. The large amount of energy invested in gene expression implies that fidelity plays a major role in fitness. On the

  18. RTI Fidelity of Implementation Rubric (United States)

    National Center on Response to Intervention, 2014


    The Response to Intervention (RTI) Fidelity Rubric is for use by individuals who are responsible for monitoring school-level fidelity of RTI implementation. The rubric is aligned with the essential components of RTI and the infrastructure that is necessary for successful implementation. It is accompanied by a worksheet with guiding questions and…

  19. High Performance Hybrid RANS-LES Simulation Framework for Turbulent Combusting Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a computational framework for high performance, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to enable accurate, fast and robust...

  20. Fidelity in Archaeal Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart de Koning


    Full Text Available A key element during the flow of genetic information in living systems is fidelity. The accuracy of DNA replication influences the genome size as well as the rate of genome evolution. The large amount of energy invested in gene expression implies that fidelity plays a major role in fitness. On the other hand, an increase in fidelity generally coincides with a decrease in velocity. Hence, an important determinant of the evolution of life has been the establishment of a delicate balance between fidelity and variability. This paper reviews the current knowledge on quality control in archaeal information processing. While the majority of these processes are homologous in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes, examples are provided of nonorthologous factors and processes operating in the archaeal domain. In some instances, evidence for the existence of certain fidelity mechanisms has been provided, but the factors involved still remain to be identified.

  1. High-Q antennas: Simulator limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    Increasing the mesh steps - i.e. the accuracy of the model - of a structure leads to converging results towards reality. With high-field structures, discretization of the domain in a transient simulation becomes of important matter. It is shown in this work that for these structures convergence...

  2. The Effect of Learning Styles, Critical Thinking Disposition, and Critical Thinking on Clinical Judgment in Senior Baccalaureate Nursing Students during Human Patient Simulation (United States)

    McCormick, Kiyan


    Simulated learning experiences using high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) are increasingly being integrated into baccalaureate nursing programs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships among learning style, critical thinking disposition, critical thinking, and clinical judgment during high-fidelity human patient…

  3. Intermediate Fidelity Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Model (United States)

    Lavelle, Thomas M.; Khandelwal, Suresh; Owen, Albert K.


    This paper describes the implementation of an intermediate fidelity model of a closed Brayton Cycle power conversion system (Closed Cycle System Simulation). The simulation is developed within the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System architecture using component elements from earlier models. Of particular interest, and power, is the ability of this new simulation system to initiate a more detailed analysis of compressor and turbine components automatically and to incorporate the overall results into the general system simulation.

  4. Model-implementation fidelity in cyber physical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fabre, Christian


    This book puts in focus various techniques for checking modeling fidelity of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), with respect to the physical world they represent. The authors' present modeling and analysis techniques representing different communities, from very different angles, discuss their possible interactions, and discuss the commonalities and differences between their practices. Coverage includes model driven development, resource-driven development, statistical analysis, proofs of simulator implementation, compiler construction, power/temperature modeling of digital devices, high-level performance analysis, and code/device certification. Several industrial contexts are covered, including modeling of computing and communication, proof architectures models and statistical based validation techniques. Addresses CPS design problems such as cross-application interference, parsimonious modeling, and trustful code production Describes solutions, such as simulation for extra-functional properties, extension of cod...

  5. High Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Alaska (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Clark, M. P.; Arnold, J.; Newman, A. J.; Musselman, K. N.; Barlage, M. J.; Xue, L.; Liu, C.; Gutmann, E. D.; Rasmussen, R.


    In order to appropriately plan future projects to build and maintain infrastructure (e.g., dams, dikes, highways, airports), a number of U.S. federal agencies seek to better understand how hydrologic regimes may shift across the country due to climate change. Building on the successful completion of a series of high-resolution WRF simulations over the Colorado River Headwaters and contiguous USA, our team is now extending these simulations over the challenging U.S. States of Alaska and Hawaii. In this presentation we summarize results from a newly completed 4-km resolution WRF simulation over Alaska spanning 2002-2016 at 4-km spatial resolution. Our aim is to gain insight into the thermodynamics that drive key precipitation processes, particularly the extremes that are most damaging to infrastructure.

  6. High-resolution simulations of turbidity currents (United States)

    Biegert, Edward; Vowinckel, Bernhard; Ouillon, Raphael; Meiburg, Eckart


    We employ direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, based on a continuum formulation for the sediment concentration, to investigate the physics of turbidity currents in complex situations, such as when they interact with seafloor topography, submarine engineering infrastructure and stratified ambients. In order to obtain a more accurate representation of the dynamics of erosion and resuspension, we have furthermore developed a grain-resolving simulation approach for representing the flow in the high-concentration region near and within the sediment bed. In these simulations, the Navier-Stokes flow around each particle and within the pore spaces of the sediment bed is resolved by means of an immersed boundary method, with the particle-particle interactions being taken into account via a detailed collision model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Randomized Crossover Study of Training Benefits of High Fidelity ECMO Simulation versus Porcine Animal Model An Interim Report (United States)



  8. High-Fidelity Simulation: A New Method for Improving Medication Administration Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Jordan (United States)

    Mohammad, Anas Ahmad Ali


    Although administering medicines is one of the core nursing actions, errors surrounding this task are prevalent amongst nurses and nursing students. Continued dependence on traditional teaching methods and greater demand and competition for clinical placements are some barriers to expanding medication administration practices for nursing students.…

  9. Production of Mature Highland Lunar Regolith Simulant Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA considers manned and/or unmanned return missions to the Moon and beyond, it is imperative that high fidelity lunar soil simulants be developed in order to...

  10. Teaching of pressure injury prevention and treatment using simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mazzo


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the construction of a high-fidelity clinical scenario simulation of "Pressure injury patient nursing care". Method: Report the experience of constructing a high-fidelity clinical scenario simulation based on the literature and on Bloom's taxonomy. Learning objectives, prior study material, fidelity, clinical case, necessary resources, problem solving, face and content validity, debriefing and evaluation were considered. Results: The scenario included cognitive, psychomotor and affective aspects; role-playing and the moulage technique were used, and it was positively evaluated by the students. Conclusion: The construction of planned, structured and validated simulated clinical scenarios brings learners closer to the clinical practice, allowing the development of the skills required for the prevention and treatment of pressure injuries. Implications for practice: Well-designed simulated clinical settings simulate nursing care training with fidelity to patients with pressure injury.

  11. Participatory ergonomics simulation of hospital work systems: The influence of simulation media on simulation outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole


    Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full......-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups’ high fidelity of room layout and affordance...... of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models’ high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity...

  12. Model Fidelity Study of Dynamic Transient Loads in a Wind Turbine Gearbox: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Moan, T.; Xing, Y.


    Transient events cause high loads in the drivetrain components so measuring and calculating these loads can improve confidence in drivetrain design. This paper studies the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative 750kW wind turbine gearbox response during transient events using a combined experimental and modeling approach. The transient events include emergency shut-downs and start-ups measured during a field testing period in 2009. The drivetrain model is established in the multibody simulation tool Simpack. A detailed study of modeling fidelity required for accurate load prediction is performed and results are compared against measured loads. A high fidelity model that includes shaft and housing flexibility and accurate bearing stiffnesses is important for the higher-speed stage bearing loads. Each of the transient events has different modeling requirements.

  13. Multi-fidelity wake modelling based on Co-Kriging method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y. M.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; van der Laan, Paul


    The article presents an approach to combine wake models of multiple levels of fidelity, which is capable of giving accurate predictions with only a small number of high fidelity samples. The G. C. Larsen and k-ε-fP based RANS models are adopted as ensemble members of low fidelity and high fidelity...... models, respectively. Both the univariate and multivariate based surrogate models are established by taking the local wind speed and wind direction as variables of the wind farm power efficiency function. Various multi-fidelity surrogate models are compared and different sampling schemes are discussed....... The analysis shows that the multi-fidelity wake models could tremendously reduce the high fidelity model evaluations needed in building an accurate surrogate....

  14. UXO Burial Prediction Fidelity (United States)


    for-profit company that operates three Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). We perform scientific and technical analyses for the...Trajectory for Mine Clearance,” Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications,  Methodology , Technology 8 (1) (2011): 25–36.  3P. Chu and C...4P. Chu, et al., “Modeling of Underwater Bomb Trajectory for Mine Clearance,” Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications,  Methodology

  15. Development of Multi-Physics Dynamics Models for High-Frequency Large-Amplitude Structural Response Simulation (United States)

    Derkevorkian, Armen; Peterson, Lee; Kolaini, Ali R.; Hendricks, Terry J.; Nesmith, Bill J.


    An analytic approach is demonstrated to reveal potential pyroshock -driven dynamic effects causing power losses in the Thermo -Electric (TE) module bars of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Multi -Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). This study utilizes high- fidelity finite element analysis with SIERRA/PRESTO codes to estimate wave propagation effects due to large -amplitude suddenly -applied pyro shock loads in the MMRTG. A high fidelity model of the TE module bar was created with approximately 30 million degrees -of-freedom (DOF). First, a quasi -static preload was applied on top of the TE module bar, then transient tri- axial acceleration inputs were simultaneously applied on the preloaded module. The applied input acceleration signals were measured during MMRTG shock qualification tests performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. An explicit finite element solver in the SIERRA/PRESTO computational environment, along with a 3000 processor parallel super -computing framework at NASA -AMES, was used for the simulation. The simulation results were investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The predicted shock wave propagation results provide detailed structural responses throughout the TE module bar, and key insights into the dynamic response (i.e., loads, displacements, accelerations) of critical internal spring/piston compression systems, TE materials, and internal component interfaces in the MMRTG TE module bar. They also provide confidence on the viability of this high -fidelity modeling scheme to accurately predict shock wave propagation patterns within complex structures. This analytic approach is envisioned for modeling shock sensitive hardware susceptible to intense shock environments positioned near shock separation devices in modern space vehicles and systems.

  16. Curriculum Fidelity and Factors Affecting Fidelity in the Turkish Context (United States)

    Bumen, Nilay T.; Cakar, Esra; Yildiz, Derya G.


    Although a centralist education system is in place in Turkey, studies show that while implementing the curriculum developed by the Ministry of Education, teachers make changes based on their own preferences or depending on students. Curriculum fidelity can be defined as the degree to which teachers or stakeholders abide by a curriculum's original…

  17. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education. (United States)

    Berk, Louis J; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A; Gordon, James A; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E


    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K-12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  18. Simulation and Modeling in High Entropy Alloys (United States)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Wróbel, J. S.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Pérez, P.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, P. E. J.


    High entropy alloys (HEAs) is a fascinating field of research, with an increasing number of new alloys discovered. This would hardly be conceivable without the aid of materials modeling and computational alloy design to investigate the immense compositional space. The simplicity of the microstructure achieved contrasts with the enormous complexity of its composition, which, in turn, increases the variety of property behavior observed. Simulation and modeling techniques are of paramount importance in the understanding of such material performance. There are numerous examples of how different models have explained the observed experimental results; yet, there are theories and approaches developed for conventional alloys, where the presence of one element is predominant, that need to be adapted or re-developed. In this paper, we review of the current state of the art of the modeling techniques applied to explain HEAs properties, identifying the potential new areas of research to improve the predictability of these techniques.

  19. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Esteban, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa


    Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences...... viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase...... fidelity can also impact virus transmission between susceptible hosts. We have identified a high-fidelity norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutant (I391L) which displays delayed replication kinetics in vivo but not in cell culture. The I391L polymerase mutant also exhibited lower transmission rates...

  20. A Novel High Order Time Domain Vector Finite Element Method for the Simulation of Electromagnetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieben, Robert N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    The goal of this dissertation is two-fold. The first part concerns the development of a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations on unstructured hexahedral grids that employs both high order spatial and high order temporal discretizations. The second part involves the use of this method as a computational tool to perform high fidelity simulations of various electromagnetic devices such as optical transmission lines and photonic crystal structures to yield a level of accuracy that has previously been computationally cost prohibitive. This work is based on the initial research of Daniel White who developed a provably stable, charge and energy conserving method for solving Maxwell's equations in the time domain that is second order accurate in both space and time. The research presented here has involved the generalization of this procedure to higher order methods. High order methods are capable of yielding far more accurate numerical results for certain problems when compared to corresponding h-refined first order methods , and often times at a significant reduction in total computational cost. The first half of this dissertation presents the method as well as the necessary mathematics required for its derivation. The second half addresses the implementation of the method in a parallel computational environment, its validation using benchmark problems, and finally its use in large scale numerical simulations of electromagnetic transmission devices.

  1. Using Instrument Simulators and a Satellite Database to Evaluate Microphysical Assumptions in High-Resolution Simulations of Hurricane Rita (United States)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Chao, Y.; Chau, A. H.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Martin, J. M.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rodriguez, E.; Stiles, B. W.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.


    Improving forecasting of hurricane intensity remains a significant challenge for the research and operational communities. Many factors determine a tropical cyclone’s intensity. Ultimately, though, intensity is dependent on the magnitude and distribution of the latent heating that accompanies the hydrometeor production during the convective process. Hence, the microphysical processes and their representation in hurricane models are of crucial importance for accurately simulating hurricane intensity and evolution. The accurate modeling of the microphysical processes becomes increasingly important when running high-resolution models that should properly reflect the convective processes in the hurricane eyewall. There are many microphysical parameterizations available today. However, evaluating their performance and selecting the most representative ones remains a challenge. Several field campaigns were focused on collecting in situ microphysical observations to help distinguish between different modeling approaches and improve on the most promising ones. However, these point measurements cannot adequately reflect the space and time correlations characteristic of the convective processes. An alternative approach to evaluating microphysical assumptions is to use multi-parameter remote sensing observations of the 3D storm structure and evolution. In doing so, we could compare modeled to retrieved geophysical parameters. The satellite retrievals, however, carry their own uncertainty. To increase the fidelity of the microphysical evaluation results, we can use instrument simulators to produce satellite observables from the model fields and compare to the observed. This presentation will illustrate how instrument simulators can be used to discriminate between different microphysical assumptions. We will compare and contrast the members of high-resolution ensemble WRF model simulations of Hurricane Rita (2005), each member reflecting different microphysical assumptions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Aliev


    Full Text Available The article presents research results of random number generators (RNG influence on simulation accuracy of high-loaded queuing systems in the GPSS World simulation system. It is shown that for certain combinations of RNGs, called problem generators, the inaccuracy of the simulation results of highly loaded systems may reach tens of percent. The analysis of problem combinations revealed factors causing high level of inaccuracy in simulation results.

  3. Effect of simulation on knowledge, self-confidence, and skill performance in the USA: A quasi-experimental study. (United States)

    Bowling, Ann M; Underwood, Patricia W


    In health care, high-fidelity simulation has been shown to result in increased student learning outcomes when compared to low-fidelity simulation. With educational facilities investing significant amounts of money into purchasing high-fidelity simulators, it is imperative to identify if the midlevel simulator, which is less costly, will result in the same learning outcomes. In this study, we examined the effect of midlevel-fidelity simulation versus low-fidelity simulation on Bachelor of Science in Nursing nursing students' knowledge, self-confidence, and skill performance. A quasi-experimental design examined the effects of midlevel-fidelity simulation (n = 37) versus low-fidelity simulation (case study) (n = 37) in junior-level nursing students. There was a significant difference for both groups in knowledge and skill performance (measured with a mini Objective Structured Clinical Examination), but not between the groups. Unexpectedly, the case-study group had a higher level of self-confidence (self-reported). The results of this study indicate that further research is needed to support faculties' selection of learning strategies with the lowest cost and highest effectiveness in achieving the desired learning outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. First-Order Model Management With Variable-Fidelity Physics Applied to Multi-Element Airfoil Optimization (United States)

    Alexandrov, N. M.; Nielsen, E. J.; Lewis, R. M.; Anderson, W. K.


    First-order approximation and model management is a methodology for a systematic use of variable-fidelity models or approximations in optimization. The intent of model management is to attain convergence to high-fidelity solutions with minimal expense in high-fidelity computations. The savings in terms of computationally intensive evaluations depends on the ability of the available lower-fidelity model or a suite of models to predict the improvement trends for the high-fidelity problem, Variable-fidelity models can be represented by data-fitting approximations, variable-resolution models. variable-convergence models. or variable physical fidelity models. The present work considers the use of variable-fidelity physics models. We demonstrate the performance of model management on an aerodynamic optimization of a multi-element airfoil designed to operate in the transonic regime. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations represent the high-fidelity model, while the Euler equations represent the low-fidelity model. An unstructured mesh-based analysis code FUN2D evaluates functions and sensitivity derivatives for both models. Model management for the present demonstration problem yields fivefold savings in terms of high-fidelity evaluations compared to optimization done with high-fidelity computations alone.

  5. Atomistic simulations of highly conductive molecular transport junctions under realistic conditions

    KAUST Repository

    French, William R.


    We report state-of-the-art atomistic simulations combined with high-fidelity conductance calculations to probe structure-conductance relationships in Au-benzenedithiolate (BDT)-Au junctions under elongation. Our results demonstrate that large increases in conductance are associated with the formation of monatomic chains (MACs) of Au atoms directly connected to BDT. An analysis of the electronic structure of the simulated junctions reveals that enhancement in the s-like states in Au MACs causes the increases in conductance. Other structures also result in increased conductance but are too short-lived to be detected in experiment, while MACs remain stable for long simulation times. Examinations of thermally evolved junctions with and without MACs show negligible overlap between conductance histograms, indicating that the increase in conductance is related to this unique structural change and not thermal fluctuation. These results, which provide an excellent explanation for a recently observed anomalous experimental result [Bruot et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2012, 7, 35-40], should aid in the development of mechanically responsive molecular electronic devices. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Extending the Conceptualization of Listening Fidelity (United States)

    Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.; O'Brien, Kelley; Hanson, Scott


    An exploration of variables potentially related to Listening Fidelity (LF) was conducted through two separate studies. Study 1 indicated that when the potential fidelity of the stimulus message was varied as a function of the number of words and time length, the message with lowest potential fidelity produced significantly lower LF than either the…

  7. High-resolution computer simulations of EKC. (United States)

    Breadmore, Michael C; Quirino, Joselito P; Thormann, Wolfgang


    The electrophoresis simulation software, GENTRANS, has been modified to include the interaction of analytes with an electrolyte additive to allow the simulation of liquid-phase EKC separations. The modifications account for interaction of weak and strong acid and base analytes with a single weak or strong acid or base background electrolyte additive and can be used to simulate a range of EKC separations with both charged and neutral additives. Simulations of separations of alkylphenyl ketones under real experimental conditions were performed using mobility and interaction constant data obtained from the literature and agreed well with experimental separations. Migration times in fused-silica capillaries and linear polyacrylamide-coated capillaries were within 7% of the experimental values, while peak widths were always narrower than the experimental values, but were still within 50% of those obtained by experiment. Simulations of sweeping were also performed; although migration time agreement was not as good as for simple EKC separations, peak widths were in good agreement, being within 1-50% of the experimental values. All simulations for comparison with experimental data were performed under real experimental conditions using a 47 cm capillary and a voltage of 20 kV and represent the first quantitative attempt at simulating EKC separations with and without sweeping.

  8. The Role of Simulation in Clinical Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne; Lyng, Karen Marie; Nøhr, Christian


    high fidelity environments. The paper discusses how simulation may be used during the lifecycle of clinical information systems, and the requirements on simulation fidelity in various situations. We recommend that simulation should get a more prominent role in the design and evaluation of clinical...... systems. Simulation is especially well suited for the evaluation of human factors and organizational aspects in relation to application of information systems. In full-scale simulation tests it is possible to evaluate socio-technical interaction. A near to real life experience can be achieved by creating...... information systems....

  9. Simulation of High Quality Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kortbek, Jacob; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov


    This paper investigates if the influence on image quality using physical transducers can be simulated with an sufficient accuracy to reveal system performance. The influence is investigated in a comparative study between Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation (SASB) and Dynamic Receive Focus...... is modeled by incorporating measured element pulse echo responses into the simulation software. Validation is performed through measurements on a water phantom with three metal wires, each with a diameter of 0.07 mm. Results show that when comparing measurement and simulation, the lateral beam profile using...

  10. High-performance computing MRI simulations. (United States)

    Stöcker, Tony; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Shah, N Jon


    A new open-source software project is presented, JEMRIS, the Jülich Extensible MRI Simulator, which provides an MRI sequence development and simulation environment for the MRI community. The development was driven by the desire to achieve generality of simulated three-dimensional MRI experiments reflecting modern MRI systems hardware. The accompanying computational burden is overcome by means of parallel computing. Many aspects are covered that have not hitherto been simultaneously investigated in general MRI simulations such as parallel transmit and receive, important off-resonance effects, nonlinear gradients, and arbitrary spatiotemporal parameter variations at different levels. The latter can be used to simulate various types of motion, for instance. The JEMRIS user interface is very simple to use, but nevertheless it presents few limitations. MRI sequences with arbitrary waveforms and complex interdependent modules are modeled in a graphical user interface-based environment requiring no further programming. This manuscript describes the concepts, methods, and performance of the software. Examples of novel simulation results in active fields of MRI research are given. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Progress report on development of intermediate fidelity full assembly analysis methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R.; Fanning, T. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)


    While high fidelity modeling capabilities for various physics phenomena are being pursued under advanced modeling and simulation initiatives under the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, they generally rely on high-performance computation facilities and are too expensive to be used for parameter-space exploration or design analysis. One-dimensional system codes have been used for a long time and have reached a degree of maturity, but limit their validity to specific applications. Thus, an intermediate fidelity (IF) modeling method is being pursued in this work for a fast-running, modest-fidelity, whole-core transient analyses capability. The new approach is essential for design scoping and engineering analyses and could lead to improvements in the design of the new generations of reactors and to the reduction of uncertainties in safety analysis. This report summarizes the initial effort on the development of the intermediate-fidelity full assembly modeling method. The requirements and the desired merits of the IF approach have been defined. A three-dimensional momentum source model has been developed to model the anisotropic flow in the wire-wrapped rod bundle without the need to resolve the geometric details. It has been confirmed that the momentum source model works well if its affecting region is accurately imposed. The validity of the model is further verified by mesh and parameter sensitivity studies. The developed momentum source model, in principle, can be applied to any wire-wrapped bundle geometries and any flow regimes; while the modeling strategy can be applied to other conditions with complex or distorted geometry, such as flow in blocked channels.

  12. Multi-fidelity design optimization of Francis turbine runner blades (United States)

    Bahrami, S.; Tribes, C.; von Fellenberg, S.; Vu, T. C.; Guibault, F.


    A robust multi-fidelity design algorithm has been developed, focusing to efficiently handle industrial hydraulic runner design considerations. The computational task is split between low- and high-fidelity phases in order to properly balance the CFD cost and required accuracy in different design stages. In the low-fidelity phase, a derivative-free optimization method employs an inviscid flow solver to obtain the major desired characteristics of a good design in a relatively fast iterative process. A limited number of candidates are selected among feasible optimization solutions by a newly developed filtering process. The main function of the filtering process is to select some promising candidates to be sent into the high-fidelity phase, which have significantly different geometries, and also are dominant in their own territories. The high-fidelity phase aims to accurately evaluate those promising candidates in order to select the one which is closest to design targets. A low-head runner case study has shown the ability of this methodology to identify an optimized blade through a relatively low computational effort, which is significantly different from the base geometry.

  13. Multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression for prediction of random fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parussini, L. [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy); Venturi, D., E-mail: [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California Santa Cruz (United States); Perdikaris, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Karniadakis, G.E. [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University (United States)


    We propose a new multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression (GPR) approach for prediction of random fields based on observations of surrogate models or hierarchies of surrogate models. Our method builds upon recent work on recursive Bayesian techniques, in particular recursive co-kriging, and extends it to vector-valued fields and various types of covariances, including separable and non-separable ones. The framework we propose is general and can be used to perform uncertainty propagation and quantification in model-based simulations, multi-fidelity data fusion, and surrogate-based optimization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed recursive GPR techniques through various examples. Specifically, we study the stochastic Burgers equation and the stochastic Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations describing natural convection within a square enclosure. In both cases we find that the standard deviation of the Gaussian predictors as well as the absolute errors relative to benchmark stochastic solutions are very small, suggesting that the proposed multi-fidelity GPR approaches can yield highly accurate results.

  14. A genetic assessment of polyandry and breeding-site fidelity in lemon sharks. (United States)

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Feldheim, Kevin A; Thibert-Plante, Xavier; Gruber, Samuel H; Hendry, Andrew P


    We here employ 11 microsatellite markers and recently developed litter reconstruction methods to infer mating system parameters (i.e. polyandry and breeding-site fidelity) at a lemon shark nursery site in Marquesas Key, Florida. Four hundred and eight juvenile or subadult sharks were genotyped over eight complete breeding seasons. Using this information, we were able to infer family structure, as well as fully or partially reconstruct genotypes of 46 mothers and 163 fathers. Multiple litter reconstruction methods were used, and novel simulations helped define apparent bias and precision of at least some mating system parameters. For Marquesas Key, we find that adult female lemon sharks display high levels of polyandry (81% of all litters sampled) and stronger fidelity to the nursery site than do males. Indeed, few male sharks sired offspring from more than one litter during the course of the study. These findings were quite similar to previous results from another lemon shark nursery site (Bimini, Bahamas), suggesting conserved mating system parameters despite significant variation in early life-history traits (i.e. body size and growth) among sites. The finding of at least some site fidelity in females also supports the need for careful conservation of each nursery.

  15. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document provides the requirements for a test simulant suitable for demonstrating the mixing requirements for the Single High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). This simulant has not been evaluated for other purposes such as gas retention and release or erosion. The objective of this work is to provide an underpinning for the simulant properties based on actual waste characterization.

  16. Etablering, afprøvning, evaluering og implementering af High Fidelity patientsimulationsundervisning på Sygeplejerskeuddannelsen i Odense, University College Lillebælt, UCL, 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Truelsen


    talked about good introduction and student preparation as very important aspects to strengthen learning outcome. Discussion: The students feeling of improved security in acting towards acute and critical ill patients are equal to findings in other studies. This project also shows that students feel more......Title: Nurse students’ attitudes and assessments of a teaching project working with full scale patient simulation using mannequin in the latest part of the nursing education, Department of Nursing, Odense, Denmark. Author: Gram, Dorte Truelsen, Senior Lecturer, Department of Nursing, Odense......' attitudes to the method. Methods: Four focus group interviews were used to examine students' attitudes to the method. The interviews took place at the end of the last simulation and all the students were active according to their attitudes and assessments’ of the simulation. The interviews were recorded...

  17. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse


    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  18. Cellular Scanning Strategy for Selective Laser Melting: Capturing Thermal Trends with a Low-Fidelity, Pseudo-Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    Simulations of additivemanufacturing processes are known to be computationally expensive.The resulting large runtimes prohibit their application in secondary analysis requiring several complete simulations such as optimization studies, and sensitivity analysis. In this paper, a low-fidelity pseud...

  19. Implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary settings: managing tensions in rehabilitation care. (United States)

    Hoekstra, Femke; van Offenbeek, Marjolein A G; Dekker, Rienk; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P


    Although the importance of evaluating implementation fidelity is acknowledged, little is known about heterogeneity in fidelity over time. This study aims to generate insight into the heterogeneity in implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary settings and the relationship with changes in patients' health behavior. This study used longitudinal data from the nationwide implementation of an evidence-informed physical activity promotion program in Dutch rehabilitation care. Fidelity scores were calculated based on annual surveys filled in by involved professionals (n = ± 70). Higher fidelity scores indicate a more complete implementation of the program's core components. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the implementation fidelity scores of 17 organizations at three different time points. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore organizational and professional differences between identified trajectories. Regression analyses were conducted to determine differences in patient outcomes. Three trajectories were identified as the following: 'stable high fidelity' (n = 9), 'moderate and improving fidelity' (n = 6), and 'unstable fidelity' (n = 2). The stable high fidelity organizations were generally smaller, started earlier, and implemented the program in a more structured way compared to moderate and improving fidelity organizations. At the implementation period's start and end, support from physicians and physiotherapists, professionals' appreciation, and program compatibility were rated more positively by professionals working in stable high fidelity organizations as compared to the moderate and improving fidelity organizations (p organizational-level implementation fidelity trajectories did not result in outcome differences at patient-level. This suggests that an effective implementation fidelity trajectory is contingent on the local organization's conditions. More

  20. High Level Architecture (HLA) federation with Umbra and OPNET federates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppel, Fred John III; Hart, Brian; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.


    Network-centric systems that depend on mobile wireless ad hoc networks for their information exchange require detailed analysis to support their development. In many cases, this critical analysis is best provided with high-fidelity system simulations that include the effects of network architectures and protocols. In this research, we developed a high-fidelity system simulation capability using an HLA federation. The HLA federation, consisting of the Umbra system simulator and OPNET Modeler network simulator, provides a means for the system simulator to both affect, and be affected by, events in the network simulator. Advances are also made in increasing the fidelity of the wireless communication channel and reducing simulation run-time with a dead reckoning capability. A simulation experiment is included to demonstrate the developed modeling and simulation capability.

  1. Fidelity based measurement induced nonlocality (United States)

    Muthuganesan, R.; Sankaranarayanan, R.


    In this paper, we propose measurement induced nonlocality (MIN) using a metric based on fidelity to capture global nonlocal effect of a quantum state due to locally invariant projective measurements. This quantity is a remedy for local ancilla problem in the original definition of MIN. We present an analytical expression of the proposed version of MIN for pure bipartite state and 2 × n dimensional mixed state. We also provide an upper bound of the MIN for general mixed state. Finally, we compare this quantity with MINs based on Hilbert-Schmidt norm and skew information for higher dimensional Werner and isotropic states.

  2. Bulk magnetic domain stability controls paleointensity fidelity (United States)

    Paterson, Greig A.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pan, Yongxin


    Nonideal, nonsingle-domain magnetic grains are ubiquitous in rocks; however, they can have a detrimental impact on the fidelity of paleomagnetic records—in particular the determination of ancient magnetic field strength (paleointensity), a key means of understanding the evolution of the earliest geodynamo and the formation of the solar system. As a consequence, great effort has been expended to link rock magnetic behavior to paleointensity results, but with little quantitative success. Using the most comprehensive rock magnetic and paleointensity data compilations, we quantify a stability trend in hysteresis data that characterizes the bulk domain stability (BDS) of the magnetic carriers in a paleomagnetic specimen. This trend is evident in both geological and archeological materials that are typically used to obtain paleointensity data and is therefore pervasive throughout most paleomagnetic studies. Comparing this trend to paleointensity data from both laboratory and historical experiments reveals a quantitative relationship between BDS and paleointensity behavior. Specimens that have lower BDS values display higher curvature on the paleointensity analysis plot, which leads to more inaccurate results. In-field quantification of BDS therefore reflects low-field bulk remanence stability. Rapid hysteresis measurements can be used to provide a powerful quantitative method for preselecting paleointensity specimens and postanalyzing previous studies, further improving our ability to select high-fidelity recordings of ancient magnetic fields. BDS analyses will enhance our ability to understand the evolution of the geodynamo and can help in understanding many fundamental Earth and planetary science questions that remain shrouded in controversy.

  3. Enhanced fidelity of an educational intervention on skin self-examination through surveillance and standardization. (United States)

    Gaber, Rikki; Mallett, Kimberly A; Hultgren, Brittney; Turrisi, Rob; Gilbertsen, Margaret L; Martini, Mary C; Robinson, June K


    Melanoma can metastasize but is often successfully treated when discovered in an early stage. Melanoma patients and their skin check partners can learn skin self-examination (SSE) skills and these skills can be improved by practice. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of fidelity with which educational in-person SSE intervention can be delivered by trained research coordinators to patients at risk of developing another melanoma and their skin check partners. The in-person intervention was performed in two iterations. In phase 1 (2006-2008), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention using a written script. In phase 2 (2011-2013), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention with a PowerPoint aid. Each research coordinator was individually counseled by one of the authors (KM) to insure standardization and enhance fidelity of intervention delivery. Phase 1 and Phase 2 were compared on 16 fidelity components. Further, Phase 2 fidelity was assessed by comparing mean scores of fidelity across the five research coordinators who delivered the intervention. Phase 2, which utilized a PowerPoint aid, was delivered with a higher degree of fidelity compared to phase 1with four fidelity components with significantly higher fidelity than Phase 1: 1) Explained details of melanoma, χ2 (1, n = 199)= 96.31, p intervention with high fidelity (all scores >14) and there were no mean differences in fidelity across research coordinators, indicating consistency in fidelity. This can be attributed to the standardization and cueing that the PowerPoint program offered. Supervision was also a key component in establishing and maintaining fidelity of the patient educational process. This method of intervention delivery enables trained healthcare professionals to deliver an educational intervention in an effective, consistent manner.

  4. High Performance Multiphase Combustion Tool Using Level Set-Based Primary Atomization Coupled with Flamelet Models Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative methodologies proposed in this STTR Phase 2 project will enhance Loci-STREAM which is a high performance, high fidelity simulation tool already being...

  5. High Performance Multiphase Combustion Tool Using Level Set-Based Primary Atomization Coupled with Flamelet Models Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative methodologies proposed in this STTR Phase 1 project will enhance Loci-STREAM which is a high performance, high fidelity simulation tool already being...

  6. High order dark wavefront sensing simulations (United States)

    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Farinato, Jacopo; Viotto, Valentina; Bergomi, Maria; Dima, Marco; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Greggio, Davide; Carolo, Elena; Vassallo, Daniele


    Dark wavefront sensing takes shape following quantum mechanics concepts in which one is able to "see" an object in one path of a two-arm interferometer using an as low as desired amount of light actually "hitting" the occulting object. A theoretical way to achieve such a goal, but in the realm of wavefront sensing, is represented by a combination of two unequal beams interferometer sharing the same incoming light, and whose difference in path length is continuously adjusted in order to show different signals for different signs of the incoming perturbation. Furthermore, in order to obtain this in white light, the path difference should be properly adjusted vs the wavelength used. While we incidentally describe how this could be achieved in a true optomechanical setup, we focus our attention to the simulation of a hypothetical "perfect" dark wavefront sensor of this kind in which white light compensation is accomplished in a perfect manner and the gain is selectable in a numerical fashion. Although this would represent a sort of idealized dark wavefront sensor that would probably be hard to match in the real glass and metal, it would also give a firm indication of the maximum achievable gain or, in other words, of the prize for achieving such device. Details of how the simulation code works and first numerical results are outlined along with the perspective for an in-depth analysis of the performances and its extension to more realistic situations, including various sources of additional noise.

  7. Integrated Variable Fidelity Conceptual Design Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CADNexus proposes to develop an Integrated Variable Fidelity Conceptual Design tool. The application will enable design and analysis of unconventional and advanced...

  8. Fidelity analysis of topological quantum phase transitions (United States)

    Abasto, Damian F.; Hamma, Alioscia; Zanardi, Paolo


    We apply the fidelity metric approach to analyze two recently introduced models that exhibit a quantum phase transition to a topologically ordered phase. These quantum models have a known connection to classical statistical mechanical models; we exploit this mapping to obtain the scaling of the fidelity metric tensor near criticality. The topological phase transitions manifest themselves in divergences of the fidelity metric across the phase boundaries. These results provide evidence that the fidelity approach is a valuable tool to investigate novel phases lacking a clear characterization in terms of local order parameters.

  9. Variable Fidelity Aeroelastic Toolkit - Structural Model Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a methodology to incorporate variable fidelity structural models into steady and unsteady aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analyses in...

  10. Gravity Currents with Convective Mixing: High-resolution Numerical Simulations (United States)

    Voskov, D.; Elenius, M. T.; Tchelepi, H.


    Due to challenges in performing direct numerical simulations for gravity currents with convective mixing, different attempts have been made to simplify the problem. In this work, the full problem is investigated with direct numerical simulations. Our simulations employ a recently developed capability in our General Purpose Research Simulator (AD-GPRS). The compositional approach is based on K-values and a linear density model. A shared-memory parallel implementation allows for high resolution simulations in a reasonable time frame. Our results indicate that it is important to consider the reduction in the dissolution rate after the fingers begin to interact with the bottom of the aquifer. Another important observation suggests considering a reduction in the dissolution rate where the plume thickness increases in time. In addition to the large-scale simulations, we performed convective-mixing simulations in relatively small domains to support the analysis of large-scale plume migration and CO2 trapping.

  11. The effect of an olfactory and visual cue on realism and engagement in a health care simulation experience. (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Baca, Kirsten; Raemer, Daniel B


    Fidelity has been identified as an important element in a subject's perception of realism and engagement in learning during a simulation experience. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an isolated visual and olfactory sensory change to the simulation environment affects the subjects' perceptions of realism during simulation cases. Using an electrosurgical unit applied to bovine muscle tissue, we created a model to simulate the characteristic operating room smoke and burning odor that occur during many procedures. Anesthesiologist subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention group that participated in a simulation involving the characteristic smoke and odor or a control group whose simulation involved no smoke or odor. Subjects completed a 7-question survey on the fidelity of the simulation, their perception of realism, and their learning engagement. We enrolled 103 subjects over 22 simulation courses in our study (intervention, n = 52; control, n = 51). The subjects' reactions to the physical (P = 0.73), conceptual (P = 0.34), and emotional (P = 0.12) fidelity and their perception of realism (P = 0.71) did not differ between the intervention and control groups. In a high-fidelity simulation environment, a visual and olfactory increment to physical fidelity did not affect subjects' overall ratings of fidelity, perceptions of realism, and engagement in the learning experience.

  12. Validation and application of a high-fidelity, computational model of acute respiratory distress syndrome to the examination of the indices of oxygenation at constant lung-state. (United States)

    McCahon, R A; Columb, M O; Mahajan, R P; Hardman, J G


    Calculated venous admixture (Qs/Qt) is considered the best index of oxygenation; surrogates have been developed (Pa(O(2))/Fi(O(2)), respiratory index, and arterioalveolar PO(2) difference), but these vary with Fi(O(2)), falsely indicating a change in lung-state. Using a novel model, we aimed to quantify the behaviour of the indices of oxygenation listed above during physiological and treatment factor variation. The study is the first step in developing an accurate and non-invasive tool to quantify oxygenation defects. We present the static and dynamic validation of a novel computational model of gas exchange in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) based upon the Nottingham Physiology Simulator. Arterial gas tension predictions were compared with data derived from ARDS patients. The subsequent study examined the indices' susceptibility to variation induced by independent changes in Fi(O(2)) (0.3-1.0), haemoglobin concentration (Hb: 6-14 g dl(-1)), oxygen consumption (VO(2): 250-350 ml min(-1)), and Pa(CO(2)) (4-8 kPa). Static validation produced a mean error of -0.3%, a 10-fold improvement over previous models. Dynamic validation produced a mean prediction error of -0.05 kPa for Pa(O(2)) and 0.09 kPa for Pa(CO(2)). Every parameter, especially Fi(O(2)), induced variation in all indices. The least Fi(O(2))-dependent index was Qs/Qt (variation: 5.1%). In contrast, Pa(O(2))/Fi(O(2)) varied by 77% through the range of Fi(O(2)). We have improved simulation of gas exchange in ARDS by using a sophisticated respiratory model. Using the validated model, we have demonstrated that the current indices of oxygenation vary with alteration in Hb, Pa(CO(2)), and VO(2) in addition to their previously well-documented dependence on Fi(O(2)).

  13. Simulation Technology in Nursing Education: Student Perceptions (United States)

    Panunto, Karen L.


    Nursing education programs are faced with the challenge of providing students with the necessary skills to function in a fast paced, high technological environment. To address this challenge, the current trend in nursing education is to integrate the use of high-fidelity simulation technology into the curricula although there has been limited…

  14. Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Xu


    Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.

  15. Fidelity of the representation of value in decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Bays


    Full Text Available The ability to make optimal decisions depends on evaluating the expected rewards associated with different potential actions. This process is critically dependent on the fidelity with which reward value information can be maintained in the nervous system. Here we directly probe the fidelity of value representation following a standard reinforcement learning task. The results demonstrate a previously-unrecognized bias in the representation of value: extreme reward values, both low and high, are stored significantly more accurately and precisely than intermediate rewards. The symmetry between low and high rewards pertained despite substantially higher frequency of exposure to high rewards, resulting from preferential exploitation of more rewarding options. The observed variation in fidelity of value representation retrospectively predicted performance on the reinforcement learning task, demonstrating that the bias in representation has an impact on decision-making. A second experiment in which one or other extreme-valued option was omitted from the learning sequence showed that representational fidelity is primarily determined by the relative position of an encoded value on the scale of rewards experienced during learning. Both variability and guessing decreased with the reduction in the number of options, consistent with allocation of a limited representational resource. These findings have implications for existing models of reward-based learning, which typically assume defectless representation of reward value.

  16. High-Performance Beam Simulator for the LANSCE Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiaoying [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    A high performance multiparticle tracking simulator is currently under development at Los Alamos. The heart of the simulator is based upon the beam dynamics simulation algorithms of the PARMILA code, but implemented in C++ on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) hardware using NVIDIA's CUDA platform. Linac operating set points are provided to the simulator via the EPICS control system so that changes of the real time linac parameters are tracked and the simulation results updated automatically. This simulator will provide valuable insight into the beam dynamics along a linac in pseudo real-time, especially where direct measurements of the beam properties do not exist. Details regarding the approach, benefits and performance are presented.

  17. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  18. Fidelity approach to the Hubbard model (United States)

    Campos Venuti, L.; Cozzini, M.; Buonsante, P.; Massel, F.; Bray-Ali, N.; Zanardi, P.


    We use the fidelity approach to quantum critical points to study the zero-temperature phase diagram of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. Using a variety of analytical and numerical techniques, we analyze the fidelity metric in various regions of the phase diagram with particular care to the critical points. Specifically we show that close to the Mott transition, taking place at on-site repulsion U=0 and electron density n=1 , the fidelity metric satisfies an hyperscaling form which we calculate. This implies that in general, as one approaches the critical point U=0 , n=1 , the fidelity metric tends to a limit which depends on the path of approach. At half-filling, the fidelity metric is expected to diverge as U-4 when U is sent to zero.

  19. Integrating hyper-parameter uncertainties in a multi-fidelity Bayesian model for the estimation of a probability of failure


    Stroh, Rémi; Bect, Julien; Demeyer, Séverine; Fischer, Nicolas; Vazquez, Emmanuel


    International audience; A multi-fidelity simulator is a numerical model, in which one of the inputs controls a trade-off between the realism and the computational cost of the simulation. Our goal is to estimate the probability of exceeding a given threshold on a multi-fidelity stochastic simulator. We propose a fully Bayesian approach based on Gaussian processes to compute the posterior probability distribution of this probability. We pay special attention to the hyper-parameters of the model...

  20. Advancing renal education: hybrid simulation, using simulated patients to enhance realism in haemodialysis education. (United States)

    Dunbar-Reid, Kylie; Sinclair, Peter M; Hudson, Denis


    Simulation is a well-established and proven teaching method, yet its use in renal education is not widely reported. Criticisms of simulation-based teaching include limited realism and a lack of authentic patient interaction. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of high-fidelity simulation and suggests hybrid simulation as a complementary model to existing simulation programmes. Through the use of a simulated patient, hybrid simulation can improve the authenticity of renal simulation-based education while simultaneously teaching and assessing technologically enframed caring. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  1. High temperature and performance in a flight task simulator. (United States)


    The effects of high cockpit temperature on physiological responses and performance were determined on pilots in a general aviation simulator. The pilots (all instrument rated) 'flew' an instrument flight while exposed to each of three cockpit tempera...

  2. Advanced Metals and Ceramics for Armor and Anti-Armor Applications. High-Fidelity Design and Processing of Advanced Armor Ceramics (United States)


    59 Figure 28. Particle size distributions of Superior Graphite 490 powder after beneficiation. .......59 Figure 29. SEM of a filter -pressed and...form a hydrated phase that acted as a cement, creating hard agglomerates. Ball milling in a high-density polyethylene jugs was also found to be an...results of these beneficiations are shown in figure 28. Green powder compacts were prepared by filter -pressing at 0.41 MPa and repressing the wet

  3. Designing Nursing Simulation Clinical Experiences to Promote Critical Inquiry (United States)

    Beattie, Bev; Koroll, Donna; Price, Susan


    The use of high fidelity simulation (HFS) learning opportunities in nursing education has received increased attention in the literature. This article describes the design of a systematic framework used to promote critical inquiry and provide meaningful simulation clinical experiences for second year nursing students. Critical inquiry, as defined…

  4. Comprehensive Simulation Lifecycle Management for High Performance Computing Modeling and Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are significant logistical barriers to entry-level high performance computing (HPC) modeling and simulation (M&S) users. Performing large-scale, massively...

  5. Figure of Merit for Asteroid Regolith Simulants (United States)

    Metzger, P.; Britt, D.; Covey, S.; Lewis, J. S.


    High fidelity asteroid simulant has been developed, closely matching the mineral and elemental abundances of reference meteorites representing the target asteroid classes. The first simulant is a CI class based upon the Orgueil meteorite, and several other simulants are being developed. They will enable asteroid mining and water extraction tests, helping mature the technologies for space resource utilization for both commercial and scientific/exploration activities in space.

  6. Quantum fidelity and quantum phase transitions in matrix product states (United States)

    Cozzini, Marco; Ionicioiu, Radu; Zanardi, Paolo


    Matrix product states, a key ingredient of numerical algorithms widely employed in the simulation of quantum spin chains, provide an intriguing tool for quantum phase transition engineering. At critical values of the control parameters on which their constituent matrices depend, singularities in the expectation values of certain observables can appear, in spite of the analyticity of the ground state energy. For this class of generalized quantum phase transitions, we test the validity of the recently introduced fidelity approach, where the overlap modulus of ground states corresponding to slightly different parameters is considered. We discuss several examples, successfully identifying all the present transitions. We also study the finite size scaling of fidelity derivatives, pointing out its relevance in extracting critical exponents.

  7. Theoretical investigations of the new Cokriging method for variable-fidelity surrogate modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Bertram, Anna


    Cokriging is a variable-fidelity surrogate modeling technique which emulates a target process based on the spatial correlation of sampled data of different levels of fidelity. In this work, we address two theoretical questions associated with the so-called new Cokriging method for variable fidelity...... matrices for mutually distinct sample points. However, in applications, low-fidelity information is often available at high-fidelity sample points and the Cokriging predictor may benefit from the additional information provided by such an inclusive sampling. We investigate the positive definiteness...... by the method of maximum likelihood estimation. For standard Kriging, closed-form optima of the model parameters along hyper-parameter profile lines are known. Yet, these do not readily transfer to the setting of Cokriging, since additional parameters arise, which exhibit a mutual dependence. In previous work...

  8. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention. (United States)

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks


    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.

  9. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention (United States)

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks


    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald et al, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on “joining,” which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached .83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings. PMID:24500022

  10. Sequence-Specific Fidelity Alterations Associated with West Nile Virus Attenuation in Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta A Van Slyke


    Full Text Available High rates of error-prone replication result in the rapid accumulation of genetic diversity of RNA viruses. Recent studies suggest that mutation rates are selected for optimal viral fitness and that modest variations in replicase fidelity may be associated with viral attenuation. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses are unique in their requirement for host cycling and may necessitate substantial genetic and phenotypic plasticity. In order to more thoroughly investigate the correlates, mechanisms and consequences of arbovirus fidelity, we selected fidelity variants of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus utilizing selection in the presence of a mutagen. We identified two mutations in the WNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with increased fidelity, V793I and G806R, and a single mutation in the WNV methyltransferase, T248I, associated with decreased fidelity. Both deep-sequencing and in vitro biochemical assays confirmed strain-specific differences in both fidelity and mutational bias. WNV fidelity variants demonstrated host-specific alterations to replicative fitness in vitro, with modest attenuation in mosquito but not vertebrate cell culture. Experimental infections of colonized and field populations of Cx. quinquefaciatus demonstrated that WNV fidelity alterations are associated with a significantly impaired capacity to establish viable infections in mosquitoes. Taken together, these studies (i demonstrate the importance of allosteric interactions in regulating mutation rates, (ii establish that mutational spectra can be both sequence and strain-dependent, and (iii display the profound phenotypic consequences associated with altered replication complex function of flaviviruses.

  11. A highly efficient sharp-interface immersed boundary method with adaptive mesh refinement for bio-inspired flow simulations (United States)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Dong, Haibo


    Developing a high-fidelity, high-efficiency numerical method for bio-inspired flow problems with flow-structure interaction is important for understanding related physics and developing many bio-inspired technologies. To simulate a fast-swimming big fish with multiple finlets or fish schooling, we need fine grids and/or a big computational domain, which are big challenges for 3-D simulations. In current work, based on the 3-D finite-difference sharp-interface immersed boundary method for incompressible flows (Mittal et al., JCP 2008), we developed an octree-like Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technique to enhance the computational ability and increase the computational efficiency. The AMR is coupled with a multigrid acceleration technique and a MPI +OpenMP hybrid parallelization. In this work, different AMR layers are treated separately and the synchronization is performed in the buffer regions and iterations are performed for the convergence of solution. Each big region is calculated by a MPI process which then uses multiple OpenMP threads for further acceleration, so that the communication cost is reduced. With these acceleration techniques, various canonical and bio-inspired flow problems with complex boundaries can be simulated accurately and efficiently. This work is supported by the MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF Grant CBET-1605434.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.

  13. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Kwangmin [Brookhaven; Samulyak, Roman [SUNY, Stony Brook; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab; Freemire, Ben [Northern Illinois U.


    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  14. Numerical simulation of hole injection in high barrier metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical simulation of hole injection in high barrier metal-semiconductor short diodes. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... A numerical investigation is carried out on effects of minority carriers on the transport parameters of one-dimensional metal-semiconductor short diodes under highly ...

  15. High fidelity imager emulator of measured systems (United States)

    Haefner, David P.; Teaney, Brian P.


    Characterizing an imaging system through the use of linear transfer functions allows prediction of the output for an arbitrary input. Through careful measurement of the systems transfer function, imaging effects can then be applied to desired imagery in order to conduct subjective comparison, image based analysis, or evaluate algorithm performance. The Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) currently utilizes a two-dimensional linear model of the systems transfer function to emulate the systems response and additive signal independent noise. In this correspondence, we describe how a two-dimensional MTF can be obtained through correct interpolation of one-dimensional measurements. We also present a model for the signal dependent noise (additive and multiplicative) and the details of its calculation from measurement. Through modeling of the experimental setup, we demonstrate how the emulated sensor replicates the observed objective performance in resolution, sampling, and noise. In support of the reproducible research effort, many of the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  16. Bridging communication gaps with High Fidelity prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar


    As computer technology becomes more and more integrated in our daily life, the interface moves from the screen back into our physical surroundings. Also, design teams become more and more complex regarding professions and the cultural backgrounds of the people participating. This poses great...

  17. High Level Architecture Distributed Space System Simulation for Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization Simulation Smackdown (United States)

    Li, Zuqun


    Modeling and Simulation plays a very important role in mission design. It not only reduces design cost, but also prepares astronauts for their mission tasks. The SISO Smackdown is a simulation event that facilitates modeling and simulation in academia. The scenario of this year s Smackdown was to simulate a lunar base supply mission. The mission objective was to transfer Earth supply cargo to a lunar base supply depot and retrieve He-3 to take back to Earth. Federates for this scenario include the environment federate, Earth-Moon transfer vehicle, lunar shuttle, lunar rover, supply depot, mobile ISRU plant, exploratory hopper, and communication satellite. These federates were built by teams from all around the world, including teams from MIT, JSC, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Bordeaux from France, and University of Genoa from Italy. This paper focuses on the lunar shuttle federate, which was programmed by the USRP intern team from NASA JSC. The shuttle was responsible for provide transportation between lunar orbit and the lunar surface. The lunar shuttle federate was built using the NASA standard simulation package called Trick, and it was extended with HLA functions using TrickHLA. HLA functions of the lunar shuttle federate include sending and receiving interaction, publishing and subscribing attributes, and packing and unpacking fixed record data. The dynamics model of the lunar shuttle was modeled with three degrees of freedom, and the state propagation was obeying the law of two body dynamics. The descending trajectory of the lunar shuttle was designed by first defining a unique descending orbit in 2D space, and then defining a unique orbit in 3D space with the assumption of a non-rotating moon. Finally this assumption was taken away to define the initial position of the lunar shuttle so that it will start descending a second after it joins the execution. VPN software from SonicWall was used to connect federates with RTI during testing

  18. Effect of simulation on the development of critical thinking in associate degree nursing students. (United States)

    Goodstone, Lori; Goodstone, Michael S; Cino, Kathleen; Glaser, Christine A; Kupferman, Kathleen; Dember-Neal, Theresa


    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of critical thinking for students who received instruction using high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) versus low-fidelity simulation (instructor-written case studies). Simulated patient care environments have become increasingly more sophisticated in nursing labs, with HFPS fast becoming the standard for laboratory teaching/learning. A convenience sample of first-semester associate degree nursing students participated in this quasi-experimental study. One group of students received weekly HFPS patient simulations and the other group received weekly case studies. Both groups took a pre- and posttest using the Health Studies ReasoningTest. Both groups showed an increase in critical thinking skills; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the HFPS and case study groups. Results suggest that high- and low-fidelity simulations are both associated with increases in critical thinking scores.

  19. A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Christopher; Patterson, Malcolm; Wood, Stephen; Booth, Andrew; Rick, Jo; Balain, Shashi


    ..., and the extent to which outcomes can be improved. The authors undertook a critical review of existing conceptualisations of implementation fidelity and developed a new conceptual framework for understanding and measuring the process...

  20. 3D finite element simulations of high velocity projectile impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ožbolt Joško


    Full Text Available An explicit three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE code is developed for the simulation of high velocity impact and fragmentation events. The rate sensitive microplane material model, which accounts for large deformations and rate effects, is used as a constitutive law. In the code large deformation frictional contact is treated by forward incremental Lagrange multiplier method. To handle highly distorted and damaged elements the approach based on the element deletion is employed. The code is then used in 3D FE simulations of high velocity projectile impact. The results of the numerical simulations are evaluated and compared with experimental results. It is shown that it realistically predicts failure mode and exit velocities for different geometries of plain concrete slab. Moreover, the importance of some relevant parameters, such as contact friction, rate sensitivity, bulk viscosity and deletion criteria are addressed.

  1. A High-Speed Train Operation Plan Inspection Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rui


    Full Text Available We developed a train operation simulation tool to inspect a train operation plan. In applying an improved Petri Net, the train was regarded as a token, and the line and station were regarded as places, respectively, in accordance with the high-speed train operation characteristics and network function. Location change and running information transfer of the high-speed train were realized by customizing a variety of transitions. The model was built based on the concept of component combination, considering the random disturbance in the process of train running. The simulation framework can be generated quickly and the system operation can be completed according to the different test requirements and the required network data. We tested the simulation tool when used for the real-world Wuhan to Guangzhou high-speed line. The results showed that the proposed model can be developed, the simulation results basically coincide with the objective reality, and it can not only test the feasibility of the high-speed train operation plan, but also be used as a support model to develop the simulation platform with more capabilities.

  2. Right ventricular diastolic performance in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: correlation of echocardiographic parameters with invasive reference standards by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter. (United States)

    Okumura, Kenichi; Slorach, Cameron; Mroczek, Dariusz; Dragulescu, Andreea; Mertens, Luc; Redington, Andrew N; Friedberg, Mark K


    Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction influences outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but echocardiographic parameters have not been investigated in relation to invasive reference standards in pediatric PAH. We investigated echocardiographic parameters of right ventricular diastolic function in children with PAH in relation to simultaneously measured invasive reference measures. We prospectively recruited children undergoing a clinically indicated cardiac catheterization for evaluation of PAH and pulmonary vasoreactivity testing. Echocardiography was performed simultaneously with invasive reference measurements by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter. For analysis, patients were divided into shunt and nonshunt groups. Sixteen children were studied. In the group as a whole, significant correlations were found among τ and tricuspid deceleration time, E', E/E', TimeE-E', A wave velocity, and global early and late diastolic strain rate. dp/dt minimum correlated significantly with late diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (A'), tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio, and global late diastolic strain rate. End-diastolic pressure correlated significantly with tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio. On multivariate analysis, tricuspid deceleration time, TimeE-E', and global early diastolic strain rate were independent predictors of τ, whereas tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio was an independent predictor of dp/dt minimum. In general, correlations between echocardiographic and invasive parameters were better in the shunt group than in the nonshunt group. Echocardiography correlates with invasive reference measures of right ventricular diastolic function in children with PAH, although it does not differentiate between early versus late diastolic abnormalities. Newer echocardiographic techniques may have added value to assess right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in this

  3. Prediction of Vehicle Mobility on Large-Scale Soft-Soil Terrain Maps Using Physics-Based Simulation (United States)


    SOFT-SOIL TERRAIN MAPS USING PHYSICS -BASED SIMULATION Tamer Wasfy*, Paramsothy Jayakumar**, Dave Mechergui**, and Srinivas Sanikommu** *Advanced...relations used in NRMM. The objective of this paper is to present a high-fidelity physics -based approach to accurately and reliably predict the a high-fidelity multibody dynamics model which includes models of the various vehicle systems including chassis, wheels /tires, suspension system

  4. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications. (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong


    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress toward understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation.

  5. Multi-fidelity and multi-disciplinary design optimization of supersonic business jets (United States)

    Choi, Seongim

    Supersonic jets have been drawing great attention after the end of service for the Concorde was announced on April of 2003. It is believed, however, that civilian supersonic aircraft may make a viable return in the business jet market. This thesis focuses on the design optimization of feasible supersonic business jet configurations. Preliminary design techniques for mitigation of ground sonic boom are investigated while ensuring that all relevant disciplinary constraints are satisfied (including aerodynamic performance, propulsion, stability & control and structures.) In order to achieve reasonable confidence in the resulting designs, high-fidelity simulations are required, making the entire design process both expensive and complex. In order to minimize the computational cost, surrogate/approximate models are constructed using a hierarchy of different fidelity analysis tools including PASS, A502/Panair and Euler/NS codes. Direct search methods such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and a nonlinear SIMPLEX are employed to designs in searches of large and noisy design spaces. A local gradient-based search method can be combined with these global search methods for small modifications of candidate optimum designs. The Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) method can also be used to explore the design space using a solution-adaptive grid refinement approach. These hybrid approaches, both in search methodology and surrogate model construction, are shown to result in designs with reductions in sonic boom and improved aerodynamic performance.

  6. Using Infant Simulation to Reduce Pregnancy among High School Students (United States)

    McCowan, Richard J.; Roberts, Scott W.; Slaughter, John


    A long-term public health goal in the United States involves convincing adolescents to postpone sexual activity or promote responsible sexual activity. This study investigated the effect of using infant simulators on sexuality, child care attitudes and knowledge with a sample of 309 high school students from seven different states. The treatment…

  7. Aerothermal and aeroelastic response prediction of aerospace structures in high-speed flows using direct numerical simulation (United States)

    Ostoich, Christopher Mark

    due to a dome-induced horseshoe vortex scouring the panel's surface. Comparisons with reduced-order models of heat transfer indicate that they perform with varying levels of accuracy around some portions of the geometry while completely failing to predict significant heat loads in re- gions where the dome-influenced flow impacts the ceramic panel. Cumulative effects of flow-thermal coupling at later simulation times on the reduction of panel drag and surface heat transfer are quantified. The second fluid-structure study investigates the interaction between a thin metallic panel and a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer with an ini- tial momentum thickness Reynolds number of 1200. A transient, non-linear, large deformation, 3D finite element solver is developed to compute the dynamic response of the panel. The solver is coupled at the fluid-structure interface with the compressible Navier-Stokes solver, the latter of which is used for a direct numerical simulation of the turbulent boundary layer. In this approach, no simplifying assumptions regarding the structural solution or turbulence modeling are made in order to get detailed solution data. It is found that the thin panel state evolves into a flutter type response char- acterized by high-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations into the flow. The oscillating panel disturbs the supersonic flow by introducing compression waves, modifying the turbulence, and generating fluctuations in the power exiting the top of the flow domain. The work in this thesis serves as a step forward in structural response prediction in high-speed flows. The results demonstrate the ability of high- fidelity numerical approaches to serve as a guide for reduced-order model improvement and as well as provide accurate and detailed solution data in scenarios where experimental approaches are difficult or impossible.

  8. Parallelism and pipelining in high-speed digital simulators (United States)

    Karplus, W. J.


    The attainment of high computing speed as measured by the computational throughput is seen as one of the most challenging requirements. It is noted that high speed is cardinal in several distinct classes of applications. These classes are then discussed; they comprise (1) the real-time simulation of dynamic systems , (2) distributed parameter systems, and (3) mixed lumped and distributed systems. From the 1950s on, the quest for high speed in digital simulators concentrated on overcoming the limitations imposed by the so-called von Neumann bottleneck. Two major architectural approaches have made ig possible to circumvent this bottleneck and attain high speeds. These are pipelining and parallelism. Supercomputers, peripheral array processors, and microcomputer networks are then discussed.

  9. Towards quantitative simulations of high power proton cyclotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Bi


    Full Text Available We describe a large scale simulation effort using Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library, that leads to a better quantitative understanding of the existing Paul Scherrer Institut high power proton cyclotron facility. The 1.3 MW of beam power on target poses stringent constraints on the controlled and uncontrolled beam losses. We present initial conditions for the Ring simulation, obtained from the new time-structure measurement and the many profile monitors of the 72 MeV transfer line. A trim coil model is developed, including trim coil TC15, which is needed to avoid the dangerous ν_{r}=2ν_{z} resonance. By properly selecting the injection position and angle (eccentric injection, the flattop voltage, and phase, very good agreement between simulations and measurements at the radial probe RRE4 is obtained. We report on 3–4 orders of magnitude in dynamic range when comparing simulations with measurements. The relation between beam intensity, rms beam size, and accelerating voltage is studied and compared with measurement. The demonstrated capabilities are mandatory in the design and operation of the next generation high power proton drivers. In an outlook we discuss our future plans to include more physics into the model, which eventually leads to an even larger dynamic range in the simulation.

  10. High Frequency Mechanical Pyroshock Simulations for Payload Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with components that must survive high frequency shock environments including pyrotechnic shock. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past at the payload system level because of weight limitations of traditional pyroshock mechanical simulations using resonant beams and plates. A new concept utilizing tuned resonators attached to the payload system and driven with the impact of an airgun projectile allow these simulations to be performed in the laboratory with high precision and repeatability without the use of explosives. A tuned resonator has been designed and constructed for a particular payload system. Comparison of laboratory responses with measurements made at the component locations during actual pyrotechnic events show excellent agreement for a bandwidth of DC to 4 kHz. The bases of comparison are shock spectra. This simple concept applies the mechanical pyroshock simulation simultaneously to all components with the correct boundary conditions in the payload system and is a considerable improvement over previous experimental techniques and simulations.

  11. Fidelity susceptibility in the quantum Rabi model (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Chen


    Quantum criticality usually occurs in many-body systems. Recently it was shown that the quantum Rabi model, which describes a two-level atom coupled to a single model cavity field, presents quantum phase transitions from a normal phase to a superradiate phase when the ratio between the frequency of the two-level atom and the frequency of the cavity field extends to infinity. In this work, we study quantum phase transitions in the quantum Rabi model from the fidelity susceptibility perspective. We found that the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility present universal finite-size scaling behaviors near the quantum critical point of the Rabi model if the ratio between frequency of the two-level atom and frequency of the cavity field is finite. From the finite-size scaling analysis of the fidelity susceptibility, we found that the adiabatic dimension of the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility of fourth order in the Rabi model are 4 /3 and 2, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation length critical exponent and the dynamical critical exponent in the quantum critical point of the Rabi model are found to be 3 /2 and 1 /3 , respectively. Since the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility are the moments of the quantum noise spectrum which are directly measurable by experiments in linear response regime, the scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the Rabi model could be tested experimentally. The simple structure of the quantum Rabi model paves the way for experimentally observing the universal scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility at a quantum phase transition.

  12. A Modified Vivaldi Antenna for Improved Angular-Dependent Fidelity Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zeng


    Full Text Available The analysis, design, and realization of a modified Vivaldi antenna optimized for time domain fidelity factor in the half-space located in the direction of the antenna main beam are presented. The proposed antenna shows improved angular-dependent fidelity property, with respect to the signal transmitted in the main beam direction. A substantial increase in the fidelity factor is achieved by utilizing spatial filter effect introduced by adding two dielectric slabs parallel to the antenna substrate. By choosing optimal dimensions and location of the slabs, the signal waveforms in the mentioned half-space are equalized so as to improve the quality of the radiated signal waveform in the main beam direction. As a result, the fidelity property in the half-space is improved greatly. The simulated and measured fidelity factor in the angular operational region is studied and compared with experimental measurements. The ranges with the fidelity factor better than the value of 0.9 are improved by 95% in H-plane and by 14% in E-plane, respectively.

  13. A Simulation Base Investigation of High Latency Space Systems Operations (United States)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; Moore, Michael


    mission provides ideal conditions for this study with crew in the loop, an active control center, and real-time flow of high latency communications and data. NEEMO crew and ground support will work through procedures including activation of the transit vehicle power system, opening the hatch between the transit vehicle and a Mars ascent vehicle, transferring simulated crewmembers between vehicles, overcoming subsystem malfunctions, sending simulated crewmember on extra-vehicular activities, and other housekeeping activities. This study is enhancing the understanding of high latency operations and the advantages and disadvantages of different communication methods. It is also providing results that will help improve the design of simulation interfaces and inform the design of Mars transit vehicles.

  14. High mobility and quantum well transistors design and TCAD simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hellings, Geert


    For many decades, the semiconductor industry has miniaturized transistors, delivering increased computing power to consumers at decreased cost. However, mere transistor downsizing does no longer provide the same improvements. One interesting option to further improve transistor characteristics is to use high mobility materials such as germanium and III-V materials. However, transistors have to be redesigned in order to fully benefit from these alternative materials. High Mobility and Quantum Well Transistors: Design and TCAD Simulation investigates planar bulk Germanium pFET technology in chapters 2-4, focusing on both the fabrication of such a technology and on the process and electrical TCAD simulation. Furthermore, this book shows that Quantum Well based transistors can leverage the benefits of these alternative materials, since they confine the charge carriers to the high-mobility material using a heterostructure. The design and fabrication of one particular transistor structure - the SiGe Implant-Free Qu...

  15. Simulation Modeling of Space Missions Using the High Level Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo


    Full Text Available This paper discusses an environment being developed to model a mission of the Space Launch System (SLS and the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV being launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC to the International Space Station (ISS. Several models representing different phases of the mission such as the ground operations processes, engineered systems, and range components such as failure tree, blast, gas dispersion, and debris modeling are explained. These models are built using different simulation paradigms such as continuous, system dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based simulation modeling. The High Level Architecture (HLA is the backbone of this distributed simulation. The different design decisions and the information fusion scheme of this unique environment are explained in detail for decision-making. This can also help in the development of exploration missions beyond the International Space Station.

  16. Fidelity scorecard: evaluation of a caregiver-delivered symptom management intervention. (United States)

    Frambes, Dawn; Lehto, Rebecca; Sikorskii, Alla; Tesnjak, Irena; Given, Barbara; Wyatt, Gwen


    To evaluate and quantify the intervention fidelity of a symptom management protocol through implementation of a scorecard, using an exemplar study of caregiver-delivered reflexology for people with breast cancer. Studies on caregiver-delivered symptom management interventions seldom include adequate information on protocol fidelity, contributing to potentially suboptimal provision of the therapeutic intervention, hindering reproducibility and generalizability of the results. Fidelity assessment of a 4-week intervention protocol in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with data collection between 2012 - 2016. The National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium (NIH-BCC) conceptual model for intervention fidelity guided the study. The five NIH-BCC fidelity elements are: (1) dose; (2) provider training; (3) intervention delivery; (4) intervention receipt; and (5) enactment. To illustrate the elements, an intervention protocol was deconstructed and each element quantified using a newly developed fidelity scorecard. Mean scores and frequency distributions were derived for the scorecard elements. For dose, the mean number of sessions was 4·4, 96% used the correct intervention duration and 29% had 4 weeks with at least one session. Provider training was achieved at 80% of the maximum score, intervention delivery was 96%, intervention receipt was 99% and enactment indicated moderate adoption at 3·8 sessions per patient. The sample mean score was 15·4 out of 16, indicating the high overall fidelity. Research findings that include description of how fidelity is both addressed and evaluated are necessary for clinical translation. Clinicians can confidently recommend symptom management strategies to patients and caregivers when fidelity standards are explicitly reported and measured. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Investigating variations in implementation fidelity of an organizational-level occupational health intervention. (United States)

    Augustsson, Hanna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna


    The workplace has been suggested as an important arena for health promotion, but little is known about how the organizational setting influences the implementation of interventions. The aims of this study are to evaluate implementation fidelity in an organizational-level occupational health intervention and to investigate possible explanations for variations in fidelity between intervention units. The intervention consisted of an integration of health promotion, occupational health and safety, and a system for continuous improvements (Kaizen) and was conducted in a quasi-experimental design at a Swedish hospital. Implementation fidelity was evaluated with the Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity and implementation factors used to investigate variations in fidelity with the Framework for Evaluating Organizational-level Interventions. A multi-method approach including interviews, Kaizen notes, and questionnaires was applied. Implementation fidelity differed between units even though the intervention was introduced and supported in the same way. Important differences in all elements proposed in the model for evaluating organizational-level interventions, i.e., context, intervention, and mental models, were found to explain the differences in fidelity. Implementation strategies may need to be adapted depending on the local context. Implementation fidelity, as well as pre-intervention implementation elements, is likely to affect the implementation success and needs to be assessed in intervention research. The high variation in fidelity across the units indicates the need for adjustments to the type of designs used to assess the effects of interventions. Thus, rather than using designs that aim to control variation, it may be necessary to use those that aim at exploring and explaining variation, such as adapted study designs.

  18. Noise Simulations of the High-Lift Common Research Model (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Vatsa, Veer N.; O'Connell, Matthew D.; Duda, Benjamin; Fares, Ehab


    The PowerFLOW(TradeMark) code has been used to perform numerical simulations of the high-lift version of the Common Research Model (HL-CRM) that will be used for experimental testing of airframe noise. Time-averaged surface pressure results from PowerFLOW(TradeMark) are found to be in reasonable agreement with those from steady-state computations using FUN3D. Surface pressure fluctuations are highest around the slat break and nacelle/pylon region, and synthetic array beamforming results also indicate that this region is the dominant noise source on the model. The gap between the slat and pylon on the HL-CRM is not realistic for modern aircraft, and most nacelles include a chine that is absent in the baseline model. To account for those effects, additional simulations were completed with a chine and with the slat extended into the pylon. The case with the chine was nearly identical to the baseline, and the slat extension resulted in higher surface pressure fluctuations but slightly reduced radiated noise. The full-span slat geometry without the nacelle/pylon was also simulated and found to be around 10 dB quieter than the baseline over almost the entire frequency range. The current simulations are still considered preliminary as changes in the radiated acoustics are still being observed with grid refinement, and additional simulations with finer grids are planned.

  19. Incorporating simulation into gynecologic surgical training. (United States)

    Wohlrab, Kyle; Jelovsek, J Eric; Myers, Deborah


    Today's educational environment has made it more difficult to rely on the Halstedian model of "see one, do one, teach one" in gynecologic surgical training. There is decreased surgical volume, but an increased number of surgical modalities. Fortunately, surgical simulation has evolved to fill the educational void. Whether it is through skill generalization or skill transfer, surgical simulation has shifted learning from the operating room back to the classroom. This article explores the principles of surgical education and ways to introduce simulation as an adjunct to residency training. We review high- and low-fidelity surgical simulators, discuss the progression of surgical skills, and provide options for skills competency assessment. Time and money are major hurdles when designing a simulation curriculum, but low-fidelity models, intradepartmental cost sharing, and utilizing local experts for simulation proctoring can aid in developing a simulation program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Point-of-care ultrasound education: the increasing role of simulation and multimedia resources. (United States)

    Lewiss, Resa E; Hoffmann, Beatrice; Beaulieu, Yanick; Phelan, Mary Beth


    This article reviews the current technology, literature, teaching models, and methods associated with simulation-based point-of-care ultrasound training. Patient simulation appears particularly well suited for learning point-of-care ultrasound, which is a required core competency for emergency medicine and other specialties. Work hour limitations have reduced the opportunities for clinical practice, and simulation enables practicing a skill multiple times before it may be used on patients. Ultrasound simulators can be categorized into 2 groups: low and high fidelity. Low-fidelity simulators are usually static simulators, meaning that they have nonchanging anatomic examples for sonographic practice. Advantages are that the model may be reused over time, and some simulators can be homemade. High-fidelity simulators are usually high-tech and frequently consist of many computer-generated cases of virtual sonographic anatomy that can be scanned with a mock probe. This type of equipment is produced commercially and is more expensive. High-fidelity simulators provide students with an active and safe learning environment and make a reproducible standardized assessment of many different ultrasound cases possible. The advantages and disadvantages of using low- versus high-fidelity simulators are reviewed. An additional concept used in simulation-based ultrasound training is blended learning. Blended learning may include face-to-face or online learning often in combination with a learning management system. Increasingly, with simulation and Web-based learning technologies, tools are now available to medical educators for the standardization of both ultrasound skills training and competency assessment.

  1. Assessment of the Ability of the Health Care Provider to Detect Manifestations Indicative of TBI Management of care for TBI Through the Utilization of High Fidelity Simulation (United States)


    a stretcher – alert, no apparent injury, a bit anxious If asked an open-ended question such as “what happened ?” the soldier provides the following...provided if asked: Had a helmet on, did not hit head No LOC, dazed initially No concussion in past 12 months See MACE attachment for additional

  2. The impact of model fidelity on seasonal predictive skill (United States)

    Kharin, V. V.; Scinocca, J. F.


    The relationship between the quality of a general circulation model's (GCM's) representation of present climate and its predictive skill on seasonal time scales is investigated by a series of GCM experiments. A novel procedure is developed to improve the quality of a GCM's present-day control climate by applying cyclostationary annually varying run-time “bias corrections”. Application of this procedure to the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis third generation atmospheric GCM (AGCM3) is shown to result in a significant reduction of time-mean biases in wind, temperature and humidity fields in its simulation of present-day climate. Furthermore, it is found that this cyclostationary correction leads to improved variability on seasonal time scales. The ability to improve a GCM's properties in this way allows a careful assessment of the relationship between a model's fidelity and its predictive skill. In this study, the potential predictive skill on seasonal time scales is assessed by performing ensemble simulations with the observed sea surface temperatures and sea-ice distribution. The analysis indicates that the increase in model fidelity associated with the application of the bias correction results in a general increase in predictive skill on seasonal times scales. To investigate this result further, an additional set of ensemble forecasts are performed with the sign of the bias correction reversed, thereby degrading model fidelity. In this additional experiment the corresponding predictive skill is also degraded. The results of this study have implications with regard to the application and interpretation of model metrics for climate GCMs.

  3. Simulating deposition of high density tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (United States)

    Babaoglu, Yagmur; Simms, Paul H.


    Tailings are a slurry of silt-sized residual material derived from the milling of rock. High density (HD) tailings are tailings that have been sufficiently dewatered to a point where they exhibit a yield stress upon deposition. They form gently sloped stacks on the surface when deposited; this eliminates or minimizes the need for dams or embankments for containment. Understanding the flow behaviour of high density tailings is essential for estimating the final stack geometry and overall slope angle. This paper focuses on modelling the flow behaviour of HD tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method incorporating a `bi-viscosity' model to simulate the non-Newtonian behaviour. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with bench scale experiments simulating single or multi-layer deposits in two-dimensions. The results indicate that the model agreed fairly well with the experimental work, excepting some repulsion of particles away from the bottom boundary closer to the toe of the deposits. Novel aspects of the work, compared to other simulation of Bingham fluids by SPH, are the simulation of multilayer deposits and the use of a stopping criteria to characterize the rest state.

  4. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel


    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  5. Fidelity in topological quantum phases of matter (United States)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Abasto, Damian; Haas, Stephan; Zanardi, Paolo


    Quantum phase transitions that take place between two distinct topological phases remain an unexplored area for the applicability of the fidelity approach. Here, we apply this method to spin systems in two and three dimensions and show that the fidelity susceptibility can be used to determine the boundary between different topological phases particular to these models, while at the same time offer information about the critical exponent of the correlation length. The success of this approach relies on its independence on local-order parameters or breaking symmetry mechanisms, with which nontopological phases are usually characterized. We also consider a topological insulator-superconducting phase transition in three dimensions and point out the relevant features of fidelity susceptibility at the boundary between these phases.

  6. Tuning of the lateral specific force gain based on human motion perception in the Desdemona simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Grácio, B.J.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Wentink, M.


    Generally, motion simulators present motion and visual cues different from each other due to the physical limitations of the motion platform. Nonetheless, high fidelity motion platforms are capable of simulating some maneuvers one-to-one, i.e., motion cues equal to visual cues. However, one-to-one

  7. Nursing Students' Nonverbal Reactions to Malodor in Wound Care Simulation (United States)

    Baker, Gloria Waters


    Background: Wound care is an essential competency which nursing students are expected to acquire. To foster students' competency, nurse educators use high fidelity simulation to expose nursing students to various wound characteristics. Problem: Little is known about how nursing students react to simulated wound characteristics. Malodor is a…

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Performance in Games and Simulations. CRESST Report 771 (United States)

    Koenig, Alan D.; Lee, John J.; Iseli, Markus; Wainess, Richard


    The military's need for high-fidelity games and simulations is substantial, as these environments can be valuable for demonstration of essential knowledge, skills, and abilities required in complex tasks. However assessing performance in these settings can be difficult--particularly in non-linear simulations where more than one pathway to success…

  9. Fidelity susceptibility as holographic PV-criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood, E-mail: [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Kairat, E-mail: [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)


    It is well known that entropy can be used to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. In this paper, we will use complexity to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. Thus, we will analyze the relation among holographic complexity, fidelity susceptibility, and thermodynamics in extended phase space. We will demonstrate that fidelity susceptibility (which is the informational complexity dual to a maximum volume in AdS) can be related to the thermodynamical volume (which is conjugate to the cosmological constant in the extended thermodynamic phase space). Thus, this letter establishes a relation among geometry, thermodynamics, and information theory, using complexity.

  10. Quantum chaos and operator fidelity metric (United States)

    Giorda, Paolo; Zanardi, Paolo


    We show that the recently introduced operator fidelity metric provides a natural tool to investigate the crossover to quantum chaotic behavior. This metric is an information-theoretic measure of the global stability of a unitary evolution against perturbations. We use random matrix theory arguments to conjecture that the operator fidelity metric can be used to discriminate phases with regular behavior from quantum chaotic ones. A numerical study of the onset of chaotic in the Dicke model is given in order to support the conjecture.

  11. Operator fidelity susceptibility, decoherence, and quantum criticality (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zanardi, Paolo


    The extension of the notion of quantum fidelity from the state-space to the operator level can be used to study environment-induced decoherence. The state-dependent operator fidelity susceptibility (OFS), the leading-order term for slightly different operator parameters, is shown to have a nontrivial behavior when the environment is at critical points. Two different contributions to the OFS are identified which have distinct physical origins and temporal dependence. Exact results are obtained for the finite-temperature decoherence caused by a bath described by the Ising model in a transverse field.

  12. Simulation technology in training students, residents and faculty. (United States)

    Morgan, Pamela J; Cleave-Hogg, Doreen


    We provide an overview of the developments in medical education and assessment using high-fidelity simulation. Both descriptive and research papers recently published in the English language are included in this review. The majority of articles reviewed are descriptive in nature, outlining the use of simulation for various educational purposes in undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education. Some articles focus on the use of simulation for the acquisition of technical skills in different surgical disciplines using part-task simulation. Other disciplines such as emergency medicine, critical care, paediatrics and nursing have also contributed to the literature in this area. Very little research in the area of simulation is evident in the literature addressing the actual value or the reliability and validity of high-fidelity simulation as an evaluation tool during this time period. A strong interest in decreasing human error and the improvement in patient safety may indicate the future direction of high-fidelity simulation. Simulation is receiving increasing support as an educational tool and in its use for evaluation purposes. Research into this area is still somewhat limited. As the research impetus increases in the future, we may see simulation as a major focus in all disciplines with respect to its use in the improvement of patient safety. Team training, including both personality and attitudinal issues similar to those performed in other high hazard industries, may become increasingly evident in the literature in the coming decade.

  13. Visualization of Process of Wheel Steel High Ingots Simulation (United States)

    Bondarenko, V. I.; Bodryaga, V. V.; Nedopekin, F. V.; Belousov, V. V.


    The mathematical model for computation of formation of wheel steel high ingots has been formulated based on the generalized system of equations consisting of the Navier-Stokes equation, the turbulent heat and mass transfer equation and the continuity equation. It is suggested to use a pattern when designing software for simulation of hydrodynamic and thermo-physical processes. A software complex with friendly input and output data flows is provided for technologists of metallurgical production.

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Classroom Type and Teacher Intervention Fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available As special education enrollment for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD has increased, school-based programs and providers have been challenged to expand the scope and quality of services. Researchers and school-based providers are aligned in the goal of providing high-quality services to students with ASD, however current literature does not address how training and implementation needs may differ by the age of children served. The current study evaluates variability in teacher fidelity of Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching (CPRT, an evidence-based naturalistic behavioral intervention based on the principals of applied behavior analysis. Data included 479 individual video units collected from 101 teacher and 221 student participants. Videos were coded using behavioral coding definitions and student demographic information was collected from parents of participating children. Analyses explored differences in fidelity of CPRT by age of students. Results indicate a significant relationship between classroom type (preschool/elementary and teachers’ fidelity of CPRT, suggesting the possibility of targeted training based on student age.

  15. Climate SPHINX: High-resolution present-day and future climate simulations with an improved representation of small-scale variability (United States)

    Davini, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Corti, Susanna; Subramanian, Aneesh; Weisheimer, Antje; Christensen, Hannah; Juricke, Stephan; Palmer, Tim


    The PRACE Climate SPHINX project investigates the sensitivity of climate simulations to model resolution and stochastic parameterization. The EC-Earth Earth-System Model is used to explore the impact of stochastic physics in 30-years climate integrations as a function of model resolution (from 80km up to 16km for the atmosphere). The experiments include more than 70 simulations in both a historical scenario (1979-2008) and a climate change projection (2039-2068), using RCP8.5 CMIP5 forcing. A total amount of 20 million core hours will be used at end of the project (March 2016) and about 150 TBytes of post-processed data will be available to the climate community. Preliminary results show a clear improvement in the representation of climate variability over the Euro-Atlantic following resolution increase. More specifically, the well-known atmospheric blocking negative bias over Europe is definitely resolved. High resolution runs also show improved fidelity in representation of tropical variability - such as the MJO and its propagation - over the low resolution simulations. It is shown that including stochastic parameterization in the low resolution runs help to improve some of the aspects of the MJO propagation further. These findings show the importance of representing the impact of small scale processes on the large scale climate variability either explicitly (with high resolution simulations) or stochastically (in low resolution simulations).

  16. Participatory ergonomics simulation of hospital work systems: The influence of simulation media on simulation outcome. (United States)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole


    Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups' high fidelity of room layout and affordance of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models' high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity organization. Furthermore, the study addresses the form of the identified and evaluated conditions, being either identified challenges or tangible design criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. High viscosity fluid simulation using particle-based method

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang


    We present a new particle-based method for high viscosity fluid simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the traditional Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the movements of the high viscosity fluids. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, in order to eliminate the particle deficiency problem near the boundary, ghost particles are employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. Compared with Finite Element Methods with complicated and time-consuming remeshing operations, our method is much more straightforward to implement. Moreover, our method doesn\\'t need to store and compare to an initial rest state. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient to handle the movements of highly viscous flows, and a large variety of different kinds of fluid behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria y Administracion


    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2{pi} solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  19. Critical thinking skills in nursing students: comparison of simulation-based performance with metrics. (United States)

    Fero, Laura J; O'Donnell, John M; Zullo, Thomas G; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T; Hoffman, Leslie A


    This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation-based performance was rated as 'meeting' or 'not meeting' overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Most (75.0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0.277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0.001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between videotaped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer's V = 0.444, P = 0.029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer's V = 0.413, P = 0.047). Students' performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills in the clinical setting. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced

  20. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.


    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.