WorldWideScience

Sample records for high energy resolution

  1. Development of high-energy resolution inverse photoemission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, D.; Fujii, Y.; Mizokawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a new inverse photoemission (IPES) machine based on a new idea to improve the energy resolution: off-plane Eagle mounting of the optical system in combination with dispersion matching between incoming electron and outgoing photon. In order to achieve dispersion matching, we have employed a parallel plate electron source and have investigated whether the electron beam is obtained as expected. In this paper, we present the principle and design of the new IPES method and report the current status of the high-energy resolution IPES machine

  2. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  3. A new Variable Resolution Associative Memory for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Beretta, M; Bossini, E; Crescioli, F; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Hoff, J; Liberali, V; Liu, T; Magalotti, D; Piendibene, M; Sacco, A; Schoening, A; Soltveit, H K; Stabile, A; Tripiccione, R; Vitillo, R; Volpi, G

    2011-01-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out finding track candidates in coarse resolution “roads”. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called “patterns”, for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its “coverage” and the level of “found fakes”. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least a pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of found fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to this number of patterns in the bank. M...

  4. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method. (paper)

  5. High-Resolution Measurements of Low-Energy Conversion Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Gizon, A; Putaux, J

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of low-energy internal conversion electrons have been performed with high energy resolution in some N = 105 odd and odd-odd nuclei using a semi-circular spectrograph associated to a specific tape transport system. These experiments aimed to answer the following questions~: \\begin{itemize} \\item Do M3 isomeric transitions exist in $^{183}$Pt and $^{181}$Os, isotones of $^{184}$Au~? \\item Are the neutron configurations proposed to describe the isomeric and ground states of $^{184}$Au right or wrong~? \\item Does it exist an isomeric state in $^{182}$Ir, isotone of $^{181}$Os, $^{183}$Pt and $^{184}$Au~? \\item What are the spin and parity values of the excited states of $^{182}$Ir~? \\end{itemize} In $^{183}$Pt, the 35.0 keV M3 isomeric transition has been clearly observed and the reduced transition probability has been determined. The deduced hindrance factor is close to that observed in the neighbouring odd-odd $^{184}$Au nucleus. This confirms the neutron configurations previously proposed for the ...

  6. A high resolution WRF model for wind energy forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Liu, Yubao

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of wind energy into national electricity markets has increased the demand for accurate surface layer wind forecasts. There has recently been a focus on forecasting the wind at wind farm sites using both statistical models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent advances in computing capacity and non-hydrostatic NWP models means that it is possible to nest mesoscale models down to Large Eddy Simulation (LES) scales over the spatial area of a typical wind farm. For example, the WRF model (Skamarock 2008) has been run at a resolution of 123 m over a wind farm site in complex terrain in Colorado (Liu et al. 2009). Although these modelling attempts indicate a great hope for applying such models for detailed wind forecasts over wind farms, one of the obvious challenges of running the model at this resolution is that while some boundary layer structures are expected to be modelled explicitly, boundary layer eddies into the inertial sub-range can only be partly captured. Therefore, the amount and nature of sub-grid-scale mixing that is required is uncertain. Analysis of Liu et al. (2009) modelling results in comparison to wind farm observations indicates that unrealistic wind speed fluctuations with a period of around 1 hour occasionally occurred during the two day modelling period. The problem was addressed by re-running the same modelling system with a) a modified diffusion constant and b) two-way nesting between the high resolution model and its parent domain. The model, which was run with horizontal grid spacing of 370 m, had dimensions of 505 grid points in the east-west direction and 490 points in the north-south direction. It received boundary conditions from a mesoscale model of resolution 1111 m. Both models had 37 levels in the vertical. The mesoscale model was run with a non-local-mixing planetary boundary layer scheme, while the 370 m model was run with no planetary boundary layer scheme. It was found that increasing the

  7. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  8. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  9. High-spin research with HERA [High Energy-Resolution Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The topic of this report is high spin research with the High Energy Resolution Array (HERA) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This is a 21 Ge detector system, the first with bismuth germanate (BGO) Compton suppression. The array is described briefly and some of the results obtained during the past year using this detector facility are discussed. Two types of studies are described: observation of superdeformation in the light Nd isotopes, and rotational damping at high spin and excitation energy in the continuum gamma ray spectrum

  10. Improvements in the energy resolution and high-count-rate performance of bismuth germanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.E.; Wender, S.A.; Kapustinsky, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for improving the energy resolution of bismuth germanate (BGO) have been investigated. It is shown that some of these methods resulted in a substantial improvement in the energy resolution. In addition, a method to improve the performance of BGO at high counting rates has been systematically studied. The results of this study are presented and discussed

  11. Kinetic energy spectra, vertical resolution and dissipation in high-resolution atmospheric simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamarock, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have performed week-long full-physics simulations with the MPAS global model at 15 km cell spacing using vertical mesh spacings of 800, 400, 200 and 100 meters in the mid-troposphere through the mid-stratosphere. We find that the horizontal kinetic energy spectra in the upper troposphere and stratosphere does not converge with increasing vertical resolution until we reach 200 meter level spacing. Examination of the solutions indicates that significant inertia-gravity waves are not vertically resolved at the lower vertical resolutions. Diagnostics from the simulations indicate that the primary kinetic energy dissipation results from the vertical mixing within the PBL parameterization and from the gravity-wave drag parameterization, with smaller but significant contributions from damping in the vertical transport scheme and from the horizontal filters in the dynamical core. Most of the kinetic energy dissipation in the free atmosphere occurs within breaking mid-latitude baroclinic waves. We will briefly review these results and their implications for atmospheric model configuration and for atmospheric dynamics, specifically that related to the dynamics associated with the mesoscale kinetic energy spectrum.

  12. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  13. Applications of high lateral and energy resolution imaging XPS with a double hemispherical analyser based spectromicroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, M.; Winkler, K.; Renault, O.; Barrett, N.

    2010-01-01

    The design and applications of an instrument for imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are reviewed. The instrument is based on a photoelectron microscope and a double hemispherical analyser whose symmetric configuration avoids the spherical aberration (α 2 -term) inherent for standard analysers. The analyser allows high transmission imaging without sacrificing the lateral and energy resolution of the instrument. The importance of high transmission, especially for highest resolution imaging XPS with monochromated laboratory X-ray sources, is outlined and the close interrelation of energy resolution, lateral resolution and analyser transmission is illustrated. Chemical imaging applications using a monochromatic laboratory Al Kα-source are shown, with a lateral resolution of 610 nm. Examples of measurements made using synchrotron and laboratory ultra-violet light show the broad field of applications from imaging of core level electrons with chemical shift identification, high resolution threshold photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), work function imaging and band structure imaging.

  14. A high-resolution assessment of wind and wave energy potentials in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Knio, Omar; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an assessment of the potential for harvesting wind and wave energy from the Red Sea based on an 18-year high-resolution regional atmospheric reanalysis recently generated using the Advanced Weather Research Forecasting model

  15. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  16. High energy resolution characteristics on 14MeV neutron spectrometer for fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Takada, Eiji; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A 14MeV neutron spectrometer suitable for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor is now under development on the basis of a recoil proton counter telescope principle in oblique scattering geometry. To verify its high energy resolution characteristics, preliminary experiments are made for a prototypical detector system. The comparison results show reasonably good agreement and demonstrate the possibility of energy resolution of 2.5% in full width at half maximum for 14MeV neutron spectrometry. (author)

  17. Design and performance of a spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer with high momentum resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, D.; Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We describe a new “complete” spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer comprising a spin-polarized primary electron source, an imaging electron analyzer, and a spin analyzer of the “spin-polarizing mirror” type. Unlike previous instruments, we have a high momentum resolution of less than 0.04 Å{sup −1}, at an energy resolution of 90-130 meV. Unlike all previous studies which reported rather broad featureless data in both energy and angle dependence, we find richly structured spectra depending sensitively on small changes of the primary energy, the kinetic energy after scattering, and of the angle of incidence. The key factor is the momentum resolution.

  18. Kinetic Energy from Supernova Feedback in High-resolution Galaxy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Christine M.; Bryan, Greg L.; Hummels, Cameron; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new method for adding a prescribed amount of kinetic energy to simulated gas modeled on a cartesian grid by directly altering grid cells’ mass and velocity in a distributed fashion. The method is explored in the context of supernova (SN) feedback in high-resolution (˜10 pc) hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. Resolution dependence is a primary consideration in our application of the method, and simulations of isolated explosions (performed at different resolutions) motivate a resolution-dependent scaling for the injected fraction of kinetic energy that we apply in cosmological simulations of a 109 M⊙ dwarf halo. We find that in high-density media (≳50 cm-3) with coarse resolution (≳4 pc per cell), results are sensitive to the initial kinetic energy fraction due to early and rapid cooling. In our galaxy simulations, the deposition of small amounts of SN energy in kinetic form (as little as 1%) has a dramatic impact on the evolution of the system, resulting in an order-of-magnitude suppression of stellar mass. The overall behavior of the galaxy in the two highest resolution simulations we perform appears to converge. We discuss the resulting distribution of stellar metallicities, an observable sensitive to galactic wind properties, and find that while the new method demonstrates increased agreement with observed systems, significant discrepancies remain, likely due to simplistic assumptions that neglect contributions from SNe Ia and stellar winds.

  19. High-Resolution Energy and Intensity Measurements with CVD Diamond at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Wenander, F; Bergoz, J; Bayle, H; Frais-Kölbl, H; Leinweber, J; Aumeyr, T; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    A novel beam instrumentation device for the HIE-REX (High In-tensity and Energy REX) upgrade has been developed and tested at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE, located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This device is based on CVD diamond detector technology and is used for measuring the beam intensity, particle counting and measuring the energy spectrum of the beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% was measured at a carbon ion energy of 22.8 MeV. This corresponds to an energy spread of ± 140 keV.

  20. Optimized high energy resolution in γ-ray spectroscopy with AGATA triple cluster detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Andreas

    2011-06-20

    The AGATA demonstrator consists of five AGATA Triple Cluster (ATC) detectors. Each triple cluster detector contains three asymmetric, 36-fold segmented, encapsulated high purity germanium detectors. The purpose of the demonstrator is to show the feasibility of position-dependent γ-ray detection by means of γ-ray tracking, which is based on pulse shape analysis. The thesis describes the first optimization procedure of the first triple cluster detectors. Here, a high signal quality is mandatory for the energy resolution and the pulse shape analysis. The signal quality was optimized and the energy resolution was improved through the modification of the electronic properties, of the grounding scheme of the detector in particular. The first part of the work was the successful installation of the first four triple cluster detectors at INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics) in Legnaro, Italy, in the demonstrator frame prior to the AGATA commissioning experiments and the first physics campaign. The four ATC detectors combine 444 high resolution spectroscopy channels. This number combined with a high density were achieved for the first time for in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy experiments. The high quality of the ATC detectors is characterized by the average energy resolutions achieved for the segments of each crystal in the range of 1.943 and 2.131 keV at a γ-ray energy of 1.33 MeV for the first 12 crystals. The crosstalk level between individual detectors in the ATC is negligible. The crosstalk within one crystal is at a level of 10{sup -3}. In the second part of the work new methods for enhanced energy resolution in highly segmented and position sensitive detectors were developed. The signal-to-noise ratio was improved through averaging of the core and the segment signals, which led to an improvement of the energy resolution of 21% for γ-energies of 60 keV to a FWHM of 870 eV. In combination with crosstalk correction, a clearly improved energy resolution was

  1. Limitations to depth resolution in high-energy, heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliman, R.G.; Palmer, G.R.; Ophel, T.R.; Timmers, H.

    1998-01-01

    The depth resolution of heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis was examined for Al and Co thin films ranging in thickness from 100 to 400 nm. Measurements were performed with 154 MeV Au ions as the incident beam, and recoils were detected using a gas ionisation detector. Energy spectra were extracted for the Al and Co recoils and the depth resolution determined as a function of film thickness from the width of the high- and low- energy edges. These results were compared with theoretical estimates calculated using the computer program DEPTH. (authors)

  2. Low energy nuclear spin excitations in Ho metal investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Tapan; Jalarvo, Niina

    2013-04-17

    We have investigated the low energy excitations in metallic Ho by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. We found at T = 3 K clear inelastic peaks in the energy loss and energy gain sides, along with the central elastic peak. The energy of this low energy excitation, which is 26.59 ± 0.02 μeV at T = 3 K, decreased continuously and became zero at TN ≈ 130 K. By fitting the data in the temperature range 100-127.5 K with a power law we obtained the power-law exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.02, which agrees with the expected value β = 0.367 for a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Thus the energy of the low energy excitations can be associated with the order parameter.

  3. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to ΔE/E∼10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION registered ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to ΔE/E 2,3 VV-transition with PAES. Thus, within this thesis two objectives were achieved: Firstly, the PAES spectrometer was renewed and improved by at least one order of magnitude with respect to the signal to noise ratio, the measurement time and the energy resolution. Secondly, several measurements have been carried out, demonstrating the high performance of the spectrometer. Amongst them are first dynamic PAES measurements and a high resolution measurement of the CuM 2,3 VV

  4. A high-resolution assessment of wind and wave energy potentials in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-08-24

    This study presents an assessment of the potential for harvesting wind and wave energy from the Red Sea based on an 18-year high-resolution regional atmospheric reanalysis recently generated using the Advanced Weather Research Forecasting model. This model was initialized with ERA-Interim global data and the Red Sea reanalysis was generated using a cyclic three-dimensional variational approach assimilating available data in the region. The wave hindcast was generated using WAVEWATCH III on a 5 km resolution grid, forced by the Red Sea reanalysis surface winds. The wind and wave products were validated against data from buoys, scatterometers and altimeters. Our analysis suggests that the distribution of wind and wave energy in the Red Sea is inhomogeneous and is concentrated in specific areas, characterized by various meteorological conditions including weather fronts, mesoscale vortices, land and sea breezes and mountain jets. A detailed analysis of wind and wave energy variation was performed at three hotspots representing the northern, central and southern parts of the Red Sea. Although there are potential sites for harvesting wind energy from the Red Sea, there are no potential sites for harvesting wave energy because wave energy in the Red Sea is not strong enough for currently available wave energy converters. Wave energy should not be completely ignored, however, at least from the perspective of hybrid wind-wave projects. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monte Carlo Simulations of Ultra-High Energy Resolution Gamma Detectors for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, A.; Drury, O.B.; Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high energy resolution superconducting gamma-ray detectors can improve the accuracy of non-destructive analysis for unknown radioactive materials. These detectors offer an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over conventional high purity germanium detectors. The increase in resolution reduces errors from line overlap and allows for the identification of weaker gamma-rays by increasing the magnitude of the peaks above the background. In order to optimize the detector geometry and to understand the spectral response function Geant4, a Monte Carlo simulation package coded in C++, was used to model the detectors. Using a 1 mm 3 Sn absorber and a monochromatic gamma source, different absorber geometries were tested. The simulation was expanded to include the Cu block behind the absorber and four layers of shielding required for detector operation at 0.1 K. The energy spectrum was modeled for an Am-241 and a Cs-137 source, including scattering events in the shielding, and the results were compared to experimental data. For both sources the main spectral features such as the photopeak, the Compton continuum, the escape x-rays and the backscatter peak were identified. Finally, the low energy response of a Pu-239 source was modeled to assess the feasibility of Pu-239 detection in spent fuel. This modeling of superconducting detectors can serve as a guide to optimize the configuration in future spectrometer designs.

  6. High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jessica A; Scheltens, Frank J; Drummy, Lawrence F; Durstock, Michael F; Hage, Fredrik S; Ramasse, Quentin M; McComb, David W

    2017-09-01

    Advances in electron monochromator technology are providing opportunities for high energy resolution (10 - 200meV) electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to be performed in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The energy-loss near-edge structure in core-loss spectroscopy is often limited by core-hole lifetimes rather than the energy spread of the incident illumination. However, in the valence-loss region, the reduced width of the zero loss peak makes it possible to resolve clearly and unambiguously spectral features at very low energy-losses (photovoltaics (OPVs): poly(3-hexlythiophene) (P3HT), [6,6] phenyl-C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and fullerene (C 60 ). Data was collected on two different monochromated instruments - a Nion UltraSTEM 100 MC 'HERMES' and a FEI Titan 3 60-300 Image-Corrected S/TEM - using energy resolutions (as defined by the zero loss peak full-width at half-maximum) of 35meV and 175meV, respectively. The data was acquired to allow deconvolution of plural scattering, and Kramers-Kronig analysis was utilized to extract the complex dielectric functions. The real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric functions obtained from the two instruments were compared to evaluate if the enhanced resolution in the Nion provides new opto-electronic information for these organic materials. The differences between the spectra are discussed, and the implications for STEM-EELS studies of advanced materials are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Crosstalk corrections for improved energy resolution with highly segmented HPGe-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Wiens, Andreas; Eberth, Juergen; Hess, Herbert; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Warr, Nigel; Aydin, Sezgin; Bazzacco, Dino; Recchia, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Crosstalk effects of 36-fold segmented, large volume AGATA HPGe detectors cause shifts in the γ-ray energy measured by the inner core and outer segments as function of segment multiplicity. The positions of the segment sum energy peaks vary approximately linearly with increasing segment multiplicity. The resolution of these peaks deteriorates also linearly as a function of segment multiplicity. Based on single event treatment, two methods were developed in the AGATA Collaboration to correct for the crosstalk induced effects by employing a linear transformation. The matrix elements are deduced from coincidence measurements of γ-rays of various energies as recorded with digital electronics. A very efficient way to determine the matrix elements is obtained by measuring the base line shifts of untriggered segments using γ-ray detection events in which energy is deposited in a single segment. A second approach is based on measuring segment energy values for γ-ray interaction events in which energy is deposited in only two segments. After performing crosstalk corrections, the investigated detector shows a good fit between the core energy and the segment sum energy at all multiplicities and an improved energy resolution of the segment sum energy peaks. The corrected core energy resolution equals the segment sum energy resolution which is superior at all folds compared to the individual uncorrected energy resolutions. This is achieved by combining the two independent energy measurements with the core contact on the one hand and the segment contacts on the other hand.

  8. Magnetic Microcalorimeter (MMC) Gamma Detectors with Ultra-High Energy Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    The goal of this LCP is to develop ultra-high resolution gamma detectors based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material, and implement several geometry and design changes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers, and by developing a cryogenic Compton veto to reduce the spectral background. Since best MMC performance requires detector operation at ~10 mK, we will purchase a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature <10 mK and adapt it for MMC operation. The detector performance will be tested with radioactive sources of interest to the safeguards community.

  9. Variations in energy, flux, and brightness of pulsating aurora measured at high time resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution multispectral optical and incoherent scatter radar data are used to study the variability of pulsating aurora. Two events have been analysed, and the data combined with electron transport and ion chemistry modelling provide estimates of the energy and energy flux during both the ON and OFF periods of the pulsations. Both the energy and energy flux are found to be reduced during each OFF period compared with the ON period, and the estimates indicate that it is the number flux of foremost higher-energy electrons that is reduced. The energies are found never to drop below a few kilo-electronvolts during the OFF periods for these events. The high-resolution optical data show the occurrence of dips in brightness below the diffuse background level immediately after the ON period has ended. Each dip lasts for about a second, with a reduction in brightness of up to 70 % before the intensity increases to a steady background level again. A different kind of variation is also detected in the OFF period emissions during the second event, where a slower decrease in the background diffuse emission is seen with its brightness minimum just before the ON period, for a series of pulsations. Since the dips in the emission level during OFF are dependent on the switching between ON and OFF, this could indicate a common mechanism for the precipitation during the ON and OFF phases. A statistical analysis of brightness rise, fall, and ON times for the pulsations is also performed. It is found that the pulsations are often asymmetric, with either a slower increase of brightness or a slower fall.

  10. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imberti, S. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Amaldi' , Rome (Italy) and CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: silvia.imberti@roma2.infn.it; Andreani, C. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Garbuio, V. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Gorini, G. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G.Occhialini' , Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM, Milan (Italy); Pietropaolo, A. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Senesi, R. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G.Occhialini' , Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM, Milan (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1 deg. <2{theta}<5 deg. This equipment allows High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering (HINS) measurements to be performed in the (q,{omega}) kinematical region at low wavevector (q<10A{sup -1}) and high energy (unlimited) transfer -bar {omega}>500meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20A{sup -1}high energy transfer (-bar {omega}>1eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.

  11. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-04-03

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to {delta}E/E{approx}10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION {sup registered} ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to {delta}E/E < 1. The exceptional surface sensitivity and elemental selectivity of PAES was demonstrated in measurements of Pd and Fe, both coated with Cu layers of varying thickness. PAES showed that with 0.96 monolayer of Cu on Fe, more than 55% of the detected Auger electrons stem from Cu. In the case of the Cu coated Pd sample 0.96 monolayer of Cu resulted in a Cu Auger fraction of more than 30% with PAES and less than 5% with electron induced Auger spectroscopy

  12. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to ∼7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10 12 ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  13. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1 deg. -1 ) and high energy (unlimited) transfer -bar ω>500meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20A -1 -1 ) and high energy transfer (-bar ω>1eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed

  14. Flare Energy Release: Internal Conflict, Contradiction with High Resolution Observations, Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, L.

    2017-06-01

    All accepted paradigm of solar and stellar flares energy release based on 2 whales: 1. Source of energy is free energy of non-potential force free magnetic field in atmosphere above active region; 2. Process of ultrafast dissipation of magnetic fields is Reconnection in Thin Turbulent Current Sheet (RTTCS). Progress in observational techniques in last years provided ultra-high spatial resolution and in physics of turbulent plasma showed that real situation is much more complicated and standard approach is in contradiction both with observations and with problem of RTTCS stability. We present critical analysis of classic models of pre-flare energy accumulation and its dissipation during flare energy release from pioneer works Giovanelli (1939, 1947) up to topological reconnection. We show that all accepted description of global force-free fields as source of future flare cannot be agreed with discovered in last years fine and ultra-fine current-magnetic structure included numerouse arcs-threads with diameters up to 100 km with constant sequence from photosphere to corona. This magnetic skeleton of thin current magnetic threads with strong interaction between them is main source of reserved magnetic energy insolar atmosphere. Its dynamics will be controlled by percolation of magnetic stresses through network of current-magnetic threads with transition to flare state caused by critical value of global current. We show that thin turbulent current sheet is absolutely unstable configuration both caused by splitting to numerous linear currents by dissipative modes like to tearing, and as sequence of suppress of plasma turbulence caused by anomalous heating of turbulent plasma. In result of these factors primary RTTCS will be disrupted in numerous turbulent and normal plasma domains like to resistors network. Current propagation through this network will have percolation character with all accompanied properties of percolated systems: self-organization with formation power

  15. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2005-11-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1∘500 meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20 Å-11 eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.

  16. Hadronic energy resolution of a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter using software compensation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.J.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliere, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Buanes, T.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Goto, T.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Benyamna, M.; Carloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Gottlicher, P.; Gunter, C.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Marchesini, I.; Ramilli, M.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.M.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Balagura, V.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Dolgoshein, B.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Smirnov, S.; Kiesling, C.; Pfau, S.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2012-01-01

    SPS. The energy resolution for single hadrons is determined to be approximately 58%/ √E/GeV. This resolution is improved to approximately 45%/ √E/GeV with software compensation techniques. These techniques take advantage of the event-by-event information about the substructure of hadronic showers which is provided by the imaging capabilities of the calorimeter. The energy reconstruction is improved either with corrections based on the local energy density or by applying a single correction factor to the event energy sum derived from a global measure of the shower energy density. The application of the compensation algorithms to GEANT4 simulations yield resolution improvements comparable to those observed for real data.

  17. High Resolution Modeling of the Thermospheric Response to Energy Inputs During the RENU-2 Rocket Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Brinkman, D. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Hecht, J. H.; Lessard, M.; Fritz, B.; Hysell, D. L.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Moen, J.; Oksavik, K.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs cause large wind and temperature changes in the cusp region. The Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling -2 (RENU-2) launched from Andoya, Norway at 0745UT on 13 December 2015 into the ionosphere-thermosphere beneath the magnetic cusp. It made measurements of the energy inputs (e.g., precipitating particles, electric fields) and the thermospheric response to these energy inputs (e.g., neutral density and temperature, neutral winds). Complementary ground based measurements were made. In this study, we use a high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent non hydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model driven by rocket and ground based measurements of the energy inputs to simulate the thermospheric response during the RENU-2 flight. Model simulations will be compared to the corresponding measurements of the thermosphere to see what they reveal about thermospheric structure and the nature of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling in the cusp. Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grants: NNX16AH46G and NNX13AJ93G. This research was also supported by The Aerospace Corporation's Technical Investment program

  18. High resolution respirometry analysis of polyethylenimine-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis and cellular stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Arnaldur; Larsen, Anna Karina; Parhamifar, Ladan

    2013-01-01

    and spectrophotometry analysis of cytochrome c oxidase activity we were able to identify complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) as a likely specific site of PEI mediated inhibition within the electron transport system. Unraveling the mechanisms of PEI-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis is central for combinatorial design...... of PEI-mediated plasma membrane damage and subsequent ATP leakage to the extracellular medium. Studies with freshly isolated mouse liver mitochondria corroborated with bioenergetic findings and demonstrated parallel polycation concentration- and time-dependent changes in state 2 and state 4o oxygen flux...... as well as lowered ADP phosphorylation (state 3) and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Polycation-mediated reduction of electron transport system activity was further demonstrated in 'broken mitochondria' (freeze-thawed mitochondrial preparations). Moreover, by using both high-resolution respirometry...

  19. A new variable-resolution associative memory for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annovi, A.; Amerio, S.; Beretta, M.; Bossini, E.; Crescioli, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.; Hoff, J.; Liu, T.; Magalotti, D.; Piendibene, M.; Sacco, I.; Schoening, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Stabile, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Liberali, V.; Vitillo, R.; Volpi, G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out by finding track candidates in coarse resolution 'roads'. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called 'patterns', for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its 'coverage' and the level of fake roads. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least one pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to the number of patterns in the bank. Moreover, as the luminosity increases, the fake rate increases rapidly because of the increased silicon occupancy. To counter that, we must reduce the width of our roads. If we decrease the road width using the current technology, the system will become very large and extremely expensive. We propose an elegant solution to this problem: the 'variable resolution patterns'. Each pattern and each detector layer within a pattern will be able to use the optimal width, but we will use a 'don't care' feature (inspired from ternary CAMs) to increase the width when that is more appropriate. In other words we can use patterns of variable shape. As a result we reduce the number of fake roads, while keeping the efficiency high and avoiding excessive bank size due to the reduced width. We describe the idea, the implementation in the new AM design and the implementation of the algorithm in the simulation. Finally we show the effectiveness of the 'variable resolution patterns' idea using simulated

  20. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  1. A new “Variable Resolution Associative Memory” for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Beretta, M; Bossini, E; Crescioli, F; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Hoff, J; Liberali, V; Liu, T; Magalotti, D; Piendibene, M; Sacco, A; Schoening, A; Soltveit, H K; Stabile, A; Tripiccione, R; Vitillo, R; Volpi, G

    2011-01-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out finding track candidates in coarse resolution “roads”. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called “patterns”, for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its “coverage” and the level of “found fakes”. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least a pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of found fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to this number of patterns in the bank. M...

  2. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  3. Cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors with a high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, L.A.; Dorogov, P.G.; Ivanov, V.I.; Khusainov, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers the possibility of improving the energy resolution of cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors through the choice of the geometry and size of the sensitive region of the detector. The optimum ratio of the product of the mobility and lifetime for electrons to the same product for holes from the point of view of energy resolution is greater than or equal to 10 2 for a detector of spherical geometry and should be less than or equal to 10 for a cylindrical geometry and approximately 1 for a planar geometry. The optimum values of the major and minor radii of a spherical detector are calculated

  4. High resolution spectroscopy of H+ energy loss in thin carbon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Noriaki; Kitoh, Kenshin

    1991-05-01

    The energy loss of ∼100 keV H + transmitted through thin carbon film of ∼7 nm has been measured with the resolution of ∼20 eV. We have observed new energy loss peaks around 210 and 400 eV in addition to the normal energy loss peak around 1 keV. We find that the experimental artifacts, ionization of C K-(290 eV) and impurity inner-shells, extreme non-uniformity of films, events associated with elastic scattering are not responsible for these peaks. The origin of these low energy loss peaks will be discussed. (author)

  5. High Resolution Higher Energy X-ray Microscope for Mesoscopic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snigireva, I; Snigirev, A

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel X-ray microscopy technique to study mesoscopically structured materials, employing compound refractive lenses. The easily seen advantage of lens-based methodology is the possibility to retrieve high resolution diffraction pattern and real-space images in the same experimental setup. Methodologically the proposed approach is similar to the studies of crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The proposed microscope was applied for studying of mesoscopic materials such as natural and synthetic opals, inverted photonic crystals

  6. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  7. The GRAAL high resolution BGO calorimeter and its energy calibration and monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.

    1997-07-01

    The authors describe the electromagnetic calorimeter built for the GRAAL apparatus at the ESRF. Its monitoring system is presented in detail. Result from tests and the performance obtained during the first GRAAL experiments are given. The energy calibration accuracy and stability reached is a small fraction of the intrinsic detector resolution

  8. Calibration of a High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer for High-Energy-Density Plasmas on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, B.; Gao, L.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Liedahl, D.; Macphee, A. G.; Thorn, D. B.; Bettencourt, R.; Kauffman, R.; Le, H.; Nelson, D.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution, DIM-based (Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator) x-ray crystal spectrometer has been calibrated for and deployed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to diagnose plasma conditions and mix in ignition capsules near stagnation times. Two conical crystals in the Hall geometry focus rays from the Kr He- α, Ly- α, and He- β complexes onto a streak camera for time-resolved spectra, in order to measure electron density and temperature by observing Stark broadening and relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Signals from these two crystals are correlated with a third crystal that time-integrates the intervening energy range. The spectrometer has been absolutely calibrated using a microfocus x-ray source, an array of CCD and single-photon-counting detectors, and K- and L-absorption edge filters. Measurements of the integrated reflectivity, energy range, and energy resolution for each crystal will be presented. The implications of the calibration on signal levels from NIF implosions and x-ray filter choices will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Neutron resonance transmission spectroscopy with high spatial and energy resolution at the J-PARC pulsed neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shinohara, T.; Kai, T.; Ooi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2–4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Shiota, Y. [Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8 Kita-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2014-05-11

    The sharp variation of neutron attenuation at certain energies specific to particular nuclides (the lower range being from ∼1 eV up to ∼1 keV), can be exploited for the remote mapping of element and/or isotope distributions, as well as temperature probing, within relatively thick samples. Intense pulsed neutron beam-lines at spallation sources combined with a high spatial, high-timing resolution neutron counting detector, provide a unique opportunity to measure neutron transmission spectra through the time-of-flight technique. We present the results of experiments where spatially resolved neutron resonances were measured, at energies up to 50 keV. These experiments were performed with the intense flux low background NOBORU neutron beamline at the J-PARC neutron source and the high timing resolution (∼20 ns at epithermal neutron energies) and spatial resolution (∼55 µm) neutron counting detector using microchannel plates coupled to a Timepix electronic readout. Simultaneous element-specific imaging was carried out for several materials, at a spatial resolution of ∼150 µm. The high timing resolution of our detector combined with the low background beamline, also enabled characterization of the neutron pulse itself – specifically its pulse width, which varies with neutron energy. The results of our measurements are in good agreement with the predicted results for the double pulse structure of the J-PARC facility, which provides two 100 ns-wide proton pulses separated by 600 ns, broadened by the neutron energy moderation process. Thermal neutron radiography can be conducted simultaneously with resonance transmission spectroscopy, and can reveal the internal structure of the samples. The transmission spectra measured in our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of mapping elemental distributions using this non-destructive technique, for those elements (and in certain cases, specific isotopes), which have resonance energies below a few keV, and with lower

  10. High-resolution simulations of the thermophysiological effects of human exposure to 100 MHz RF energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, David A; Curran, Allen R; Nyberg, Hans A; Marttila, Eric A; Mason, Patrick A; Ziriax, John M

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic energy is known to result in tissue heating and can raise temperatures substantially in some situations. Standards for safe exposure to RF do not reflect bio-heat transfer considerations however. Thermoregulatory function (vasodilation, sweating) may mitigate RF heating effects in some environments and exposure scenarios. Conversely, a combination of an extreme environment (high temperature, high humidity), high activity levels and thermally insulating garments may exacerbate RF exposure and pose a risk of unsafe temperature elevation, even for power densities which might be acceptable in a normothermic environment. A high-resolution thermophysiological model, incorporating a heterogeneous tissue model of a seated adult has been developed and used to replicate a series of whole-body exposures at a frequency (100 MHz) which approximates that of human whole-body resonance. Exposures were simulated at three power densities (4, 6 and 8 mW cm −2 ) plus a sham exposure and at three different ambient temperatures (24, 28 and 31 °C). The maximum hypothalamic temperature increase over the course of a 45 min exposure was 0.28 °C and occurred in the most extreme conditions (T amb = 31 °C, PD = 8 mW cm −2 ). Skin temperature increases attributable to RF exposure were modest, with the exception of a ‘hot spot’ in the vicinity of the ankle where skin temperatures exceeded 39 °C. Temperature increases in internal organs and tissues were small, except for connective tissue and bone in the lower leg and foot. Temperature elevation also was noted in the spinal cord, consistent with a hot spot previously identified in the literature. (paper)

  11. α spectrometer of parallel plate grid ionization chamber of high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Boting; Wang Jianqing; Dong Mingli; Tang Peijia; Wang Xiaorong; Lin Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Parallel plate grid ionization chamber with cathode area of 300 cm 2 was developed and applied to detect minimum α-emitters. It consist of a vacuum system, a gas cycle system of the parallel plate grid ionization chamber, electronics (a high voltage supply, a pre-amplifier and a main amplifier) and a computer-multichannel analyzer. The energy resolution is 23 keV FWHM for the 244 Cm electrostatic precipitated source. The integral background is typically 10 counts/h between 4 and 6 MeV. The detector efficiency is 50%. The minimum detecting activity is 3 x 10 -4 Bq (3σ, 30 hours). This spectrometer is suitable for detecting various samples, such as samples of the soil, water, air, bion, food, structural material, geology, archaeology, α-emitters of after processing and measuring α activity of accounting for and control of nuclear material and monitoring the artificial radioactivity nuclides of environment samples around nuclear facilities. The spectrometer is equipped with apparatus for preparing large area α source by using vacuum deposition or ultrasonic pulverization. The operating program of preparing source is simple. The source thickness can be kept in 40-60 μm/cm 2

  12. Clinical dosimetry with plastic scintillators - Almost energy independent, direct absorbed dose reading with high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, U; Fluehs, D [Department of Radiotherapy, Essen (Germany). Div. of Clinical Radiation Physics; Fluehs, D; Kolanoski, H [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-08-01

    Clinical dosimetry is still far behind the goal to measure any spatial or temporal distribution of absorbed dose fast and precise without disturbing the physical situation by the dosimetry procedure. NE 102A plastic scintillators overcome this border. These tissue substituting dosemeter probes open a wide range of new clinical applications of dosimetry. This versatile new dosimetry system enables fast measurement of the absorbed dose to water in water also in regions with a steep dose gradient, close to interfaces, or in partly shielded regions. It allows direct reading dosimetry in the energy range of all clinically used external photon and electron beams, or around all branchytherapy sources. Thin detector arrays permit fast and high resolution measurements in quality assurance, such as in-vivo dosimetry or even afterloading dose monitoring. A main field of application is the dosimetric treatment planning, the individual optimization of brachytherapy applicators. Thus, plastic scintillator dosemeters cover optimally all difficult fields of clinical dosimetry. An overview about its characteristics and applications is given here. 20 refs, 1 fig.

  13. Installation of high-resolution ERDA in UTTAC at the University of Tsukuba: Determination of the energy resolution and the detection limit for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiba, D., E-mail: sekiba@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC), Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Chito, K.; Harayama, I. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Watahiki, Y.; Ishii, S. [University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC), Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Ozeki, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa 4-12-1, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    A newly developed high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HERDA) system installed at the 1 MV Tandetron in UTTAC at the University of Tsukuba is introduced. The effective solid angle of detector, energy resolution and detection limit for hydrogen are, for the first time, determined quantitatively by the measurements on an a-C:H (and D) film deposited on a Si substrate. In the case of a 500 keV {sup 16}O{sup +} as the incident beam, an energy resolution of ∼0.45 keV and a detection limit of ∼3.8 × 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3} (∼0.18 at.%) with a data acquisition time of ∼310 s are derived.

  14. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X

  15. Tailored high-resolution numerical weather forecasts for energy efficient predictive building control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, V. J.; Gwerder, M.; Gyalistras, D.; Oldewurtel, F.; Schubiger, F.; Steiner, P.

    2010-09-01

    The high proportion of the total primary energy consumption by buildings has increased the public interest in the optimisation of buildings' operation and is also driving the development of novel control approaches for the indoor climate. In this context, the use of weather forecasts presents an interesting and - thanks to advances in information and predictive control technologies and the continuous improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models - an increasingly attractive option for improved building control. Within the research project OptiControl (www.opticontrol.ethz.ch) predictive control strategies for a wide range of buildings, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and representative locations in Europe are being investigated with the aid of newly developed modelling and simulation tools. Grid point predictions for radiation, temperature and humidity of the high-resolution limited area NWP model COSMO-7 (see www.cosmo-model.org) and local measurements are used as disturbances and inputs into the building system. The control task considered consists in minimizing energy consumption whilst maintaining occupant comfort. In this presentation, we use the simulation-based OptiControl methodology to investigate the impact of COSMO-7 forecasts on the performance of predictive building control and the resulting energy savings. For this, we have selected building cases that were shown to benefit from a prediction horizon of up to 3 days and therefore, are particularly suitable for the use of numerical weather forecasts. We show that the controller performance is sensitive to the quality of the weather predictions, most importantly of the incident radiation on differently oriented façades. However, radiation is characterised by a high temporal and spatial variability in part caused by small scale and fast changing cloud formation and dissolution processes being only partially represented in the COSMO-7 grid point predictions. On the

  16. The cyclopropene radical cation: Rovibrational level structure at low energies from high-resolution photoelectron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilatou, K.; Michaud, J. M.; Baykusheva, D.; Grassi, G.; Merkt, F. [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-14

    The cyclopropene radical cation (c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +}) is an important but poorly characterized three-membered-ring hydrocarbon. We report on a measurement of the high-resolution photoelectron and photoionization spectra of cyclopropene and several deuterated isotopomers, from which we have determined the rovibrational energy level structure of the X{sup ~+} {sup 2}B{sub 2} ground electronic state of c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +} at low energies for the first time. The synthesis of the partially deuterated isotopomers always resulted in mixtures of several isotopomers, differing in their number of D atoms and in the location of these atoms, so that the photoelectron spectra of deuterated samples are superpositions of the spectra of several isotopomers. The rotationally resolved spectra indicate a C{sub 2v}-symmetric R{sub 0} structure for the ground electronic state of c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +}. Two vibrational modes of c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +} are found to have vibrational wave numbers below 300 cm{sup −1}, which is surprising for such a small cyclic hydrocarbon. The analysis of the isotopic shifts of the vibrational levels enabled the assignment of the lowest-frequency mode (fundamental wave number of ≈110 cm{sup −1} in c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +}) to the CH{sub 2} torsional mode (ν{sub 8}{sup +}, A{sub 2} symmetry) and of the second-lowest-frequency mode (≈210 cm{sup −1} in c-C{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +}) to a mode combining a CH out-of-plane with a CH{sub 2} rocking motion (ν{sub 15}{sup +}, B{sub 2} symmetry). The potential energy along the CH{sub 2} torsional coordinate is flat near the equilibrium structure and leads to a pronounced anharmonicity.

  17. Electron attachment to oxygen, ozone and other compounds of atmospheric relevance as studied with ultra-high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.; Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Cicman, P.; Senn, G.; Skalny, J.; Stampfli, P.; Illenberger, E.; Chu, Y.; Stamatovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    The processes of electron attachment to oxygen, ozone, ozone/oxygen cluster and oxygen cluster as well as other compounds of atmospheric relevance (CF 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 3 Br) were studied with ultra-high energy resolution crossed beam technique

  18. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource High Resolution Meteorology Data For Sustainable Building Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project is to adapt and infuse NASA's solar and meteorological data into the energy, agricultural, and architectural industries. Improvements are continuously incorporated when higher resolution and longer-term data inputs become available. Climatological data previously provided via POWER web applications were three-hourly and 1x1 degree latitude/longitude. The NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data set provides higher resolution data products (hourly and 1/2x1/2 degree) covering the entire globe. Currently POWER solar and meteorological data are available for more than 30 years on hourly (meteorological only), daily, monthly and annual time scales. These data may be useful to several renewable energy sectors: solar and wind power generation, agricultural crop modeling, and sustainable buildings. A recent focus has been working with ASHRAE to assess complementing weather station data with MERRA data. ASHRAE building design parameters being investigated include heating/cooling degree days and climate zones.

  20. Calibration and energy resolution study of a high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer with monochromatic proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Tramontana, A.; Amato, A.; Caruso, G.F.; Salamone, S.; Maggiore, M.; Velyhan, A.; Margarone, D.; Palumbo, G. Parasiliti; Russo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A high energy resolution, high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer has been developed at INFN-LNS in order to characterize laser-driven beams up to 30- 40 MeV for protons. This device has parallel electric and magnetic field to deflect particles of a certain charge-to-mass ratio onto parabolic traces on the detection plane. Calibration of the deflection sector is crucial for data analysis, namely energy determination of analysed beam, and to evaluate the effective energy limit and resolution. This work reports the study of monochromatic proton beams delivered by the TANDEM accelerator at LNS (Catania) in the energy range between 6 and 12.5 MeV analysed with our spectrometer which allows a precise characterization of the electric and magnetic deflections. Also the energy and the Q/A resolutions and the energy limits have been evaluated proposing a mathematical model that can be used for data analysis, for the experimental set up and for the device scalability for higher energy

  1. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Di Nicola, P.; Gururangan, G.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, C. M.; Hargrove, D.; Hermann, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Holder, J. P.; Hsing, W.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lawson, J.; Martinez, D.; Masters, N.; Nafziger, J. R.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Okui, J.; Palmer, D.; Sigurdsson, R.; Vonhof, S.; Wallace, R. J.; Zobrist, T.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV, of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.

  2. Search for new scintillators for high-energy resolution electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvich, G.I.; Britvich, I.G.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Lishin, V.A.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Polyakov, V.A.; Solovjev, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Some opportunities of creation of radiation-resistant heterogeneous electro-magnetic-calorimeters with an energy resolution of about σ/E≅4-5%/√E is given in this article. Investigation results of 2scintillation and radiation characteristics for thin molded plates and new heavy scintillators based on the polystyrene and containing metalloorganic additives are presented. The radiation resistance of thin molded scintillator plates of about 1.1 mm thick containing 2% pTP+0.05% POPOP has reached a level of about 15-20 kGy

  3. A CAMAC timing module for the use with high energy resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulian, N.; Plaga, R. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1992-06-15

    A CAMAC module which measures event times with a resolution of 10 ns continuously over a period of 32.6 days has been built. The event times are stored in a deep buffer memory in form of 48-bit data words. The pulse amplitude of each event can be measured concurrently in a high resolution ADC and stored in another FIFO buffer memory. These amplitudes are tagged with a flag to correlate time with amplitude value unambiguously. In spite of the high operating frequency of 100 MHz necessitating the use of ECL counters, the module is compact (single-width) thanks to the use of TTL registers for the intermediate storage of the 48-bit time-word. The setup and testing of the modules with a NaI-pair spectrometer used in the GALLEX dolar neutrino experiment is described. Other possible applications of the module in the field of non-accelerator particle physics are also mentioned. (orig.).

  4. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztrókay, A; Schlossbauer, T; Bamberg, F; Reiser, M F; Coan, P; Diemoz, P C; Brun, E; Bravin, A; Mayr, D

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm 2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation. (paper)

  5. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  6. High-Resolution Wave Energy Assessment in Shallow Water Accounting for Tides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave energy in a shallow water location is evaluated considering the influence of the local tide and wind on the wave propagation. The target is the coastal area just north of the Portuguese city of Peniche, where a wave energy converter operates on the sea bottom. A wave modelling system based on SWAN has been implemented and focused on this coastal environment in a multilevel computational scheme. The first three SWAN computational belonging to this wave prediction system were defined using the spherical coordinates. In the highest resolution computational domain, Cartesian coordinates have been considered, with a resolution of 25 m in both directions. An in-depth analysis of the main characteristics of the environmental matrix has been performed. This is based on the results of eight-year model system simulations (2005–2012. New simulations have been carried out in the last two computational domains with the most relevant wave and wind patterns, considering also the tide effect. The results show that the tide level, together with the wind intensity and direction, may influence to a significant degree the wave characteristics. This especially concerns the wave power in the location where the wave converter operates.

  7. Energy resolution measurements of LaBr3:Ce scintillating crystals with an ultra-high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Cinti, M.N.; Scafe, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Vittorini, F.; Bennati, P.; Ridolfi, S.; Lo Meo, S.; Mattioli, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Pisacane, F.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.; Boccaccio, P.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Sacco, D.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the new prototype of high quantum efficiency PMT (43% at 380 nm), Hamamatsu R7600U-200, was studied coupled to a LaBr 3 :Ce crystal with the size of o12.5 mmx12.5 mm. The energy resolution results were compared with ones from two PMTs, Hamamatsu R7600U and R6231MOD, with 22% and 30% quantum efficiency (QE), respectively. Moreover, the photodetectors were equipped with tapered and un-tapered voltage dividers to study the non-linearity effects on pulse height distribution, due to very high peak currents induced in the PMT by the fast and intense light pulse of LaBr 3 :Ce. The results show an energy resolution improvement with UBA PMT of about 20%, in the energy range of 80-662 keV, with respect to the BA one.

  8. A compact sub-Kelvin ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope with high energy resolution and high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Miyamachi, T; Tomanić, T; Dehm, R; Wulfhekel, W

    2011-10-01

    We designed a scanning tunneling microscope working at sub-Kelvin temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) in order to study the magnetic properties on the nanoscale. An entirely homebuilt three-stage cryostat is used to cool down the microscope head. The first stage is cooled with liquid nitrogen, the second stage with liquid (4)He. The third stage uses a closed-cycle Joule-Thomson refrigerator of a cooling power of 1 mW. A base temperature of 930 mK at the microscope head was achieved using expansion of (4)He, which can be reduced to ≈400 mK when using (3)He. The cryostat has a low liquid helium consumption of only 38 ml/h and standing times of up to 280 h. The fast cooling down of the samples (3 h) guarantees high sample throughput. Test experiments with a superconducting tip show a high energy resolution of 0.3 meV when performing scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The vertical stability of the tunnel junction is well below 1 pm (peak to peak) and the electric noise floor of tunneling current is about 6fA/√Hz. Atomic resolution with a tunneling current of 1 pA and 1 mV was achieved on Au(111). The lateral drift of the microscope at stable temperature is below 20 pm/h. A superconducting spilt-coil magnet allows to apply an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 3 T at the sample surface. The flux vortices of a Nb(110) sample were clearly resolved in a map of differential conductance at 1.1 K and a magnetic field of 0.21 T. The setup is designed for in situ preparation of tip and samples under UHV condition.

  9. Characterization of high density SiPM non-linearity and energy resolution for prompt gamma imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Cozzi, G.; Ferri, A.; Fiorini, C.; Paternoster, G.; Piemonte, C.; Rucatti, D.; Zappalà, G.; Zorzi, N.; Gola, A.

    2017-07-01

    Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) (Trento, Italy) has recently introduced High Density (HD) and Ultra High-Density (UHD) SiPMs, featuring very small micro-cell pitch. The high cell density is a very important factor to improve the linearity of the SiPM in high-dynamic-range applications, such as the scintillation light readout in high-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy and in prompt gamma imaging for proton therapy. The energy resolution at high energies is a trade-off between the excess noise factor caused by the non-linearity of the SiPM and the photon detection efficiency of the detector. To study these effects, we developed a new setup that simulates the LYSO light emission in response to gamma photons up to 30 MeV, using a pulsed light source. We measured the non-linearity and energy resolution vs. energy of the FBK RGB-HD e RGB-UHD SiPM technologies. We considered five different cell sizes, ranging from 10 μm up to 25 μm. With the UHD technology we were able to observe a remarkable reduction of the SiPM non-linearity, less than 5% at 5 MeV with 10 μm cells, which should be compared to a non-linearity of 50% with 25 μm-cell HD-SiPMs. With the same setup, we also measured the different components of the energy resolution (intrinsic, statistical, detector and electronic noise) vs. cell size, over-voltage and energy and we separated the different sources of excess noise factor.

  10. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Niedermayr, T.; Drury, O.; Cunningham, M.F.; Berg, M.L. van den; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Funk, T.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance

  11. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Drury, O.; Niedermayr, T.; Cunningham, M.F.; Van den Berg, M.L.; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 24 hours hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance

  12. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O B; Cunningham, M F; Berg, M L; Ullom, J N; Loshak, A; Funk, T; Cramer, S P; Batteux, J D; See, E; Frank, M; Labov, S E

    2001-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  13. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; Niedermayr, T.; Drury, O.; Cunningham, M.F.; Berg, M.L. van den; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Funk, T.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E

    2001-07-21

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  14. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  15. BiI3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Juan C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Baciak, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Johns, Paul [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sulekar, Soumitra [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Totten, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Nimmagadda, Jyothir [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-04-12

    BiI3 had been investigated for its unique properties as a layered compound semiconductor for many decades. However, despite the exceptional atomic, physical, and electronic properties of this material, good resolution gamma ray spectra had never been reported for BiI3. The shortcomings that previously prevented BiI3 from reaching success as a gamma ray sensor were, through this project, identified and suppressed to unlock the performance of this promising compound. Included in this work were studies on a number of methods which have, for the first time, enabled BiI3 to exhibit spectral performance rivaling many other candidate semiconductors for room temperature gamma ray sensors. New approaches to crystal growth were explored that allow BiI3 spectrometers to be fabricated with up to 2.2% spectral resolution at 662 keV. Fundamental studies on trap states, dopant incorporation, and polarization were performed to enhance performance of this compound. Additionally, advanced detection techniques were applied to display the capabilities of high quality BiI3 spectrometers. Overall, through this work, BiI3 has been revealed as a potentially transformative material for nuclear security and radiation detection sciences.

  16. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  17. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  18. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  19. High resolution medium energy ion scattering study of silicon oxidation and oxy nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.P.; Lu, H.C.; Garfunkel, E.; Gustafsson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Silicon oxide is likely to remain the material of choice for gate oxides in microelectronics for the foreseeable future. As device become ever smaller and faster, the thickness of these layers in commercial products is predicted to be less than 50 Angstroms in just a few years. An understanding of such devices will therefore likely to be based on microscopic concepts and should now be investigated by atomistic techniques. With medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using an electrostatic energy analyzer, depth profiling of thin (<60 Angstroms) silicon oxide films on Si(100) with 3 - 5 Angstroms depth resolution in the near region has been done. The growth mechanism of thin oxide films on Si(100) has been studied, using sequential oxygen isotope exposures. It is found that the oxide films are stoichiometric to within approx. 10 Angstroms of the interface. It is also found that the oxidation reactions occur at the surface, in the transition region and at interface, with only the third region being included in the conventional (Deal-Grove) model for oxide formation. Nitrogen is sometimes added to gate oxides, as it has been found empirically that his improves some of the electrical properties. The role, location and even the amount of nitrogen that exists in such films are poorly understood, and represent interesting analytical challenges. MEIS data will be presented that address these questions, measured for a number of different processing conditions. We have recently demonstrated how to perform nitrogen nano-engineering in such ultrathin gate dielectrics, and these results will also be discussed

  20. Hadronic energy resolution of a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter using software compensation techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Gallus, Petr; Havránek, Miroslav; Janata, Milan; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lednický, Denis; Marčišovský, Michal; Polák, Ivo; Popule, Jiří; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Růžička, Pavel; Šícho, Petr; Smolík, Jan; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, SEP (2012), 1-23 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042; GA MŠk LC527; GA ČR GA202/05/0653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : hadronic calorimetry * imaging calorimetry * software compensation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  1. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  2. High-resolution imaging of coronary calcifications by intense low-energy fluoroscopic X-ray obtained from synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Tada, J.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Cardiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to obtain an intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from synchrotron radiation (SR) and apply it to detect coronary calcifications, the SR beam was reflected with a silicon crystal to be expanded (150 mm in height and 80 mm in width) and to be monochromatized at an energy level of 37 keV. The X-ray was intermittently irradiated to obtain dynamic imaging of 30 images/s. Images were recorded by a digital fluorography system. The low-energy X-ray from SR sharply visualized calcification of coronary arteries, while conventional X-ray could not visualize coronary calcification. The intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from SR is sensitive, has high-resolution for imaging coronary calcification and may serve as a screening method for coronary artery disease.

  3. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Energy resolution of scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszyński, M., E-mail: M.Moszynski@ncbj.gov.pl; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Grodzicka, M.; Iwanowska, J.; Sibczyński, P.; Szczęśniak, T.

    2016-01-01

    According to current knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be a fundamental limitation of energy resolution. A good energy resolution is of great importance for most applications of scintillation detectors. Thus, its limitations are discussed below; which arise from the non-proportional response of scintillators to gamma rays and electrons, being of crucial importance to the intrinsic energy resolution of crystals. The important influence of Landau fluctuations and the scattering of secondary electrons (δ-rays) on intrinsic resolution is pointed out here. The study on undoped NaI and CsI at liquid nitrogen temperature with a light readout by avalanche photodiodes strongly suggests that the non-proportionality of many crystals is not their intrinsic property and may be improved by selective co-doping. Finally, several observations that have been collected in the last 15 years on the influence of the slow components of light pulses on energy resolution suggest that more complex processes are taking place in the scintillators. This was observed with CsI(Tl), CsI(Na), ZnSe(Te), and undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and, finally, for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 °C. A common conclusion of these observations is that the highest energy resolution, and particularly intrinsic resolution measured with the scintillators, characterized by two or more components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of the components. In contrast, the slow components observed in many other crystals degrade the intrinsic resolution. In the limiting case, afterglow could also be considered as a very slow component that spoils the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all of the above observations by looking for their origin.

  5. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-07

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM, DUNHAM COEFFICIENTS, AND POTENTIAL ENERGY FUNCTION OF NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Requena, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na 35 Cl and Na 37 Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δ v = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM, DUNHAM COEFFICIENTS, AND POTENTIAL ENERGY FUNCTION OF NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular, Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopía y Bioespectroscopía, Unidad asociada CSIC, Parque científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 5, E-47011, Valladolid (Spain); Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM, CSIC. C/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Castro-Carrizo, A. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la la Piscine, F-38406, Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Requena, A. [Universidad de Murcia. Faculdad de Química, Dpto. de Química-Física, Campus Espinardo E-30100, Murcia (Spain)

    2016-07-10

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na{sup 35}Cl and Na{sup 37}Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δ v = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  8. High Energy Resolution Hyperspectral X-Ray Imaging for Low-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Silvia; Saifuddin, Sarene C; Ferreira, Filipa I M; Henthorn, Nicholas; Seller, Paul; Sellin, Paul J; Stratmann, Philipp; Veale, Matthew C; Wilson, Matthew D; Cernik, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is an alternative to conventional X-ray mammography for imaging dense breasts. However, conventional approaches to CEDM require a double exposure of the patient, implying higher dose, and risk of incorrect image registration due to motion artifacts. A novel approach is presented, based on hyperspectral imaging, where a detector combining positional and high-resolution spectral information (in this case based on Cadmium Telluride) is used. This allows simultaneous acquisition of the two images required for CEDM. The approach was tested on a custom breast-equivalent phantom containing iodinated contrast agent (Niopam 150®). Two algorithms were used to obtain images of the contrast agent distribution: K-edge subtraction (KES), providing images of the distribution of the contrast agent with the background structures removed, and a dual-energy (DE) algorithm, providing an iodine-equivalent image and a water-equivalent image. The high energy resolution of the detector allowed the selection of two close-by energies, maximising the signal in KES images, and enhancing the visibility of details with the low surface concentration of contrast agent. DE performed consistently better than KES in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio of the details; moreover, it allowed a correct reconstruction of the surface concentration of the contrast agent in the iodine image. Comparison with CEDM with a conventional detector proved the superior performance of hyperspectral CEDM in terms of the image quality/dose tradeoff.

  9. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10{sup 13} photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO{sub 2} converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  10. The effect of energy peak drift on the calibration of a high resolution gamma-ray soil density gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial resolution is obtained from a gamma-ray transmission density gauge by restricting the measured counts to a narrow band of the energy spectrum, close to the emission energy peak. The effect on measurement accuracy of any movement of this measurement window relative to the energy peak was investigated. The findings were related to anticipated energy peak movements in a proposed LED-based gain-stabilization system. Movements of the energy peaks during recording of unstabilized spectra prevented direct comparisons of spectra at different positions. A simulation procedure was, therefore, developed in which movements of the measurement window relative to sets of stable calibration spectra were examined. When analysing spectra, recorded using a gauge with a different gain-stabilization system, accuracy was found to be unaffected by simulated peak movements of up to 0.03 MeV in the direction of increasing energy. However, movements of stabilized spectra in the direction of decreasing energy, and of unstabilized spectra in either direction, increased measurement errors to twice the level of inherent measurement errors within 0.02 MeV, with errors in bulk density of up to 0.7 Mg m −3 for movements of 0.1 MeV. The spectra of the new LED-based stabilization system are expected to behave in a manner similar to the unstabilized system, therefore requiring regular monitoring of the peak position. (author)

  11. Phonon spectrum of single-crystalline FeSe probed by high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Khalil; Engelhardt, Tobias; Le Tacon, Matthieu; Wolf, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Utilizing high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) we measure the phonon frequencies of β-FeSe(001), cleaved under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At the zone center (Γ bar-point) three prominent loss features are observed at loss energies of about ≃ 20.5 and 25.6 and 40 meV. Based on the scattering selection rules we assign the observed loss features to the A1g, B1g, and A2u phonon modes of β-FeSe(001). The experimentally measured phonon frequencies do not agree with the results of density functional based calculations in which a nonmagnetic, a checkerboard or a strip antiferromagnetic order is assumed for β-FeSe(001). Our measurements suggest that, similar to the other Fe-based materials, magnetism has a profound impact on the lattice dynamics of β-FeSe(001).

  12. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  13. High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrander, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals

  14. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  15. Design and construction of a high-stability, low-noise power supply for use with high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.E.; Davies, P.W.; Crowell, J.E.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The design and construction of a high-stability, low-noise power supply which provides potentials for the lens and analyzer elements of a 127 0 Ehrhardt-type high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer (HREELS) is described. The supply incorporates a filament emission-control circuit and facilities for measuring electron beam current at each spectrometer element, thus facilitating optimal tuning of the spectrometer. Spectra obtained using this supply are shown to have a four-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and a higher resolution of the vibrational loss features when compared with spectra taken using a previously existing supply based on passive potential divider networks

  16. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  17. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  18. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  19. Magnetic Microcalorimeters with Ultra-High Energy Resolution (FY17 Q2 report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramos, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-28

    We will continue to characterize the Ag:Er MMC in detail to compare it with existing models and understand its limiting performance, both in New Mexico and at LLNL. For best resolution, it will be important to reduce external electromagnetic interference and ensure good thermal coupling to the cryostat. Improved resolution will be important for our presentations at the LTD-17 conference in Japan in Q3. We have also hired Cameron Flynn, a junior in physics at the university of New Hampshire, as a summer student to work on the MMC detector project. If he turns out to be as smart and as strong in the lab as his letters of recommendation and his interview performance suggests, we will try to attract him into one of the bay area universities for his Ph.D. and recruit him to LLNL for his thesis research.

  20. High-efficiency improvement for high energy resolution experimental mode of DIANA spectrometer at materials and life science facility (MLF) of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuaki; Shibata, Kaoru; Arai, Masatoshi; Sato, Taku J.

    2006-09-01

    DIANA is an indirect-geometry time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer which is planed to install at Materials and Life science Facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). It has three exchangeable analyzer crystals, such as PG(002), Ge(311) and Si(111) for different energy transfer, momentum transfer and energy-resolution experiments. Normal experimental mode, either PG(002) or Ge(311) analyzer is used, shows moderate energy resolutions of 15μeV or 41λeV, respectively. We are especially aiming very high energy-resolution of 2 μeV by using Si(111) analyzer crystal together with high speed counter-rotating pulse-shaping choppers with each rotation frequency of 300 Hz as an optional setting for the spectrometer. Although such a high energy-resolution is attained, it is considerably inefficient having a very narrow incident energy (E i ) band if the pulse shaping chopper has only one slit. Therefore, we have designed multiple-slit chopper and have performed Monte-Carlo simulation to study Repetition Rate Multiplication (RRM) capability. RRM has been shown to be achievable by using multiple-slit pulse-shaping choppers. By the consideration of the contamination appeared between the neighbor two pulse-shaped bands, the number of slits has been optimized to eight. By using the 8-slit choppers, 23 pulse-shaped neutron energy bands have been available simultaneously within one measurements. Minimum 10 measurements with different phases of the choppers provide the continuous S(Q, ℎω) spectrum of -1.0 meV<ℎω<+3.4 meV. (author)

  1. High energy resolution measurement of the sup 238 U neutron capture yield from 1 to 100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, R.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Perez, R.B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); De Saussure, G.; Ingle, R.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the precise determination of the {sup 238}U neutron capture yield (i.e. the probability of neutron capture) as a function of neutron energy with the highest available neutron energy resolution. The motivation for this undertaking arises from the central role played by the {sup 238}U neutron capture process in the neutron balance of both thermal reactors and fast breeder reactors. The present measurement was performed using the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) facility. The pulsed beam of neutrons from the ORELA facility is collimated on a sample of {sup 238}U. The neutron capture rate in the sample is measured, as a function of neutron time-of-flight (TOF) by detecting the {gamma}-rays from the {sup 238}U(n, {gamma}){sup 239}U reaction with a large {gamma}-ray detector surrounding the {sup 238}U sample. At each energy, the capture yield is proportional to the observed capture rate divided by the measured intensity of the neutron beam. The constant of proportionality (the normalization constant) is obtained from the ratio of theoretical to experimentally measured areas under small {sup 238}U resonances where the resonance parameters have been determined from high-resolution {sup 238}U transmission measurements. The cross section for the reaction {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}){sup 239}U can be derived from the measured capture yield if one applies appropriate corrections for multiple scattering and resonance self-shielding. Some 200 {sup 238}U neutron resonances in the energy range from 250 eV to 10 keV have been observed which had not been detected in previous measurements. (author).

  2. A 35 year high-resolution wave atlas for nearshore energy production and economics at the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lavidas, George; Venugopal, Vengatesan

    2017-01-01

    The study enhances the coastal resource knowledge and discusses opportunities for wave energy in theAegean Sea. A fine-resolution numerical wave model is utilised to provide results for the Greek coastalregions. The model ran for 35 years (1980e2014) estimating wave characteristics, and quantifying thewave energy potential in coastal areas. The results deliver the energy potential, variability, and sitecharacterisation for the Aegean Sea.The dataset is coupled with wave energy converters powe...

  3. Crystal field and low energy excitations measured by high resolution RIXS at the L edge of Cu, Ni and Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Wang, X.

    2009-01-01

    of the 3d transition metals with unprecedented energy resolution, of the order of 100 meV for Mn, Ni and Cu. We present here some preliminary spectra on CuO, malachite, NiO, , MnO and . The dd excitations are very well resolved allowing accurate experimental evaluation of 3d state energy splitting. The low...

  4. High-pulse energy supercontinuum laser for high-resolution spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipids in the 1650-1850 nm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasa, Manoj Kumar; Markos, Christos; Maria, Michael; Petersen, Christian R; Moselund, Peter M; Bang, Ole

    2018-04-01

    We propose a cost-effective high-pulse energy supercontinuum (SC) source based on a telecom range diode laser-based amplifier and a few meters of standard single-mode optical fiber, with a pulse energy density as high as ~25 nJ/nm in the 1650-1850 nm regime (factor >3 times higher than any SC source ever used in this wavelength range). We demonstrate how such an SC source combined with a tunable filter allows high-resolution spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and the spectroscopy of lipids in the first overtone transition band of C-H bonds (1650-1850 nm). We show the successful discrimination of two different lipids (cholesterol and lipid in adipose tissue) and the photoacoustic cross-sectional scan of lipid-rich adipose tissue at three different locations. The proposed high-pulse energy SC laser paves a new direction towards compact, broadband and cost-effective source for spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging.

  5. Analysis of stationary fuel cell dynamic ramping capabilities and ultra capacitor energy storage using high resolution demand data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, James R.; Jabbari, Faryar; Brouwer, Jacob; Mauzey, Josh L.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    Current high temperature fuel cell (HTFC) systems used for stationary power applications (in the 200-300 kW size range) have very limited dynamic load following capability or are simply base load devices. Considering the economics of existing electric utility rate structures, there is little incentive to increase HTFC ramping capability beyond 1 kWs -1 (0.4% s -1). However, in order to ease concerns about grid instabilities from utility companies and increase market adoption, HTFC systems will have to increase their ramping abilities, and will likely have to incorporate electrical energy storage (EES). Because batteries have low power densities and limited lifetimes in highly cyclic applications, ultra capacitors may be the EES medium of choice. The current analyses show that, because ultra capacitors have a very low energy storage density, their integration with HTFC systems may not be feasible unless the fuel cell has a ramp rate approaching 10 kWs -1 (4% s -1) when using a worst-case design analysis. This requirement for fast dynamic load response characteristics can be reduced to 1 kWs -1 by utilizing high resolution demand data to properly size ultra capacitor systems and through demand management techniques that reduce load volatility.

  6. Low-energy magnetic dipole response in 56Fe from high-resolution electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearick, R.W.; Hartung, G.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.

    2003-01-01

    The 56 Fe(e, e') reaction has been studied for excitation energies up to about 8 MeV and momentum transfers q≅0.4-0.55 fm -1 at the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (DALINAC) with kinematics emphasizing M1 transitions. Additional data have been taken for q≅0.8-1.7 fm -1 at the electron accelerator NIKHEF, Amsterdam. A PWBA analysis allows spin and parity determination of the excited states. For M1 excitations, transition strengths are derived with a DWBA analysis using shell-model form factors. The resulting B(M1) strength distribution is compared to shell-model calculations employing different effective interactions. The form factor of the prominent low-lying M1 transition at 3.449 MeV demonstrates its dominant orbital nature. It represents a major part of the scissors mode in 56 Fe

  7. High-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy studies of clean and hydrogen-covered tungsten (100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    High-resolution (10-meV FWHM) low-energy (≤ 100eV) electrons are scattered from the tungsten (100) surface. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) selection rules are utilized to identify vibrational modes of the surface tungsten atoms. A 36-meV mode is measured on the c(2 X 2) thermally reconstructed surface and is modeled as an overtone of the 18-meV mode at M in the surface Brillouin zone. The superstructure of the reconstructed surface allows this mode to be observed in specular scattering. The surface tungsten atoms return to their bulk lateral positions with saturated hydrogen (β 1 phase) adsorption; and a 26-meV mode identified is due to the perpendicular vibration of the surface tungsten layers. The clean-room temperature surface does not display either low-energy vibrations and the surface is modeled as disordered. The three β 1 phase hydrogen vibrations are observed and a new vibration at 118 meV is identified. The 118-meV cross section displays characteristics of a parallel mode, but calculations show this assignment to be erroneous. There are two hydrogen atoms for each surface tungsten atom in the β 1 phase, and lattice-dynamical calculations show that the 118-meV mode is due to a hydrogen-zone edge vibration. The predicted breakdown of the parallel hydrogen vibration selection rule was not observed

  8. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  9. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  10. Establishment and analysis of a High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of the water-energy cycle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Wen, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    For better prediction and understanding of land-atmospheric interaction, in-situ observed meteorological data acquired from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system. Furthermore, the WRF model produced a High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of the water-energy cycle in China (HRADC). This dataset has a horizontal resolution of 25 km for near surface meteorological data, such as air temperature, humidity, wind vectors and pressure (19 levels); soil temperature and moisture (four levels); surface temperature; downward/upward short/long radiation; 3-h latent heat flux; sensible heat flux; and ground heat flux. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method and 2) compare results of meteorological elements, such as 2 m temperature and precipitation generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and surface temperature and specific humidity with Global LandData Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). We found that the satellite-derived GVF from MODIS increased over southeast China compared with the default model over the whole year. The simulated results of soil temperature, net radiation and surface energy flux from the HRADC are improved compared with the control simulation and are close to GLDAS outputs. The values of net radiation from HRADC are higher than the GLDAS outputs, and the differences in the simulations are large in the east region but are smaller in northwest China and on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The spatial distribution of the sensible heat flux and the ground

  11. Analyzing high resolution topography for advancing the understanding of mass and energy transfer through landscapes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaiacquaa, Paola; Belmont, Patrick; Staley, Dennis M.; Simley, Jeffery; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Bode, Collin A.; Crosby, Christopher; DeLong, Stephen; Glenn, Nancy; Kelly, Sara; Lague, Dimitri; Sangireddy, Harish; Schaffrath, Keelin; Tarboton, David; Wasklewicz, Thad; Wheaton, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The study of mass and energy transfer across landscapes has recently evolved to comprehensive considerations acknowledging the role of biota and humans as geomorphic agents, as well as the importance of small-scale landscape features. A contributing and supporting factor to this evolution is the emergence over the last two decades of technologies able to acquire high resolution topography (HRT) (meter and sub-meter resolution) data. Landscape features can now be captured at an appropriately fine spatial resolution at which surface processes operate; this has revolutionized the way we study Earth-surface processes. The wealth of information contained in HRT also presents considerable challenges. For example, selection of the most appropriate type of HRT data for a given application is not trivial. No definitive approach exists for identifying and filtering erroneous or unwanted data, yet inappropriate filtering can create artifacts or eliminate/distort critical features. Estimates of errors and uncertainty are often poorly defined and typically fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity of the dataset, which may introduce bias or error for many analyses. For ease of use, gridded products are typically preferred rather than the more information-rich point cloud representations. Thus many users take advantage of only a fraction of the available data, which has furthermore been subjected to a series of operations often not known or investigated by the user. Lastly, standard HRT analysis work-flows are yet to be established for many popular HRT operations, which has contributed to the limited use of point cloud data.In this review, we identify key research questions relevant to the Earth-surface processes community within the theme of mass and energy transfer across landscapes and offer guidance on how to identify the most appropriate topographic data type for the analysis of interest. We describe the operations commonly performed from raw data to raster products and

  12. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  13. A hybrid, broadband, low noise charge preamplifier for simultaneous high resolution energy and time information with large capacitance semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyot, M.

    1975-05-01

    A broadband and low noise charge preamplifier was developed in hybrid form, for a recoil spectrometer requiring large capacitance semiconductor detectors. This new hybrid and low cost preamplifier permits good timing information without compromising energy resolution. With a 500 pF external input capacity, it provides two simultaneous outputs: (i) the faster, current sensitive, with a rise time of 9 nsec and 2 mV/MeV on 50 ohms load, (ii) the lower, charge sensitive, with an energy resolution of 14 keV (FWHM Si) using a RC-CR ungated filter of 2 μsec and a FET input protection [fr

  14. Hadron energy resolution at ICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Moon Moon; Ghosh, Anushree; Kaur, Daljeet; Mohan, Lakshmi S.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed a simulation study for determining the hadron energy resolution of INO-ICAL detector within a GEANT4 based simulation framework. We do this by propagating single pions from a fixed or a randomised vertex, as also with the NUANCE (neutrino event generator) generated events in which hadrons are produced in the energy range (0.5 ≤ E ≤ 15 GeV). Hadron interactions produce a shower of hits inside the detector. The energy of hadrons can therefore be reconstructed only by taking these hits into account. Hit distribution for each energy and angle bin has been obtained and analyzed. In order to find the suitable fit for such hit distributions a comparative study has been performed by applying different fit functions and results will be shown

  15. Estimation of Evapotraspiration of Tamarisk using Energy Balance Models with High Resolution Airborne Imagery and LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M.; Taghvaeian, S.; Neale, C. M.; Pack, R.; Watts, D. R.; Osterberg, J.

    2010-12-01

    The wide uncontrolled spread of the invasive species of Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) in the riparian areas of the southwest of the United States has become a source of concern to the water resource management community. This tree which was imported for ornamental purposes and to control bank erosion during the 1800’s later became problematic and unwanted due to its biophysical properties: Its vigorous growth out-competes native species for moisture, lowering water tables, increasing the soil salinity and hence becomes the dominant riparian vegetation especially over arid to semi-arid floodplain environments. Most importantly they consume large amounts of water leading to reduction of river flows and lowering the groundwater table. We implemented this study in an effort to provide reliable estimates of the amount of water consumed or “lost” by such species through evapotranspiration (ET) as well as to a better understand of the related land surface and near atmosphere interactions. The recent advances in remote sensing techniques and the related data quality made it possible to provide spatio-temporal estimates of ET at a considerably higher resolution and reliable accuracy over a wide range of surface heterogeneity. We tested two different soil-vegetation atmosphere transfer models (SVAT) that are based on thermal remote sensing namely: the two source model (TSM) of Norman et al. (1995) with its recent modifications and the Surface Energy balance algorithm (SEBAL) of Bastiaanssen et al. (1998) to estimate the different surface energy balance components and the evapotranspiration (ET) spatially. We used high resolution (1.0 meter pixel size) shortwave reflectance and longwave thermal airborne imagery acquired by the research aircraft at the Remote Sensing Services Lab at Utah State University (USU) and land use map classified from these images as well as a detailed vegetation height image acquired by the LASSI Lidar also developed at USU. We also compared estimates

  16. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Italy): Full field X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F. P.; Masini, N.; Pappalardo, L., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    A full field X-ray camera for the X-Ray Fluorescence imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution was designed and developed. The system was realized by coupling a pinhole collimator with a positionsensitive CCD detector. X-Ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube. The characteristic X-ray spectra of the investigated materials are obtained by using a multi-frames acquisition in single-photon counting. The energy resolution measured at the Fe-Kα line was 157 eV. The spatial resolution of the system was determined by the analysis of a sharp-edge at different magnification values; it was estimated to be 90 μm at a magnification value of 3.2x and 190 μm at 0.8x. The present set-up of the system is suited to analyze samples with dimensions up to 5x4 cm{sup 2}. Typical measurement time is in the range between 1h to 4 h. (author)

  17. High energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of the dielectric properties of bulk and nanoparticle LaB6 in the near-infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yohei; Terauchi, Masami; Mukai, Masaki; Kaneyama, Toshikatsu; Adachi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The dielectric properties of LaB 6 crystals and the plasmonic behavior of LaB 6 nanoparticles, which have been applied to solar heat-shielding filters, were studied by high energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS). An EELS spectrum of a LaB 6 crystal showed a peak at 2.0 eV, which was attributed to volume plasmon excitation of carrier electrons. EELS spectra of single LaB 6 nanoparticles showed peaks at 1.1-1.4 eV depending on the dielectric effect from the substrates. The peaks were assigned to dipole oscillation excitations. These peak energies almost coincided with the peak energy of optical absorption of a heat-shielding filter with LaB 6 nanoparticles. On the other hand, those energies were a smaller than a dipole oscillation energy predicted using the dielectric function of bulk LaB 6 crystal. It is suggested that the lower energy than expected is due to an excitation at 1.2 eV, which was observed for oxidized LaB 6 area. -- Highlights: → The dielectric properties of LaB 6 nanoparticles applied to solar heat-shielding filters were studied by HR-EELS. → Plasmon peak energies of the LaB 6 nanoparticles were almost equal to optical absorption energy of a heat-shielding filter. → From this result, near-infrared optical absorption of the filter is due to the surface dipole mode of the nanoparticles.

  18. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  19. Resolution on the program energy-climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the resolutions proposed in the resolution proposition n. 1261 and concerning the european Commission program on the energy policies and the climate change. Twelve resolution are presented on the energy sources development, the energy efficiency, the energy economy and the carbon taxes. (A.L.B.)

  20. High-resolution integration of water, energy, and climate models to assess electricity grid vulnerabilities to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, M.; Macknick, J.; Tidwell, V. C.; Zagona, E. A.; Magee, T. M.; Bennett, K.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. electricity sector depends on large amounts of water for hydropower generation and cooling thermoelectric power plants. Variability in water quantity and temperature due to climate change could reduce the performance and reliability of individual power plants and of the electric grid as a system. While studies have modeled water usage in power systems planning, few have linked grid operations with physical water constraints or with climate-induced changes in water resources to capture the role of the energy-water nexus in power systems flexibility and adequacy. In addition, many hydrologic and hydropower models have a limited representation of power sector water demands and grid interaction opportunities of demand response and ancillary services. A multi-model framework was developed to integrate and harmonize electricity, water, and climate models, allowing for high-resolution simulation of the spatial, temporal, and physical dynamics of these interacting systems. The San Juan River basin in the Southwestern U.S., which contains thermoelectric power plants, hydropower facilities, and multiple non-energy water demands, was chosen as a case study. Downscaled data from three global climate models and predicted regional water demand changes were implemented in the simulations. The Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model was used to project inflows, ambient air temperature, and humidity in the San Juan River Basin. Resulting river operations, water deliveries, water shortage sharing agreements, new water demands, and hydroelectricity generation at the basin-scale were estimated with RiverWare. The impacts of water availability and temperature on electric grid dispatch, curtailment, cooling water usage, and electricity generation cost were modeled in PLEXOS. Lack of water availability resulting from climate, new water demands, and shortage sharing agreements will require thermoelectric generators to drastically decrease power production, as much as 50

  1. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C.; Thomsen, Felix; Campbell, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. Methods: The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1–1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. Results: 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm 3 corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. Conclusions: The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive

  2. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C., E-mail: glueer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118 (Germany); Thomsen, Felix [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca 8000 (Argentina); Campbell, Graeme M. [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118, Germany and Institut für Biomechanik, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg (TUHH), Hamburg 21073 (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. Methods: The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1–1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. Results: 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm{sup 3} corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. Conclusions: The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive

  3. Construction of an apparatus for the investigation of inelastic electron scattering processes at high energy resolution and experimental determination of appearance energies of various atoms, molecules and small van-der-Waals clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, C.

    1993-03-01

    A new experimental setup is presented, which enables the investigation of inelastic electron scattering processes at high energy resolution with dE n + cluster ions, n>3, is supported by these measurements

  4. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, high-resolution electron energy-loss and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, and others. Material systems ranging from atomic layers of metals and semiconductors to biology related depositions are being investigated. In the case of biological materials, however, strict limitations to high-resolution applications are imposed by electron radiation damage considerations

  5. High-resolution atmospheric emission inventory of the argentine energy sector. Comparison with edgar global emission database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Enrique Puliafito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2014 high-resolution spatially disaggregated emission inventory (0.025° × 0.025° horizontal resolution, of the main activities in the energy sector in Argentina. The sub-sectors considered are public generation of electricity, oil refineries, cement production, transport (maritime, air, rail and road, residential and commercial. The following pollutants were included: greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, VOC and other specific air quality indicators such as SO2, PM10, and PM2.5. This work could contribute to a better geographical allocation of the pollutant sources through census based population maps. Considering the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the total amount is 144 Tg CO2eq, from which the transportation sector emits 57.8 Tg (40%; followed by electricity generation, with 40.9 Tg (28%; residential + commercial, with 31.24 Tg (22%; and cement and refinery production, with 14.3 Tg (10%. This inventory shows that 49% of the total emissions occur in rural areas: 31% in rural areas of medium population density, 13% in intermediate urban areas and 7% in densely populated urban areas. However, if emissions are analyzed by extension (per square km, the largest impact is observed in medium and densely populated urban areas, reaching more than 20.3 Gg per square km of greenhouse gases, 297 Mg/km2 of ozone precursors gases and 11.5 Mg/km2 of other air quality emissions. A comparison with the EDGAR global emission database shows that, although the total country emissions are similar for several sub sectors and pollutants, its spatial distribution is not applicable to Argentina. The road and residential transport emissions represented by EDGAR result in an overestimation of emissions in rural areas and an underestimation in urban areas, especially in more densely populated areas. EDGAR underestimates 60 Gg of methane emissions from road transport sector and fugitive emissions from refining

  6. Near-intrinsic energy resolution for 30–662 keV gamma rays in a high pressure xenon electroluminescent TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T.H.V.T.; Díaz, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, data and results from the NEXT prototype for Double Beta and Dark Matter (NEXT-DBDM) detector, a high-pressure gaseous natural xenon electroluminescent time projection chamber (TPC) that was built at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is a prototype of the planned NEXT-100 136 Xe neutrino-less double beta decay (0νββ) experiment with the main objectives of demonstrating near-intrinsic energy resolution at energies up to 662 keV and of optimizing the NEXT-100 detector design and operating parameters. Energy resolutions of ∼1% FWHM for 662 keV gamma rays were obtained at 10 and 15 atm and ∼5% FWHM for 30 keV fluorescence xenon X-rays. These results demonstrate that 0.5% FWHM resolutions for the 2459 keV hypothetical neutrino-less double beta decay peak are realizable. This energy resolution is a factor 7–20 better than that of the current leading 0νββ experiments using liquid xenon and thus represents a significant advancement. We present also first results from a track imaging system consisting of 64 silicon photo-multipliers recently installed in NEXT–DBDM that, along with the excellent energy resolution, demonstrates the key functionalities required for the NEXT-100 0νββ search

  7. High energy resolution measurement of the 238U neutron capture yield in the energy region between 1 and 100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machlin, R.L.; Perez, R.B.; de Saussure, G.; Ingle, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    A measurement of the 238 U neutron capture yield was performed at the 150 meter flight-path of the ORELA facility on two 238 U samples (0.01224 and 0.0031 atomsbarn). The capture yeild data were normalized by Moxon's small resonance method. The energy resolution achieved in this measurement frequently resulted in doublet and triplet splittings of what appeared to be single resonance in previous measurements. This resolution should allow extension of the resolved resonance energy region in 238 U from the present 4-keV limit up to 15 or 20 keV incident neutron energy. Some 200 small resonances of the ( 238 U /plus/ n) compound nucleus have been observed which had not been detected in transmission measurement, in the energy range from 250 eV to 10 keV

  8. Experimental study of high-energy resolution lead/scintillating fiber calorimetry in the 600-1200 MeV energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, V.; Bianco, S.; Capogni, M.; Casano, L.; D'Angelo, A.; Fabbri, F.L.; Ghio, F.; Giardoni, M.; Girolami, B.; Hu, L.; Levi Sandri, P.; Moricciani, D.; Nobili, G.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.; Schaerf, C.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the properties of electromagnetic shower detectors, composed of a uniform array of plastic scintillating fibers and lead (50:35 by volume ratio) for photons in the energy range 600-1200 MeV. When the photon's incidence angle to the fiber axis is within ±2 circle an energy resolution of σ E /E(%)=5.12/√(E[GeV])+1.71 has been observed. (orig.)

  9. A high-resolution processing technique for improving the energy of weak signal based on matching pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to improve the resolution of the seismic signal and to compensate the energy of weak seismic signal based on matching pursuit. With a dictionary of Morlet wavelets, matching pursuit algorithm can decompose a seismic trace into a series of wavelets. We abstract complex-trace attributes from analytical expressions to shrink the search range of amplitude, frequency and phase. In addition, considering the level of correlation between constituent wavelets and average wavelet abstracted from well-seismic calibration, we can obtain the search range of scale which is an important adaptive parameter to control the width of wavelet in time and the bandwidth of frequency. Hence, the efficiency of selection of proper wavelets is improved by making first a preliminary estimate and refining a local selecting range. After removal of noise wavelets, we integrate useful wavelets which should be firstly executed by adaptive spectral whitening technique. This approach can improve the resolutions of seismic signal and enhance the energy of weak wavelets simultaneously. The application results of real seismic data show this method has a good perspective of application.

  10. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  11. Development of a high energy resolution magnetic bolometer for the determination of photon emission intensities by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.

    2007-12-01

    In this research thesis, a first chapter describes the metrological difficulties for the determination of radionuclide photon emission intensities. Then, it discusses the understanding and the required tools for the computing of a magnetic bolometer signal with respect to the different operation parameters and to the sensor geometry. The author describes the implementation of the experimental device and its validation with a first sensor. The new sensor is then optimised for the measurement of photon emission intensities with a good efficiency and a theoretical energy resolution less than 100 eV up to 200 keV. The sensor's detection efficiency and operation have been characterized with a 133 Ba source. The author finally presents the obtained results

  12. Resolution on the program energy-climate; Resolution sur le paquet energie-climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the resolutions proposed in the resolution proposition n. 1261 and concerning the european Commission program on the energy policies and the climate change. Twelve resolution are presented on the energy sources development, the energy efficiency, the energy economy and the carbon taxes. (A.L.B.)

  13. An (e, 2e + ion) study of low-energy electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran with high mass and energy resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueguang; Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yoon; Rabus, Hans; Ullrich, Joachim; Dorn, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    We study the low-energy (E0 = 26 eV) electron-impact induced ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran using a reaction microscope. All three final-state charged particles, i.e., two outgoing electrons and one fragment ion, are detected in triple coincidence such that the momentum vectors and, consequently, the kinetic energies for charged reaction products are determined. The ionic fragments are clearly identified in the experiment with a mass resolution of 1 amu. The fragmentation pathways of tetrahydrofuran are investigated by measuring the ion kinetic energy spectra and the binding energy spectra where an energy resolution of 1.5 eV has been achieved using the recently developed photoemission electron source. Here, we will discuss the fragmentation reactions for the cations C4H8O+, C4H7O+, C2H3O+, C3H_6^+, C3H_5^+, C3H_3^+, CH3O+, CHO+, and C2H_3^+.

  14. High-resolution insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals on natural sediment by site energy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limin; Jin, Qiang; Tandon, Puja; Li, Aimin; Shan, Aidang; Du, Jiajie

    2018-04-01

    Investigating competitive adsorption on river/lake sediments is valuable for understanding the fate and transport of heavy metals. Most studies have studied the adsorption isotherms of competitive heavy metals, which mainly comparing the adsorption information on the same concentration. However, intrinsically, the concentration of each heavy metal on competitive adsorption sites is different, while the adsorption energy is identical. Thus, this paper introduced the site energy distribution theory to increase insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Zn). The site energy distributions of each metal with and without other coexisting heavy metals were obtained. It illustrated that site energy distributions provide much more information than adsorption isotherms through screening of the full energy range. The results showed the superior heavy metal in each site energy area and the influence of competitive metals on the site energy distribution of target heavy metal. Site energy distributions can further help in determining the competitive sites and ratios of coexisting metals. In particular, in the high-energy area, which has great environmental significance, the ratios of heavy metals in the competitive adsorption sites obtained for various competitive systems were as follows: slightly more than 3:1 (Cu-Cd), slightly less than 3:1 (Cu-Zn), slightly more than 1:1 (Cd-Zn), and nearly 7:2:2 (Cu-Cd-Zn). The results from this study are helpful to deeply understand competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn) on sediment. Therefore, this study was effective in presenting a general pattern for future reference in competitive adsorption studies on sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trial fabrication of a secondary x-ray spectrometer with high energy resolution for use in x-ray resonant inelastic scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazumi, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    An instrument was fabricated for use of x-ray resonant inelastic scattering with high-energy resolution in expectation of finding new physical phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems. In the scattering x-ray spectrometer, an asymmetric Johanson crystal spectrometer, which was deployed in an asymmetric Rowland configuration, was designed, fabricated and assessed. The performance expected theoretically for the Johanson spectrometer was recognized from experiments by use of synchrotron radiation. (Y. Kazumata)

  16. High tracking resolution detectors. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  17. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  18. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  19. Detectors for high resolution dynamic pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report reviews the motivation for high spatial resolution in dynamic positron emission tomography of the head and the technical problems in realizing this objective. We present recent progress in using small silicon photodiodes to measure the energy deposited by 511 keV photons in small BGO crystals with an energy resolution of 9.4% full-width at half-maximum. In conjunction with a suitable phototube coupled to a group of crystals, the photodiode signal to noise ratio is sufficient for the identification of individual crystals both for conventional and time-of-flight positron tomography

  20. High-resolution 3D dose distribution measured for two low-energy x-ray brachytherapy seeds: 125I and 103Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massillon-JL, G.; Minniti, R.; Mitch, M.G.; Soares, C.G.; Hearn, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the 3D absorbed dose distribution around 125 I and 103 Pd low-energy photon brachytherapy seeds using a high-spatial-resolution gel scanning system to address the current difficulty in measuring absorbed dose at close distances to these sources as a consequence of high dose rate gradient. A new version of BANG-gel coupled with a small format laser CT scanner has been used. Measurements were performed with 100 μm resolution in all dimensions. In particular, radial dose function and absorbed dose rate in the plane parallel to the sources longitudinal-axis were derived at radial distances smaller than or equal to 1 cm. In addition, the energy dependence was evaluated, finding that, within measurement uncertainties, the gel response is independent of the energy for energy photon values between 20 keV and 1250 keV. We have observed that at distances larger than 1.4 mm from the source, the delivered dose is similar to predictions from published Monte Carlo calculations (MC) for the 125 I seed. For distances between 1 mm and 3 mm, differences in magnitude and shape are significant for the 103 Pd seed, where an enhancement is observed. In the enhancement region, a difference of up to 70% in the radial dose function was obtained. Such observation suggests a contribution from other radionuclides emitting beta-particles or electrons, and not considered by MC. To understand the effect, spectrometry measurements were performed. A small contribution of 102 Rh/ 102m Rh radionuclide relative to 103 Pd was observed and its importance on the absorbed dose measured at close distances to the seed is time dependent and consequently, avoids reproducible measurements. Finally, the results obtained in this work underscore the importance of using high-spatial-resolution and water-equivalent detectors for measuring absorbed dose in low-energy photon radiation fields.

  1. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; de Oliveira, E. M.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lima, M. A. P.; Jones, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  2. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range

  3. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, Université de Liège, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); and others

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  4. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  5. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  6. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  7. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  8. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  10. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  11. High-pulse energy supercontinuum laser for high-resolution spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipids in the 1650-1850 nm region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasa, Manoj Kumar; Markos, Christos; Maria, Michael

    2018-01-01

    We propose a cost-effective high-pulse energy supercontinuum (SC) source based on a telecom range diode laser-based amplifier and a few meters of standard single-mode optical fiber, with a pulse energy density as high as ∼25 nJ/nm in the 1650-1850 nm regime (factor >3 times higher than any SC...... discrimination of two different lipids (cholesterol and lipid in adipose tissue) and the photoacoustic cross-sectional scan of lipid-rich adipose tissue at three different locations. The proposed high-pulse energy SC laser paves a new direction towards compact, broadband and cost-effective source...

  12. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  13. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  14. A review of surface energy balance models for estimating actual evapotranspiration with remote sensing at high spatiotemporal resolution over large extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Ryan R.; Driscoll, Katelyn P.; Sando, Roy

    2017-09-27

    Many approaches have been developed for measuring or estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa), and research over many years has led to the development of remote sensing methods that are reliably reproducible and effective in estimating ETa. Several remote sensing methods can be used to estimate ETa at the high spatial resolution of agricultural fields and the large extent of river basins. More complex remote sensing methods apply an analytical approach to ETa estimation using physically based models of varied complexity that require a combination of ground-based and remote sensing data, and are grounded in the theory behind the surface energy balance model. This report, funded through cooperation with the International Joint Commission, provides an overview of selected remote sensing methods used for estimating water consumed through ETa and focuses on Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop), two energy balance models for estimating ETa that are currently applied successfully in the United States. The METRIC model can produce maps of ETa at high spatial resolution (30 meters using Landsat data) for specific areas smaller than several hundred square kilometers in extent, an improvement in practice over methods used more generally at larger scales. Many studies validating METRIC estimates of ETa against measurements from lysimeters have shown model accuracies on daily to seasonal time scales ranging from 85 to 95 percent. The METRIC model is accurate, but the greater complexity of METRIC results in greater data requirements, and the internalized calibration of METRIC leads to greater skill required for implementation. In contrast, SSEBop is a simpler model, having reduced data requirements and greater ease of implementation without a substantial loss of accuracy in estimating ETa. The SSEBop model has been used to produce maps of ETa over very large extents (the

  15. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  16. Fission-product yields for thermal-neutron fission of 243Cm determined from measurements with a high-resolution low-energy germanium gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, L.D.

    1984-04-01

    Cumulative fission-product yields have been determined for 13 gamma rays emitted during the decay of 12 fission products created by thermal-neutron fission of 243 Cm. A high-resolution low-energy germanium detector was used to measure the pulse-height spectra of gamma rays emitted from a 77-nanogram sample of 243 Cm after the sample had been irradiated by thermal neutrons. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification and matching of gamma-ray energies and half-lives to individual radioisotopes. From these results, 12 cumulative fission product yields were deduced for radionuclides with half-lives between 4.2 min and 84.2 min. 7 references

  17. High-resolution photoemission study of Ce1-x La x RhAs: A collapse of the energy gap in the Kondo semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K.; Higashiguchi, M.; Fujimori, S.-I.; Saitoh, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Sasakawa, T.; Takabatake, T.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution resonance-photoemission spectroscopy has been performed on the Ce 1- x La x RhAs (0≤x≤0.05) single crystal to elucidate a collapse of the energy gap in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs by La substitution. With increasing x, the spectral intensity of the Ce4f 1 derived states near the Fermi level decreases and new 4f derived spectral feature appears at a higher binding energy. The Rh4d-derived states, on the other hand, are not significantly changed by the substitution. New 4f-derived states have incoherent nature, which is responsible for the collapse of the semiconducting state for x>∼0.02

  18. Stability issues of high-energy resolution diode type CdTe nuclear radiation detectors in a long-term operation

    CERN Document Server

    Niraula, M; Aoki, T; Tomita, Y; Hatanaka, Y

    2002-01-01

    High-energy resolution diode type CdTe detectors were fabricated by growing an n-type epitaxial layer on high resistivity p-like crystal wafers, and their stability issues during a long-term operation were studied. Room temperature stability of the detectors was not good at low operating biases of around 200 V. However, it could be improved significantly by operating them at higher biases under full depletion conditions. On the other hand, detectors exhibited excellent stability by cooling them slightly below room temperature down to 0 deg. C. The effect of this low level of cooling on detector stability was found to be more significant than that of applying high biases at room temperature. By using the detector type presented here, stable operation could be obtained at moderate operating voltages of around 400 V and with a modest degree of cooling.

  19. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  20. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  1. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  2. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  3. Direct observation of low energy nuclear spin excitations in HoCrO3 by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, T; Jalarvo, N; Kumar, C M N; Xiao, Y; Brückel, Th

    2013-07-17

    We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in the strongly correlated electron compound HoCrO3. We observe clear inelastic peaks at E = 22.18 ± 0.04 μeV in both energy loss and gain sides. The energy of the inelastic peaks remains constant in the temperature range 1.5-40 K at which they are observed. The intensity of the inelastic peak increases at first with increasing temperature and then decreases at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the energy and intensity of the inelastic peaks is very unusual compared to that observed in other Nd, Co, V and also simple Ho compounds. Huge quasielastic scattering appears at higher temperatures presumably due to the fluctuating electronic moments of the Ho ions that get increasingly disordered at higher temperatures. The strong quasielastic scattering may also originate in the first Ho crystal-field excitations at about 1.5 meV.

  4. Temperature-dependent high energy-resolution EELS of ferroelectric and paraelectric BaTiO3 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnet, Matthieu; Radtke, Guillaume; Woo, Steffi Y.; Zhu, Guo-zhen; Botton, Gianluigi A.

    2016-01-01

    Probing the ferroelectricity at the nanometer scale is of particular interest for a wide range of applications. In this Rapid Communication, the structural distortion of BaTiO3 (BTO) is studied in its ferroelectric (rhombohedral and tetragonal), and paraelectric phases from the O K near edge structures in electron energy loss spectroscopy. Modifications of the electronic structure are detected in the lowest energy fine structure (FS) of the O K edge in the ferroelectric phases, and are interpreted by core-hole valence-electron screening geometry. For the paraelectric phase, the lowest energy FS of the O K edge is comparable to the one obtained at room temperature, which is inconsistent with an expected cubic structure. The variations observed in the O K near edge structures, such as a broader and more asymmetric lowest energy FS at low temperature, suggest that the magnitude of the Ti+4 off-centering along increases in lower-temperature phases. These findings demonstrate the sensitivity of the O K near edge structures to the structural distortions of BTO polymorphs, and form a basis for further investigations on defective or strained BTO at the nanoscale.

  5. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  6. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  7. High resolution eddy current microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M. A.; Jarvis, S. P.; Tokumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample. To achieve a high sensitivity, we used a cantilever with an FeNdBLa particle mounted on the tip. Resistivity measurements are demonstrated on a silicon test structure with a staircase doping profile. Regions with resistivities of 0.0013, 0.0041, and 0.022 Ω cm are clearly resolved with a lateral resolution of approximately 180 nm. For this range of resistivities, the eddy current induced damping is found to depend linearly on the sample resistivity.

  8. Nuclear energy - Waste-packages activity measurement - Part.1: high-resolution gamma spectrometry in integral mode with open geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 14850:2004 describes a procedure for measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclide activity in homogeneous objects such as unconditioned waste (including process waste, dismantling waste, etc.), waste conditioned in various matrices (bitumen, hydraulic binder, thermosetting resins, etc.), notably in the form of 100 L, 200 L, 400 L or 800 L drums, and test specimens or samples, (vitrified waste), and waste packaged in a container, notably technological waste. It also specifies the calibration of the gamma spectrometry chain. The gamma energies used generally range from 0,05 MeV to 3 MeV. (authors)

  9. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  10. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  11. The role of symmetry in the theory of inelastic high-energy electron scattering and its application to atomic-resolution core-loss imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C

    2015-04-01

    The inelastic scattering of a high-energy electron in a solid constitutes a bipartite quantum system with an intrinsically large number of excitations, posing a considerable challenge for theorists. It is demonstrated how and why the utilization of symmetries, or approximate symmetries, can lead to significant improvements in both the description of the scattering physics and the efficiency of numerical computations. These ideas are explored thoroughly for the case of core-loss excitations, where it is shown that the coupled angular momentum basis leads to dramatic improvements over the bases employed in previous work. The resulting gains in efficiency are demonstrated explicitly for K-, L- and M-shell excitations, including such excitations in the context of atomic-resolution imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The utilization of other symmetries is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  13. Development of ultrahigh energy resolution gamma spectrometers for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, O.B.; Velazquez, M.; Dreyer, J.G.; Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing superconducting ultrahigh resolution gamma-detectors for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials, and specifically for spent fuel characterization in nuclear safeguards. The detectors offer an energy resolution below 100 eV FWHM at 100 keV, and can therefore significantly increase the precision of NDA at low energies where line overlap affects the errors of the measurement when using germanium detectors. They also increase the peak-to-background ratio and thus improve the detection limits for weak gamma emissions from the fissile Pu and U isotopes at low energy in the presence of an intense Compton background from the fission products in spent fuel. Here we demonstrate high energy resolution and high peak-to-background ratio of our superconducting Gamma detectors, and discuss their relevance for measuring actinides in spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  14. Jet energy resolution of the SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para, A.; Beretvas, A.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Green, D.; Yeh, G.P.; Wu, W.; Iso, H.

    1990-01-01

    We have answered the PAC question (''Demonstrate the jet energy resolution of your proposed detector by studying decays Z → jet + jet and Z' → jet + jet, M Z' = 1 TeV.'') using a general program called SSCSIM. This program is a tool for investigating simple questions involving the relations between detector parameters and physics capabilities of a detector. A different package called ANLSIM developed by our colleagues at Argonne has also been used to answer this question. The results as expected are very similar. In this note we will try to document our procedures. Our tentative conclusion from this study is that physics induced effects, out-of-cone fluctuations and underlying event fluctuations, dominate the resolution. Pushing the detector performance to the limits of technology improves the effective resolution by at most 20%. 20 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Processing method for high resolution monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya

    2006-12-01

    A processing method for high resolution monochromator (HRM) has been developed at Japanese Atomic Energy Agency/Quantum Beam Science Directorate/Synchrotron Radiation Research unit at SPring-8. For manufacturing a HRM, a sophisticated slicing machine and X-ray diffractometer have been installed for shaping a crystal ingot and orienting precisely the surface of a crystal ingot, respectively. The specification of the slicing machine is following; Maximum size of a diamond blade is φ 350mm in diameter, φ 38.1mm in the spindle diameter, and 2mm in thickness. A large crystal such as an ingot with 100mm in diameter, 200mm in length can be cut. Thin crystal samples such as a wafer can be also cut using by another sample holder. Working distance of a main shaft with the direction perpendicular to working table in the machine is 350mm at maximum. Smallest resolution of the main shaft with directions of front-and-back and top-and-bottom are 0.001mm read by a digital encoder. 2mm/min can set for cutting samples in the forward direction. For orienting crystal faces relative to the blade direction adjustment, a one-circle goniometer and 2-circle segment are equipped on the working table in the machine. A rotation and a tilt of the stage can be done by manual operation. Digital encoder in a turn stage is furnished and has angle resolution of less than 0.01 degrees. In addition, a hand drill as a supporting device for detailed processing of crystal is prepared. Then, an ideal crystal face can be cut from crystal samples within an accuracy of about 0.01 degrees. By installation of these devices, a high energy resolution monochromator crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and a beam collimator are got in hand and are expected to be used for nanotechnology studies. (author)

  16. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We report here on progress made for the period from December 1, 1992 (the date of submission of our latest progress report) to November 30, 1993 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-92ER40717. The new results from the SMC experiment have generated a buzz of theoretical activity. Our involvement with the D0 experiment and the upgrade has increased substantially during the past two years so that we now have six people heavily committed and making what can only be described as a large and disproportionate impact on D0 physics output. Some of the new developments made here at Rice in Neural Network and Probability Density Estimation techniques for data analysis promise to have applications both in D0 and beyond. We report a load of new results from our high-p t jet photoproduction experiment. In addition we have been working on KTeV, albeit without having adequate funding for this work. Progress on the theoretical front has been nothing short of amazing, as is reported herein. In a grand lecture tour during this sabbatical year, Paul Stevenson has already reported his breakthroughs at ten institutions, including CERN, Oxford, Cambridge, Rutherford Lab, Imperial College, and Durham University. The group at Rice University has had an exceptionally productive year and we are justifiably proud of the progress which is reported here

  17. Measurements of energy resolution with hemispheric scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.C.S.; Binns, D.A.C.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1980-01-01

    The hemispheric configuration is used for plastic scintillators type NE 102 with the aiming to optimize the light collect. Scintillators at this configuration, with radii of 3,81 cm and 2,54 cm, are showing improvement about 16-17% in the energy resolution, on cilyndric scintillators with the same volume, for gamma rays of 511-1275 KeV. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Validating the WRF-Chem model for wind energy applications using High Resolution Doppler Lidar data from a Utah 2012 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. J.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Models are important tools for assessing potential of wind energy sites, but the accuracy of these projections has not been properly validated. In this study, High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) data obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution at heights of modern turbine rotors were compared to output from the WRF-chem model in order to help improve the performance of the model in producing accurate wind forecasts for the industry. HRDL data were collected from January 23-March 1, 2012 during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) field campaign. A model validation method was based on the qualitative comparison of the wind field images, time-series analysis and statistical analysis of the observed and modeled wind speed and direction, both for case studies and for the whole experiment. To compare the WRF-chem model output to the HRDL observations, the model heights and forecast times were interpolated to match the observed times and heights. Then, time-height cross-sections of the HRDL and WRF-Chem wind speed and directions were plotted to select case studies. Cross-sections of the differences between the observed and forecasted wind speed and directions were also plotted to visually analyze the model performance in different wind flow conditions. A statistical analysis includes the calculation of vertical profiles and time series of bias, correlation coefficient, root mean squared error, and coefficient of determination between two datasets. The results from this analysis reveals where and when the model typically struggles in forecasting winds at heights of modern turbine rotors so that in the future the model can be improved for the industry.

  19. Precision of high-resolution dual energy x-ray absorptiometry of bone mineral status and body composition in small animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochmüller E. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the in situ precision (reproducibility of bone mineral and body composition measurements in mice of different body weights and rats, using a high-resolution DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. We examined 48 NMRI mice weighing approximately 10 to 60 g, and 10 rats weighing approximately 140 g. Four repeated measurements were obtained on different days. In mice, the standard deviations of repeated measurements ranged from 2.5 to 242 mg for bone mineral content (BMC, from 0.16 to 3.74 g for fat, and from 0.40 to 4.21 g for lean mass. The coefficient of variation in percent (CV% for BMC/BMD (bone mineral density was highest in the 10 g mice (12.8% / 4.9% and lowest in the 40 g mice (3.5% /1.7%. In rats, it was 2.5 /1.2% in the lower extremity, 7.1/3.0 % in the spine, 5.7/2.0 % in the femur, and 3.6%/2.1% in the tibia. The CV% for fat and lean mass in mice was higher than for BMC. The study demonstrates good precision of bone mineral and moderate precision of body composition measure-ments in small animals, using a high-resolution DXA system. The technique can be used for testing the efficacy of drugs in small animal models, for muta-genesis screens, and for the phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice.

  20. Benchmarking NaI(Tl) Electron Energy Resolution Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, Wondwosen; Valentine, J D.

    2002-01-01

    A technique for validating electron energy resolution results measured using the modified Compton coincidence technique (MCCT) has been developed. This technique relies on comparing measured gamma-ray energy resolution with calculated values that were determined using the measured electron energy resolution results. These gamma-ray energy resolution calculations were based on Monte Carlo photon transport simulations, the measured NaI(Tl) electron response, a simplified cascade sequence, and the measured electron energy resolution results. To demonstrate this technique, MCCT-measured NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution results were used along with measured gamma-ray energy resolution results from the same NaI(Tl) crystal. Agreement to within 5% was observed for all energies considered between the calculated and measured gamma-ray energy resolution results for the NaI(Tl) crystal characterized. The calculated gamma-ray energy resolution results were also compared with previously published gamma-ray energy resolution measurements with good agreement (<10%). In addition to describing the validation technique that was developed in this study and the results, a brief review of the electron energy resolution measurements made using the MCCT is provided. Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the MCCT-measured electron energy resolution results are reliable. Thus, the MCCT and this validation technique can be used in the future to characterize the electron energy resolution of other scintillators and to determine NaI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution

  1. High-resolution integrated germanium Compton polarimeter for the γ-ray energy range 80 keV-1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, R. A.; Urban, W.; Barnett, A. R.; Varley, B. J.

    1995-06-01

    Parameters which govern the choice of a detection system to measure the linear polarization of γ rays at low energies are discussed. An integrated polarimeter is described which is constructed from a single crystal of germanium. It is a compact planar device with the sectors defined electrically, and which gives an energy resolution in the add-back mode of 1 keV at 300 keV. Its performance is demonstrated in a series of calibration measurements using both unpolarized radiation from radioactive sources and polarized γ rays from the 168Er(α,2n)170Yb reaction at Eα=25 MeV. Polarization measurements at energies as low as 84 keV have been achieved, where the sensitivity was 0.32±0.09. The sensitivity, efficiency, and energy resolution are reported. Our results indicate that energy resolution should be included in the definition of the figure of merit and we relate the new definition to earlier work. The comparisons show the advantages of the present design in the energy range below 300 keV and its competitiveness up to 1500 keV.

  2. High-resolution integrated germanium Compton polarimeter for the γ-ray energy range 80 keV--1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareen, R.A.; Urban, W.; Barnett, A.R.; Varley, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    Parameters which govern the choice of a detection system to measure the linear polarization of γ rays at low energies are discussed. An integrated polarimeter is described which is constructed from a single crystal of germanium. It is a compact planar device with the sectors defined electrically, and which gives an energy resolution in the add-back mode of 1 keV at 300 keV. Its performance is demonstrated in a series of calibration measurements using both unpolarized radiation from radioactive sources and polarized γ rays from the 168 Er(α,2n) 170 Yb reaction at E α =25 MeV. Polarization measurements at energies as low as 84 keV have been achieved, where the sensitivity was 0.32±0.09. The sensitivity, efficiency, and energy resolution are reported. Our results indicate that energy resolution should be included in the definition of the figure of merit and we relate the new definition to earlier work. The comparisons show the advantages of the present design in the energy range below 300 keV and its competitiveness up to 1500 keV. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mengesha, W

    2002-01-01

    NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution eta sub e was measured using the Modified Compton Coincidence Technique (MCCT). The MCCT allowed detection of nearly monoenergetic internal electrons resulting from the scattering of incident 662 keV gamma rays within a primary NaI(Tl) detector. Scattered gamma rays were detected using a secondary HPGe detector in a coincidence mode. Measurements were carried out for electron energies ranging from 16 to 438 keV, by varying the scattering angle. Measured HPGe coincidence spectra were deconvolved to determine the scattered energy spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector. Subsequently, the NaI(Tl) electron energy spectra were determined by subtracting the energy of scattered spectra from the incident source energy (662 keV). Using chi-squared minimization, iterative deconvolution of the internal electron energy spectra from the measured NaI(Tl) spectra was then used to determine eta sub e at the electron energy of interest. eta sub e values determined using this technique represent va...

  4. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-01

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin

  5. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.troussel@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Dennetiere, D. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’orme des Merisiers, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Maroni, R. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S. [Xenocs SA, 19, rue François Blumet, F-38360 Sassenage (France); Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-11

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  6. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    The "Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives" (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  7. An improved experimental scheme for simultaneous measurement of high-resolution zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron and threshold photoion (MATI) spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, François; Mazzoni, Federico; Becucci, Maurizio; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    An improved detection scheme is presented for threshold ionization spectroscopy with simultaneous recording of the Zero Electron Kinetic Energy (ZEKE) and Mass Analysed Threshold Ionisation (MATI) signals. The objective is to obtain accurate dissociation energies for larger molecular clusters by simultaneously detecting the fragment and parent ion MATI signals with identical transmission. The scheme preserves an optimal ZEKE spectral resolution together with excellent separation of the spontaneous ion and MATI signals in the time-of-flight mass spectrum. The resulting improvement in sensitivity will allow for the determination of dissociation energies in clusters with substantial mass difference between parent and daughter ions.

  8. High energy resolution and high count rate gamma spectrometry measurement of primary coolant of generation 4 sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors are under development for the fourth generation of nuclear reactor. Breeders reactors could gives solutions for the need of energy and the preservation of uranium resources. An other purpose is the radioactive wastes production reduction by transmutation and the control of non-proliferation using a closed-cycle. These thesis shows safety and profit advantages that could be obtained by a new generation of gamma spectrometry system for SFR. Now, the high count rate abilities, allow us to study new methods of accurate power measurement and fast clad failure detection. Simulations have been done and an experimental test has been performed at the French Phenix SFR of the CEA Marcoule showing promising results for these new measurements. (author) [fr

  9. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  10. High-resolution measurements of sup(58,60,62)Ni(p,p) scattering cross section in the proton energy range of 3.0 to 4.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Eiichi; Ogawa, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Differential cross sections were measured at four angles for proton scattering on sup(58,60,62)Ni at energies from 3.0 to 4.0 MeV by using a high-resolution beam from the Tokyo Institute of Technology 4 MV Van de Graaff. An overall resolution of 400 eV (FWHM) was realized using thin solid targets. (author)

  11. Direct band gap measurement of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 thin films using high-resolution reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Jong-Bong; Ko, Dong-Su; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, KiHong; Kim, Seong Heon; Yun, Dong-Jin; Ham, YongNam; Park, Gyeong Su; Song, Taewon; Lee, Dongho; Nam, Junggyu; Kang, Hee Jae; Choi, Pyung-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the band gap profile of Cu(In 1−x ,Ga x )(Se 1−y S y ) 2 of various compositions, we measured the band gap profile directly as a function of in-depth using high-resolution reflection energy loss spectroscopy (HR-REELS), which was compared with the band gap profile calculated based on the auger depth profile. The band gap profile is a double-graded band gap as a function of in-depth. The calculated band gap obtained from the auger depth profile seems to be larger than that by HR-REELS. Calculated band gaps are to measure the average band gap of the spatially different varying compositions with respect to considering its void fraction. But, the results obtained using HR-REELS are to be affected by the low band gap (i.e., out of void) rather than large one (i.e., near void). Our findings suggest an analytical method to directly determine the band gap profile as function of in-depth

  12. Direct band gap measurement of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films using high-resolution reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Sung [Analytical Engineering Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Jong-Bong; Ko, Dong-Su; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, KiHong; Kim, Seong Heon; Yun, Dong-Jin; Ham, YongNam; Park, Gyeong Su [Analytical Engineering Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Taewon [Energy lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongho, E-mail: dhlee0333@gmail.com; Nam, Junggyu [PV Development Team, Energy Solution Business Division, Samsung SDI, 467 Beonyeong-ro, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 331-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Jae [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Gaesin-dong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Pyung-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Deog, E-mail: bdchoi@skku.edu [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-29

    To investigate the band gap profile of Cu(In{sub 1−x},Ga{sub x})(Se{sub 1−y}S{sub y}){sub 2} of various compositions, we measured the band gap profile directly as a function of in-depth using high-resolution reflection energy loss spectroscopy (HR-REELS), which was compared with the band gap profile calculated based on the auger depth profile. The band gap profile is a double-graded band gap as a function of in-depth. The calculated band gap obtained from the auger depth profile seems to be larger than that by HR-REELS. Calculated band gaps are to measure the average band gap of the spatially different varying compositions with respect to considering its void fraction. But, the results obtained using HR-REELS are to be affected by the low band gap (i.e., out of void) rather than large one (i.e., near void). Our findings suggest an analytical method to directly determine the band gap profile as function of in-depth.

  13. High-resolution energetic particle measurements at 6.6R/sub E/ 3. Low-energy electron anisotropies and short-term substorm predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Belian, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Multiple detectors giving nearly complete 4π coverage of particle pitch angle distributions have provided high resolution measurements (in energy and time) of 30- to 300-keV electrons. Data from a spacecraft (1976-059A) in geostationary orbit show a remarkably consistent sequence of variations of the electron anisotropy before and during magnetospheric substorms. For periods typically 1--2 hours prior to the onset of substorms, electron distributions, peaked along the direction of the local magnetic field, are observed in the premidnight sector. These cigarlike anisotropies are accompanied by a local taillike magnetic field which may develop further during the event. At substorm onset an abrupt transition usually occurs from the cigar-shaped distributions to pancake-shaped distributions. This anisotropy sequence may be due to the buildup and subsequent release of stresses in the magnetotail; the cigar phase may also be due to associated processes at the dayside magnetopause causing a loss of 90 0 pitch angle particles. The present observations, based on approx.100 events, appear to provide a predictive tool for assessing the probability of occurrence of a substorm

  14. Electron energy-loss spectrometry at the frontier of spatial and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, F.; Grogger, W.; Kothleitner, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is now used routinely as a means of measuring chemical and structural properties of very small regions of a thin specimen. The power of this technique depends significantly on two parameters: its spatial resolution and the energy resolution available in the spectrum and in the energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) image. The cold field emission source and the Schottky emitter have made an energy resolution below 1 eV possible and it is now feasible to obtain data with a spatial resolution close to atomic dimensions, given the right instrumentation and specimen. EFTEM allows to record elemental maps at sub-nanometre resolution, being mainly limited by chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens and by delocalization of inelastic scattering. Recently the possibility of correcting spherical and even chromatic aberrations of electron lenses has become a practical reality thus improving the point resolution of the TEM to below 0.1 nm. The other limiting factor for EFTEM resolution is delocalization. However, recent measurements show that resolution values in the range of 1 nm and below can be achieved, even for energy-losses of only a few eV. In terms of energy-resolution, EELS and EFTEM compare less favourably with other spectroscopies. For common TEMs, the overall energy-resolution is mainly determined by the energy width of the electron source, typically between 0.5 and 1.5 eV. For comparison, synchrotron x-ray sources and beam line spectrometers, provide a resolution well below 0.1 eV for absorption spectroscopy. During the early sixties, the energy spread of an electron beam could be reduced by incorporating an energy-filter into the illumination system, but the system lacked spatial resolution. Later developments combined high energy resolution in the range of 0.1 eV with improved spatial resolution. Recently, FEI introduced a new high resolution EELS system based

  15. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  16. Calibration of high-dynamic-range, finite-resolution x-ray pulse-height spectrometers for extracting electron energy distribution data from the PFRC-2 device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the full x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) emitted from a plasma over a large dynamic range of energies can yield valuable insights about the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) of that plasma and the dynamic processes that create them. X-ray pulse height detectors such as Amptek's X-123 Fast SDD with Silicon Nitride window can detect x-rays in the range of 200eV to 100s of keV. However, extracting EEDF from this measurement requires precise knowledge of the detector's response function. This response function, including the energy scale calibration, the window transmission function, and the resolution function, can be measured directly. We describe measurements of this function from x-rays from a mono-energetic electron beam in a purpose-built gas-target x-ray tube. Large-Z effects such as line radiation, nuclear charge screening, and polarizational Bremsstrahlung are discussed.

  17. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites.

    Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity.

    A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model

  18. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites. Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity. A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model, these ions are expected to comprise ~50% of the positive charge, indicates that the thermospheric balance

  19. Gamma-Ray Imager With High Spatial And Spectral Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, John L.; Varnell, Larry S.; Wheaton, William A.; Mahoney, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma-ray instrument developed to enable both two-dimensional imaging at relatively high spatial resolution and spectroscopy at fractional-photon-energy resolution of about 10 to the negative 3rd power in photon-energy range from 10 keV to greater than 10 MeV. In its spectroscopic aspect, instrument enables identification of both narrow and weak gamma-ray spectral peaks.

  20. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Negahdar, M; Yamamoto, T

    2016-01-01

    quantify regional lung ventilation volumetrically with high resolution using widely accessible radiologic equipment. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim are founders of TibaRay, Inc. Bill Loo is also a board member. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim have received research grants from Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory

  1. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Negahdar, M [IBM Research Center, San Jose, California (United States); Yamamoto, T [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    quantify regional lung ventilation volumetrically with high resolution using widely accessible radiologic equipment. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim are founders of TibaRay, Inc. Bill Loo is also a board member. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim have received research grants from Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory.

  2. A high resolution jet analysis for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, S.

    1992-11-01

    A high resolution multijet analysis of hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilation at a C.M.S. energy of 91.2 GeV is described. Hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilations are generated using the Monte Carlo program JETSET7.3 with its two options: Matrix Element (M.E.) and Parton Showers (P.S.). The shower option is used with its default parameter values while the M.E. option is used with an invariant mass cut Y CUT =0.01 instead of 0.02. This choice ensures a better continuity in the evolution of the event shape variables. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 26 figs.; 1 tab

  3. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  4. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  5. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364164794; Van De Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  6. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Anix [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Analisis y Evalucion

    1992-12-31

    In this work {sup 29} Si and {sup 27} Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Anix

    1991-01-01

    In this work 29 Si and 27 Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author)

  8. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  9. High resolution CT of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  10. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  11. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  12. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  13. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  14. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  15. Signal detection without finite-energy limits to quantum resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Aina, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    We show that there are extremely simple signal detection schemes where the finiteness of energy resources places no limit on the resolution. On the contrary, larger resolution can be obtained with lower energy. To this end the generator of the signal-dependent transformation encoding the signal information on the probe state must be different from the energy. We show that the larger the deviation of the probe state from being the minimum-uncertainty state, the better the resolution.

  16. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  17. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is ∼2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach

  18. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  19. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  20. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  1. High resolution neutron spectroscopy for helium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; Klages, H.O.; Schmalz, G.; Haesner, B.H.; Kecskemeti, J.; Schwarz, P.; Wilczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution fast neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described, neutron time-of-flight spectra are taken using a specially designed TDC in connection to an on-line computer. The high time-of-flight resolution of 5 ps/m enabled the study of the total cross section of 4 He for neutrons near the 3/2 + resonance in the 5 He nucleus. The resonance parameters were determined by a single level Breit-Winger fit to the data. (orig.)

  2. The high resolution spaghetti hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.; Sonderegger, P.; Paar, H.P.; Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to build a prototype for a hadron calorimeter with scintillating plastic fibres as active material. The absorber material is lead. Provided that these components are used in the appropriate volume ratio, excellent performance may be expected, e.g. an energy resolution of 30%/√E for jet detection. The proposed design offers additional advantages compared to the classical sandwich calorimeter structures in terms of granularity, hermiticity, uniformity, compactness, readout, radiation resistivity, stability and calibration. 22 refs.; 7 figs

  3. To the calculation of energy resolution of ionization calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchajkin, V.V.; Lagutin, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The question of energy resolution of the ionization calorimeter is considered analytically. A method is discussed for calculating the probability characteristics (mean value and dispersion) of energy losses of an electron-photon shower by ionization in the calorimeter volume

  4. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.

  5. Ultra high resolution X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, U.; Buehler, M.; Hentig, R. von; Hertrich, T.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; Hoehne, J.

    2001-01-01

    CSP Cryogenic Spectrometers GmbH is developing cryogenic energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting detector technology. Superconducting sensors exhibit at least a 10-fold improvement in energy resolution due to their low energy gap compared to conventional Si(Li) or Ge detectors. These capabilities are extremely valuable for the analysis of light elements and in general for the analysis of the low energy range of the X-ray spectrum. The spectrometer is based on a mechanical cooler needing no liquid coolants and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) stage which supplies the operating temperature of below 100 mK for the superconducting sensor. Applications include surface analysis in semiconductor industry as well material analysis for material composition e.g. in ceramics or automobile industry

  6. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  7. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  8. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.L.; Broennimann, Ch.; Eikenberry, E.F.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Lee, S.G.; Rice, J.E.; Scott, S.; Barnsley, R.

    2008-01-01

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of T i and ν φ on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER

  9. Picowatt Resolution Calorimetry for Micro and Nanoscale Energy Transport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Seid H.

    Precise quantification of energy transport is key to obtaining insights into a wide range of phenomena across various disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. This thesis describes technical advancements into heat-flow calorimetry which enable measurement of energy transport at micro and nanoscales with picowatt resolution. I have developed two types of microfabricated calorimeter devices and demonstrated single digit picowatt resolution at room temperature. Both devices incorporate two distinct features; an active area isolated by a thermal conductance (GTh) of less than 1 microW/K and a high resolution thermometer with temperature resolution (DeltaTres) in the micro kelvin regime. These features enable measurements of heat currents (q) with picowatt resolution (q= Th xDeltaTres). In the first device the active area is suspended via silicon nitride beams with excellent thermal isolation (~600 nW/K) and a bimaterial cantilever (BMC) thermometer with temperature resolution of ~6 microK. Taken together this design enabled calorimetric measurements with 4 pW resolution. In the second device, the BMC thermometry technique is replaced by a high-resolution resistance thermometry scheme. A detailed noise analysis of resistance thermometers, confirmed by experimental data, enabled me to correctly predict the resolution of different measurement schemes and propose techniques to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the resolution of resistive thermometers. By incorporating resistance thermometers with temperature resolution of ~30 microK, combined with a thermal isolation of ~150 nW/K, I demonstrated an all-electrical calorimeter device with a resolution of ~ 5 pW. Finally, I used these calorimeters to study Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer (NF-RHT). Using these devices, we studied--for the first time--the effect of film thickness on the NF-RHT between two dielectric surfaces. We showed that even a very thin film (~50 nm) of silicon

  10. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  11. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  12. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  13. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  14. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  15. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  16. High-resolution parallel electron energy-loss spectroscopy of MnL2,3-edges in inorganic manganese compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvie, L.A.J.; Craven, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Parallel electron energy-loss spectroscopy (PEELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) was used to record the Mn L 2,3 -edges from a range of natural and synthetic manganese containing materials, covering valences 0, II, III, IV and VII, with an energy resolution of ca. 0.5 eV. The Mn L 2,3 electron-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of these edges provided a sensitive fingerprint of its valence. The Mn 2+ L 2,3 -edges show little sensitivity to the local site symmetry of the ligands surrounding the manganese. This is illustrated by comparing the Mn L 2,3 -edges from 4-, 6-and 8-fold coordinated Mn 2+ . In contrast, the Mn L 3 -edges from Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ containing minerals exhibited ELNES that are interpreted in terms of a crystals-field splitting of the 3d electrons, governed by the symmetry of the surrounding ligands. The Mn L 3 -edges for octahedrally coordinated Mn 2+ , Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ showed variations in their ELNES that were sensitive to the crystal-field strength. The crystal-field strength (10Q) was measured from these edges and compared very well with published optically determinted values. The magnitude of 10Dq measured from the Mn L 3 -edges and their O K-edge prepeaks of the manganese oxides were almost identical. This further confirms that the value of 10Dq measured at the Mn L 3 -edge is correct. Selected spectra are compared with theoretical 2p atomic multiplet spectra and the differences and similarities are explained in terms of the covalency and site symmetry of the manganese. The Mn L 3 -edges allow the valence of the manganese to be ascertained, even in multivalent state materials, and can also be used to dtermin 10Dq. (orig.)

  17. Study of the giant multipole resonances especially of the isoscalar giant E2 resonance in 208Pb by medium and high energy resolution inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehner, G.

    1982-01-01

    In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV were looked for by medium resolution inelastic electron scattering. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of E 0 = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. On the base of this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forward angles a further weak excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV appears which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is observed also in (α, α') experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also a Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has to be partly assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gets because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de

  18. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  19. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  20. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  1. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  2. High resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy with 67Zn in metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potzel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Moessbauer experiments on metallic systems are described where the high resolution 93.3 keV resonance in 67 Zn is used. In the first part, the Cu-Zn alloy system is investigated and the high energy resolution of this Moessbauer transition is employed to determine small changes of the s-electron density at the 67 Zn nucleus when the Zn concentration is changed. In the second part, Zn metal is taken as an example to demonstrate that the 93.3 keV transition is also extremely sensitive to small changes of lattice dynamical effects. 7 refs., 18 figs. (author)

  3. Maximum likelihood positioning algorithm for high-resolution PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Weege, Nicolas; Schug, David; Hallen, Patrick; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET), lightsharing elements are incorporated into typical detector stacks to read out scintillator arrays in which one scintillator element (crystal) is smaller than the size of the readout channel. In order to identify the hit crystal by means of the measured light distribution, a positioning algorithm is required. One commonly applied positioning algorithm uses the center of gravity (COG) of the measured light distribution. The COG algorithm is limited in spatial resolution by noise and intercrystal Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to develop a positioning algorithm which overcomes this limitation. Methods: The authors present a maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm which compares a set of expected light distributions given by probability density functions (PDFs) with the measured light distribution. Instead of modeling the PDFs by using an analytical model, the PDFs of the proposed ML algorithm are generated assuming a single-gamma-interaction model from measured data. The algorithm was evaluated with a hot-rod phantom measurement acquired with the preclinical HYPERION II D PET scanner. In order to assess the performance with respect to sensitivity, energy resolution, and image quality, the ML algorithm was compared to a COG algorithm which calculates the COG from a restricted set of channels. The authors studied the energy resolution of the ML and the COG algorithm regarding incomplete light distributions (missing channel information caused by detector dead time). Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of using a filter based on the likelihood values on sensitivity, energy resolution, and image quality. Results: A sensitivity gain of up to 19% was demonstrated in comparison to the COG algorithm for the selected operation parameters. Energy resolution and image quality were on a similar level for both algorithms. Additionally, the authors demonstrated that the performance of the ML

  4. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  5. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria y Administracion

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2{pi} solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  6. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2π solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  7. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  8. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubor, Nenad M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  9. High-resolution study of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the light nuclei 9B and 13N using the (3He,t) charge-exchange reaction at 420 MeV beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholl, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Excited states in the light nuclei 9 B and 13 C were studied using the ( 3 He,t) charge-exchange reaction on 9 Be and 13 C targets. The measurements were performed at the research center for nuclear physics (RCNP) in Osaka, Japan, using the magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden and the dispersive WS course. The 3 He beam with an energy of 420 MeV was accelerated by the RCNP Ring Cyclotron. The Grand Raiden spectrometer and the WS course allow to study the ( 3 He,t) charge-exchange reaction with an energy resolution of around 30 keV, which is one order of magnitude better than measurements with the (p,n) charge-exchange reaction. The high resolution allows to better separate individual states and to determine weak excitation strengths because of low background in the spectra. A total of 19 states in 13 N were studied, and a total of 20 states were observed in 9 B. Of these, 9 states in 13 C and 10 states in 9 B were identified as being excited by a Gamow-Teller transition. Charge-exchange reactions are related to beta-decay, and at zero momentum transfer a simple proportionality exists between the cross-section of the charge-exchange experiment and the Fermi (F) or Gamow-Teller (GT) beta-decay strength. While the Fermi strength B(F) is concentrated in the transition to the isobaric analog state, the Gamow-Teller strength B(GT) is scattered among the excited states. The main aim of the present study is to determine the B(GT) strengths in the nuclei 9 B and 13 N. The only charge-exchange study of 9 B was made 30 years ago with the (p,n) reaction and a resolution of around 300-400 keV. Many states, especially at high excitation energy, could not be resolved by that study. The present work was able to separate many weakly excited states with small decay width at high excitation energies (12-19 MeV) in 9 B and determine the B(GT) strength distribution by using recent high-precision beta-decay data. The results point to a strong difference in spatial structure between the

  10. High-resolution study of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the light nuclei {sup 9}B and {sup 13}N using the ({sup 3}He,t) charge-exchange reaction at 420 MeV beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, Clemens

    2010-07-07

    Excited states in the light nuclei {sup 9}B and {sup 13}C were studied using the ({sup 3}He,t) charge-exchange reaction on {sup 9}Be and {sup 13}C targets. The measurements were performed at the research center for nuclear physics (RCNP) in Osaka, Japan, using the magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden and the dispersive WS course. The {sup 3}He beam with an energy of 420 MeV was accelerated by the RCNP Ring Cyclotron. The Grand Raiden spectrometer and the WS course allow to study the ({sup 3}He,t) charge-exchange reaction with an energy resolution of around 30 keV, which is one order of magnitude better than measurements with the (p,n) charge-exchange reaction. The high resolution allows to better separate individual states and to determine weak excitation strengths because of low background in the spectra. A total of 19 states in {sup 13}N were studied, and a total of 20 states were observed in {sup 9}B. Of these, 9 states in {sup 13}C and 10 states in {sup 9}B were identified as being excited by a Gamow-Teller transition. Charge-exchange reactions are related to beta-decay, and at zero momentum transfer a simple proportionality exists between the cross-section of the charge-exchange experiment and the Fermi (F) or Gamow-Teller (GT) beta-decay strength. While the Fermi strength B(F) is concentrated in the transition to the isobaric analog state, the Gamow-Teller strength B(GT) is scattered among the excited states. The main aim of the present study is to determine the B(GT) strengths in the nuclei {sup 9}B and {sup 13}N. The only charge-exchange study of {sup 9}B was made 30 years ago with the (p,n) reaction and a resolution of around 300-400 keV. Many states, especially at high excitation energy, could not be resolved by that study. The present work was able to separate many weakly excited states with small decay width at high excitation energies (12-19 MeV) in {sup 9}B and determine the B(GT) strength distribution by using recent high-precision beta-decay data. The

  11. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  12. Energy resolution in liquid argon doped with allene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, H.; Doke, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.

    1989-01-01

    Studies have been made on liquid argon as detection medium with large volume and good energy and position resolution. It is advantageous to dope liquid argon with molecules with an ionization potential lower than the energy of scintillation light. In the present work, the energy resolution for 5.305MeV alpha particles is examined, and the effect of allene added to liquid argon is investigated. Some preliminary results for 976 KeV electrons are also presented. Allene is purified by two methods: (a) small-quantity purification and (b) mass purification. Three methods are tried for mixing allene with argon. Results concerning the allene purification methods, effect of allene concentration, and allene-argon mixing methods are presented. Discussion is made of the collected charge and energy resolution. It is concluded that the addition of allene to liquid argon greatly improves the energy resolution of 5.305 MeV alpha particles. The best intrinsic resolution is 1.4 percent FWHM obtained for 4 ppm allene doped liquid argon. In the case of 976 KeV electron radiation, energy resolution is not improved by adding allene to liquid argon. The best resolution is 31 KeV FWHM obtaiend for 65ppm allene doped liquid argon. (N.K.)

  13. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah; William Higgins; Edgar V. Van Loef

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr 3 :Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr 3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr 3 :Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr 3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr 3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr 3 and LaI 3 ) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBr x I 3-x :Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr 3 and LaCl 3 ) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr 3 :Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower than that for LaBr 3 :Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl 3 is lower than that of LaBr 3 ), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce than LaBr 3 :Ce since in some instances (for example, Cd x Zn 1-x Te), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu 2+ and Pr 3+ , tried in LaBr 3 host crystals, the Eu 2+ doped samples exhibited

  14. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  15. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  16. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  17. Solutions on high-resolution multiple configuration system sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Ding, Quanxin; Guo, Chunjie; Zhou, Liwei

    2014-11-01

    For aim to achieve an improved resolution in modern image domain, a method of continuous zoom multiple configuration, with a core optics is attempt to establish model by novel principle on energy transfer and high accuracy localization, by which the system resolution can be improved with a level in nano meters. A comparative study on traditional vs modern methods can demonstrate that the dialectical relationship and their balance is important, among Merit function, Optimization algorithms and Model parameterization. The effect of system evaluated criterion that MTF, REA, RMS etc. can support our arguments qualitatively.

  18. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei; Cheng, Bin; Liu, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Lin; He, Jr-Hau; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  19. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  20. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  1. Development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution detection of single x-ray quanta is described. The detector consists of an X-ray absorber and a paramagnetic temperature sensor. The raise in temperature of the paramagnetic sensor due to the absorption of a single X-ray is measured by the change in magnetization of the sensor using a low-noise SQUID magnetometer. The thermodynamic properties of the detector can be described by a theoretical model based on a mean field approximation. This allows for an optimization of the detector design with respect to signal size. The maximal archivable energy resolution is limited by thermodynamic energy fluctuations between absorber, heat bath and thermometer. An interesting field of application for a metallic magnetic calorimeter is X-ray astronomy and the investigation of X-ray emitting objects. Through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy it is possible to obtain information about physical processes of even far distant objects. The magnetic calorimeter that was developed in this thesis has a metallic absorber with a quantum efficiency of 98% at 6 keV. The energy resolution of the magnetic calorimeter is EFWHM=2.7 eV at 5.9 keV. The deviation of the detector response from a linear behavior of the detector is only 0.8% at 5.9 keV. (orig.)

  2. The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.D.; Bowers, C.W.; Feldman, P.D.; Meier, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 angstrom and 1860 angstrom at 2 angstrom resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 angstrom at 7 angstrom resolution on this flight and on a sounding rocket flight on August 29, 1983, under similar viewing geometries and solar zenith angles. Three bands of the N 2 c' 4 system are seen clearly resolved in the dayglow. Analysis of high-resolution N 2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield data shows no anomalous vibrational distribution as has been reported from other observations. The altitude profiles of the observed O and N 2 emissions demonstrate that the MSIS-83 model O and N 2 densities are appropriate for the conditions of both the 1983 and 1985 rocket flights. A reduction of a factor of 2 in the model O 2 density is required for both flights to reproduce the low-altitude atomic oxygen emission profiles. The volume excitation rates calculated using the Hinteregger et al. (1981) SC number-sign 21REFW solar reference spectrum and the photoelectron flux model of Strickland and Meier (1982) need to be scaled upward by a factor of 1.4 for both fights to match the observations

  3. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  4. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  5. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  6. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  7. High resolution atomic spectra of rare earths : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Ahmad, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    High resolution studies of atomic spectra of neodymium and gadolinium are being carried out on a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The present progress report concerns work done on new assignments as well as confirmation of recently assigned electronic configurations and evaluation of isotope shifts of energy levels which have been possible from the isotope shift data obtained for several transitions of NdI, NdII and GdI, GdII respectively. (author)

  8. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  9. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  10. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  11. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  12. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  13. Novel high resolution tactile robotic fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Jankovics, Vince; Gorsic, Matija

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel robotic fingertip based on piezoresistive rubber that can sense pressure tactile stimuli with a high spatial resolution over curved surfaces. The working principle is based on a three-layer sandwich structure (conductive electrodes on top and bottom and piezoresistive...... with specialized data acquisition electronics that acquire 500 frames per second provides rich information regarding contact force, shape and angle for bio- inspired robotic fingertips. Furthermore, a model of estimating the force of contact based on values of the cells is proposed....

  14. High energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  15. High resolution and high speed positron emission tomography data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgiss, S.G.; Byars, L.G.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution positron emission tomography (PET) requires many detectors. Thus, data collection systems for PET must have high data rates, wide data paths, and large memories to histogram the events. This design uses the VMEbus to cost effectively provide these features. It provides for several modes of operation including real time sorting, list mode data storage, and replay of stored list mode data

  16. Construction of a high resolution electron beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Novak, W.; Reed, L.; Yang, X.F.

    1993-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung from an electron beam on a heavy target can be used to image the beam profile using collimators and slits. The limiting resolution using this system is determined by Fresnel diffraction, and is ∼ √(λd/2), where λ is the photon wavelength and d is determined by the linear dimensions of the system. For linear colliders this resolution could be a few nm. The highest resolution requires detectors which see only high energy, (small λ), photons, and this is accomplished by converting photons to pairs, and detecting Cherenkov light in a nearly forward angle with a CCD detector or streak camera. Tests are planned at the Argonne APS and SLAC FFTB

  17. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  18. Depth determination of low-energy photon emitter deposits in tissue by means of high-resolution X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, W.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed for ascertaining the depth of low-energy photon emitters deposited in wounds. It is based on the determination of the energy-dependent absorption of the emitted photons by the tissue separating source and detector. The method is applicable to counting for low-energy photon-emitting nuclides that can be characterized by more than one quantum energy. Attenuation coefficients were given for lard, beef, and five tissue- equivalent materials. For spectrometry, a planar Ge(Li) detector proved most suitable. (author)

  19. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  20. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  1. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  2. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  3. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  4. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  5. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  6. Resolution about the second strategic analysis on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The French National Assembly has adopted a resolution concerning the European Commission's second strategic analysis on energy policy. The resolution makes acknowledgment of the strategic orientations proposed by the European Commission; however the necessity is emphasized to take into consideration the january 2009 gas crisis experience and therefore to ensure a better diversification of the gas supply to Western Europe. It also considers that a higher impulse (indeed with constraint) is to be given to renewable energy development in order to be able to meet the 2020 target of a 20 percent increase in energy efficiency in the EU

  7. Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton1, D; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Costantini, Silvia; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Debraine, Alain; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl1, J; Gras1, P; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel-de-Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; AHill, J; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, Akli; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman26, H B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Poilleux, Patrick; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Yves; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; ATriantis, F; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals.

  8. High resolution measurements of the He-He total scattering cross section for reduced collision energies between 0.2 and 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltgen, R.; Koehler, K.A.; Pauly, H.; Torello, F.; Vehmeyer, H.

    1974-01-01

    The energy dependence of the total scattering cross section is measured for the isotopic systems He 4 -He 4 and He 3 -He 3 using a velocity selected He primary beam and a He target in a scattering chamber maintained at 1.57 deg K. In the low energy region both systems show a pronounced atomic Ramsauer-Townsend effect. At higher energies 13 backward glory extrema in the case of He 4 -He 4 and 10 extrema for He 3 -He 3 are observed. From these extrema the energy dependence of the s-phase shift can be derived. Applying the semiclassical inversion method proposed by Miller it is possible to compute the repulsive potential in the energy range of the measurement

  9. Energy resolution of a lead scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Glagolev, V.

    1993-01-01

    A calorimeter module was fabricated using profiled lead plates and scintillating fibers with diameter 1 mm and attenuation length about 80 cm. The absorber-to-fiber volume ratio was 1.17 and the module average radiation length X 0 = 1.05 cm. The energy resolution of the module was investigated using the electron beams of U-70 at Serpukhov and of the SPS at CERN in the energy range 5-70 GeV. The energy resolution at θ = 3 0 (the angle between the fiber axis and the beam direction) may be expressed by the formula σ/E(%) = 13.1/√E ± 1.7. The energy resolution was also simulated by Monte Carlo and good agreement with the experiment has been achieved. 12 refs.; 13 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. High Resolution Displays Using NCAP Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, A. Brian; Jones, Phil; White, Larry

    1989-07-01

    Nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystals have been found useful for high information content video displays. NCAP materials are liquid crystals which have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix and which have a light transmission which is variable with applied electric fields. Because NCAP materials do not require polarizers, their on-state transmission is substantially better than twisted nematic cells. All dimensional tolerances are locked in during the encapsulation process and hence there are no critical sealing or spacing issues. By controlling the polymer/liquid crystal morphology, switching speeds of NCAP materials have been significantly improved over twisted nematic systems. Recent work has combined active matrix addressing with NCAP materials. Active matrices, such as thin film transistors, have given displays of high resolution. The paper will discuss the advantages of NCAP materials specifically designed for operation at video rates on transistor arrays; applications for both backlit and projection displays will be discussed.

  11. High resolution crystal calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneegans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Lebeau, M.; Vivargent, M.

    1991-01-01

    The search for Higgs bosons above Lep200 reach could be one of the main tasks of the future pp and ee colliders. In the intermediate mass region, and in particular in the range 80-140 GeV/c 2 , only the 2-photon decay mode of a Higgs produced inclusively or in association with a W, gives a good chance of observation. A 'dedicated' very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. A crystal calorimeter can be considered as a conservative approach to such a detector, since a large design and operation experience already exists. The extensive R and D needed for finding a dense, fast and radiation hard crystal, is under way. Guide-lines for designing an optimum calorimeter for LHC are discussed and preliminary configurations are given. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN-SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  13. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  14. Neutron spin echo and high resolution inelastic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of neutrons spin echo (NSE) technique are considered. It is shown that the basis of NSE principle is a single step measurement of the change of the neutron velocity in the scattering process. The backscattering soectroscopy and the NSE techniques are compared. The NSF spectrometer is described. It is shown that 0.5 MeV energy resolution achieved in the NSE experiment is about 40 times superior to those achieved by the other techniques. The NSE technique has the unique feature that provides high resolution in neutron energy change independently of the monochromatization of the beam. The NSE instrument not only covers a wider dynamic range on a pulsed source that on a continuous one, but also collects data more efficiently

  15. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2013-06-21

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  16. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  17. High resolution computed tomography of positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Jackson, H.G.

    1976-10-01

    High resolution computed transaxial radionuclide tomography has been performed on phantoms containing positron-emitting isotopes. The imaging system consisted of two opposing groups of eight NaI(Tl) crystals 8 mm x 30 mm x 50 mm deep and the phantoms were rotated to measure coincident events along 8960 projection integrals as they would be measured by a 280-crystal ring system now under construction. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed images is 7.5 mm FWHM at the center of the ring and approximately 11 mm FWHM at a radius of 10 cm. We present measurements of imaging and background rates under various operating conditions. Based on these measurements, the full 280-crystal system will image 10,000 events per sec with 400 μCi in a section 1 cm thick and 20 cm in diameter. We show that 1.5 million events are sufficient to reliably image 3.5-mm hot spots with 14-mm center-to-center spacing and isolated 9-mm diameter cold spots in phantoms 15 to 20 cm in diameter

  18. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  19. Detection and energy resolution of γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcansky, G.

    1976-01-01

    When analyzing the energy of γ-rays (spectroscopy) with semiconducting detectors - providing today the best results - the resolution is limited at higher energies by the collection of charges within the detector and at lower energies by the noise of the detector and the preamplifier. The error due to the collection of charges may be reduced by using an optimally constructed detector (crystal quality and geometry) with a low Compton rate and a low Fano coefficient. Also important is the choice of the proper bias voltage. The signal-to-noise ratio can be improved by reducing the input capacitance of the system by a suitable design of the detector, by a convenient lay-out of the preamplifier and by an optimal choice of the first transistor (JFET). The thermal noise and the leakage current (shot noise) may be reduced and the transconductance of the transistor may be increased when the detector and the inputstage transistor are cooled (77K). The signal-to-noise ratio depends further on the kind of filtering of the signal and on the corresponding values of the time constants. The need of a short measuring time in order to handle a high counting rate conflicts with the requirements concerning the optimal signal-to-noise ratio. (orig.) [de

  20. High temperature and high resolution uv photoelectron spectroscopy using supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng; Reutt-Robey, J.E.; Niu, B.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    A high temperature molecular beam source with electron bombardment heating has been built for high resolution photoelectron spectroscopic studies of high temperature species and clusters. This source has the advantages of: producing an intense, continuous, seeded molecular beam, eliminating the interference of the heating mechanism from the photoelectron measurement. Coupling the source with our hemispherical electron energy analyzer, we can obtain very high resolution HeIα (584 angstrom) photoelectron spectra of high temperature species. Vibrationally-resolved photoelectron spectra of PbSe, As 2 , As 4 , and ZnCl 2 are shown to demonstrate the performance of the new source. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  2. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  3. High resolution CT of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Harumi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-02-01

    The emergence of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s has greatly contributed to diagnostic radiology. The brain was the first organ examined with CT, followed by the abdomen. For the chest, CT has also come into use shortly after the introduction in the examination of the thoracic cavity and mediastinum. CT techniques were, however, of limited significance in the evaluation of pulmonary diseases, especially diffuse pulmonary diseases. High-resolution CT (HRCT) has been introduced in clinical investigations of the lung field. This article is designed to present chest radiographic and conventional tomographic interpretations and to introduce findings of HRCT corresponding to the same shadows, with a summation of the significance of HRCT and issues of diagnostic imaging. Materials outlined are tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, bronchopneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphangitic carcinomatosis, sarcoidosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema. Finally, an overview of basic investigations evolved from HRCT is given. (N.K.) 140 refs.

  4. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  5. High resolution VUV facility at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, G.; Saraswathy, P.; Rao, P.M.R.; Mishra, A.P.; Kartha, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) generated in the electron storage rings is an unique source for the study of atomic and molecular spectroscopy especially in the vacuum ultra violet region. Realizing the potential of this light source, efforts are in progress to develop a beamline facility at INDUS-1 to carry out high resolution atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This beam line consists of a fore-optic which is a combination of three cylindrical mirrors. The mirrors are so chosen that SR beam having a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) divergence is focussed onto a slit of a 6.65 metre off-plane spectrometer in Eagle Mount equipped with horizontal slit and vertical dispersion. The design of the various components of the beam line is completed. It is decided to build the spectrometer as per the requirements of the user community. Details of the various aspects of the beam line will be presented. (author). 3 figs

  6. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  7. High resolution tomography using analog coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Chesler, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a 30-year program in the development of positron instrumentation, the authors have developed a high resolution bismuth germanate (BGO) ring tomography (PCR) employing 360 detectors and 90 photomultiplier tubes for one plane. The detectors are shaped as trapezoid and are 4 mm wide at the front end. When assembled, they form an essentially continuous cylindrical detector. Light from a scintillation in the detector is viewed through a cylindrical light pipe by the photomultiplier tubes. By use of an analog coding scheme, the detector emitting light is identified from the phototube signals. In effect, each phototube can identify four crystals. PCR is designed as a static device and does not use interpolative motion. This results in considerable advantage when performing dynamic studies. PCR is the positron tomography analog of the γ-camera widely used in nuclear medicine

  8. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  9. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  10. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  11. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensammar, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report here very early results of high resolution (5x10 3 - 4x10 4 ) infrared spectroscopy (1 - 2.5 μm) of different symbiotic stars (T CrB, RW Hya, CI Cyg, PU Vul) observed with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the 3.60m Canada France Hawaii Telescope. These stars are usually considered as interacting binaries and only little details are known about the nature of their cool component. CO absorption lines are detected for the four stars. Very different profiles of hydrogen Brackett γ and helium 10830 A lines are shown for CI Cyg observed at different phases, while Pu Vul shows very intense emission lines

  12. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  13. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  14. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  15. High resolution imaging detectors and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan K

    2015-01-01

    Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control...

  16. Motion for a resolution on energy transition - Nr 2042

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancher, Bertrand; Jego, Yves; Leroy, Maurice; Tuaiva, Jean-Paul; Tahuaitu, Jonas; Favennec, Yannick; Zumkeller, Michel; Morin, Herve

    2014-01-01

    This motion for a resolution on energy transition proposes a framework which integrates energy management, the development of renewable energies in France, an adapted taxation, and a clear industrial project for future energies. This framework must lead to the introduction of five-year and constraining budgets of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the articles of this motion address various topics: definition of national objectives of reduction of emissions, renewal of buildings, implementation of a tool similar to the British Climate Change Act, implementation of a new energy governance, launching of large industrial projects, European integration of the energy market, importance of energy efficiency and of consumption management, a review of the subsidy system for renewable energies, pollution taxation and reform of the ETS, limitation of the share of nuclear energy, introduction of a carbon tax at the border of the EU, promotion of rail freight transport, and so on

  17. Beam-transport system for high-resolution heavy-ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Kashy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A method is given to adjust a beam-transport system to the requirements of high-energy resolution heavy-ion spectroscopy. The results of a test experiment performed on a MP tandem with a 12 C beam are shown. A drastic improvement in energy resolution is obtained for a kinematical factor K=1/p dp/dtheta=0.12 [fr

  18. Limitations on energy resolution of segmented silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Chudyba, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2018-04-01

    In the paper experimental study of charge division effects and energy resolution of X-ray silicon pad detectors are presented. The measurements of electrical parameters, capacitances and leakage currents, for six different layouts of pad arrays are reported. The X-ray spectra have been measured using a custom developed dedicated low noise front-end electronics. The spectra measured for six different detector layouts have been analysed in detail with particular emphasis on quantitative evaluation of charge division effects. Main components of the energy resolution due to Fano fluctuations, electronic noise, and charge division, have been estimated for six different sensor layouts. General recommendations regarding optimisation of pad sensor layout for achieving best possible energy resolution have been formulated.

  19. A high resolution beam profile monitor using Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development of efficient high energy linear colliders in the 1 TeV range requires final focus systems capable of producing beam spot sizes on the order of 1--20 nm, about three orders of magnitude smaller than those produced at the SLC. Although beam line designs exist which can, in principle, produce the required optics, the construction of quadrupoles with the size and precision required will be challenging. Field errors in these quads must be small and should be verified experimentally, which is difficult with existing technology. This paper describes a proposal to use bremsstrahlung from heavy targets to measure high energy beam profiles and positions with a resolution approaching a few nm. The method is also applicable to tests of other final focus systems (flat beams, plasma lenses) at lower energies. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  1. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...... high resolution spectral performance by observing emission from hot water vapor in a butane gas burner....

  2. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  3. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  4. Metallic magnetic calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, M.; Hengstler, D.; Geist, J.; Schoetz, C.; Hassel, K.; Hendricks, S.; Keller, M.; Kempf, S.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). KIP

    2015-07-01

    We develop microfabricated, energy dispersive particle detector arrays based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy to challenge bound-state QED calculations. Our MMCs are operated at about T=30 mK and use a paramagnetic temperature sensor, read-out by a SQUID, to measure the energy deposited by single X-ray photons. We discuss the physics of MMCs, the detector performance and the cryogenic setups for two different detector arrays. We present their microfabrication layouts with focus on challenges like the heatsinking of each pixel of the detector and the overhanging absorbers. The maXs-20 detector is a linear 1x8-pixel array with excellent linearity in its designated energy range up to 20 keV and unsurpassed energy resolution of 1.6 eV for 6 keV x-rays. MaXs-20 operated in a highly portable pulse tube cooled ADR setup has already been used at the EBIT facilities of the MPI-K for new reference measurements of V-like and Ti-like tungsten. The maXs-30 detector currently in development is a 8x8-pixel 2d-array with an active detection area of 16 mm{sup 2} and is designed to detect X-rays up to 50 keV with a designated energy resolution below 5 eV. MaXs-30 will be operated in a cryogen free 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator at the tip of a 40 cm long cold finger at T=20 mK.

  5. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Mogi, D. [Development and Marketing Department, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka, Kogyo Co., Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0063 (Japan); Tanioka, T. [Shibukawa Development Research Laboratory, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka Kogyo Co., Ltd., Shibukawa City, Gunma 377-8513 (Japan); Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Université de Liège, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, allée de la Chimie 3, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium)

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  6. Power corrections in QCD: A matter of energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhoury, R.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    We consider powerlike corrections in QCD which can be viewed as power suppressed infrared singularities. We argue that the presence of these singularities depends crucially on the energy resolution. In the case of poor energy resolution, i.e., inclusive cross sections, there are constraints on infrared singularities expressed by the Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg (KLN) theorem. We rewrite the theorem in covariant notations and argue that the KLN theorem implies the extension of the Bloch-Nordsieck cancellation of logarithmic singularities to the case of linear corrections. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  8. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  9. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  10. Portable high energy gamma ray imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru, S.V.; Squillante, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    To satisfy the needs of high energy gamma ray imagers for industrial nuclear imaging applications, three high energy gamma cameras are presented. The RMD-Pinhole camera uses a lead pinhole collimator and a segmented BGO detector viewed by a 3 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). This pinhole gamma camera displayed an energy resolution of 25.0% FWHM at the center of the camera at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 6.2 FWHM at 412 keV. The fixed multiple hole collimated camera (FMCC), used a multiple hole collimator and a continuous slab of NaI(Tl) detector viewed by the same PSPMT. The FMCC displayed an energy resolution of 12.4% FWHM at 662 keV at the center of the camera and an angular resolution of 6.0 FWHM at 412 keV. The rotating multiple hole collimated camera (RMCC) used a 180 antisymmetric rotation modulation collimator and CsI(Tl) detectors coupled to PIN silicon photodiodes. The RMCC displayed an energy resolution of 7.1% FWHM at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 4.0 FWHM at 810 keV. The performance of these imagers is discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  11. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  12. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  13. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report discusses research by Columbia University staff in high energy physics. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: lattice gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; parity doublets; solitons; baryon number violation; black holes; magnetic monopoles; gluon plasma; Chern-Simons theory; and the inflationary universe

  14. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklorsky, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)

  15. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  16. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  17. High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] High Energy Physics Home Division ES&H Personnel Collider Physics Cosmic Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theory & Computing Detector R&D Electronic Design Mechanical Design Neutrino Physics Theoretical Physics Seminars HEP Division Seminar HEP Lunch Seminar HEP

  18. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  19. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of

  20. Benefits of GMR sensors for high spatial resolution NDT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkner, M.; Stegemann, R.; Sonntag, N.; Pohl, R.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2018-04-01

    Magneto resistance sensors like GMR (giant magneto resistance) or TMR (tunnel magneto resistance) are widely used in industrial applications; examples are position measurement and read heads of hard disk drives. However, in case of non-destructive testing (NDT) applications these sensors, although their properties are outstanding like high spatial resolution, high field sensitivity, low cost and low energy consumption, never reached a technical transfer to an application beyond scientific scope. This paper deals with benefits of GMR/TMR sensors in terms of high spatial resolution testing for different NDT applications. The first example demonstrates the preeminent advantages of MR-elements compared with conventional coils used in eddy current testing (ET). The probe comprises one-wire excitation with an array of MR elements. This led to a better spatial resolution in terms of neighboring defects. The second section concentrates on MFL-testing (magnetic flux leakage) with active field excitation during and before testing. The latter illustrated the capability of highly resolved crack detection of a crossed notch. This example is best suited to show the ability of tiny magnetic field sensors for magnetic material characterization of a sample surface. Another example is based on characterization of samples after tensile test. Here, no external field is applied. The magnetization is only changed due to external load and magnetostriction leading to a field signature which GMR sensors can resolve. This gives access to internal changes of the magnetization state of the sample under test.

  1. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  2. High resolution measurement of the 238U neutron capture yield for incident neutron energies between 1 and 100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, R.L.; Perez, R.B.; de Saussure, G.; Ingle, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the capture gamma-ray spectrum of three U-238 metallic samples of areal densities, N = 0.0124, 0.0031, and 0.00057 at/b, were performed by placing a sample at the center of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator liquid scintillator tank. Five measurements of the time of flight spectrum were performed for each sample thickness. Measurements were done with and without aluminum filters in the beam, at both 800 and 400 pulses per second to determine the energy-dependent background which arises from pulse overlap and room return. The fifth measurement had a polyethylene plug in the beam to determine the constant background due to cosmic rays and long-lived radioactivities in the sample and surrounding materials. The shape of the incident neutron spectrum was determined by the count rate of a 1-mm-thick Li-6 glass scintillation monitor placed upstream of the liquid scintillator

  3. Study of the giant multipole resonances, especially the isoscalar giant E2 resonance in 208Pb by inelastic electron scattering with medium and high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehner, E.G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the nucleus 208 Pb giant multipole resonances were looked for by inelastic electron scattering up to excitation energies of Esub(x) = 35 MeV. Twelve spectra were taken up at incident energies of Esub(o) = 45-65 MeV under scattering angles from upsilon = 93 0 to 165 0 . The cross sections extracted from this were analyzed by means of DWBA calculations using RPA amplitudes from a model with separable residual interaction. Basing on this analysis for the first time it could be shown that the maximum in the electron scattering cross section at Esub(x) approx.= 14 MeV can be consistently described as a superposition of the Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 1 with a Jsup(π) = 0 + , ΔT = 0 giant resonance. Furthermore the spectra under backward scattering angles indicate the existence of a magnetic excitation at Esub(x) approx.= 15 MeV which is interpreted as Jsup(π) = 3 + giant resonance. Besides under forwards angles a further weak excitation appears at Esub(x) approx.= 14.6 MeV which is very well compatible with Jsup(π) = 2 + . At Esub(x) = 17.5 MeV a Jsup(π) = 3 - resonance was found which recently is also observed in (α,α') scattering experiments and therefore gets a ΔT = 0 assignment. A further resonance at Esub(x) approx.= 21 MeV has also Jsup(π) = 3 - character but has partly to be assigned to a Jsup(π) = 1 - , ΔT = 0 excitation. At Esub(x) = 23.8 MeV a Jsup(π) = 2 + excitation was found which gels because of model predictions a ΔT = 1 assignment. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  5. Energy Resolution of the Barrel of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Baillon, Paul; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Bialas, Wojciech; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton, David; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Del Re, Daniele; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl, James; Gras, Philippe; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel De Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; Hill, Jack; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, M A; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman, Harvey B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Y; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; Triantis, F A; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The energy resolution of the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been studied using electrons of 20 to 250 GeV in a test beam. The incident electron's energy was reconstructed by summing the energy measured in arrays of 3x3 or 5x5 channels. There was no significant amount of correlated noise observed within these arrays. For electrons incident at the centre of the studied 3x3 arrays of crystals, the mean stochastic term was measured to be 2.8% and the mean constant term to be 0.3%. The amount of the incident electron's energy which is contained within the array depends on its position of incidence. The variation of the containment with position is corrected for using the distribution of the measured energy within the array. For uniform illumination of a crystal with 120 GeV electrons a resolution of 0.5% was achieved. The energy resolution meets the design goal for the detector.

  6. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  7. High resolution X radiography imaging detector-micro gap chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Huqiang; Wang Yun; Xu Dong; Xie Kuanzhong; Bian Jianjiang

    2007-01-01

    Micro gap chamber (MGC) is a new type of Two-Dimensional position sensitive detector having excellent properties on the space and time resolution, counting rate, 2D compact structure and the flexible of application. It will become a candidate of a new tracking detector for high energy physics experiment. The basic structure and properties of MGC as well as its main research subjects are presented in this paper. Furthermore, the feasibility and validity of utilizing diamond films as the MGC gap material were also discussed in detail. So, a potential radiography imaging detector is provided in order to realize X image and X ray diffraction experiment having very good spatial and time resolution in the 3rd Generation of Synchrotron Radiation Facility. (authors)

  8. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  9. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor is based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 μl. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure

  10. Photoionization of Ar2 at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The relative photoionization cross section of Ar 2 was determined at a resolution of 0.07 A in the wavelength region from 800 to 850 A using a new photoionization mass spectrometer that combines a high intensity helium continuum lamp with a free supersonic molecular beam source. In the region studied, the photoionization cross section is dominated by autoionization of molecular Rydberg states, and the structure is diffuse owing to the combined effects of autoionization and predissociation. The molecular photoionization spectrum is extremely complex and shows little resemblence either to the corresponding atomic spectrum (indicating that the spectrum of the dimer is not simply a perturbed atomic spectrum) or to the molecular absorption spectrum at longer wavelengths. The regular vibrational progressions seen at longer wavelengths are absent above the first ionization potential. Detailed spectroscopic analysis is possible for only a small fraction of the observed features; however, vibrational intervals of 50--100 cm -1 suggest that some of the Rydberg states have B 2 Pi/sub 3/2g/ ionic cores. A comparison of the absorption and photoionization spectra shows that, at wavelengths shorter than approx.835 A, many of the excited states decay via mechanisms other than autoionization

  11. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  12. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  13. High energy physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Described are modern views on the particle structure and particle interactions at high energies. According to the latest data recieved, all particles can be classified in three groups: 1) strong interacting hadrons; 2) leptons, having no strong interactions; 3) photon. The particle structure is described in a quark model, and with the use of gluons. The elementary particle theory is based on the quantum field theory. The energy increase of interacting particles enables to check the main theory principles, such as conventions for causality, relativistic invariance and unitarity. Investigations of weak interactions are of great importance. The progress in this field is connected with unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For weak interactions promissing are the experiments with colliding electron-proton rings. The new data, especially at higher energies, will lead to a further refinement of the nature of particles and their interactions

  14. A high resolution helium atom scattering and far infrared study of the dynamics and the lateral potential energy surface of CO molecules chemisorbed on Cu(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, A.P.; Hofmann, F.; Toennies, J.P.; Williams, G.P.; Hirschmugl, C.J.; Ellis, J.

    1998-01-01

    Inelastic helium scattering (HAS) and infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy (IRAS) have been used to measure the isotope shifts of the frequencies of both the parallel and perpendicular frustrated translation modes, as well as the frustrated rotation mode of CO molecules at on top sites on Cu(001). The measured isotope shifts for four different isotopomers indicates a significant rotational contribution to the parallel frustrated translation (T-mode), where the vibrational amplitude of the oxygen atom is significantly larger than for the carbon atom. Conversely, for the frustrated rotation the vibrational amplitude of the carbon atom was observed to be larger than for the oxygen atom. At surface temperatures above T s =100 K a careful analysis of the peak shape of the HAS quasielastic peak shows a small broadening, which is attributed to a rapid diffusion of the CO molecules. The measured dynamic diffusion barrier of 31±10 meV is compatible with the shape of the potential at the on-top site and makes it possible to extend the potential energy surface to the region between the on-top sites. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. Multi element high resolution scintillator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    A gamma camera scintillator structure, suitable for detecting high energy gamma photons which, in a single scintillator camera, would require a comparatively thick scintillator crystal, so resulting in unacceptable dispersion of light photons, comprises a collimator array of a high Z material with elongated, parallel wall channels with the scintillator material being disposed in one end of the channels so as to form an integrated collimator/scintillator structure. The collimator channel walls are preferably coated with light reflective material and further light reflective surfaces being translucent to gamma photons, may be provided in each channel. The scintillators may be single crystals or preferably comprise a phosphor dispersed in a thermosetting translucent matrix as disclosed in GB2012800A. The light detectors of the assembled camera may be photomultiplier tubes charge coupled devices or charge injection devices. (author)

  16. Development of high speed integrated circuit for very high resolution timing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mester, Christian

    2009-10-01

    A multi-channel high-precision low-power time-to-digital converter application specific integrated circuit for high energy physics applications has been designed and implemented in a 130 nm CMOS process. To reach a target resolution of 24.4 ps, a novel delay element has been conceived. This nominal resolution has been experimentally verified with a prototype, with a minimum resolution of 19 ps. To further improve the resolution, a new interpolation scheme has been described. The ASIC has been designed to use a reference clock with the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz and generate all required timing signals internally, to ease to use within the framework of an LHC upgrade. Special care has been taken to minimise the power consumption. (orig.)

  17. Development of high speed integrated circuit for very high resolution timing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, Christian

    2009-10-15

    A multi-channel high-precision low-power time-to-digital converter application specific integrated circuit for high energy physics applications has been designed and implemented in a 130 nm CMOS process. To reach a target resolution of 24.4 ps, a novel delay element has been conceived. This nominal resolution has been experimentally verified with a prototype, with a minimum resolution of 19 ps. To further improve the resolution, a new interpolation scheme has been described. The ASIC has been designed to use a reference clock with the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz and generate all required timing signals internally, to ease to use within the framework of an LHC upgrade. Special care has been taken to minimise the power consumption. (orig.)

  18. 77 FR 70433 - Resolute Marine Energy, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14438-000] Resolute Marine..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 25, 2012, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc. (Resolute... megawatthours. Applicant Contact: Mr. P. William Staby, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., 3 Post Office Square, 3rd...

  19. The High-Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Terebey, Susan; Prince, Thomas A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg is less than b is less than 4.7 deg), along with the molecular clouds in Orion, rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga, has been produced at 60 and 100 microns from IRAS data. The atlas consists of resolution-enhanced co-added images with 1 min - 2 min resolution and co-added images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory H(sub I) line/21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) Galactic plane surveys, which both have similar (approx. 1 min) resolution to the IRAS atlas, provides a powerful tool for studying the interstellar medium, star formation, and large-scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the atlas.

  20. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  1. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates with a prototype High Purity Germanium detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. J.; Amman, M.; Vetter, K.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are required for applications in nuclear safeguards, emergency response, and fundamental nuclear physics. To overcome one of the shortcomings of conventional High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, we have developed a prototype device capable of achieving high event throughput and high energy resolution at very high count rates. This device, the design of which we have previously reported on, features a planar HPGe crystal with a reduced-capacitance strip electrode geometry. This design is intended to provide good energy resolution at the short shaping or digital filter times that are required for high rate operation and which are enabled by the fast charge collection afforded by the planar geometry crystal. In this work, we report on the initial performance of the system at count rates up to and including two million counts per second.

  2. A high resolution β-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Cuzon, J.C.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    1987-01-01

    We present a detector which associates a charge coupled device to a light amplifier. This image sensor must detect weak β-activity, with a 10 μm resolution and should replace the autoradiographic films used for molecular hybridization. The best results are obtained with the 35 S emittor, for which the resolution and the efficiency are respectively 20 μm and 100% (relative to the measured standard source)

  3. High-resolution studies of tropolone in the S0 and S1 electronic states: isotope driven dynamics in the zero-point energy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keske, John C; Lin, Wei; Pringle, Wallace C; Novick, Stewart E; Blake, Thomas A; Plusquellic, David F

    2006-02-21

    Rotationally resolved microwave (MW) and ultraviolet (UV) spectra of jet-cooled tropolone have been obtained in S(0) and S(1) electronic states using Fourier-transform microwave and UV-laser/molecular-beam spectrometers. In the ground electronic state, the MW spectra of all heavy-atom isotopomers including one (18)O and four (13)C isotopomers were observed in natural abundance. The OD isotopomer was obtained from isotopically enriched samples. The two lowest tunneling states of each isotopomer except (18)O have been assigned. The observed inversion splitting for the OD isotopomer is 1523.227(5) MHz. For the asymmetric (13)C structures, the magnitudes of tunneling-rotation interactions are found to diminish with decreasing distance between the heavy atom and the tunneling proton. In the limit of closest approach, the 0(+) state of (18)O was well fitted to an asymmetric rotor Hamiltonian, reflecting significant changes in the tautomerization dynamics. Comparisons of the substituted atom coordinates with theoretical predictions at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory suggest the localized 0(+) and 0(-) wave functions of the heavier isotopes favor the C-OH and C=O forms of tropolone, respectively. The only exception occurs for the (13)C-OH and (13)C[Double Bond]O structures which correlate to the 0(-) and 0(+) states, respectively. These preferences reflect kinetic isotope effects as quantitatively verified by the calculated zero-point energy differences between members of the asymmetric atom pairs. From rotationally resolved data of the 0(+) <--0(+) and 0(-) <--0(-) bands in S(1), line-shape fits have yielded Lorentzian linewidths that differ by 12.2(16) MHz over the 19.88(4) cm(-1) interval in S(1). The fluorescence decay rates together with previously reported quantum yield data give nonradiative decay rates of 7.7(5) x 10(8) and 8.5(5) x 10(8) s(-1) for the 0(+) and 0(-) levels of the S(1) state of tropolone.

  4. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    extinguishing actions, leaving more resources to improve safety in areas at risk. With the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk with high spatial resolution (900 m2) based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November- April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. About 48000 fire perimeters which burnt about 5500 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 30 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime at national level contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extensible to other geographical areas.

  5. High resolution 14 MeV neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, M.

    1986-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer, based both on the track position identification and the energy measurement of recoiling protons from a hydrogenous radiator is proposed. The expected performance limits of this spectrometer with regard to energy resolution (deltaE/E), efficiency (epsilon) and counting rate are evaluated in five different configurations. The results show the possibility of deriving an optimized spectrometer design for applications on large fusion devices such as JET and NET with an energy resolution up 1% at 14 MeV

  6. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  7. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  8. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required

  9. Evaluation and optimization of the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoess, C.

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an imaging technique used in medicine to determine qualitative and quantitative metabolic parameters in vivo. The High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a new high resolution tomograph that was designed for brain studies (312 mm transaxial field-of-view (FOV), 252 mm axial FOV). The detector blocks are arranged in a quadrant sharing design and consist of two crystal layers with dimensions of 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm x 7.5 mm. The main detector material is the newly developed scintillator lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO). Events from the different crystal layers are distinguished by Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) to gain Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. This will improve the spatial resolution, especially at the edges of the FOV. A prototype of the tomograph was installed at the Max-Planck Institute for Neurological Research in Cologne, Germany in 1999 and was evaluated with respect to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and count rate behavior. These performance measurements showed that this prototype provided a spatial resolution of around 2.5 mm in a volume big enough to contain the human brain. A comparison with a single layer HRRT prototype showed a 10% worsening of the resolution, despite the fact that DOI was used. Without DOI, the resolution decreased considerably. The sensitivity, as measured with a 22 Na point source, was 46.5 cps/kBq for an energy window of 350-650 keV and 37.9 cps/kBq for an energy window of 400-650 keV, while the scatter fractions were 56% for 350-650 keV and 51% for 400-650 keV, respectively. A daily quality check was developed and implemented that uses the uniform, natural radioactive background of the scintillator material LSO. In 2001, the manufacturer decided to build a series of additional HRRT scanners to try to improve the design (detector electronics, transmission source design, and shielding against out-of-FOV activity) and to eliminate problems (difficult detector

  10. Energy resolution limitations in a gas scintillation proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.G.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Peacock, A.; Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is made of the factors limiting the energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC). Several of these limitations originate in the drift region of such a counter and data is presented, giving a quantitative description of those effects. Data is also presented of a GSPC without a drift region, that therefore largely circumvents most of those degrading factors. The results obtained so far indicate that in that detector the limitation to the resolution is most probably due to cleanliness of the gas. Further research is underway in order to assess quantitatively the limiting factors in such a driftless GSPC

  11. Zeolites - a high resolution electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredsson, V.

    1994-10-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to investigate a number of zeolites (EMT, FAU, LTL, MFI and MOR) and a member of the mesoporous M41S family. The electron optical artefact, manifested as a dark spot in the projected centre of the large zeolite channels, caused by insufficient transfer of certain reflections in the objective lens has been explained. The artefact severely hinders observation of materials confined in the zeolite channels and cavities. It is shown how to circumvent the artefact problem and how to image confined materials in spite of disturbance caused by the artefact. Image processing by means of a Wiener filter has been applied for removal of the artefact. The detailed surface structure of FAU has been investigated. Comparison of experimental micrographs with images simulated using different surface models indicates that the surface can be terminated in different ways depending on synthesis methods. The dealuminated form of FAU (USY) is covered by an amorphous region. Platinum incorporated in FAU has a preponderance to aggregate in the (111) twin planes, probably due to a local difference in cage structure with more spacious cages. It is shown that platinum is intra-zeolitic as opposed to being located on the external surface of the zeolite crystal. This could be deduced from tomography of ultra-thin sections among observations. HRTEM studies of the mesoporous MCM-41 show that the pores have a hexagonal shape and also supports the mechanistic model proposed which involves a cooperative formation of a mesophase including the silicate species as well as the surfactant. 66 refs, 24 figs

  12. Proposal for a semiconductor high resolution tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    A 'new' concept for detection and tracking of charged particles in high energy physics experiments is proposed. It combines a well known high purity semiconductor diode detector (HPSDD) with a heterojunction structure (HJ) and a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface. The detector should be capable of providing a two dimensional view (few cm 2 ) of multi-track events with the following properties: a) position resolution down to a few μm (10 8 position elements); b) high density of information (10 2 -10 3 dots per mm of minimum ionizing track); c) high rate capabilities (few MHz); d) live operation with options to be triggered and/or the information from the detector can be used as an input for the decision to record an event. (orig.)

  13. In-beam measurement of the position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, M.; Lee, I.Y.; Fallon, P.; Cromaz, M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Radford, D.C.; Vetter, K.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Stephens, F.S.; Ward, D.

    2005-01-01

    The position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector was determined by analyzing the 2055keV γ-ray transition of Zr90 excited in a fusion-evaporation reaction. The high velocity of the Zr90 nuclei imparted large Doppler shifts. Digital analysis of the detector signals recovered the energy and position of individual γ-ray interactions. The location of the first interaction in the crystal was used to correct the Doppler energy shift. Comparison of the measured energy resolution with simulations implied a position resolution (root mean square) of 2mm in three-dimensions

  14. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    Brief reports are given on the work of several professors. The following areas are included: quantum chromodynamics calculations using numerical lattice gauge theory and a high-speed parallel computer; the ''spin wave'' description of bosonic particles moving on a lattice with same-site exclusion; a high-temperature expansion to 13th order for the O(4)-symmetric φ 4 model on a four-dimensional F 4 lattice; spin waves and lattice bosons; superconductivity of C 60 ; meson-meson interferometry in heavy-ion collisions; baryon number violation in the Standard Model in high-energy collisions; hard thermal loops in QCD; electromagnetic interactions of anyons; the relation between Bose-Einstein and BCS condensations; Euclidean wormholes with topology S 1 x S 2 x R; vacuum decay and symmetry breaking by radiative corrections; inflationary solutions to the cosmological horizon and flatness problems; and magnetically charged black holes

  15. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  16. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail: mtrinitat@eresa.com; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del [Department of Nuclear Medicine, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Roselló Ferrando, Joan [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  18. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Hernández, Trinitat; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo; Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del; Roselló Ferrando, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good performance

  19. High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method

  20. High resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy at Jefferson Lab Hall A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, F.; Bydžovský, P.; Cisbani, E.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Frullani, S.; Iodice, M.; LeRose, J.J.; Markowitz, P.; Millener, D.J.; Urciuoli, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of the Jefferson Lab electron beam, together with those of the experimental equipment, offer a unique opportunity to study hypernuclear spectroscopy via electromagnetic induced (e,e ′ K + ) reactions. Experiment 94-107 started a systematic study on 1p-shell targets, 12 C, 9 Be and 16 O. For 12 C for the first time measurable strength in the core-excited part of the spectrum between the ground state and the p state was shown in the 12 Λ B spectrum. For 16 O a high-quality 16 Λ N spectrum was produced for the first time with sub-MeV energy resolution. A very precise Λ binding energy value for 16 Λ N, calibrated against the elementary (e,e ′ K + ) reaction on hydrogen, has also been obtained. Preliminary data on the 9 Λ Li spectrum shows some disagreement in strength for the second and third doublet with respect to the theory

  1. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  2. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This progress report presents a review of research done over the past five years by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This research has been centered at Fermilab where we have had a continuing involvement with both the Tevatron collider and fixed-target programs. In 1988 we began extensive detector R ampersand D for the SSC through its Major Subsystem Program. Duke has been an active member of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) since its formation. These last five years has also been used to finish the analysis of data from a series of hybrid bubble chamber experiments which formed the core of Duke's research program in the early 1980's

  3. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  4. 天津近海风能资源的高分辨率数值模拟与评估%High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Assessment of the Offshore Wind Energy Resource in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳娟; 李明财; 任雨; 熊明明

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy is a rapidly growing alternative energy source and has been widely developed around the world over the last 10 years. Offshore wind power generation is now becoming a new trend in the development of future wind power generation because wind tends to blow faster and be more uniform over offshore areas than on the land. Accurate assessment of wind energy resource is fundamental and valuable for wind energy developers and potential wind energy users because it allows them to choose a general area of the estimated high wind resource for more detailed examination. However, it is difficult to make direct observations from meteorological variables over offshore areas, which calls for numerical simulation with high resolution so as to derive the availability and potential of wind energy. The distribution of wind energy resources with 1 km horizontal resolution and 10 m vertical resolution in Tianjin coastal areas was simulated using the numerical model MM5 and Calmet to derive wind energy potential over the offshore areas. In addition, the simulation efficiency was determined by comparing observation data with three wind-measurement towers over the same period. Results show that the annual mean wind speed and trend of daily mean wind speed were simulated well, and the relative deviations between observations and simulated values at three wind measurement towers were 7.11%, 12.99%, and 6.14%, respectively. This suggests that the models are effective in assessing the offshore wind energy resource in Tianjin. The long time wind energy resource was obtained by comparing simulated year’s and recent 20 years’ mean wind speed. It was found that annual mean wind speed is (6.6~7.0)m/s, and annual mean wind power density is above 340w/m2, which indicate that the offshore wind energy resource in Tianjin is exploitable and could be used for grid-connected power generation. The assessment shows that the MM5/Calmet model is capable of providing reasonable wind status

  5. A massive cryogenic particle detector with good energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferger, P.; Colling, P.; Cooper, S.; Dummer, D.; Frank, M.; Nagel, U.; Nucciotti, A.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1993-12-01

    Massive cryogenic particle detectors are being developed for use in a search for dark matter particles. Results with a 31 g sapphire crystal and a superconducting phase transition thermometer operated at 44 mK are presented. The observed signal includes a fast component which is significantly larger than the expected thermal pulse. The energy resolution is 210 eV (FWHM) for 6 keV X-rays. (orig.)

  6. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  7. High-resolution analysis of the mechanical behavior of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, Alexa W.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical behavior and properties of biomaterials, such as tissue, have been directly and indirectly connected to numerous malignant physiological states. For example, an increase in the Young's Modulus of tissue can be indicative of cancer. Due to the heterogeneity of biomaterials, it is extremely important to perform these measurements using whole or unprocessed tissue because the tissue matrix contains important information about the intercellular interactions and the structure. Thus, developing high-resolution approaches that can accurately measure the elasticity of unprocessed tissue samples is of great interest. Unfortunately, conventional elastography methods such as atomic force microscopy, compression testing, and ultrasound elastography either require sample processing or have poor resolution. In the present work, we demonstrate the characterization of unprocessed salmon muscle using an optical polarimetric elastography system. We compare the results of compression testing within different samples of salmon skeletal muscle with different numbers of collagen membranes to characterize differences in heterogeneity. Using the intrinsic collagen membranes as markers, we determine the resolution of the system when testing biomaterials. The device reproducibly measures the stiffness of the tissues at variable strains. By analyzing the amount of energy lost by the sample during compression, collagen membranes that are 500 μm in size are detected.

  8. High resolution γ-ray spectroscopy: The first 85 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This opening review attempts to follow the main trends in crystal diffraction spectrometry of nuclear γ rays from its 1914 beginning in Rutherford's laboratory to the ultra-high resolution instrumentation realized in the current generation of spectrometers at the Institute Laue Langeven (ILL). The authors perspective is that of an instrumentalist hoping to convey a sense of intellectual debt to a number of predecessors, each of whom realized a certain elegance in making the tools that have enabled much good science, including that to which the remainder of this workshop is dedicated. This overview follows some of the main ideas along a trajectory toward higher resolution at higher energies, thereby enabling not only the disentangling of dense spectra, but also allowing detailed study of aspects of spectral profiles sensitive to excited state lifetimes and interatomic potentials. The parallel evolution toward increasing efficiency while preserving needed resolution is also an interesting story of artful compromise that should not be neglected. Finally, it is the robustness of the measurement chain connecting γ-ray wavelengths with optical wave-lengths associated with the Rydberg constant that only recently has allowed γ-ray data to contribute to determine of particle masses and fundamental constants, as will be described in more detail in other papers from this workshop

  9. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2008-01-01

    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  10. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-08-06

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  11. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-01-01

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  12. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  13. Charge-coupled devices for particle detection with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, F.J.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Gillman, A.R.; Wickens, F.J.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a study of the possible application of a thin microelectronic device (the charge-coupled device) to high energy physics as particle detectors with good spatial resolution which can distinguish between tracks emerging from the primary vertex and those from secondary vertices due to the decay of short lived particles with higher flavours, are reported. Performance characteristics indicating the spatial resolution, particle discrimination, time resolution, readout time and lifetime of such detectors have been obtained. (U.K.)

  14. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  15. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T., E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fushie, T. [Radiment Lab. Inc., Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0044 (Japan); Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A. [XIT Co., Naruse, Machida, Tokyo 194-0045 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 µm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  16. High-intensity xenon plasma discharge lamp for bulk-sensitive high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, S; Sato, T; Takahashi, T; Baltzer, P

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a highly brilliant xenon (Xe) discharge lamp operated by microwave-induced electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) for ultrahigh-resolution bulk-sensitive photoemission spectroscopy (PES). We observed at least eight strong radiation lines from neutral or singly ionized Xe atoms in the energy region of 8.4-10.7 eV. The photon flux of the strongest Xe I resonance line at 8.437 eV is comparable to that of the He Ialpha line (21.218 eV) from the He-ECR discharge lamp. Stable operation for more than 300 h is achieved by efficient air-cooling of a ceramic tube in the resonance cavity. The high bulk sensitivity and high-energy resolution of PES using the Xe lines are demonstrated for some typical materials.

  17. High-spatial resolution and high-spectral resolution detector for use in the measurement of solar flare hard x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, U.D.; Orwig, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the areas of high spatial resolution, the evaluation of a hard X-ray detector with 65 micron spatial resolution for operation in the energy range from 30 to 400 keV is proposed. The basic detector is a thick large-area scintillator faceplate, composed of a matrix of high-density scintillating glass fibers, attached to a proximity type image intensifier tube with a resistive-anode digital readout system. Such a detector, combined with a coded-aperture mask, would be ideal for use as a modest-sized hard X-ray imaging instrument up to X-ray energies as high as several hundred keV. As an integral part of this study it was also proposed that several techniques be critically evaluated for X-ray image coding which could be used with this detector. In the area of high spectral resolution, it is proposed to evaluate two different types of detectors for use as X-ray spectrometers for solar flares: planar silicon detectors and high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). Instruments utilizing these high-spatial-resolution detectors for hard X-ray imaging measurements from 30 to 400 keV and high-spectral-resolution detectors for measurements over a similar energy range would be ideally suited for making crucial solar flare observations during the upcoming maximum in the solar cycle

  18. Design of a high-resolution high-stability positioning mechanism for crystal optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a novel miniature multi-axis driving structure that will allow positioning of two crystals with better than 50-nrad angular resolution and nanometer linear driving sensitivity.The precision and stability of this structure allow the user to align or adjust an assembly of crystals to achieve the same performance as does a single channel-cut crystal, so they call it an artificial channel-cut crystal. In this paper, the particular designs and specifications, as well as the test results,for a two-axis driving structure for a high-energy-resolution artificial channel-cut crystal monochromator are presented

  19. A high resolution pneumatic stepping actuator for harsh reactor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippetts, Thomas B.; Evans, Paul S.; Riffle, George K.

    1993-01-01

    A reactivity control actuator for a high-power density nuclear propulsion reactor must be installed in close proximity to the reactor core. The energy input from radiation to the actuator structure could exceed hundreds of W/cc unless low-cross section, low-absorptivity materials are chosen. Also, for post-test handling and subsequent storage, materials should not be used that are activated into long half-life isotopes. Pneumatic actuators can be constructed from various reactor-compatible materials, but conventional pneumatic piston actuators generally lack the stiffness required for high resolution reactivity control unless electrical position sensors and compensated electronic control systems are used. To overcome these limitations, a pneumatic actuator is under development that positions an output shaft in response to a series of pneumatic pulses, comprising a pneumatic analog of an electrical stepping motor. The pneumatic pulses are generated remotely, beyond the strong radiation environment, and transmitted to the actuator through tubing. The mechanically simple actuator uses a nutating gear harmonic drive to convert motion of small pistons directly to high-resolution angular motion of the output shaft. The digital nature of this actuator is suitable for various reactor control algorithms but is especially compatible with the three bean salad algorithm discussed by Ball et al. (1991).

  20. An original acquisition chain for the TOHR High Resolution Tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinot, Laurent

    1999-01-01

    The framework of this work is part of a new approach of emission tomography adapted to small animals. The principle of our tomographic system TOHR (French acronym for High Resolution Tomograph) is based on the use of large solid angle and high resolution focusing collimators each mounted in front of a detection module of high efficiency. With a first-generation acquisition chain we were able to characterize TOHR, however, to take fully advantage of the TOHR possibilities, a completely new acquisition scheme had to be designed. This system, being the main topic of this work, makes use of temporal information. The detection of a particle that entered the detector is translated into temporal logical signals. These signals pass into a time coding circuitry and the coded results are transferred in a digital processor. According to the initial terms of delivery, the developed acquisition chain steers the detection of events dependent on the deposited energy and time of arrival. The latter is done by coincidence measurements. All elements are mounted on a special board included into a PC unit and a dedicated program controls the whole system. First experiments showed up the interest of the new acquisition unit for other application in physics or medical imaging

  1. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb - 1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989

  2. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  3. High-level waste issues and resolutions document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Issues and Resolutions Document recognizes US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide HLW issues and offers potential corrective actions for resolving these issues. Westinghouse Management and Operations (M ampersand O) Contractors are effectively managing HLW for the Department of Energy at four sites: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and Hanford Reservation. Each site is at varying stages of processing HLW into a more manageable form. This HLW Issues and Resolutions Document identifies five primary issues that must be resolved in order to reach the long-term objective of HLW repository disposal. As the current M ampersand O contractor at DOE's most difficult waste problem sites, Westinghouse recognizes that they have the responsibility to help solve some of the complexes' HLW problems in a cost effective manner by encouraging the M ampersand Os to work together by sharing expertise, eliminating duplicate efforts, and sharing best practices. Pending an action plan, Westinghouse M ampersand Os will take the initiative on those corrective actions identified as the responsibility of an M ampersand O. This document captures issues important to the management of HLW. The proposed resolutions contained within this document set the framework for the M ampersand Os and DOE work cooperatively to develop an action plan to solve some of the major complex-wide problems. Dialogue will continue between the M ampersand Os, DOE, and other regulatory agencies to work jointly toward the goal of storing, treating, and immobilizing HLW for disposal in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner

  4. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  5. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  6. High resolution transmission imaging without lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, J M; Hurst, A C; Maiden, A

    2010-01-01

    The whole history of transmission imaging has been dominated by the lens, whether used in visible-light optics, electron optics or X-ray optics. Lenses can be thought of as a very efficient method of processing a wave front scattered from an object into an image of that object. An alternative approach is to undertake this image-formation process using a computational technique. The crudest scattering experiment is to simply record the intensity of a diffraction pattern. Recent progress in so-called diffractive imaging has shown that it is possible to recover the phase of a scattered wavefield from its diffraction pattern alone, as long as the object (or the illumination on the object) is of finite extent. In this paper we present results from a very efficient phase retrieval method which can image infinitely large fields of view. It may have important applications in improving resolution in electron microscopy, or at least allowing low specification microscopes to achieve resolution comparable to state-of-the-art machines.

  7. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  8. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  9. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  10. High resolution UV spectroscopy and laser-focused nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis combines two at first glance different techniques: High Resolution Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) of small aromatic molecules and Laser Focusing of atoms for Nanofabrication. The thesis starts with the introduction to the high resolution LIF technique of small aromatic

  11. Linearized inversion frameworks toward high-resolution seismic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Seismic exploration utilizes controlled sources, which emit seismic waves that propagate through the earth subsurface and get reflected off subsurface interfaces and scatterers. The reflected and scattered waves are recorded by recording stations installed along the earth surface or down boreholes. Seismic imaging is a powerful tool to map these reflected and scattered energy back to their subsurface scattering or reflection points. Seismic imaging is conventionally based on the single-scattering assumption, where only energy that bounces once off a subsurface scatterer and recorded by a receiver is projected back to its subsurface position. The internally multiply scattered seismic energy is considered as unwanted noise and is usually suppressed or removed from the recorded data. Conventional seismic imaging techniques yield subsurface images that suffer from low spatial resolution, migration artifacts, and acquisition fingerprint due to the limited acquisition aperture, number of sources and receivers, and bandwidth of the source wavelet. Hydrocarbon traps are becoming more challenging and considerable reserves are trapped in stratigraphic and pinch-out traps, which require highly resolved seismic images to delineate them. This thesis focuses on developing and implementing new advanced cost-effective seismic imaging techniques aiming at enhancing the resolution of the migrated images by exploiting the sparseness of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and utilizing the multiples that are usually neglected when imaging seismic data. I first formulate the seismic imaging problem as a Basis pursuit denoise problem, which I solve using an L1-minimization algorithm to obtain the sparsest migrated image corresponding to the recorded data. Imaging multiples may illuminate subsurface zones, which are not easily illuminated by conventional seismic imaging using primary reflections only. I then develop an L2-norm (i.e. least-squares) inversion technique to image

  12. High energy magnetic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La 2 CuO 4 , which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)

  13. High-Resolution Sonars: What Resolution Do We Need for Target Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailhas Yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognition in sonar imagery has long been an active research area in the maritime domain, especially in the mine-counter measure context. Recently it has received even more attention as new sensors with increased resolution have been developed; new threats to critical maritime assets and a new paradigm for target recognition based on autonomous platforms have emerged. With the recent introduction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar systems and high-frequency sonars, sonar resolution has dramatically increased and noise levels decreased. Sonar images are distance images but at high resolution they tend to appear visually as optical images. Traditionally algorithms have been developed specifically for imaging sonars because of their limited resolution and high noise levels. With high-resolution sonars, algorithms developed in the image processing field for natural images become applicable. However, the lack of large datasets has hampered the development of such algorithms. Here we present a fast and realistic sonar simulator enabling development and evaluation of such algorithms.We develop a classifier and then analyse its performances using our simulated synthetic sonar images. Finally, we discuss sensor resolution requirements to achieve effective classification of various targets and demonstrate that with high resolution sonars target highlight analysis is the key for target recognition.

  14. High-Resolution EUV Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We compare results of high-resolution EUV spectroscopic measurements of the isolated white dwarf G191-B2B and the binary system Feige 24 obtained with the J-PEX (Joint Plasmadynamic Experiment), which was sponsored jointly by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and NASA. J-PEX delivers the world's highest resolution in EUV and does so at high effective area (e.g., more effective area in a sounding rocket than is available with Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach). The capability J-PEX represents is applicable to the astrophysics of hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the ISM. G191-B2B and Feige 24 are quite distinct hot white dwarf systems having in common that they are bright in the portion of the EUV where He emission features and edges occur, hence they can be exploited to probe both the stellar atmosphere and the ISM, separating those components by model-fitting that sums over all relevant (He) spectral features in the band. There is evidence from these fits that atmospheric He is being detected but the result is more conservatively cast as a pair of upper limits. We discuss how longer duration satellite observations with the same instrumentation could increase exposure to detect atmospheric He in these and other nearby hot white dwarfs.

  15. The high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unruh, Tobias [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM II and Physik Department E13, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Tobias.Unruh@frm2.tum.de; Neuhaus, Juergen; Petry, Winfried [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM II and Physik Department E13, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2007-10-11

    The TOFTOF spectrometer is a multi-disc chopper time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons at the research neutron source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). After five reactor cycles of routine operation the characteristics of the instrument are reported in this article. The spectrometer features an excellent signal to background ratio due to its remote position in the neutron guide hall, an elaborated shielding concept and an s-shaped curved primary neutron guide which acts i.a. as a neutron velocity filter. The spectrometer is fed with neutrons from the undermoderated cold neutron source of the FRM II leading to a total neutron flux of {approx}10{sup 10}n/cm{sup 2}/s in the continuous white beam at the sample position distributed over a continuous and particularly broad wavelength spectrum. A high energy resolution is achieved by the use of high speed chopper discs made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic. In the combination of intensity, resolution and signal to background ratio the spectrometer offers new scientific prospects in the fields of inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering.

  16. The high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Tobias; Neuhaus, Jürgen; Petry, Winfried

    2007-10-01

    The TOFTOF spectrometer is a multi-disc chopper time-of-flight spectrometer for cold neutrons at the research neutron source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). After five reactor cycles of routine operation the characteristics of the instrument are reported in this article. The spectrometer features an excellent signal to background ratio due to its remote position in the neutron guide hall, an elaborated shielding concept and an s-shaped curved primary neutron guide which acts i.a. as a neutron velocity filter. The spectrometer is fed with neutrons from the undermoderated cold neutron source of the FRM II leading to a total neutron flux of ˜1010n/cm2/s in the continuous white beam at the sample position distributed over a continuous and particularly broad wavelength spectrum. A high energy resolution is achieved by the use of high speed chopper discs made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic. In the combination of intensity, resolution and signal to background ratio the spectrometer offers new scientific prospects in the fields of inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering.

  17. High resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya. [Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI (MISDC), Mendeleevo, Moscow region, (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-01

    In recent years new classes of X-ray spectroscopic instruments possessing both dispersive and focusing properties have been manufactured. Their principal advantage over more traditional instruments is that they combine very high luminosity with high spatial resolution, while preserving the highest possible spectral resolution of their dispersive elements. These instruments opened up the registration of plasmas in new regimes and surroundings. The measurements delivered new information about the properties of even previously studied traditional plasma objects (e.g. ns-laser produced plasmas). Also the detailed investigation of relatively new plasma laboratory sources with very small dimensions and low energy content (e.g. mJ fs-laser pulses) became possible. The purpose of this report is to give a short review of the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the past few years by MISDC (Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center) research team in the field of X-ray spectroscopy of a laser-produced plasma. Experimental spectra have been obtained at various laser installations with nanosecond, sub-nanosecond, picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses interacting with solid, gaseous or cluster targets in collaborations with research teams from Russia, USA, Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, Italy, China and Israel. Practically all results have been obtained with the help of spectrographs with spherically bent mica crystals operating in FSSR-1D, 2D schemes. (author)

  18. High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A summary is given of results on nanospectroscopy etc. during the previous three years, divided into the following subsections: development of methods and instrumentation for interface/boundary chemical analysis, interface and boundary structure in ceramic matrix composites, quantitative composition measurements of thin films and inclusions, theoretical calculations for electron energy loss near edge fine structure and grain boundary structure, and small probe radiation effects in ceramics. Materials studied include SiC whisker-reinforced Si3N4, SiC, Si oxides, Si, Si oxynitride, other ceramics. Methods mentioned include field emission, EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy), nanospectroscopy, electron nanoprobe, etc

  19. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-09-15

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors.

  20. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  1. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  2. Textural Segmentation of High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale

    1995-01-01

    .... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...

  3. Texton-based super-resolution for achieving high spatiotemporal resolution in hybrid camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Kenji; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2010-05-01

    Many super-resolution methods have been proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of images by using iteration and multiple input images. In a previous paper, we proposed the example-based super-resolution method to enhance an image through pixel-based texton substitution to reduce the computational cost. In this method, however, we only considered the enhancement of a texture image. In this study, we modified this texton substitution method for a hybrid camera to reduce the required bandwidth of a high-resolution video camera. We applied our algorithm to pairs of high- and low-spatiotemporal-resolution videos, which were synthesized to simulate a hybrid camera. The result showed that the fine detail of the low-resolution video can be reproduced compared with bicubic interpolation and the required bandwidth could be reduced to about 1/5 in a video camera. It was also shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of the images improved by about 6 dB in a trained frame and by 1.0-1.5 dB in a test frame, as determined by comparison with the processed image using bicubic interpolation, and the average PSNRs were higher than those obtained by the well-known Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method. Compared with that of the Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method, the computational time of our method was reduced to almost 1/10.

  4. (e,2e) spectroscopy of solids with improved energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canney, S.; Brunger, M.J.; Storer, P.J.; Utteridge, S.; Vos, M.; Weigold, E.

    1996-03-01

    A brief overview of the (e,2e) technique as applied to solids is reported, including the spectrometer used in these studies. In particular it is described how the energy resolution of the spectrometer has been improved, by a factor of two, by the addition of an electron monochromator for production of the incident electron beam. This monochromator is also discussed in some detail. Results obtained using the monochromated beam are compared with previous data collected with a standard electron-gun source. 37 refs., 9 figs

  5. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  6. Performance characteristics of high resolution semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko Ko Naing

    1994-05-01

    A high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector has been used in Nuclear Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yangon University for over fourteen years. Now it is still being used and it is coupled to new peripheral devices, such as spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter and computer fit-in S-100 multichannel analyser. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the important parameters: energy resolution, detecting efficiency and relative efficiency of the system. In the present work, these parameters were obtained by using mixed calibrated source. The results were compared to the data given by the manufacturer. Moreover, the parameters of another γ-ray detecting system NaI(T1) were also determined. In conclusion the results obtained from the above two measurements were compared and discussed

  7. High-Resolution Single-Grain Diffraction of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, Ulrich; Ribárik, Gábor; Ungar, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    . The microstructure usually influences the materials properties critically. It has been demonstrated that, by using high-energy synchrotron radiation, diffraction peaks off individual grains can be recorded in-situ during processing. Important information such as the orientation, average strain, and size...... of individual grains can be obtained, even if the peak shapes are commonly not analyzed. However, it is also well-known that the shape of diffraction peaks, if observed with sufficient resolution, contains significant information about the microstructure. While the intensity distribution in reciprocal space...... of a perfect lattice consists of delta functions located at the reciprocal lattice points, defects induce characteristic peak broadening. In order to exploit the wealth of microstructural information contained in broadened diffraction peaks, the intensity distribution has to be characterized in all three...

  8. Porous silicon phantoms for high-resolution scintillation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Francia, G. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Scafe, R. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: scafe@casaccia.enea.it; De Vincentis, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); La Ferrara, V. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Iurlaro, G. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Nasti, I. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Montani, L. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Pellegrini, R. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Betti, M. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Martucciello, N. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Pani, R. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    High resolution radionuclide imaging requires phantoms with precise geometries and known activities using either Anger cameras equipped with pinhole collimators or dedicated small animal devices. Porous silicon samples, having areas of different shape and size, can be made and loaded with a radioactive material, obtaining: (a) precise radio-emitting figures corresponding to the porous areas geometry (b) a radioactivity of each figure depending on the pore's specifications, and (c) the same emission energy to be used in true exams. To this aim a sample with porous circular areas has been made and loaded with a {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} {sup -} solution. Imaging has been obtained using both general purpose and pinhole collimators. This first sample shows some defects that are analyzed and discussed.

  9. The inelastic contribution to high resolution images of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, O.L.; Ahn, C.C.; Wood, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of the contribution due to inelastically scattered electrons to unfiltered HREM images is examined, with emphasis on imaging of defects in semiconductors. Whenever the low energy loss spectrum contains sharp peaks, the contribution is not featureless. At specimen thickness of a few tens of nm, it may change the image appearance in a major way. The strongest effect occurs in high resolution, medium voltage (200 to 500 kV) electron microscope images of defects at focus values minimizing the contrast of the elastic image in low Z materials such as Al and Si. In higher Z materials or those with no sharp 'plasmons', the contribution is small. 23 refs., 8 figs

  10. Performance characteristics of high resolution semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naing, Ko Ko

    1994-05-01

    A high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector has been used in Nuclear Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yangon University for over fourteen years. Now it is still being used and it is coupled to new peripheral devices, such as spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter and computer fit-in S-100 multichannel analyser. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the important parameters: energy resolution, detecting efficiency and relative efficiency of the system. In the present work, these parameters were obtained by using mixed calibrated source. The results were compared to the data given by the manufacturer. Moreover, the parameters of another {gamma}-ray detecting system NaI(T1) were also determined. In conclusion the results obtained from the above two measurements were compared and discussed

  11. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10 5 Z's by the end of 1989 and 10 6 in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry

  12. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  13. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  14. Signal yields, energy resolution, and recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bramante, R.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks in the dark-matter-search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector. Liquid xenon charge and light yields for electronic recoil energies between 5.2 and 661.7 keV are measured, as well as the energy resolution for the LUX detector at those same energies. Additionally, there is an interpretation of existing measurements and descriptions of electron-ion recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon as limiting cases of a more general liquid xenon recombination fluctuation model. Measurements of the standard deviation of these fluctuations at monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks exhibit a linear dependence on the number of ions for energy deposits up to 661.7 keV, consistent with previous LUX measurements between 2 and 16 keV with 3H. We highlight similarities in liquid xenon recombination for electronic and nuclear recoils with a comparison of recombination fluctuations measured with low-energy calibration data.

  15. High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-04-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron light sources in combination with x-ray focusing devices such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors make Laue diffraction on a submicron length scale possible. Analysis of Laue images enables us to determine the deviatoric part of the 3D strain tensor to an accuracy of 2×10-4 in strain with a spatial resolution comparable to the grain size in our thin films. In this paper the application of x-ray microdiffraction to the temperature dependence of the mechanical behavior of a sputtered blanket Cu film and of electroplated damascene Cu lines will be presented. Microdiffraction reveals very large variations in the strain of a film or line from grain to grain. When the strain is averaged over a macroscopic region the results are in good agreement with direct macroscopic stress measurements. However, the strain variations are so large that in some cases in which the average stress is tensile there are some grains actually under compression. The full implications of these observations are still being considered, but it is clear that the mechanical properties of thin film materials are now accessible with new visibility.

  16. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  17. High energy neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjon, R.; Breynat, G.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a generator of fast neutrons only slightly contaminated by neutrons of energy less than 15 MeV, comprising a source of charged particles of energy equal to at least 15 MeV, a target made of lithium deuteride, and means for cooling the target. The target comprises at least two elements placed in series in the path of the charged particles and separated from each other, the thickness of each of the elements being selected as a function of the average energy of the charged particles emitted from the source and the energy of the fast neutrons to be generated such that neutrons of energy equal to at least 15 MeV are emitted in the forward direction in response to the bombardment of the target from behind by the charged particles. The target cooling means comprises means for circulating between and around the elements a gas which does not chemically react with lithium deuteride

  18. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  19. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  20. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  1. Influence of the interaction volume on the kinetic energy resolution of a velocity map imaging spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Feng Zheng-Peng; Luo Si-Qiang; Wang Zhe

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the interaction volume on the energy resolution of a velocity map imaging spectrometer. The simulation results show that the axial interaction size has a significant influence on the resolution. This influence is increased for a higher kinetic energy. We further show that the radial interaction size has a minor influence on the energy resolution for the electron or ion with medium energy, but it is crucial for the resolution of the electron or ion with low kinetic energy. By tracing the flight trajectories we show how the electron or ion energy resolution is influenced by the interaction size. (paper)

  2. The Dynamic Range of Ultra-High Resolution Cryogenic Gamma-ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S; Terracol, S F; Drury, O B; Friedrich, S

    2005-01-01

    We are developing high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma-ray detectors are composed of a bulk superconducting Sn foil absorber attached to multilayer Mo/Cu transition-edge sensors (TES). The energy resolution achieved with a 1 x 1 x 0.25 mm 3 Sn absorber is 50 -90eV for γ-rays up to 100 keV and it decreases for large absorber sizes. We discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and dynamic range, as well as development of TES arrays for higher count rates and better sensitivity

  3. The dynamic range of ultra-high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Shafinaz [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Terracol, Stephane F. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Drury, Owen B. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Friedrich, Stephan [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov

    2006-04-15

    We are developing high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma-ray detectors are composed of a bulk superconducting Sn foil absorber attached to a multilayer Mo/Cu transition-edge sensor (TES). The energy resolution of a detector with a 1x1x0.25 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber is 50-90 eV FWHM for {gamma}-rays up to 100 keV, and it decreases for larger absorbers. Here, we present the detector performance for different absorber volumes, and discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and dynamic range.

  4. High-resolution MRI in detecting subareolar breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peifen; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Okamoto, Kyoko; Nakajima, Yasuo; Fukuda, Mamoru; Maeda, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    Because subareolar breast abscess has a high recurrence rate, a more effective imaging technique is needed to comprehensively visualize the lesions and guide surgery. We performed a high-resolution MRI technique using a microscopy coil to reveal the characteristics and extent of subareolar breast abscess. High-resolution MRI has potential diagnostic value in subareolar breast abscess. This technique can be used to guide surgery with the aim of reducing the recurrence rate.

  5. Synthesis and electroplating of high resolution insulated carbon nanotube scanning probes for imaging in liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N A; Noh, J H; Lassiter, M G; Guo, S; Kalinin, S V; Rack, P D

    2012-04-13

    High resolution and isolated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is in demand for continued development of energy storage and conversion systems involving chemical reactions at the nanoscale as well as an improved understanding of biological systems. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have large aspect ratios and, if leveraged properly, can be used to develop high resolution SPM probes. Isolation of SPM probes can be achieved by depositing a dielectric film and selectively etching at the apex of the probe. In this paper the fabrication of a high resolution and isolated SPM tip is demonstrated using electron beam induced etching of a dielectric film deposited onto an SPM tip with an attached CNT at the apex.

  6. Study on the performance of large area MRPC with high position resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Wu Yucheng; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China)

    2012-01-01

    Multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), which is mostly developed in high energy physics domain with excellent time resolution, is also highlighted in imaging applications. A set of 50 cm Multiplication-Sign 50 cm large area MRPC with high position resolution was successfully developed by our group and different experiments have been done to test its performances. Cosmic ray muons were used to do the test and proper high voltage and working gas were chosen. Data analysis indicates its good detection efficiency and good position resolution, which encourages further study of its application in RPC-PET and muon tomography.

  7. High-resolution EELS investigation of the electronic structure of ilmenites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radtke, G.; Lazar, S.; Botton, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    The electronic structure of a series of compounds belonging to the ilmenite family is investigated using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) of the O-K, Ti-L23 and transition metal L23 edges have been recorded in MnTiO3, FeTiO3,

  8. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  9. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions

  10. Renewable Energy Riding High

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is putting greater emphasis on green energy as it tries to clean up industry and meet target for cuts in carbon emissions over the past two years, China has already leapfrogged competitors from Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United States to become the world's largest maker of wind turbines and solar panels. At the same time, the country is also taking steps to build more nuclear reactors and energy-efficient coal power plants.

  11. Dynamics of High-Resolution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran

    the unprecedented amounts of information collected by mobile phones to gain detailed insight into the dynamics of social systems. This dissertation presents an unparalleled data collection campaign, collecting highly detailed traces for approximately 1000 people over the course of multiple years. The availability...... are we all affected by an ever changing network structure? Answering these questions will enrich our understanding of ourselves, our organizations, and our societies. Yet, mapping the dynamics of social networks has traditionally been an arduous undertaking. Today, however, it is possible to use...... of such dynamic maps allows us to probe the underlying social network and understand how individuals interact and form lasting friendships. More importantly, these highly detailed dynamic maps provide us new perspectives at traditional problems and allow us to quantify and predict human life....

  12. A Forward-Looking High-Resolution GPR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kositsky, Joel; Milanfar, Peyman

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) system was designed to help define the optimal radar parameters needed for the efficient standoff detection of buried and surface-laid antitank mines...

  13. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  14. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climate model in recent years ... surface initialization using a regional climate model. ...... ization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Clim. Appl.

  15. High spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    brief overview of some highlights of high spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN is given, mainly obtained with the RGS of XMM-Newton. Future prospects for such observations with XMM-Newton are given.

  16. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  17. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  18. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  19. A temperature-compensated high spatial resolution distributed strain sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belal, Mohammad; Cho, Yuh Tat; Ibsen, Morten; Newson, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme which utilizes the temperature dependence of spontaneous Raman scattering to provide temperature compensation for a high spatial resolution Brillouin frequency-based strain sensor

  20. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  1. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  2. Scene Classification Using High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Jamada

    2002-01-01

    ...), High-spatial resolution (8-meter), 4-color MSI data from IKONOS provide a new tool for scene classification, The utility of these data are studied for the purpose of classifying the Elkhorn Slough and surrounding wetlands in central...

  3. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  4. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  5. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri; Gholamreza Hamsi; Tayeb Ramim

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM) of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed...

  6. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  7. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  8. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  9. BROOKHAVEN: High energy gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1992-01-01

    On April 24, Brookhaven's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) started to deliver gold ions at 11.4 GeV per nucleon (2,000 GeV per ion) to experimenters who were delighted not only to receive the world's highest energy gold beam but also to receive it on schedule

  10. High resolution multi-scalar drought indices for Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has been recurrently affected by drought episodes and by adverse associated effects (Gouveia et al., 2009), ranging from severe water shortages to losses of hydroelectricity production, increasing risk of forest fires, forest decline and triggering processes of land degradation and desertification. Moreover, Iberia corresponds to one of the most sensitive areas to current and future climate change and is nowadays considered a hot spot of climate change with high probability for the increase of extreme events (Giorgi and Lionello, 2008). The spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales was analyzed using spatially distributed time series of multi-scalar drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This new climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature fields with the advantage of combining a multi-scalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. Moreover, reanalysis data and the higher resolution hindcasted databases obtained from them are valuable surrogates of the sparse observations and widely used for in-depth characterizations of the present-day climate. Accordingly, this work aims to enhance the knowledge on high resolution drought patterns in Iberian Peninsula, taking advantage of high-resolution (10km) regional MM5 simulations of the recent past (1959-2007) over Iberia. It should be stressed that these high resolution meteorological fields (e.g. temperature, precipitation) have been validated for various purposes (Jerez et al., 2013). A detailed characterization of droughts since the 1960s using the 10 km resolution hidncasted simulation was performed with the aim to explore the conditions favoring drought onset, duration and ending, as well as the subsequent short, medium and long-term impacts affecting the environment and the

  11. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  12. High resolution computed tomography of auditory ossicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, M.; Murata, K.; Ohta, F.; Yoshida, A.; Ishida, O.; Kinki Univ., Osaka

    1990-01-01

    Auditory ossicular sections were scanned at section thicknesses (mm)/section interspaces (mm) of 1.5/1.5 (61 patients), 1.0/1.0 (13 patients) or 1.5/1.0 (33 patients). At any type of section thickness/interspace, the malleal and incudal structures were observed with almost equal frequency. The region of the incudostapedial joint and each component part of the stapes were shown more frequently at a section interspace of 1.0 mm than at 1.5 mm. The visualization frequency of each auditory ossicular component on two or more serial sections was investigated. At a section thickness/section interspace of 1.5/1.5, the visualization rates were low except for large components such as the head of the malleus and the body of the incus, but at a slice interspace of 1.0 mm, they were high for most components of the auditory ossicles. (orig.)

  13. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-01-01

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit Δ-Σ ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent

  14. Application of nanotechnologies in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelucci, R.; Corticelli, F.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G.M.; Malferraxi, L.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Rizzoli, R.; Summonte, C.

    2003-01-01

    In the past, the progressive reduction of electronics integration scale has allowed high energy physics experiments to build particle detectors with a high number of sensitive channels and high spatial granularity, down to the micron scale. Nowadays, the increasing effort towards nanoelectronics and progresses in various fields of nanotechnologies, suggests that the time for nanodetectors is not far to come. As an example of possible application of nanotechnologies in HEP, we present results on fabrication of nanochannel matrices in anodic porous alumina as a template for preparing an array of carbon nanotubes, which we believe can be a promising building block in developing particle detectors with high spatial resolution

  15. High flux and high resolution VUV beam line for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, H.; Boehmer, W.; Schwentner, N.

    1982-04-01

    A beam line has been optimized for high flux and high resolution in the wavelength range from 30 nm to 300 nm. Sample chambers for luminescence spectroscopy on gaseous, liquid and solid samples and for photoelectron spectroscopy have been integrated. The synchrotron radiation from the storage ring DORIS (at DESY, Hamburg) emitted into 50 mrad in horizontal and into 2.2 mrad in vertical direction is focused by a cylindrical and a plane elliptical mirror into the entrance slit of a 2m normal incidence monochromator. The light flux from the exit slit is focused by a rotational elliptic mirror onto the sample yielding a size of the light spot of 4 x 0.15 mm 2 . The light flux at the sample reaches 7 x 10 12 photons nm -1 s -1 at 8 eV photon energy for a current of 100 mA in DORIS. A resolution of 0.007 nm has been obtained. (orig.)

  16. CeBr3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Paul; Reed, Michael; Yuan Ding; Reed, Alexis; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2009-01-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr 3 ) has become a material of interest in the race for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at room temperature. This investigation quantified the potential of CeBr 3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector. The performance of CeBr 3 crystals was compared to other scintillation crystals of similar dimensions and detection environments. Comparison of self-activity of CeBr 3 to cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr 3 :Ce) was performed. Energy resolution and relative intrinsic efficiency were measured and are presented.

  17. Recipe for attaining optimal energy resolution in inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai; Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-12-15

    Using an approximate form of the density of excitation created within the track initiated by an incident {gamma} - photon on a scintillator, the light yield is derived as a function of linear, bimolecular and Auger radiative and quenching recombination rates. The non-proportionality in the yield is analysed as a function of the bimolecular and Auger quenching rates and also its dependence on the track radius is studied. An optimal combination of these quenching rates and track radius is presented to obtain a recipe for inventing a scintillator material with optimal energy resolution. The importance of the mobility of charge carriers in minimising the non-proportionality in a scintillator is also discussed (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Recipe for attaining optimal energy resolution in inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai; Koblov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Using an approximate form of the density of excitation created within the track initiated by an incident γ - photon on a scintillator, the light yield is derived as a function of linear, bimolecular and Auger radiative and quenching recombination rates. The non-proportionality in the yield is analysed as a function of the bimolecular and Auger quenching rates and also its dependence on the track radius is studied. An optimal combination of these quenching rates and track radius is presented to obtain a recipe for inventing a scintillator material with optimal energy resolution. The importance of the mobility of charge carriers in minimising the non-proportionality in a scintillator is also discussed (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. High resolution fast neutron spectrometry without time-of-flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.E.; Brandenberger, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Performance tests of a spectrometer tube of the type developed by Cuttler and Shalev show that the measurement of fast neutron spectra with this device can be made with an energy resolution previously obtainable only in large time-of-flight facilities. In preliminary tests, resolutions of 16.4 keV for thermal neutrons and 30.9 keV for 1-MeV neutrons were obtained. A broad-window pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) system is used to remove from pulse-height distributions most of the continua due to 3 He-recoil events, noise, and wall effect. Use of PSD improved the energy resolution to 12.9 keV for thermal neutrons and 29.2 keV for 1-MeV neutrons. The detector is a viable tool for neutron research at nominally equipped accelerator laboratories

  20. High resolution charmonium spectroscopy with antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultimate goal of all physics is to understand the elementary interactions and their manifestations in nature. Remarkable success has been achieved in the understanding of the electromagnetic and weak interactions. However, similar success has eluded the understanding of the strong interactions. Quantum ChromoDynamics, QCD, is the attempt to construct an elementary theory of strong interactions patterned after the highly successful electroweak theory [1]. In this paper, it is claimed that QCD is the theory of strong interactions, and that: hadrons are color singlets made of quarks and antiquarks, each of three colors and (so far) three generations. (u.d), (s.c) and (b.t) and six flavors; the short range WCD interaction is correctly patterned after QED as that due to one-gluon exchange and therefore proportional to 1/r; the additional unique feature of QCD is confinement. It is well approximated by a linear confining potential proportional r. The fact of the matter is that none of the above assertions can be proved. They have to be checked against experimental observations

  1. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  2. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  3. Simulation study for high resolution alpha particle spectrometry with mesh type collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seunghoon; Kwak, Sungwoo; Kang, Hanbyeol; Shin, Jungki; Park, Iljin

    2014-01-01

    An alpha particle spectrometry with a mesh type collimator plays a crucial role in identifying specific radionuclide in a radioactive source collected from the atmosphere or environment. The energy resolution is degraded without collimation because particles with a high angle have a longer path to travel in the air. Therefore, collision with the background increases. The collimator can cut out particles which traveling at a high angle. As a result, an energy distribution with high resolution can be obtained. Therefore, the mesh type collimator is simulated for high resolution alpha particle spectrometry. In conclusion, the collimator can improve resolution. With collimator, the collimator is a role of cutting out particles with a high angle, so, low energy tail and broadened energy distribution can be reduced. The mesh diameter is found out as an important factor to control resolution and counting efficiency. Therefore, a target particle, for example, 235 U, can be distinguished by a detector with a collimator under a mixture of various nuclides, for example: 232 U, 238 U, and 232 Th

  4. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu; Mjøs, Svein Are; David, Fabrice P.A.; Schmid, Adrien W.

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  5. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Mjøs, Svein Are, E-mail: svein.mjos@kj.uib.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); David, Fabrice P.A. [Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core Facility, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schmid, Adrien W. [Proteomics Core Facility, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  6. A multi-channel high-resolution time recorder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Xiaojun; Song Kezhu; Wang Yanfang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-channel and high-speed time recorder system, which was originally designed to work in the experiments of quantum cryptography research. The novelty of the system is that all the hardware logic is performed by only one FPGA. The system can achieve several desirable features, such as simplicity, high resolution and high processing speed. (authors)

  7. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  8. A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Zappettini, A.

    2014-01-01

    At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using...

  9. Resolution enhancement of low-quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Q.; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Schutte, Klamer

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of corresponding LR-HR pairs of image patches from the HR still image, high-frequency details are transferred from the HR source to the LR video. The DCT-domain algorithm is much faster than example-based SR in spatial domain 6 because of a reduction in search dimensionality, which is a direct result of the compact and uncorrelated DCT representation. Fast searching techniques like tree-structure vector quantization 16 and coherence search1 are also key to the improved efficiency. Preliminary results on MJPEG sequence show promising result of the DCT-domain SR synthesis approach.

  10. New detector developments for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.; Lorenz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The strength of quantitative, functional imaging using positron emission tomography, specially in small animals, is limited due to the spatial resolution. Therefore, various tomograph designs employing new scintillators, light sensors, or coincidence electronic are investigated to improve resolution without losses in sensitivity. Luminous scintillators with short light decay time in combination with novel readout schemes using photomultipliers or semiconductor detectors are currently tested by several groups and are implemented in tomographs for small animals. This review summarises the state of development in high resolution positron emission tomography with a detailed description of a system incorporating avalanche photodiode arrays and small scintillation crystals. (orig.) [de

  11. High resolution resistivity measurements at the Down Ampney research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Jackson, P.D.; Rainsbury, M.; Raines, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new high resolution resistivity surveying method is described for fault detection and characterisation. The resolution is shown to be significantly higher than conventional apparent resistivity profiling when applied to geological discontinuities such as faults. Nominal fault locations have been determined to an accuracy of 0.5 m, as proven by drilling. Two dimensional profiling and image enhancement of the resulting 2-D data set indicated the possibility of subsidiary fractures and/or lateral changes within the clay to clay' fault zone. The increased resolution allows greater confidence to be placed on both the fault detection and lateral perturbations derived from processed resistance and resistivity images. (Author)

  12. High Energy Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Propellants used in rockets, pyrotechnics used in festivities, explosives used for .... In World War II, Wernher von Braun designed the. V-2 rockets which were ... A. Solid Propellants. A solid propellant is made from low or diluted high explosives.

  13. Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility high-resolution-spectrometer dipole magnets: a summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.; Madland, D.G.; Rolfe, R.; Smith, W.E.; Spencer, J.E.; Tanaka, N.; Thiessen, H.A.; Varghese, P.; Wilkerson, L.C.

    1982-12-01

    This report explains the design, fabrication, measurement, optimization, and installation of two 122 metric ton electromagnets for the High Resolution Proton Spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. These two magnets are the principal components of the proton spectrometer, which has an energy resolution of less than or equal to 10 - 4 FWHM. Many technical problems occurred during fabrication, measurement, and optimization, and the majority have been successfully solved. We hope that this report will help others planning similar projects

  14. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  15. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  16. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  17. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A; Angelis, Georgios I; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C; Reader, Andrew J; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-01

    Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The

  18. Two high-frequency mutual inductance bridges with high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Kreuwel, H.J.M.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two mutual inductance bridges are described for operation up to about 100 kHz. Special attention is paid to the sensitivity and resolution of the bridges. Both bridges can be used to measure variations of about 10 pH in the mutual inductance. The first bridge consists of passive elements only

  19. High-resolution seismic reflection study, Vacherie Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection study, consisting of recording, processing, and interpreting four seismic reflection lines, was made at Vacherie Dome, Louisiana. The presumed shape of the dome, as pictured in the geologic area characterization report by Law Engineering Testing Company in 1982, was based largely on interpretation of gravity data, constrained by a few wells and exploration-type seismic profiles. The purpose of the study was to obtain refined profiles of the dome above -914 m (-3000 ft) elevation. Additional study had been recommended by Louisiana State University in 1967 and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation in 1981 because the interpreted size of Vacherie Dome was based on limited seismic and gravity data. Forty-eight traces of seismic data were recorded each time shots were made to generate energy. Twelve-fold, common-depth-point data were obtained using geophone stations spaced at 15-m (50-ft) intervals with shots at 30-m (100-ft) intervals. The time-sampling interval used was 1 ms. Processing intended to enhance resolution included iterative static corrections, deconvolution before stacking, and both time- and depth-migration. The locations of the steep dome sides were inferred primarily from terminations of strong reflections (migrated) from strata near the top of the upper and lower Cretaceous sections. This interpretation agrees closely with the presumed shape from the top of the dome to about -610 m (-2000 ft) elevation, but below this on three of the profiles, this interpretation indicates a steeper salt face than the presumed shape. The area reduction at -914 m (-3000 ft) elevation is estimated to be on the order of 20 percent. 10 references, 11 figures, 4 tables

  20. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Ye Weiguo; Han Hui; Li Pengyu

    2003-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronic is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)