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Sample records for high energy tibial

  1. High-energy tibial plateau fractures: external fixation versus plate fixation.

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    Yu, Liang; Fenglin, Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Whether external or plating fixation is more appropriate for high-energy tibial plateau fractures is still being disputed, our aim was to test the hypothesis whether external fixation can provide a fair outcome with fewer complications, when compared to the results with previously reported data of plating fixation for high-energy tibial plateau fractures. An Ovid of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library search was conducted for the relevant English orthopedic journals, and eligible studies, including twenty-four case series and one comparative study containing 885 patients associated with 892 fractures, were enrolled. The results showed there were a higher proportion of men, open fractures, malunion, knee instability, and posttraumatic arthritis occurred in external fixation group than those in plating group (P=0.007, P=0.000, P=0.024, P=0.006, P=0.000, respectively), while valgus deformity happened at a significantly higher rate in plate group (P=0.014). No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of age, Schatzker type, follow-up, mean time to union, mean range of knee motion, and rate of reoperation. With regard to the functional and radiological outcome assessment, despite what assessment tools were used, most of these studies presented less than 90% good/excellent results in their high-energy fracture series. Besides, there was a trend for patients in plating group to have a higher risk than those in external fixation group in terms of heterotopic ossification and local irritation (1.23 vs 0.17%, 4 vs 1.94%, accordingly). Although lack of good quality randomized control trials, there are rather enough samples supporting the current available results. Meanwhile, future multicentered, randomized, controlled studies should be implemented to test these outcomes.

  2. Infection after spanning external fixation for high-energy tibial plateau fractures: is pin site-plate overlap a problem?

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    Laible, Catherine; Earl-Royal, Emily; Davidovitch, Roy; Walsh, Mike; Egol, Kenneth A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether overlap between temporary external fixator pins and definitive plate fixation correlates with infection in high-energy tibial plateau fractures. Retrospective chart and radiographic review. Academic medical center. Seventy-nine patients with unilateral high-energy tibial plateau fractures formed the basis of this report. Placement of knee-spanning external fixation followed by delayed internal fixation for high-energy tibial plateau fractures treated at our institution between 2000 and 2008. Demographic patient information was reviewed. Radiographs were reviewed to assess for the presence of overlap between the temporary external fixator pins and the definitive plate fixation. Fisher exact and t test analyses were performed to compare those patients who had overlap and those who did not and were used to determine whether this was a factor in the development of a postoperative infection. Development of infection in those whose external fixation pin sites overlapped with the definitive internal fixation device compared with those whose pin sites did not overlap with definitive plate and screws. Six knees in six patients developed deep infections requiring serial irrigation and débridement and intravenous antibiotics. Of these six infections, three were in patients with closed fractures and three in patients with open fractures. Two of these six infections followed definitive plate fixation that overlapped the external fixator pin sites with an average of 4.2 cm of overlap. In the four patients who developed an infection and had no overlap, the average distance between the tip of the plate to the first external fixator pin was 6.3 cm. There was no correlation seen between infection and distance from pin to plate, pin-plate overlap distance, time in the external fixator, open fracture, classification of fracture, sex of the patient, age of the patient, or healing status of the fracture. Fears of definitive fracture

  3. Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy

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    Siew Ghim Gooi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.

  4. The biplanar open wedge high tibial osteotomy preserving the tibial tubercle.

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    Hopwood, Sam; Khan, Wasim; Agarwal, Sanjeev

    2016-11-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a treatment option for relatively young patients with isolated medial compartment arthritis of the knee. Medial open wedge osteotomies allow easier control of correction, but can lead to patella infera as a result of distalization of the tibial tubercle. This retrospective study reports results of a biplanar tibial tubercle preserving HTO, designed to preserve patellar height. The study is a retrospective analysis of 12 consecutive patients (11 men, 1 woman) average age 39.6 years who underwent the procedure between 2009 and 2012. A biplanar open wedge tibial osteotomy was performed and stabilised with a medial locking plate. Patients were allowed full weight bearing at 6 weeks. Preoperative and postoperative function was recorded on the Oxford knee score, Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale. Minimum follow up was 26 months. All patients had healing of the osteotomy with no delayed union. Eleven patients reported improvement in symptoms with an average preoperative Oxford score of 26 and postoperative score of 39 out of 48. The Lysholm score improved from 58 to 72 out of 100. There was one point improvement in Tegner activity scale. There was no statistical difference in patellar height before and one year after surgery. The correction in varus averaged 8.3°. The biplanar High tibial Osteotomy allows preservation of patellar height, while achieving desired varus correction. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

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    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-09-07

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give surgeons who perform kinematically aligned TKA confidence that the alignment method and surgical technique limit high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between

  6. Fractures of the tibial plateau involve similar energies as the tibial pilon but greater articular surface involvement.

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    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B; Higgins, Thomas F; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O; Marsh, J Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D

    2017-03-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated whether clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and 52 tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial plateau and pilon fractures were 3.2-33.2 Joules (J) and 3.6-32.2 J, respectively, and articular fracture edge lengths were 68.0-493.0 mm and 56.1-288.6 mm, respectively. There were no differences in the fracture energies between the two fracture types, but plateau fractures had greater articular fracture edge lengths (p plateau compared to the tibial pilon. The substantial overlap of severity measures between different fracture classes may well have confounded prior clinical studies relying on fracture classification as a surrogate for severity. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:618-624, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: plate position and biomechanics of the medial tibial plateau.

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    Martinez de Albornoz, Pilar; Leyes, Manuel; Forriol, Francisco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-11-01

    To ascertain whether changing position and size of the spacer may modify the load and displacement of the tibial plateau when performing an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Fifteen sawbones tibia models were used. In the axial plane, the anterior, medial, and posterior thirds of the tibial plateau were marked, and the medial and posterior thirds were called "point 1" and "point 2", respectively. A 7.5-mm-stainless steel indenter was used to apply the load over these two points: the load applied to point 1 simulated the load to that site when the knee was extended, and the load to point 2 simulated the load to the same area when the knee was flexed. Maximum load (N) and displacement (mm) were calculated. The system was shown to withstand higher loads with less displacement when the plate was posterior than it could do with the plate in the middle position. Significant differences were also found when comparing the anterior and middle position of the plate with the greatest displacement when the plate was anterior. The differences were increased when comparing the anterior and posterior positions of the plate. No statistical differences (n.s.) were found when using different spacers. The maximum stiffness was achieved if the plate was posterior and in point 1 indenter position, in which the force vector stands on the points of the lateral and medial supports (Fμ = 198.8 ± 61.5 N). The lowest stiffness was observed when the plate was anterior, and the force was applied to point 2 (Fμ = 29.7 ± 5.1 N). Application of the plate in a more posterior position provides greater stability.

  8. New angle measurement device to control the posterior tibial slope angle in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

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    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Matsumoto, Kazu; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2017-11-17

    Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy has been associated with an unintentional increase in the posterior tibial slope angle. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel bone spreader angle rod to maintain the native posterior tibial slope angle in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Data from 92 consecutive knees in 83 patients who underwent medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy for knee osteoarthritis between March 2015 and June 2016 were analysed. The osteotomy was performed without the use of a bone spreader angle rod in the first 50 cases (control group) and with the use of the angle rod in the subsequent 42 cases (angle rod group). The wedge insertion angle, defined as the angle between a line drawn along the posterior aspect of the wedge spacer and a line tangential to the posterior aspect of the femoral condyles, and the posterior tibial slope angle were evaluated on pre- and postoperative lateral knee radiographs and postoperative computed tomography images. Wedge insertion angle showed that wedge spacers were inserted in a more direct horizontal direction in the angle rod group than in the control group (16.0 ± 8.8° and 23.0 ± 10.0°, respectively, P angle was significantly smaller in the angle rod group (0.6 ± 1.6°) compared to that in the control group (3.2 ± 3.2°; P angle > 3° (outlier) was identified in 1 case (2.4%) in the angle rod group compared to 27 cases in the control group (54.0%). The direct horizontal insertion of wedge spacers with the assistance of our novel bone spreader angle rod maintains the native posterior tibial slope angle better than conventional methods. IV.

  9. Roentgen stereogrammetry in high tibial osteotomy for gonarthrosis

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    Tjoernstrand, B.; Selvik, G.; Egund, N.; Lingstrand, A.

    1981-01-01

    In three cases operated with high tibial osteotomy for medial gonarthrosis the exact method of roentgen stereophotogrammetry with tantalum balls as bone markers was used to study angular and translational movements in three dimensions at the operation and during the healing period. Tibial osteotomy caused angular and translational movements even in planes where correction was not intended, and the stereo technique revealed that stability was not present when knee mobilisation started. Correlation between the stereo values and conventional radiographic measurements were best in the frontal plane (root mean square value of discrepancies 1.3/sup 0/). Roentgen stereophotogrammetry gives superior information compared with the conventional radiographic technique, but it is concluded that the latter has sufficient accuracy for the clinical assessment of corrections in the frontal plane.

  10. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

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    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  11. Energy expenditure during walking in subjects with tibial rotationplasty, above-knee amputation, or hip disarticulation.

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    van der Windt, D A; Pieterson, I; van der Eijken, J W; Hollander, A P; Dahmen, R; de Jong, B A

    1992-12-01

    The surgical treatment of osteosarcoma with a tibial rotationplasty seems to offer functional advantages in comparison with an above-knee amputation. It has not been established whether the functional advantages are accompanied by a lower rate of energy expenditure during walking. In children with a tibial rotationplasty (n = 15), an above-knee amputation (n = 6), or a hip disarticulation (n = 5), energy expenditure was measured during treadmill walking at various walking velocities. The subjects with a tibial rotationplasty were able to walk faster, but there were no differences between the groups in energy expenditure per unit time or per unit distance. Correction for confounding variables including age, sex, height, time since operation, level of activity, and support during walking in a multiple linear regression model did not reveal any significant differences in energy expenditure during walking between groups. 1992 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

  12. Low Rates of Aseptic Tibial Loosening in Obese Patients With Use of High-Viscosity Cement and Standard Tibial Tray: 2-Year Minimum Follow-Up.

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    Crawford, David A; Berend, Keith R; Nam, Denis; Barrack, Robert L; Adams, Joanne B; Lombardi, Adolph V

    2017-09-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is overall a very successful surgery, but complications do occur. These complications include aseptic loosening of the tibial component, and obese patients are among the highest risk group. High-viscosity cement (HVC) has been implicated as a possible cause for aseptic loosening of the tibial component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of aseptic loosening of the tibial component in obese patients with the use of HVC and standard tibial tray. We identified 1366 obese patients (1851 knees) with a body mass index >35 kg/m 2 and 2-year minimum follow-up who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty using HVC and a symmetrical, grit-blasted, cobalt-chrome tibial component with 40-mm stem. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion, Knee Society (KS) scores, complications, and reoperations were evaluated. Specifically, we assessed the rate of tibial aseptic loosening. At a mean 5.4 years follow-up, only 1 in 1851 knees had aseptic loosening of the tibial component for an incidence of 0.054%. There was a mean increase of 3.3 degrees of knee range of motion. KS pain level decreased by 38.6 points (50 point scale). KS clinical scores improved by 52.2, Knee Society functional scores improved by 19.5, University of California, Los Angeles, activity score improved by 0.9, and Oxford Knee Score by 15.7. All these improvements were statistically significant with P < .001. Standard tibial components and HVC can be used in most patients, including the high-risk obese group, with low rates of tibial aseptic loosening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Unicompartmental Knee Osteoarthritis (UKOA: Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA or High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO?

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    E. Carlos RODRIGUEZ-MERCHAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this review article is to analyze the results of high tibial osteotomy compared to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis.   Methods: The search engine used was PubMed. The keywords were: "high tibial osteotomy versus unicompartmental knee arthroplasty". Twenty-one articles were found on 28 February 2015, but only eighteen were selected and reviewed because they strictly focused on the topic. Results: In a meta-analysis the ratio for an excellent outcome was higher in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty than high tibial osteotomy and the risks of revision and complications were lower in the former. A prospective comparative study showed that unicompartmental knee arthroplasty offers better long-term success (77% for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and 60% for high tibial osteotomy at 7-10 years. However, a review of the literature showed no evidence of superior results of one treatment over the other. A multicenter study stated that unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis without constitutional deformity should be treated with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty while in cases with constitutional deformity high tibial osteotomy should be indicated. A case control study stated that unicompartmental knee arthroplasty offers a viable alternative to high tibial osteotomy if proper patient selection is done. Conclusion: The literature is still controversial regarding the best surgical treatment for unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis (high tibial osteotomy or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. However, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty utilization is increasing, while high tibial osteotomy utilization is decreasing, and a meta-analysis has shown better outcomes and less risk of revision and complications in the former. A systematic review has found that with correct patient selection, both procedures show effective and reliable results. However, prospective randomized studies

  14. Return to work and sporting activities after high tibial osteotomy.

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    Faschingbauer, Martin; Nelitz, Manfred; Urlaub, Stefanie; Reichel, Heiko; Dornacher, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a commonly used treatment to correct varus malalignment of the knee. The purpose of this study was, first, to determine, whether HTO allows return to pre-operative work, depending on the amount of work load. Second, the restoration of sports ability and a difference in sports activities pre- to postoperative should be analyzed. Fifty-one patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups dependent on work intensity. Sporting activity was evaluated by an activity score (Naal). Clinical examination includes Tegner-score, Lysholm-score and visual analog pain scale. General health was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Survey questionnaire. On an average of 16.7 ± 15.6 weeks after surgery patients returned to work, and 93.8 % of the patients returned to pre-operative work load. The Tegner activity score did not show significant changes pre- and postoperatively. At the time of survey Lysholm score reached a value of 68.7 ± 23.9 points on average. Postoperatively, patients remarked on decreased pain by VAS by an average of 2.6 ± 2.3 points. In total, 92.3 % returned to pre-operative sports activities after surgery. A shift away from high impact activities to lower impact activities, a significant decrease of the duration of sports activities and number of sports disciplines was detected. In summary, HTO allows the young, active patient with medial osteoarthritis of the knee to return to work with the same work intensity and to return to sports.

  15. Analysis of tibial component rotation following total knee arthroplasty using 3D high definition computed tomography.

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    Roper, Glade E; Bloemke, Adam D; Roberts, Catherine C; Spangehl, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D

    2013-09-01

    Malrotation of the tibial component is associated with poor outcomes after total knee arthroplasty, yet the definition and evaluation of this problem remain controversial. Contributing factors to this controversy include inconsistent and cumbersome methods for measuring rotation, based upon transposed measurements from multiple computed tomography images. We developed and tested the reliability of a new, simple method for measuring tibial component rotation based upon a single, three-dimensional high definition, axial computed tomography image. Sixty individual knees after total knee arthroplasty were evaluated. The intra-reliability and inter-reliability both exceeded 0.9 whether the tibial component was made of titanium, cobalt-chrome or all-polyethylene. Based upon these findings we suggest that this technique be used for evaluating tibial component rotation in future studies. © 2013.

  16. Tibial dyschondroplasia is highly associated with suppression of tibial angiogenesis through regulating the HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR signaling pathway in chickens.

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    Huang, Shu-Cheng; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Lan, Yan-Fang; Qiu, Gang; Zhang, Hui; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Luo, Hou-Qiang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Li-Hong; Li, Jia-Kui

    2017-08-22

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an intractable poultry problem that is characterized by the appearance of non-vascularized and non-mineralized cartilage masses in tibial growth plates (TGPs). However, the role of angiogenesis inhibition in the occurrence of TD remains unknown. In this study, we found that, compared to low-altitude Arbor Acres chickens (AACs), high-altitude Tibetan chickens showed higher tibial vascular distributions that were accompanied by up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGF receptors. These observations provide insights into hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, which may be related to the absence of TD in high-altitude native Tibetan chickens. Importantly, hypoxia experiments also showed that during hypoxia, tibial angiogenesis was enhanced, which was due to pro-angiogenic factor up-regulation (including VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and IL-8), in AACs. Moreover, we observed that thiram-induced TD could strongly inhibit tibial angiogenesis in the hypertrophic zone through coordinated down-regulation of HIF-1α and pro-angiogenic factors, leading to a disruption in the blood supply to the TGP. Taken together, these findings reveal that the occurrence of TD is highly associated with inhibition of tibial angiogenesis through down-regulated expression of HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGF receptors, which results in suppression of TGP development.

  17. Incidence and risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fracture in high school runners.

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    Yagi, Shigenori; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2013-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and tibial stress fracture (SF) are common lower leg disorders in runners. A prospective study was done to identify the incidence of MTSS and SF in high school runners and to determine risk factors. A total of 230 runners participating in high school running teams were evaluated. All runners aged 15 years as first grade of high school were involved in the study. They were followed up for 3 years. The measured items included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), range of hip and ankle motion, straight leg raising (SLR), intercondylar and intermalleolar interval, Q-angle, navicular drop test, hip abductor strength and physical conditioning. Each runner was followed for 3 years to report occurrence of MTSS and SF. A total number of 102 MTSS (0.29 athlete exposures) and 21 SF (0.06 athlete exposures) were identified. In females, BMI significantly increased the risk of MTSS after adjustment for the other variables in this study (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95 % confidence interval, 0.31-0.86). Increased internal rotation of the hip significantly increased the risk of MTSS (adjusted odds ratio, 0.91; 95 % confidence interval, 0.85-0.99). In males, limited SLR also significantly increased the risk of SF with adjustment for the other variables in this study (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95 % confidence interval, 1.04-1.83). A significant relationship was found between BMI, internal hip rotation angle and MTSS in females, and between limited SLR and SF in males. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  18. [Low-energy laser therapy in medial tibial stress syndrome].

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    Nissen, L R; Astvad, K; Madsen, L

    1994-12-05

    The effect of low-energy laser therapy on shin splints was examined in a randomized study with an unblinded design. Constripts from the Jutland Dragoon regiment with shin splints were given either active laser treatment (40 mW in 60 sec per cm tender tibia edge) or placebo laser. All patients were exempted from normal duty concerning activities like running and march. Forty-nine patients participated in the study, 23 in the laser group and 26 in the control group. From the start the study was designed to be double-blind, but by accident the code was broken towards the end of the study. We found no significant differences between the groups regarding pain visual analog score and readiness to return to active duty after 14 days.

  19. High resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

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    Singh, Kunwarpal; Gupta, Kamlesh; Kaur, Sukhdeep

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve is a fast and non invasive tool for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Our study was aimed at finding out the correlation of the cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve with the presence and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. 75 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus clinically diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were analysed, and the severity of neuropathy was determined using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. 58 diabetic patients with no clinical suspicion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 75 healthy non-diabetic subjects were taken as controls. The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerves were calculated 3 cm cranial to the medial malleolus in both lower limbs. The mean cross sectional area (22.63 +/- 2.66 mm2) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles (0.70 mm) of the tibial nerves in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with both control groups was significantly larger, and statistically significant correlation was found with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (p diabetic patients with no signs of peripheral neuropathy had a larger mean cross sectional area (14.40 +/- 1.72 mm2) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve (0.40 mm) than healthy non-diabetic subjects (12.42 +/- 1.01 mm2 and 0.30 mm respectively). The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve is larger in diabetic patients with or without peripheral neuropathy than in healthy control subjects, and ultrasonography can be used as a good screening tool in these patients.

  20. High resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

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    Kunwarpal Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: High-resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve is a fast and non invasive tool for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Our study was aimed at finding out the correlation of the cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve with the presence and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Material and methods: 75 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus clinically diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were analysed, and the severity of neuropathy was determined using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. 58 diabetic patients with no clinical suspicion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 75 healthy non-diabetic subjects were taken as controls. The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerves were calculated 3 cm cranial to the medial malleolus in both lower limbs. Results: The mean cross sectional area (22.63 +/– 2.66 mm2 and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles (0.70 mm of the tibial nerves in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with both control groups was significantly larger, and statistically significant correlation was found with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (p < 0.001. The diabetic patients with no signs of peripheral neuropathy had a larger mean cross sectional area (14.40 +/– 1.72 mm2 and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve (0.40 mm than healthy non-diabetic subjects (12.42 +/– 1.01 mm2 and 0.30 mm respectively. Conclusion: The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve is larger in diabetic patients with or without peripheral neuropathy than in healthy control subjects, and ultrasonography can be used as a good screening tool in these patients.

  1. Prospective 5-year survival rate data following open-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy.

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    Bode, Gerrit; von Heyden, Johanna; Pestka, Jan; Schmal, Hagen; Salzmann, Gian; Südkamp, Norbert; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy using internal plate fixation is a well-established and frequently performed treatment option for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) in the young and active patients. The present study provides survival rate and functional outcome preoperatively and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Hypothesis of the authors was high survival rates after 5 years with still remaining satisfying functional results. Sixty-two patients suffering from tibial conditioned knee joint varus deformity and medial compartment OA that underwent high tibial osteotomy using an internal plate fixator (TomoFix™, Synthes) were included. Functional outcome was evaluated prior to surgery and in the further clinical course using standard instruments (IKDC score, Lysholm score). Treatment failure was defined as the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-one patients (mean age 46.8 ± 10.2 years) were available at a mean of 60.5 (SD ± 2.5) months (follow-up rate 82.3 %) postoperatively. Sixty-month IKDC (69.4 % SD ± 18.6) and Lysholm (76.6 SD ± 20.5) improved significantly when comparing with preoperative values (IKDC 44.6 SD ± 17.8; Lysholm 52.1 SD ± 20.8). Two of 51 subjects underwent TKA, resulting in a survival rate of 96 % among those patients followed (51 of 60; 85 %). Overall complication rate was 8.6 %. With a survival rate of over 96 % at 5 years, high tibial osteotomy seems to be a reliable treatment option with satisfying clinical outcome. Functional outcome was stable following 60 months. While a delay of the necessity for TKA seems likely with regard to the survival rate demonstrated in this article, possible avoidance needs to be demonstrated by longer follow-up studies. Therapeutic case series, Level IV.

  2. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens.

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    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD.

  3. Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for medial tibial stress syndrome.

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    Rompe, Jan D; Cacchio, Angelo; Furia, John P; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a pain syndrome along the tibial origin of the tibialis posterior or soleus muscle. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (SWT) is effective in numerous types of insertional pain syndromes. Shock wave therapy is an effective treatment for chronic MTSS. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-seven consecutive subjects with chronic recalcitrant MTSS underwent a standardized home training program, and received repetitive low-energy radial SWT (2000 shocks; 2.5 bars of pressure, which is equal to 0.1 mJ/mm(2); total energy flux density, 200 mJ/mm(2); no local anesthesia) (treatment group). Forty-seven subjects with chronic recalcitrant MTSS were not treated with SWT, but underwent a standardized home training program only (control group). Evaluation was by change in numeric rating scale. Degree of recovery was measured on a 6-point Likert scale (subjects with a rating of completely recovered or much improved were rated as treatment success). One month, 4 months, and 15 months from baseline, success rates for the control and treatment groups according to the Likert scale were 13% and 30% (P treatment groups were 7.3 and 5.8 (P treatment group had been able to return to their preferred sport at their preinjury level, as had 22 of the 47 control subjects. Radial SWT as applied was an effective treatment for MTSS.

  4. Osteotomia tibial alta em pacientes com artrose do joelho High tibial osteotomy in patients with knee arthrosis

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    Roger Avakian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o tratamento da gonartrose medial com osteotomia tibial tipo cunha de fechamento lateral associado à liberação da articulação tibiofibular proximal. MÉTODOS: Realizamos esta técnica associado com liberação da articulação tibiofibular proximal no tratamento da gonartrose medial em 36 pacientes (41 joelhos de janeiro de 1995 a abril de 2003, com idade de 53,4 anos (média, seguidos por 51,6 meses (média. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação notamos que as osteotomias tibiais com cunha de fechamento lateral permitem correção satisfatória da deformidade fêmorotibial, com angulação femorotibial final em torno de 7º de valgo; o eixo mecânico foi desviado da região tibial medial (posição 1,2% para o centro do joelho (posição 50,5%; a inclinação tibial na incidência perfil pré-operatória de 9,8º foi corrigida para 6,5º (média; a mobilidade articular apresentou perda de 2,3º na extensão (média. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica permite correção satisfatória da deformidade em varo fêmorotibial, porém não é isenta de complicações (14,6%. O grau de satisfação (Lysholm dos pacientes teve incremento de 27,3 para 89. Assim, constitui uma parte essencial no arsenal de tratamento da gonartrose.PURPOSE: To assess medial gonarthrosis treatment with wedge-like side-closed tibial osteotomy combined with proximal tibial-fibular joint release. METHODS: we employed this technique combined with proximal tibial-fibular joint release in the treatment of medial gonarthrosis in 36 patients (41 knees, from January 1995 to April 2003, with mean age of 53.4 years, followed-up for 51.6 months (in average. RESULTS: In the assessment, we noticed that wedge-like side-closed tibial osteotomies allow for a satisfactory repair of the femorotibial deformity, with end femorotibial angle of about 7° valgus; the mechanical axis was dislocated from the medial region of the tibia (position: 1.2% to knee center (position: 50.5%; the 9.8° tibial

  5. Application of Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate (ODSCP) in High Medial Tibial Open Wedge Osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Seyed Salman; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Omidi Kashani, Farzad; Mahdavian Naghashzargar, Reza; Razi, Shiva

    2013-04-01

    Angular deformities about the knee are one of the common disorders. High Tibial osteotomy is a way of correcting the deformity. Although the general agreement is focused toward the open wedge technique, discussion about the type of device is a subject to debate. This current study has attempted to evaluate the results of Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate (ODSCP) in high medial open wedge osteotomies of the tibia. In this cross-sectional study, 16 patients with genuvarum undergone high medial tibial open wedge osteotomy and fixed by Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate. At the time of the last follow up visit, Lysholm score was gathered. The mean follow-up time was 9.33 ± 1.87 month. The average age was 45.13 ± 7.25 years. Three patients were male and 13 patients were female. The lysholm score showed a significant difference before and after surgery. The ODSCP has many advantages over the other type of plates. It can help the surgeon to operate with a relaxed mind and it is advisable for high tibial medial open wedge osteotomies.

  6. The results of high tibial open wedge osteotomy in patients with varus deformity

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    Mahmood Jabalameli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High tibial open wedg osteotomy is one of the most important modality for treatment of varus deformity in order to correct deformity and improving signs and symptoms of patients with primary degenerative osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of high tibial open wedge osteotomy in patients with varus deformities.Methods: This retrospective study conducted on twenty nine patients (36 knees undergone proximal tibial osteotomy operation in Shafa Yahyaian University Hospital from 2004 to 2010. Inclusion criteria were: age less than 60 years, high physical activity, varus deformity and involvement of medical compartment of knee. Patients with obesity, smoking, patelofemoral pain, lateral compartment lesion, deformity degree more than 20 degree, extension limitation and range of motion less than 90 degree were excluded. The clinical and radiologic characteristics were measured before and after operation.Results: Fourteen patients were females. All of them were younger than 50 years, with mean (±SD 27.64 (±10.88. The mean (±SD of follow up time was 4.33 (±1.7. All the patients were satisfied with the results of operation. Tenderness and pain decreased in all of them. In all patients autologus bone graft were used, in 15 cases (42.5% casting and in the rest T.Buttress plate were used for fixation of fractures. In both groups of primary and double varus the International knee documentation committee (IKDC and modified Larson indices were improved after operation, but there was no significant difference between two groups.Conclusion: High tibial open wedge osteotomy can have satisfying results in clinical signs and symptoms of patients with primary medial joint degenerative osteoarthritis. This procedure also may correct the deformity and improves the radiologic parameters of the patients.

  7. The coronal hypomochlion: a tipping point of clinical relevance when planning valgus producing high tibial osteotomies.

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    Heijens, E; Kornherr, P; Meister, C

    2016-05-01

    In patients undergoing medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO), soft tissue opening on the medial side of the knee is difficult to predict. When the load bearing axis is corrected beyond a certain point, the knee joint tilts open on the medial side. We therefore hypothesised that there is a tipping point and defined this as the coronal hypomochlion. In this prospective study of 150 navigated MOWHTOs (144 consecutive patients), data were collected before surgery and at three months post-operatively. In order to calculate the hypomochlion, we compared the respective changes to the joint line convergence angle (JLCA) with the post-operative axis of the leg. The change to the medial proximal tibial angle accounts for only about 80% of the change to the femorotibial angle; 20% of the correction can therefore be attributed to non-osseous, soft-tissue changes. We were able to demonstrate a linear change of JLCA in a range of 0° to 5° of valgus which started when the post-operative long-leg axis was corrected beyond 2° of valgus. We found that the coronal hypomochlion occurs at 2° of valgus. It is recommended to plan realignment for medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy at a maximum of 2° valgus. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:628-33. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. High tibial closing wedge osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthrosis of knee

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    Tuli S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most patients of symptomatic osteoarthrosis of knee are associated with varus malalignment that is causative or contributory to painful arthrosis. It is rational to correct the malalignment to transfer the functional load to the unaffected or less affected compartment of the knee to relieve symptoms. We report the outcome of a simple technique of high tibial osteotomy in the medial compartment of osteoarthrosis of the knee. Materials and Methods: Between 1996 and 2004 we performed closing wedge osteotomy in 78 knees in 65 patients. The patients selected for osteotomy were symptomatic essentially due to medial compartment osteoarthrosis associated with moderate genu varum. Of the 19 patients who had bilateral symptomatic disease 11 opted for high tibial osteotomy of their second knee 1-3 years after the first operation. Preoperative grading of osteoarthrosis and postoperative function was assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA rating scale. Results: At a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range 2-9 years 6-10° of valgus correction at the site of osteotomy was maintained, there was significant relief of pain while walking, negotiating stairs, squatting and sitting cross-legged. Walking distance in all patients improved by two to four times their preoperative distance of 200-400 m. No patient lost any preoperative knee function. The mean JOA scoring improved from preoperative 54 (40-65 to 77 (55-85 at final follow-up. Conclusion: Closing wedge high tibial osteotomy performed by our technique can be undertaken in any setup with moderate facilities. Operation related complications are minimal and avoidable. Kirschner wire fixation is least likely to interfere with replacement surgery if it becomes necessary.

  9. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osseous healing in dogs undergoing high tibial osteotomy.

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    Samuel P Franklin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP enhances osseous healing in conjunction with a high tibial osteotomy in dogs.Randomized controlled trial.Sixty-four client-owned pet dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and that were to be treated with a high tibial osteotomy (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy were randomized into the treatment or control group. Dogs in the treatment group received autologous platelet-rich plasma activated with calcium chloride and bovine thrombin to produce a well-formed PRP gel that was placed into the osteotomy at the time of surgery. Dogs in the control group received saline lavage of the osteotomy. All dogs had the osteotomy stabilized with identical titanium alloy implants and all aspects of the surgical procedure and post-operative care were identical among dogs of the two groups. Bone healing was assessed at exactly 28, 49, and 70 days after surgery with radiography and ultrasonography and with MRI at day 28. The effect of PRP on bone healing was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with radiographic and ultrasonographic data and using a t-test with the MRI data.Sixty dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or gender distribution between the treatment and control groups. Twenty-seven dogs were treated with PRP and 33 were in the control group. The average platelet concentration of the PRP was 1.37x106 platelets/μL (±489x103 with a leukocyte concentration of 5.45x103/μL (±3.5x103. All dogs demonstrated progressive healing over time and achieved clinically successful outcomes. Time since surgery and patient age were significant predictors of radiographic healing and time since surgery was a significant predictor of ultrasonographic assessment of healing. There was no significant effect of PRP treatment as assessed radiographically, ultrasonographically, or with MRI.The PRP used

  10. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osseous healing in dogs undergoing high tibial osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Emily E.; Holmes, Shannon P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) enhances osseous healing in conjunction with a high tibial osteotomy in dogs. Study design Randomized controlled trial. Methods Sixty-four client-owned pet dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and that were to be treated with a high tibial osteotomy (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy) were randomized into the treatment or control group. Dogs in the treatment group received autologous platelet-rich plasma activated with calcium chloride and bovine thrombin to produce a well-formed PRP gel that was placed into the osteotomy at the time of surgery. Dogs in the control group received saline lavage of the osteotomy. All dogs had the osteotomy stabilized with identical titanium alloy implants and all aspects of the surgical procedure and post-operative care were identical among dogs of the two groups. Bone healing was assessed at exactly 28, 49, and 70 days after surgery with radiography and ultrasonography and with MRI at day 28. The effect of PRP on bone healing was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with radiographic and ultrasonographic data and using a t-test with the MRI data. Results Sixty dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or gender distribution between the treatment and control groups. Twenty-seven dogs were treated with PRP and 33 were in the control group. The average platelet concentration of the PRP was 1.37x106 platelets/μL (±489x103) with a leukocyte concentration of 5.45x103/μL (±3.5x103). All dogs demonstrated progressive healing over time and achieved clinically successful outcomes. Time since surgery and patient age were significant predictors of radiographic healing and time since surgery was a significant predictor of ultrasonographic assessment of healing. There was no significant effect of PRP treatment as assessed radiographically, ultrasonographically

  11. TKA following high tibial osteotomy versus primary TKA - a matched pair analysis

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    Efe Turgay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well established technique for the treatment of medial osteoarthritis of the knee with varus malalignment. Results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA after previous HTO are still discussed controversially. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical and radiological results as well as perioperative data of prior HTO on TKA. Methods Forty-one TKA after HTO were compared to 41 primary TKA at minimum of six years follow-up. Patients were matched according to age, gender, follow-up, etiology, and prosthetic design. Surgical data and complications were evaluated. Clinical outcome was assessed using a number of clinical scores and the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain. X-rays were evaluated by the method of the American Knee Society. The patellar position was measured by the Insall-Salvati ratio. Results There was no significant difference in mean operation time (p = 0.47 and complication rate (p = 0.08. The Knee Score of the KSS (p = 0.0007 and the ROM (p = 0.006 for extension and p = 0.004 for flexion, respectively were significantly better in the control group. Mid-term results of the VAS, WOMAC, Lequesne, UCLA, Feller's Patellar Score and SF-36 showed no significant difference. Femoral and tibial component alignment were similar in both groups. One tibial component showed suspect radiolucencies in the HTO group. The Insall-Salvati ratio showed three patients with patella alta and one patient with patella baja in the HTO group. At latest follow-up all implants were still in place. Conclusions Evaluating the clinical and radiological outcome, significant differences were only detected for range of motion and the Knee Score of the KSS. The present study suggests that the results of TKA with and without prior HTO are mainly identical. Although patients with a previous HTO had more complications, no statistically significant differences were noted with this group size.

  12. [Prevention of lateral cortex fractures in open wedge high tibial osteotomies : The anteroposterior drill hole approach].

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    Reyle, G; Lorbach, O; Diffo Kaze, A; Hoffmann, A; Pape, D

    2017-07-01

    In osteotomies with larger correction angles, the capacity for elastic deformation is frequently exceeded, resulting in plastic deformation and fracture of the opposite cortex, which may lead to subsequent loss of correction. An anteroposterior drill hole at the apex of the horizontal osteotomy (= hinge) is supposed to increase the capacity of the bony hinge for elastic deformation and ideally to prevent fractures of the opposite cortex. A high tibial osteotomy (HTO) using standard surgical technique was performed in 20 each of Synbones, Sawbones, and human cadaver tibial specimens. In 10 specimens per group, an additional anteroposterior hinge drilling was performed at the apex of the horizontal osteotomy. All fractures of the opposite cortex were photographically and radiographically documented. All fractures were classified according to fracture types 1-3 of the Takeuchi classification. Regardless of the study group, all tibial bones with an additional hinge drilling achieved larger correction angles during the spreading of the wedge until a fracture of the opposite cortex occurred. The average correction angle of all specimens without the drill hole was 2.7°, which increased to 4.8° with the hinge drill (increase by 77.8%). In correction angles exceeding 5°, all specimen showed a hinge fracture regardless of the presence or absence of a hinge drill. The hinge-protecting effect is restricted to small correction angles, i. e., to unload cartilage repair regions in the absence of severe malalignment. For the treatment of varus gonarthrosis, there is no fracture-protecting effect from a hinge drill.

  13. Tension Band Plating for Chronic Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in High-Performance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbeda, Robert M; Sculco, Peter K; Urch, Ekaterina Y; Lazaro, Lionel E; Borens, Olivier; Williams, Riley J; Lorich, Dean G; Wellman, David S; Helfet, David L

    2015-07-01

    Anterior tibial stress fractures are associated with high rates of delayed union and nonunion, which can be particularly devastating to a professional athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Current surgical treatment strategies include intramedullary nailing, which has satisfactory rates of fracture union but an associated risk of anterior knee pain. Anterior tension band plating is a biomechanically sound alternative treatment for these fractures. Tension band plating of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures leads to rapid healing and return to physical activity and avoids the anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2001 and 2013, there were 13 chronic anterior tibial stress fractures in 12 professional or collegiate athletes who underwent tension band plating after failing nonoperative management. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, injury history, and surgical details. Radiographs were used to assess time to osseous union. Follow-up notes and phone interviews were used to determine follow-up time, return to training time, and whether the patient was able to return to competition. Cases included 13 stress fractures in 12 patients (9 females, 3 males). Five patients were track-and-field athletes, 4 patients played basketball, 2 patients played volleyball, and 1 was a ballet dancer. Five patients were Division I collegiate athletes and 7 were professional or Olympic athletes. Average age at time of surgery was 23.6 years (range, 20-32 years). Osseous union occurred on average at 9.6 weeks (range, 5.3-16.9 weeks) after surgery. Patients returned to training on average at 11.1 weeks (range, 5.7-20 weeks). Ninety-two percent (12/13) eventually returned to preinjury competition levels. Thirty-eight percent (5/13) underwent removal of hardware for plate prominence. There was no incidence of infection or nonunion. Anterior tension band plating for chronic tibial stress

  14. Initial mechanical stability of cementless highly-porous titanium tibial components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy Brandon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Amer, Luke D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Warren, Christopher P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cornwell, Phillip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meneghini, R Michael [UNIV OF CONNECTICUT HEALTH CENTER

    2008-01-01

    Cementless fixation in total knee replacement has seen limited use since reports of early failure surfaced in the late 80s and early 90s. However the emergence of improved biomaterials, particularly porous titanium and tantalum, has led to a renewed interest in developing a cementless tibial component to enhance long-term survivorship of the implants. Cement is commonly employed to minimize micromotion in new implants but represents a weak interface between the implant and bone. The elimination of cement and application of these new biomaterials, which theoretically provide improved stability and ultimate osseointegration, would likely result in greater knee replacement success. Additionally, the removal of cement from the procedure would help minimize surgical durations and get rid of the time needed for curing, thereby the chance of infection. The purpose of this biomechanical study was twofold. The first goal was to assess whether vibration analysis techniques can be used to evaluate and characterize initial mechanical stability of cementless implants more accurately than the traditional method of micromotion determination, which employs linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). Second, an evaluative study was performed to determine the comparative mechanical stability of five designs of cementless tibial components under mechanical loading designed to simulate in vivo forces. The test groups will include a cemented Triathlon Keeled baseplate control group, three different 2-peg cementless baseplates with smooth, mid, and high roughnesses and a 4-peg cement/ess baseplate with mid-roughness.

  15. Clinical Efficacy of an Arthroscopic Surgery in Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Lee, Chang-Rack; Seo, Seung-Suk; Gwak, Heui-Chul; Kim, Jung-Han; Jeong, Jun-Woo

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have identified the effects of arthroscopic surgery on the clinical outcomes when open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) and arthroscopic surgery were performed together. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of arthroscopic surgery in patients who had varus osteoarthritic knee and were treated with OWHTO combined with arthroscopic surgery. Among the 98 knees (88 patients) who underwent OWHTO between January 2008 and March 2013, 79 knees (71 patients) with more than 2 years of follow-up were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (24 knees) underwent only OWHTO and Group 2 (55 knees) underwent OWHTO combined with arthroscopic surgery. For clinical evaluation, the range of motion (ROM), pain visual analog scale, Knee Society knee score, Knee Society function score, and complication were used. For radiologic evaluation, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, mechanical femorotibial angle, and posterior tibial slope were used. The average follow-up period was 29.1 months. Group 2 showed a significant increase in the ROM at the last follow-up (133.2  ± 6.0 degrees) compared with the preoperative time point (128.3 ± 7.7 degrees) (p arthroscopic surgery was performed, arthroscopic surgery helped increase the ROM of patients with mechanical symptoms. However, the amount of the ROM increase of 4.9 degrees was of unknown clinical significance. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. High reliability in digital planning of medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy, using Miniaci's method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, D W; Petheram, T G; Dawson, M J

    2015-07-01

    Pre-operative planning is essential in high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Miniaci's method employs Mikulicz's weight-bearing line and is advantageous because the point of mechanical loading is related to the known degenerative condition of the knee. Miniaci's geometrical method has been modified for an opening wedge and described for use with a digital picture archiving and communications system viewer. Reliability for this method was hypothesised to be equivalent to published reliability for landmark-based commercial software and independent of observer experience. Twenty-four patients awaiting HTO had standardised long-leg radiographs. Mikulicz's weight-bearing line was projected through the lateral compartment of the knee at Fujisawa's point. The correction angle was generated at the hinge point subtending the current and proposed ankle centres. The opening wedge was plotted to measure an opening distance. Observations were recorded twice by three observers. Agreement was reported as intraclass correlation coefficients with 95 % confidence intervals. Intra-rater agreement was excellent for the correction angle (0.965-0.985) and opening distance (0.928-0.980). If no set hinge point was used, then the inter-rater reliability was 0.986 for the correction angle and 0.984 for the opening distance. There was no discernible pattern demonstrating improved reliability from the experienced observer. Reliability is comparable to commercially based landmark software and independent of observer experience. This makes such geometrical pre-operative planning accessible to surgeons who perform HTO with insufficient frequency to justify the investment in commercial software. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  17. Simultaneous anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and dome-shaped high tibial osteotomy for severe medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee

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    Nobuyuki Kumahashi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: An ACL reconstruction combined with a dome-shaped high tibial osteotomy using a locking plate is one option for treating an aged athlete with ACL deficiency and severe medial compartment osteoarthritis, and can allow the athlete to return to sports activity.

  18. Factors contributing to the development of medial tibial stress syndrome in high school runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J E; Reinking, M F; Pluemer, B; Pentel, A; Seaton, M; Killian, C

    2001-09-01

    Predictive correlational study. To identify the incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in a group of high school cross-country runners and to determine if a relationship exists between lower extremity structural measures and the incidence of MTSS. Medial tibial stress syndrome is an overuse injury that occurs in long-distance runners. Literature exists that implicates structural deformity as a contributor to MTSS, but no studies have developed a predictive model. We measured 125 high school cross-country runners for tibiofibular varum, resting calcaneal position during stance, and gastrocnemius length. Runners developing MTSS over an 8-week period were placed in the injured group (2 men, 13 women; age 15.3 years 1.0), and 21 randomly selected uninjured runners were placed in the uninjured group (13 men, 8 women; age 15.7 years +/-1.5). Navicular drop was measured for runners in both groups. Reliability of measures was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1). Paired t tests were used to compare the injury and noninjury groups. A logistic regression analysis was used to establish if the descriptive data could accurately predict the development of MTSS. Paired t tests showed a significant difference in navicular drop test measures between the injured (6.8 mm 3.7) and noninjured (3.6 mm 3.3) groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed navicular drop test measurements and sex correctly identified athletes who developed MTSS with 76% accuracy. Our study supported the hypothesis that a pronatory foot type is related to MTSS. The combination of sex and navicular drop test measures provides an accurate prediction for the development of MTSS. Clinical measures that identify biomechanical risk factors for MTSS may allow prevention or early intervention.

  19. Clinical results of reversed V-shaped high tibial corticotomy with minimally invasive surgery without internal fixation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Eajazi, Alireza; Madadi, Firoozeh; Daftari Besheli, Laleh; Rokni, Reza; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza

    2010-06-09

    High tibial osteotomy is a method of treating knee osteoarthritis due to genu varum in advanced stages. High tibial osteotomy-associated problems continue to be reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical results of a new, innovative method of high tibial osteotomy with 3- to 13-year follow-up. Between 1996 and 2006, our new surgical method was performed on 293 patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis and genu varum. All patients were examined preoperatively, 6 months postoperatively, and at final follow-up. The Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scoring System (HSS) was used at final follow-up, and limb alignment and patient satisfaction were reassessed. Immediate postoperative complications included varus recurrence, knee instability, and peroneal nerve palsy, and no signs of tibial nonunion or infection were observed. At final follow-up, 3 cases of genu recurvatum, 2 cases of peroneal nerve palsy, and 25 cases of loss of correction were observed. Average postoperative HSS score was 85 (range, 47-97), and 97.8% of the patients were satisfied. This new method is a good alternative for the correction of genu varum because it requires a small incision, is soft tissue friendly, is a corticotomy instead of an osteotomy, requires no internal or external fixation devices, has a shorter duration and an acceptable complication and recurrence rate, and results in satisfactory HSS scores and higher patient satisfaction rates. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Chondrocalcinosis of femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints in cadaveric specimens: a high-resolution CT imaging study of the calcification distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Touraine

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze calcium deposits by computed tomography (CT in femoro-tibial compartments and proximal tibio-fibular joints; to assess the relationship with CT-assessed osteoarthritis (OA. METHODS: 68 (34 pairs cadaveric knees (mean age of 84 were scanned at high resolution CT. Menisci and hyaline cartilage calcifications in the femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints were analyzed. OA was CT-assessed by the Kellgren and Lawrence score. Gross appearance of OA was evaluated on 29 left knees after dissection and India ink staining of tibial plateaus. RESULTS: In femoro-tibial joints, meniscal calcifications (MC and hyaline cartilage calcifications (HCC were detected in 23(34% and 14(21% knees respectively. Calcifications mainly involved the three meniscal segments and were mainly observed in all thirds of the femoro-tibial compartments. In proximal tibio-fibular joints, HCC were detected in 19(28% knees. The association HCC-MC in femoro-tibial joints and between calcifications in femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints was strong (p<0.0001. Femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular CT-assessed OA were respectively found in 23(34% and 19(28% knees. HCC were significantly associated with femoro-tibial OA (p = 0.04 while MC were not (p = 0.34. OA macroscopic evaluation showed a mean surface of cartilage lesions of 35% (range 0.13-0.55. No significant difference was demonstrated regarding the CT-detection of MC, HCC or CT-assessed OA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report a strong association of chondrocalcinosis between femoro-tibial and tibio-fibular joints in addition to a strong association between MC and HCC in femoro-tibial compartments. No significant relationship between chondrocalcinosis and OA was demonstrated.

  1. Chondrocalcinosis of femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints in cadaveric specimens: a high-resolution CT imaging study of the calcification distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Hang Korng; Bousson, Valérie; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Laouisset, Liess; Chappard, Christine; Lioté, Frédéric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    To analyze calcium deposits by computed tomography (CT) in femoro-tibial compartments and proximal tibio-fibular joints; to assess the relationship with CT-assessed osteoarthritis (OA). 68 (34 pairs) cadaveric knees (mean age of 84) were scanned at high resolution CT. Menisci and hyaline cartilage calcifications in the femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints were analyzed. OA was CT-assessed by the Kellgren and Lawrence score. Gross appearance of OA was evaluated on 29 left knees after dissection and India ink staining of tibial plateaus. In femoro-tibial joints, meniscal calcifications (MC) and hyaline cartilage calcifications (HCC) were detected in 23(34%) and 14(21%) knees respectively. Calcifications mainly involved the three meniscal segments and were mainly observed in all thirds of the femoro-tibial compartments. In proximal tibio-fibular joints, HCC were detected in 19(28%) knees. The association HCC-MC in femoro-tibial joints and between calcifications in femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints was strong (p<0.0001). Femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular CT-assessed OA were respectively found in 23(34%) and 19(28%) knees. HCC were significantly associated with femoro-tibial OA (p = 0.04) while MC were not (p = 0.34). OA macroscopic evaluation showed a mean surface of cartilage lesions of 35% (range 0.13-0.55). No significant difference was demonstrated regarding the CT-detection of MC, HCC or CT-assessed OA. This is the first study to report a strong association of chondrocalcinosis between femoro-tibial and tibio-fibular joints in addition to a strong association between MC and HCC in femoro-tibial compartments. No significant relationship between chondrocalcinosis and OA was demonstrated.

  2. Tibiofibula Transposition in High-Energy Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Loughenbury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of failed attempts at closed reduction of high-energy tibial fractures with an associated fibula fracture. The first case was a 39-year-old male involved in high-speed motorbike collision, while the second was a 14-year-old male who injured his leg following a fall of three metres. Emergency medical services at the scenes of the accidents reported a 90-degree valgus deformity of the injured limb and both limbs were realigned on scene and stabilized. Adequate alignment of the tibia could not be achieved by manipulation under sedation or anaesthesia. Open reduction and exposure of the fracture sites revealed that the distal fibula fragment was “transposed” and entrapped in the medulla of the proximal tibial fragment. Reduction required simulation of the mechanism of injury in order to disengage the fragments and allow reduction. Tibiofibula transposition is a rare complication of high-energy lower limb fractures which has not previously been reported and may prevent adequate closed reduction. Impaction of the distal fibula within the tibial medulla occurs as the limb is realigned by paramedic staff before transfer to hospital. We recommend that when this complication is identified the patient is transferred to the operating room for open reduction and stabilization of the fracture.

  3. Coronal subluxation of the proximal tibia relative to the distal femur after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Yasushi; Ohno, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kusayama, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Ken; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    The coronal subluxation of the proximal tibia relative to the distal femur is a common radiological finding in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose was to evaluate whether the coronal subluxation was corrected after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO), and whether this subluxation was one cause of inconsistency between the actual and predicted alignments (correction loss). Fifty-one patients (55 knees) were treated with OWHTO. The change of location between the intersection points of the femoral and tibial axes on the tibial plateau (subluxation-C), the change of location between the lines through the most lateral points of the lateral femoral and tibial condyles (subluxation-L), and joint space angle (JSA) were compared in standing knee radiographs before and one year after OWHTO. The subluxation-C and subluxation-L were converted to a percentage of the tibial plateau width. The mean subluxation-C of 6.5% before OWHTO significantly increased to a mean subluxation-C of 7.3% one year after OWHTO. The mean subluxation-L of 6.3% and JSA of 4.5° before OWHTO significantly decreased to a subluxation-L of 1.8% and JSA of 3.3° one year after OWHTO. The change in subluxation-L correlated with the change in femorotibial angle and correction loss (r=0.634, Pfemur after OWHTO. This medial shift correlated with the correction loss. The coronal subluxation might be one cause of correction loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  5. Knee joint distraction compared with high tibial osteotomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, J A D; Wiegant, K; van Heerwaarden, R J; Spruijt, S; van Roermund, P M; Custers, R J H; Mastbergen, S C; Lafeber, F P J G

    2017-03-01

    Both, knee joint distraction as a relatively new approach and valgus-producing opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), are knee-preserving treatments for knee osteoarthritis (OA). The efficacy of knee joint distraction compared to HTO has not been reported. Sixty-nine patients with medial knee joint OA with a varus axis deviation of knee joint distraction (n = 23) or HTO (n = 46). Questionnaires were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. Joint space width (JSW) as a surrogate measure for cartilage thickness was determined on standardized semi-flexed radiographs at baseline and 1-year follow-up. All patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) improved significantly over 1 year (at 1 year p knee joint distraction group (p = 0.001) and 0.4 ± 0.5 mm in the HTO group (p knee joint distraction (p = 0.05). The lateral compartment showed a small increase in the knee joint distraction group and a small decrease in the HTO group, leading to a significant increase in mean JSW for knee joint distraction only (p knee joint distraction and HTO. These findings suggest that knee joint distraction may be an alternative therapy for medial compartmental OA with a limited mechanical leg malalignment. Randomized controlled trial, Level I.

  6. Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: RCT 2 Years RSA Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Hansen, Thomas Bruno; Lind, Martin Carøe; Nielsen, Poul Torben; Laursen, Mogens Berg

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the influence of three different bone grafting materials on stability and clinical outcome of the healing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OW-HTO) with immediate partial weight bearing. A total of 45 (3 × 15) patients were randomized to injectable calcium phosphate cement (Calcibon; Biomet-Merck Biomaterials GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany), local bone autograft, or iliac crest autograft. Stability of the bony healing was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcome was evaluated with the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). RSA revealed translations and rotations close to zero regardless of bone grafting material, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Clinically, the Calcibon group had lower quality of life KOOS subscore at 2 years follow-up. We conclude that with a stable implant and 6 weeks of partial weight bearing, local autografting is sufficient to achieve solid bone consolidation following OW-HTO. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Medial tibial stress syndrome in high school cross-country runners: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisky, Melody S; Rauh, Mitchell J; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Underwood, Frank B; Tank, Robert T

    2007-02-01

    Prospective cohort. To determine (1) the cumulative seasonal incidence and overall injury rate of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and (2) risk factors for MTSS with a primary focus on the relationship between navicular drop values and MTSS in high school cross-country runners. MTSS is a common injury among runners. However, few studies have reported the injury rate and risk factors for MTSS among adolescent runners. Data collected included measurement of bilateral navicular drop and foot length, and a baseline questionnaire regarding the runner's height, body mass, previous running injury, running experience, and orthotic or tape use. Runners were followed during the season to determine athletic exposures (AEs) and occurrence of MTSS. The overall injury rate for MTSS was 2.8/1000 AEs. Although not statistically different, girls had a higher rate (4.3/1000 AEs) than boys (1.7/1000 AEs) (P = .11). Logistic regression modeling indicated that only gender and body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with the occurrence of MTSS. However, when controlled for orthotic use, only BMI was associated with risk of MTSS. No significant associations were found between MTSS and navicular drop or foot length. Our findings suggest that navicular drop may not be an appropriate measure to identify runners who may develop MTSS during a cross-country season; thus, additional studies are needed to identify appropriate preseason screening tools.

  8. Role of high tibial osteotomy in cartilage regeneration – Is correction of malalignment mandatory for success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dhanaraj Thambiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malalignment of the knee can cause debilitating symptoms such as pain, resulting in a decline in function and mobility. Surgical options that exist to address this problem include realignment osteotomies and joint replacements. Realignment osteotomies are the more appropriate options in certain patient populations, especially with regard to age and level of activity. Since a high tibial osteotomy (HTO was first used to manage malalignment of the knee and osteoarthritis, different techniques involving the use of specialized implants have been developed and further refined to good effect. There has also since been much research into the field of cartilage restoration techniques, both as a standalone treatment option and as an adjunct to a realignment osteotomy. This review attempts to detail the origin and the evolution of HTO, particularly in regard to combining this tried and tested procedure with adjunct cartilage restoration techniques, and the overall patient outcomes. A literature search on PubMed was performed, and articles pertaining to the outcomes of the use of an HTO and cartilage restoration techniques were reviewed. The literature in this field indicates good outcomes in terms of objective measurements of cartilage regeneration (such as arthroscopic visualization and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation and subjective patient outcome scoring systems (such as the International Knee Documentation Committee and Lysholm scores with a realignment osteotomy alone, and studies have shown that patient outcomes can be further improved with the use of a cartilage restoration procedure as an adjunct.

  9. Imaging of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction—Comparison of high-resolution ultrasound and 3 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldner, Michael A., E-mail: michael.arnoldner@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Gruber, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Syré, Stefanie [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Department of Trauma-Surgery, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kristen, Karl-Heinz [Foot & Ankle Centre Vienna, Alser Straße 43/8, 1080 Vienna (Austria); Trnka, Hans-Jörg [Foot & Ankle Centre Vienna, Alser Straße 43/8, 1080 Vienna (Austria); Orthopaedic Hospital Vienna, Speisinger Straße 109, 1130 Vienna (Austria); Kainberger, Franz; Bodner, Gerd [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • 18 MHz high-resolution ultrasound appears to be slightly more accurate than 3 T MRI in the diagnosis of PTTD. • High-resolution ultrasound is recommended as an initial diagnostic tool. • Long-lasting PTT discomfort may require MRI. • Other pathologies can mimic PTTD. - Abstract: Purpose: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired asymmetric flatfoot deformity. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the diagnostic value of MRI and high-resolution ultrasound (HR-US) in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), and assess their correlation with intraoperative findings. Materials and methods: We reviewed 23 posterior tibial tendons in 23 patients with clinical findings of PTTD (13 females, 10 males; mean age, 50 years) with 18 MHz HR-US and 3 T MRI. Surgical intervention was performed in nine patients. Results: HR-US findings included 2 complete tears, 6 partial tears, 10 tendons with tendinosis, and 5 unremarkable tendons. MRI demonstrated 2 complete tears, 7 partial tears, 10 tendons with tendinosis, and 4 unremarkable tendons. HR-US and MRI were concordant in 20/23 cases (87%). Image findings for HR-US were confirmed in six of nine patients (66.7%) by intraoperative inspection, whereas imaging findings for MRI were concordant with five of nine cases (55.6%). Conclusion: Our results indicate that HR-US can be considered slightly more accurate than MRI in the detection of PTTD.

  10. Biomechanical comparison of tibial eminence fracture fixation with high-strength suture, EndoButton, and suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapa, Onur; Barber, F Alan; Süner, Ganim; Özden, Raif; Davul, Serkan; Bozdağ, Ergun; Sünbüloğlu, Emin

    2012-05-01

    To biomechanically compare anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial bony avulsion fixation by suture anchors, EndoButtons (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA), and high-strength sutures subjected to cyclic loading. Type III tibial eminence fractures were created in 49 ovine knees, and 7 different types of repairs were performed. Each repair group contained 7 specimens. The repair groups were as follows: No. 2 FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, FL); No. 2 UltraBraid (Smith & Nephew); No. 2 MaxBraid (Arthrotek, Warsaw, IN); No. 2 Hi-Fi (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL); No. 2 OrthoCord (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA); Ti-Screw suture anchor (Arthrotek); and titanium EndoButton. These constructs were cyclically loaded (500 cycles, 0 to 100 N, 1 Hz) in the direction of the native ACL and loaded to failure (100 mm/min). Endpoints included ultimate failure load (in Newtons); pullout stiffness (in Newtons per millimeter); cyclic displacement (in millimeters) after 100 cycles, between 100 and 500 cycles, and after 500 cycles; and mode of failure. Bone density testing was performed in all knees. Bone density was not different among the groups. The EndoButton group had a higher ultimate failure load than the FiberWire, UltraBraid, Hi-Fi, and suture anchor groups (P suture anchor group (P suture anchor group had less displacement than the Hi-Fi and FiberWire groups (P suture rupture. Under cyclic loading conditions in an ovine model, EndoButton fixation of tibial eminence fractures provided greater initial fixation strength than suture anchor fixation or fixation with various high-strength sutures except for OrthoCord. During initial cyclic loading of ACL tibial eminence fractures, the strength of the repair construct should be taken into consideration because conventional suture repair even with ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene sutures may not provide enough strength. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fraturas do planalto tibial Tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Kfuri Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas do planalto tibial são lesões articulares cujos princípios de tratamento envolvem a redução anatômica da superfície articular e a restauração funcional do eixo mecânico do membro inferior. Contribuem para a tomada de decisões no tratamento dessas fraturas o perfil do paciente, as condições do envelope de tecidos moles, a existência de outros traumatismos associados e a infraestrutura disponível para abordagens cirúrgicas. Para as fraturas de alta energia, o tratamento estagiado, seguindo o princípio do controle de danos, tem como prioridade a manutenção do alinhamento do membro enquanto se aguarda a resolução das más condições de tecidos moles. Já nos traumas de baixa energia, desde que os tecidos moles não sejam um fator adverso, o tratamento deve ser realizado em tempo único, com osteossíntese definitiva. Fixação estável e movimento precoce são variáveis diretamente relacionadas com os melhores prognósticos. Desenvolvimentos recentes, como os implantes com estabilidade angular, substitutos ósseos e imagens tridimensionais para controle intraoperatório, deverão contribuir para cirurgias menos invasivas e melhores resultados.Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a single-stage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal f-ixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint

  12. dGEMRIC as a tool for measuring changes in cartilage quality following high tibial osteotomy: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, M; Bartels, L W; Tsuchida, A I; Castelein, R M; Dhert, W J; Vincken, K L; van Heerwaarden, R J; Saris, D B F

    2012-10-01

    The high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an effective strategy for treatment of painful medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Effects on cartilage quality are largely unknown. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) enables non-invasive assessment of cartilage glycosaminoglycan content. This study aimed to evaluate if dGEMRIC could detect relevant changes in cartilage glycosaminoglycan content following HTO. Ten patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis underwent a dGEMRIC scan prior to HTO, and after bone healing and subsequent hardware removal. A dGEMRIC index (T1Gd) was used for changes in cartilage glycosaminoglycan content, a high T1Gd indicating a high glycosaminoglycan content and vice versa. Radiographic analysis included mechanical axis and tibial slope measurement. clinical scores [knee osteoarthritis outcome scale (KOOS), visual analogue score (VAS) for pain, Knee Society clinical rating system (KSCRS)] before, 3 and 6 months after HTO and after hardware removal were correlated to T1Gd changes. Overall a trend towards a decreased T1Gd, despite HTO, was observed. Before and after HTO, lateral femoral condyle T1Gd was higher than medial femoral condyle (MFC) T1Gd and tibial cartilage T1Gd was higher than that of femoral cartilage (P < 0.001). The MFC had the lowest T1Gd before and after HTO. Clinical scores all improved significantly (P < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms and QOL were moderately related to changes in MFC T1Gd. dGEMRIC effectively detected differences in cartilage quality within knee compartments before and after HTO, but no changes due to HTO were detected. Hardware removal post-HTO seems essential for adequate T(1)Gd interpretation. T(1)Gd was correlated to improved clinical scores on a subscore level only. Longer follow-up after HTO may reveal lasting changes. ClinicalTrials.gov registration ID: NCT01269944. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Page ( 1 ) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the ...

  14. Total knee arthroplasty conversion after a failed lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with knee hyperextension and secondary ankle degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chen; Xu, Xingquan; Zhou, Sheng; Song, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Dongquan; Jiang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been used widely for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis to correct the deformity and relieve symptoms, especially in young patients who are willing to maintain the high activity level. However, the change of bone morphology, ligament imbalance, limb malalignment, and other complications may influence the short-term outcomes of HTO. Some cases may even require conversion to TKA shortly after HTO because of the loss of correction or pain due to accelerated osteoarthritis. Patient concerns: A 43-year-old female patient presented with persistent pain of both the left knee and the ankle. She underwent a lateral closing wedge HTO two years ago. Radiographies showed The Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade IV osteoarthritic change and hyperextension (HE) of the left knee and the degeneration of the left ankle. Diagnoses: A failed lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with knee hyperextension and secondary ankle degeneration. Intervention: A posterior-stabilized TKA conversion and postoperative rehabilitation were performed. Outcomes: The operation corrected the HE deformity and relieved the pain at the level of the left knee. However, the secondary change of the left ankle was irreversible. Lessons: A failed lateral closing wedge HTO might speed up the degeneration of the knee and increase extra technical issues in the following TKA. What is more, the secondary osteoarthritis and deformity of the ankle cannot be ignored. PMID:28723758

  15. Robotic device-assisted knee extension training during the early postoperative period after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Kubota, Shigeki; Sugaya, Hisashi; Hyodo, Kojiro; Ogawa, Kaishi; Taniguchi, Yu; Kanamori, Akihiro; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2017-08-05

    Maintenance or restoration of a good range of motion of the knee is one of the most important outcomes following knee surgery. According to previous studies, opening wedge high tibial osteotomy enables better recovery of range of motion in knee flexion than that achievable after total knee arthroplasty or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. However, few reports provide a detailed description of the postoperative recovery of knee extension range of motion after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. We describe our experience with a knee extension training program using a single-joint hybrid assistive limb device (HAL-SJ; Cyberdyne Inc., Tsukuba, Japan) during the acute recovery phase after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. The HAL-SJ is a wearable robotic device that facilitates voluntary control of knee joint motion. A 67-year-old Japanese woman who underwent opening wedge high tibial osteotomy for spontaneous osteonecrosis of the left medial femoral condyle received HAL-SJ-based knee extension training postoperatively. Our experience with this patient revealed that knee extension training with the HAL-SJ during the acute phase following opening wedge high tibial osteotomy is feasible. Furthermore, the patient's knee extension range of motion improved to values similar to those seen during the preoperative stage, and her flexion range of motion was improved at 3 months after the surgery. HAL-SJ-based knee extension training could be used as a novel post-opening wedge high tibial osteotomy rehabilitation modality. Further exploration of individualized optimal settings of the HAL-SJ is required to improve its safety and efficacy.

  16. Association between knee alignment and knee pain in patients surgically treated for medial knee osteoarthritis by high tibial osteotomy. A one year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W-Dahl, Annette; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören; Roos, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    on for knee OA by high tibial osteotomy. METHODS: 182 patients (68% men) mean age 53 years (34 - 69) with varus alignment having tibial osteotomy by the hemicallotasis technique for medial knee OA were consecutively included. Knee alignment was assessed by the Hip-Knee-Ankle (HKA) angle from radiographs...... including the hip and ankle joints. Knee pain was measured by the subscale pain (0 - 100, worst to best scale) of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) preoperatively and at one year follow-up. To estimate the association between knee alignment and knee pain multivariate regression...

  17. The effect of knee braces on tibial rotation in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees during high-demand athletic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Zampeli, Franceska; Pappas, Evangelos; Mitsionis, Grigoris; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2013-07-01

    To examine if bracing can restrict tibial rotation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient patients during high loading activities. Repeated measures. Kinematic data were collected with an 8-camera Vicon system while each patient performed 2 tasks that are known to cause increased rotational and translational loads on the knee: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting, and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. The tasks were repeated under 3 brace conditions for the ACL-deficient knee: (1) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition), (2) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition), and (3) without brace (unbraced condition). Biomechanical laboratory study. Twenty-one male subjects with a confirmed unilateral ACL rupture were assessed in vivo. Tibial internal rotation. Two repeated measures ANOVAs tested for differences in tibial internal rotation among the 3 conditions of the ACL-deficient knee and the unbraced condition of the intact knee. In both tasks, tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared with all 3 conditions of the ACL-deficient knee (P ≤ 0.031). Bracing the ACL-deficient knee resulted in lower rotation than the unbraced (P ≤ 0.001) and sleeved (P ≤ 0.033) conditions. The sleeved condition resulted in lower tibial rotation in the drop landing and pivoting task compared with the unbraced condition (P = 0.019) but not in the stair descending and pivoting task (P = 0.256). Bracing decreased the excessive tibial rotation in ACL-deficient patients during high-demand activities but failed to fully restore normative values. If knee braces can enhance rotational knee stability in ACL-deficient patients, then they could possibly play an important role in preventing further knee pathology in such patients.

  18. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, W.H.; Weel, H.; van Dijk, C.N.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.; Lin, C.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Methods Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and

  19. Effects of knee bracing on tibial rotation during high loading activities in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Zampeli, Franceska; Pappas, Evangelos; Mitsionis, Grigoris; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2013-10-01

    To test whether knee bracing restores normal rotational knee kinematics in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed knees during high-demand, athletic activities. Twenty male patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft were assessed in vivo. The mean time from surgery to data collection was 26 months (range, 25 to 28 months). An 8-camera optoelectronic system was used to collect kinematic data while each patient performed 2 demanding tasks: (1) immediate pivoting after descending from a stair and (2) immediate pivoting after landing from a platform. Each task was performed under 3 conditions for the reconstructed knee: (1) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition), (2) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition), and (3) without a brace (non-braced condition). As a control group, patients with intact ACLs were tested without any bracing. This study protocol was identical to the protocol of a previous study that investigated the effect of bracing on ACL-deficient athletes. For both tasks, the range of motion of tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared with all 3 conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P ≤ .014). Placing a brace or a sleeve on the ACL-reconstructed knee resulted in lower rotation than the non-braced condition (P ≤ .022), whereas no significant differences were found between the sleeved and the braced conditions (P ≥ .110). Bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed knees during pivoting that occurs under high-demand activities. However, full restoration to normative values was not achieved. Thereby, braces have the potential to decrease rotational knee instability that still remains after ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  20. OPTIMAL SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF HIGH VELOCITY POSTERIOR TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURE SUBLUXATIONS (DUPARC, REVISED CLASSIFICATION, GROUP – V: POSTERO - MEDIAL FRACTURE BY DIRECT, DORSAL APPROACH – A CHANGING TREND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhasaradhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : High - energy tibial plateau fractures are infrequent and technically demanding to treat especially if those are shearing type, coronal plane, displaced fractures. The most widely used the Schatzker system of classification , [1] ( B ased on the AP radiograph is more than likely to miss postero - medial and postero - lateral shear fractures, best visible on the lateral, than the AP radiograph. These fractures have recently been characterised by two studies, highlighti ng their clinical relevance [ 2,3] and showing that less invasive surgery and indirect reduction techniques are often inadequate. Hohl described unicondylar c oronal plane splitting fractures of the medial tibial plateau, noted that these injuries be considered as fracture - dislocations. Connolly and others have suggested that the mechanism involved in this fracture pattern is one of knee flexion, varus, and inter nal rotation of the medial femoral condyle . [4,5,6 ] Consistent among these and other authors is that the occurrence of this fragment is relatively unusual and that the use of a posteriorly based exposure with direct fracture visualization, anatomic reductio n and absolute stability appears to result in satisfactory outcomes. Though variations of a postero - medial approach been previously described ( by Trickey et al and also by Burks et al.,, more recently, Lobenhoffer et al described direct posterior exposure , Wang et al described postero - medial approach and Luo et al. described the approach for the management of posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures . [7,8] These approaches have been used in isolation or as a dual - incision approach for treating tibial plateau fractures . [9,10,11,12,13,14, 15] PURPOSE : The purpose of this study is to describe this unfamiliar direct posterior surgical (Medial Gastrocnemius approach to a general orthopod, highlighting the relevant anatomy and presenting our experience using this approach in treating a

  1. Serial Changes in the Joint Space Width and Joint Line Convergence Angle After Closed-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hee; Bae, Dae Kyung; Kim, Kang Il; Lee, Jong Whan; Song, Sang Jun

    2017-12-01

    There have been little data concerning serial changes in the joint space width (JSW) and joint line convergence angle over the course of follow-up periods after closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy (CWHTO). To evaluate serial changes in the JSW and joint line convergence angle after CWHTO. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 100 computer-assisted CWHTOs with a minimum follow-up period of 3 years (mean, 4.4 years) were analyzed. Clinically, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score was evaluated. Radiographically, the mechanical axis was measured preoperatively and postoperatively. The minimal JSW was measured as the shortest distance between the femur and the tibia. The convergence angle was measured as the angle between the tangent to the subchondral plates of the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau. Serial changes in these measurements were analyzed preoperatively; at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively; and at the final follow-up. The intraclass correlation coefficients for all measurements were greater than 0.8. The mean WOMAC score improved from 41.4 preoperatively to 14.9 at the final follow-up. The preoperative and postoperative mean mechanical axis was 8.1° varus and 1.6° valgus, respectively. The mean minimal JSW was 2.5, 2.9, 2.9, 3.1, 3.2, and 3.1 mm preoperatively and at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and the final follow-up, respectively ( P angle was 4.4°, 3.9°, 4.0°, 4.1°, 4.2°, and 4.3°, respectively, during the same time periods ( P = .068). Cartilage healing, as indicated by the JSW, and clinical improvement were maintained over the minimum 3-year follow-up after CWHTO. Cartilage pressure, as indicated by the convergence angle, remained unchanged after CWHTO.

  2. Transient common peroneal nerve palsy following skeletal tibial traction in a morbidly obese patient - case report of a preventable complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liporace Frank A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today, skeletal tibial traction remains a mainstay of initial management following high-energy, major orthopaedic lower extremity trauma. Historically utilized as definitive fracture management, recent advances in surgical technology have moved skeletal tibial traction into the realm of temporary management, with benefits including fracture reduction, pain relief, and restoration of disturbed surrounding soft tissues, lowering wound complication and compartment syndrome rates. However, no procedure is without its risks. Here, we present a case of common peroneal palsy following skeletal tibial traction placement, which resolved with subsequent pin removal. Indications, proper placement, potential etiologies, and a review of the literature are also discussed.

  3. Transient common peroneal nerve palsy following skeletal tibial traction in a morbidly obese patient - case report of a preventable complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liporace, Frank A; Yoon, Richard S; Kesani, Anil K

    2012-02-21

    Today, skeletal tibial traction remains a mainstay of initial management following high-energy, major orthopaedic lower extremity trauma. Historically utilized as definitive fracture management, recent advances in surgical technology have moved skeletal tibial traction into the realm of temporary management, with benefits including fracture reduction, pain relief, and restoration of disturbed surrounding soft tissues, lowering wound complication and compartment syndrome rates. However, no procedure is without its risks. Here, we present a case of common peroneal palsy following skeletal tibial traction placement, which resolved with subsequent pin removal. Indications, proper placement, potential etiologies, and a review of the literature are also discussed.

  4. High energy semiconductor switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, R. L.

    1989-02-01

    The objective was a controller for electric motors. By operating standard Nema B induction motors at variable speed a great deal of energy is saved. This is especially true in pumping and air conditioning applications. To allow wider use of variable speed AC drives, and to provide improved performance, a better semiconductor switch was sought. This was termed the High Energy Semiconductor Switch.

  5. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy fixation with short plate without any graft, synthetic material or spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Faik; Sever, Cem; Kacıra, Burkay K; Demirayak, Mehmet; Acar, Mehmet Ali; Toker, Serdar

    2014-12-01

    Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is an effective surgical procedure for patients who have medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee with varus deformity of the limb. The abnormal load on the medial compartment of the knee is directed to the lateral compartment with this procedure. A gap occurs on the proximal tibia while providing adequate correction. Filling this gap with bone grafts or synthetic materials has gained wide acceptance for preventing bone union problems or osteotomy site collapse. The aim of this study is to report our results of MOWHTOs performed without any bone graft or any other synthetic materials. We evaluated 41 MOWHTOs that have been performed between 2009 and 2012 with no use of any grafts or synthetic materials and spacer. Age of the patients ranged from 43 to 67. Thirty-five of the patients were females and three of them were males. The follow-up time was 6 months. Seven knees had opening at the osteotomy site 12.5 mm (range 7.5-14 mm, mean 11.07 mm). All osteotomies united without loss of correction. The mean bone union time was 12.8 weeks. We did not have any major complication regarding the technique. The results of our study have shown that we can achieve satisfactory and good results by performing MOWHTO procedure without using any bone grafts or synthetic materials and spacer.

  6. Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy Fixation with Short Plate without any Graft, Synthetic Material or Spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Faik; Sever, Cem; Kacıra, Burkay Kutluhan; Demirayak, Mehmet; Acar, Mehmet Ali; Toker, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is an effective surgical procedure for patients who have medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee with varus deformity of the limb. The abnormal load on the medial compartment of the knee relocates to the lateral compartment with this procedure. A gap occurs on the proximal tibia during the correction of varus deformity. Filling this gap with bone grafts or synthetic materials has gained wide acceptance for preventing nonunion or osteotomy site collapse. The aim of this study is to report our results of MOWHTOs performed without any bone graft or any other synthetic materials. Methods: We evaluated 41 MOWHTOs performed between 2009 and 2012 with no use of bone grafts, synthetic materials or spacers. Age of the patients ranged from 43 to 67. Thirty five of the patients were female and 3 of them were male. The follow-up time was 6 months. Results: There were no any non-unions or loss of correction. The mean bone union time was 12,8 weeks. No major complications were seen. Conclusion: The results of our study has shown that achieve satisfactory results can be obtained in MOWHTO without using any bone graft, synthetic materials or spacer.

  7. Can three-dimensional patient-specific cutting guides be used to achieve optimal correction for high tibial osteotomy? Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, M; Donnez, M; Ollivier, M; Flecher, X; Chabrand, P; Argenson, J-N; Parratte, S

    2017-04-01

    Treatment of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis with a high-tibial osteotomy (HTO) is most effective when the optimal angular correction is achieved. However, conventional instrumentation is limited when multiplanar correction is needed. Use of patient-specific cutting guides (PSCGs) for HTO provides an accurate correction (difference<2°) relative to the preoperative planning. Between February 2014 and February 2015, 10 patients (mean age: 46 years [range: 31-59]; grade 1 or 2 osteoarthritis in Ahlbäck's classification) were included prospectively in this reliability and safety study. All patients were operated using the same medial opening-wedge osteotomy technique. Preoperative planning was based on long-leg radiographs and CT scans with 3D reconstruction. The PSGCs were used to align the osteotomy cut and position the screw holes for the plate. The desired correction was achieved in the three planes when the holes on the plate were aligned with the holes drilled based on the PSCG. Preoperatively, the mean HKA angle was 171.9° (range: 166-179°), the mean proximal tibial angle was 87° (86-88°) and the mean tibial slope was 7.8° (1-22°). The postoperative correction was compared to the planned correction using 3D CT scan transformations. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were assessed at a minimum follow-up of 1 year. The procedure was successfully carried out in all patients with the PSCGs. On postoperative long-leg radiographs, the mean HKA was 182.3° (180-185°); on the CT scan, the mean tibial mechanical angle was 94° (90-98°) and the mean tibial slope was 7.1° (4-11°). In 19 out of 20 postoperative HKA and slope measurements, the difference between the planned and achieved correction was <2° based on the 3D analysis of the three planes in space; in the other case, the slope was 13° instead of the planned 10°. The intra-class correlation coefficients between the postoperative and planned parameters were 0.98 [0.92-0.99] for

  8. Computer-assisted navigation for the intraoperative assessment of lower limb alignment in high tibial osteotomy can avoid outliers compared with the conventional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Kilian; Strohm, Peter C; Hauschild, Oliver; Schmal, Hagen; Khattab, Mohmed; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Longterm outcomes after valgization high tibial osteotomy (HTO) to treat varus osteoarthritis seem to depend mainly on correction precision. Intraoperative assessment of leg alignment based on radiological visualization of the mechanical axis is difficult and its precision is limited. A promising approach to improving precision is to make use of navigation systems. The case-control study reported here involved the evaluation of patients whose varus osteoarthritis had been treated by open-wedge high tibial ostoetomy, and an analysis of the effect of computer-guided navigation on postoperative leg alignment. Forty patients with medial varus osteoarthritis managed by open-wedge high tibial osteotomy using a surgical navigation system were included in the present study (Group 1). They were compared with a retrospective control group (Group 2) of 40 patients with respect to postoperative leg alignment, correlation of planned and definitive correction, and postoperative deviation from the Fujisawa point. The mean values for planned and definitive correction showed no significant differences for identical demographic data. As a percentage of the width of the tibial plateau the postoperative weight-bearing radiographs showed a mechanical line that intersected with the knee base line at the desired value of 62% (Fujisawa point) in 58.8% (SD ± 6.1) in Group 1 and in 58.6% (SD ± 8.1) in Group 2. Despite similar mean values a significantly higher number of corrections were outside the reference area (n = 7) in the non-navigated group, whereby all corrections were within the desired range in the navigated group. There were no significant differences in operation time. This study showed that the use of a navigation system can not increase the precision of the open-wedge HTO procedure in patients with varus osteoarthritis but it can eliminate the outliers of a well defined range. Case-control study, Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  9. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in small breed dogs with high tibial plateau angles using a 4-hole 1.9/2.5 mm locking T-plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Philip G; Scott, Harry W

    2014-07-01

    To report clinical experiences with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) to address cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in small breed dogs with high tibial plateau angles (TPA) using a specific 4-hole locking T-plate. Retrospective case series. Small breed dogs (30°): n = 19 (29 CCL ruptures). TPLO was performed by standard technique using a 1.9/2.5 mm 4-hole locking T-plate. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6-8 weeks postoperative TPA were measured from radiographs. Lameness was scored subjectively preoperatively and 6-8 weeks postoperatively. Mid to long term follow-up was by client telephone questionnaire (mean, 12.1 months after surgery). Mean ± SD preoperative TPA was 37.0 ± 4.9°, immediate postoperative TPA, 6.4 ± 2.8° and 6-8 weeks postoperative TPA, 8.0 ± 4.9°. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 dogs (13.8%) all of which had been operated as single-session bilateral procedures. Three stifles had failure of a single screw and postoperative increase in TPA. Periprosthetic infection necessitated plate removal in 1 dog. Lameness scores by veterinary assessment reduced from mean 3.4/5 preoperatively to 0.4/5 at 6-8 weeks postoperatively. Mid to long-term follow-up revealed no lameness by owner assessment. A 4-hole 1.9/2.5 mm locking T-plate may be used in the stabilization of unilateral TPLO in small breed dogs with high TPA. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  11. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  12. Comparison of Cable Method and Miniaci Method Using Picture Archiving and Communication System in Preoperative Planning for Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Dae; Zhang, GuoFeng; Kim, Hee-June; Lee, Byoung-Joo; Kyung, Hee-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare the accuracy of Miniaci method using picture archiving and communication system (PACS) with a cable method in high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Materials and Methods This study analyzed 47 patients (52 knees) with varus deformity and medial osteoarthritis. From 2007 to 2013, patients underwent HTO using either a cable method (20 knees) or Miniaci method based on a PACS image (32 knees). In the cable method, the 62.5% point of the mediolateral tibial plateau width was located using an electrocautery cord under fluoroscopy (cable group). The Miniaci method used preoperative radiographs to shift the weight bearing axis (PACS group). Full-length lower limb radiographs obtained preoperatively and at the sixth postoperative week were used to compare the percentage of crossing point of the weight bearing line on the tibial plateau with respect to the medial border. Results The weight bearing line on the tibial plateau was corrected from a preoperative 11.0±7.0% to a postoperative 47.2±7.4% in the cable group and from 12.7±4.9% to 59.5±5.3% in the PACS group. The mechanical femorotibial angle was corrected from varus 8.9±3.7° to valgus 0.3±4.0° in the cable group and from varus 9.0±3.3° to valgus 2.9±2.6° in the PACS group. Conclusions In HTO, correction based on the Miniaci method using a PACS was more accurate than correction using the cable method. PMID:27894175

  13. Return to sports and quality of life after high tibial osteotomy in patients under 60 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastard, C; Mirouse, G; Potage, D; Silbert, H; Roubineau, F; Hernigou, P; Flouzat-Lachaniette, C-H

    2017-09-28

    Since knee osteoarthritis is unicompartmental in most cases, a knee osteotomy is the most logical solution to limit degeneration of the arthritic compartment, thereby delaying knee arthroplasty. Younger patients have high functional demands. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the return to sports and quality of life after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in athletic patients less than 60 years of age. The hypothesis was that patients can return to sports within 1 year of HTO. A single-centre, retrospective study was performed of 30 patients under 60 years of age with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis and no history of surgery or trauma who underwent HTO between January 2014 and August 2015. The primary endpoint was the return to sport at 1 year based on the Tegner score. Secondary endpoints were the subjective IKDC score, Lysholm score and SF-36. The mean follow-up was 1.3 years [1-1.5] and no patients were lost to follow-up. All the patients had returned to sports at 1 year: 73.3% at their pre-surgery level (before the pain started) and 23.3% at a higher level. Their quality of life was significantly improved according to the SF-36 questionnaire: 65.3% pre-operatively compared with 72.5% postoperatively (P=0.01). The preoperative and 1-year postoperative scores were comparable for the Tegner (P=0.167), IKDC (P=0.093) and Lysholm (P=0.061). HTO allows patients to resume their sports activities within 1 year of surgery and significantly improves their quality of life. Level IV - Retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammatory cytokine response is greater in acute tibial plafond fractures than acute tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Justin M; Marchand, Lucas; Rothberg, David L; Kubiak, Erik N; Higgins, Thomas F

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) concentrations in synovial fluid after acute plafond fracture with acute tibial plateau fracture. Between December 2011 and August 2014, we prospectively enrolled patients with acute tibial plateau and plafond fractures. Synovial fluid aspirations were obtained from injured and uninjured joints. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, TNF-α, MMP-1, -3, -9, -10, -12, and -13 were quantified using multiplex assays. A Bonferroni correction was used so that the adjusted alpha level for significance was p plateau fractures and 19 plafond fractures. Mean patient age was 42 years (range, 20-60) and 64% were male patients. There were 24 low-energy (OTA 41B) plateau fractures and eight low-energy (OTA 43B) plafond fractures. There were 21 high-energy (6 OTA 41B3 and 15 OTA 41C) plateau fractures and 11 high-energy (OTA43C) plafond fractures. All cytokines and MMPs except MMP-13 were significantly elevated in plafond fractures compared to uninjured ankles. When comparing acutely injured joints, IL-8 (p plateau fractures. Concentrations of IL-1RA (p = 0.008) and MCP-1 (p = 0.005) were higher in plafond fractures, and MMP-10 (p = 0.01) was higher in plateau fractures, but these differences did not reach significance. In conclusion, several cytokines and MMPs were significantly elevated in acute plafond fractures as compared to acute tibial plateau fractures. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Y-TZP zirconia run against highly crosslinked UHMWPE tibial inserts: knee simulator wear and phase-transformation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Riichiro; Williams, Paul A; Clarke, Ian C; Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Shoji, Hiromu; Akagi, Masao; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2008-07-01

    Zirconia (ZrO(2)) ceramics combined with highly cross-linked polyethylene appears to be a promising approach to minimize wear in artificial knee joints. The wear performance of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YZr) femoral condyles on 7-Mrad tibial inserts was compared in a knee simulator to CoCr bearing on 3.5-Mrad inserts. The knee design was the Bi-Surface type with a 9-year clinical history in Japan (JMM, Japan). A displacement-controlled knee simulator was used with kinematics that included 20 degrees flexion, +/-5 degrees rotation, and 6 mm anterior/posterior translation. Lubricant was alpha-calf serum, test duration was 10 million cycles (10 Mc), and wear was measured by weight-loss techniques. The wear zones were studied by laser interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. At 10 Mc the wear rates of the CoCr controls averaged 4.5 mm(3)/Mc. This was within 7% of the prior estimate at 5-Mc duration and comparable to Bi-Surface wear data from another laboratory. The CoCr condyles increased in roughness (R(a)) from <50 nm to average R(a) = 250 nm due to linear scratching. The ceramic condyles remained pristine throughout the wear study (R(a) <7 nm). With the YZr/7-Mrad combination, the weight change had a positive slope over at 10 Mc, which meant that the actual polyethylene wear was unmeasurable. Microscopic examinations at 10 Mc showed that the zirconia surfaces were intact and there was no detectable change from tetragonal to monoclinic phase. Our laboratory knee wear simulation appeared very supportive of the 9-year YZr/PE clinical results with Bi-Surface total knee replacements in Japan. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Patient-reported outcomes correlate with functional scores after opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Beom; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seul-Gi; Cui, Chun-Guang; Suh, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Yup; Jang, Ki-Mo

    2017-08-21

    The purpose of this study was to assess post-operative patient subjective satisfaction and to analyze associated peri-operative factors following biplanar medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). The study cohort consisted of 88 patients with a minimum of two years of follow-up. Patient satisfaction was evaluated with a questionnaire that assessed (1) overall satisfaction, (2) pain relief, (3) daily living functions, and (4) cosmesis. Patients were categorized into two groups (satisfied or unsatisfied) based on overall satisfaction questionnaire. Pre- and post-operative objective clinical statuses were assessed with a knee scoring system based on the American Knee Society (AKS), the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and range of motion. Of the 88 patients, 85.2% were graded as satisfied according to the overall satisfaction estimation. The percentage of patients satisfied with pain relief, daily living functions, and cosmesis were 85.2%, 86.4%, and 86.4%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that pre-operative Hip-Knee-Ankle angle (HKAA) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.812), post-operative AKS knee score (OR = 1.156), and post-operative HKAA (OR = 0.717) were significantly associated with overall satisfaction. Pre-operative HKAA (OR = 1.436), post-operative WOMAC activity score (OR = 0.865), and post-operative HKAA (OR = 0.505) were significant predictors for satisfaction with pain reduction, daily living functions, and cosmesis, respectively. Biplanar medial OWHTO is an effective treatment for osteoarthritis with varus deformity in terms of subjective satisfactory outcome. Several factors, including pre- and post-operative HKAA, post-operative AKS and WOMAC score, were significant predictors for subjective satisfaction. Level III.

  17. Experimental high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Paula, L

    2004-01-01

    A summary of the contributions on experimental high energy physics to the XXIV Brazilian National Meeting on Particle and Fields is presented. There were 5 invited talks and 32 submitted contributions. The active Brazilian groups are involved in several interesting projects but suffer from the lack of funding and interaction with Brazilian theorists.

  18. High Energy Exoplanet Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet transits of exoplanets allow us to probe the atmospheres of these worlds. High energy transits have been shown to be deeper but also more variable than in the optical. By simulating exoplanet transits using high-energy observations of the Sun, we can test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of these planets in the presence of stellar activity. We use both disk-resolved images of the Solar disk spanning soft X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical and also disk-integrated Sun-as-a-star observations of the Lyα irradiance to simulate transits over a wide wavelength range. We find that for stars with activity levels similar to the Sun, the planet-to-star radius ratio can be overestimated by up to 50% if the planet occults an active region at high energies. We also compare our simulations to high energy transits of WASP-12b, HD 189733, 55 Cnc b, and GJ 436b.

  19. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  20. High energy particle astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  1. Tibial osteotomies for cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Kowaleski, Michael P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2008-02-01

    To review the biomechanical considerations, experimental investigations, and clinical data pertaining to tibial osteotomy procedures for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) insufficiency in dogs. Literature review. Literature search through Pub Med, Veterinary Information Network, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau Abstracts, and conference proceedings abstracts (November 1977 to March 2007). Reported tibial osteotomy procedures attempt to eliminate sagittal instability (cranial tibial thrust) in CrCL-deficient stifles by altering the conformation of the proximal tibia. Functional stability can be achieved by decreasing the tibial plateau slope (cranial tibial closing wedge osteotomy [CTWO], tibial plateau leveling osteotomy [TPLO], combined TPLO and CTWO, proximal intraarticular osteotomy, chevron wedge osteotomy), altering the alignment of the patellar tendon (tibial tuberosity advancement), or both (triple tibial osteotomy). Clinical reports assessing the efficacy of these procedures frequently use subjective outcome measures, and the periods of follow-up evaluation are highly variable. Satisfactory results have been reported in most (>75%) dogs irrespective of the type of tibial osteotomy procedure. Currently available data does not allow accurate comparisons between different tibial osteotomy procedures, or with traditional methods of stabilizing the CrCL-deficient stifle. Carefully designed long-term clinical studies and further biomechanical analyses are required to determine the optimal osteotomy technique, and whether these procedures are superior to other stabilization methods. Limb function in dogs with CrCL insufficiency can be improved using the currently described tibial osteotomy techniques.

  2. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  3. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  4. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  5. EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL RESULTS OF MEDIAL OPENING WEDGE HIGH TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY FOR UNICOMPARTMENTAL OSTEOARTHRITIS VARUS KNEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Bakki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis commonly affects the medial compartment of knee giving rise to varus deformity in majority of cases. Significant varus deformity further aggravates the pathology due to medialisation of the weight bearing line osteotomy of the proximal tibia realigns this weight bearing axis, thereby relieving pressure on the damaged medial compartment. OWHTO is a promising option in this scenario because it is associated with high accuracy in correcting the deformity and less number of complications when compared to lateral closing wedge HTO or UKA. In this study, we evaluate the functional outcome of HTO in patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study of patients who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic in Government Hospital, Kakinada, between August 2013 to August 2015. The patients were evaluated by clinical examination and weight bearing radiographs. The patients who were found to have unicompartmental osteoarthritis with knee pain not relieved by conservative management and who satisfy the inclusion criteria were selected. RESULTS Excellent results can be achieved by appropriate selection criteria and planning with long limb weight bearing radiographs. There is an excellent relief of pain, which can be achieved within first few months postoperatively, which is assessed by VAS score. The KSS- knee score is excellent in 35%, good in 40%, fair in 20% and poor in 5%. The KSS- function score is excellent in 30%, good in 45%, fair in 20% and poor in 5%. There is significant improvement in the range of movement of the knee joint postoperatively. CONCLUSION In this study, we conclude that medial OWHTO is the preferred modality for unicompartmental OA in those aged <60 years and in developing nations like India where squatting is an important function, it has major role as it can restore near normal knee function without disturbing anatomy.

  6. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  7. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  8. A case report of Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture treated with double reverse traction closed reduction combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis technique: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dian-Qing; Song, De-Ye; Ni, Jiang-Dong; Ding, Mu-Liang; Huang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The knee joint is an important weight-bearing joint, tibial plateau fractures affect knee function and stability. High-energy intra-articular fractures involving the tibial plateau can cause management-related problems such as wound dehiscence; severe comminution leading to malalignment; and delayed complications such as varus collapse, implant failure, and arthritis of the knee joint. The treatment of severe or complex tibial plateau fractures can be quite difficult. Traditional methods of open reduction and plating require extensive exposures, which may further compromise soft tissue and devascularize bone fragments, leading to infection. In this case, a novel device, double reverse traction combined with MIPPO technique, was used and provided the possibility of minimally invasive and personalized orthopedic surgery to treat severe comminuted Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture and tibial shaft fracture and got satisfactory results. A previously healthy 56-year-old man presented to the emergency room after a fall from a height, who lost the movement of the left knee with pain and swelling. X-rays showed a tibial plateau comminuted fracture, Schatzker type VI, and tibial shaft fracture. Applying less extensile exposure and the indirect reduction technique of double reverse traction and closed reduction combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) technique, we got satisfactory recovery of the severe comminuted Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture and tibial shaft fracture. This severe comminuted fracture and tibial shaft fracture were successfully reduced and got satisfactory recovery of knee joint function. Double reverse traction combined with MIPPO technique can reduce the risk of surgical complications, such as bleeding, oozing, and wound infection. It can be applied in patients with comorbidities such as cardiac disease, hypertension, and heart failure who may otherwise not be candidates for surgery. The cost burden is

  9. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...... fixator, both during treatment and at 19 months following injury. In general, the thesis demonstrates that the treatment of tibial plateau fractures are challenging and that some disabilities following these fractures must be expected. Moreover, the need for further research in the area, both with regard...

  10. Medial tibial stress syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kortebein, P M; Kaufman, K R; Basford, J R; Stuart, M J

    2000-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is discussed with consideration of history and terminology for shin soreness, the most confusing of the multiple terms for those with diffuse exertional medial tibia pain...

  11. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  12. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  13. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  14. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  15. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10{sup 5} Z`s by the end of 1989 and 10{sup 6} in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry.

  16. Treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-08-01

    Segmental tibial fractures usually follow a high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' results in the treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous locking plates used as external fixators. Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 20 patients underwent external plating (supercutaneous plating) of the segmental tibial fractures using a less-invasive stabilization system locking plate (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania). Six fractures were closed and 14 were open (6 grade IIIa, 2 grade IIIb, 4 grade II, and 2 grade I, according to the Gustilo classification). When imaging studies confirmed bone union, the plates and screws were removed in the outpatient clinic. Average time of follow-up was 23 months (range, 12-47 months). All fractures achieved union. Median time to union was 19 weeks (range, 12-40 weeks) for the proximal fractures and 22 weeks (range, 12-42 weeks) for the distal fractures. Functional results were excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. Delayed union of the fracture occurred in 2 patients. All patients' radiographs showed normal alignment. No rotational deformities and leg shortening were seen. No incidences of deep infection or implant failures occurred. Minor screw tract infection occurred in 2 patients. A new 1-stage protocol using supercutaneous plating as a definitive fixator for segmental tibial fractures is less invasive, has a lower cost, and has a shorter hospitalization time. Surgeons can achieve good reduction, soft tissue reconstruction, stable fixation, and high union rates using supercutaneous plating. The current patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion and good functional outcomes and had a comfortable clinical course. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  18. MEET ISOLDE - High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Meet ISOLDE - High Energy Physics. ISOLDE is always developing, equipment moves on and off the hall floor, new groups start and end experiments regularly, visiting scientists come and go and experiments evolve. So it was a natural step for ISOLDE to expand from its core low energy science into high-energies.

  19. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  20. Tibial shaft fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter

    The overall purpose of the present PhD thesis was to provide up-to-date information of the epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures and to investigate the development in quality of life, pain and functional outcomes from surgery and onwards, following a tibial shaft fracture treated...... with intramedullary nailing. Study I reported an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year from a complete population. Study II reported the long-term patient-reported outcomes and showed that approximately 8 years after the fracture patients reported significantly worse outcome for 4 of the 5 KOOS subscales compared...... suggested that regaining pre injured QOL and muscle strength following a tibial shaft fracture takes considerable time....

  1. Is a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) superior to non-surgical treatment in patients with varus malaligned medial knee osteoarthritis (OA)? : A propensity matched study using 2 randomized controlled trial (RCT) datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Outeren, M.V. (M. V.); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); M. Reijman (Max); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: No randomized controlled trial (RCT) has compared the high tibial osteotomy (HTO) with non-surgical treatment in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment. The aim was to compare the effectiveness of an unloader brace treatment or a usual care

  2. High Energy Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    sition giving out heat, light, sound and large volumes of gases. The amount of energy released varies with the ... Explosives are classified according to applications either for. 2 Pyrotechnics is the art of manu- facturing or .... rockets are based on Newton's Third Law: an action will always have an equal and opposite reaction.

  3. High energy neutrinos from GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Orlando, D; Perrone, L

    2001-01-01

    It is by now recognized that GRBs can accelerate protons to relativistic energies and that high density media may be present nearby the source. We compute the high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from the decay of pions produced through the interaction of accelerated protons with nucleons in the surrounding medium. Then, we estimate the flux of high-energy muons induced on a detector by upward-going neutrinos interacting through charge current processes with the surrounding matter.

  4. Tibial osteotomy - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Tibial osteotomy - series—Normal anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/ ...

  5. Influence of screw length and diameter on tibial strain energy density distribution after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy den sity (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9 mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. High-energy communication

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Communication Group

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday at 10.40 a.m., the LHC operators declared “stable beams” after two years of technical stop and a few months of commissioning. It was an exciting day for all the teams involved, including those who worked on communicating the news to the public and the media on multiple platforms.   CERN’s most successful tweet on 3 June featured collision images from ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb and was shared 800 times by the Twitter audience. Live blogging, social media posts, a live webcast, and a constant outpouring of photos and videos: Wednesday morning was a crazy time for the communication teams from CERN, the experiments and various institutes around the world. Even though the event started very early in the morning (the live CCC blog started at 7 a.m. and the live webcast at 8.20 a.m.), the public and the media tuned in to follow and generously cover the start of the LHC’s physics run at an unprecedented energy of 13 TeV. The statistics showed th...

  7. Primary stability of different plate positions and the role of bone substitute in open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryohei; Woon-Hwa, Jung; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Osawa, Katsunari; Akamatsu, Yasushi; Kuroda, Koichi

    2017-10-12

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical fixation strengths of anteromedial and medial plate positions in osteotomy, and clarify the effects of bone substitute placement into the osteotomy site. Twenty-eight sawbone tibia models were used. Four different models were prepared: Group A, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was anteromedial; Group B, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was anteromedial; Group C, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was medial; and Group D, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was medial. The loading condition ranged from 0 to 800N and one hertz cycles were applied. Changes of the tibial posterior slope angle (TPS), stress on the plate and lateral hinge were measured. The changes in the TPS and the stress on the plate were significantly larger in Group A than in Group C. These were significantly larger in Group A than in Group B, and in Group C than in Group D. There was no significant difference between Group B and Group D, and no significant difference between knee flexion angles of 0° and 10°. Stress on the lateral hinge was significantly smaller when bone substitute was used. A medial plate position was biomechanically superior to an anteromedial position if bone substitute was not used. Bone substitute distributed the stress concentration around the osteotomy gap and prevented an increase in TPS angle regardless of the plate position. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  9. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z[degrees] resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s] for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  10. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z{degrees} resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}{gamma}. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R&D work on BaF{sub 2} by joining the GEM collaboration.

  11. Outcomes of The Isolated Closed Tibial Shaft Fractures Treated Nonsurgically

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood Jafari; Pouya Nozarnejad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fractures of the tibia are important for their commonness and controversy in their management. Both conservative and surgical techniques have been introduced in an effort to speed time to union while minimizing the occurrence of complications. Standard treatment for low-energy tibial shaft fractures includes closed reduction and cast immobilization.The purpose of our study was to analyze retention of reduction after cast immobilization of simple isolated closed tibial fractures.Me...

  12. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the Standard Model, and proposals – including the radical ...

  13. Tibial hyperostosis: a diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Bousson, Valérie; Sverzut, Jean-Michel; Genah, Idan; Petrover, David; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-12-01

    Tibial hyperostosis may be encountered in musculoskeletal imaging, incidentally or during the investigation of a leg pain. Hyperostosis involves the exuberant production of osseous tissue and results in cortical, periosteal and/or endosteal thickening of the bone. As a long bone with thick cortices, the tibia has a significant probability of being affected by ubiquitous bone diseases. As a tubular long bone, the tibia is likely to be involved in extensive infectious conditions such as osteomyelitis. As a bone of the lower limb, the tibia undergoes high stresses and may be affected by decrease in bone strength or repetitive submaximal stress. The tibia is also particularly involved in some bone sclerosing dysplasias and Paget's disease. In this work, we aim at highlighting the main conditions leading to tibial hyperostosis and try to provide key elements to narrow down the several diagnostic possibilities. Osteoid osteomas, fatigue or insufficiency fractures, infectious conditions, vascular lesions, sclerosing bone dysplasias and Paget's disease represent the main challenging diagnoses to discuss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tibial hyperostosis: A diagnostic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touraine, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.touraine@lrb.aphp.fr [Radiologie ostéo-articulaire, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Parlier-Cuau, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.parlier@lrb.aphp.fr [Radiologie ostéo-articulaire, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Bousson, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.bousson@lrb.aphp.fr [Radiologie ostéo-articulaire, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Sverzut, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jmsverzut21@hotmail.com [Radiologie ostéo-articulaire, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Centre d’imagerie du centre cardiologique du Nord, 32-36 rue des Moulins Gémeaux, 93200 Saint-Denis (France); Genah, Idan, E-mail: idan.genah@lrb.aphp.fr [Radiologie ostéo-articulaire, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); and others

    2013-12-01

    Tibial hyperostosis may be encountered in musculoskeletal imaging, incidentally or during the investigation of a leg pain. Hyperostosis involves the exuberant production of osseous tissue and results in cortical, periosteal and/or endosteal thickening of the bone. As a long bone with thick cortices, the tibia has a significant probability of being affected by ubiquitous bone diseases. As a tubular long bone, the tibia is likely to be involved in extensive infectious conditions such as osteomyelitis. As a bone of the lower limb, the tibia undergoes high stresses and may be affected by decrease in bone strength or repetitive submaximal stress. The tibia is also particularly involved in some bone sclerosing dysplasias and Paget's disease. In this work, we aim at highlighting the main conditions leading to tibial hyperostosis and try to provide key elements to narrow down the several diagnostic possibilities. Osteoid osteomas, fatigue or insufficiency fractures, infectious conditions, vascular lesions, sclerosing bone dysplasias and Paget's disease represent the main challenging diagnoses to discuss.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: tibial muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Tibial muscular dystrophy Tibial muscular dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Tibial muscular dystrophy is a condition that affects the muscles at ...

  16. Tibial shaft fractures - management and treatment options. A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, G; Strohm, P C; Südkamp, N P; Hammer, T O

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of tibial shaft fractures is still discussed controversial. In the present study current literature was reviewed with the objective to demonstrate current recommendations concerning tibial shaft fractures. Tibial shaft fractures are often caused by high-energy trauma with severe concomitant soft-tissue injuries. Solid bone union without hypertrophy, fast mobilization and full range of motion without further soft-tissue damages are the aims of the therapy. Non-displaced tibial shaft fractures in patients with good compliance can be treated conservatively. Deep venous thrombosis, compartment syndrome, soft tissue injury and chronic regional pain syndrome are the major risks of conservative treatment and need to be required. Operative treatment can be performed with several different implants. Intramedullary nailing with a huge biomechanical stability seems to be the implant of choice. Only rare indications for plate osteosynthesis can be found. The use of external fixation has declined even though external fixation is still the implant of choice in first line treatment of multiple trauma according to the damage control principles. Open fractures with precarious blood supply and weak soft tissue covering are vulnerable to complications and remain a challenge for every treating surgeon. Reconstruction of axis, length and rotation is essential for a good outcome. The choice of technique depends on fracture localization, type of fracture, history of concomitant disorders and soft tissue damage.

  17. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  18. High-energy astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Semikoz, A

    2010-01-01

    In these three lectures I discuss the present status of high-energy astroparticle physics including Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), high-energy gamma rays, and neutrinos. The first lecture is devoted to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. After a brief introduction to UHECR I discuss the acceleration of charged particles to highest energies in the astrophysical objects, their propagation in the intergalactic space, recent observational results by the Auger and HiRes experiments, anisotropies of UHECR arrival directions, and secondary gamma rays produced by UHECR. In the second lecture I review recent results on TeV gamma rays. After a short introduction to detection techniques, I discuss recent exciting results of the H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and Milagro experiments on the point-like and diffuse sources of TeV gamma rays. A special section is devoted to the detection of extragalactic magnetic fields with TeV gammaray measurements. Finally, in the third lecture I discuss Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) neutrinos. I review t...

  19. Mechanical strength assessment of a drilled hole in the contralateral cortex at the end of the open wedge for high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffo Kaze, Arnaud; Maas, Stefan; Hoffmann, Alexander; Pape, Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate, by means of finite element analysis, the effect of a drill hole at the end of a horizontal osteotomy to reduce the risk of lateral cortex fracture while performing an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). The question was whether drilling a hole relieves stress and increases the maximum correction angle without fracture of the lateral cortex depending on the ductility of the cortical bone. Two different types of osteotomy cuts were considered; one with a drill hole (diameter 5 mm) and the other without the hole. The drill holes were located about 20 mm distally to the tibial plateau and 6 mm medially to the lateral cortex, such that the minimal thickness of the contralateral cortical bone was 5 mm. Based on finite element calculations, two approaches were used to compare the two types of osteotomy cuts considered: (1) Assessing the static strength using local stresses following the idea of the FKM-guideline, subsequently referred to as the "FKM approach" and (2) limiting the total strain during the opening of the osteotomy wedge, subsequently referred to as "strain approach". A critical opening angle leading to crack initiation in the opposite lateral cortex was determined for each approach and was defined as comparative parameter. The relation to bone aging was investigated by considering the material parameters of cortical bones from young and old subjects. The maximum equivalent (von-Mises) stress was smaller for the cases with a drill hole at the end of the osteotomy cut. The critical angle was approximately 1.5 times higher for the specimens with a drill hole compared to those without. This corresponds to an average increase of 50%. The calculated critical angle for all approaches is below 5°. The critical angle depends on the used approach, on patient's age and assumed ductility of the cortical bone. Drilling a hole at the end of the osteotomy reduces the stresses in the lateral cortex and increases the critical

  20. Static and fatigue strength of a novel anatomically contoured implant compared to five current open-wedge high tibial osteotomy plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffo Kaze, Arnaud; Maas, Stefan; Belsey, James; Hoffmann, Alexander; Pape, Dietrich

    2017-12-08

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the mechanical static and fatigue strength of the size 2 osteotomy plate "Activmotion" with the following five other common implants for the treatment of medial knee joint osteoarthritis: the TomoFix small stature, the TomoFix standard, the Contour Lock, the iBalance and the second generation PEEKPower. Six fourth-generation tibial bone composites underwent a medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), according to standard techniques, using size 2 Activmotion osteotomy plates. All bone-implant constructs were subjected to static compression load to failure and load-controlled cyclic fatigue failure testing, according to a previously defined testing protocol. The mechanical stability was investigated by considering different criteria and parameters: maximum forces, the maximum number of loading cycles, stiffness, the permanent plastic deformation of the specimens during the cyclic fatigue tests, and the maximum displacement range in the hysteresis loops of the cyclic loading responses. In each test, all bone-implant constructs with the size 2 Activmotion plate failed with a fracture of the lateral cortex, like with the other five previously tested implants. For the static compression tests the failure occurred in each tested implant above the physiological loading of slow walking (> 2400 N). The load at failure for the Activmotion group was the highest (8200 N). In terms of maximum load and number of cycles performed prior to failure, the size 2 Activmotion plate showed higher results than all the other tested implants except the ContourLock plate. The iBalance implant offered the highest stiffness (3.1 kN/mm) for static loading on the lateral side, while the size 2 Activmotion showed the highest stiffness (4.8 kN/mm) in cyclic loading. Overall, regarding all of the analysed strength parameters, the size 2 Activmotion plate provided equivalent or higher mechanical stability compared to the previously tested

  1. Five-year changes in gait biomechanics after concomitant high tibial osteotomy and ACL reconstruction in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Kendal; Birmingham, Trevor B; Kean, Crystal O; Hui, Catherine; Jenkyn, Thomas R; Giffin, J Robert

    2015-09-01

    Concomitant high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a combined surgical procedure intended to improve kinematics and kinetics in the unstable ACL-deficient knee with varus malalignment and medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). To investigate 5-year changes in gait biomechanics as well as radiographic and patient-reported outcomes bilaterally after unilateral, concomitant medial opening wedge HTO and ACL reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 33 patients (mean ± SD age, 40 ± 9 years) with varus malalignment (mean mechanical axis angle, -5.9° ± 2.9°), medial compartment knee OA, and ACL deficiency completed 3-dimensional gait analysis preoperatively and 2 and 5 years postoperatively. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction (first peak) and flexion moments. Secondary outcomes were the peak external knee extension and transverse plane moments, peak knee angles in all 3 planes, radiographic static knee alignment measures (mechanical axis angle and posterior tibial slope), and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). There was a substantial decrease in the knee adduction moment in the surgical limb (%BW × H, -1.49; 95% CI, -1.75 to -1.22) and a slight increase in the nonsurgical limb (%BW × H, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.30) from preoperatively to 5 years postoperatively. There was also a decrease in the knee flexion moment for both the surgical (%BW × H, -0.67; 95% CI, -1.19 to -0.15) and nonsurgical limbs (%BW × H, -1.06; 95% CI, -1.49 to -0.64). Secondary outcomes suggested that substantial improvements were maintained at 5 years, although smaller declines were observed in several measures and in both limbs from 2 to 5 years. Changes in the peak external moments about the knee in all 3 planes during walking were observed 5 years after concomitant medial opening wedge HTO and ACL reconstruction. These findings are consistent with an intended, sustained shift in the

  2. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  3. Studying the effect of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy on the posterior slope of tibia among patients with Genu varum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Raza Sharifzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background A slight change in the posterior slope of tibia results in complications such as limited movement of knee joint and higher risks of Osteoarthritis. Aims The present research seeks to study levels of tibia’s posterior slope change and limited movement of knee joint and knee stability following medial open wedge osteotomy used to treat patients with genu varum. Methods The present research is a clinical trial conducted in the form of a before and after study on patients with genu varum resorting to Imam Reza (PBUH, Khanevade, and Fajr hospitals from 2009 to 2012. As many as 40 knees (32 patients were studied and the posterior slope of tibia before and after medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy was measured by someone totally unaware of the research using true lateral radiography. Movement limitation and stability of the knee was measured before and after the operation using scope of motion and Lachman and Drawer test. Paired sample test was used in this research and SPSS was used to analyse the data. Results The average posterior slope of tibia before the operation was 9.912, while this value changed to 11.625 after the operation signifying a significant increase. In terms of limited knee joint movement, 7 patients were diagnosed with grade 5 Extension LAG after operation, while the remaining 33 patients had a normal motion range (Extension LAG=0. Conclusion Medial open wedge osteotomy above tibia can help increase the posterior slope of tibia.

  4. Total knee replacement for tricompartmental arthritis in a patient with a below-knee amputation after a previous closing wedge high tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Fleming, MBBCH, FC orth(SA, MMED

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a 64-year-old man who had undergone a high tibial osteotomy (HTO 17 years ago of his right knee for medial compartment osteoarthritis; 5 days later, he received a below-knee amputation owing to a missed popliteal artery injury at the time of the HTO. We elected to perform a total knee replacement (TKR for progressive arthritis of the ipsilateral knee 17 years after the transtibial amputation. Although there is a plethora of literature regarding TKR in the contralateral knee of amputees, there is a paucity of data of TKR in the ipsilateral knee. Using medical search engines including Google Scholar and PubMed, we were only able to identify 4 case reports of TKR in the ipsilateral knee of below-knee amputees. This is the first description in the English literature that has the following rare pathology list: tricompartmental arthritis with a previous closing wedge HTO with a resultant truncated valgus tibia and short transtibial amputation.

  5. Pediatric Tibial Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brad; Street, Matthew; Leigh, Warren; Crawford, Haemish

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis shows a strong predilection for the tibia in the pediatric population and is a significant source of complications. The purpose of this article is to retrospectively review a large series of pediatric patients with tibial osteomyelitis. We compare our experience with that in the literature to determine any factors that may aid diagnosis and/or improve treatment outcomes. A 10-year retrospective review was performed of clinical records of all cases of pediatric tibial osteomyelitis managed at the 2 children's orthopaedic departments in the Auckland region. The Osteomyelitis Database was used to identify all cases between 1997 and 2007, at Starship Children's Hospital, and 1998 and 2008 at Middlemore's Kids First Hospital. One hundred ninety-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and had a review of clinical notes and relevant investigations. The average duration of symptoms before presentation to hospital was 5.7 days. Less than 40% of patients had a recent episode of trauma. Almost 60% of patients could not bear weight on admission. Over 40% of patients had a temperature above 38°C. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in 78% and the C-reactive protein was elevated in 90% of patients. In total, 42% of blood cultures and almost 75% of tissue cultures were positive, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most commonly cultured organism. X-rays, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging were all used to aid the diagnosis. About 43% of patients had surgery. Treatment length was an average of 2 weeks 6 days of intravenous antibiotics followed by 3 weeks 2 days of oral treatment. Six postsurgical complications and 46 readmissions were noted: 25 for relapse, with the remainder due to social and antibiotic-associated complications. Although generally diagnosed on presentation, pediatric tibial osteomyelitis can require more sophisticated investigations and prolonged management. Treatment with intravenous and oral antibiotics and surgical

  6. High-energy scissors mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R.; Faessler, A.; Dingfelder, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    All the orbital {ital M}1 excitations, at both low and high energies, obtained from a rotationally invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation, represent the fragmented scissors mode. The high-energy {ital M}1 strength is almost purely orbital and resides in the region of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance. In heavy deformed nuclei the high-energy scissors model is strongly fragmented between 17 and 25 MeV (with uncertainties arising from the poor knowledge of the isovector potential). The coherent scissors motion is hindered by the fragmentation and {ital B}({ital M}1){lt}0.25{mu}{sub {ital N}}{sup 2} for single transitions in this region. The ({ital e},{ital e}{prime}) cross sections for excitations above 17 MeV are one order of magnitude larger for {ital E}2 than for {ital M}1 excitations even at backward angles.

  7. Collagen turnover after tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Krogsgaard, M; Wilbek, H

    1994-01-01

    Collagen turnover after tibial fractures was examined in 16 patients with fracture of the tibial diaphysis and in 8 patients with fracture in the tibial condyle area by measuring sequential changes in serological markers of turnover of types I and III collagen for up to 26 weeks after fracture....... The markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and the pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). The latter is a new serum marker of degradation of type I...... collagen. A group comparison showed characteristic sequential changes in the turnover of types I and III collagen in fractures of the tibial diaphysis and tibial condyles. The turnover of type III collagen reached a maximum after 2 weeks in both groups. The synthesis of type I collagen reached a maximum...

  8. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  9. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  10. Outcome evaluation of staged treatment for bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Koch, Hilton A; E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; de Souza, Felipe Serrão; Dos Santos Neto, José Félix

    2017-10-01

    The universal accepted strategy for treating high-energy tibial plateau fractures remains a topic of ongoing debate. The challenge for the practicing orthopaedic trauma surgeon is to provide anatomical articular fracture reduction, with successfully managing the complex soft-tissue injury that is commonly present at patient admission. The primary aim of the actual study was to evaluate the results of a staged protocol for the treatment of high-energy bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. The secondary aim was to describe the technique used for the definitive fixation of this complex fracture pattern. Thirty patients with unstable high-energy closed bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (17 Schatzker V and 13 Schatzker VI) were managed. There were 24 men (80%) and six women (20%). All of them were skeletally mature with their age ranging from 19 to 67 years (mean of 33.1±3.4 years). Treatment involved a two-stage procedure with appropriate emergency care, preoperative planning, and definitive fixation. Initial treatment, named 'damage control on complex articular fracture elements', consisted on temporary bridging external fixation. Definitive treatment was delayed in a mean of 10 days (ranging from seven to 13 days) and was performed when the soft-tissue conditioning demonstrated either complete or almost complete remission of the inflammatory reaction due to the 'first hit'. Conventional implants were used in the 30 patients. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically. Twenty-six (86.7%) patients had a moderate level of activity, three (10%) patients had a very light level of activity, and one (3.3%) patient was unable to have any kind of work activity and is currently supported by the Brazilian Welfare. Using the visual analog scale mean pain score was 30 (ranging from 10 to 60); even the patient with the workers' compensation had no severe pain. All patients except three have no difficulty with stairs, giving way, locking, swelling, and squatting

  11. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-energy physics; gauge theories; Standard Model; physics beyond the ... elusive goal. The Standard Model describes the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions, but only unifies the first two. Despite its spectacular success in ex ..... Towards the end of the 1960s, a path-breaking new 'deep inelastic' electron scat-.

  12. Knee Joint Distraction as an Alternative Surgical Treatment for Osteoarthritis: Rationale and Design of two Randomized Controlled Trials (vs High Tibial Osteotomy and Total Knee Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wiegant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In case of refractory knee osteoarthritis at a relatively young age causing persisting pain, treatment options are limited. In case of medial degeneration high tibial osteotomy (HTO may be considered, or in case of more generalized OA, a total knee prosthesis (TKP. However, these young and active patients have a major risk of revision surgery. Knee joint distraction (KJD could be an alternative treatment; prolonged clinical benefit and cartilage tissue repair have been demonstrated. Therefore, two RCTs were designed, evaluating clinical efficacy and for HTO additionally comparing cartilage tissue repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients<65 years of age considered in regular clinical practice for TKP or HTO were included. TKP and HTO were performed according to usual standard of care. KJD was performed for six continuous weeks by use of an external fixator bridging the joint, fixed at each side to two bone pins. RESULTS: Inclusion rate was stable over time and took 42 and 22 months for TKP vs KJD and HTO vs KJD, respectively. At baseline, patient characteristics differed: age was 55.2±0.9 and 50.0±0.7 p<0.000, KOOS-score was 36.6±1.4 and 42.2±1.6 p=0.012, and VAS-pain was 68.7±2.1 and 61.4±2.4 p=0.028, in the KJD-TKP cohort and KJD-HTO cohort, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For implementation of KJD a comparison with available surgical alternatives is needed. TKP and HTO were chosen as the most relevant comparators. Inclusion is closed, and all treatments are completed. Data have to be awaited to determine the position of KJD in surgical treatment of refractory knee OA.

  13. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  14. A high energy physics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  15. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  16. Correlation of parameters on preoperative CT images with intra-articular soft-tissue injuries in acute tibial plateau fractures: A review of 132 patients receiving ARIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao-Che; Chen, I-Jung; Yeh, Yu-Cheng; Weng, Chun-Jui; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Chan, Yi-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Tibial plateau fractures often occur in conjunction with soft-tissue injuries of knees. The hypothesis of this study is that parameters of CT imaging can predict intra-articular soft-tissue injuries. Patients who underwent arthroscopically assisted reduction and internal fixation (ARIF) for acute tibial plateau fractures performed by a single orthopedic surgeon between 2005 and 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Patients with concomitant ipsilateral femoral fractures, who had received revision surgery or who had undergone index surgery more than 30days from the event were excluded. We measured lateral plateau depression and widening, medial plateau depression and displacement, and column involvement observed on preoperative CT scans. Intra-articular soft-tissue injuries were diagnosed based on findings from knee arthroscopy. The correlation of imaging parameters with soft-tissue injuries was analyzed by the area under a receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve and multivariate logistic regression. One-hundred and thirty-two patients were enrolled in the study. The average age was 45.7±13.1 years (range: 18-75 years). Lateral tibial plateau depressions >11mm were significantly associated with increased risk of lateral meniscus tears (p=0.001). However, there was no significant threshold of lateral tibial plateau widening that could be used to predict lateral meniscus tear. Greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fracture was observed in younger patients, patients with high-energy-pattern tibial plateau fractures, patients with fractures involving anteromedial or posterolateral columns, and patients with medial tibial plateau displacement >3mm (pplateau depression and column involvement on preoperative CT scans can help predict a higher risk of lateral meniscus tear and ACL avulsion fracture respectively in patients with acute tibial plateau fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  19. Prospective Case Study of Outcome of Tibial Plateau Fractures Treated with Locking Condylar Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tibial plateau injury involves the articular surface of the proximal tibia with diverse group of fractures that represent a wide spectrum of severity that challenge even the most experienced surgeons, but with the invent of modern diagnostic technology and the advent of locking plates, results appear to be improving over time. Method: The study was conducted on thirty patients admitted in the department of orthopaedics with diagnoses of tibial plateau fractures treated with Locking Condylar Plate. The patients were followed up for a minimum period of six months and clinico-radiological progression of fracture union with the functional outcome was studied using 100 point rating system devised by Delamarter et al. Result: Twenty-two patients showed excellent results while eight patients had good to fair and none with poor result. The average time for radiological union was 17.5 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that while locking condylar plate seems to show excellent results in low energy tibial plateau fractures, it can probably be used to successfully treat patients with high energy fracture patterns without the need for additional medial stabilization.

  20. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  1. Duke University high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  2. A non-randomized controlled clinical trial on autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) in cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle with or without high tibial osteotomy in patients with varus deformity of less than 5°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Gerrit; Schmal, Hagen; Pestka, Jan M; Ogon, Peter; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a recommended concomitant surgery when treating cartilage lesions of the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Varus deformities of 5° and more were considered an indication for HTO in patients with cartilage defects. This study compares clinical outcome in patients with ACI and concomitant varus deformity of 5° in patients with cartilage lesions of the medial femoral condyle, HTO also leads to a reduced rate of reinterventions and longer survival rates in patients with varus deformities of <5°.

  3. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  4. A novel technique using sensor-based technology to evaluate tibial tray rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Martin W; Elson, Leah C; Anderson, Christopher R

    2015-03-01

    Rotational tibiofemoral congruency and centralized patellar tracking are critical technical factors that affect the postoperative success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Several techniques are used to position the femoral component, but there is no validated method for achieving the ideal rotational position of the tibial component. It has been suggested that referencing the midmedial third of the tibial tubercle intraoperatively mitigates positional outliers. This study used data collected from intraoperative sensors to quantify the variability associated with using the midmedial third of the tibial tubercle in 170 patients undergoing primary TKA. With the sensor-equipped trial insert in place, the knee was taken into extension and the location of the femoral condylar contact point on the articular surface of the tibial insert was displayed. Rotational adjustments of the tibial tray were evaluated in real time as the surgeon corrected tray malpositioning. The initial and final angles of tibial tray rotation were captured and recorded with intraoperative video feed. When referencing the tubercle, 53% of patients had asymmetric tibiofemoral congruency in extension. Of those patients, 68% had excessive internal rotation of the tibial tray relative to the femur and 32% had excessive external rotation. The average tibiofemoral incongruency deviated from a neutral position by 6° (range, 0.5°-19.2°). Data from this evaluation suggest that use of the tibial tubercle to maximize tibiofemoral congruency is highly variable and inconsistent for confirming the final rotation of the tibial tray. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  6. Treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures using Ilizarov technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalić, Ivica; Daraboš, Nikica; Stanković, Milan; Gojković, Zoran; Obradović, Mirko; Marić, Dušan

    2014-12-01

    Complex tibial plateau fractures are most commonly caused by high-energy trauma and they are often associated with severe soft tissue injuries that can frequently result in severe complications. Ilizarov external circular fixation is an ideal method of treatment for high- energy fractures of the tibial plateau when extensive soft tissue dissection and internal fixation are contraindicated. Our research included 50 consecutive patients and clinical features of the patients were evaluated during the follow up period using the following instruments: Gustillo-Anderson, Sc- hatzker and Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/ OTA) classification methods. Bony results were evaluated using the Association of the Study and Application of the Method ofIlizarov (ASAMI) protocol. The mean functional recovery scores were obtained by the modified functional evaluation system of Karlstrom-Olerud. All fractures healed successfully. Circular fixators could be removed without anesthesia for type IV fractures at 16 weeks (range 12-21) and for type V-VI at 18 weeks (range 15-26) after the operation. According to ASA- MI bone results, there were 39 (78%) excellent, 7 (14%) good, 3 (6%) fair results and 1 (2%) poor result. Analysis of data obtained by the Karlstrom-Olerud functional evaluation system in this study yielded a mean value of 24.7 after six months, which implies recovery. Functional recovery at 12 months after surgery revealed satisfactory recovery with a mean value of 27.7, whereas the mean sco- re of 29.8 recorded at the last evaluation suggested good functional status. The treatment of patients with open and closed multiple intra-articular fractures of proximal tibia applying Ilizarov apparatus showed good functional outcome, which had positive impact on our patients' quality of life.

  7. Tactical high-energy laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Josef; Wilson, Gerald T.; Avidor, Joel M.

    2002-06-01

    The Nautilus Project was started in 1995 as a joint US-Israel feasibility study for using laser systems to defend against short-range artillery rockets. It has now matured into a successful laser weapon demonstration program - the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) Program. By now the THEL Demonstrator has engaged and destroyed a large number of artillery rockets in mid-flight in an extended series of demonstration tests at the US Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The THEL ACTD hardware and development process are described in this paper, as well as the major test results. The paper also describes the operational concept for a deployed THEL weapon system and some possible growth paths for the THEL ACTD Program.

  8. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The theory and current status of materials research for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion are reviewed. Semiconductors are shown to be the preferred class of materials for this application. Optimization of the figure of merit of both broadband and narrow-band semiconductors is discussed as a function of temperature. Phonon scattering mechanisms are discussed, and basic material guidelines are given for reduction of thermal conductivity. Two general classes of materials show promise for high temperature figure of merit (Z) values, namely the rare earth chalcogenides and the boron-rich borides. The electronic transport properties of the rare earth chalcogenides are explicable on the basis of degenerate or partially degenerate n-type semiconductors. Boron and boron-rich borides exhibit p-type hopping conductivity, with detailed explanations proposed for the transport differing from compound to compound. Some discussion is presented on the reasons for the low thermal conductivities in these materials. Also, ZTs greater than one appear to have been realized at high temperature in many of these compounds.

  9. Gustilo grade IIIB tibial fractures requiring microvascular free flaps: external fixation versus intramedullary rod fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Christine; Greives, Matthew R; Cetrulo, Curtis; Lerman, Oren Z; Levine, Jamie P; Hazen, Alexes

    2007-07-01

    Gustilo IIIB fractures involve high-energy tibial fractures for which there is inadequate soft tissue coverage. In addition to orthopedic fixation, these injuries require soft tissue reconstruction, often in the form of a microvascular free flap. Although the majority of orthopedic literature favorably compares intramedullary rod fixation to external fixation in open tibial fractures, these studies have not focused on the role of either method of fixation in relation to the soft tissue reconstruction. Because we had noted numerous complications after providing free-flap coverage over intramedullary rodded fractures, we sought to investigate whether there were differences in outcomes between free flap-covered lower-extremity fractures which were fixated by external fixation versus intramedullary rods. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients in our institution who had lower-extremity free flaps for coverage of Gustilo IIIB fractures from 1995-2005 in relation to the type of bony fixation. Of the 38 patients studied, 18 underwent external fixation of the tibial fracture, and 20 had intramedullary rodding. Overall flap survival was 95%, with 1 failure in each group. However, the intramedullary rod group had higher incidences of wound infection, osteomyelitis, and bony nonunion (25%, 25%, and 40%, respectively) than the external fixation group (6%, 11%, 17%, respectively). For Gustilo IIIB fractures that require free-flap coverage, the added bony and soft tissue manipulation required for intramedullary rodding may disrupt the surrounding blood supply and lead to higher rates of complications that threaten the overall success of the reconstruction. Plastic and orthopedic surgeons should discuss the optimal method of bony fixation for complex tibial fractures when a free flap will likely be needed for soft tissue coverage. This integrated team approach may help minimize complications.

  10. External fixation in the treatment of severe tibial fractures complicated by soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słuzałek, Maciej; Gaździk, Tadeusz S; Mrozek, Stanisław; Ryba, Jan

    2004-02-28

    Background. In recent years multiple injuries to the tibial shaft have become increasingly common. High-energy impacts cause comminuted fractures, often accompanied by damage to neural and vascular structures, muscle, and surface layers. The key to good healing is preserving normal blood supply. Serious damage to the tibia should be treated by external stabilization. Material and methods. A group of 23 patients with severe tibial fractures accompanied by soft-tissue injures were treated surgically, using Polfix, Ilizarov and Dynastab external stabilizers. Open fractures were classified according to the Gustillo-Anderson scale. Internal bone transport and the Ilizarov apparatus were used for the treatment of fractures with bone defect. Bone infections were treated with targeted antibiotic therapy and flush drainage. In cases with staphylococcus infection anti-vaccination was used. Plastic surgery was performed to cover soft tissue defects. Polfix stabilizers were removed after 35 weeks, Ilizarov after 45 weeks, and Dynastab after 18 weeks. The Sarmiento cast was applied in 6 cases. Results. In all patients treated with external fixation good results we observed. Conclusions. In the treatment of open tibial fractures complicated by significant bone defects and soft-tissue defects (type IIIB/C), the methods of choice are Ilizarov or Dynastab stabilizers. Polfix or Dynastab stabilizers are suitable for open fractures of types I-IIIA. Serious tibial injury necessitates the use of various kinds of skin grafts, so the best solution is regular cooperation with a plastic surgeon. Treatment with Sarmiento's functional plaster cast is a valuable supplement to external fixation.

  11. High energy chemical laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  12. Medial tibial “spackling” to lessen chronic medial tibial soft tissue irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Martin, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, utilitarian reconstructive treatment option known as tibial “spackling” for chronic, localized medial joint line pain corresponding with progressive radiographic peripheral medial tibial bone loss beneath a well-fixed revision total knee arthroplasty tibial baseplate. It is believed that this localized pain is due to chronic irritation of the medial capsule and collateral ligament from the prominent medial edge of the tibial component. In the setting of failed nonoperative treatment, our experience with utilizing bone cement to reconstruct the medial tibial bone defect and create a smooth medial tibial surface has been successful in eliminating chronic medial soft tissue irritation.

  13. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  14. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    them aimed at a final unification of all fundamental forces including gravity. Attempts have been made to extend the reach of some of these theories, based on an underlying string-theory picture, all the way to the Planck energy scale MPl = (8πGN). −1/2,. GN being Newton's gravitational constant. MPl is. Keywords.

  15. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  17. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  18. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  19. Asymmetry in gait pattern following tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Læssøe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12 m...

  20. Avulsion fracture of the tibial tubercle associated with patellar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of combined avulsion fracture of the tibial tubercle (AFTT) and avulsion of the patellar ligament in a 15-year-old boy. This injury was treated by open reduction and fixation of both lesions using staples with satisfactory results. This constellation of injury is rare but a high index of suspicion is needed when ...

  1. The interaction region of high energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial view of the interaction region of colliding high energy protons (in terms of impact parameter) is considered. It is shown that the region of inelastic collisions has a very peculiar shape. It saturates for central collisions at an energy of 7 TeV. We speculate on the further evolution with energy, which is contrasted to the "black disk" picture.

  2. URBox : High tech energy and informal housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Y.J.; Smets, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the URBox concept encompassing the high tech end of solar energy and informal low cost and affordable housing. It aims to contribute to solving the global energy crisis by building solar energy settlements in deserts where land is affordable and sunshine in abundance. First the

  3. Development and validation of a new method for the radiologic measurement of the tibial slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, S; Goettinger, M; Weber, P; Horng, A; Glaser, C; Jansson, V; Müller, P E

    2011-10-01

    The posterior tibial slope has a huge influence on the kinematics of the knee. In several orthopedic interventions such as high tibial osteotomy and unicondylar or bicondylar knee replacement changing, the tibial slope can result in altered knee mechanics. Therefore, an exact preoperative measurement of the posterior tibial slope is mandatory. Several methods are used on conventional radiographs and CT scans, but until now there is no standard validated method. The aim of this study was to compare several methods and imaging techniques to measure the posterior tibial slope and to establish a standard and reliable measurement method by radiography. Fourteen knees (seven cadavers) were scanned by a 64-slice CT, a 3T-MRI, and true lateral radiographs were performed. The anatomical references (TPAA = tibial proximal anatomical axis; ATC = anterior tibial cortex; PTC = posterior tibial cortex) and the new computed reference (MPA = mean of PTA and ATC) were compared by short as well as long radiographs, CT scan and MRI. The influence of a malrotation in radiographs of the knees was also analyzed. CT scan and MRI are suitable for the measurement of the medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes, the results of the radiographs varied depending on the method used. The new method (MPA) showed the best correlation to the CT scan (r = 0.997), even on short radiographs (10 cm distal the joint line). The measurement of the posterior tibial slope on a short lateral radiograph using the MPA is a reliable method and should be established as a standard. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Anterior Tibial Plateau Fracture-Dislocation: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Huang, Jianhua; Lin, Jian; Wang, Qiugen

    2017-02-01

    Anterior tibial plateau fracture is fairly common. This study was aimed at introducing a type of severe anterior tibial plateau fracture (anterior tibial plateau fracture-dislocation) and evaluating its clinical characteristics and treatment strategies. In this study, 18 patients with severe anterior tibial plateau fracture (study group) were enrolled between November 2006 and August 2014, and their data were compared with those of 21 patients treated for normal Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture (control group) between January 2010 and August 2014. At the last follow-up, bony union had been achieved in both groups. The incidence of ligament injury was higher in the case of anterior tibial plateau fracture than control group. The average range of motion in the study group was 0.56 to 109 degrees, while that in the control group was 1.81 to 117 degrees. The average Hospital for Special Surgery scores and Lysholm scores in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Further, the incidence of postoperative complications and reduction loss were higher for anterior tibial plateau fracture cases than for normal Schatzker type VI fracture. Our findings also showed a significantly higher rate (22.2%) of popliteal artery injury in the study group than in the control group. Anterior tibial plateau fracture-dislocation is a special type of Schatzker type VI fracture with very low incidence and most commonly characterized by the anterior subsidence of the tibial component, irreducible dislocation of the knee joint, and varying degrees of neurovascular and knee-joint peripheral ligaments injuries, as well as high incidence of complications during fixation surgery. The treatment of anterior tibial plateau fracture-dislocation is challenging even for experienced surgeons. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. FUNCTIONAL AND RADIOLOGICAL OUTCOME OF TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURES (SCHATZKER TYPE 5 & 6 TREATED WITH ILIZAROV CIRCULAR EXTERNAL RING FIXATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshagiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fractures of the tibial plateau are the result of high energy trauma. Because of the nature of the trauma and the relative high frequency of soft tissue injuries, the rate of complications is high. Complications include joint stiffness, compartment syndrome, malunion, skin loss, osteomyelitis, and possible amputation. The Ilizarov external fixator helps in minimizing these complications by allowing early mobilization and weight bearing, minimal soft tissue injury and blood loss along with a stable fixation MATERIAL AND METHODS In our prospective study of 20 patients which included adults with open/closed Schatzker type 5 and 6 tibial plateau fractures, we studied the outcome following surgery with Ilizarov external fixation using the modified Hohl and Luck criteria which includes functional (extensor lag, valgus or varus instability, knee range of movement, walking distance and pain and radiological parameters (valgus/varus deformity, depression of articular surface and osteoarthritis. RESULTS All patients (n = 20 started weight bearing the day after the surgery. Functionally, 55% (n=11 had a excellent result, 40% (n=8 had a good result. 75% (n=15 had an excellent result radiologically. 3 patients out of 20 had a pin tract infection and one patient had an early implant removal due to non-compliance. CONCLUSION Treatment of open/ closed tibial plateau fractures with Ilizarov circular external ring fixator has proven to be advantageous in terms of early weight bearing and minimal soft tissue compromise. Excellent Radiological outcome is not necessarily associated with similar functional outcome.

  6. High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies neutrino interactions in iron at the highest available energies using the narrow-band neutrino beam N3 and the wide-band neutrino beam N1. The basis of the detector is a massive target-calorimeter in which the energy deposited by a neutrino (or antineutrino) is measured by electronic techniques and the momentum of outgoing muons is determined by magnetic deflection. The detector is constructed in the form of a 20 m long iron-cored toroidal magnet, composed of modules of length 70~cm and 90~cm, and of 3.75~m diameter. Drift chambers placed in between each module measure the trajectory of muons from the neutrino interactions. The modules are of three types. The first ten modules are constructed of 2.5~cm iron plates with 20~scintillator planes inserted between the plates. The next five modules are constructed of 5~cm plates with 15~planes of scintillator and the last six modules are constructed of 15~cm plates with 5~planes of scintillators. The total mass of the detector is @=~1400 tons...

  7. Combination tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and transverse corrective osteotomy of the proximal tibia for the treatment of complex tibial deformities in 12 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weh, Jennifer L; Kowaleski, Michael P; Boudrieau, Randy J

    2011-08-01

    To describe a surgical technique, and outcome, for treatment of proximal tibial deformity (varus, valgus, excessive tibial plateau angle [eTPA], tibial torsion and patellar luxation) by combined tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and transverse corrective osteotomy. Cases series. Dogs (n=12; 19 stifle joints). Medical records of dogs that had combination TPLO and transverse corrective osteotomy, were reviewed. Pre- and postoperative tibial angulation, tibial torsion, tibial plateau angle (TPA), corrective osteotomy technique, method of fixation, and complications were recorded. In hospital re-evaluation of limb function and alignment and length of time to radiographic healing were reviewed. Long-term outcome was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire and owner telephone interview. Proximal tibial varus or valgus was present in 68.4%; 73.7% had eTPA; and 47.4% had both. Medial patellar luxation (MPL) was present in 57.9%, of which 47.4% had tibial tuberosity displacement. Severe tibial torsion was present in 68.4%. Mean pre- and postoperative TPA was 37.5° and 5.7°, respectively. The mean postoperative mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA) and mechanical medial distal tibial angle (mMDTA) were 92.2° (range, 88-96°) and 96.1° (range, 94-101°), respectively. Postoperative surgical complications were documented in 21.0%, which included implant loosening or breakage (5.3%), seroma (5.3%), septic arthritis (5.3%), and infection of the proximal tibia (5.3%). All complications were considered major because they required additional surgery. Mean time to document radiographic healing was 10.4 weeks. In-hospital re-evaluation of lameness was obtained at the same time; 82.4% were not lame or had a mild lameness, 17.6% had severe lameness (2/3 with infection). The VAS evaluation revealed excellent results and owner satisfaction in all ten dogs in which long-term follow-up was obtained. Long-term clinical outcome of combination TPLO and

  8. Impingement fracture of the anteromedial tibial margin: a radiographic sign of combined posterolateral complex and posterior cruciate ligament disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.P.; King, D.; Gibbon, A.J. [York District Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    Marginal fractures of the tibial plateau are associated with a high incidence of soft tissue injuries to the stabilising structures of the knee joint. Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament are associated with the Segond fracture and impingement fractures of the posteromedial tibial plateau. Recognition of these fractures aids diagnosis of these injuries. Marginal fractures of the tibial plateau associated with posterior cruciate ligament injuries are less common, though recently a ''reverse'' Segond fracture has been recognised. We describe a fracture of the anteromedial tibial plateau associated with complete disruption of the posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral complex. (orig.)

  9. High Energy Particles from the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, R A

    2000-01-01

    The field of high energy particle astronomy is exciting and rapidly developing. In the last few years, we have detected extragalactic sources of intense TeV gamma radiation and individual cosmic ray particles with energies exceeding 25 Joules. Understanding the workings of astrophysics under extreme conditions is the primary goal of this field. Also important is the possibility of using high energy particles from space to probe beyond the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. This paper presents a review of high energy particle astronomy using photons, cosmic rays, and neutrinos.

  10. Tibial Torsion Among Filipinos: A Cadaveric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villamin CAC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tibial torsion, the twisting of the tibia about its long axis, can affect rotational positioning in total knee replacement. This angle varies depending on the ethnicity of the subject. There are no published studies to date to determine the tibial torsion among Filipinos. In this study, 28 cadaveric limbs were examined. Our results show that the average tibial torsion among adult Filipinos is 28.9°.

  11. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  12. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  13. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D., E-mail: ioannis.akoumianakis@gmail.com; Vagios, Ilias, E-mail: iliasvagios@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  14. Limb salvage in tibial hemimelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamsobhana, Perajit; Kaewpornsawan, Kamolporn

    2012-09-01

    To study the results of treatment of tibial hemimelia with limb salvage procedure in term of patient satisfaction, clinical results and complications. From 1993 to 2007 the authors treated six cases of tibial hemimelia with limb salvage procedures. Three legs of type Ia and four legs of type IV tibial hemimelia classified by Jones classification. The age at the operation ranged from 2 to 11 years. For type Ia cases, the Brown procedure,foot centralization and ilizarov lengthening of the fibula were used to correct limb length discrepancy. For type IV the foot centralization, soft tissue release and ilizarov lengthening were used to correct limb length discrepancy. The follow-up range from 4 to 10 years. In two patients with type Ia, one patient could bear weight without gait aids, the other walked with orthosis and axillary crutch because this patient had bilateral Ia type and knee instability with progressive flexion contracture due to weakness of the quadriceps muscle. All patients with type IV can walk independently without gait aids. Three patients were performed limb lengthening. One case was fibular lengthening following Brown procedure in Ia type. Two cases were tibial lengthening in type IV The mean lengthening was 5.1 cm. Mean lengthening index was 2.4. Satisfactory functional and cosmetic results were achieved in all patients with partial deficiency, whereas in patients with completely deficiency of the limbs, none of the 3 knees treated by fibular transfer achieved a satisfactory functional result because of insufficient quadriceps strength, progressive knee flexion contracture and persistent ligamentous instability. Nevertheless, in these 3 legs, all patients were ultimately able to withstand weight bearing. Patients and families were satisfied even though patients must have multiple surgery to correct deformities of the foot and the knee joint, as well as leg-length discrepancy and also a prolong treatment time. Limb salvage procedure in tibial

  15. High energy physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world`s highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t{bar t} decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-{mu}-{tau} universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices.

  16. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  17. Tibial Fractures in Alpine Skiing and Snowboarding in Finland: A Retrospective Study on Fracture Types and Injury Mechanisms in 363 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, A; Pakarinen, H; Jalkanen, J; Mälkiä, T; Handolin, L

    2016-09-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding share the hazards of accidents accounting for tibial fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture patterns and mechanisms of injury of tibial fractures taking place in downhill skiing and snowboarding. All patients with tibial fracture due to alpine skiing or snowboarding accident treated in four trauma centers next to the largest ski resorts in Finland were analyzed between 2006 and 2012. The hospital records were retrospectively reviewed for data collection: equipment used (skis or snowboard), age, gender, and mechanism of injury. Fractures were classified according to AO-classification. There were 342 skiing and 30 snowboarding related tibial fractures in 363 patients. Tibial shaft fracture was the most common fracture among skiers (n = 215, 63%), followed by proximal tibial fractures (n = 92, 27%). Snowboarders were most likely to suffer from proximal tibial fracture (13, 43%) or tibial shaft fracture (11, 37%). Snowboarders were also more likely than skiers to suffer complex AO type C fractures (23% vs 9%, p snowboarders due to loss of control while jumping (46%). The most important finding was the relatively high number of the tibial plateau fractures among adult skiers. The fracture patterns between snowboarding and skiing were different; the most common fracture type in skiers was spiral tibial shaft fracture compared to proximal tibial fractures in snowboarders. Children had more simple fractures than adults. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2016.

  18. Contact Stress Generation on the UHMWPE Tibial Insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petrović Savić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Total knee replacement (TKR is considered, during last years, as a very successful surgical technique for removing knee joint deformities and eliminating pain caused by cartilage damage. In literature, as primary causes for knee joint endoprothesis damage are cited complex movements which cause occurrences of complex stress conditions, sagital radius conformity, sliding, types of materials etc. Aim of this study is analysis of contact stresses that occur on tibial implant for 15°, 45° and 60° knee flexion and 50 kg, 75 kg, 100 kg and 125 kg weight. Knee joint prosthesis model and finite elements method (FEM analysis are done in software Catia V5. For this analysis we used ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE for tibial implant material and AISI 316, AISI 317, AISI 321, 17-4PH, CoCrMo, Ti6Al4V and SAE A-286 for femoral component materials. Results show that area of maximal contact stress is identified in medial and lateral part of tibial implant. Von Mises stress values vary regarding of flexion degree and weight, but values are approximate for types of chosen materials. Contact stress location corresponds to damage that occur on tibial implant during exploitation.

  19. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Lee [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Greenwood, Zeno [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Wobisch, Marcus [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2013-06-28

    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the DØ experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  20. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  1. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  2. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  3. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  4. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community.

  5. 1570 nm High Energy Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of...

  6. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  7. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  8. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental and phenomenological physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, Monte Carlo generators, relativistic heavy-ion physics, the flavour dynamics and CP violation in the Standard Model, cosmology, and high-energy neutrino astronomy with IceCube.

  9. Future of high energy physics some aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prokofiev, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises 26 carefully edited articles with well-referenced and up-to-date material written by many of the leading experts. These articles originated from presentations and dialogues at the second HKUST Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics are organized into three aspects, Theory, Accelerator, and Experiment, focusing on in-depth analyses and technical aspects that are essential for the developments and expectations for the future high energy physics.

  10. New developments in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the important developments in the field of high energy physics are reviewed. Starting from the status of knowledge of the structure of matter the details of experiments leading to the discovery of charmed particles and psi resonances are emphasized. Also some of the areas of activity of the Indiana University High Energy group are reviewed and related to the principal unsolved problems in the field. (JFP)

  11. Heavy Quark Production at High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D

    2001-01-01

    We report on QCD radiative corrections to heavy quark production valid at high energy. The formulae presented will allow a matched calculation of the total cross section which is correct at $O(\\as^3)$ and includes resummation of all terms of order $\\as^3 [\\as \\ln (s/m^2)]^n$. We also include asymptotic estimates of the effect of the high energy resummation. A complete description of the calculation of the heavy quark impact factor is included in an appendix.

  12. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  13. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  14. Fundamentals of high energy electron beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, B. N.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Neau, E. L.

    High energy electron beam accelerator technology has been developed over the past three decades in response to military and energy-related requirements for weapons simulators, directed-energy weapons, and inertially-confined fusion. These applications required high instantaneous power, large beam energy, high accelerated particle energy, and high current. These accelerators are generally referred to as 'pulsed power' devices, and are typified by accelerating potential of millions of volts (MV), beam current in thousands of amperes (KA), pulse duration of tens to hundreds of nanoseconds, kilojoules of beam energy, and instantaneous power of gigawatts to teffawatts (10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) watts). Much of the early development work was directed toward single pulse machines, but recent work has extended these pulsed power devices to continuously repetitive applications. These relativistic beams penetrate deeply into materials, with stopping range on the order of a centimeter. Such high instantaneous power deposited in depth offers possibilities for new material fabrication and processing capabilities that can only now be explored. Fundamental techniques of pulse compression, high voltage requirements, beam generation and transport under space-charge-dominated conditions will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Karen Salomé Caballero

    2016-01-01

    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray, gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (up to $10^{20}$ eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  16. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé Caballero Mora, Karen

    2016-10-01

    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray (CR), gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (UHECR ∼ 1020 eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  17. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.

    2015-05-22

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  18. Progress toward high energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergei Nagaitsev

    2001-07-20

    All electron cooling systems in operation to date can be classified as low energy systems. The electron beam kinetic energy in such a system is limited to about 0.6-1 MeV by the use of a conventional commercial Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply. This, in turn, bounds the maximum ion kinetic energy, accessible for cooling with today's standard technology, to about 2 GeV/nucleon (about a factor of 2-3 times higher than the electron systems in operation today). Electron cooling systems with kinetic energies above 1 MeV could provide economically justifiable improvements in the performance of many existing and proposed accelerator complexes, such as RHIC, Tevatron and HERA. This paper reviews the status of the development of the technology needed for high energy electron cooling.

  19. Surgical site infection in high-energy peri-articular tibia fractures with intra-wound vancomycin powder: a retrospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Keerat; Bauer, Jennifer M; LaChaud, Gregory Y; Bible, Jesse E; Mir, Hassan R

    2015-12-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) continue to be a significant source of morbidity despite the introduction of perioperative intravenous antibiotics. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of local vancomycin powder on lowering deep SSI rates in high-energy tibial plateau and pilon fractures. A retrospective review of all tibial plateau and pilon fractures treated in 2012 at our level I trauma center identified 222 patients. Of these, 107 patients sustained high-energy injuries that required staged fixation, and 93 had minimum 6 month follow-up. Ten patients received 1 gram vancomycin powder directly into the surgical wound at the time of definitive fixation, and the remaining 83 patients served as controls. SSI was defined according to criteria from the Centers for Disease Control. Demographic data, patient comorbidities, injury and treatment details, and infection details were recorded. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Amongst the vancomycin powder group, 1 patient (10 %) developed a deep SSI; in the control group, 14 (16.7 %) developed deep SSI. The rate of deep SSI between the groups was not statistically significantly different (P = 1.0). The groups were statistically similar with regard to injuries, treatment, comorbidities, and infectious outcomes (P values range = 0.06-1.0). The application of local vancomycin powder into surgical wounds of high-energy tibial plateau and pilon fractures did not reduce the rate of deep SSI in this retrospective review. There is a need to find effective, cheap, and widely available methods for prevention of SSI. Basic science and larger prospective clinical studies are needed to further delineate the role of local vancomycin powder as a modality to reduce deep SSI in extremity trauma.

  20. Current developments concerning medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Debbie I

    2009-12-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common lower leg injuries in athletes who run. Studies have reported MTSS to occur in 4% to 20% of this population. It can be defined as an overuse injury that creates pain over an area covering the distal to middle third of the posteriomedial tibial border, which occurs during exercise and creates cyclic loading. Differential diagnosis includes ischemic disorders and stress fractures. Although the pathology of this injury is understood, the etiology is less agreed upon. This makes it difficult for clinicians to diagnose and treat this common injury. The purpose of this article is to present health care practitioners with the most current information regarding MTSS so they can better diagnose and treat this common injury. To this end, a literature review was conducted, with the most current results presented. The areas of etiological theories, imaging techniques, and treatment options for MTSS were searched. Five of the most prevalent etiological theories are presented with supporting evidence. Of the imaging tools available to the clinician, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy have comparable specificity and sensitivity. Clinicians should first make the clinical diagnosis of MTSS, however, because of high percentages of positive MRI scans in asymptomatic patients. There have been few randomized controlled trials investigating treatment options for athletes with MTSS. Those that have been performed rendered no significant findings, leading researchers to conclude that rest is equal to or better than other treatment options. Given the evidence, treatment suggestions for practitioners caring for athletes with MTSS are provided.

  1. STACKING FAULT ENERGY IN HIGH MANGANESE ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mazancová

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Stacking fault energy of high manganese alloys (marked as TWIP and TRIPLEX is an important parameter determining deformation mechanism type realized in above mentioned alloys. Stacking fault energy level can be asserted with a gliding of partial and/or full dislocations, b gliding mechanism and twinning deformation process in connection with increasing of fracture deformation level (deformation elongation and with increasing of simultaneously realized work hardening proces., c gliding mechanism and deformation induced e-martensite formation. In contribution calculated stacking fault energies are presented for various chemical compositions of high manganese alloys. Stacking fault energy dependences on manganese, carbon, iron and alluminium contents are presented. Results are confronted with some accessible papers.The aim of work is to deepen knowledge of presented data. The TWIP and TRIPLEX alloys can be held for promissing new automotive materials.

  2. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  3. Utilization of Wind Energy at High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This article suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energ...

  4. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  5. Measurement of tibial torsion by computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jend, H.H.; Heller, M.; Dallek, M.; Schoettle, H. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1981-01-01

    A CT procedure for objective measurements of tibial torsion independent of axial rotation in the nearby joints is described. Transverse sections in defined planes of the tibia permit easy calculation of normal and abnormal congenital or posttraumatic angles of torsion. In 69 limbs normal tibial torsion was 40/sup 0/+-9/sup 0/. In a series of 42 limbs with complicated healing of a fracture of both bones of the leg it is shown that tibial maltorsion is a deformity which in most cases leads to arthrosis of the ankle joint.

  6. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Dailey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. Keywords: Bilateral intramedullary nailing, bilateral tibial stress fractures, valgus

  7. Staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Oh, Jong-Keon; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Park, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee-June; Jung, Jae-Wook; Jung, Young-Soo

    2017-06-01

    High-energy proximal tibial fractures often accompany compartment syndrome and are usually treated by fasciotomy with external fixation followed by secondary plating. However, the initial soft tissue injury may affect bony union, the fasciotomy incision or external fixator pin sites may lead to postoperative wound infections, and the staged procedure itself may adversely affect lower limb function. We assess the results of staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome. Twenty-eight patients with proximal tibial fractures accompanied by acute compartment syndrome who underwent staged MIPO and had a minimum of 12 months follow-up were enrolled. According to the AO/OTA classification, 6 were 41-A, 15 were 41-C, 2 were 42-A and 5 were 42-C fractures; this included 6 cases of open fractures. Immediate fasciotomy was performed once compartment syndrome was diagnosed and stabilization of the fracture followed using external fixation. After the soft tissue condition normalized, internal conversion with MIPO was done on an average of 37 days (range, 9-158) after index trauma. At the time of internal conversion, the external fixator pin site grades were 0 in 3 cases, 1 in 12 cases, 2 in 10 cases and 3 in 3 cases, as described by Dahl. Radiographic assessment of bony union and alignment and a functional assessment using the Knee Society Score and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were carried out. Twenty-six cases achieved primary bony union at an average of 18.5 weeks. Two cases of nonunion healed after autogenous bone grafting. The mean Knee Society Score and the AOFAS score were 95 and 95.3 respectively, at last follow-up. Complications included 1 case of osteomyelitis in a patient with a grade IIIC open fracture and 1 case of malunion caused by delayed MIPO due to poor wound conditions. Duration of external fixation and the external fixator pin site grade were not related to the

  8. High energy particles and quanta in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, F. B. (Editor); Fichtel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The various subdisciplines of high-energy astrophysics are surveyed in a series of articles which attempt to give an overall view of the subject as a whole by emphasizing the basic physics common to all fields in which high-energy particles and quanta play a role. Successive chapters cover cosmic ray experimental observations, the abundances of nuclei in the cosmic radiation, cosmic electrons, solar modulation, solar particles (observation, relationship to the sun acceleration, interplanetary medium), radio astronomy, galactic X-ray sources, the cosmic X-ray background, and gamma ray astronomy. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  9. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...... it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss...

  10. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  11. Functional performance after tibial rotationplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M P; Jacobs, P A; Gore, D R; Gardner, G M; Mollinger, L A

    1985-03-01

    We measured muscle strength, joint motion, and gait parameters and determined the electromyographic activities of the ankle and knee during walking, running, and stair-climbing in two children who had had a tibial rotationplasty for osteosarcoma of the distal end of the femur. Both had marked loss of strength in the plantar flexors on the side of the prosthesis compared with the sound side, although electromyographic recordings showed that the rotated calf muscles, to a substantial degree, had assumed the function of extensors of the prosthetic knee. Despite some abnormalities in gait, both children walked at speeds that were comparable to those of normal children. They could also run, climb stairs by stepping up with both limbs, and participate in many recreational activities. The functional abilities of these children suggested that rotationplasty, in patients with a similar lesion, is a worth-while alternative to above-the-knee amputation.

  12. Acute simultaneous bilateral avulsion fractures of the tibial tubercles in a 15-year-old male hurler: case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanley, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Avulsion fractures of the tibial tubercle are an unusual injury pattern generally occurring in the adolescent male during sporting activities. Bilateral simultaneous fractures are extremely rare. They are often associated with other underlying orthopaedic pathology. AIMS: We present a case of bilateral tibial tubercle avulsions occurring in a 15 year-old male hurler. We describe the management and necessary investigations required for this type of trauma and present a literature review on this rarely encountered injury. CONCLUSION: Although this type of atypical fracture pattern is associated with high energy trauma and other underlying pathology, we have shown that once treated, the patient can expect to make a prompt return to sporting activities with no significant long-term functional deficit.

  13. Relationship between meniscal tears and tibial slope on the tibial plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Tugrul; Esenyel, Cem Zeki; Esenyel, Meltem; Imren, Yunus; Ayanoglu, Semih; Cubuk, Rahmi

    2011-12-01

    The geometry of the tibial plateau has a direct influence on the translation and the screw home biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint. Little information on the relationship between the tibial slope and meniscal lesions is available. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the effect of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral meniscus lesions in patients with intact ACLs. The MRIs and lat roentgenograms of 212 patients with meniscus lesions were examined to determine the possible effect of the tibial slope on meniscal tears. First, the anatomic axis of the proximal tibia was established. Then, the angle between the line drawn to show the tibial slopes (medial and lateral) and the line drawn perpendicular to the proximal tibial anatomic axis was established on MRI. The patients with previously detected meniscus lesions were classified into three categories: patients with only medial meniscal tear (Group 1, 90 patients); patients with only lateral meniscal tear (Group 2, 15 patients); and patients with both medial and lateral meniscal tear (Group 3, 19 patients). Group 4 had no meniscal tear (88 patients). The MRIs of the patients who had applied to the Orthopedic Outpatient Clinic with patellofemoral pain and no meniscal tear were included as the control group. The average tibial slope of the medial tibial plateau was 3.18° in group 1, 3.64° in group 2, 3° in group 3, and 3.27° in group 4. The average tibial slope of the lateral tibial plateau was 2.88° in group 1, 3.6° in group 2, 2.68 in group 3, and 2.91 in group 4. The tibial slope on the medial tibial plateau was significantly larger than the lateral tibial plateaus in group 1 and group 4 (p0.05). In addition, the tibial slope on the lateral side of group 2 was significantly larger than that of groups 1, 3, and 4 (p<0.05). An increase in the tibial slopes, especially on the lateral tibial plateau, seems to increase the risk of meniscal tear.

  14. High-energy, high-rate materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, H. L.; Bourell, D. L.; Eliezer, Z.; Persad, C.; Weldon, W.

    1987-12-01

    The increasingly available range of pulsed-power, high energy kinetic storage devices, such as low-inductance pulse-forming networks, compulsators, and homopolar generators, is presently considered as a basis for industrial high energy/high rate (HEHR) processing to accomplish shock hardening, drilling, rapid surface alloying and melting, welding and cutting, transformation hardening, and cladding and surface melting in metallic materials. Time-temperature-transformation concepts furnish the basis for a fundamental understanding of the potential advantages of this direct pulsed power processing. Attention is given to the HEHR processing of a refractory molybdenum alloy, a nickel-base metallic glass, tungsten, titanium aluminides, and metal-matrix composites.

  15. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Tsukuba U.

    1984-01-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower....

  16. High-Energy Physics: Exit America?

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Budget cuts and cancellations threaten to end U.S. exploration of the particle frontier. Fermilab's Tevatron, due to shut down around 200, could be the last large particle accelerator in the United States; the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva should ensure European dominance of high-energy physics (3 pages)

  17. Hard scattering in high-energy QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L

    2000-01-01

    I review the recent results in the field of QCD at high energy presented to this Conference. In particular, I will concentrate on measurements of $\\as$ from studies of event structures and jet rates, jet production in hadronic collisions, and heavy quark production.

  18. Perspective in high energy physics instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, L. [INFN, Genoa (Italy)

    1995-10-01

    The discovery potential of the next generation of particle accelerators, and in particular of the large hadron collider (LHC), can only be fully exploited by very sophisticated particle detectors. The basics of detectors for momentum and energy measurement is here presented together with a recollection of recent developments which are relevant for use at high luminosity accelerators.

  19. Detecting ultra high energy neutrinos with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, M.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Horandel, J.; James, C. W.; McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; ter Veen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The NuMoon project aims to detect signals of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Cosmic Rays with radio telescopes on Earth using the Lunar Cherenkov technique at low frequencies (similar to 150 MHz). The advantage of using low frequencies is the much larger effective detecting volume, with as trade-off the

  20. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervera-Lierta, Alba; Latorre, José I.; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i) $s$-channel processes

  1. [Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large...... and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Methods: Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. Results: A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010....... The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have...

  3. High energy bosons do not propagate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkov, M.A., E-mail: Kurkov@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Lizzi, Fedele, E-mail: fedele.lizzi@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Departament de Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Institut de Ciéncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Vassilevich, Dmitri, E-mail: dvassil@gmail.com [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, S.P. (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    We discuss the propagation of bosons (scalars, gauge fields and gravitons) at high energy in the context of the spectral action. Using heat kernel techniques, we find that in the high-momentum limit the quadratic part of the action does not contain positive powers of the derivatives. We interpret this as the fact that the two-point Green functions vanish for nearby points, where the proximity scale is given by the inverse of the cutoff.

  4. Evaluation of tibial rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Bruzzone, Matteo; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Marmotti, Antonio; Castoldi, Filippo

    2010-07-01

    Various techniques exist for establishing tibial rotational alignment during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to establish the most precise and reproducible method to assess tibial component rotational alignment during TKA by comparing the flexion-extension technique (ROM) and the Posterior-lateral Corner Locked Technique (PLCL). Twenty posterior stabilized TKAs were performed on cadavers. The rotation angles of the tibial components obtained using the two techniques were evaluated. The tibial component rotation axis obtained using the ROM technique and the PLCL method averaged, respectively, 0.35 degrees (+ or - 4.2 degrees ) externally rotated and 0.34 degrees (+ or - 3 degrees ) internally rotated to the Akagi line. No significant differences between the two methods were found and a high correlation exists between the two techniques (Pearson's coefficient = 0.88). The ROM and PLCL techniques are both precise and reproducible methods to assess tibial component rotation during TKA. However, while the ROM technique is dependent on the correct positioning of the femoral component and the soft tissue balancing, the PCLC method is easier if a complete visualization of the posterior-lateral corner of the cut tibial plateau is achieved.

  5. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  6. The natural evolution of internal tibial torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, D S; Weiner, S D

    1979-11-01

    Faced with a confusing body of literature concerning the necessity for treatment of internal tibial torsion, the authors conducted a retrospective review of 395 consecutive cases of manifest intoeing arising from internal tibial torsion. An additional Group of 200 uninvolved teenagers served as older controls. The conclusion drawn supports an attitude of patience and observation as spontaneous resolution is to be routinely expected by skeletal maturity. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Medial tibial stress syndrome: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Milica; Jovičić Vladimir; Hrković Marija; Lazović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Although it can be difficult to differentiate pain in lower legs, it is important for clinicians to differentiate medial tibial stress syndrome, which is a rather benign condition, from acute compartment syndrome, which is an emergency, as well as from different types of stress fractures described in this region. The aim of this case report was to present medial tibial stress syndrome as a clinical diagnosis, possible dilemmas in differential ...

  8. Photons as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashev, O E; Semikoz, D V; Tkachev, Igor I

    2001-01-01

    We study spectra of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays assuming primaries are protons and photons, and that their sources are extragalactic. We assume power low for the injection spectra and take into account the influence of cosmic microwave, infrared, optical and radio backgrounds as well as extragalactic magnetic fields on propagation of primaries. Our additional free parameters are the maximum energy of injected particles and the distance to the nearest source. We find a parameter range where the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off is avoided.

  9. High Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    Emission at X-ray and gamma-ray energies has been detected from millisecond pulsars, both isolated and in binary systems. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, so that high-energy emission from these sources is not unexpected. In fact, several nearby energetic millisecond pulsars that have been detected in X-rays could easily have been detected in gamma-rays by EGRET, but they were not. The reason for this may lie in a high-energy spectrum that is very different in these sources from that of normal pulsars. Both polar cap and outer gap models predict a two-component spectrum, one component peaking in hard X-rays and the other peaking above 1 GeV, with a gap at EGRET peak sensitivity. I will discuss the models for high-energy emission from millisecond pulsars, highlighting the differences between polar cap and outer gap models in spectrum and geometry of the emission.

  10. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-03-31

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  11. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed.

  12. Current Perspectives in High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    High energy astrophysics is a space-age discipline that has taken a quantum leap forward in the 1990s. The observables are photons and particles that are unable to penetrate the atmosphere and can only be observed from space or very high altitude balloons. The lectures presented as chapters of this book are based on the results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) missions to which the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center made significant hardware contributions. These missions study emissions from very hot plasmas, nuclear processes, and high energy particle interactions in space. Results to be discussed include gamma-ray beaming from active galactic nuclei (AGN), gamma-ray emission from pulsars, radioactive elements in the interstellar medium, X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, and the progress being made to unravel the gamma-ray burst mystery. The recently launched X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and prospects for upcoming Astro-E and Advanced X-ray Astronomy Satellite (AXAF) missions are also discussed.

  13. The High Energy Telescope for STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Reames, D. V.; Baker, R.; Hawk, J.; Nolan, J. T.; Ryan, L.; Shuman, S.; Wortman, K. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cook, W. R.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2008-04-01

    The IMPACT investigation for the STEREO Mission includes a complement of Solar Energetic Particle instruments on each of the two STEREO spacecraft. Of these instruments, the High Energy Telescopes (HETs) provide the highest energy measurements. This paper describes the HETs in detail, including the scientific objectives, the sensors, the overall mechanical and electrical design, and the on-board software. The HETs are designed to measure the abundances and energy spectra of electrons, protons, He, and heavier nuclei up to Fe in interplanetary space. For protons and He that stop in the HET, the kinetic energy range corresponds to ˜13 to 40 MeV/n. Protons that do not stop in the telescope (referred to as penetrating protons) are measured up to ˜100 MeV/n, as are penetrating He. For stopping He, the individual isotopes 3He and 4He can be distinguished. Stopping electrons are measured in the energy range ˜0.7 6 MeV.

  14. The effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy position on cranial tibial subluxation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Mattoon, John S; Litsky, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    To compare centered versus distal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) position on cranial tibial subluxation, postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), and tibial long axis shift (TLAS). In vitro biomechanical evaluation. Six pairs of canine cadaveric hind limbs. One limb of each pair was randomly assigned to the distal (TPLO-D) or centered (TPLO-C) osteotomy group. Cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) under load was quantified sequentially under 3 conditions: intact, after cranial cruciate ligament transection, and after TPLO; a corrected CTS value was also calculated. Postoperative TPA and TLAS were measured. Comparisons were made using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc test for CTS, and a Wilcoxon's sign rank test for TPA and TLAS. Significance was set at P<.05. TPLO-C had a significantly lower mean CTS than TPLO-D (P<.01). Corrected CTS was also significantly lower in TPLO-C than in TPLO-D (P<.001). Postoperative TPA and TLAS were less in TPLO-C than in TPLO-D (P=.0312). Our results confirm that distal centering of the TPLO leads to craniodistal translation of the tibial plateau, TLAS, and a postoperative TPA that is greater than expected. This geometric effect has the biomechanical effect expected of inadequate tibial plateau leveling, namely incomplete neutralization of cranial tibial thrust. The centered osteotomy position is geometrically more precise, and biomechanically more effective than the distal position.

  15. Bicondylar tibial plateau fracture after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michael J; McCoy, Brett W; Hussain, Waqas M; Saluan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The authors present a report of a bicondylar tibial plateau fracture in an adolescent athlete after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. The procedure was performed via arthroscopic transtibial PCL reconstruction with quadrupled semi-tendinosus and gracilis autograft. The patient recovered uneventfully postoperatively and was able to participate in high-level sports activity, such as baseball and track, with no limitations, no subjective complaints, and no episodes of instability. He continued to be asymptomatic up to 3.5 years postoperatively. Almost 4 years postoperatively, the patient reinjured the left knee during recreational noncontact football and was seen emergently. Plain radiographs, magnetic resonance image scan, and computed tomography scan at the time of injury showed a bicondylar tibial plateau fracture with intra-articular involvement. Operative intervention was undertaken for open reduction and internal fixation of the bicondylar tibial plateau fracture. A plate was placed along the medial aspect of the tibia with locking and nonlocking screws, and the joint line was restored appropriately. The patient recovered uneventfully and at the most recent follow-up had full active and passive range of motion, had no subjective or objective evidence of instability, and had returned to full activity with no restrictions. The patient had no history of multiple fractures or any medical or pharmacologic history that predisposed him to decreased bone density. This case shows a unique possible complication after transtibial PCL reconstruction in an adolescent patient. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. High energy electron-positron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed

    1988-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e+e- physics has come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way most useful to any high energy physicists, in particular to newcomers in the e+e- field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of

  17. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  18. High energy density redox flow device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, Craig W.; Ho, Bryan Y.; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2017-10-10

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  19. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-15

    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  20. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  1. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  2. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.

    1987-01-01

    Theory of thermoelectric energy conversion at high temperatures and status of research on conversion materials reviewed in report. Shows highest values of thermoelectric figure of merit, Z, found in semiconductor materials. Semiconductors keep wide choice of elements and compounds. Electrical properties tailored to particular application by impurity doping and control of stoichiometry. Report develops definition of Z useful for comparing materials and uses it to evaluate potentials of different classes of materialsmetals, semiconductors, and insulators.

  3. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  4. MASS SEPARATION OF HIGH ENERGY PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, L.

    1962-09-25

    An apparatus and method are described for separating charged, high energy particles of equal momentum forming a beam where the particles differ slightly in masses. Magnetic lenses are utilized to focus the beam and maintain that condition while electrostatic fields located between magnetic lenses are utilized to cause transverse separation of the particles into two beams separated by a sufficient amount to permit an aperture to block one beam. (AEC)

  5. High energy neutrinos from the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masip, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The Sun is a main source of high energy neutrinos. These neutrinos appear as secondary particles after the Sun absorbs high-energy cosmic rays, that find there a low-density environment (much thinner than our atmosphere) where most secondary pions, kaons and muons can decay before they lose energy. The main uncertainty in a calculation of the solar neutrino flux is due to the effects of the magnetic fields on the absorption rate of charged cosmic rays. We use recent data from HAWC on the cosmic-ray shadow of the Sun to estimate this rate. We evaluate the solar neutrino flux and show that at 1 TeV it is over ten times larger than the atmospheric one at zenith θz =30∘ /150∘ . The flux that we obtain has a distinct spectrum and flavor composition: it is harder and richer in antineutrinos and tau/electron neutrinos than the atmospheric background. This solar flux could be detected in current and upcoming neutrino telescopes. KM3NeT, in particular, looks very promising: it will see the Sun high in the sky (the atmospheric flux is lower there than near the horizon) and expects a very good angular resolution (the Sun's radius is just 0.27°).

  6. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kogler, Roman; Steder, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and pre...

  7. Epidemiology of adult tibial shaft fractures: a 7-year study in a major referral orthopedic center in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Vahid Farahmandi, Manouchehr; Eajazi, Alireza; Daftari Besheli, Laleh; Madadi, Firoozeh; Nasri Lari, Mehdi

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiologic differences among various fracture sites and within different populations are important as they imply different cultures and lifestyles in each region. One of these fractures is the tibial shaft fracture. Rather few epidemiological studies have been undertaken on this injury. This study was designed to provide an update on various aspects of tibial shaft fractures during 1999-2006 in a referral educational orthopedic center in Iran. The charts of 854 adult patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. All the patients were examined and the results were registered. The collated information was classified along with descriptive statistical analysis. The highest frequency of these fractures was seen in the 20-30 year age group in both genders, and women had a higher rate than men in people aged > or =50 years old. The most common cause of fractures was road traffic accidents; 54% of all injuries were closed fractures and 46% were open. The most frequent fracture pattern was comminuted and the fewest were segmented and with butterfly fractures. The most noticeable complication early after treatment was infection and those during at least one year follow-up were pain, nonunion, and delayed union. The peak frequency of tibial shaft fractures in Iran was one decade higher than in European populations and in those > or =50 years old the rate was higher in women, which was two decades lower than the mentioned populations. Furthermore, in this study in addition to high-energy trauma, low-energy trauma also had a great role.

  8. Embolism of high energy firearm projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Álvarez Soler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The embolism of a projectile is very rare and out of the normal context, so the cor-oner in front of a wound projectile firearm must make a very judicious and careful analysis to recover the projectile and/or its fragments. This case presents evidence how modern military high-velocity weapons have a high kinetic energy which is transferred to body tissues, so including their fragments and parts of the projectile can cause serious injury and embolism, requiring a great effort scientific and in-terdisciplinary to give technical support to justice.

  9. EXTRACTOR FOR HIGH ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1964-04-01

    A particle-extracting apparatus for use with a beam of high-energy charged particles such as travel in an evacuated chamber along a circular equilibrium axis is described. A magnetized target is impacted relatively against the beam whereby the beam particles are deflected from the beam by the magnetic induction in the target. To this end the target may be moved into the beam or the beam may coast into the target and achieve high angular particle deflection and slow extraction. A deflecting septum magnet may additionally be used for deflection at even sharper angles. (AEC)

  10. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  11. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  12. Epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco Marco Aurélio Sertório

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an epidemiological analysis on tibial shaft fractures was performed. During four years, our service treated 179 fractures, 132 in male, 47 in female, aged 14 to 83 years. The 21 to 30-year-old patiens were the more injured. Of these, 120 were open and 59 close fractures of which prevailing cause was road traffic accident. The study based on patients promptuaries analyses and radiographs. The fractures occurred 97 times in the middle third (54.18%; 102 times (56.98% presented simple fragments, and 57 (31.38% oblique lines. We treated close and open fractures, respectively, 48 and 38 cases with plaster cast immobilization; 3 and 67 with external fixation after plaster cast immobilization; 5 and 12 with osteosynthesis by means of plate and screws, and 2 and 3 with external fixation only. In both close and open fractures, respectively, 7 and 20 cases of pseudarthrosis and 1 and 11 of infections have occurred. With the data obtained we verified an actual validity of the epidemiological studies as a contribution for better identifying lesions features and their treatment and complications. This allows proceedings and apprenticeship refinement.

  13. High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV40 Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    TIAX has developed long-life lithium-ion cells that can meet and exceed the energy and power targets (200Wh/kg and 800W/kg pulse power) set out by DOE for PHEV40 batteries. To achieve these targets, we selected and scaled-up a high capacity version of our proprietary high energy and high power CAM-7® cathode material. We paired the cathode with a blended anode containing Si-based anode material capable of delivering high capacity and long life. Furthermore, we optimized the anode blend composition, cathode and anode electrode design, and selected binder and electrolyte compositions to achieve not only the best performance, but also long life. By implementing CAM-7 with a Si-based blended anode, we built and tested prototype 18650 cells that delivered measured specific energy of 198Wh/kg total energy and 845W/kg at 10% SOC (projected to 220Wh/kg in state-of-the-art 18650 cell hardware and 250Wh/kg in 15Ah pouch cells). These program demonstration cells achieved 90% capacity retention after 500 cycles in on-going cycle life testing. Moreover, we also tested the baseline CAM-7/graphite system in 18650 cells showing that 70% capacity retention can be achieved after ~4000 cycles (20 months of on-going testing). Ultimately, by simultaneously meeting the PHEV40 power and energy targets and providing long life, we have developed a Li-ion battery system that is smaller, lighter, and less expensive than current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  14. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  15. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-12-31

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained.

  16. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  17. High energy microlaser and compact MOPA transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickeen, Brian K.; Bernot, Dave; Geathers, Eliot; Mosovsky, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    A compact micro-oscillator incorporating a dual-bounce, grazing incidence gain module with a folded resonator cavity is presented. The gain module, previously developed for Nd:YVO4, is embodied in highly doped ceramic Nd:YAG to generate improved Q-switch performance while maintaining localized pump absorption. The cavity design utilizes a doubly folded optics path around the gain crystal to increase the intra-cavity mode for a more optimum overlap with the pump light volume produced by standard lensed laser diode bars. A modified CS-package diode mount is developed to facilitate the reduced size of the oscillator without sacrificing the ability to use a high-energy, side-pumping arrangement. The oscillator is combined with a high gain, high energy extraction VHGM amplifier to generate a transmitter source on the order of 50 mJ. Cooling for both the oscillator and amplifier modules is provided via a conductive path through the base of the package. Both devices are mounted on opposite sides of a phase-change cooling reservoir to enable self-contained, burst-mode operation. Beam shaping of the oscillator output, in preparation for injection into the amplifier, is contained in a small cut-away path on the reservoir side.

  18. Audit of open tibial diaphyseal fracture management at a district accident centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, T. M.; Bale, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Preston Acute Hospital is a designated district accident centre with a 24 h flying squad and on-site plastic and orthopaedic units. We performed a retrospective 5-year survey of open tibial shaft fracture management at our unit and compared our treatment to the guidelines of the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) and British Association of Plastic Surgeons (BAPS). Deficiencies were highlighted and changes in practice made. We then re-audited our figures over an 18-month period to see if clinical improvements had been made. The audit demonstrated an incidence of open tibial shaft fractures of 15 per 50,000 new patients per year in accident and emergency. Gustilo grading, and thus full appreciation of soft tissues injury, was being underestimated, with 8% of the injuries undergraded at the time of surgery: 17% of Gustilo IIIA and 85% Gustilo IIIB required flap cover. Seventy-four percent of patients received their first orthopaedic procedure within the recommended 6 h of admission, but despite the on-site plastics unit, only 50% of cases in the initial survey had their soft tissue defect covered by the recommended 5 days. After changes to practice, 80% patients received their first orthopaedic procedure within the recommended 6 h of admission, and all had their soft tissue defect covered within 5 days; 5% of cases required fasciotomy to relieve compartment syndrome. We highlight features to alert the high energy (Gustilo III) status and recommend immediate involvement of plastic surgical colleagues with these injuries. We also highlight a high incidence of compartment syndrome in the young male patient with the lower energy Gustilo I injury. PMID:11103167

  19. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-01-01

    ... during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities...

  20. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  1. Grid Computing in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software resources, regardless of location); (4) collaboration (providing tools that allow members full and fair access to all collaboration resources and enable distributed teams to work effectively, irrespective of location); and (5) education, training and outreach (providing resources and mechanisms for training students and for communicating important information to the public). It is believed that computing infrastructures based on Data Grids and optical networks can meet these challenges and can offer data intensive enterprises in high energy physics and elsewhere a comprehensive, scalable framework for collaboration and resource sharing. A number of Data Grid projects have been underway since 1999. Interestingly, the most exciting and far ranging of these projects are led by collaborations of high energy physicists, computer scientists and scientists from other disciplines in support of experiments with massive, near-term data needs. I review progress in this

  2. Experimental Facilities at the High Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main theme of the lectures covered the experimental work at hadron colliders, with a clear focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on the roadmap that led finally to the discovery of the Higgs boson. The lectures were not a systematic course on machine and detector technologies, but rather tried to give a physics-motivated overview of many experimental aspects that were all relevant for making the discovery. The actual lectures covered a much broader scope than what is documented here in this write- up. The successful concepts for the experiments at the LHC have benefitted from the experience gained with previous generations of detectors at lower- energy machines. The lectures included also an outlook to the future experimental programme at the LHC, with its machine and experiments upgrades, as well as a short discussion of possible facilities at the high energy frontier beyond LHC.

  3. High energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardini, Cecilia; Razzaque, Soebur

    2012-06-01

    Recently the Fermi-LAT data have revealed two gamma-ray emitting bubble-shaped structures at the Galactic center. If the observed gamma rays have hadronic origin (collisions of accelerated protons), the bubbles must emit high energy neutrinos as well. This new, Galactic, neutrino flux should trace the gamma-ray emission in spectrum and spatial extent. Its highest energy part, above 20-50 TeV, is observable at a kilometer-scale detector in the northern hemisphere, such as the planned KM3NeT, while interesting constraints on it could be obtained by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The detection or exclusion of neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles will discriminate between hadronic and leptonic models, thus bringing unique information on the still mysterious origin of these objects and on the time scale of their formation.

  4. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, Robert; Mahler, George; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and the parameters of a small Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. We present the status and plans for this facility.

  5. QCD and high-energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Six years ago, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  6. High-energy neutrinos from AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toschke, Marius [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); TU Dortmund (Germany); Becker Tjus, Julia [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Rhode, Wolfgang [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the outer space there are galactic and extragalactic sources like gamma-ray bursts (GRB), active galactic nuclei (AGN), supernovae or other phenomena which produce high-energy neutrinos. In contrast to supernovae, GRBs and AGN are supposed to generate neutrinos at the highest energies. Neutrinos have a tiny cross section as they mainly suffer from the weak interaction. Therefore, they are useful messenger particles providing information about the direction of the source. With observations of the gamma flux from galactic and extragalactic sources, it is possible to make predictions for the neutrino flux. We suppose that neutrinos are predominantly generated by inelastic proton-proton interactions and derive the possible galactic and extragalactic sources. In this talk, first results are presented.

  7. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir N. Litvinenko; Donald Barton; D. Beavis; Ilan Ben-Zvi; Michael Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; Roger Connolly; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; G. McIntyre; W. Meng; T. C. Nehring; A. Nicoletti; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; N. Williams; K.-C. Wu; Vitaly Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble

    2004-08-01

    We present the design, the parameters of a small test Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. A possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 700 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and our plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  8. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  9. Anatomic single-bundle ACL surgery: consequences of tibial tunnel diameter and drill-guide angle on tibial footprint coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bracht, H; Verhelst, L; Stuyts, B; Page, B; Bellemans, J; Verdonk, P

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the consequences of differences in drill-guide angle and tibial tunnel diameter on the amount of tibial anatomical anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint coverage and the risk of overhang of the tibial tunnel aperture over the edges of the native tibial ACL footprint. Twenty fresh-frozen adult human knee specimens with a median age of 46 years were used for this study. Digital templates mimicking the ellipsoid aperture of tibial tunnels with a different drill-guide angle and a different diameter were designed. The centres of these templates were positioned over the geometric centre of the tibial ACL footprint. The amount of tibial ACL footprint coverage and overhang was calculated. Risk factors for overhang were determined. Footprint coverage and the risk of overhang were also compared between a lateral tibial tunnel and a classic antero-medial tibial tunnel. A larger tibial tunnel diameter and a smaller drill-guide angle both will create significant more footprint coverage and overhang. In 45% of the knees, an overhang was created with a 10-mm diameter tibial tunnel with drill-guide angle 45°. Furthermore, a lateral tibial tunnel was found not to be at increased risk of overhang. A larger tibial tunnel diameter and a smaller drill-guide angle both will increase the amount of footprint coverage. Inversely, larger tibial tunnel diameters and smaller drill-guide angles will increase the risk of overhang of the tibial tunnel aperture over the edges of the native tibial ACL footprint. A lateral tibial tunnel does not increase the risk of overhang.

  10. The Effect of Patient-Specific Instrumentation Incorporating an Extramedullary Tibial Guide on Operative Efficiency for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh-Ryong Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was to determine if patient-specific instrumentation (PSI for total knee arthroplasty (TKA leads to shortened surgical time through increased operating room efficiency according to different tibial PSI designs. 166 patients underwent primary TKA and were categorized into three groups as follows: PSI without extramedullary (EM tibial guide (group 1, n=48, PSI with EM tibial guide (group 2, n=68, and conventional instrumentation (CI group (group 3, n=50. Four factors were compared between groups, namely, operative room time, thickness of bone resection, tibial slope, and rotation of the component. The mean surgical time was significantly shorter in the PSI with EM tibial guide group (group 2, 63.9±13.6 min compared to the CI group (group 3, 82.8±24.9 min (P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference in the PSI without EM tibial guide group (group 1, 75.3±18.8 min. This study suggests that PSI incorporating an EM tibial guide may lead to high operative efficiency in TKA compared to CI. This trial is registered with KCT0002384.

  11. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubic, Patrick L. [University of Oklahoma

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest

  12. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  13. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mount, Richard; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gülzow, Volker; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitri; Diaconu, Cristinel; South, David; Lobodzinski, Bogdan; Olsson, Jan; Haas, Tobias; Wrona, Krzysztof; Szuba, Janusz; Schnell, Gunar; Sasaki, Takashi; Katayama, Nobu; Hernandez, Fabio; Mele, Salvatore; Holzner, Andre; Hemmer, Frederic; Schroeder, Matthias; Barring, Olof; Brun, Rene; Maggi, Marcello; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Van Wezel, Jos; Heiss, Andreas; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yifang; Asner, David; Riley, Daniel; Corney, David; Gordon, John

    2009-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group.

  14. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  15. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  16. Reclustering of high energy physics data

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, M

    1999-01-01

    The coming high energy physics experiments will store Petabytes of data into object databases. Analysis jobs will frequently traverse collections containing millions of stored objects. Clustering is one of the most effective means $9 to enhance the performance of these applications. The paper presents a reclustering algorithm for independent objects contained in multiple possibly overlapping collections on secondary storage. The algorithm decomposes the stored $9 objects into a number of independent chunks and then maps these chunks to a traveling salesman problem. Under a set of realistic assumptions, the number of disk seeks is reduced almost to the theoretical minimum. Experimental results $9 obtained from a prototype are included. (17 refs).

  17. Photomask specifications for high energy physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pindo, M

    2002-01-01

    Planar technologies used for radiation detector fabrication imply an extensive use of photomasks whose characteristics are critical in determining final detector performance. Compatibly with their manufacturing process, photomasks must satisfy the application-specific requirements dictated both by wafer manufacturers and detector final users. The design and realization of microstrip and pixel detectors, widely used in high energy physics experiments, ask for intensive scientific effort, advanced technology and important economical investments. Photomask specification definition is one of the fundamental steps to optimize detector fabrication processes and fulfill experimental requirements at the most appropriate cost.

  18. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  19. Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.

    2000-01-27

    This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.

  20. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  1. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  2. Computing support for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, P.; Yelton, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This computing proposal (Task S) is submitted separately but in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and Theory tasks. The authors have built a very strong computing base at Florida over the past 8 years. In fact, computing has been one of the main contributions to their experimental collaborations, involving not just computing capacity for running Monte Carlos and data reduction, but participation in many computing initiatives, industrial partnerships, computing committees and collaborations. These facts justify the submission of a separate computing proposal.

  3. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  4. Osteochondritis of the Distal Tibial Epiphysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firass EL Hajj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis is a very rare entity. 9 cases have been described in 7 articles and 8 other cases have been mentioned in textbooks. This paper describes the 10th case of osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis and summarizes the clinical and radiological presentations of the 9 other cases. The etiology of this entity is well debated in the literature. We believe that it results from a vascular abnormality in the distal tibial epiphysis associated with a mechanical stress (trauma, excessive overload, etc.. Since it is a self-limited disease, the prognosis is good and the younger the patient is the better the prognosis will be. In general, this entity responds well to conservative treatment.

  5. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  6. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  7. Grid computing in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, P

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software r...

  8. High energy gravitational scattering: a numerical study

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The S-matrix in gravitational high energy scattering is computed from the region of large impact parameters b down to the regime where classical gravitational collapse is expected to occur. By solving the equation of an effective action introduced by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano we find that the perturbative expansion around the leading eikonal result diverges at a critical value signalling the onset of a new regime. We then discuss the main features of our explicitly unitary S-matrix down to the Schwarzschild's radius R=2G s^(1/2), where it diverges at a critical value b ~ 2.22 R of the impact parameter. The nature of the singularity is studied with particular attention to the scaling behaviour of various observables at the transition. The numerical approach is validated by reproducing the known exact solution in the axially symmetric case to high accuracy.

  9. Laboratory high-energy astrophysics on lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, W.H.; Liedahl, D.A.; Walling, R.S.; Foord, M.E.; Osterheld, A.L.; Wilson, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    The tremendous range of temperatures and densities spanned by astrophysical plasmas has significant overlap with conditions attainable using high-power laser facilities. These facilities provide an opportunity to create, control, and characterize plasmas in the laboratory that mirror conditions in some of the most important cosmological systems. Moreover, laboratory experiments can enhance astrophysical understanding by focusing on and isolating important physical processes, without necessarily reproducing the exact conditions of the integral system. Basic study of radiative properties, transport phenomena, thermodynamic response and hydrodynamic evolution in plasmas under properly scaled conditions leads both directly and indirectly to improved models of complex astrophysical systems. In this paper, we will discuss opportunities for current and planned highpower lasers to contribute to the study of high-energy astrophysics.

  10. Supernovae and supernova remnants at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    The physical phenomena that are observable with X- and gamma-ray observations of supernovae are discussed with respect to possible high-energy astrophysics experiments. Prompt photospheric emission and its echo are discussed, supernova radioactivity and neutron star effects are examined, and circumstellar and interstellar interaction are reviewed. The primary uncertainties are found to be the hardening of the spectrum by non-LTE effects and the amount of absorption of the radiation from the initial soft X-ray burst. The radioactivity in supernovae is theorized to lead to gamma-ray lines and continuum emission unless the event is low-mass type II. Gamma-ray observations are proposed to examine the efficiency of particle acceleration, and high-resolution spectroscopy can provide data regarding ionization, temperature, composition, and velocities of the X-ray-emitting gas.

  11. High energy laser demonstrators for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Riesbeck, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Ludewigt, K.; Graf, A.

    2017-01-01

    Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has worked since 30 years in the area of High Energy Laser (HEL) for defence applications, starting from pulsed CO2 to pulsed glass rods lasers. In the last decade Rheinmetall Waffe Munition changed to diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology and has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile HEL weapon demonstrators for air- and ground defence scenarios like countering rocket, artillery, mortar, missile (RAMM), unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unexploded ordnances clearing. By employing beam superimposing technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms, military vehicles and naval platforms have been equipped with high energy laser effectors. The contribution gives a summary of the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls HEL weapon program. In addition to the stationary 30 kW laser weapon demonstrator, we present vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L and the latest 10 kW HEL effector integrated in the naval weapon platform MLG 27. We describe the capabilities of these demonstrators against different potential targets. Furthermore, we will show the capability of the 30 kW stationary Laser Weapon Demonstrator integrated into an existing ground based air defence system to defeat saturated attacks of RAMM and UAS targets.

  12. [Tibial fracture with intact fibula treated by reamed nailing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnevialle, P; Bellumore, Y; Foucras, L; Hézard, L; Mansat, M

    2000-02-01

    The main difficulties encountered in the orthopedic treatment of leg fractures with intact fibula are reduction of the tibial and an unusually high rate of varus unions and non-unions. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the outcome after reamed nailing of tibial fractures with an intact fibula. Between 1986 and 1997, 38 fractures of the tibia with an intact fibula were treated by first intention centromedullar nailing. There were 28 men and 10 women, mean age 28 years, with a single fracture in 25 cases. There were 25 motor vehicle accidents (17 two-wheel, 8 four-wheel), 5 sports accidents, 2 home falls, and 6 others. Fracture of the tibial diaphysis was associated with a homolateral femoral fracture in 7 cases, 7 fractures were open (7 type 1, 2 type 2, 1 type 3), 7 fractures were associated with abrasive skin lesions. Using the AO classification, the tibial fracture was type A in 26 cases, type B in 11, and type C in 1. The fracture was in the middle third of the tibia in 21 cases, the distal third in 15 and in the proximal third. Grosse and Kempf nails were used exclusively. Static nailing was used in 27 cases, dynamic nailing in 8, and the nail was not locked in 3 cases. Nails of diameter 9 to 13 were implanted after reaming 1 mm more. The fracture gap increased during the reaming in 5 patients; 2 patients had to undergo a secondary aponeurectomy due to a postoperative compartment syndrome and had no further sequela. Consolidation was achieved after the first intention treatment in 30 patients, after dynamization in 6. A non-union in 2 patients was also successfully managed with new nailing and dynamization. Delay to consolidation was a mean 175 days (range 60 - 480). Transverse fractures consolidated more rapidly (mean 122 days). At last follow-up (minimum 1 year), active knee and ankle mobility were normal in all patients. Nineteen patients complained of pain at the site of the nail insertion, evaluated at 1 on a 10-point analogie scale by 10

  13. Return to sports activity after tibial plateau fractures: 89 cases with minimum 24-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Tobias M; Martetschläger, Frank; Müller, Dirk; Braun, Karl F; Ahrens, Philipp; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Stöckle, Ulrich; Sandmann, Gunther H

    2012-12-01

    Tibial plateau fractures requiring surgery are severe injuries. For professionals, amateurs, and recreational athletes, tibial plateau fractures might affect leisure and professional life. Athletic patients will be affected in their sporting activity after a tibial plateau fracture. Despite a long rehabilitation time and program, physical activity will change to low-impact sports. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 89 consecutive patients (age range, 14-76 years) were included in the study and were surveyed by a questionnaire. Inclusion criteria were surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures between 2003 and 2009 with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The sporting activity was determined at the time of injury, 1 year postoperatively, and at the time of the survey at an average of 52.8 months postoperatively. The clinical evaluation included the Lysholm score, the Tegner activity scale, the activity rating scale (ARS), and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain perception. Fractures were classified and analyzed using both the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) and the Schatzker classifications. At the time of injury, 88.8% of all patients were engaged in sports compared with 62.9% 1 year postoperatively and 73.0% at the time of the survey. Of the professional or competitive athletes (n = 11 at the time of injury), only 2 returned to competition at the time of the survey. The number of different sporting activities declined from 4.9 at the time of injury to 3.6 at the time of the survey (P sports frequency and the activity duration per week, being 2.8 sessions and 4.5 hours at the time of injury, respectively, declined to 2.4 sessions and 3.8 hours (P time of the survey, respectively. The Lysholm score (98.7 points before accident) and the VAS for pain perception (0.2 before accident) illustrated significant declines to 76.6 points for the Lysholm score and 2.6 for the VAS (P time of the survey. The high-energy traumas, Schatzker IV to VI

  14. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Hector [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    2014-10-31

    This year the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) High Energy Physics (HEP) group continued with the ongoing research program outlined in the grant proposal. The program is centered on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The main research focus is on data analysis and on the preparation for the High Luminosity (HL) LHC or experiment detector upgrade. The physics data analysis included Higgs Doublet Search and measurement of the (1) Λ0b branching fraction, (2) B meson mass, and (3) hyperon θ-b lifetime. The detector upgrade included work on the preparations for the Forward Pixel (FPIX) detector Silicon Sensor Testing in a production run at Fermilab. In addition, the group has taken responsibilities on the Software Release through our former research associate Dr. Eric Brownson who acted until last December as a Level Two Offline Manager for the CMS Upgrade. In support of the CMS data analysis activities carried out locally, the UPRM group has built and maintains an excellent Tier3 analysis center in Mayaguez. This allowed us to analyze large data samples and to continue the development of algorithms for the upgrade tracking robustness we started several years ago, and we plan to resume in the near future. This project involves computer simulation of the radiation damage to be suffered at the higher luminosities of the upgraded LHC. This year we continued to serve as a source of outstanding students for the field of high energy physics. Three of our graduate students finished their MS work in May, 2014, Their theses research were on data analysis of heavy quark b-physics. All of them are currently enrolled at Ph.D. physics program across the nation. One of them (Hector Moreno) at New Mexico University (Hector Moreno), one at University of New Hampshire (Sandra Santiesteban) and one at University of

  15. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  16. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fedkiw, Peter [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Khan, Saad [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huang, Alex [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fan, Jiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  17. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  18. High-Intensity Sweeteners and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance. PMID:20060008

  19. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bornheim, Adolf, E-mail: bornheim@hep.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm{sup 3} sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  20. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  1. Energy storage via high temperature superconductivity (SMES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The technology concerning high temperature superconductors (HTS) is matured to enabling different kind of prototype applications including SMES. Nowadays when speaking about HTS systems, attention is focused on the operating temperature of 20-30 K, where the critical current and flux density are fairly close to 4.2 K values. In addition by defining the ratio of the energy content of a novel HTS magnetic system and the required power to keep the system at the desired temperature, the optimum settles to the above mentioned temperature range. In the frame of these viewpoints a 5 kJ HTS SMES system has been designed and tested at Tampere University of Technology with a coil manufactured by American Superconductor (AMSC). The HTS magnet has inside and outside diameters of 252 mm and 317 mm, respectively and axial length of 66 mm. It operates at 160 A and carries a total of 160 kA-turns to store the required amount of energy. The effective magnetic inductance is 0.4 H and the peak axial field is 1.7 T. The magnet is cooled to the operating temperature of 20 K with a two stage Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler with a cooling power of 60 W at 77 K and 8 W at 20 K. The magnetic system has been demonstrated to compensate a short term loss of power of a sensitive consumer

  2. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-02-01

    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  4. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, G.D. Jr. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous {sup 3}He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail.

  6. Nonextensive statistical mechanics and high energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsallis Constantino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the celebrated Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics is justified for ergodic-like systems. In contrast, complex systems typically require more powerful theories. We will provide a brief introduction to nonadditive entropies (characterized by indices like q, which, in the q → 1 limit, recovers the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and associated nonextensive statistical mechanics. We then present somerecent applications to systems such as high-energy collisions, black holes and others. In addition to that, we clarify and illustrate the neat distinction that exists between Lévy distributions and q-exponential ones, a point which occasionally causes some confusion in the literature, very particularly in the LHC literature

  7. High energy physics, past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2017-03-01

    At the beginning of last century we witnessed the emergence of new physics, quantum theory and gravitational theory, which gave us correct understanding of the world of atoms and deep insight into the structure of universe we live in. Towards the end of the century, string theory emerged as the most promising candidate to unify these two theories. In this talk, I would like to assert that the understanding of the origin of physical constants, ℏ (Planck constant) for quantum theory, and G (Newton’s gravitational constant) for gravitational theory within the framework of string theory is the key to understanding string theory. Then, I will shift to experimental high energy physics and discuss the necessity of world-wide collaboration in the area of superconducting technology which is essential in constructing the 100 TeV hadron collider.

  8. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Mapelli, Alessandro

    This thesis deals with the development and study of microfluidic scintillation detectors, a technology of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles. Most of the interest for such devices comes from the use of a liquid scintillator, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to increased radiation resistance. A first part of the thesis focuses on the work performed in terms of design and modelling studies of novel prototype devices, hinting to new possibilities and applications. In this framework, the simulations performed to validate selected designs and the main technological choices made in view of their fabrication are addressed. The second part of this thesis deals with the microfabrication of several prototype devices. Two different materials were studied for the manufacturing of microfluidic scintillation detectors, namely the SU-8 photosensitive epoxy and monocrystalline silicon. For what concerns the former, an original fabrication appro...

  9. The high energy telescope on EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Skinner, G. K.; Gehrels, N.

    2009-08-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a proposed next generation multi-wavelength survey mission. The primary instrument is a High Energy telescope (HET) that conducts the deepest survey for Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), obscured-accreting and dormant Supermassive Black Holes and Transients of all varieties for immediate followup studies by the two secondary instruments: a Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) and an Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). EXIST will explore the early Universe using high redshift GRBs as cosmic probes and survey black holes on all scales. The HET is a coded aperture telescope employing a large array of imaging CZT detectors (4.5 m2, 0.6 mm pixel) and a hybrid Tungsten mask. We review the current HET concept which follows an intensive design revision by the HET imaging working group and the recent engineering studies in the Instrument and Mission Design Lab at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The HET will locate GRBs and transients quickly (<10-30 sec) and accurately (< 20") for rapid (< 1-3 min) onboard followup soft X-ray and optical/IR (0.3-2.2 μm) imaging and spectroscopy. The broad energy band (5-600 keV) and the wide field of view (~90° × 70&° at 10% coding fraction) are optimal for capturing GRBs, obscured AGNs and rare transients. The continuous scan of the entire sky every 3 hours will establish a finely-sampled long-term history of many X-ray sources, opening up new possibilities for variability studies.

  10. Osteoarthritis Imaging by Quantification of Tibial Trabecular Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Joselene

    The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) includes complex events in the whole joint. In this project, we combined machine-learning techniques in a texture analysis framework and evaluated it in a longitudinal study, where magnetic resonance images of knees were used to quantify the tibial trabecular...... region and a preliminary radiological reading of the knees with high and low risks of cartilage loss suggested the prognosis marker captured aspects of the tibia vertical trabecularization to define the prognosis. Besides presenting a bone marker able to predict disease progression and diagnostic marker...

  11. A posterior tibial tendon skipping rope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, M. N.; Haverkamp, D.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an athletic patient with swelling and progressive pain on the posteromedial side of his right ankle on weight bearing. MRI demonstrated tenosynovitis and suspicion of a length rupture. On posterior tibial tendoscopy, there was no rupture, but medial from the tendon a tissue cord

  12. TIBIAL LANDMARKS IN ACL ANATOMIC REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  13. Medial tibial stress syndrome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicić, Milica; Jovicić, Vladimir; Hrković, Marija; Lazović, Milica

    2014-01-01

    Although it can be difficult to differentiate pain in lower legs, it is important for clinicians to differentiate medial tibial stress syndrome, which is a rather benign condition, from acute compartment syndrome, which is an emergency, as well as from different types of stress fractures described in this region. The aim of this case report was to present medial tibial stress syndrome as a clinical diagnosis, possible dilemmas in differential diagnosis and the efficacy of rehabilitation treatment. A 25-year old male patient sought medical help complaining of the pain along the distal third of tibia. The pain was present on palpation of the distal two-thirds of the lateral and medial tibial border over the length of 9 cm and on muscle manual testing of foot flexors. The patient underwent physical and exercise treatment for three weeks. The recovery was monitored by visual analogue scale, which measured the lower leg pain, pain on palpation and manual muscle testing. In addition, the patient himself assessed his ability to resume sport activities on the 5-point Likert scale. The final evaluation and measurements showed his complete functional recovery. The results obtained in this case show the importance of accurate clinical diagnosis and rehabilitation for medial tibial stress syndrome.

  14. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Angel M. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    2015-10-27

    For the period of sixteen years covered by this report (June 1, 1997 - July 31, 2013) the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Puerto Rico’s Mayaguez Campus (UPRM) carried out an extensive research program that included major experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Cornell Electron-positron Collider and CERN. In particular, these were E831 (FOCUS) at Fermilab, CLEOc at Cornell and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The group’s history is one of successful execution and growth. Beginning with one faculty researcher in 1985, it eventually included four faculty researchers, one post-doctoral research associate, two undergraduates and as many as six graduate students at one time working on one of the experiments that discovered the Higgs boson. Some of this expansion was due to the group’s leveraging of funds from the Department of Energy’s core grant to attract funds from National Science Foundation programs not targeted to high energy physics. Besides the group’s research productivity, its other major contribution was the training of a large number of MS students who later went on to successful technical careers in industry as well as academia including many who obtained PhD degrees at US universities. In an attempt to document this history, this final report gives a general description of the Group’s work prior to June 1, 2010, the starting date for the last grant renewal period. Much more detail can, of course, be found in the annual reports submitted up to that date. The work during the last grant period is discussed in detail in a separate section. To summarize the group’s scientific accomplishments, one can point to the results of the experiments. Both FOCUS and CLEOc were designed to carry out precise measurements of processes involving the heavy quarks, charm and bottom. Heavy quarks are particularly interesting because, due to their mass, theoretical calculations

  15. 75 FR 17701 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel...

  16. 78 FR 50405 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Intent... hereby given that the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel will be renewed for a two-year period beginning...-range planning and priorities in the national high-energy physics program. Additionally, the renewal of...

  17. Long Life, High Energy Cell Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a need to develop higher energy density battery systems to meet the power requirements of future energy devices. In this proposed Phase I program, PSI will...

  18. Reverse Segond Fracture Associated with Anteromedial Tibial Rim and Tibial Attachment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Avulsion Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia H. Bedeir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse Segond fracture is an uncommon avulsion fracture of the tibial attachment of the deep portion of the medial collateral ligament of the knee. We report a reverse Segond fracture associated with anterior cruciate ligament tibial avulsion fracture and anteromedial tibial rim fracture. Unlike previous reports, the combination of reverse Segond fracture, anteromedial tibial rim fracture, and anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture was not associated with posterior cruciate ligament injury, posterolateral corner injury, or tibial plateau fracture. This new combination of injuries provides better understanding of the mechanisms of ligamentous injuries of the knee and highlights the importance of meticulous assessment of these injuries for accurate diagnosis and subsequent management.

  19. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  20. Conversion of zero point energy into high-energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, B. I. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Manuel Nava No. 6, Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    An unusual phenomenon, observed in experiments is studied. X-ray laser bursts of keV energy are emitted from a metal where long-living states, resulting in population inversion, are totally unexpected. Anomalous electron-photon states are revealed to be formed inside the metal. These states are associated with narrow, 10{sup -11} cm, potential well created by the local reduction of zero point electromagnetic energy. In contrast to analogous van der Waals potential well, leading to attraction of two hydrogen atoms, the depth of the anomalous well is on the order of 1 MeV. The states in that well are long-living which results in population inversion and subsequent laser generation observed. The X-ray emission, occurring in transitions to lower levels, is due to the conversion of zero point electromagnetic energy. (Author)

  1. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisley Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.

  2. Low Energy Lorentz Violation from Modified Dispersion at High Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Viqar; Louko, Jorma

    2016-02-12

    Many quantum theories of gravity propose Lorentz-violating dispersion relations of the form ω=|k|f(|k|/M⋆), with recovery of approximate Lorentz invariance at energy scales much below M⋆. We show that a quantum field with this dispersion predicts drastic low energy Lorentz violation in atoms modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors, for any f that dips below unity somewhere. As an example, we show that polymer quantization motivated by loop quantum gravity predicts such Lorentz violation below current ion collider rapidities.

  3. Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    This is the final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0006389, "Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier", describing research accomplishments by the PI in the field of theoretical high energy physics.

  4. Antennas tune in to high-energy particles

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, P W

    2001-01-01

    After 40 years of research, physicists met at the first international workshop on the radio detection of high energy particles to discuss the detection of high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos using radio waves. (0 refs).

  5. Jet Physics at High Energy Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yang-Ting

    The future of new physics searches at the LHC will be to look for hadronic signals with jets. In order to distinguish a hadronic signal from its background, it is important to develop advanced collider physics techniques that make accurate theoretical predictions. This work centers on phenomenological and formal studies of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), including resummation of hadronic observables using Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), calculating anomalous dimensions of multi-Wilson line operators in AdS, and improving jet physics analysis using multiple event interpretations. Hadronic observables usually involve physics at different energy scales, and the calculations depend on large logarithms of the energy ratios. We can prove factorization theorems of observables and resum large logarithms using renormalization-group techniques. The heavy jet mass distribution for e +e- collisions is calculated at next-to-next-to-next-to leading logarithmic order (N3LL), and we measure the strong coupling constant at 0.3% accuracy. We also calculate the jet-mass distribution at partial N2LL in gamma + jet events at the LHC. The effect of non-global logarithms in resummation estimated, and it is significant only at the peak region. Soft QCD interactions among jets can be described by multi-Wilson line operators, with each Wilson line pointing along one of the jet directions. The anomalous dimensions of these operators are key for higher-order resummation. We study these operators using radial quantization and conformal gauge, which leads to a drastic simplification of the two-loop anomalous dimension calculation. We also find that the anomalous dimension calculation is closely related to a corresponding Witten diagram calculation. Jets are complicated objects to identify in high energy collider experiments. A single interpretation of each event can only extract a limited amount of information. We propose telescoping jet algorithms which give multiple event

  6. Operative Treatment and Soft Tissue Management of Open Distal Tibial Fractures - Pitfalls and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschingbauer, Maximilian; Meiners, Jan; Schulz, Arndt Peter; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Kienast, Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    Open tibial fractures usually result from high-energy trauma. Severe soft-tissue injuries are often combined with open fractures of the distal tibia. A consecutive series of 42 patients with open extraarticular distal tibial fractures (Gustilo I-IIIc) operated on between July 2006 and February 2009 were included in the study reported here. We performed open reduction and internal fixation for the Gustilo I cases. Soft tissue was closed directly after antibiotic beads had been temporarily applied. For the Gustilo II and III cases, our treatment protocol included soft-tissue debridement of all devitalized soft tissue and bone fragments, pulsatile jet irrigation, and external stabilization. Soft tissue was temporarily closed with Epigard_ after the application of antibiotic beads. A second-look operation was scheduled after 3-5 days. Gustilo II patients needed an average of 1.1 (0-3) revisions until wound closure, compared to the average of 2.1 revisions necessary for the Gustilo III patients. It took 5.6 (0-16) days to obtain definitive wound closure in the Gustilo II patients and 9.9 (3-28) days in the Gustilo III patients. Skin grafting was sufficient for definitive softtissue closure in ten cases, local flaps in eight cases, and free musculocutaneous flaps were needed in six cases. Gustilo II patients with primary wound closure remained hospitalized for 11 days, while patients with secondary wound closure stayed in hospital for an average of 20 days. Our early results concerning infection rate, number of reoperations, and time to bony consolidation can be compared with other studies. Functional results will have to be evaluated at clinical follow-up.

  7. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, S; Strauss, M J; Snow, J; Rizatdinova, F; Abbott, B; Babu, K; Gutierrez, P; Kao, C; Khanov, A; Milton, K A; Neaman, H; H Severini, P Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma's impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging

  8. Spin structure in high energy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deporcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers of the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z(sup 0)s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ((sup 3)HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer's guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b yields sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  9. Nuclear and High-Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Fridolin

    2003-10-01

    There has never been a more exciting time in the overlapping areas of nuclear physics, particle physics and relativistic astrophysics than today. Orbiting observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Chandra X-ray satellite, and the X-ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM) have extended our vision tremendously, allowing us to see vistas with an unprecedented clarity and angular resolution that previously were only imagined, enabling astrophysicists for the first time ever to perform detailed studies of large samples of galactic and extragalactic objects. On the Earth, radio telescopes (e.g., Arecibo, Green Bank, Parkes, VLA) and instruments using adaptive optics and other revolutionary techniques have exceeded previous expectations of what can be accomplished from the ground. The gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA VIRGO, and Geo-600 are opening up a window for the detection of gravitational waves emitted from compact stellar objects such as neutron stars and black holes. Together with new experimental forefront facilities like ISAC, ORLAND and RIA, these detectors provide direct, quantitative physical insight into nucleosynthesis, supernova dynamics, accreting compact objects, cosmic-ray acceleration, and pairproduction in high energy sources which reinforce the urgent need for a strong and continuous feedback from nuclear and particle theory and theoretical astrophysics. In my lectures, I shall concentrate on three selected topics, which range from the behavior of superdense stellar matter, to general relativistic stellar models, to strange quark stars and possible signals of quark matter in neutron stars.

  10. Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter

    1999-01-01

    Bibliographic databases were developed from the traditional library card catalogue in order to enable users to access library documents via various types of bibliographic information, such as title, author, series or conference date. In addition these catalogues sometimes contained some form of indexation by subject, such as the Universal (or Dewey) Decimal Classification used for books. With the introduction of the eprint archives, set up by the High Energy Physics (HEP) Community in the early 90s, huge collections of documents in several fields have been made available on the World Wide Web. These developments however have not yet been followed up from a keywording point of view. We will see in this paper how important it is to attribute keywords to all documents in the area of HEP Grey Literature. As libraries are facing a future with less and less manpower available and more and more documents, we will explore the possibility of being helped by automatic classification software. We will specifically menti...

  11. Spin structure in high energy processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePorcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers as the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z{sup 0}s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer`s guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b {yields} sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  12. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  13. High Energy Electron Detectors on Sphinx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Porte, A.; Zucchini, F.; Calamy, H.; Auriel, G.; Coleman, P. L.; Bayol, F.; Lalle, B.; Krishnan, M.; Wilson, K.

    2008-11-01

    Z-pinch plasma radiation sources are used to dose test objects with K-shell (˜1-4keV) x-rays. The implosion physics can produce high energy electrons (> 50keV), which could distort interpretation of the soft x-ray effects. We describe the design and implementation of a diagnostic suite to characterize the electron environment of Al wire and Ar gas puff z-pinches on Sphinx. The design used ITS calculations to model detector response to both soft x-rays and electrons and help set upper bounds to the spurious electron flux. Strategies to discriminate between the known soft x-ray emission and the suspected electron flux will be discussed. H.Calamy et al, ``Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion,'' Phys Plasmas 15, 012701 (2008) J.A.Halbleib et al, ``ITS: the integrated TIGER series of electron/photon transport codes-Version 3.0,'' IEEE Trans on Nuclear Sci, 39, 1025 (1992)

  14. Three Decades of High Energy Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most brilliant explosions in space. The first GRB was discovered on 1967, just over 40 years ago. It took several years and multiple generations of space and ground instruments to unravel some of the mysteries of this phenomenon. However, many questions remain open today. I will discuss the history, evolution and current status of the GRB field and its contributions in our understanding of the transient high energy sky. Finally, I will describe how GRBs can be utilized in future missions as tools, to probe the cosmic chemical evolution of the Universe Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 24) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11, 2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from several magnetar sources. In total, six new sources were discovered between 2008 and 2011, with a synergy between Swift, RXTE, Fermi and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts.

  15. Precision probes of QCD at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioli, Simone; Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2017-07-01

    New physics, that is too heavy to be produced directly, can leave measurable imprints on the tails of kinematic distributions at the LHC. We use energetic QCD processes to perform novel measurements of the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory. We show that the dijet invariant mass spectrum, and the inclusive jet transverse momentum spectrum, are sensitive to a dimension 6 operator that modifies the gluon propagator at high energies. The dominant effect is constructive or destructive interference with SM jet production. We compare differential next-to-leading order predictions from POWHEG to public 7 TeV jet data, including scale, PDF, and experimental uncertainties and their respective correlations. We constrain a New Physics (NP) scale of 3.5 TeV with current data. We project the reach of future 13 and 100 TeV measurements, which we estimate to be sensitive to NP scales of 8 and 60 TeV, respectively. As an application, we apply our bounds to constrain heavy vector octet colorons that couple to the QCD current. We project that effective operators will surpass bump hunts, in terms of coloron mass reach, even for sequential couplings.

  16. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  17. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell was designed and tested to deliver high capacity at steady discharge rates up to and including a C rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet of any type in a 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters and performance are described. Also covered is an episode of capacity fading due to electrode swelling and its successful recovery by means of additional activation procedures.

  18. Machine Protection and High Energy Density States in Matter for High Energy Hadron Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Sancho, Juan; Schmidt, R

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest accelerator in the world. It is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7TeV. The energy stored in each beam is 362MJ, sufficient to melt 500kg of copper. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. Machine protection systems are essential to safely operate the accelerator and handle all possible accidents. This thesis deals with the study of different failure scenarios and its possible consequences. It addresses failure scenarios ranging from low intensity losses on high-Z materials and superconductors to high intensity losses on carbon and copper collimators. Low beam losses are sufficient to quench the superconducting magnets and the stabilized superconducting cables (bus-bars) that connects the main magnets. If this occurs and the energy from the bus-bar is not extracted fast enough it can lead to a situation similar to the accident in 2008 at LHC during pow...

  19. Fuzzy systems in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Marcello; Masulli, Francesco; Penna, Massimo

    1996-06-01

    Decision making is one of the major subjects of interest in physics. This is due to the intrinsic finite accuracy of measurement that leads to the possible results to span a region for each quantity. In this way, to recognize a particle type among the others by a measure of a feature vector, a decision must be made. The decision making process becomes a crucial point whenever a low statistical significance occurs as in space cosmic ray experiments where searching in rare events requires us to reject as many background events as possible (high purity), keeping as many signal events as possible (high efficiency). In the last few years, interesting theoretical results on some feedforward connectionist systems (FFCSs) have been obtained. In particular, it has been shown that multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), radial basis function networks (RBFs), and some fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) are nonlinear universal function approximators. This property permits us to build a system showing intelligent behavior , such as function estimation, time series forecasting, and pattern classification, and able to learn their skill from a set of numerical data. From the classification point of view, it has been demonstrated that non-parametric classifiers based FFCSs holding the universal function approximation property, can approximate the Bayes optimal discriminant function and then minimize the classification error. In this paper has been studied the FBF when applied to a high energy physics problem. The FBF is a powerful neuro-fuzzy system (or adaptive fuzzy logic system) holding the universal function approximation property and the capability of learning from examples. The FBF is based on product-inference rule (P), the Gaussian membership function (G), a singleton fuzzifier (S), and a center average defuzzifier (CA). The FBF can be regarded as a feedforward connectionist system with just one hidden layer whose units correspond to the fuzzy MIMO rules. The FBF can be identified both by

  20. Complications of Open Tibial Fracture Management: Risk Factors and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Jyc; Tan, V H; Sivasubramanian, H; Kwek, Ebk

    2017-03-01

    Open tibial fractures result in high rates of complications. This study aims to elucidate the risk factors causing these complications, and suggest antimicrobial regimens based on the organisms grown in post-operative infections. Over a period of five years, 173 patients had sustained open tibial fractures and undergone operative treatment at a single institution. All surgical data was gathered retrospectively through online medical records. Thirty-one patients (17.9%) had sustained post-operative bony complications, while infective complications were reported in 37 patients (21.4%). Patients with Gustilo type III fractures were found to be more than three times as likely to sustain post-operative infective (p=0.007) or bony (p=0.015) complications, compared to Gustilo type I or II fractures. The fracture location and time taken to fixation did not significantly affect the complication rate, but results were trending towards significance. The commonest cause of infective complications were hospital-acquired organisms, such as Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (40.5%). Closer monitoring of patients sustaining high grade Gustilo open fractures, as well as antimicrobial prophylaxis for both hospital-acquired organisms and environmental contaminants, will result in the best outcome for patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted, to determine the significance of fracture location and time taken to fixation on complication rates.

  1. Complications of Open Tibial Fracture Management: Risk Factors and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lua JYC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Open tibial fractures result in high rates of complications. This study aims to elucidate the risk factors causing these complications, and suggest antimicrobial regimens based on the organisms grown in post-operative infections. Over a period of five years, 173 patients had sustained open tibial fractures and undergone operative treatment at a single institution. All surgical data was gathered retrospectively through online medical records. Thirty-one patients (17.9% had sustained post-operative bony complications, while infective complications were reported in 37 patients (21.4%. Patients with Gustilo type III fractures were found to be more than three times as likely to sustain post-operative infective (p=0.007 or bony (p=0.015 complications, compared to Gustilo type I or II fractures. The fracture location and time taken to fixation did not significantly affect the complication rate, but results were trending towards significance. The commonest cause of infective complications were hospital-acquired organisms, such as Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (40.5%. Closer monitoring of patients sustaining high grade Gustilo open fractures, as well as antimicrobial prophylaxis for both hospital-acquired organisms and contaminants, will result in the best outcome for patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted, to determine the significance of fracture location and time taken to fixation on complication rates.

  2. Innovation development for highly energy-efficient housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings account for 40% of EU final energy demand and policy developments like the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive are stimulating the innovation development for nearly zero-energy housing. However, businesses switching to innovative products for highly energy-efficient houses is a

  3. 76 FR 53119 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Energy Physics Advisory Panel will be renewed for a two-year period, beginning on August 12, 2011. The... priorities in the national High Energy Physics program. Additionally, the renewal of the HEPAP has been...

  4. Energy Efficient Beam Transfer Channels for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Gardlowski, Philipp; Ondreka, David

    2016-01-01

    conducting (NC) magnets or high current pulsed (HCP) magnets are an economic solution. For high repetition rates above 1.0 Hz, superconducting Cos(N) (SC) magnets or superferric (SF) magnets are more attractive; at least if they are operated in DC mode and if no dynamic losses occur in the cryogenic system. Unfortunately, a range between these values exist, in which no...

  5. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  6. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David E; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle Howard; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  7. High energy particle collisions near black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-10-01

    If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect). The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process).

  8. Prospective Randomized Comparison of Locked Plates Versus Nonlocked Plates for the Treatment of High-Energy Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dʼHeurle, Albert; Kazemi, Namdar; Connelly, Camille; Wyrick, John D; Archdeacon, Michael T; Le, Theodore T

    2015-09-01

    To compare the radiographic and functional outcome of patients with high-energy pilon fractures treated with locked versus nonlocked plates. Randomized prospective trial. Academic level 1 trauma center. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 60 consecutive patients with 62 AO/OTA type A, B, and C tibial pilon fractures were enrolled in the study. Thirty-two of the fractures were treated using locked plates and 29 were treated with nonlocked plates. Follow-up data were available for 33 of the 60 patients. Treatment with locked versus nonlocked plates. Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AHS). Radiographic measurements on anteroposterior and lateral views for the quality of reduction and maintenance of alignment immediately postoperatively compared with the latest follow-up. There were no significant differences in the mechanism or injury pattern, average age of the patients, ratio of males to females, tourniquet time, operative time, interval to surgery, AHS, or SMFA scores. One of 15 fractures in the locked plate group lost reduction at the latest follow-up compared with 3 of 19 fractures in the nonlocked group. In this study, there seems to be no difference between the 2 constructs. Thus, one must question the routine use of locked plates in the treatment of high-energy pilon fractures. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Effect of an anterior-sloped brace joint on anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation: a motion analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Gan, W L; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2010-12-01

    Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation are major biomechanical factors involved in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. This study sought to evaluate a brace prototype designed with an anterior-sloped joint, in terms of its efficacy in attenuating anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation during landing, using a motion analysis approach. Ten healthy male subjects performed single-leg landing tasks from a 0.6-m height with and without the brace prototype. Ground reaction force and kinematics data were obtained using a motion-capture system and force-plates. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were determined based on tibial and femoral marker reference frames. Vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces, hip, knee and ankle joint range-of-motions and angular velocities, anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were compared between unbraced and braced conditions using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We found no significant difference in peak vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (p=0.770 and p=0.332 respectively) between unbraced and braced conditions. Knee joint range-of-motion and angular velocity were lower (p=0.037 and p=0.038 respectively) for braced condition than unbraced condition. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were reduced (p=0.027 and p=0.006 respectively) in braced condition, compared to unbraced condition. The anterior-sloped brace joint helps to attenuate anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation present in the knee joint during landing. It is necessary to test the brace prototype in a sporting population with realistic sports landing situations in order to assess its effectiveness in lowering anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FLUKA as a new high energy cosmic ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistoni, Giuseppe [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Margiotta, Annarita, E-mail: margiotta@bo.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, V.le Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Muraro, Silvia [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Sioli, Maximiliano [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, V.le Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code, which can transport particles over a wide range of energies in user-defined geometries. Here we present a new FLUKA library, which allows the interaction and propagation of high energy cosmic rays in the Earth atmosphere and the transport of high energy muons in underground/underwater environments.

  11. Finite element analysis of tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the tibial shaft are relatively common injuries. There are indications that tibial shaft fractures share characteristics in terms of site, type and local fracture mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to set up a mathematical, computer-based model using finite element...... of bony healing. The biomechanical results are the basis for fracture healing, biomechanical fall analysis and stability analysis of osteosynthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A finite element model of the bony part of the lower leg was generated on the basis of computed tomography data from the Visible Human...... Project. The data consisted of 21,219 3D elements with a cortical shell and a trabecular core. Three types of load of torsion, a direct lateral load and axial compression were applied. RESULTS: The finite element linear static analysis resulted in relevant fracture localizations and indicated relevant...

  12. Finite element analysis of tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner

    2010-01-01

    of bony healing. The biomechanical results are the basis for fracture healing, biomechanical fall analysis and stability analysis of osteosynthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A finite element model of the bony part of the lower leg was generated on the basis of computed tomography data from the Visible Human...... Project. The data consisted of 21,219 3D elements with a cortical shell and a trabecular core. Three types of load of torsion, a direct lateral load and axial compression were applied. RESULTS: The finite element linear static analysis resulted in relevant fracture localizations and indicated relevant......INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the tibial shaft are relatively common injuries. There are indications that tibial shaft fractures share characteristics in terms of site, type and local fracture mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to set up a mathematical, computer-based model using finite element...

  13. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  14. Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of the tibial tubercle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, M.M.; Scully, S.P.; Pitcher, J.D.; Temple, H. Thomas [University of Miami, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, FL (United States); Azouz, E.M. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, FL (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH) is a rare skeletal dysplasia with epiphyseal involvement first described by Mouchet and Belot in 1926. Lower extremity involvement is common and might involve a single or multiple epiphyses in the affected extremity. We report an unusual case of involvement of the tibial tubercle in a girl aged 4 years 8 months, and we present the clinical, radiographic and pathologic findings. We discuss the role of MRI in the diagnosis and treatment plan. (orig.)

  15. Adventures in high energy theory and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dean Jonathan

    Various studies of high energy theory and phenomenology are presented. We first present a mechanism that naturally produces light Dirac neutrinos. The central idea is that the right-handed neutrinos are composite. Any realistic composite model must involve 'hidden flavor' chiral symmetries. In general some of these symmetries may survive confinement, and in particular, if a U(1) survives it must imply an exact B -- L symmetry at low energies. Dirac neutrinos are therefore produced, which are naturally light due to compositeness. In general, elementary keV sterile Dirac neutrinos can be a natural ingredient of this composite neutrino scenario. For a certain class of composite neutrino theories, these sterile neutrinos naturally have the appropriate mixing angles to be resonantly produced warm dark matter (WDM). Alternatively, we show these sterile neutrinos can be WDM produced by an entropy-diluted thermal freeze-out, with the necessary entropy production arising not from an out-of-equilibrium decay, but rather from the confinement of the composite neutrino sector, provided there is sufficient supercooling. We next present a formalism for the flavor oscillation of unstable particles that relies only upon the analytic structure of the time Fourier-transformed two-point function. We derive exact oscillation probability and integrated oscillation probability formulae, and verify that our results reproduce the known results for both neutrino and neutral meson oscillation in the expected regimes of parameter space. The generality of our approach permits us to investigate flavor oscillation in exotic parameter regimes, and present the corresponding oscillation formulae. Kinematic edges in cascade decays provide a probe of the masses of new particles. In some new physics scenarios the decay chain involves intermediate particles of different flavors that can mix and oscillate. We discuss the implication of such oscillation, and in particular its interplay with the non

  16. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  17. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  18. Systematic radiographic evaluation of tibial hemimelia with orthopedic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan-List, Katia [Rochester General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Rochester, NY (United States); Klionsky, Nina B. [University of Rochester Medical Center, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Golisano Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rochester, NY (United States); Sanders, James O. [University of Rochester Medical Center, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Golisano Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Rochester, NY (United States); Golisano Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rochester, NY (United States); Katz, Michael E. [St. Mary' s Medical Center and Palm Beach Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Tibial hemimelia is a rare lower-extremity pre-axial longitudinal deficiency characterized by complete or partial absence of the tibia. The reported incidence is 1 in 1 million live births. In this pictorial essay, we define tibial hemimelia and describe associated conditions and principles of preoperative imaging assessment for a child with tibial hemimelia. We also indicate the imaging findings that might influence the choice of treatment, describe the most widely used classification systems, and briefly discuss current treatment approaches. (orig.)

  19. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Tropical Island Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  20. High energy particle collisions near black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaslavskii O. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect. The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process.

  1. A new method for tibial torsion measurement by computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Madadi, Firoozeh; Maleki, Arash; Shamie, Arya Nick; Washington, Eleby Rudolph; Yazdanshenas, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is the gold standard technique for tibial torsion assessment. This study compared two methods of tibial torsion assessment and proposed a new method, which could be of value in cases of abnormal fibular changes. The CT-scanograms of 60 participants were assessed by using two different techniques, differed in determination of the distal tibial axis. The interobserver reliability was 0.861 and 0.863 in the first and second methods, respectively. The intraobserver reliability in both measurement methods was 0.868. We proposed a reliable method, independent of the fibular midpoint, in assessment of tibial torsion by CT.

  2. Radiographic features of the development of the anterior tibial tuberosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Amador, E; Davalos Herrera, D; Moreno, L Á

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the radiologic characteristics of the development of the anterior tibial tuberosity. This study aimed to evaluate the radiologic characteristics of the anterior tibial tuberosity in a pediatric population broken down into age groups. We assessed 210 plain-film X-rays of the knee from patients aged from 10 to 17 years, divided into groups according to age and sex, for the presence of ossification of the anterior tibial tuberosity, the distance between the anterior tibial tuberosity and the metaphysis, and fusion with the epiphysis. At 10 years of age, the anterior tibial tuberosity was ossified in 50% of the girls but in only 25% of the boys. In all the girls, the anterior tibial tuberosity was ossified at 11 years, fusion of the anterior tibial tuberosity with the epiphysis had started at 12 years, and fusion was complete by 17 years. In boys, the process is delayed by one year compared to girls. A single center of ossification was found in all cases. The ossification of the anterior tibial tuberosity starts distally, then the proximal part fuses with the rest of the epiphysis, and finally the distal part fuses with the tibia. The results of this study help enable a better analysis of the anterior tibial tuberosity in cases of knee pain. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Observation of high energy gamma rays in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beard, K.B.; Benenson, W.; Bloch, C.; Kashy, E.; Stevenson, J.; Morrissey, D.J.; Plicht, J. van der; Sherrill, B.; Winfield, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    High energy electrons and positrons observed in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are shown to be primarily due to the external conversion of high energy gamma rays. The reaction 14N+Cu was studied at E/A=40 MeV, and a magnetic spectrograph was used with a specially constructed multiwire

  4. High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

  5. High energy nuclear collisions: Theory overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Universe a few microseconds after the Big Bang was filled with a hot and dense phase of matter. We believe that quarks and gluons at those temperatures, above. 1012 K, were deconfined and existed as a quark gluon plasma (QGP). These ideas can be tested in collisions of nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies.

  6. The high energy source 3C 273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonmontigny, Corinna

    1990-01-01

    The properties of 3C 273 are reviewed and an attempt is made to find an answer to the question why 3C 273 is the only extragalactic source so far, which was detected at energies greater than or equal to 50 MeV.

  7. High-energy band structure of gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede

    1976-01-01

    The band structure of gold for energies far above the Fermi level has been calculated using the relativistic augmented-plane-wave method. The calculated f-band edge (Γ6-) lies 15.6 eV above the Fermi level is agreement with recent photoemission work. The band model is applied to interpret...

  8. Tibial tunnel aperture location during single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of tibial guide positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom; Hwang, Yeok-Ku; Suh, Dong-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to compare posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial tunnel location after tibial guide insertion medial (between the PCL remnant and the medial femoral condyle) and lateral (between the PCL remnant and the anterior cruciate ligament) to the PCL stump as determined by in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Tibial tunnel aperture location was analyzed by immediate postoperative in vivo CT in 66 patients who underwent single-bundle PCL reconstruction, 31 by over-the-PCL and 35 by under-the-PCL tibial guide insertion techniques. Tibial tunnel positions were measured in the medial to lateral and proximal to distal directions of the posterior proximal tibia. The center of the tibial tunnel aperture was located more laterally (by 2.7 mm) in the over-the-PCL group than in the under-the-PCL group (P = .040) and by a relative percentage (absolute value/tibial width) of 3.2% (P = .031). Tibial tunnel positions in the proximal to distal direction, determined by absolute value and relative percentage, were similar in the 2 groups. Tibial tunnel apertures were located more laterally after lateral-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion than after medial-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion. There was, however, no significant difference between these techniques in distance from the joint line to the tibial tunnel aperture. Insertion lateral to the PCL stump may result in better placement of the PCL in its anatomic footprint. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of forty five open tibial fractures covered with free flaps. Analysis of complications, microbiology and prognostic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ulrik Kähler; Juul, Rasmus; Bonde, Christian Torsten

    2015-01-01

    whether early flap coverage improved the clinical outcome and whether we could improve our antibiotic treatment of open fractures. METHODS: From 2002 to 2013 we treated 56 patients with an open tibial fracture covered with a free flap. We reviewed patient records and databases for type of trauma, smoking...... was infection, bacterial sensitivity pattern, amputation, flap failure and union of the fracture. RESULTS: When soft tissue cover was delayed beyond seven days, infection rate increased from 27 to 60 % (p trauma patients had a higher risk of amputation, infection, flap failure and non......-union. Smokers had a higher risk of non-union and flap failure. The bacteria found were often resistant to Cefuroxime, aminoglycosides or amoxicillin, but sensitive to vancomycin or meropenem. CONCLUSION: Flap cover within one week is essential to avoid infection. High-energy trauma and smoking are important...

  10. Treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marinus; Eskes, Michel; Weir, Adam; Moen, Maarten H; Backx, Frank J G; Bakker, Eric W P

    2013-12-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common exercise-induced leg injury among athletes and military personnel. Several treatment options have been described in the literature, but it remains unclear which treatment is most effective. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of any intervention in the treatment of MTSS. Published or non-published studies, reporting randomized or non-randomized controlled trials of any treatment in subjects with MTSS were eligible for inclusion. Treatments were assessed for effects on pain, time to recovery or global perceived effect. Computerized bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus) and trial registries were searched for relevant reports, from their inception to 1 June 2012. Grey literature was searched for additional relevant reports. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to appraise study quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) whereas the Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used to appraise non-randomized trials. The 'levels of evidence', according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, addressed the impact of the assessed trials. Two reviewers independently performed the search for articles, study selection, data extraction and appraised methodological quality. Eleven trials were included in this systematic review. All RCTs revealed a high risk of bias (Level 3 of evidence). Both non-randomized clinical trials were found to be of poor quality (Level 4 of evidence). RCTs, studying the effect of a lower leg brace versus no lower leg brace, and iontophoresis versus phonophoresis, were pooled using a fixed-effects model. No significant differences were found for lower leg braces (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.06; 95 % CI -0.44 to 0.32, p = 0.76), or iontophoresis (SMD 0.09; 95 % CI -0.50 to 0.68, p = 0.76). Iontophoresis, phonophoresis, ice massage, ultrasound therapy, periosteal pecking and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT

  11. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rutjes (Casper); D. Sarria (David); A.B. Skeltved (Alexander Broberg); A. Luque (Alejandro); G. Diniz (Gabriel); N. Østgaard (Nikolai); U. Ebert (Ute)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires

  12. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  13. Elasticity of the tibial nerve assessed by sonoelastography was reduced before the development of neuropathy and further deterioration associated with the severity of neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Fukashi; Taniguchi, Miki; Kojima, Rie; Kawasaki, Asami; Kosaka, Aiko; Uetake, Harumi

    2016-05-01

    To measure the elasticity of the tibial nerve using sonoelastography, and to associate it with diabetic neuropathy severity, the cross-sectional area of the tibial nerve and neurophysiological findings in type 2 diabetic patients. The elasticity of the tibial nerve was measured as the tibial nerve:acoustic coupler strain ratio using high-resolution ultrasonography in 198 type 2 diabetic patients stratified into subgroups by neuropathy severity, and 29 control participants whose age and sex did not differ from the diabetic subgroups. The elasticity of the tibial nerve in patients without neuropathy (P elasticity of the tibial nerve that suggested the presence of neuropathy was 0.558. The area under the curve (0.829) was greater than that for the cross-sectional area (0.612). The cross-sectional area of the tibial nerve in diabetic patients without neuropathy (6.11 ± 0.13 mm(2)) was larger than that in controls (4.84 ± 0.16 mm(2)), and increased relative to neuropathy severity (P elasticity of the tibial nerve was negatively associated with neuropathy severity (P elasticity of the tibial nerve in type 2 diabetic patients could reveal early biomechanical changes that were likely caused by thickened fibrous sheaths of peripheral nerves, and might be a novel tool for characterizing diabetic neuropathy.

  14. Summaries of FY 1977, research in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Research and the Division of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, provides approximately 90% of the total federal support for high energy physics research effort in the United States. The High Energy Physics Program primarily utilizes four major U.S. high energy accelerator facilities and over 50 universities under contract to do experimental and theoretical investigations on the properties, structure and transformation of matter and energy in their most basic forms. This compilation of research summaries is intended to present a convenient report of the scope and nature of high energy physics research presently funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The areas covered include conception, design, construction, and operation of particle accelerators; experimental research using the accelerators and ancillary equipment; theoretical research; and research and development programs to advance accelerator technology, particle detector systems, and data analysis capabilities. Major concepts and experimental facts in high energy physics have recently been discovered which have the promise of unifying the fundamental forces and of understanding the basic nature of matter and energy. The summaries contained in this document were reproduced in essentially the form submitted by contractors as of January 1977.

  15. Reliability and validity of measures of hammer toe deformity angle and tibial torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O Y; Tuttle, L J; Commean, P K; Mueller, M J

    2009-09-01

    Measures of second-fourth metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) angle (indicator of hammer toe deformity) and clinical measures of tibial torsion have limited evidence for validity and reliability. The purposes of this study are to determine: (1) reliability of using a 3D digitizer (Metrecom) and computed tomography (CT) to measure MTPJ angle for toes 2-4; (2) reliability of goniometer, 3D digitizer, and CT to measure tibial torsion; (3) validity of MTPJ angle measures for toes 2-4 using goniometry and 3D digitizer compared to CT (gold standard) and (4) validity of tibial torsion measures using goniometry and 3D digitizer (Metrecom) compared to CT (gold standard). Twenty-nine subjects participated in this study. 27 feet with hammer toe deformity and 31 feet without hammer toe deformity were tested using standardized gonimetric, 3D digitizer and CT methods. ICCs (3,1), standard error of the measurement (SEM) values, and difference measures were used to characterize intrarater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficients and an analysis of variance were used to determine associations and differences between the measurement techniques. 3D digitizer and CT measures of MTPJ angle had high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95-0.96 and 0.98-0.99, respectively; SEM = 2.64-3.35 degrees and 1.42-1.47 degrees, respectively). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures of tibial torsion had good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.75, 0.85, and 0.98, respectively; SEM = 2.15 degrees, 1.74 degrees, and 0.72 degree, respectively). Both goniometric and 3D digitizer measures of MTPJ angle were highly correlated with CT measures of MTPJ angle (r = 0.84-0.90, r = 0.84-0.88, respectively) and tibial torsion (r = 0.72, r = 0.83). Goniometry, 3D digitizer, and CT measures were all different from each other for measures of hammer toe deformity (p Goniometry measures were different from CT measures and 3D digitizer measures of tibial torsion (p reliable. Goniometer and 3D digitizer measures of

  16. A retrospective study of tibial plateau translation following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy stabilisation using three different plate types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, N; Corr, S A; Grierson, J; Arthurs, G

    2011-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate mediolateral translation of the proximal tibial segment (tibial plateau) after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO), stabilised with three types of plate. Pre- and postoperative radiographs of 79 dogs that had TPLO surgery using three different types of plates were reviewed. Two plate types incorporated non-locking screws: Slocum (22 cases) and Orthomed Delta (33 cases) plates. The third plate type incorporated locking screws: Synthes TPLO Locking Compression Plate (LCP) (24 cases). The radiographs were viewed by three Diplomate surgeons who were blinded to the type of implant used. Medial or lateral translation of the proximal tibial plateau relative to the tibial diaphysis was assessed and measured at the lateral tibial cortex at the osteotomy site. Mean lateral translation of the tibial plateau was significantly greater when using the Synthes TPLO LCP with locking screws (+2.1 mm) compared to the non-locking Slocum (+0.4 mm) or Orthomed Delta (0.0 mm) plates. The use of the Synthes TPLO LCP will maintain a malalignment of the tibial plateau. Accurate alignment of the tibial plateau must be ensured prior to application of the Synthes TPLO LCP.

  17. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitz, David F [Michigan Technological University; Fick, Brian E [Michigan Technological University

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  18. High-energy particles. [in Jovian magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, A. W.; Goertz, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the magnetosphere of Jupiter is in many respects quite different from that of the earth. The energy required to drive the Jovian magnetosphere is apparently extracted from Jupiter's rotational energy rather than from the solar wind. Jupiter is a strong source of energetic charged particles which can be detected as far away as the orbit of Mercury. The structure and dynamics of the energetic particle distribution in the inner magnetosphere is discussed, taking into account observations, transport and losses in the inner magnetosphere, satellite interactions, and electron synchrotron radiation. The subsolar hemisphere is considered, giving attention to particle fluxes in the subsolar magnetosphere, conditions in the middle magnetosphere, and the characteristics of the outer magnetosphere. A description of the predawn magnetosphere is also provided.

  19. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  20. Temporal optimization of ultrabroadband high-energy OPCPA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffrey Moses; Cristian Manzoni; Shu-Wei Huang; Giulio Cerullo; Franz X. Kaertner

    2009-01-01

    We present general guidelines for the design of ultrabroadband, high-energy optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers, where maximization of both conversion efficiency and bandwidth and simultaneous...

  1. Predicting the statistics of high-energy astrophysical backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyereisen, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents improvements to a methodology for predicting the probability distribution of diffuse isotropic astrophysical backgrounds, applied to high-energy extragalactic gamma rays and neutrinos.

  2. Extended Anterolateral Approach for Complex Lateral Tibial Plateau Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfuri, Mauricio; Schatzker, Joseph; Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; Giordano, Vincenzo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Stannard, James P

    2017-03-01

    Complex fractures of the lateral tibial plateau may extend to the posterior rim of the knee and to the tibial spines. Displaced fractures of the posterolateral corner of the tibial plateau may result in joint incongruity and instability, especially with the knee in flexion. Anatomical reduction of the joint surface and containment of the tibial rim are the primary goals of the treatment in such cases. Dedicated surgical approaches including dissection of the peroneal nerve, sometimes in association with an osteotomy of the fibular head are typically used to address these injuries. Some techniques require special positioning of the patient on the operative table. Anatomical studies of the knee allowed us to conclude that an osteotomy of the lateral epicondyle of the femur may be a natural extension of the standard anterolateral approach to the tibial plateau. The main advantage of this approach is the broad exposure of the lateral joint surface, allowing its anatomical reduction. It does not violate the proximal tibiofibular joint or pose a risk to the peroneal nerve. The main limitation is the lack of visualization of the posterior metaphysis of the tibia, preventing the application of a buttress plate parallel to the plane of fracture split. To overcome this limitation, we describe a method to support the posterior tibial plateau rim, in cases of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures, combining the extended anterolateral with the posteromedial approach. For selected cases, with a significant compromise of the posterolateral and anterolateral quadrants of the tibial plateau, including the tibial spines, the extended anterolateral approach may be complemented by a planned detachment of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus. In such variant, a complete exposure of the entire surface of the lateral tibial plateau and tibial spines is achievable, assuring optimal conditions for an anatomical reduction of the articular surface. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh

  3. High tonnage harvesting and skidding for loblolly pine energy plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Jernigan; Tom Gallagher; Dana Mitchell; Mathew Smidt; Larry Teeter

    2016-01-01

    The southeastern United States has a promising source for renewable energy in the form of woody biomass. To meet the energy needs, energy plantations will likely be utilized. These plantations will contain a high density of small-stem pine trees. Since the stems are relatively small when compared with traditional product removal, the harvesting costs will increase. The...

  4. Optimization of a neutron dosimeter for the high energy accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In high energy accelerator facilities the neutron radiation should be continuously measured during operation to control the ambient dose. This requires a reliable neutron dosimeter in a wide energy range. In this work we present an optimization of a compact cylindrical passive neutron dosimeter for the usage in wide energy neutron fields.

  5. Trajectories of high energy electrons in a plasma focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements are made of high-energy electron trajectories in a plasma focus as functions of position, time, energy, and angle of emission. The spatial resolution of the X-ray emission shows that low-energy X-rays are emitted from the anode surface. It is also suggested that the highest energy X-rays originate from a small region on the axis. The so-called shadow technique shows that the electron beam is perpendicular to the anode surface. Polar diagrams of medium and high-energy X-rays agree with the bremsstrahlung emission from a relativistic electron beam, the current of which is several 100 A.

  6. Estrategias de tratamiento quirúrgico en fracturas de pilón tibial de alta energía Revisión bibliográfica sistematizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Olivera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tibial plafond fractures are serious injuries affecting the epiphyseal and metaphyseal distal tibial bone. Usually they are caused by a high energy traumatic mechanism with axial compression and are often associated with soft tissue injuries. Different methods of treatment have been used depending on the type of fracture and especially the severity of soft tissue damage. The aim of our study was to review the different therapeutic strategies available for the treatment of C2 and C3 type tibial plafond fractures according to the Association of Osteosynthesis and Orthopaedic Trauma Association system, AO-OTA. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation of each strategy was determined. The search was conducted at: Medline (PubMed interface, Scopus and Cochrane Library including the last ten years studies. Eleven articles where finally selected. Given the heterogeneity of these works, we divided them into three subgroups for better assessment of the results. Open reduction and internal fixation had a lower rate of infection and nonunion, with better functional outcome. In external fixation, the use of articulated device at the ankle was not different from the non articulated ones regarding functional outcome and arthritis. The evidence is not conclusive regarding the timing of fibula fixation.

  7. Effect of medial meniscal release on tibial translation after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Antonio; Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Meadows, Cheyney; Andrews, Chad M; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical effects of medial meniscal release (MMR) and medial, caudal pole hemimeniscectomy (MCH) on joint stability in the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient canine stifle before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Experimental study. Thirty-one dogs. In experiment 1, 16 pairs of normal hindlimbs randomly assigned to an intact or transected CCL group were studied to determine the magnitude of tibial translation after MMR and MCH under 20% body weight load using radiographic imaging of radio-opaque markers. In experiment 2, 15 pairs of CCL-deficient hindlimbs were randomly assigned to a TPLO or sham TPLO group. The remainder of the experiment was performed as described for experiment 1. The effect of CCL transection, MMR, MCH and TPLO were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA; P.05). We found a greater effect of MMR in sham TPLO than TPLO stifles (P=.0013) but no further effect of MCH after MMR (P>.05). By resisting tibial translation the medial meniscus might be at greater risk of tearing in CCL-deficient stifles. TPLO may spare the medial meniscus by neutralizing the tibial thrust and eliminating the wedge effect of the medial meniscus. MMR may not be indicated in the CCL-deficient stifle stabilized by TPLO.

  8. Co-axial, high energy gamma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, Jani Petteri [Princeton, NJ; Gicquel, Frederic [Pennington, NJ

    2011-08-16

    A gamma ray generator includes an ion source in a first chamber. A second chamber is configured co-axially around the first chamber at a lower second pressure. Co-axially arranged plasma apertures separate the two chambers and provide for restricted passage of ions and gas from the first to the second chamber. The second chamber is formed by a puller electrode having at least one long channel aperture to draw ions from the first chamber when the puller electrode is subject to an appropriate applied potential. A plurality of electrodes rings in the third chamber in third pressure co-axially surround the puller electrode and have at least one channel corresponding to the at least one puller electrode aperture and plasma aperture. The electrode rings increase the energy of the ions to a selected energy in stages in passing between successive pairs of the electrodes by application of an accelerating voltage to the successive pairs of accelerator electrodes. A target disposed co-axially around the plurality of electrodes receives the beam of accelerated ions, producing gamma rays.

  9. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  10. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction by bone imprisonment | Zejjari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The radiological assessment finds imprisonment of posterior tibial tendon in the internal retromalleolar bony canal. The patient received a release of the tendon with resection of the bony canal in full. The posterior tibial tendon showed longitudinal laceration was sutured and the internal retromalleolar canal was closed.

  11. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  12. Therapeutical Management of the Tibial Plateau Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obada B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to identify the role of surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures, its functional outcome and complications. Demographic data for the patients and details of current clinical and radiological follow-up findings were obtained to assess range of motion, clinical stability, alignment of the knee, and posttraumatic arthrosis (Kellgren/Lawrence score. 64 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by different surgical methods and variuos implants type were studied from 2013 to 2015 and followed-up for minimum period of 6 months. The systematisation of the casuitry was made using Schatzker and AO classifications. The treatment methods consist of: percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, ORIF with buttress plate with or without bone grafting, locking or nonlocking plates, external fixator. As complications we found: redepression 4 case, malunion 2 cases, knee stiffness 9, wound dehiscence in 1 cases and non-union or infection in none of our cases. The average flexion of the injured knee was significantly lower in comparison with the contralateral side (124.9°/135.2°. Knee stability did not differ statistically significantly. There were no signs of posttraumatic arthrosis in 45% of cases, mild signs in 30%, clear signs in 18%, and severe signs in 7%. As conclusion we found that surgical management of tibial plateau fractures will give excellent anatomical reduction and rigid fixation to restore articular congruity, facilitate early motion and reduce arthrosis risk and hence to achieve optimal knee function. The choice of optimal surgical methods, proper approach and implant is made in relation to fracture type according Schatzker and AO classification.

  13. Operative results of closed tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Hitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of tibial plateau fractures remains challenging because of their number, variety and associated soft tissue injuries that further augment their complexity. Comparison of operative results in recent reports has been difficult due to a lack of standard fracture classification scheme and uniform standardized objective criteria for evaluating results. Methods: Between August 1998 to December 2002, 27 closed tibial plateau fractures were treated operatively using methods and principles advocated by AO/ASIF and followed up for an average of 35.74 months (range 24-68 months. Fractures were classified according to Schatzker′s staging system and results evaluated using Rasmussen′s 30-point clinical grading system and Rasmussen′s radiological evaluation of the knee at a minimum follow up of 2 years. Results: Type II was the most common fracture type (9 cases followed by type I (6 cases. There were 37% excellent and 51.85% good functional results with only 3 patients having unacceptable results. The mean Rasmussen′s functional score was 25.062 (range 15-30. Minimal fixation in comminuted or depressed fractures as compared to rigid fixation was the cause of unacceptable results. Loss of knee range of motion in a few cases was attributed to delayed knee mobilization in these cases. Using Rasmussen′s radiological grading, 2 patients had excellent results and 81.48 % patients had good results. Only 3 patients had poor radiological results. The mean Rasmussen′s radiological score was 15.33 (range 10-18. Moreover, clinical evaluation did not correlate with the follow up radiograph. Conclusion: Anatomic reduction and rigid internal fixation followed by early knee motion and partial weight bearing during bone healing are the cornerstones in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures. Standard fracture classification, uniform reporting and evaluating criteria, along with detailed analysis of uniform treatment methods, has helped us

  14. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  15. Effect of cranial tibial closing wedge angle on tibial subluxation: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelt, Detlef; Pozzi, Antonio; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Kowaleski, Michael P

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of cranial tibial wedge osteotomy (CTWO) angle on cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) and postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA). Ex vivo biomechanical study. Canine pelvic limbs (n=6). TPA determined from a lateral radiographic projection. CTS under 30% body weight load was measured from radiographs in the intact limb and after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. A CTWO equal to TPA+10 degrees was performed at the distal extent of the tibial crest, and was stabilized with a custom designed hinge plate and external skeletal fixator. TPA and CTS in the loaded limb was determined from radiographs at 4 CTWO angles: TPA-5 degrees, TPA, TPA+5 degrees, and TPA+7.5 degrees. Comparison of CTS between the intact limb and the 4 CTWO angle groups was performed using 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA and a Dunnett multiple comparison test (significance at P<.05). CTS was significantly greater than that of the intact limb in the TPA-5 degrees and TPA groups. CTS was not significantly different from the intact limb in the TPA+5 degrees or TPA+7.5 degrees groups with corresponding TPAs of 5.9 degrees and 3.8 degrees, respectively. Using this model, CTS was neutralized at a TPA of approximately 4-6 degrees with a CTWO angle between TPA+5 degrees and TPA+7.5 degrees. A CTWO angle between TPA+5 degrees and TPA+7.5 degrees is necessary to neutralize CTS and achieve a postoperative TPA of 4-6 degrees if the CTWO is performed at the distal extent of the tibial crest and the caudal cortices are aligned.

  16. Italian Meeting on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nicrosini, Oreste; Vercesi, Valerio; IFAE 2006; Incontri Di Fisica Delle Alte Energie

    2007-01-01

    This book collects the Proceedings of the Workshop ``Incontri di Fisica delle Alte Energie (IFAE) 2006, Pavia, 19-21 April 2006". This is the fifth edition of a new series of meetings on fundamental research in particle physics and was attended by more than 150 researchers. Presentations, both theoretical and experimental, addressed the status of Standard Model and Flavour phyiscs, Neutrino and Cosmological topics, new insights beyond the present understanding of particle physics and cross-fertilization in areas such as medicine, biology, technological spin-offs and computing. Special emphasis was given to the expectations of the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider, due in operation in 2007. The venue of plenary sessions interleaved with parallel ones allowed for a rich exchange of ideas, presented in these Proceedings, that form a coherent picture of the findings and of the open questions in this extremely challenging cultural field.

  17. High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the. Schrödinger equation. D YAFAEV. Department of Mathematics, University Rennes-1, Campus Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes,. France. Abstract. We find an explicit function approximating at high energies the kernel of the scattering matrix with arbitrary accuracy.

  18. Participation in High Energy Physics at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinec, Emil J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    2013-06-27

    This report covers research at the University of Chicago in theoretical high energy physics and its connections to cosmology, over the period Nov. 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. This research is divided broadly into two tasks: Task A, which covers a broad array of topics in high energy physics; and task C, primarily concerned with cosmology.

  19. CZT drift strip detectors for high energy astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Caroli, E.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for X- and gamma ray detectors for future High Energy Astrophysics missions include high detection efficiency and good energy resolution as well as fine position sensitivity even in three dimensions.We report on experimental investigations on the CZT drift detector developed DTU Space...

  20. Space and Astrophysical Plasmas: High energy universe–Satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A variety of satellite missions to observe the high energy universe are currently operating and some more with more versatility and capability are on the anvil. In this paper, after giving a brief introduction to the constituents of the high energy universe and the related plasma physical problems, general as well as specific ...

  1. Metal azides under pressure: An emerging class of high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal azides are well-known for their explosive properties such as detonation or deflagration. As chemically pure sources of nitrogen, alkali metal azides under high pressure have the ability to form polymeric nitrogen, an ultimate green high energy density material with energy density three times greater than that of known ...

  2. Crystal collimator systems for high energy frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytov, A. I.; Tikhomirov, V. V.; Lobko, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    Crystalline collimators can potentially considerably improve the cleaning performance of the presently used collimator systems using amorphous collimators. A crystal-based collimation scheme which relies on the channeling particle deflection in bent crystals has been proposed and extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, since the efficiency of particle capture into the channeling regime does not exceed ninety percent, this collimation scheme partly suffers from the same leakage problems as the schemes using amorphous collimators. To improve further the cleaning efficiency of the crystal-based collimation system to meet the requirements of the FCC, we suggest here a double crystal-based collimation scheme, to which the second crystal is introduced to enhance the deflection of the particles escaping the capture to the channeling regime in its first crystal. The application of the effect of multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal and of the same in a sequence of crystals is simulated and compared for different crystal numbers and materials at the energy of 50 TeV. To enhance also the efficiency of use of the first crystal of the suggested double crystal-based scheme, we propose: the method of increase of the probability of particle capture into the channeling regime at the first crystal passage by means of fabrication of a crystal cut and the method of the amplification of nonchanneled particle deflection through the multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal, accompanying the particle channeling by a skew plane. We simulate both of these methods for the 50 TeV FCC energy.

  3. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  4. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Galbraith, R. Michael; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as ?shin splints,? is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330?339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35?50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845?849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS ...

  5. Influence of high energy electrons on ECRH in LHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogasawara S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The central bulk electron temperature of more than 20 keV is achieved in LHD as a result of increasing the injection power and the lowering the electron density near 2 × 1018 m−3. Such collision-less regime is important from the aspect of the neoclassical transport and also the potential structure formation. The presences of appreciable amount of high energy electrons are indicated from hard X-ray PHA, and the discrepancy between the stored energy and kinetic energy estimated from Thomson scattering. ECE spectrum are also sensitive to the presence of high energy electrons and discussed by solving the radiation transfer equation. The ECRH power absorption to the bulk and the high energy electrons are dramatically affected by the acceleration and the confinement of high energy electrons. The heating mechanisms and the acceleration process of high energy electrons are discussed by comparing the experimental results and the ray tracing calculation under assumed various density and mean energy of high energy electrons.

  6. Surface pretreatment for prolonged survival of cemented tibial prosthesis components: full- vs. surface-cementation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niethard Fritz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of few persisting problems of cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA is aseptic loosening of tibial component due to degradation of the interface between bone cement and metallic tibial shaft component, particularly for surface cemented tibial components. Surface cementation technique has important clinical meaning in case of revision and for avoidance of stress shielding. Degradation of the interface between bone cement and bone may be a secondary effect due to excessive crack formation in bone cement starting at the opposite metallic surface. Methods This study was done to prove crack formation in the bone cement near the metallic surface when this is not coated. We propose a newly developed coating process by PVD layering with SiOx to avoid that crack formation in the bone cement. A biomechanical model for vibration fatigue test was done to simulate the physiological and biomechanical conditions of the human knee joint and to prove excessive crack formation. Results It was found that coated tibial components showed a highly significant reduction of cement cracking near the interface metal/bone cement (p Conclusion Coating dramatically reduces hydrolytic- and stress-related crack formation at the prosthesis interface metal/bone cement. This leads to a more homogenous load transfer into the cement mantle which should reduce the frequency of loosening in the interfaces metal/bone cement/bone. With surface coating of the tibial component it should become possible that surface cemented TKAs reveal similar loosening rates as TKAs both surface and stem cemented. This would be an important clinical advantage since it is believed that surface cementing reduces metaphyseal bone loss in case of revision and stress shielding for better bone health.

  7. Sustaining high-energy orbits of bi-stable energy harvesters by attractor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Janav P.; Arrieta, Andres F.

    2017-11-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters have the potential to efficiently convert energy over a wide frequency range; however, difficulties in attaining and sustaining high-energy oscillations restrict their applicability in practical scenarios. In this letter, we propose an actuation methodology to switch the state of bi-stable harvesters from the low-energy intra-well configuration to the coexisting high-energy inter-well configuration by controlled phase shift perturbations. The strategy is designed to introduce a change in the system state without creating distinct metastable attractors by exploiting the basins of attraction of the coexisting stable attractors. Experimental results indicate that the proposed switching strategy yields a significant improvement in energy transduction capabilities, is highly economical, enabling the rapid recovery of energy spent in the disturbance, and can be practically implemented with widely used low-strain piezoelectric transducers.

  8. Electron clouds in high energy hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor

    2013-08-29

    The formation of electron clouds in accelerators operating with positrons and positively charge ions is a well-known problem. Depending on the parameters of the beam the electron cloud manifests itself differently. In this thesis the electron cloud phenomenon is studied for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) conditions, and for the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-100 as a part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the FAIR conditions the extensive use of slow extraction will be made. After the acceleration the beam will be debunched and continuously extracted to the experimental area. During this process, residual gas electrons can accumulate in the electric field of the beam. If this accumulation is not prevented, then at some point the beam can become unstable. Under the SPS and LHC conditions the beam is always bunched. The accumulation of electron cloud happens due to secondary electron emission. At the time when this thesis was being written the electron cloud was known to limit the maximum intensity of the two machines. During the operation with 25 ns bunch spacing, the electron cloud was causing significant beam quality deterioration. At moderate intensities below the instability threshold the electron cloud was responsible for the bunch energy loss. In the framework of this thesis it was found that the instability thresholds of the coasting beams with similar space charge tune shifts, emittances and energies are identical. First of their kind simulations of the effect of Coulomb collisions on electron cloud density in coasting beams were performed. It was found that for any hadron coasting beam one can choose vacuum conditions that will limit the accumulation of the electron cloud below the instability threshold. We call such conditions the ''good'' vacuum regime. In application to SIS-100 the design pressure 10{sup -12} mbar corresponds to the good vacuum regime. The transition to the bad vacuum

  9. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  10. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  11. Highly efficient distributed generation and high-capacity energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmes, Kas; Guerrero, Josep M.; Zhelev, Toshko

    2012-01-01

    and solar that deliver electricity to the grid. Solution directions are the development of smart grids, demand side management, virtual power plants and storage of electricity. These are directions that, rightly so, are already attracting a lot of attention and R&D funding. In this paper critical issues......With the growing amount of decentralized power production the design and operation of the grid has to be reconsidered. New problems include the two-way flow of electricity and maintaining the power balance given the increased amount of uncertain and fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind...... are identified and specified. However, we will also explore new solution directions based on an integrative approach as proposed by the Dutch Royal Academy of Science foresight committee on renewable energy conversions. These alternative solutions include flexible coproduction and local production of chemicals...

  12. High-energy photoproduction of neutral mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Charity, Tim

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents results from the first full period of data-taking of the experiment WA69 at the Omega^'^ectrometer, CERN, Geneva. The experiment used a tagged photon beam of energy 60-180 GeV incident on a liquid hydrogen target to study photoproduction of hadronic states. The various components of the experiment are described, with particular emphasis on the electromagnetic calorimeters, and the associated offline software for event reconstruction and acceptance calculation. The performance of the outer calorimeter is discussed, and the pi^0 detection and reconstruction efficiency is examined by comparison with pi^{+/- } production. Searches for photoproduction of neutral meson states reveal a clear signal for the pi^0, eta^0 , and omega^0 mesons. The cross-section for elastic omega^0 production is estimated, and found to be consistent with the established value of 1 mub. The cross-section for inclusive pi^0 and eta^0 production is studied using the variable Feynman-x (x_{F }), and pi^0 production as a ...

  13. High Energy Computed Tomographic Inspection of Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Picatinny scientists test body armor integrity, protect Soldiers’ lives,” http://www.army.mil/ article /94448, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, 2013. 2. Youngberg, J...The citation in this report of the names of commercial firms or commercially available products or services does not constitute official endorsement by...munitions and weapon systems. In many cases, the use of CT is overlooked or discounted due to its lack of use in high throughput production settings

  14. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  15. Retrograde tibial nailing: a minimally invasive and biomechanically superior alternative to angle-stable plate osteosynthesis in distal tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Sebastian; Appelmann, Philipp; Mehler, Dorothea; Pairon, Philip; Rommens, Pol M

    2014-05-13

    Currently, antegrade intramedullary nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) represent the main surgical alternatives in distal tibial fractures. However, neither choice is optimal for all bony and soft tissue injuries. The Retrograde Tibial Nail (RTN) is a small-caliber prototype implant, which is introduced through a 2-cm-long incision at the tip of the medial malleolus with stab incisions sufficient for interlocking. During this project, we investigated the feasibility of retrograde tibial nailing in a cadaver model and conducted biomechanical testing. Anatomical implantations of the RTN were carried out in AO/OTA 43 A1-3 fracture types in three cadaveric lower limbs. Biomechanical testing was conducted in an AO/OTA 43 A3 fracture model for extra-axial compression, torsion, and destructive extra-axial compression. Sixteen composite tibiae were used to compare the RTN against an angle-stable plate osteosynthesis (Medial Distal Tibial Plate, Synthes®). Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test. Retrograde intramedullary nailing is feasible in simple fracture types by closed manual reduction and percutaneous reduction forceps, while in highly comminuted fractures, the use of a large distractor can aid the reduction. Biomechanical testing shows a statistically superior stability (p maximum soft tissue protection by a minimally invasive surgical approach with the ability of secure fracture fixation by multiple locking options. Retrograde tibial nailing with the RTN is a promising concept in the treatment of distal tibia fractures.

  16. Characteristics of unilateral tibial plateau fractures among adult patients hospitalized at an orthopaedic trauma centre in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Liao, Zhengwen; Shang, Lei; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Dawei; Pei, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of unilateral tibial plateau fractures among hospitalized adult patients in Xijing Hospital, to evaluate the accuracy of Schatzker classification system and AO/OTA classification system to tibial plateau fractures. We retrospectively analysed clinical data on 274 patients admitted to Xijing Hospital between September 2006 and August 2015. The patients’ demographic characteristics, admission periods and seasons, external causes and fracture types were recorded and summarized. Then the characteristics of tibial plateau fractures and the accuracy rate of these two classification systems were analysed. Schatzker type II fractures and AO/OTA type 41-B3 fractures were the most common types. The external causes differed between genders, types of employment, urban-rural residents and both two systems. In addition, some fractures were difficult to classify using Schatzker or AO/OTA classification system. Rural male physical labourers aged between 30–59 years-old were most likely to suffer from unilateral tibial plateau fractures, due to traffic accidents, falls and indoor activity injuries, or falls from height. We should pay more attention to the related people and professions, which contributed to the high occurrence of tibial plateau fractures. Besides that, further improvements are required for both Schatzker and AO/OTA classification systems. PMID:28074894

  17. High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Barton [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing”, SC0003922/FG02-10ER25940, UW PRJ27NU.

  18. School for Young High Energy Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, M E

    2003-01-01

    Forty-seven experimental particle physicists attended the 2002 Summer School, held, as usual, at The Cosener's House in Abingdon during September. The weather was glorious allowing a number of tutorials and impromptu seminars to take place in the lovely gardens. The lectures were of a high standard and were delivered and received enthusiastically, providing material for lively discussions in tutorials and elsewhere. The students each gave a ten-minute seminar and the general quality of the talks was impressive and the time keeping excellent. The activities described ranged from front-line physics analysis to preparations for the next generation of machines and detectors, and gave a clear indication of the breadth of particle physics activities in the UK

  19. High-energy drinks may provoke aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonjev, Zivojin S; Bala, Gustav

    2013-05-01

    High-energy drinks have become extremely popular after Red Bull's promotion at 1987 in Austria and 1997 in the United States. Since then, we witnessed spectacular increase in different brands, caffeine content and market consumption all over the world. However, there are no reports published in the scientific literature related with detrimental side effects after heavy consumption of high-energy drinks. We report a series of three high-risk cardiovascular patients who had aortic dissection (De Bakey type I and II) following significant consumption of high-energy drinks. All of them required emergency surgical procedure and were remaining stable after surgery. We propose that uncontrolled consumption of high-energy drinks, especially in patients with underlying heart disease, could provoke potentially lethal cardiovascular events as well as acute aortic dissection.

  20. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE...MM-YYYY)   14-03-2017 2. REPORT TYPE  Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  01 May 2013 to 31 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High energy ion acceleration...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 3/15/2017https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll 1 HIGH ENERGY ION ACCELERATION BY

  1. High-Energy-Density Physics at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    At modern laser facilities, energy densities ranging from 1 Mbar to many hundreds of gigabars can regularly be achieved. These high-energy states of matter last for mere moments, measured in nanoseconds to tens of picoseconds, but during those times numerous high-precision instruments can be employed, revealing remarkable compressed matter physics, radiation-hydrodynamics physics, laser-matter interaction physics, and nuclear physics processes. We review the current progress of high-energy-density physics at the National Ignition Facility and describe the underlying physical principles.

  2. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    OpenAIRE

    Cutroneo Mariapompea; Torrisi Lorenzo; Ullschmied Jiri; Dudzak Roman

    2016-01-01

    The laser-matter interaction using nominal laser intensity above 1015 W/cm2 generates in vacuum non-equilibrium plasmas accelerating ions at energies from tens keV up to hundreds MeV. From thin targets, using the TNSA regime, plasma is generated in the forward direction accelerating ions above 1 MeV per charge state and inducing high-ionization states. Generally, the ion energies follow a Boltzmann-like distribution characterized by a cutoff at high energy and by a Coulomb-shift towards high ...

  3. High-current pulses from inductive energy stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipf, S. L.

    1981-11-01

    Superconducting inductive energy stores can be used for high power pulse supplies if a suitable current multiplication scheme is used. The concept of an inductive Marx generator is superior to a transformer. A third scheme, a variable flux linkage device, is suggested; in multiplying current it also compresses energy. Its function is in many ways analogous to that of a horsewhip. Superconductor limits indicate that peak power levels of TW can be reached for stored energies above 1 MJ.

  4. Robust Energy Management for Microgrids With High-Penetration Renewables

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Gatsis, Nikolaos; Georgios B. Giannakis

    2012-01-01

    Due to its reduced communication overhead and robustness to failures, distributed energy management is of paramount importance in smart grids, especially in microgrids, which feature distributed generation (DG) and distributed storage (DS). Distributed economic dispatch for a microgrid with high renewable energy penetration and demand-side management operating in grid-connected mode is considered in this paper. To address the intrinsically stochastic availability of renewable energy sources (...

  5. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. High-Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Usov, Vladimir V.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars is investigated in a model for acceleration and pair cascades on open field lines above the polar caps. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, but the majority do not produce sufficient pairs to completely screen the accelerating electric field. In these sources, the primary and secondary electrons continue to accelerate to high altitude and their Lorentz factors are limited by curvature and synchrotron radiation reaction. The accelerating particles maintain high Lorentz factors and undergo cyclotron resonant absorption of radio emission, that produces and maintains a large pitch angle, resulting in a strong synchrotron component. The resulting spectra consist of several distinct components: curvature radiation from primary electrons dominating from 1 - 100 GeV, synchrotron radiation from primary and secondary electrons dominating up to about 100 MeV, and much weaker inverse-Compton radiation from primary electrons a t 0.1 - 1 TeV. We find that the relative size of these components depends on pulsar period, period derivative, and neutron star mass and radius with the level of the synchrotron component also depending sensitively on the radio emission properties. This model is successful in describing the observed X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of PSR J0218+4232 as synchrotron radiation, peaking around 100 MeV and extending up to a turnover around several GeV. The predicted curvature radiation components from a number of millisecond pulsars, as well as the collective emission from the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, should be detectable with AGILE and GLAST. We also discuss a hidden population of X-ray-quiet and radio-quiet millisecond pulsars which have evolved below the pair death line, some of which may be detectable by telescopes sensitive above 1 GeV. Subject headings: pulsars: general

  7. Load along the tibial shaft during activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2014-03-21

    External load at the tibia during activities of daily living provides baseline measures for the improvement of the design of the bone-implant interface for relevant internal and external prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate three-dimensional forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the tibial shaft. Twenty young and able-bodied volunteers were analysed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, in a straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stair ascending and descending, squatting, rising from a chair and sitting down. Moment and force patterns were normalised to the percentage of body weight per height and body weight, respectively, and then averaged over all subjects for each point, about the three tibial anatomical axes, and for each task. Load patterns were found to be consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes, tasks and points. Generally, moments were higher in the medio/lateral axis and influenced by walking speed. In all five walking tasks and in ascending stairs with alternating feet, the more proximal the point was the smaller the mean moment was. For the remaining tasks the opposite trend was observed. The overall largest value was observed in the medio/lateral direction at the ankle centre in level walking at high speed (9.1% body weight * height on average), nearly three times larger than that of the anterior/posterior axis (2.9) during level walking with a sidestep turn. The present results should be of value also for in-vitro mechanical tests and finite element models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High Voltage in Noble Liquids for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebel, B. [Fermilab; Bernard, E. [Yale U.; Faham, C. H. [LBL, Berkeley; Ito, T. M. [Los Alamos; Lundberg, B. [Maryland U.; Messina, M. [Columbia U.; Monrabal, F. [Valencia U., IFIC; Pereverzev, S. P. [LLNL, Livermore; Resnati, F. [Zurich, ETH; Rowson, P. C. [SLAC; Soderberg, M. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Bern U.; Tomas, A. [Imperial Coll., London; Va' vra, J. [SLAC; Wang, H. [UCLA

    2014-08-22

    A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

  9. Indonesian residential high rise buildings: A life cycle energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utama, Agya; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    This study evaluates the effect of building envelopes on the life cycle energy consumption of high rise residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. For high rise residential buildings, the enclosures contribute 10-50% of the total building cost, 14-17% of the total material mass and 20-30% of the total heat gain. The direct as well as indirect influence of the envelope materials plays an important role in the life cycle energy consumption of buildings. The initial embodied energy of typical double wall and single wall envelopes for high residential buildings is 79.5 GJ and 76.3 GJ, respectively. Over an assumed life span of 40 years, double walls have better energy performance than single walls, 283 GJ versus 480 GJ, respectively. Material selection, which depends not only on embodied energy but also thermal properties, should, therefore, play a crucial role during the design of buildings. (author)

  10. Cosmogenic neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic ray models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, R.; Petrera, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Boncioli, D.; Grillo, A.F. [INFN/Laboratori Nazionali Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Di Matteo, A. [INFN and Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy); Salamida, F., E-mail: aloisio@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: denise.boncioli@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: armando.dimatteo@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: aurelio.grillo@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: sergio.petrera@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: salamida@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris 11, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2015-10-01

    We use an updated version of SimProp, a Monte Carlo simulation scheme for the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, to compute cosmogenic neutrino fluxes expected on Earth in various scenarios. These fluxes are compared with the newly detected IceCube events at PeV energies and with recent experimental limits at EeV energies of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This comparison allows us to draw some interesting conclusions about the source models for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We will show how the available experimental observations are almost at the level of constraining such models, mainly in terms of the injected chemical composition and cosmological evolution of sources. The results presented here will also be important in the evaluation of the discovery capabilities of the future planned ultra-high energy cosmic ray and neutrino observatories.

  11. Study of High Energy Positron Annihilation in GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Chikuma, Naruhiro

    2014-01-01

    A high energy positron may annihilate with an electron in atoms not only into two photons, but also into muon pairs or hadrons if the energy is over the energy threshold, 43.69 GeV in laboratory frame with electrons at rest. This report shows modication of high energy electromagnetic processes in GEANT4(version 10.01.b01) in order to include these annihilation processes properly, validation of GEANT4 cross-sections of these processes by theoretical calculation, and the results of simulation for high energy processes in a simple setup. As a results of simulation, both of annihilation to muon pairs and to hadrons happen by the probability of 10-6 to 10-5.

  12. Do ethnicity and gender influence posterior tibial slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Scordo, Gavinca M; Prins, Johan; Tudisco, Cosimo

    2017-12-01

    Ethnicity and gender can affect posterior tibial slope; however, studies on this topic have limitations and are in disagreement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate posterior tibial slope in a large group of consecutive patients, determining whether ethnicity and gender can influence its value. Secondly, to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability of the two radiographic methods adopted. Posterior tibial slope was calculated (rater 1) in lateral view X-rays of the knee according to the posterior tibial cortex (PTC) and tibial proximal anatomical axis (TPAA) methods. Data were matched with ethnicity and gender. For determination of intra- and inter-rater reliability, 50 random X-rays were selected, and blindly measured by two other raters (2 and 3). A total of 581 radiographs were included (413 white and 168 black knees). Comparing white and black subjects, a statistically significant difference was found for both PTC (4.9 ± 1.2 vs 7.1 ± 2.9, p methods for rater 1, and very good for rater 2. Inter-rater reliability among the 3 raters was very good for both methods. Differences in posterior tibial slope between different ethnic groups exist. Differences observed between genders are conflicting and might be too small to have implications in clinical practice. The TPAA method is recommended for the evaluation of posterior tibial slope because of higher intra- and inter-rater reliability. Level of evidence 3 Case-control study.

  13. Crack formation and fracture energy of normal and high strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The crack path through composite materials such as concrete depends on the mechanical interaction of inclusions with the cement-based matrix. Fracture energy depends on the deviations of a real crack from an idealized crack plane. Fracture energy and strain softening of normal, high strength, and self- ...

  14. On the bremsstrahlung background correction to the high-energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A methodology for bremsstrahlung (BS) background correction to extract a true Compton profile in high-energy Compton scattering experiments is presented. The BS background profiles for Hg, computed within the Born approximation, are estimated for different values of incident energy. It is seen for the first time that the BS ...

  15. High energy astrophysical neutrino flux and modified dispersion relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, J. L. Bazo; Bustamante, M.; Gago, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the interest in searches for violation of CPT invariance, we study its possible effects in the flavour ratios of high-energy neutrinos coming from cosmic accelerators. In particular, we focus on the effect of an energy independent new physics contribution to the neutrino flavour osci...

  16. On the bremsstrahlung background correction to the high-energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A methodology for bremsstrahlung (BS) background correction to extract a true Compton profile in high-energy Compton scattering experiments is presented. The. BS background profiles for Hg, computed within the Born approximation, are estimated for different values of incident energy. It is seen for the first time ...

  17. Working group report: High energy and collider physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Rishikesh Vaidya20. 1Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005, India ... The projects undertaken in the working group I on high energy and collider physics can be classified into (i) Higgs ...... lous couplings for realistic polarization and integrated luminosity at a design LC energy of √s = 500 GeV.

  18. High Energy Charged Particles in Space at One Astronomical Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feynman, J.; Gabriel, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    Single event effects and many other spacecraft anomalies are caused by positively charged high energy particles impinging on the vehicle and its component parts. Reviewed here are the current knowledge of the interplanetary particle environment in the energy ranges that are most important for these effects. State-of-the-art engineering models are briefly described along with comments on the future work required.

  19. PCL tibial avulsion with an associated medial meniscal tear in a child: a case report on diagnosis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries from tibial avulsions are rare in the paediatric setting. One would need a high index of suspicion as clinical examination may be difficult, especially in the early period. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent diagnostic modality for this condition and other associated injuries within the knee. We report a rare case in which the patient had a PCL avulsion off the tibial insertion site with an associated posterior horn medial meniscal tear off the posterior capsule. He was treated through open reduction and internal fixation of the avulsed fragment with suture repair of the meniscal tear. We emphasize the importance of diagnosing and managing associated intra-articular injuries when dealing with the rare condition of PCL tibial avulsion in the paediatric setting.

  20. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  1. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghen, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e{sup +} e{sup -} interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given.

  2. The role of technology in high-energy research

    CERN Document Server

    Carreras, Rafel

    1974-01-01

    A brief survey of the activities of CERN is presented, and examples of technological problems occurring in the performance of high-energy physics experiments are given. The main fields discussed are: acceleration, production of particles, detectors, and data handling.

  3. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, J.L.; Martinec, E.J.; Sachs, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses research being done at the University of Chicago in High Energy Physics. Some topic covered are: CP violation; intermediate vector bosons; string models; supersymmetry; and rare decay of kaons. (LSP)

  4. Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeffrey P. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Golterman, Maarten F.L. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.

  5. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  6. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  7. Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Ryul; Song, Ji Hun; Lee, Ju Hong [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jeonju (Korea); Lee, Sang Yong [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jeonju (Korea); Yoo, Wan Hee [Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Department of Rheumatology, Jeonju (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

  8. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  9. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ....... Complementary information is obtained by post mortem electron microscopy on the same sample volume previously investigated by HEDM....

  10. 11th Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    SILAFAE is one of the premier series of international meetings – High energy physics in Latin America. The present edition will be held in the city of Antigua Guatemala, from November 14 - 18th 2016. The program contains plenary talks aimed at reviewing the status of the recent advances in frontier topics in High Energy Physics, both theoretical and experimental. It also includes parallel sessions of specialized talks.

  11. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  12. High Energy Density Capacitors for Pulsed Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    resistor in terms of shock and vibration, mounting requirements, total volume, system reliability, and cost. All of these parameters were improved...protection from shock and vibration on a deployed system. III. STATE OF THE ART FOR HIGH ENERGY DENSITY CAPACITOR AND NEAR TERM PROJECTIONS The...it t tipo ymer m qua y an capac or cons ruc on. Energy Density of 10,000 Shot High Efficiency Pulse Power Capacitors The primary driver was 1 5

  13. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  14. ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel provides equal stability compared to two tibial tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Björn Holger; Seitz, Andreas Martin; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel displays the same in vitro stability as a conventional double-bundle reconstruction with two tibial tunnels when using the same tensioning protocol. In 11 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one and two tibial tunnels was performed. The two grafts were tightened using 80 N in different flexion angles (anteromedial-bundle at 60° and posterolateral-bundle at 15°). Anterior tibial translation (134 N) and translation with combined rotatory and valgus loads (10 Nm valgus stress and 4 Nm internal tibial torque) were determined at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° flexion. Measurements were taken in intact ACL, resected ACL, three-tunnel reconstruction and four-tunnel reconstruction. Additionally, the tension on the grafts was determined. Student's t test was performed for statistical analysis of the related samples. Significance was set at p tunnels in different flexion angles achieved comparable restoration of stability, although there was different load sharing on the bundles. With regard to individualized ACL reconstruction, the double-bundle technique with one tibial tunnel offers a possibility to address small tibial insertion sites without compromising the advantages of a double-bundle procedure.

  15. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  16. Searching for ultra-high energy cosmic rays with smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteson, Daniel; Mulhearn, Michael; Shimmin, Chase; Cranmer, Kyle; Brodie, Kyle; Burns, Dustin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for observing cosmic rays at ultra-high energy (>1018 eV) by repurposing the existing network of smartphones as a ground detector array. Extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays produce muons and high-energy photons, which can be detected by the CMOS sensors of smartphone cameras. The small size and low efficiency of each sensor is compensated by the large number of active phones. We show that if user adoption targets are met, such a network will have significant observing power at the highest energies.

  17. Energy sources of the high latitude upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodynamic (Joule) dissipation and plasma wave heating are reviewed as sources of energy for the upper atmosphere at high latitudes. Electrodynamic heating in the thermosphere is described by a generalized energy balance equation taking into account a variety of inelastic processes and energy losses, and the use of height-integrated values of the Joule heating rate to estimate the importance of electrodynamic heating at high latitudes is discussed. Observations of electrons between 95 and 115 km altitude that are up to 1000 K hotter than the neutral atmosphere is presented as evidence for atmospheric heating due to unstable plasma waves arising from the Farley-Buneman modified two-stream instability.

  18. Oxygen supplementation facilitating successful prosthetic fitting and rehabilitation of a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease following trans-tibial amputation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dysvascular amputations are increasingly performed in patients with underlying cardiac and pulmonary disorders. A limb prosthesis is rarely offered to patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease because of their inability to achieve the high energy expenditure required for prosthetic ambulation. We describe a case of successful prosthetic fitting and rehabilitation of a patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with the aid of oxygen supplementation. Case presentation A 67-year-old aboriginal woman with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic respiratory failure underwent right trans-tibial (below the knee amputation for severe foot gangrene. An aggressive rehabilitation program of conditioning exercises and gait training utilizing oxygen therapy was initiated. She was custom-fitted with a right trans-tibial prosthesis. A rehabilitation program improved her strength, endurance and stump contracture, and she was able to walk for short distances with the prosthesis. The motion analysis studies showed a cadence of 73.5 steps per minute, a velocity of 0.29 meters per second and no difference in right and left step time and step length. Conclusion This case report illustrates that patients with significant severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can be successfully fitted with limb prostheses and undergo rehabilitation using supplemental oxygen along with optimization of their underlying comorbidities. Despite the paucity of published information in this area, prosthesis fitting and rehabilitation should be considered in patients who have undergone amputation and have severe chronic obstructive disease.

  19. EARLY MANAGEMENT OF OPEN TIBIAL FRACTURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    As with any case it is essential to try to obtain the maximum amount of informa- tion regarding the mechanism of injury, which can give a good idea of the amount of energy transferred. Fractures may be missed in the presence of other more major injuries, altered level of consciousness, etc. Specific factors leading to a high ...

  20. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Nakane, Y; Sakamoto, Y

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable...

  1. CALET: High energy cosmic ray observatory on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masaki; CALET Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET will be launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in 2014. The instrument will be robotically emplaced upon the Exposed Facility attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF). CALET is a calorimeter based instrument which will have superior energy resolution and excellent separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays in the GeV to trans-TeV energy range. CALET will address many questions in high energy astrophysics, including (1) the nature of the sources of high energy particles and photons, through the high energy electron spectrum, (2) signatures of dark matter, in either the high energy electron or gamma ray spectrum, (3) the details of particle propagation in the Galaxy, by a combination of energy spectrum measurements of electrons, protons and highercharged nuclei. In this paper the outline and current status of CALET are summarized.

  2. Ectopic calcification following tibial fracture: property analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, S.; Hata, Y.; Murakami, N.; Seki, H.; Miyauchi, S.; Takaoka, K. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We present a patient whose ectopic calcification following deep posterior compartment syndrome was studied by electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and X-ray diffraction. The patient complained of a toe flexion deformity following a tibial fracture which he sustained 18 years earlier. Damage to the peroneal artery was demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography, suggesting that the patient had had deep posterior compartment syndro-me in the past. A large radiopaque mass, identified in the flexor hallucis longus muscle by radiographs and computed tomography, was resected, resulting in a dramatic improvement of the toe deformity. The resected material was analyzed in detail. It included no osseous tissue, and was not birefringent under a polarizing microscope, being compatible with ectopic calcification rather than ossification. On electron microscopy the material was found to be an assembly of tiny rods. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses suggested a carbonate-containing apatite as the most probable substance. (orig.)

  3. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  4. Forefoot flexibility and medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Shintarou; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and morphology and flexibility of the foot arches. 131 feet from 74 healthy subjects and 31 feet from 27 patients with MTSS were classified as normal feet (n=78 in 40 subjects), flat feet (n=53 in 34 subjects), or MTSS feet (n=31 in 27 patients). The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) ratio and the transverse arch length (TAL) were measured in both rearfoot and forefoot loading positions. The difference between the 2 positions indicated the flexibility of the MLA (diff-MLA ratio) and the transverse arch (diff- TAL). The MLA ratio was higher in normal feet than MTSS feet or flat feet (15.1% vs. 12.8% vs. 12.3%, prisk factors for MTSS. In contrast, the flexibility of the MLA and the height of the transverse arch were not risk factors for MTSS.

  5. High energy high intensity coherent photon beam for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    What is proposed for the 20 TeV protons hitting a fixed target is to make a tertiary electron beam similar to that which is the basis of the tagged photon beam at Fermilab. Briefly, a zero degree neutral beam is formed by sweeping out the primary proton beam and any secondary charged particles. Then the photons, from the decay of ..pi../sup 0/ in the neutral beam, are converted to e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs in a lead converter and a high quality electron beam is formed. This beam is brought to the target area where it is converted to a photon beam by Bremsstrahlung in a radiator.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  7. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  8. Percutaneous plating of distal tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Amal; Liebergall, Meir; London, Eli; Mosheiff, Rami

    2002-09-01

    This article presents our experience with 24 patients who had distal tibial fractures and were treated by percutaneous plate fixation. Distribution of the fractures according to the AO/OTA classification was as follows: five patients suffered from a 43 A type fracture, six from a 43 B type fracture, and 13 from a 43 C type fractures. Four of the fractures were open. Exclusion criteria included 43 C3 fractures and Gustilo III open fractures. All fractures showed radiographic signs of union enough to enable full weightbearing within an average time of 12.3 weeks. All patients showed a good range of motion (average dorsiflexion 12 degrees and average plantiflexion 18 degrees). Two fractures united with mal-union: one with an 8 degrees valgus deformity and another with a 7 degrees varus deformity. Both cases, which had a metaphyseal component, were treated by means of a "soft" (flexible and manually adjustable) AO 3.5 mm reconstruction plate. Except for one case of superficial infection, no infections were detected in any of the patients. The biological percutaneous plate fixation of distal tibial fractures with no extensive intra-articular involvement is a good soft tissue preserving technique. It provides a rigid and anatomical fixation in most cases. We conclude that type B fractures with one intact column can be fixed with either "soft" or "rigid" plates, and type A and C fractures with a metaphyseal component should be fixed with "rigid" plates (AO 4.5 mm Dynamic Compression Plate). In these fractures the reduction should be performed cautiously due to the tendency of sagittal plane mal-reduction.

  9. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  10. High-energy X-ray spectra of five sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, G. R.; Mcclintock, J. E.; Gerassimenko, M.; Lewin , W. H. G.

    1973-01-01

    On October 15-16, 1970, we carried out balloon X-ray observations from Australia at energies above 15 keV. We present the high-energy X-ray spectra of three sources discovered by us, GX 301-2, GX 304-1, and GX 1 + 4. The data suggest that these high-energy sources correspond to the sources 2U 1223-62, 2U 1258-61, and 2U 1728-24 respectively. We also present the spectra for two additional sources, GX 5-1 (2U 1757-25) and GX 3 + 1 (2U 1744-26). The average intensity of the highly variable source GX 301-2 was observed to be as great as Tau X-1 in the energy range 15-50 keV.

  11. Spectral shape variation of interstellar electrons at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The high energy electron spectrum analysis has shown that the electron intensity inside the H2 cloud region, or in a spiral arm, should be much lower than that outside it and the observed electron energy spectrum should flatten again at about 1 TeV. In the framework of the leady box model the recently established rigidity dependence of the escape pathlength of cosmic rays would predict a high energy electron spectrum which is flatter than the observed one. This divergence is explained by assuming that the leaky box model can only apply to cosmic ray heavy nuclei, and light nuclei and electrons in cosmic rays may have different behaviors in the interstellar propagation. Therefore, the measured data on high energy electrons should be analyzed based on the proposed nonuniform galactic disk (NUGD) mode.

  12. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  13. Is There A Difference in Bone Ingrowth in Modular Versus Monoblock Porous Tantalum Tibial Trays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlik, Josa A; Day, Judd S; Rimnac, Clare M; Kurtz, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary total knee designs incorporating highly porous metallic surfaces have demonstrated promising clinical outcomes. However, stiffness differences between modular and monoblock porous tantalum tibial trays may affect bone ingrowth. This study investigated effect of implant design, spatial location and clinical factors on bone ingrowth. Three modular and twenty-one monoblock retrieved porous tantalum tibial trays were evaluated for bone ingrowth. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to investigate differences in bone ingrowth by implant design, tray spatial location, substrate depth and clinical factors. Modular trays (5.3 ± 3.2%) exhibited higher bone ingrowth than monoblock trays (1.6 ± 1.9%, P = 0.032). Bone ingrowth in both designs was highest in the initial 500 μm from the surface. Implantation time was positively correlated with bone ingrowth for monoblock trays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, Casper; Sarria, David; Broberg Skeltved, Alexander; Luque, Alejandro; Diniz, Gabriel; Østgaard, Nikolai; Ebert, Ute

    2016-11-01

    The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  15. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rutjes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron–positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  16. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  17. Return to sport following tibial plateau fractures: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng J; Wood, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systemically review all studies reporting return to sport following tibial plateau fracture, in order to provide information on return rates and times to sport, and to assess variations in sporting outcome for different treatment methods. METHODS A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed in January 2017 using the keywords ?tibial?, ?plateau?, ?fractures?, ?knee?, ?athletes?, ?sports?, ?non-oper...

  18. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  19. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Y; Chiarusi, T; Cozzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Esposito, L S; Giacomelli, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  20. Energy Efficient and Compact RF High-Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvillo Cortés, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to improve the energy efficiency and physical form-factor of high-power amplifiers in base station applications. As such, the focus of this dissertation is placed on the outphasing amplifier concept, which can offer high-efficiency, good linearity and excellent

  1. High-energy pediatric pelvic and acetabular fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorosa, Louis F.; Kloen, Peter; Helfet, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric pelvic and acetabular fractures are rare injuries. They are almost always the result of a high-energy injury mechanism. A full trauma protocol should be instituted, having a high index of suspicion for associated life-threatening injuries. In the past, it was recommended that almost all of

  2. High energy neutrino scattering results from NuTeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, D.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Fleming, B. T.; Formaggio, J.; Frey, R.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D. A.; Kim, J. H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Johnson, R. A.; Lamm, M. J.; McDonald, J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McFarland, K. S.; McNulty, C.; Nienaber, P.; Radescu, V.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Suwonjandee, N.; Tobien, N.; Tzanov, M.; Vaitaitis, A.; Vakili, M.; Yang, U. K.; Yu, J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2003-04-01

    The NuTeV experiment at Fermilab has obtained a unique high statistics sample of neutrino and antineutrino interactions using a novel high-energy sign-selected neutrino beam. Recent results from this sample are presented including a precision measurement of the electroweak parameter sin2≡ W, which is observed to be three standard deviations above the standard model prediction.

  3. Graphene supercapacitor with both high power and energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Pandian, Amaresh S.; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Yun Sung; Lu, Wu

    2017-11-01

    Supercapacitors, based on fast ion transportation, are specialized to provide high power, long stability, and efficient energy storage using highly porous electrode materials. However, their low energy density excludes them from many potential applications that require both high energy density and high power density performances. Using a scalable nanoporous graphene synthesis method involving an annealing process in hydrogen, here we show supercapacitors with highly porous graphene electrodes capable of achieving not only a high power density of 41 kW kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.5%, but also a high energy density of 148.75 Wh kg-1. A high specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitance (306.03 F g-1 and 64.27 F cm-3) are demonstrated. The devices can retain almost 100% capacitance after 7000 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 8 A g-1. The superior performance of supercapacitors is attributed to their ideal pore size, pore uniformity, and good ion accessibility of the synthesized graphene.

  4. Advanced Detectors for Nuclear, High Energy and Astroparticle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Supriya; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    The book presents high-quality papers presented at a national conference on ‘Advanced Detectors for Nuclear, High Energy and Astroparticle Physics’. The conference was organized to commemorate 100 years of Bose Institute. The book is based on the theme of the conference and provides a clear picture of basics and advancement of detectors for nuclear physics, high-energy physics and astroparticle physics together. The topics covered in the book include detectors for accelerator-based high energy physics; detectors for non-accelerator particle physics; nuclear physics detectors; detection techniques in astroparticle physics and dark matter; and applications and simulations. The book will be a good reference for researchers and industrial personnel working in the area of nuclear and astroparticle physics.

  5. Mechanism of bone incorporation of beta-TCP bone substitute in open wedge tibial osteotomy in patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Toonen, H.G.; Heerwaarden, R.J. van; Buma, P.

    2005-01-01

    A histological study was performed of bone biopsies from 16 patients (17 biopsies) treated with open wedge high tibial osteotomies for medial knee osteoarthritis. The open wedge osteotomies were filled with a wedge of osteoconductive beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) ceramic bone replacement. At

  6. Effect of tibial re-alignment surgery on single leg standing balance in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Michael A; Birmingham, Trevor B; Jones, Ian C; Vandervoort, Anthony A; Giffin, J Robert

    2009-10-01

    Standing balance is impaired in individuals with knee osteoarthritis and is associated with disease severity. The effects of surgical interventions on standing balance have received little attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine measures of balance during tests of single-limb standing before and after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy--a lower limb re-alignment procedure for those with varus alignment and knee osteoarthritis. Standing balance was assessed in 49 individuals prior to and 12 months following medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Participants performed three trials of single-limb balance lasting 10s each while standing on a force platform. Anteroposterior and mediolateral coordinates of the centre of pressure were obtained from the force platform and used to calculate the total centre of pressure path length as well as the range and variability (standard deviation) of the anteroposterior and mediolateral coordinates. Though all centre of pressure measures were lower following high tibial osteotomy, none reached statistical significance (P>0.05) and effect sizes were small (d<0.34). The largest mean improvement was 7.6% (95% confidence interval: -0.7-15.8%). Results indicate that standing balance in individuals with knee osteoarthritis is not significantly different following high tibial osteotomy surgery. Standing balance in this patient population is a complex process not entirely dictated by disease symptoms or structural factors such as alignment.

  7. The cost of infection in severe open tibial fractures treated with a free flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ulrik Kähler; Pedersen, Nicolas Jones; Eckardt, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Open tibial fractures needing soft tissue cover are challenging injuries. Infection risk is high, making treatment difficult and expensive. Delayed skin closure has been shown to increase the infection rate in several studies. We aimed at calculating the direct and indirect cost of treat......PURPOSE: Open tibial fractures needing soft tissue cover are challenging injuries. Infection risk is high, making treatment difficult and expensive. Delayed skin closure has been shown to increase the infection rate in several studies. We aimed at calculating the direct and indirect cost...... of treatment, and to determine the effect of delayed skin closure on this cost. METHODS: We reviewed all records of patients treated with a free flap in our institution for an open tibial fracture from 2002 to 2013. We calculated direct costs based on length of stay (LOS) and orthopaedic and plastic surgical...... days and increased the cost of treatment from € 49,817 in uninfected fractures to € 81,155 for infected fractures. Employed patients spent 430 days more on unemployment benefits, than a matched cohort in the background population. Achieving skin cover within seven days of injury decreased the infection...

  8. High-energy vector boson scattering after the Higgs discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Sekulla, Marco [University of Siegen, Siegen (Germany); Ohl, Thorsten [Wuerzburg University, Wuerzburg (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Weak vector boson scattering (VBS)at high energies will be one of the key measurements in the upcoming LHC runs. It is very sensitive to any new physics associated with electroweak symmetry breaking. But a conventional EFT analysis will fail at high energies, especially in the presence of the light 125 GeV Higgs boson. In this talk I present how to extend the EFT to a simplified model by adding additional resonances to VBS and therefore increase the energy validity of the theoretical description. Furthermore I introduce the T-matrix unitarization scheme as an extension of the K-matrix unitarization prescription. It provides an asymptotically consistent reference model, which has been matched to the low-energy effective theory of arbitrary non-perturbative and perturbative models.

  9. MARIACHI - Detecting Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Helio

    2006-04-01

    Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with energies in excess of 10^20eV (100 EeV) have been detected by several experiments. They present a conundrum whose solution may provide insight into the origins and evolution of the universe. There are no known sources within our galaxy or those close to us that could accelerate particles to these almost macroscopic energies, and yet the turn-on of pion production through the interactions of high energy charged particles with the 2.7K microwave background provides a strong limit for propagation from greater distances. The detection of UHECR to date has been accomplished either by detection of the particles from the extensive air showers by ground arrays or by means of detection of the light produced by the EAS in the atmosphere from Cerenkov radiation. MARIACHI (Mixed Apparatus for Radar Investigation of Cosmic-rays of High Ionization) is an innovative concept that will explore the detection of UHECR by bi-static radar using VHF transmitters. If successful, the MARIACHI technique will allow for detection of UHECR economically over much larger areas than currently possible, and might provide for detection of the associated ultra high energy neutrino flux. MARIACHI is also innovative in that ground array detectors that will initially confirm the radio signals are scintillator arrays to be built and operated by high school students and teachers. We will present the present status of the experiment.

  10. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connaughton, V. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: aune@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: sjzhu@umd.edu, E-mail: veres@email.gwu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ∼70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ∼71 ks (∼20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  11. On formation of electromagnetic clot of high energy in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanakyan, Yu. R.

    2017-04-01

    It is known that an oscillating electromagnetic field can be localized inside a self-sustaining resonator formed in plasma. In this paper, it is shown that the Maxwell tension of the electromagnetic field can reduce the resonator volume, thereby increasing the energy density of the field considered. This results in the formation of a quasi-stationary structure of high electromagnetic energy density. A similar mechanism explains the ball lightning phenomenon.

  12. High-efficiency pumps drastically reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-05-01

    Wilo's Stratos pumps for air conditioning and other domestic heating applications combine the advantages of wet runner technology with an innovative electronic commutator motor. The energy consumption of these high-efficiency pumps is halved compared with similar wet runner designs. With vast numbers of pumps used in buildings across Europe alone, the adoption of this technology potentially offers significant energy sayings. (Author)

  13. Investigation of high capacity heat energy storage for building applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yate

    2014-01-01

    The problems of excessive consumption of fossil resources, oil shortages and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming increasingly severe. Research and development work on new methods of thermal energy storage are imminently required. To effectively store seasonal renewable energy, a novel high capacity heat storage system has been designed and evaluated/validated through laboratory experiments and numerical simulations in this research. The system is driven by direct flow evacuated tube solar c...

  14. High energy gain by volume ignition-A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Piera, M. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Polytechnical University of Madrid (Spain); Hora, H. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Polytechnical University of Madrid (Spain)]|[Theoretical Physics Department, University of New South Wales, Kensington (Australia)

    1994-10-05

    Ignition models for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are analyzed on the basis of fuel energy balances. Spark ignition models are in general identified as more effective alternatives than raw volume ignition. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that volume ignition can yield very high energy gains comparable to spark ignition if the whole picture is properly taken into account. References are made to some outstanding experiments and to numerical simulations which support this tutorial explanation. {copyright} 1994 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  15. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-10-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  16. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  17. Endogenous magnetic reconnection and associated high energy plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, B.; Basu, B.

    2018-02-01

    An endogenous reconnection process involves a driving factor that lays inside the layer where a drastic change of magnetic field topology occurs. A process of this kind is shown to take place when an electron temperature gradient is present in a magnetically confined plasma and the evolving electron temperature fluctuations are anisotropic. The width of the reconnecting layer remains significant even when large macroscopic distances are considered. In view of the fact that there are plasmas in the Universe with considerable electron thermal energy contents this feature can be relied upon in order to produce generation or conversion of magnetic energy, high energy particle populations and momentum and angular momentum transport.

  18. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kai [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dai, Wei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Nu [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhuang, Pengfei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  19. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  20. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D; and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative...