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Sample records for high electron emission

  1. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, G.; Ferron, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He + , Ne + and Ar + ) and Li + ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  2. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: gdruano@ceride.gov.ar; Ferron, J. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +} and Ar{sup +}) and Li{sup +} ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  3. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  4. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Gibson, Mark A.; East, Daniel; Simon, George P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  5. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gibson, Mark A. [Process Science and Engineering, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia); East, Daniel; Simon, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2011-11-07

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  6. Research of the Electron Cyclotron Emission with Vortex Property excited by high power high frequency Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuki; Kubo, Shin; Tsujimura, Tohru; Takubo, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the radiation from a single electron in cyclotron motion has vortex property. Although the cyclotron emission exists universally in nature, the vortex property has not been featured because this property is normally cancelled out due to the randomness in gyro-phase of electrons and the development of detection of the vortex property has not been well motivated. In this research, we are developing a method to generate the vortex radiation from electrons in cyclotron motion with controlled gyro-phase. Electron that rotates around the uniform static magnetic field is accelerated by right-hand circular polarized (RHCP) radiation resonantly when the cyclotron frequency coincides with the applied RHCP radiation frequency. A large number of electrons can be coherently accelerated in gyro-phase by a RHCP high power radiation so that these electrons can radiate coherent emission with vortex feature. We will show that vortex radiation created by purely rotating electrons for the first time.

  7. High power microwave emission and diagnostics of microsecond electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilgenbach, R; Hochman, J M; Jayness, R; Rintamaki, J I; Lau, Y Y; Luginsland, J; Lash, J S [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Intense Electron Beam Interaction Lab.; Spencer, T A [Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Experiments were performed to generate high power, long-pulse microwaves by the gyrotron mechanism in rectangular cross-section interaction cavities. Long-pulse electron beams are generated by MELBA (Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator), which operates with parameters: -0.8 MV, 1-10 kA, and 0.5-1 microsecond pulse length. Microwave power levels are in the megawatt range. Polarization control is being studied by adjustment of the solenoidal magnetic field. Initial results show polarization power ratios up to a factor of 15. Electron beam dynamics (V{sub perp}/V{sub par}) are being measured by radiation darkening on glass plates. Computer modeling utilizes the MAGIC Code for electromagnetic waves and a single electron orbit code that includes a distribution of angles. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Tunneling emission of electrons from semiconductors' valence bands in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalganov, V. D.; Mileshkina, N. V.; Ostroumova, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    Tunneling emission currents of electrons from semiconductors to vacuum (needle-shaped GaAs photodetectors) and to a metal (silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes with a tunneling-transparent insulator layer) are studied in high and ultrahigh electric fields. It is shown that, in semiconductors with the n-type conductivity, the major contribution to the emission current is made by the tunneling emission of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor, rather than from the conduction band

  9. Non-equilibrium thermionic electron emission for metals at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Tierno, S. P.; Conde, L.

    2015-08-01

    Stationary thermionic electron emission currents from heated metals are compared against an analytical expression derived using a non-equilibrium quantum kappa energy distribution for the electrons. The latter depends on the temperature decreasing parameter κ ( T ) , which decreases with increasing temperature and can be estimated from raw experimental data and characterizes the departure of the electron energy spectrum from equilibrium Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculations accurately predict the measured thermionic emission currents for both high and moderate temperature ranges. The Richardson-Dushman law governs electron emission for large values of kappa or equivalently, moderate metal temperatures. The high energy tail in the electron energy distribution function that develops at higher temperatures or lower kappa values increases the emission currents well over the predictions of the classical expression. This also permits the quantitative estimation of the departure of the metal electrons from the equilibrium Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  10. Highly solvatochromic emission of electron donor-acceptor compounds containing propanedioato boron electron acceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Bakker, N.A.C.; Wiering, P.G.; Verhoeven, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Light-induced electron transfer occurs in bifunctional compounds consisting of 1,3-diphenylpropanedioato boron oxalate or fluoride electron acceptors and simple aromatic electron-donor groups, linked by a methylene bridge; fluorescence from the highly polar charge-transfer excited state is

  11. Optical emission from a high-refractive-index waveguide excited by a traveling electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwamura, Yuji; Yamada, Minoru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Kanai, Takeshi; Fares, Hesham

    2008-01-01

    An optical emission scheme was demonstrated, in which a high-refractive-index waveguide is excited by a traveling electron beam in a vacuum environment. The waveguide was made of Si-SiO 2 layers. The velocity of light propagating in the waveguide was slowed down to 1/3 of that in free space due to the high refractive index of Si. The light penetrated partly into the vacuum in the form of a surface wave. The electron beam was emitted from an electron gun and propagated along the surface of the waveguide. When the velocity of the electron coincided with that of the light, optical emission was observed. This emission is a type of Cherenkov radiation and is not conventional cathode luminescence from the waveguide materials because Si and SiO 2 are transparent to light at the emitted wavelength. This type of emission was observed in an optical wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 μm with an electron acceleration voltage of 32-42 kV. The characteristics of the emitted light, such as the polarization direction and the relation between the acceleration voltage of the electron beam and the optical wavelength, coincided well with the theoretical results. The coherent length of an electron wave in the vacuum was confirmed to be equal to the electron spacing, as found by measuring the spectral profile of the emitted light

  12. Proposal to detect an emission of unusual super-high energy electrons in electron storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-peng Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an extended Lorentz–Einstein mass formula taken into the uncertainty principle, it is predicted that the electron beams passing accelerating electric field should with a small probability generate abnormal super-high energy electrons which are much higher than the beam energy. Author’s preliminary experiment result at electron storage ring has hinted these signs, so suggests to more strictly detect this unusual phenomenon, and thus to test the extended mass formula as well as a more perfect special relativity.

  13. HIGH-CURRENT COLD CATHODE FIELD EMISSION ARRAY FOR ELECTRON LENS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-12-28

    During Phase I, the following goals were achieved: (1) design and fabrication of a novel, nano-dimensional CNT field emitter assembly for high current density application, with high durability; (2) fabrication of a ceramic based micro channel plate (MCP) and characterization of its secondary electron emission; and (3) characterizing the CNT/MCP cathode for high field emission and durability. As a result of these achievements, a relatively high current density of ~ 1.2 A/cm2 from a CNT cathode and single channel MCP were measured. The emission current was also extremely stable with a peak-to-peak variation of only 1.8%. The emission current could be further enhanced to meet requirements for electron lens applications by increasing the number of MCP channels. A calculation for maximum possible current density with a 1200 channel/cm2 MCP, placed over a cathode with 1200 uniformly functioning CNTs, would be ~1.46 kA/cm2, neglecting space charge limitations. Clearly this level of emission is far greater than what is needed for the electron lens application, but it does offer a highly comforting margin to account for sub-standard emitters and/or to allow the lesser challenge of building a cathode with fewer channels/cm2. A satisfactory goal for the electron lens application would be a controllable emission of 2-4 mA per channel in an ensemble of 800-1200 uniformly-functioning channels/cm2, and a cathode with overall area of about 1 cm2.

  14. Anticorrelated Emission of High Harmonics and Fast Electron Beams From Plasma Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocoum, Maïmouna; Thévenet, Maxence; Böhle, Frederik; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Vernier, Aline; Jullien, Aurélie; Faure, Jérôme; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo

    2016-05-06

    We report for the first time on the anticorrelated emission of high-order harmonics and energetic electron beams from a solid-density plasma with a sharp vacuum interface-plasma mirror-driven by an intense ultrashort laser pulse. We highlight the key role played by the nanoscale structure of the plasma surface during the interaction by measuring the spatial and spectral properties of harmonics and electron beams emitted by a plasma mirror. We show that the nanoscale behavior of the plasma mirror can be controlled by tuning the scale length of the electron density gradient, which is measured in situ using spatial-domain interferometry.

  15. Subnanosecond breakdown development in high-voltage pulse discharge: Effect of secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. L.; Schweigert, I. V.; Zakrevskiy, Dm. E.; Bokhan, P. A.; Gugin, P.; Lavrukhin, M.

    2017-10-01

    A subnanosecond breakdown in high-voltage pulse discharge may be a key tool for superfast commutation of high power devices. The breakdown in high-voltage open discharge at mid-high pressure in helium was studied in experiment and in kinetic simulations. The kinetic model of electron avalanche development was constructed, based on PIC-MCC simulations, including dynamics of electrons, ions and fast helium atoms, produced by ions scattering. Special attention was paid to electron emission processes from cathode, such as: photoemission by Doppler-shifted resonant photons, produced in excitation processes involving fast atoms; electron emission by ions and fast atoms bombardment of cathode; the secondary electron emission (SEE) by hot electrons from bulk plasma. The simulations show that the fast atoms accumulation is the main reason of emission growth at the early stage of breakdown, but at the final stage, when the voltage on plasma gap diminishes, namely the SEE is responsible for subnanosecond rate of current growth. It was shown that the characteristic time of the current growth can be controlled by the SEE yield. The influence of SEE yield for three types of cathode material (titanium, SiC, and CuAlMg-alloy) was tested. By changing the pulse voltage amplitude and gas pressure, the area of existence of subnanosecond breakdown is identified. It is shown that in discharge with SiC and CuAlMg-alloy cathodes (which have enhanced SEE) the current can increase with a subnanosecond characteristic time value as small as τs = 0.4 ns, for the pulse voltage amplitude of 5÷12 kV. An increase of gas pressure from 15 Torr to 30 Torr essentially decreases the time of of current front growth, whereas the pulse voltage variation weakly affects the results.

  16. Analysis of electron cyclotron emission spectra of high electron temperature, supershot plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Arunasalam, V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Grek, B.

    1993-01-01

    A primary objective of the TFTR program since 1986 has been the study and optimization of deuterium Supershot plasmas. These plasmas are predominantly heated by 90-110 keV neutral deuterium beams (P NBI /P OH >30), central ion temperatures are ∝30 keV and central electron temperatures from ECE (T ECE ) often exceed 10 keV. Central electron temperature data measured with a TV Thomson scattering (TVTS) system (T TVTS ) during the period 1987-1990 have been compared with data from three different ECE instruments on TFTR. Although T ECE ∝T TVTS for temperatures below 6 keV, there is a systematically increasing disagreement at higher electron temperatures, with T ECE ∝1.2 T TVTS for T TVTS in the range 9-10 keV. Recent theoretical work on the ECE radiation temperature of non-equilibrium plasmas indicates that for a bi-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution with a ratio of tail to bulk electron density η, a bulk temperature T b , and a hot tail temperature T h , the perpendicular ECE radiation temperature is given by T ECE ∝T b {1+η(T h /T b )}, for η ECE would be enhanced over T TVTS by a factor which depends on η and T h . This paper investigates whether the discrepancy between T TVTS and T ECE seen in TFTR Supershots at high electron temperatures is due to the presence of a hot electron tail component. The extraordinary mode ECE spectrum at the second, third and fourth harmonics is measured on the horizontal midplane by an absolutely calibrated ECE Michelson interferometer. This ECE spectrum is compared with the output from a time-independent transport code with relativistic opacity which solves the three-dimensional ECE radiation transport in a toroidally symmetric, two-dimensional geometry and uses measured electron density and temperature profiles from the TVTS system. (orig.)

  17. Effect of secondary electron emission on subnanosecond breakdown in high-voltage pulse discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Alexandrov, A. L.; Gugin, P.; Lavrukhin, M.; Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevsky, Dm E.

    2017-11-01

    The subnanosecond breakdown in open discharge may be applied for producing superfast high power switches. Such fast breakdown in high-voltage pulse discharge in helium was explored both in experiment and in kinetic simulations. The kinetic model of electron avalanche development was developed using PIC-MCC technique. The model simulates motion of electrons, ions and fast helium atoms, appearing due to ions scattering. It was shown that the mechanism responsible for ultra-fast breakdown development is the electron emission from cathode. The photoemission and emission by ions or fast atoms impact is the main reason of current growth at the early stage of breakdown, but at the final stage, when the voltage on discharge gap drops, the secondary electron emission (SEE) is responsible for subnanosecond time scale of current growth. It was also found that the characteristic time of the current growth τS depends on the SEE yield of the cathode material. Three types of cathode material (titanium, SiC, and CuAlMg-alloy) were tested. It is shown that in discharge with SiC and CuAlMg-alloy cathodes (which have enhanced SEE) the current can increase with a subnanosecond characteristic time as small as τS = 0.4 ns, for the pulse voltage amplitude of 5- 12 kV..

  18. The Nanophysics of Electron Emission and Breakdown for High Power Microwave Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-21

    coaxial anode/collector. 3.1.2. Formation of  plasma  filaments during w‐band microwave breakdown  Regular, two-dimensional plasma ...Injection Gun ," IEEE Trans. Elec. Devices (May, 2005). 2. Booske, John H., “ Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-to-terahertz and...high power microwave (HPM) device technologies by establishing new physical understanding of electron emission/absorption and plasma breakdown

  19. Kinetic electron emission from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces induced by singly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Cernusca, S; Winter, H; Aumayr, F; Loerincik, J; Sroubek, Z

    2002-01-01

    We present total electron yields determined by current measurements for normal impact of H sup + , H sub 2 sup + , H sub 3 sup + , C sup + , N sup + and O sup + ions (E<=10 keV) on a clean highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. The kinetic energy of the projectiles has been varied from near threshold up to 10 keV. By comparing the results to similar data obtained for a polycrystalline Au surface the role of different target properties for kinetic electron emission can be analysed.

  20. Spectral evolution of soft x-ray emission from optically thin, high electron temperature platinum plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The soft x-ray spectra of heavy element plasmas are frequently dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA emission. We describe the spectral evolution of an intense UTA under optically thin conditions in platinum plasmas. The UTA was observed to have a peak wavelength around 4.6 nm at line-of-sight averaged electron temperatures less than 1.4 keV at electron densities of (2.5–7.5 × 1013 cm−3. The UTA spectral structure was due to emission from 4d–4f transitions in highly charged ions with average charge states of q = 20–40. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the observed spectral behavior.

  1. Extreme ultra-violet emission spectroscopy of highly charged gadolinium ions with an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hayato; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A

    2013-01-01

    We present extreme ultra-violet emission spectra of highly charged gadolinium ions obtained with an electron beam ion trap at electron energies of 0.53–1.51 keV. The electron energy dependence of the spectra in the 5.7–11.3 nm range is compared with calculation with the flexible atomic code. (paper)

  2. Thermal and nonthermal electron cyclotron emission by high-temperature tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, A.; Ramponi, G.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectra emitted by a high-temperature tokamak plasma in the frequency range of the second and third harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency is made, both in purely Maxwellian and in non-Maxwellian cases (i.e., in the presence of a current-carrying superthermal tail). The work is motivated mainly by the experimental observations made in the supershot plasmas of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), where a systematic disagreement is found between the T e measurements by second-harmonic ECE and Thomson scattering. We show that, by properly taking into account the overlap of superthermals-emitted third harmonic with second-harmonic bulk emission, the radiation temperature observed about the central frequency of the second harmonic may be enhanced up to 30%endash 40% compared to the corresponding thermal value. Moreover we show that, for parameters relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with T e (0)>7 keV, the overlap between the second and the downshifted third harmonic seriously affects the central plasma region, so that the X-mode emission at the second harmonic becomes unsuitable for local T e measurements. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Hard photon emission from high energy electrons and positrons in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Strakhovenko, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    A radiation of electrons and positrons in single crystals in coherent bremsstrahlung (CBS) region has been considered for the case when CBS has the most hard spectrum. Under this condition a particle moves near a crystalline plane (in fcc(d) crystal for axis (001) this is the plane (110)) and influence of the continuous plane potential should be taken into account. This potential gives additional contribution in soft part of the spectrum and affects on hard photon emission. Observation of this phenomena at high energy is discussed. 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  5. Study of a high power hydrogen beam diagnostic based on secondary electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Department of Management and Engineering, University di Padova strad. S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Panasenkov, A. [NRC, Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Serianni, G.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In high power neutral beams for fusion, beam uniformity is an important figure of merit. Knowing the transverse power profile is essential during the initial phases of beam source operation, such as those expected for the ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) test facility. To measure it a diagnostic technique is proposed, based on the collection of secondary electrons generated by beam-surface and beam-gas interactions, by an array of positively biased collectors placed behind the calorimeter tubes. This measurement showed in the IREK test stand good proportionality to the primary beam current. To investigate the diagnostic performances in different conditions, we developed a numerical model of secondary electron emission, induced by beam particle impact on the copper tubes, and reproducing the cascade of secondary emission caused by successive electron impacts. The model is first validated against IREK measurements. It is then applied to the HNB case, to assess the locality of the measurement, the proportionality to the beam current density, and the influence of beam plasma.

  6. Secondary electron emission from insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, K.; Ono, S.; Ishigaki, F.

    1978-01-01

    The high yield of secondary electron emission from insulators due to electron bombardment may be the result of an increase of the depth of escape. The free-electron scattering theory is applied to the high energy of primary beams, but cannot be applied to the low energy of secondary escaping beams because of the large energy gap of the insulators. The plasmon loss with the valence electron is considered when the secondary electrons escape. Based on the energy retardation power formula of the penetration and energy loss of an electron probe into solid targets, secondary electron emissions from insulators are calculated from the assumptions that the distribution of the secondary electrons due to both incident and back-scattered electrons within the target is isotropic and that it follows the absorption law of the Lenard type. The universal yield-energy curve of the secondary electron emission, which is deduced as a function of three parameters such as ionisation potential, valence electron and the back-scattered coefficient in addition to the free-electron density effect, is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  7. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D D; Austin, M E

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels' IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters' center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a "zoomed-in" analysis of a ∼2-4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  8. Very High Radiation Detector for the LHC BLM System Based on Secondary Electron Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Holzer, EB; Kramer, D

    2007-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system plays a vital role in the active protection of the LHC accelerators elements. It should provide the number of particles lost from the primary hadron beam by measuring the radiation field induced by their interaction with matter surrounding the beam pipe. The LHC BLM system will use ionization chambers as standard detectors but in the areas where very high dose rates are expected, the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) chambers will be employed because of their high linearity, low sensitivity and fast response. The SEM needs a high vacuum for proper operation and has to be functional for up to 20 years, therefore all the components were designed according to the UHV requirements and a getter pump was included. The SEM electrodes are made of Ti because of its Secondary Emission Yield (SEY) stability. The sensitivity of the SEM was modeled in Geant4 via the Photo-Absorption Ionization module together with custom parameterization of the very low energy secondary electron production...

  9. Differential multi-electron emission induced by swift highly charged gold ions penetrating carbon foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothard, H.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kollmus, H.; Mann, R.; Hagmann, S.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2007-05-01

    First results on swift heavy ion induced electron emission from solids obtained with a reaction microscope are presented. This advanced technique, which is successfully used since quite some time to study electron ejection in ion-atom collisions, combines the measurement of the time-of-flight of electrons with imaging techniques. A combination of electric and magnetic fields guides the ejected electrons onto a position sensitive detector, which is capable to accept multiple hits. From position and time-of-flight measurement the full differential emission characteristics of up to 10 electrons per single incoming ion can be extracted. As a first example, we show energy spectra, angular distributions and the multiplicity distribution of electrons from impact of Au24+ (11 MeV/u) on a thin carbon foil (28 μg/cm2).

  10. Differential multi-electron emission induced by swift highly charged gold ions penetrating carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothard, H.; Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kollmus, H.; Mann, R.; Hagmann, S.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    First results on swift heavy ion induced electron emission from solids obtained with a reaction microscope are presented. This advanced technique, which is successfully used since quite some time to study electron ejection in ion-atom collisions, combines the measurement of the time-of-flight of electrons with imaging techniques. A combination of electric and magnetic fields guides the ejected electrons onto a position sensitive detector, which is capable to accept multiple hits. From position and time-of-flight measurement the full differential emission characteristics of up to 10 electrons per single incoming ion can be extracted. As a first example, we show energy spectra, angular distributions and the multiplicity distribution of electrons from impact of Au 24+ (11 MeV/u) on a thin carbon foil (28 μg/cm 2 )

  11. Electron emission from pseudospark cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Gundersen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The pseudospark cathode has the remarkable property of macroscopically homogeneous electron emission at very high current density (>1 kA/cm 2 ) over a large area (some cm 2 ). The model of electron emission presented here is based on the assumption that the pseudospark microscopically utilizes explosive arc processes, as distinct from earlier models of ''anomalous emission in superdense glow discharges.'' Explosive emission similar to vacuum are cathode spots occurs rapidly when the field strength is sufficiently high. The plasma remains macroscopically homogeneous since the virtual plasma anode adapts to the cathode morphology so that the current is carried by a large number of homogeneously distributed cathode spots which are similar to ''type 1'' and ''type 2'' spots of vacuum arc discharges. The net cathode erosion is greatly reduced relative to ''spark gap-type'' emission. At very high current levels, a transition to highly erosive spot types occurs, and this ''arcing'' leads to a significant reduction in device lifetime. Assuming vacuum-arc-like cathode spots, the observed current density and time constants can be easily explained. The observed cathode erosion rate and pattern, recent fast-camera data, laser-induced fluorescence, and spectroscopic measurements support this approach. A new hypothesis is presented explaining current quenching at relatively low currents. From the point of view of electron emission, the ''superdense glow'' or ''superemissive phase'' of pseudosparks represents an arc and not a glow discharge even if no filamentation or ''arcing'' is observed

  12. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, D. D., E-mail: dtruong@wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ∼2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  13. Electron-emission processes in highly charged Ar and Xe ions impinging on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite at energies just above the kinetic threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-01-01

    At keV energies, many electronic processes contribute to the emission of secondary electrons in the interaction of highly charged ions on surfaces. To unravel contributions resulting from isolated hollow atoms in front of the surface or embedded in the electron gas of the target, heavy highly

  14. High-stable secondary-emission monitor for accelerated electron beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, I.A.; Saksaganskij, G.L.; Bazhanov, E.B.; Zabrodin, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A secondary-emission monitor for a 10 to 30 MeV electron beam (beam current is 10 -4 to 10 -2 A) is described. The monitor comprises a measuring electrode unit, titanium discharge-type pump, getter made of porous titanium, all enclosed in a metal casing. The measuring unit comprises three electrodes made of 20 μm aluminium foil. The secondary emission coefficient (5.19%+-0.06% for the electron energy of 20 MeV) is maintained stable for a long time. The monitor detects pulses of up to some nanoseconds duration. It is reliable in operation, and is recommended for a wide practical application

  15. Influence of high-energy electron irradiation on field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Sandip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Koinkar, Pankaj M. [Center for International Cooperation in Engineering Education (CICEE), University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima-Cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Dhole, Sanjay D. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.i [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Murakami, Ri-ichi, E-mail: murakami@me.tokushima-u.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima-Cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of very high energy electron beam irradiation on the field emission characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been investigated. The MWCNTs films deposited on silicon (Si) substrates were irradiated with 6 MeV electron beam at different fluence of 1x10{sup 15}, 2x10{sup 15} and 3x10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated films were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-Raman spectrometer. The SEM analysis clearly revealed a change in surface morphology of the films upon irradiation. The Raman spectra of the irradiated films show structural damage caused by the interaction of high-energy electrons. The field emission studies were carried out in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure of {approx}1x10{sup -8} mbar. The values of the threshold field, required to draw an emission current density of {approx}1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, are found to be {approx}0.52, 1.9, 1.3 and 0.8 V/{mu}m for untreated, irradiated with fluence of 1x10{sup 15}, 2x10{sup 15} and 3x10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated films exhibit better emission current stability as compared to the untreated film. The improved field emission properties of the irradiated films have been attributed to the structural damage as revealed from the Raman studies.

  16. Electronic excitation effects on secondary ion emission in highly charged ion-solid interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekioka, T.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Lehnert, U.; Fehrenbach, C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the secondary ion emission from the surface of conductive materials bombarded by highly charged heavy ions, we have done two types of experiments. First, we have measured the yield of the sputtered ions from the surface of solid targets of conductive materials (Al, Si, Ni, Cu) bombarded by Xe q+ (q=15-44) at 300 keV (v p =0.30 a.u) and at 1.0 MeV (v p =0.54 a.u). In view of the secondary ion yields as a function of the potential energy of the projectile, the increase rates below q=35, where the potential energy amounts to 25.5 keV, were rather moderate and showed a prominent increase above q=35. These phenomena were rather strong in the case of the metal targets. Second, we have measured the energy dependence of the yield of the sputtered ions from the surface of solid targets of conductive materials (C, Al) bombarded by Xe q+ (q=30,36,44) between 76 keV (v p =0.15 a.u) and 6.0 MeV (v p =1.3 a.u). A broad enhancement of the secondary ion yield has been found for Al target bombarded by Xe 44+ . From these experimental results, the electronic excitation effects in conductive materials for impact of slow highly charged heavy ions bearing high potential energy is discussed

  17. Study of nanometric thin pyrolytic carbon films for explosive electron emission cathode in high-voltage planar diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir; Belous, Nikolai; Gurinovich, Alexandra; Gurnevich, Evgeny [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kuzhir, Polina, E-mail: polina.kuzhir@gmail.com [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Prospekt, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Maksimenko, Sergey [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Prospekt, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Molchanov, Pavel; Shuba, Mikhail [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Roddatis, Vladimir [CIC energiGUNE, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava (Spain); Institut für Materialphysik of Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Kaplas, Tommi; Svirko, Yuri [Institute of Photonics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu FI-80101 (Finland)

    2015-04-30

    We report on an experimental study of explosive electron emission properties of cathode made by nanometric thin pyrolytic carbon (PyC) films (2–150 nm) deposited on Cu substrate via methane-based chemical vapor deposition. High current density at level of 300 A/cm{sup 2} in 5 · 10{sup −5} Pa vacuum has been observed together with very stable explosive emission from the planar cathode. The Raman spectroscopy investigation proves that the PyC films remain the same after seven shots. According to the optical image analysis of the cathode before and after one and seven shots, we conclude that the most unusual and interesting feature of using the PyC films/Cu cathode for explosive emission is that the PyC layer on the top of the copper target prevents its evaporation and oxidation, which leads to higher emission stability compared to conventional graphitic/Cu cathodes, and therefore results in longer working life. - Highlights: • Explosive electron emission from pyrolytic carbon (PyC) cathode is reported. • We observe high current density, 300 A/cm{sup 2}, and stable emission parameters. • PyC integrity ensures a high application potential for high current electronics.

  18. Temperature gradient scale length measurement: A high accuracy application of electron cyclotron emission without calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshmandyar, S., E-mail: houshmandyar@austin.utexas.edu; Phillips, P. E.; Rowan, W. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Yang, Z. J. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hubbard, A. E.; Rice, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Wolfe, S. M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02129 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Calibration is a crucial procedure in electron temperature (T{sub e}) inference from a typical electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic on tokamaks. Although the calibration provides an important multiplying factor for an individual ECE channel, the parameter ΔT{sub e}/T{sub e} is independent of any calibration. Since an ECE channel measures the cyclotron emission for a particular flux surface, a non-perturbing change in toroidal magnetic field changes the view of that channel. Hence the calibration-free parameter is a measure of T{sub e} gradient. B{sub T}-jog technique is presented here which employs the parameter and the raw ECE signals for direct measurement of electron temperature gradient scale length.

  19. Tailoring of structural and electron emission properties of CNT walls and graphene layers using high-energy irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Himani; Shukla, A K; Vankar, V D; Agarwal, Dinesh C; Avasthi, D K; Sharma, M

    2013-01-01

    Structural and electron emission properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and multilayer graphene (MLG) are tailored using high-energy irradiation by controlling the wall thickness and number of layers. Ion irradiation by 100 MeV Ag + ions at different fluences is used as an effective tool for optimizing defect formation in CNTs and MLGs, as analysed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the cross section for defect formation (η) is 3.5 × 10 −11 for thin-walled CNTs, 2.8 × 10 −11 for thick-walled CNTs and 3.1 × 10 −11 for MLGs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy results also show that thin-walled CNTs and MLGs are more defective in comparison with thick-walled CNTs. Carbon atoms rearrange at a fluence of 1 × 10 12 ions cm −2 in thick-walled CNTs to heal up the damage, which aggravates at higher fluences. The observed electron emission parameters of the modified thin-walled CNTs and MLGs are confirmed with the changes in the structures and are optimized at a fluence of 1 × 10 11 ions cm −2 . However, the electron emission properties of thick-walled CNTs are modified at a fluence of 1 × 10 12 ions cm −2 . The enhancement in the electron emission properties is due to the rearrangement of bonds and hence modified tips due to irradiation. (paper)

  20. High Efficient THz Emission From Unbiased and Biased Semiconductor Nanowires Fabricated Using Electron Beam Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Soner; Czaplewski, David A.; Jung, Il Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyung; Hatami, Fariba; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin Margaret

    2017-07-01

    Besides having perfect control on structural features, such as vertical alignment and uniform distribution by fabricating the wires via e-beam lithography and etching process, we also investigated the THz emission from these fabricated nanowires when they are applied DC bias voltage. To be able to apply a voltage bias, an interdigitated gold (Au) electrode was patterned on the high-quality InGaAs epilayer grown on InP substrate bymolecular beam epitaxy. Afterwards, perfect vertically aligned and uniformly distributed nanowires were fabricated in between the electrodes of this interdigitated pattern so that we could apply voltage bias to improve the THz emission. As a result, we achieved enhancement in the emitted THz radiation by ~four times, about 12 dB increase in power ratio at 0.25 THz with a DC biased electric field compared with unbiased NWs.

  1. Analysis of emissions from prebunched electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Qika

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of the prebunched electron beam, including the coherent spontaneous emission and the self-amplified stimulated emission, are analyzed by using one-dimensional FEL theory. Neglecting the interaction of the electrons and the radiation field, the formula of the coherent spontaneous emission is given, the power of which is proportional to the square of the initial bunching factor and of the undulator length. For the general emission case of the prebunched electron beam, the evolution equation of the optical field is deducted. Then the analytical expression of the emission power is obtained for the resonant case; it is applicable to the regions from the low gain to the high gain. It is found that when the undulator length is shorter than four gain lengths, the emission is just the coherent spontaneous emission, and conversely, it is the self-amplified stimulated emission growing exponentially. For the nonresonant prebunched electron beam, the variations of the emission intensity with the detuning parameter for different interaction length are presented. The radiation field characters of the prebunched electron beam are discussed and compared with that of the seeded FEL amplifier.

  2. Electron Emission from Ultra-Large Area MOS Electron Emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2009-01-01

    Ultralarge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with an active oxide area of 1 cm2 have been fabricated for use as electron emitters. The MOS structures consist of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier (~5 nm), a Ti wetting layer (3–10 Å), and a Au top layer (5–60 nm). Electron emission from...... layer is varied from 3 to 10 Å which changes the emission efficiency by more than one order of magnitude. The apparent mean free path of ~5 eV electrons in Au is found to be 52 Å. Deposition of Cs on the Au film increased the electron emission efficiency to 4.3% at 4 V by lowering the work function....... Electron emission under high pressures (up to 2 bars) of Ar was observed. ©2009 American Vacuum Society...

  3. Distorted wave models applied to electron emission study in ion-atom collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainstein, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The electron emission from different atoms induced by impact of multicharged bare ions at intermediate and high energies is studied. To perform these studies, the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model is used. With this distorted wave model, analytical expressions are obtained for the transition amplitudes as a function of the transverse momentum transfer for hydrogen targets in an arbitrary initial state and for every any orbital of a multielectronic target represented as a linear combination of Slater type orbitals. With these expressions, the different cross sections which are compared with the experimental data available are numerically calculated. The results obtained for different targets and projectiles and the comparison with other theoretical models and experimental data allows to explain the electron emission spectra and to predict new effects which have not been measured so far. The results of the present work permit to view the ionization process as the evolution of the active electron in the combined field of the target and projectile nuclei. (Author) [es

  4. Criterion of transverse coherence of self-amplified spontaneous emission in high gain free electron laser amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, M.; Kim, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    In a high gain free electron laser amplifier based on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) the spontaneous radiation generated by an electron beam near the undulator entrance is amplified many orders of magnitude along the undulator. The transverse coherence properties of the amplified radiation depends on both the amplification process and the coherence of the seed radiation (the undulator radiation generated in the first gain length or so). The evolution of the transverse coherence in the amplification process is studied based on the solution of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations including higher order transverse modes. The coherence of the seed radiation is determined by the number of coherent modes in the phase space area of the undulator radiation. We discuss the criterion of transverse coherence and identify governing parameters over a broad range of parameters. In particular we re-examine the well known emittance criterion for the undulator radiation, which states that full transverse coherence is guaranteed if the rms emittance is smaller than the wavelength divided by 4π. It is found that this criterion is modified for SASE because of the different optimization conditions required for the electron beam. Our analysis is a generalization of the previous study by Yu and Krinsky for the case of vanishing emittance with parallel electron beam. Understanding the transverse coherence of SASE is important for the X-ray free electron laser projects now under consideration at SLAC and DESY

  5. Development of a high brightness ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a laser-driven cold field emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdellier, F; Caruso, G M; Weber, S; Kociak, M; Arbouet, A

    2018-03-01

    We report on the development of an ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a cold field emission source which can operate in either DC or ultrafast mode. Electron emission from a tungsten nanotip is triggered by femtosecond laser pulses which are tightly focused by optical components integrated inside a cold field emission source close to the cathode. The properties of the electron probe (brightness, angular current density, stability) are quantitatively determined. The measured brightness is the largest reported so far for UTEMs. Examples of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy using ultrashort electron pulses are given. Finally, the potential of this instrument is illustrated by performing electron holography in the off-axis configuration using ultrashort electron pulses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Emission sources in scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkusch, W.

    1990-01-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial scanning electron microscopy, there are two kinds of emission sources generally used for generation of the electron beam. The first group covers the cathodes heated directly and indirectly (tungsten hair-needle cathodes and lanthanum hexaboride single crystals, LaB 6 cathode). The other group is the field emission cathodes. The advantages of the thermal sources are their low vacuum requirement and their high beam current which is necessary for the application of microanalysis units. Disadvantages are the short life and the low resolution. Advantages of the field emission cathode unambiguously are the possibilities of the very high resolution, especially in the case of low acceleration voltages. Disadvantages are the necessary ultra-high vacuum and the low beam current. An alternative source is the thermally induced ZrO/W field emission cathode which works stably as compared to the cold field emission and does not need periodic flashing for emitter tip cleaning. (orig.) [de

  7. High-frequency emissions during the propagation of an electron beam in a high-density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalita and Tripathi, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    A relativistic annular electron beam passing through a high-density plasma excites Langmuir waves via Cerenkov interaction. The Langmuir waves are backscattered off ions via nonlinear ion Landau damping. At moderately high amplitudes these waves are parametrically up-converted by the beam into high-frequency electromagnetic radiation, as observed in some recent experiments. A nonlocal theory of this process is developed in a cylindrical geometry. It is seen that the growth rate of the Langmuir wave scales as one-third power of beam density. The growth rate of parametric instability scales as one-fourth power of beam density and the square root of beam thickness

  8. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  9. Electron emission from nano-structured carbon composite materials and fabrication of high-quality electron emitters by using plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, H.; Hiraki, A.; Jiang, N.; Wang, H. X.

    2006-01-01

    Many trials have been done to fabricate high-quality electron-emitters from nano-composite carbon materials (such as nano-diamond, carbon nano tubes and others) by means of a variety of plasma chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) techniques. Based upon the mechanism of electron emission, we have proposed several strategic guide lines for the fabrication of good emitters. Then, following these lines, several types of emitters were tried. One of the emitters has shown a worldclass, top ranking for fabricating very bright lamps: namely, a low turn-on voltage (0.5 ∼ 1 V/μm to induce 10 μA/cm 2 emission current) to emit a 1 mA/cm 2 current at 3 V/μm and 100 mA/cm 2 current at a slightly higher applied voltage. The bright lamps are Mercury-free fluorescence lamps to exhibit brightness of ∼10 5 cd/m 2 with high efficiency of ∼100 lm/w.

  10. Initial Beam Dynamics Simulations of a High-Average-Current Field-Emission Electron Source in a Superconducting RadioFrequency Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohsen, O. [Northern Illinois U.; Gonin, I. [Fermilab; Kephart, R. [Fermilab; Khabiboulline, T. [Fermilab; Piot, P. [Northern Illinois U.; Solyak, N. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, J. C. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2018-01-05

    High-power electron beams are sought-after tools in support to a wide array of societal applications. This paper investigates the production of high-power electron beams by combining a high-current field-emission electron source to a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity. We especially carry out beam-dynamics simulations that demonstrate the viability of the scheme to form $\\sim$ 300 kW average-power electron beam using a 1+1/2-cell SRF gun.

  11. The experiments of high power electron beam emission by the K-9M-57 and K-9M-58 rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Sasaki, Susumu; Yamori, Akira; Hagiwara, Michinobu; Kawashima, Nobuki

    1977-01-01

    Active experiments have been conducted to obtain the precise picture of the ionosphere and magnetosphere. As the turbulence source of the active experiment by the authors, electron beam was employed, and the variation of the rocket potential, wave excitation and turbulence of peripheral plasma were investigated. The rated voltage and current of the present electron gun were 6 kV and 500 mA, respectively. The Langmuir probe, floating probe, optical detector and wave receiver were used for the measurement of various phenomena associated with electron beam emission. The experimental data on the voltage-current characteristics of the electron gun, the rocket potential, total light emission and plasma density and temperature were obtained by the K-9M-57 and K-9M-58 rockets. (Yoshimori, M.)

  12. Fast-scanning heterodyne receiver for measurement of the electron cyclotron emission from high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Bitzer, R.; Campbell, L.; Hosea, J.C.

    1979-03-01

    A fast-scanning heterodyne receiver was developed that measures the fundamental cyclotron emission from the PLT plasma and thus ascertains the time evolution of the electron temperature profile. The receiver scans 60 to 90 GHz every 10 milliseconds and is interfaced to a computer for completely automated calibrated temperature measurements

  13. High-Resolution Electron-Impact Study of the Far-Ultraviolet Emission Spectrum of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Ming; Ahmed, Syed M.; Multari, Rosalie A.; James, Geoffrey K.; Ajello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    The emission spectrum of molecular hydrogen produced by electron-impact excitation at 100 eV has been measured in the wavelength range 1140-1690 A. High-resolution, optically thin spectra (delta(lambda) = 0.136 A) of the far-ultraviolet (FUV) Lyman and Werner band systems have been obtained with a newly constructed 3 m spectrometer. Synthetic spectral intensities based on the transition probabilities calculated by Abgrall et al. are in very good agreement with experimentally observed intensities. Previous modeling that utilized Allison & Daigarno band transition probabilities with Hoenl-London factors breaks down when the transition moment has significant J dependence or when ro-vibrational coupling is significant. Ro-vibrational perturbation between upsilon = 14 of the B(sup 1)Sigma(sup +, sub u) state and upsilon = 3 of the C(sup 1)Pi(sub u) state and the rotational dependence of the transition moment in the bands of the Lyman system are examined. Complete high-resolution experimental reference FUV spectra, together with the model synthetic spectra based on the Abgrall transition probabilities, are presented. An improved calibration standard is obtained, and an accurate calibration of the 3 m spectrometer has been achieved.

  14. Study, development and validation of a dead-timeless electronic architecture concept for highly sensitive PET (Positron Emission Tomograph)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vert, P.E.

    2007-03-01

    Positron emission tomographs (PET) are fitted with highly capable reading electronics, which owns qualities and drawbacks. Highly accused at first as an explanation of the poor sensitivity of these imagers, the present study points out that the dead-times shared along the chains contribute to only 16 % in the data losses at a typical activity of 10 μCi/ml. The gross acquisition rates could thus be raised by 20 % through a suppression of these saturations. Looking in details at the philosophy of the acquisition procedure, a property appears to circumscribe the sensitivity even more: the timing resolution. The latter conditions, to the first order, the rejection capabilities of random events, part of the scattered ones and hence noise which is finally rated to the true coincidences the signal is made up of. Minimizing the resolving time goes through the suppression of the unneeded actors along with the adoption of a well adapted time-stamping method (optimal filtering). In doing so, the intrinsic channel resolution appears to be possibly lowered by a factor 7, reducing to 350 ps. The bottom value of the coincidence window may be narrowed as a consequence, leading to an increase of the NECR (noise equivalent count rate) by 50 per cent. At this stage, a time of flight (TOF) algorithms can be implemented. As an opportunist, it promises a reduction of the noise variance by 430 %, a gain that echoes on the NECR figure. Finally merging all these ideas allows to expect an improvement close to an order of magnitude on the NECR, with the hope of routine exams shortened by the same amount. In this context, it appeared logical to imagine a new electronics acquisition synoptic dedicated to fully pixelized PET. The number of channels blows up by the way when compared to the existing, this statement being partially balanced by the decision to fully integrate the electronics. The measures of the energy and time are planned to be performed with a single channel, with a continuous

  15. Electron field emission for ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A. R.; Auciello, O.; Ding, M. Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Huang, Y.; Zhirnov, V. V.; Givargizov, E. I.; Breskin, A.; Chechen, R.; Shefer, E. (and others)

    2001-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films 0.1--2.4 {mu}m thick were conformally deposited on sharp single Si microtip emitters, using microwave CH{sub 4}--Ar plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in combination with a dielectrophoretic seeding process. Field-emission studies exhibited stable, extremely high (60--100 {mu}A/tip) emission current, with little variation in threshold fields as a function of film thickness or Si tip radius. The electron emission properties of high aspect ratio Si microtips, coated with diamond using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process were found to be very different from those of the UNCD-coated tips. For the HFCVD process, there is a strong dependence of the emission threshold on both the diamond coating thickness and Si tip radius. Quantum photoyield measurements of the UNCD films revealed that these films have an enhanced density of states within the bulk diamond band gap that is correlated with a reduction in the threshold field for electron emission. In addition, scanning tunneling microscopy studies indicate that the emission sites from UNCD films are related to minima or inflection points in the surface topography, and not to surface asperities. These data, in conjunction with tight binding pseudopotential calculations, indicate that grain boundaries play a critical role in the electron emission properties of UNCD films, such that these boundaries: (a) provide a conducting path from the substrate to the diamond--vacuum interface, (b) produce a geometric enhancement in the local electric field via internal structures, rather than surface topography, and (c) produce an enhancement in the local density of states within the bulk diamond band gap.

  16. Introduction to the physics of electron emission

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kevin L

    2018-01-01

    Electron emission is both a fundamental phenomenon and an enabling component that lies at the very heart of modern science and technology. Written by a recognized authority in the field, with expertise in both electron emission physics and electron beam physics, An Introduction to Electron Emission provides an in-depth look at the physics behind thermal, field, photo, and secondary electron emission mechanisms, how that physics affects the beams that result through space charge and emittance growth, and explores the physics behind their utilization in an array of applications. The book addresses mathematical and numerical methods underlying electron emission, describing where the equations originated, how they are related, and how they may be correctly used to model actual sources for devices using electron beams. Writing for the beam physics and solid state communities, the author explores applications of electron emission methodology to solid state, statistical, and quantum mechanical ideas and concepts r...

  17. Electron emission mechanism of carbon fiber cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lie; Li Limin; Wen Jianchun; Wan Hong

    2005-01-01

    Models of electron emission mechanism are established concerning metal and carbon fiber cathodes. Correctness of the electron emission mechanism was proved according to micro-photos and electron scanning photos of cathodes respectively. The experimental results and analysis show that the surface flashover induces the electron emission of carbon fiber cathode and there are electron emission phenomena from the top of the carbon and also from its side surface. In addition, compared with the case of the stainless steel cathode, the plasma expansion velocity for the carbon fiber cathode is slower and the pulse duration of output microwave can be widened by using the carbon fiber cathode. (authors)

  18. Variation in emission and energy recovery concerning incident angle in a scheme recovering high energy ions by secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takayuki; Konno, Shota; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira

    2016-01-01

    As an energy recovery device for fast protons produced in D- 3 He nuclear fusion, secondary electron (SE) direct energy converter (SEDEC) was proposed in addition to traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC). Some protons passing through a TWDEC come into an SEDEC, where protons penetrate to a number of foil electrodes and emitted SEs are recovered. Following to a development of SE orbit control by magnetic field, dependence on incident angle of protons was examined to optimize structure of SEDEC. Based on a theoretical expectation, experiments were performed by changing incident angle of protons and variation in emission and energy recovery were measured. Both emission and energy recovery increased as the angle increased, and differences with theoretical expectation are discussed. (author)

  19. Electronic Reporting of Air Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations require affected sources to perform emissions source tests, conduct continuous emissions monitoring, and submit compliance and emissions reports. This site provides technical resources and access for providing such submissions.

  20. Electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Arunasalam, V.; Cano, R.

    1977-07-01

    Experimental measurements of electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak plasma reveal that black-body emission occurs at the fundamental frequency. Such emission, not possible by direct thermal excitation of electromagnetic waves, is herein attributed to thermal excitation of electrostatic (Bernstein) waves which then mode convert into electromagnetic waves. The local feature of the electrostatic wave generation permits spatially and time resolved measurements of electron temperature as for the second harmonic emission

  1. Electron emission from solids induced by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Guoqing

    2000-01-01

    The recent progresses in experimental and theoretical studies of the collision between swift heavy ion and solids as well as electron emission induced by swift heavy ion in solids were briefly reviewed. Three models, Coulomb explosion, thermal spike and repulsive long-lived states, for interpreting the atomic displacements stimulated by the electronic energy loss were discussed. The experimental setup and methods for measuring the electron emission from solids were described. The signification deviation from a proportionality between total electron emission yields and electronic stopping power was found. Auger-electron and convoy-electron spectra are thought to be a probe for investigating the microscopic production mechanisms of the electronic irradiation-damage. Electron temperature and track potential at the center of nuclear tracks in C and polypropylene foils induced by 5 MeV/u heavy ions, which are related to the electronic excitation density in metals and insulators respectively, were extracted by measuring the high resolution electron spectra

  2. Properties of electronic emissions of semiconductors III-IV in a status of negative electron affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piaget, Claude

    1977-01-01

    This research thesis reports the use of various properties (electron emission, photo emission, secondary electron emission) to highlight the relationships between various solid properties (optical, electronic, structural properties), surfaces (clean or covered with adsorbates such as caesium and oxygen) and emission properties (quantum efficiency, energy distribution, and so on). The first part addresses applications, performance, physical properties and technological processes, and also problems related to the physics and chemistry of surfaces and adsorption layers. The second part reports a study of the main electron transport properties in emitters displaying a negative electron affinity, for example GaP. Some aspects of electron excitation by ultra-violet radiations and high energy electrons are studied from UV photo-emission properties and secondary electron emission. Then GaAs and similar pseudo-binary compounds are studied

  3. Electron cyclotron emission imaging in tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsat, T.; Domier, C.W.; Kong, X. Y.; Liang, T. R.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Tobias, B. J.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the recent history and latest developments of the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic technique, wherein electron temperature is measured in magnetically confined plasmas with two-dimensional spatial resolution. The key enabling technologies for this technique are the

  4. Electron emission at the rail surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, L.; Battech, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the processes by which current is transferred from the cathode rail to the plasma armature in an arc-driven railgun. Three electron emission mechanisms are considered, namely thermionic emission, field-enhanced thermionic emission (or Schottky emission), and photoemission. The author's calculations show that the dominant electron emission mechanism depends, to a great extent, on the work function of the rail surface, the rail surface temperature, the electric field at the rail surface, and the effective radiation temperature of the plasma. For conditions that are considered to be typical of a railgun armature, Schottky emission is the dominant electron emission mechanism, providing current densities on the order of 10 9 A/m 2

  5. Comparison of analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of multi-photon effects in bremsstrahlung emission by high-energy electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangiarotti, Alessio; Sona, Pietro; Ballestrero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Approximate analytical calculations of multi-photon effects in the spectrum of total radiated energy by high-energy electrons crossing thin targets are compared to the results of Monte Carlo type simulations. The limits of validity of the analytical expressions found in the literature are establi...

  6. Ferroelectric Electron Emission Principles and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riege, H

    1997-01-01

    The spontaneous electrical polarization of ferroelectric materials can be changed either by reversal or by phase transition from a ferroelectric into a non-ferroelectric state or vice versa. If spontaneous polarization changes are induced with fast heat, mechanical pressure, laser or electric field pulses on a submicrosecond time scale, strong uncompensated surface charge densities and related polarization fields are generated, which may lead to the intense self-emission of electrons from the negatively charged free surface areas of the ferroelectric sample. Hence, electron guns can be built with extraction-field-free ferroelectric cathodes, which may be easily separated from the high-field regions of post-accelerating gap structures. The intensity, the energy, the temporal and spatial distribution, and the repetitition rate of the emitted electron beams can be controlled within wide limits via the excitation pulses and external focusing and accelerating electromagnetic fields. The technological advantages an...

  7. Secondary electron emission from textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, C. E.; Patino, M. I.; Wirz, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a Monte Carlo model is used to investigate electron induced secondary electron emission for varying effects of complex surfaces by using simple geometric constructs. Geometries used in the model include: vertical fibers for velvet-like surfaces, tapered pillars for carpet-like surfaces, and a cage-like configuration of interlaced horizontal and vertical fibers for nano-structured fuzz. The model accurately captures the secondary electron emission yield dependence on incidence angle. The model shows that unlike other structured surfaces previously studied, tungsten fuzz exhibits secondary electron emission yield that is independent of primary electron incidence angle, due to the prevalence of horizontally-oriented fibers in the fuzz geometry. This is confirmed with new data presented herein of the secondary electron emission yield of tungsten fuzz at incidence angles from 0-60°.

  8. Studies of electron cyclotron emission on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandy, R.F.

    1990-07-01

    The Auburn University electron cyclotron emission (ECE) system has made many significant contributions to the TEXT experimental program during the past five years. Contributions include electron temperature information used in the following areas of study: electron cyclotron heating (ECH), pellet injection, and impurity/energy transport. Details of the role which the Auburn ECE system has played will now be discussed

  9. Surface-plasmon resonance-enhanced multiphoton emission of high-brightness electron beams from a nanostructured copper cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R K; To, H; Andonian, G; Feng, J; Polyakov, A; Scoby, C M; Thompson, K; Wan, W; Padmore, H A; Musumeci, P

    2013-02-15

    We experimentally investigate surface-plasmon assisted photoemission to enhance the efficiency of metallic photocathodes for high-brightness electron sources. A nanohole array-based copper surface was designed to exhibit a plasmonic response at 800 nm, fabricated using the focused ion beam milling technique, optically characterized and tested as a photocathode in a high power radio frequency photoinjector. Because of the larger absorption and localization of the optical field intensity, the charge yield observed under ultrashort laser pulse illumination is increased by more than 100 times compared to a flat surface. We also present the first beam characterization results (intrinsic emittance and bunch length) from a nanostructured photocathode.

  10. Development of a Robust, High Current, Low Power Field Emission Electron Gun for a Spaceflight Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Adrian E.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Feng, Steven; Glavin, Daniel P.; Auciello, Orlando; Sumant, Anirudha

    2012-01-01

    Carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD), have been of considerable interest for field emission applications for over a decade. In particular, robust field emission materials are compelling for space applications due to the low power consumption and potential for miniaturization. A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) under development for in situ measurements on the Moon and other Solar System bodies uses a field emitter to generate ions from gaseous samples, using electron ionization. For these unusual environments, robustness, reliability, and long life are of paramount importance, and to this end, we have explored the field emission properties and lifetime of carbon nanotubes and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) thin films, the latter developed and patented by Argonne National Laboratory. We will present recent investigations of N-UNCD as a robust field emitter, revealing that this material offers stable performance in high vacuum for up to 1000 hours with threshold voltage for emission of about 3-4 V/lJm and current densities in the range of tens of microA. Optimizing the mass resolution and sensitivity of such a mass spectrometer has also been enabled by a parallel effort to scale up a CNT emitter to an array measuring 2 mm x 40 mm. Through simulation and experiment of the new extended format emitter, we have determined that focusing the electron beam is limited due to the angular spread of the emitted electrons. This dispersion effect can be reduced through modification of the electron gun geometry, but this reduces the current reaching the ionization region. By increasing the transmission efficiency of the electron beam to the anode, we have increased the anode current by two orders of magnitude to realize a corresponding enhancement in instrument sensitivity, at a moderate cost to mass resolution. We will report recent experimental and

  11. Superthermal electron distribution measurements from polarized electron cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fisch, N.J.

    1988-06-01

    Measurements of the superthermal electron distribution can be made by observing the polarized electron cyclotron emission. The emission is viewed along a constant magnetic field surface. This simplifies the resonance condition and gives a direct correlation between emission frequency and kinetic energy of the emitting electron. A transformation technique is formulated which determines the anisotropy of the distribution and number density of superthermals at each energy measured. The steady-state distribution during lower hybrid current drive and examples of the superthermal dynamics as the runaway conditions is varied are presented for discharges in the PLT tokamak. 15 refs., 8 figs

  12. High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layer and thick N-doped electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuki, Shunichiro, E-mail: shunichiro.nobuki.nb@hitachi.com [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Wakana, Hironori; Ishihara, Shingo [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Mikami, Akiyoshi [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichimachi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have developed green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W at 2.73 V at 0.053 mA/cm{sup 2}. A double emission layer and a thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted to improve the exciton recombination factor. A high refractive index hemispherical lens was attached to a high refractive index substrate for extracting light trapped inside the substrate and the multiple-layers of OLEDs to air. Additionally, we analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify room for the improvement of our OLEDs including the charge balance factor. - Highlights: • We developed high efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED). • Our OLED had external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W. • A double emission layer and thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted. • High refractive index media (hemispherical lens and substrate) were also used. • We analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify the charge balance factor of our OLED.

  13. Electron cyclotron emission from thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Granata, G.

    1978-02-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from a warm inhomogeneous plasma is investigated. A direct calculation of the emissive power of a plasma slab is performed using Rytov's method and the result is compared with the solution of the transfer equation. It is found that, for arbitrary directions of emission, the two results differ, which reflects the fact that Kirchhoff's law is not generally obeyed

  14. Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yater, J. E.; Shaw, J. L.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary-electron-emission (SEE) current measured from high-purity, single-crystal (100) chemical-vapor-deposited diamond is found to increase when sub-band gap (3.06 eV) photons are incident on the hydrogenated surface. Although the light does not produce photoemission directly, the SEE current increases by more than a factor of 2 before saturating with increasing laser power. In energy distribution curves (EDCs), the emission peak shows a corresponding increase in intensity with increasing laser power. However, the emission-onset energy in the EDCs remains constant, indicating that the bands are pinned at the surface. On the other hand, changes are observed on the high-energy side of the distribution as the laser power increases, with a well-defined shoulder becoming more pronounced. From an analysis of this feature in the EDCs, it is deduced that upward band bending is present in the near-surface region during the SEE measurements and this band bending suppresses the SEE yield. However, sub-band gap photon illumination reduces the band bending and thereby increases the SEE current. Because the bands are pinned at the surface, we conclude that the changes in the band levels occur below the surface in the electron transport region. Sample heating produces similar effects as observed with sub-band gap photon illumination, namely, an increase in SEE current and a reduction in band bending. However, the upward band bending is not fully removed by either increasing laser power or temperature, and a minimum band bending of ∼0.8 eV is established in both cases. The sub-band gap photo-excitation mechanism is under further investigation, although it appears likely at present that defect or gap states play a role in the photo-enhanced SEE process. In the meantime, the study demonstrates the ability of visible light to modify the electronic properties of diamond and enhance the emission capabilities, which may have potential impact for diamond-based vacuum electron

  15. Oblique electron cyclotron emission for electron distribution studies (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preische, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaye, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) at an oblique angle to the magnetic field provides a means of probing the electron distribution function both in energy and physical space through changes in and constraints on the relativistic electron cyclotron resonance condition. Diagnostics based on this Doppler shifted resonance are able to study a variety of electron distributions through changes in the location of the resonance in physical or energy space accomplished by changes in the viewing angle and frequency, and the magnetic field. For the case of observation across a changing magnetic field, such as across the tokamak midplane, the constraint on the resonance condition for real solutions to the dispersion relation can constrain the physical location of optically thin emission. A new Oblique ECE diagnostic was installed and operated on the PBX-M tokamak for the study of energetic electrons during lower hybrid current drive. It has a view 33 degree with respect to perpendicular in the tokamak midplane, receives second harmonic X-mode emission, and is constrained to receive single pass emission by SiC viewing dumps on the tokamak walls. Spatial localization of optically thin emission from superthermal electrons (50 endash 100 keV) was obtained by observation of emission upshifted from a thermal cyclotron harmonic. The localized measurements of the electron energy distribution and the superthermal density profile made by this diagnostic demonstrate its potential to study the spatial transport of energetic electrons on fast magnetohydrodynamic time scales or anomalous diffusion time scales. Oblique ECE can also be used to study electron distributions that may have a slight deviation from a Maxwellian by localizing the emission in energy space. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources

  17. Photons emission processes in electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Vargas, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The investigations involving the scattering sections arising in virtual an real photon emission processes of electron and positron scattering by an atomic nucleus, have the need for thorough and complete calculations of the virtual photon spectrum and then introduce the distorted wave formulation, which is mathematically involved an numerically elaborated, but accessible to its use in experimental electron scattering facilities. (author) [es

  18. Study of laser driven plasma based electron acceleration and Bremsstrahlung radiation emission using ultra-high intensity laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    High energy particle accelerators are one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century which have led to enormous advances in basic scientific understanding of world around us. Despite their grand success, the present day high energy accelerators are hitting practical limits due to their large size and cost. This is because the accelerating gradients in conventional radio-frequency (RF) accelerators are typically limited to < 50 MV/m by the field breakdown of the accelerating structure. To address this major issue, many advanced accelerator techniques have been proposed and some of them are being actively pursued. Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) in plasma medium is one of the techniques being most actively pursued world over due to extremely large acceleration gradients of the order of 100 GV/m possible in this scheme which promises significant reduction of the size and cost of the future high energy accelerators. The present thesis work mainly deals with laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of self-injected electrons to 10s of MeV energy in plasma medium of length of the order of 500 μm using the table-top 10 TW laser at Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology

  19. Electron emission induced modifications in amorphous tetrahedral diamondlike carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, T.W.; DiNardo, N.J.; Rothman, J.B.; Siegal, M.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The cold-cathode electron emission properties of amorphous tetrahedral diamondlike carbon are promising for flat-panel display and vacuum microelectronics technologies. The onset of electron emission is, typically, preceded by open-quotes conditioningclose quotes where the material is stressed by an applied electric field. To simulate conditioning and assess its effect, we combined the spatially localized field and current of a scanning tunneling microscope tip with high-spatial-resolution characterization. Scanning force microscopy shows that conditioning alters surface morphology and electronic structure. Spatially resolved electron-energy-loss spectroscopy indicates that the predominant bonding configuration changes from predominantly fourfold to threefold coordination. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. Delta-electron emission in fast heavy ion atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Ramm, U.; Berg, H.; Kelbch, C.; Feng Jiazhen; Hagmann, S.; Kraft, G.; Ullrich, J.

    1991-01-01

    The δ-electron emission processes occuring in fast heavy ion atom collisons are explained qualitatively. The different spectral structures of electron emission arising from either the target or the projectile are explained in terms of simple models of the kinetics of momentum transfer induced by the COULOMB forces. In collisions of very heavy ions with matter, high nuclear COULOMB forces are created. These forces lead to a strong polarization of the electronic states of the participated electrons. The effects of this polarization are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Modelling of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission during ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.; Krivenski, V.

    1990-01-01

    The existence of suprathermal electrons during Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating experiments in tokamaks is today a well established fact. At low densities the creation of large non-thermal electron tails affects the temperature profile measurements obtained by 2 nd harmonic, X-mode, low-field side, electron cyclotron emission. At higher densities suprathermal electrons can be detected by high-field side emission. In electron cyclotron current drive experiments a high energy suprathermal tail, asymmetric in v, is observed. Non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions are also typically observed during lower-hybrid current drive experiments. Fast electrons have been observed during ionic heating by neutral beams as well. Two distinct approaches are currently used in the interpretation of the experimental results: simple analytical models which reproduce some of the expected non-Maxwellian characteristics of the electron distribution function are employed to get a qualitative picture of the phenomena; sophisticated numerical Fokker-Planck calculations give the electron distribution function from which the emission spectra are computed. No algorithm is known to solve the inverse problem, i.e. to compute the electron distribution function from the emitted spectra. The proposed methods all relay on the basic assumption that the electron distribution function has a given functional dependence on a limited number of free parameters, which are then 'measured' by best fitting the experimental results. Here we discuss the legitimacy of this procedure. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Electron cyclotron emission spectroscopy on thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbing, B.J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) enables one to infer the radial profile of the electron temperature in tokamaks. The Dutch FOM institute for plasma physics has designed, built, installed and operated a grating polychromator for ECE measurements at JET. This thesis deals with a few instrumental aspects of this project and with applications of ECE measurements in tokamak physics studies. Ch. 3 and 4 deal with the wave transport in ECE systems. In Ch. 3 a method is developed to infer the mode conversion, which is a source for transmission losses, in a waveguide component from the antenna pattern of its exit aperture. In Ch. 4 the design and manufacture of the waveguide transition system to the grating polychromator are described. In Ch. 5 a method is reported for calibration of the spectrometers, based on the use of a microwave source which simulates a large area blackbody of very high temperature. The feasibility of the method is tested by applying it to two different ECE systems. In Ch. 6 a study of heat pulse propagation in tokamak plasma's, based on measurement of the electron temperature with the grating polychromator, is presented. 105 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  3. An electrostatic ion pump with nanostructured Si field emission electron source and Ti particle collectors for supporting an ultra-high vacuum in miniaturized atom interferometry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Anirban; Velásquez-García, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We report a field emission-based, magnetic-less ion pump architecture for helping maintain a high vacuum within a small chamber that is compatible with miniaturized cold-atom interferometry systems. A nanostructured silicon field emitter array, with each nano-sharp tip surrounded by a self-aligned proximal gate electrode, is used to generate a surplus of electrons that cause impact ionization of gas molecules. A two-stage cylindrical electron collector, made of titanium, is used to increase the travel distance of the electrons, augmenting the ionization probability; gas ionization is subsequently followed by gettering of the ions by a negatively charged, annular-shaped titanium electrode. A proof-of-concept pump prototype was characterized using a 25 cm 3 stainless steel vacuum chamber backed up by an external turbomolecular pump, a diaphragm pump, and a standard ion pump. Pumping action was observed with the electrostatic pump operating alone after an initial rapid rise of the chamber pressure due to electron/ion scrubbing. In addition, running the electrostatic pump in combination with the standard ion pump results in a lower vacuum level compared to the vacuum level produced by the standard ion pump acting alone. A proposed reduced-order model accurately predicts the functional dependence of the pressure versus time data and provides a good estimate of the characteristic pumping time constant inferred from the experiments. (paper)

  4. High current plasma electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F.; Craig, D.

    1995-07-01

    A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications

  5. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  6. Application of scandium oxide in an electron emission material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suqiu, Y.; Zhizheng, Z.; Yongde, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modern microwave devices impose a number of harsh requirements on the cathodes. For instance, they require cathodes having low working temperature, high emissive current density, slow evaporation rate of the emissive-active material, long lifetime, quick heating and so on. The commercial B-cathode is no longer able to meet these requirements completely. A scandate cathode may be a promising one for use in these devices. Adding rare-earth elements in the electron emission material has been reported in many papers. Based on a B-cathode we add a little amount of scandium oxide (about 3%) into emission material to manufacture a scandate cathode. The emission property of such a cathode has been improved greatly. If the composition is controlled correctly, the emission level of such a cathode may be five times more as high as the B-cathode

  7. Electron injection in diodes with field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denavit, J.; Strobel, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents self-consistent steady-state solutions of the space charge, transmitted current, and return currents in diodes with electron injection from the cathode and unlimited field emission of electrons and ions from both electrodes. Time-dependent particle simulations of the diode operation confirm the analytical results and show how these steady states are reached. The results are applicable to thermionic diodes and to photodiodes

  8. Field electron emission from branched nanotubes film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Baoqing; Tian Shikai; Yang Zhonghai

    2005-01-01

    We describe the preparation and analyses of films composed of branched carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown on a Ni catalyst film using chemical vapor deposition from a gas containing acetylene. From scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, the branched structure of the CNTs was determined; the field emission characteristics in a vacuum chamber indicated a lower turn on field for branched CNTs than normal CNTs

  9. Electron field emission characteristics of carbon nanotube on tungsten tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Ngoc Hong; Bui Hung Thang; Nguyen Tuan Hong; Phan Ngoc Minh; Lee, Soonil

    2009-01-01

    Electron field emission characteristic of carbon nanotubes on tungsten tip was investigated in 2x10 -6 Torr vacuum. The measurement results showed that the CNTs/W tip could emit electron at 0.7 V/μm (nearly 10 times lower than that of the W tip itself) and reach up to 26 μA at the electric field of 1 V/μm. The emission characteristic follows the Fowler-Nordheim mechanism. Analysis of the emission characteristic showed that the CNTs/W tip has a very high value of field enhancement factor (β = 4.1 x 10 4 cm -1 ) that is much higher than that of the tungsten tip itself. The results confirmed the excellent field emission behavior of the CNTs materials and the CNTs/W tip is a prospective candidate for advanced electron field emitter.

  10. Collision dynamics probed by convoy electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliger, M.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Toekesi, K.; Reinhold, C.O.; Takabayashi, Y.; Ito, T.; Komaki, K.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; RIKEN, Saitama

    2002-01-01

    The description of the collision mechanisms was examined by the emission of convoy electrons as a result of the transport of an Ar 17+ ion with an energy of 390 MeV/amu through self-supporting amorphous carbon foils of thickness varying from 25 to 9190 μg/cm 2 . A classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation of the random walk of the electron initially attached to the relativistic hydrogenic Argon ion was performed. Measurements were made of the final kinetic energy of the emitted convoy electrons at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). (R.P.)

  11. Electron emission from molybdenum under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements are reported of electron emission yields of clean molybdenum surfaces under bombardment with H + , H 2 + , D + , D 2 + , He + , N + , N 2 + , O + , O 2 + , Ne + , Ar + , Kr + and Xe + in the wide energy range 0.7-60.2 keV. The clean surfaces were produced by inert gas sputtering under ultrahigh vacuum. The results are compared with those predicted by a core-level excitation model. The disagreement found when using correct values for the energy levels of Mo is traced to wrong assumptions in the model. A substantially improved agreement with experiment is obtained using a model in which electron emission results from the excitation of valence electrons from the target by the projectiles and fast recoiling target atoms. (author)

  12. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  13. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  14. Field electron emission spectrometer combined with field ion/electron microscope as a field emission laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkuratov, S.I.; Ivanov, S.N.; Shilimanov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The facility, combining the field ion microscope, field electron emission microscope and field electron emission spectrometer, is described. Combination of three methodologies makes it possible to carry out the complete cycle of emission studies. Atom-plane and clean surface of the studied samples is prepared by means of field evaporation of the material atom layers without any thermal and radiation impact. This enables the study of atom and electron structure of clean surface of the wide range materials, the study whereof through the field emission methods was previously rather difficult. The temperature of the samples under study changes from 75 up to 2500 K. The energy resolution of the electron analyzer equals 30 MeV. 19 refs., 10 figs

  15. Secondary emission of negative ions and electrons resulting from electronic sputtering of cesium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allali, H.; Nsouli, B.; Thomas, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    Secondary ion emission of negative ions and electrons from alkali salts bombarded with high energy (9 MeV) Ar +++ is discussed. Quite different features are observed according to the nature of the salt investigated (halide or oxygenated). In the case of cesium, the electron emission from halides is characterized by intense electron showers (several hundred electrons) with narrow distributions in intensity and orientation. Conversely, for oxygenated salts, these distributions are broader, much less intense (one order of magnitude), and the ion emission exhibits an dissymmetry, which has never been observed for inorganics. This last result is interpreted in terms of radiolysis of the oxygenated salt, a process well documented for gamma-ray irradiation, but not yet reported in secondary ion emission. (author) 17 refs.; 10 figs

  16. Secondary electron emission in nanostructured porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G D; Ferron, J; Koropecki, R R, E-mail: gdruano@ceride.gov.a [INTEC-UNL-CONICET, Gueemes 3450 - 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We studied the reversible reduction induced by ion bombardment of the secondary electron emission (SEE) yield. This effect has been modelled as due to changes in dynamically sustained dipoles related with ions and electrons penetration ranges. Such charge configuration precludes the escape of electrons from the nanoporous silicon, making the SEE dependent on the flux of impinging ions. Since this dipolar momentum depends on the electric conduction of the porous medium, by controlled oxidation of the nanoporous structure we change the conduction features of the sample, studying the impact on the SEE reduction effect. Li ion bombardment was also used with the intention of changing the parameters determining the effect. FT-IR and Auger electron spectroscopy were used to characterize the oxidation degree of the samples at different depth scales

  17. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-11-01

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  18. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  19. Emission from Crystals Irradiated with a Beam of Runaway Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranchenko, A. G.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Baksht, E. Kh.

    2018-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral and amplitude-temporal characteristics of emission from different crystals, promising in terms of their application as detectors of runaway electrons, is performed. This emission is excited by subnanosecond electron beams generated in a gas diode. It is found out that at the electron energies of tens-hundreds of kiloelectronvolts, the main contribution into the emission from CsI, ZnS, type IIa artificial and natural diamonds, sapphire, CaF2, ZrO2, Ga2O3, CaCO3, CdS, and ZnSe crystals comes from the cathodoluminescence; the radiation pulse duration depends on the crystal used and sufficiently exceeds the Cherenkov radiation pulse duration. It is demonstrated that the latter radiation exhibits low intensity and can be detected in the short-wave region of the spectrum in the cases where a monochromator and a high-sensitivity photomultiplier tube (PMT) are used.

  20. Secondary electron emission yield in the limit of low electron energy

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, A.N.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Startsev, E.A.; Raitses, Y.; Demidov, V.I.

    2013-04-22

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) from solids plays an important role in many areas of science and technology.1 In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the experimental and theoretical studies of SEE. A recent study proposed that the reflectivity of very low energy electrons from solid surface approaches unity in the limit of zero electron energy2,3,4, If this was indeed the case, this effect would have profound implications on the formation of electron clouds in particle accelerators,2-4 plasma measurements with electrostatic Langmuir probes, and operation of Hall plasma thrusters for spacecraft propulsion5,6. It appears that, the proposed high electron reflectivity at low electron energies contradicts to numerous previous experimental studies of the secondary electron emission7. The goal of this note is to discuss possible causes of these contradictions.

  1. Electron transport effects in ion induced electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: adubus@ulb.ac.be; Pauly, N. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Roesler, M. [Karl-Pokern-Str. 12, D-12587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Ion induced electron emission (IIEE) is usually described as a three-step process, i.e. electron excitation by the incident projectile, electron transport (and multiplication) and electron escape through the potential barrier at the surface. In many cases, the first step of the process has been carefully described. The second step of the process, i.e. electron transport and multiplication, has often been treated in a very rough way, a simple decreasing exponential law being sometimes used. It is precisely the aim of the present work to show the importance of a correct description of electron transport and multiplication in a theoretical calculation of IIEE. A short overview of the electron transport models developed for IIEE is given in this work. The so-called 'Infinite medium slowing-down model' often used in recent works is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, the importance of considering correctly the semi-infinite character of the medium and the boundary condition at the vacuum-medium interface is discussed. Quantities like the electron escape depth are also briefly discussed. This evaluation has been performed in the particular case of protons (25keV

  2. Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of η e (le) 130 and η 0 ∼ 10 4 respectively, with 1 MeV K + incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as η e ∝ 1/cos(θ), where θ is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90 o ) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62 o . Gas desorption varies more slowly with θ (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of ∼2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K + ions backscatter when incident at 88-89 o from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within ∼10 o of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90 o . Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams

  3. Electron field emission from boron doped microcrystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.; Baranauskas, V.; Fontana, M.; Ceragioli, H.J.; Peterlevitz, A.C.; Mallik, K.; Degasperi, F.T.

    2007-01-01

    Field emission properties of hot filament chemical vapor deposited boron doped polycrystalline diamond have been studied. Doping level (N B ) of different samples has been varied by the B/C concentration in the gas feed during the growth process and doping saturation has been observed for high B/C ratios. Threshold field (E th ) for electron emission as function of B/C concentration has been measured, and the influences of grain boundaries, doping level and surface morphology on field emission properties have been investigated. Carrier transport through conductive grains and local emission properties of surface sites have been figured out to be two independent limiting effects in respect of field emission. Emitter current densities of 500 nA cm -2 were obtained using electric fields less than 8 V/μm

  4. Electron Cyclotron Maser Emissions from Evolving Fast Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J. F.; Wu, D. J.; Chen, L.; Zhao, G. Q.; Tan, C. M.

    2016-05-01

    Fast electron beams (FEBs) are common products of solar active phenomena. Solar radio bursts are an important diagnostic tool for understanding FEBs and the solar plasma environment in which they propagate along solar magnetic fields. In particular, the evolution of the energy spectrum and velocity distribution of FEBs due to the interaction with the ambient plasma and field during propagation can significantly influence the efficiency and properties of their emissions. In this paper, we discuss the possible evolution of the energy spectrum and velocity distribution of FEBs due to energy loss processes and the pitch-angle effect caused by magnetic field inhomogeneity, and we analyze the effects of the evolution on electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) emission, which is one of the most important mechanisms for producing solar radio bursts by FEBs. Our results show that the growth rates all decrease with the energy loss factor Q, but increase with the magnetic mirror ratio σ as well as with the steepness index δ. Moreover, the evolution of FEBs can also significantly influence the fastest growing mode and the fastest growing phase angle. This leads to the change of the polarization sense of the ECM emission. In particular, our results also reveal that an FEB that undergoes different evolution processes will generate different types of ECM emission. We believe the present results to be very helpful for a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamic spectra of solar radio bursts.

  5. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER EMISSIONS FROM EVOLVING FAST ELECTRON BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J. F.; Wu, D. J.; Chen, L.; Zhao, G. Q.; Tan, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fast electron beams (FEBs) are common products of solar active phenomena. Solar radio bursts are an important diagnostic tool for understanding FEBs and the solar plasma environment in which they propagate along solar magnetic fields. In particular, the evolution of the energy spectrum and velocity distribution of FEBs due to the interaction with the ambient plasma and field during propagation can significantly influence the efficiency and properties of their emissions. In this paper, we discuss the possible evolution of the energy spectrum and velocity distribution of FEBs due to energy loss processes and the pitch-angle effect caused by magnetic field inhomogeneity, and we analyze the effects of the evolution on electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) emission, which is one of the most important mechanisms for producing solar radio bursts by FEBs. Our results show that the growth rates all decrease with the energy loss factor Q , but increase with the magnetic mirror ratio σ as well as with the steepness index δ . Moreover, the evolution of FEBs can also significantly influence the fastest growing mode and the fastest growing phase angle. This leads to the change of the polarization sense of the ECM emission. In particular, our results also reveal that an FEB that undergoes different evolution processes will generate different types of ECM emission. We believe the present results to be very helpful for a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamic spectra of solar radio bursts.

  6. Search for Fermi shuttle mechanisms in electron emission from atomic collision sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.; Jung, M.; Rothard, H.; Schosnig, M.; Maier, R.; Clouvas, A.; Groeneveld, K.O.

    1994-01-01

    In electron spectra induced by slow heavy ion bombardment of solids a high energy tail can be observed, which is suggested to be explained by multiple collision sequences. In order to find those multiple collision effects like the ''Fermi shuttle'' acceleration mechanism we measured doubly differential electron emission cross sections for H + (33.5-700 keV) impact on different targets (He, Ne, C and Au) as a function of projectile energy and electron emission angle. We observed a surprising target dependence of the electron emission within the range of electron energies close to that of the binary encounter electrons for all observed angles of emission. (orig.)

  7. Simulation and analysis of secondary emission microwave electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wencan; Pei Yuanji; Jin Kai; Wu Congfeng

    2001-01-01

    The development of high-current, short-duration pulses of electrons has been a challenging problem for many year. Micro-pulse-gun (MPG) is a novel concept that employs the resonant amplification of an electron current by secondary electron emission in a RE cavity. Using the computation code URMEL-T, several kinds of RF cavities under the frequency of 2856 MHz were calculated and optimized, the magnetic and electric field distribution in them were got. Through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation, the self-bunching process in a MPG was proved, the relationship between the cavity length and selected phase and the relationship between the peak electric field and selected phase were got. With cathode material of high secondary emission coefficient, the MPG can produce high current densities (1132-5303 A/cm 2 ) and short pulses (3.15-10 ps)

  8. Field electron emission from pencil-drawn cold cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiangtao; Yang, Bingjun; Liu, Xiahui; Yang, Juan; Yan, Xingbin, E-mail: xbyan@licp.cas.cn [Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-05-09

    Field electron emitters with flat, curved, and linear profiles are fabricated on flexible copy papers by direct pencil-drawing method. This one-step method is free of many restricted conditions such as high-temperature, high vacuum, organic solvents, and multistep. The cold cathodes display good field emission performance and achieve high emission current density of 78 mA/cm{sup 2} at an electric field of 3.73 V/μm. The approach proposed here would bring a rapid, low-cost, and eco-friendly route to fabricate but not limited to flexible field emitter devices.

  9. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  10. Secondary electron emission anisotropy in oblique incidence of electrons on the (100) Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomoyunova, M.V.; Zaslavskij, S.L.; Pronin, I.I.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the influence of azimuthal plane of incidence of primary particles with energies of 0.5-1.5 keV on the secondary electron emission of the (100) Mo face at the constant polar angle of 45 deg. The measurements were carried out in vacuum of (2-4)x10 -10 torr by modulation technique. It is shown that anisotropy is peculiar to the secondary electron emission of all energies. The anisotropy of emission has two maxima; the high-energy maximum connected with reflected primary electrons and situated near the elastically reflected electrons and weaker pronounced the low-energy one which is found at energies of 100-200 eV and is conditioned by truly secondary electrons. It is shown that the anisotropy, characterizing secondary electrons responsible for the appearance of structure in spectrum, particularly the Auger electrons and the electrons suffering ionizing energy losses, exceeds the anisotropy of continuous spectrum electrons possessing the same energy. The electron diffraction dynamic theory, based on the conception of the united wave field of electrons, has been used to explain the regularities stated

  11. Effects of Enhanced Eathode Electron Emission on Hall Thruster Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Interesting discharge phenomena are observed that have to do with the interaction between the magnetized Hall thruster plasma and the neutralizing cathode. The steadystate parameters of a highly ionized thruster discharge are strongly influenced by the electron supply from the cathode. The enhancement of the cathode electron emission above its self-sustained level affects the discharge current and leads to a dramatic reduction of the plasma divergence and a suppression of large amplitude, low frequency discharge current oscillations usually related to an ionization instability. These effects correlate strongly with the reduction of the voltage drop in the region with the fringing magnetic field between the thruster channel and the cathode. The measured changes of the plasma properties suggest that the electron emission affects the electron cross-field transport in the thruster discharge. These trends are generalized for Hall thrusters of various configurations.

  12. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  13. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V−1 s−1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m−2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  14. Spontaneous and stimulated emission induced by an electron, electron bunch, and electron beam in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M V; Rukhadze, A A

    2008-01-01

    Two fundamental mechanisms - the Cherenkov effect and anomalous Doppler effect - underlying the emission by an electron during its superluminal motion in medium are considered. Cherenkov emission induced by a single electron and a small electron bunch is spontaneous. In the course of spontaneous Cherenkov emission, the translational motion of an electron is slowed down and the radiation energy grows linearly with time. As the number of radiating electrons increases, Cherenkov emission becomes stimulated. Stimulated Cherenkov emission represents a resonance beam instability. This emission process is accompanied by longitudinal electron bunching in the beam or by the breaking of an electron bunch into smaller bunches, in which case the radiation energy grows exponentially with time. In terms of the longitudinal size L e of the electron bunch there is a transition region λ e 0 -1 between the spontaneous and stimulated Cherenkov effects, where λ is the average radiation wavelength, and δ 0 is the dimensionless (in units of the radiation frequency) growth rate of the Cherenkov beam instability. The range to the left of this region is dominated by spontaneous emission, whereas the range to the right of this region is dominated by stimulated emission. In contrast to the Vavilov-Cherenkov effect, the anomalous Doppler effect should always (even for a single electron) be considered as stimulated, because it can only be explained by accounting for the reverse action of the radiation field on the moving electron. During stimulated emission in conditions where anomalous Doppler effect shows itself, an electron is slowed down and spins up; in this case, the radiation energy grows exponentially with time. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Characteristics of a cold cathode electron source combined with secondary electron emission in a FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wei; Zhang Xiaobing; Zhou Xuedong; Zhu Zuoya; Lou Chaogang; Zhao Hongping

    2005-01-01

    In electron beam devices, the voltage applied to the cathode (w.r.t. grid voltage) provides the initial energy for the electrons. Based on the type of electron emission, the electron sources are (mainly) classified into thermionic cathodes and cold cathodes. The power consumption of a cold cathode is smaller than that of a thermionic cathode. The delay time of the electron emission from a cold cathode following the voltage rise is also smaller. In cathode ray tubes, field emission display (=FED) panels and other devices, the electron current emitted from the cathode needs to be modulated. Since the strong electric field, which is required to extract electrons from the cold cathode, accelerates the electrons to a high velocity near the gate electrode, the required voltage swing for the current modulation is also high. The design of the driving circuit becomes quite difficult and expensive for a high driving voltage. In this paper, an insulator plate with holes is placed in front of a cold cathode. When the primary electrons hit the surface of the insulator tunnels, secondary electrons are generated. In this paper, the characteristics of the secondary electrons emitted from the gate structure are studied. Because the energies of the secondary electrons are smaller than that of the primary electron, the driving voltage for the current modulation is decreased by the introduction of the insulator tunnels, resulting in an improved energy uniformity of the electron beam. Triode structures with inclined insulator tunnels and with double insulator plates are also fabricated and lead to further improvements in the energy uniformity. The improved energy uniformity predicted by the simulation calculations is demonstrated by the improved brightness uniformity in the screen display images

  16. Secondary electron emission characteristics of oxide electrodes in flat electron emission lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Lin Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns with the secondary electron emission coefficient, γ, of the cathode materials used in the newly developed flat electron emission lamp (FEEL devices, which essentially integrates the concept of using cathode for fluorescent lamp and anode for cathode ray tube (CRT to obtain uniform planar lighting. Three different cathode materials, namely fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, aluminum oxide coated FTO (Al2O3/FTO and magnesium oxide coated FTO (MgO/FTO were prepared to investigate how the variations of γ and working gases influence the performance of FEEL devices, especially in lowering the breakdown voltage and pressure of the working gases. The results indicate that the MgO/FTO bilayer cathode exhibited a relatively larger effective secondary electron emission coefficient, resulting in significant reduction of breakdown voltage to about 3kV and allowing the device to be operated at the lower pressure to generate the higher lighting efficiency.

  17. Secondary electron emission characteristics of oxide electrodes in flat electron emission lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chang-Lin, E-mail: CLChiang@itri.org.tw; Li, Chia-Hung [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung 310, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Zeng, Hui-Kai [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung Li 320, Taiwan (China); Li, Jung-Yu, E-mail: JY-Lee@itri.org.tw; Chen, Shih-Pu; Lin, Yi-Ping [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung 310, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tai-Chiung; Juang, Jenh-Yih, E-mail: jyjuang@cc.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    The present study concerns with the secondary electron emission coefficient, γ, of the cathode materials used in the newly developed flat electron emission lamp (FEEL) devices, which essentially integrates the concept of using cathode for fluorescent lamp and anode for cathode ray tube (CRT) to obtain uniform planar lighting. Three different cathode materials, namely fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), aluminum oxide coated FTO (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FTO) and magnesium oxide coated FTO (MgO/FTO) were prepared to investigate how the variations of γ and working gases influence the performance of FEEL devices, especially in lowering the breakdown voltage and pressure of the working gases. The results indicate that the MgO/FTO bilayer cathode exhibited a relatively larger effective secondary electron emission coefficient, resulting in significant reduction of breakdown voltage to about 3kV and allowing the device to be operated at the lower pressure to generate the higher lighting efficiency.

  18. Secondary electron emission studied by secondary electron energy loss coincidence spectroscopy (SE2ELCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emission of secondary electrons is of importance in many branches of fundamental and applied science. It is widely applied in the electron microscope for the investigation of the structure and electronic state of solid surfaces and particle detection in electron multiplier devices, and generally it is related to the energy dissipation of energetic particles moving inside a solid. The process of secondary electron emission is a complex physical phenomenon, difficult to measure experimentally and treat theoretically with satisfactory accuracy. The secondary electron spectrum measured with single electron spectroscopy does not provide detailed information of the energy loss processes responsible for the emission of secondary electrons. This information can be accessed when two correlated electron pairs are measured in coincidence and the pair consists of a backscattered electron after a given energy loss and a resulting emitted secondary electron. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the emission of secondary electrons, a reflection (e,2e) coincidence spectrometer named Secondary Electron Electron Energy Loss Coincidence Spectrometer (SE2ELCS) has been developed in the framework of this thesis which allows one to uncover the relation between the features in the spectra which are due to energy losses and true secondary electron emission structures. The correlated electron pairs are measured with a hemispherical mirror analyzer (HMA) and a time of flight analyzer (TOF) by employing a continuous electron beam. An effort has been made to increase the coincidence count rate by increasing the effective solid angle of the TOF analyzer and optimizing the experimental parameters to get optimum energy resolution. Double differential coincidence spectra for a number of materials namely, nearly free electron metals (Al, Si), noble metals (Ag, Au, Cu, W) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been measured using this coincidence spectrometer. The

  19. Electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Hughes, I.G.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    The electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions will be discussed. The interactions lead to the emission of a significant number of electrons. Most of these electrons have energies below 30 eV. For incident ions with innershell vacancies the emission of Auger electrons that fill these vacancies has been found to occur mainly below the surface. We will present recently measured electron energy distributions which will be used to discuss the mechanisms that lead to the emission of Auger and of low-energy electrons

  20. Highly efficient electron gun with a single-atom electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Urata, Tomohiro; Cho, Boklae; Rokuta, Eiji; Oshima, Chuhei; Terui, Yoshinori; Saito, Hidekazu; Yonezawa, Akira; Tsong, Tien T.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated highly collimated electron-beam emission from a practical electron gun with a single-atom electron source; ∼80% of the total emission current entered the electron optics. This ratio was two or three orders of magnitude higher than those of the conventional electron sources such as a cold field emission gun and a Zr/O/W Schottky gun. At the pressure of less than 1x10 -9 Pa, the authors observed stable emission of 20 nA, which generates the specimen current of 5 pA required for scanning electron microscopes

  1. Correlation of CVD Diamond Electron Emission with Film Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Baumann, P. K.; Ward, B. L.; Nemanich, R. J.; Dreifus, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Electron field emission from metals is affected by surface morphology and the properties of any dielectric coating. Recent results have demonstrated low field electron emission from p-type diamond, and photoemission measurements have identified surface treatments that result in a negative electron affinity (NEA). In this study, the field emission from diamond is correlated with surface treatment, surface roughness, and film properties (doping and defects). Electron emission measurements are reported on diamond films synthesized by plasma CVD. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy indicates that the CVD films exhibit a NEA after exposure to hydrogen plasma. Field emission current-voltage measurements indicate "threshold voltages" ranging from approximately 20 to 100 V/micron.

  2. Electron emission from individual indium arsenide semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, E.C.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Roest, A.L.; Kaiser, M.A.; Oosterkamp, T.H.; Jonge, de N.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure was developed to mount individual semiconductor indium arsenide nanowires onto tungsten support tips to serve as electron field-emission sources. The electron emission properties of the single nanowires were precisely determined by measuring the emission pattern, current-voltage curve,

  3. Predamage threshold electron emission from insulator and semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekhaus, W.J.; Kinney, J.H.; Milam, D.

    1985-01-01

    Predamage electron emission shows a dependence on fluence, bandgap and wavelength consistent with multiphoton excitation across the bandgap and inconsistent with avalanche ionization and thermionic emission models. The electron emission scales with pulselength as 1/√T. 6 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  4. Electron emission and work function-Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shigehiko

    2005-01-01

    The history of electron emission is reviewed from a standpoint of the work function and the applications. For years, in the field of thermionic emission, a great deal of efforts have been devoted to search for low work function materials with a high melting temperature, while the reduction of the local change in time of the work function rather than the work function itself has been the main issue of field emission investigations. High brightness and long life are the central targets of the emission material investigations for the scientific instrument application, while high current density and low power consumption are the guiding principles for the display application. In both fields, field emission has recently become dominant in research and development. In all above cases, the main issue in the future research works will be to analyze the work function in atomic level and thereby to understand the mechanism of the work function reduction by atom adsorption, the change in time of the local work function leading to the current fluctuation, and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic work functions. Our attempt is discussed, where the work function in atomic level is measured by utilizing the STM technique and it is made clear how far the work function in atomic level extends its influence over the neighboring sites. As a result, a simple relationship is established between microscopic and macroscopic work functions

  5. High field electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1985-12-01

    High field electron linacs are considered as potential candidates to provide very high energies beyond LEP. Since almost twenty years not much improvement has been made on linac technologies as they have been mostly kept at low and medium energies to be used as injectors for storage rings. Today, both their efficiency and their performances are being reconsidered, and for instance the pulse compression sheme developed at SLAC and introduced to upgrade the energy of that linac is a first step towards a new generation of linear accelerators. However this is not enough in terms of power consumption and more development is needed to improve both the efficiency of accelerating structures and the performances of RF power sources

  6. Electron emission from Inconel under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1979-01-01

    Electron yields from clean and oxidized Inconel 625 surfaces have been measured for H + ,H 2 + ,He + ,O + and Ar + ions at normal incidence in the energy range 1.5 to 40 keV. These measurements have been made under ultrahigh vacuum and the samples were freed of surface contaminants by bombarding with high doses of either 20 keV H 2 + or 30 keV Ar + ions. Differences in yields of oxidized versus clean surfaces are explained in terms of differences in the probability that electrons internally excited escape upon reaching the surface. (author)

  7. Secondary electron emission with molecular projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroneberger, K.; Rothard, H.; Koschar, P.; Lorenzen, P.; Kemmler, J.; Keller, N.; Maier, R.; Groeneveld, K.O.; Clouvas, A.; Veje, E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present results for the secondary electron emission (SEE) from thin foil targets, induced by both molecular ions and their atomic constituents as projectiles. The Sternglass theory for kinetic SEE states a proportionality between γ and the electronic stopping power, S e , which has been verified in various experiments. With comparing secondary electron (SE) yields induced by molecular projectiles to those induced by monoatomic projectiles, it is therefore possible to test models for the energy loss of molecular or cluster projectiles. Since the atomic constituents of the molecule are repelled from each other due to Coulomb explosion (superimposed by multiple scattering) while traversing the solid, it is interesting to measure the residual mutual influence on SEE and S e with increasing internuclear separation. This can only be achieved with thin foils, where (as in the present case) the SE-yields from the exit surface can be measured separately. The authors measured the SE-yields from the entrance (γ B ) and exit (γ F ) surfaces of thin C- and Al-foils (150 to 1,000 angstrom) with CO + , C + and O + (15 to 85 keV/u) and H 2 + and H + (0.3 to 1.2 MeV/u). The molecular effect defined as the ratio R(γ) between the yields induced by molecular projectiles and the sum of those induced by their atomic constituents was calculated. The energy dependence of R(γ) can be well represented by the calculated energy loss ratio of di-proton-clusters by Brandt. This supports Brandt's model for the energy loss of clusters

  8. Electron emission from materials at low excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urma, N.; Kijek, M.; Millar, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: An experimental system has been designed and developed with the purpose of measuring the total electron emission yield from materials at low energy excitation. In the first instance the reliability of the system was checked by measuring the total electron emission yield for a well defined surface (aluminium 99.45%). The obtained data was in the expected range given by the literature, and consequently the system will be used further for measuring the total electron yield for a range of materials with interest in the instrumentation industry. We intend to measure the total electron emission yield under electron bombardment as a function of incident electron energy up to 1200 eV, angle of incidence, state of the surface and environment to which the surface has been exposed. Dependence of emission on total electron irradiated dose is also of interest. For many practical application of the 'Secondary Electron Emission', the total electron yield is desired to be as large as possible. The above phenomenon has practical applicability in electron multiplier tube and Scanning electron microscopy - when by means of the variation of the yield of the emitted electrons one may produce visible images of small sample areas. The electron multiplier tube, is a device which utilises the above effect to detect and amplify both single particles and low currents streams of charged particles. The majority of electron tubes use electrons with low energy, hundreds of eV. Not a lot has been published in the literature about this regime and also about the emission when the impinging electrons have small energy, up to 1 KeV. The information obtained from the experimental measurements concerning the total electron emission yield is used to asses the investigated materials as a potential electron emitting surfaces or dynodes in an electron multiplier tube

  9. Ultrafast Plasmonic Electron Emission from Ag Nanolayers with Different Roughness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Márton, I.; Ayadi, V.; Rácz, P.; Stefaniuk, T.; Wróbel, Piotr; Földi, P.; Dombi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), s. 811-816 ISSN 1557-1955 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Nanoparticles * Ultrafast phenomena * Electron emission Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2016

  10. Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in E×B Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny Raitses, Igor D. Kaganovich, Alexander Khrabrov, Dmytro Sydorenko, Nathaniel J. Fisch and Andrei Smolyakov

    2011-02-10

    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.

  11. Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in E x B Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Khrabrov, Alexander; Sydorenko, Dmytro; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Smolyakov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.

  12. Development of wave length-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes - an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Masami; Koike, Masato; Fukushima, Kurio; Kimura, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Two types of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray spectrometers, a high-dispersion type and a conventional one, for transmission electron microscopes were constructed. Those spectrometers were used to study the electronic states of valence electrons (bonding electrons). Both spectrometers extended the acceptable energy regions to higher than 2000 eV. The best energy resolution of 0.08 eV was obtained for an Al L-emission spectrum by using the high-dispersion type spectrometer. By using the spectrometer, C K-emission of carbon allotropes, Cu L-emission of Cu 1-x Zn x alloys and Pt M-emission spectra were presented. The FWHM value of 12 eV was obtained for the Pt Mα-emission peak. The performance of the conventional one was also presented for ZnS and a section specimen of a multilayer device. W-M and Si-K emissions were clearly resolved. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has an advantage for obtaining spectra from a single crystalline specimen with a defined crystal setting. As an example of anisotropic soft X-ray emission, C K-emission spectra of single crystalline graphite with different crystal settings were presented. From the spectra, density of states of π- and σ-bondings were separately derived. These results demonstrated a method to analyse the electronic states of valence electrons of materials in the nanometre scale based on TEM. (author)

  13. Diagnosis of mildly relativistic electron velocity distributions by electron cyclotron emission in the Alcator C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.

    1986-09-01

    Mildly relativistic electron velocity distributions are diagnosed from measurements of the first few electron cyclotron emission harmonics in the Alcator C tokamak. The approach employs a vertical viewing chord through the center of the tokamak plasma terminating at a compact, high-performance viewing dump. The cyclotron emission spectra obtained in this way are dominated by frequency downshifts due to the relativistic mass increase, which discriminates the electrons by their total energy. In this way a one-to-one correspondence between the energy and the emission frequency is accomplished in the absence of harmonic superpositions. The distribution, described by f/sub p/, the line-averaged phase space density, and Λ, the anisotropy factor, is determined from the ratio of the optically thin harmonics or polarizations. Diagnosis of spectra in the second and the third harmonic range of frequencies obtained during lower hybrid heating, current drive, and low density ohmic discharges are carried out, using different methods depending on the degree of harmonic superposition present in the spectrum and the availability of more than one ratio measurement. Discussions of transient phenomena, the radiation temperature measurement from the optically thick first harmonic, and the measurements compared to the angular hard x-ray diagnostic results illuminate the capabilities of the vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

  14. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Langendorf, S. J.; Walker, M. L. R.; Keidar, M.

    2015-04-01

    In particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC MCC) simulations and in an experiment we study sheath formation over an emissive floating Al2O3 plate in a direct current discharge plasma at argon gas pressure 10-4 Torr. The discharge glow is maintained by the beam electrons emitted from a negatively biased hot cathode. We observe three types of sheaths near the floating emissive plate and the transition between them is driven by changing the negative bias. The Debye sheath appears at lower voltages, when secondary electron emission is negligible. With increasing applied voltage, secondary electron emission switches on and a first transition to a new sheath type, beam electron emission (BEE), takes place. For the first time we find this specific regime of sheath operation near the floating emissive surface. In this regime, the potential drop over the plate sheath is about four times larger than the temperature of plasma electrons. The virtual cathode appears near the emissive plate and its modification helps to maintain the BEE regime within some voltage range. Further increase of the applied voltage U initiates the second smooth transition to the plasma electron emission sheath regime and the ratio Δφs/Te tends to unity with increasing U. The oscillatory behavior of the emissive sheath is analyzed in PIC MCC simulations. A plasmoid of slow electrons is formed near the plate and transported to the bulk plasma periodically with a frequency of about 25 kHz.

  15. X-ray emission reduction and photon dose lowering by energy loss of fast electrons induced by return current during the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser on a metal solid target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.

    2018-04-01

    During the interaction of a short-pulse high-intensity laser with the preplasma produced by the pulse's pedestal in front of a high-Z metal solid target, high-energy electrons are produced, which in turn create an X-ray source by interacting with the atoms of the converter target. The current brought by the hot electrons is almost completely neutralized by a return current j → driven by the background electrons of the conductive target, and the force exerted on the hot electrons by the electric field E → which induces Ohmic heating j → .E → , produced by the background electrons, reduces the energy of the hot electrons and thus lowers the X-ray emission and photon dose. This effect is analyzed here by means of a simple 1-D temperature model which contains the most significant terms of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with electron multiple scattering, and the energy equations of ions, hot, and cold electrons are then solved numerically. This Ohmic heating energy loss fraction τOh is introduced as a corrective term in an improved photon dose model. For instance, for a ps laser pulse with 10 μm spot size, the dose obtained with a tantalum target is reduced by less than about 10% to 40% by the Ohmic heating, depending upon the plasma scale length, target thickness, laser parameters, and in particular its spot size. The laser and plasma parameters may be optimized to limit the effect of Ohmic heating, for instance at a small plasma scale length or small laser spot size. Conversely, others regimes not suitable for dose production are identified. For instance, the resistive heating is enhanced in a foam target or at a long plasma scale length and high laser spot size and intensity, as the mean emission angle θ0 of the incident hot electron bunch given by the ponderomotive force is small; thus, the dose produced by a laser interacting in a gas jet may be inhibited under these circumstances. The resistive heating may also be maximized in order to reduce

  16. Electron emission from MOS electron emitters with clean and cesium covered gold surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunver; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Johansson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) electron emitters consisting of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier and a Ti (1 nm)/Au(7 nm) top-electrode, with an active area of 1 cm(2) have been produced and studied with surface science techniques under UHV (ultra high vacuum) conditions and their emission...... characteristics have been investigated. It is known, that deposition of an alkali metal on the emitting surface lowers the work function and increases the emission efficiency. For increasing Cs coverages the surface has been characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS...

  17. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  18. Analysis of recent results of electron cyclotron emission measurements on T.F.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    Recently reported measurements of the electron cyclotron emission from the TFR Tokamak plasma are analyzed and compared to theoretical predictions. The line shape of an optically thick harmonic in a vertical observation is explained by wall reflections, plasma-detector arrangement and reabsorption. Non thermal emission at the electron plasma frequency is related to the presence of a high energy tail in the electron distribution function and might be the cause of the observed reduced runaway creation rate

  19. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  20. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  1. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  2. Stimulated emission of photoexcited polarized electrons from GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Melikyan, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of electric field on the emission of photoexcited polarized electrons is investigated. The thermalization of excited electrons is shown to be prevented at the field intensity in semiconductor of about 3 kV/cm. As a consequence the quantum yield grows up to unity. With the increase of the output energy of electrons the effective operation time of photocathode also increases

  3. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) Facility in BTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cik Rohaida Che Hak; Foo, C.T.; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman

    2015-01-01

    Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) provides ultra-high resolution imaging at low accelerating voltages and small working distances. The GeminisSEM 500, a new FESEM imaging facility will be installed soon in MTEC, BTI. It provides resolution of the images is as low as 0.6 nm at 15 kV and 1.2 nm at 1 kV, allowing examination of the top surface of nano powders, nano film and nano fiber in the wide range of applications such as mineralogy, ceramics, polymer, metallurgy, electronic devices, chemistry, physics and life sciences. This system is equipped with several detectors to detect various signals such as secondary electrons (SE) detector for topographic information and back-scattered electrons (BSE) detector for materials composition contrast. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with detector energy resolution of < 129 eV and detection limit in the range of 1000-3000 ppm coupled with FE-SEM is used to determine the chemical composition of micro-features including boron (B) to uranium (U). Wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (WDS) which has detector resolution of 2-20 eV and detection limit of 30-300 ppm coupled with FE-SEM is used to detect elements that cannot be resolved with EDS. The ultra-high resolution imaging combined with the high sensitivity WDS helps to resolve the thorium and rare earth elemental analysis. (author)

  4. Negative ion emission at field electron emission from amorphous (alpha-C:H) carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Bernatskij, D P; Ivanov-Omskij, V I; Pavlov, V G; Zvonareva, T K

    2001-01-01

    The study on the electrons field emission from the plane cathode surface on the basis of the amorphous carbon film (alpha-C:H) is carried out. The methodology, making it possible to accomplish simultaneously the registration of the emission currents and visually observe the distribution of the emission centers on the plane emitter surface is developed. The analysis of the oscillograms indicated that apart from the proper electron constituent the negative ions of hydrogen (H sup - and H sub 2 sup -), carbon (C sup -) and hydrocarbon (CH sub n sup -) are observed. The ions emission is connected with the processes of formation and degradation of the local emission centers

  5. Monte Carlo calculation of secondary electron emission from carbon-surface by obliquely incident particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Kaoru; Kawata, Jun; Mori, Ichiro

    1990-01-01

    Incidence angle dependences of secondary electron emission from a carbon surface by low energy electron and hydrogen atom are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations on the kinetic emission model. The calculation shows very small increase or rather decrease of the secondary electron yield with oblique incidence. It is explained in terms of not only multiple elastic collisions of incident particles with the carbon atoms but also small penetration depth of the particles comparable with the escape depth of secondary electrons. In addition, the two types of secondary electron emission are distinguished by using the secondary electron yield statistics; one is the emission due to trapped particles in the carbon, and the other is that due to backscattered particles. The high-yield component of the statistics on oblique incidence is more suppressed than those on normal incidence. (author)

  6. Delayed electron emission in strong-field driven tunnelling from a metallic nanotip in the multi-electron regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Schnepp, Sascha; Hafner, Christian; Hengsberger, Matthias; Kim, Dong Eon; Kling, Matthias F.; Landsman, Alexandra; Gallmann, Lukas; Osterwalder, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Illuminating a nano-sized metallic tip with ultrashort laser pulses leads to the emission of electrons due to multiphoton excitations. As optical fields become stronger, tunnelling emission directly from the Fermi level becomes prevalent. This can generate coherent electron waves in vacuum leading to a variety of attosecond phenomena. Working at high emission currents where multi-electron effects are significant, we were able to characterize the transition from one regime to the other. Specifically, we found that the onset of laser-driven tunnelling emission is heralded by the appearance of a peculiar delayed emission channel. In this channel, the electrons emitted via laser-driven tunnelling emission are driven back into the metal, and some of the electrons reappear in the vacuum with some delay time after undergoing inelastic scattering and cascading processes inside the metal. Our understanding of these processes gives insights on attosecond tunnelling emission from solids and should prove useful in designing new types of pulsed electron sources. PMID:27786287

  7. Z1 dependence of ion-induced electron emission from aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.; Oliva-Florio, A.

    1980-01-01

    We have measured the electron emission yields γ of clean aluminum under bombardment with H + , H 2 + , D + , D 2 + , He + , B + , C + , N + , N 2 + , O + , O 2 + , F + , Ne + , S + , Cl + , Ar + , Kr + , and Xe + in the energy range 1.2--50 keV. The clean surfaces were prepared by in situ evaporation of high-purity Al under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. It is found that kinetic electron emission yields γ/sub k/, obtained after subtracting from the measured γ a contribution due to potential emission, are roughly proportional to the electronic stopping powers, for projectiles lighter than Al. For heavier projectiles there is a sizable contribution to electron emission from collisions involving rapidly recoiling target atoms, which increases with the mass of the projectile, and which dominates the threshold and near-threshold behavior of kinetic emission. The results, together with recently reported data on Auger electron emission from ion-bombarded Al show that the mechanism proposed by Parilis and Kishinevskii of inner-shell excitation and subsequent Auger decay is negligible for light ions and probably small for heavy ions on Al and in our energy range. We thus conclude that kinetic electron emission under bombardment by low-energy ions results mainly from the escape of excited valence electrons

  8. Ion-induced electron emission from clean metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Alonso, E.V.; Ferron, J.; Oliva-Florio, A.; Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche

    1979-01-01

    We report recent experimental work on electron emission from clean polycrystalline metal surfaces under ion bombardment. We critically discuss existing theories and point out the presently unsolved problems. (orig.)

  9. Study of electronic field emission from large surfaces under static operating conditions and hyper-frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.

    1997-09-01

    The enhanced electronic field emission from large area metallic surfaces lowers performances of industrial devices that have to sustain high electric field under vacuum. Despite of numerous investigations in the past, the mechanisms of such an emission have never been well clarified. Recently, research in our laboratory has pointed out the importance played by conducting sites (particles and protrusions). A refined geometrical model, called superposed protrusions model has been proposed to explain the enhanced emission by local field enhancement. As a logical continuation, the present work aims at testing this model and, in the same time, investigating the means to suppress the emission where it is undesirable. Thus, we have showed: the cause of current fluctuations in a continuous field regime (DC), the identity of emission characteristics (β, A e ) in both radiofrequency (RF) and DC regimes, the effectiveness of a thermal treatment by extern high density electronic bombardment, the effectiveness of a mechanical treatment by high pressure rinsing with ultra pure water, the mechanisms and limits of an in situ RF processing. Furthermore, the electronic emission from insulating particles has also been studied concurrently with a spectral analysis of the associated luminous emission. Finally, the refined geometrical model for conducting sites is reinforced while another model is proposed for some insulating sites. Several emission suppressing treatments has been explored and validated. At last, the characteristic of a RF pulsed field emitted electron beam has been checked for the first time as a possible application of such a field emission. (author)

  10. Electron cyclotron emission measurement in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.

    1991-06-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from Tore-Supra is measured with Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Calibration methods, essential for this diagnostic, are developed allowing the determination of electron temperature in the plasma. In particular the feasibility of Fabry-Perot interferometer calibration by an original method is demonstrated. A simulation code is developed for modelling non-thermal electron population in these discharges using measurements in non-inductive current generation regime [fr

  11. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knápek, Alexandr, E-mail: knapek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic); Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel [Department of Physics, FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technická 8, Brno (Czech Republic); Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  12. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  13. Electrically induced spontaneous emission in open electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rulin; Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chiyung; Computation Algorithms Division (CSRC) Team; Theoretical; Computational Chemistry (HKU) Collaboration

    A quantum mechanical approach is formulated for simulation of electroluminescence process in open electronic system. Based on nonequilibrium Green's function quantum transport equations and combining with photon-electron interaction, this method is used to describe electrically induced spontaneous emission caused by electron-hole recombination. The accuracy and reliability of simulation depends critically on correct description of the electronic band structure and the electron occupancy in the system. In this work, instead of considering electron-hole recombination in discrete states in the previous work, we take continuous states into account to simulate the spontaneous emission in open electronic system, and discover that the polarization of emitted photon is closely related to its propagation direction. Numerical studies have been performed to silicon nanowire-based P-N junction with different bias voltage.

  14. Modeling of the electron distribution based on bremsstrahlung emission during lower hybrid current drive on PLT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J.E.; von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Chu, T.K.; Efthimion, P.; Fisch, N.; Hooke, W.; Hosea, J.; Jobes, F.

    1985-03-01

    Lower hybrid current drive requires the generation of a high energy electron tail anisotropic in velocity. Measurements of bremsstrahlung emission produced by this tail are compared with the calculated emission from reasonable model distributions. The physical basis and the sensitivity of this modeling process are described and the plasma properties of current driven discharges which can be derived from the model are discussed.

  15. Modeling of the electron distribution based on bremsstrahlung emission during lower hybrid current drive on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.E.; von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.

    1985-03-01

    Lower hybrid current drive requires the generation of a high energy electron tail anisotropic in velocity. Measurements of bremsstrahlung emission produced by this tail are compared with the calculated emission from reasonable model distributions. The physical basis and the sensitivity of this modeling process are described and the plasma properties of current driven discharges which can be derived from the model are discussed

  16. Electron collision effects on the bremsstrahlung emission in Lorentzian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Kato, Daiji

    2009-06-01

    The electron-electron collision effects on the electron-ion bemsstranhlung process are investigated in warm Lorentzian plasmas. The effective electron-ion interaction potential is obtained by including the far-field terms caused by the electron-electron collisions with the effective Debye length in Lorentzian plasmas. The bremsstranhlung radiation cross section is obtained as a function of the electron energy, photon energy, collision frequency, spectral index, and Debye length using the Born approximation for the initial and final states of the projectile electron. It is shown that the non-Maxwellian character suppresses the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section. It is also shown that the electron-electron collision effect enhances the bremsstrahlung emission spectrum. In addition, the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section decreases with an increase of the plasma temperature. (author)

  17. Surfing Silicon Nanofacets for Cold Cathode Electron Emission Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tanmoy; Kumar, Mohit; Saini, Mahesh; Ghatak, Jay; Satpati, Biswarup; Som, Tapobrata

    2017-11-08

    Point sources exhibit low threshold electron emission due to local field enhancement at the tip. In the case of silicon, however, the realization of tip emitters has been hampered by unwanted oxidation, limiting the number of emission sites and the overall current. In contrast to this, here, we report the fascinating low threshold (∼0.67 V μm -1 ) cold cathode electron emission from silicon nanofacets (Si-NFs). The ensembles of nanofacets fabricated at different time scales, under low energy ion impacts, yield tunable field emission with a Fowler-Nordheim tunneling field in the range of 0.67-4.75 V μm -1 . The local probe surface microscopy-based tunneling current mapping in conjunction with Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements revealed that the valleys and a part of the sidewalls of the nanofacets contribute more to the field emission process. The observed lowest turn-on field is attributed to the absence of native oxide on the sidewalls of the smallest facets as well as their lowest work function. In addition, first-principle density functional theory-based simulation revealed a crystal orientation-dependent work function of Si, which corroborates well with our experimental observations. The present study demonstrates a novel way to address the origin of the cold cathode electron emission sites from Si-NFs fabricated at room temperature. In principle, the present methodology can be extended to probe the cold cathode electron emission sites from any nanostructured material.

  18. Noise in secondary electron emission: the low yield case

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 361-365 ISSN 0022-0744 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1065304 Keywords : secondary electrons * noise * SEM image noise * secondary emission noise * statistics of secondary electrons * non-Poisson factor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2005

  19. Potential applications of electron emission membranes in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilevych, Yevgen [Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany); University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Brunner, Stefan E. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Chan, Hong Wah; Charbon, Edoardo [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Graaf, Harry van der, E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hagen, Cornelis W. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nützel, Gert; Pinto, Serge D. [Photonis, Roden (Netherlands); Prodanović, Violeta [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Rotman, Daan [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santagata, Fabio [State Key Lab for Solid State Lighti Changzhou base, F7 R& D HUB 1, Science and Education Town, Changzhou 213161, Jangsu Province (China); Sarro, Lina; Schaart, Dennis R. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Sinsheimer, John; Smedley, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Tao, Shuxia; Theulings, Anne M.M.G. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-11

    With a miniaturised stack of transmission dynodes, a noise free amplifier is being developed for the detection of single free electrons, with excellent time- and 2D spatial resolution and efficiency. With this generic technology, a new family of detectors for individual elementary particles may become possible. Potential applications of such electron emission membranes in medicine are discussed.

  20. Development of Field-Emission Electron Gun from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hozumi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Aiming to use a narrow energy-spread electron beam easily and low costly on injector electron guns, we have been tested field emission cathodes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Experiments for these three years brought us important suggestions and a few rules of thumb. Now at last, anode current of 3.0 [A/cm2

  1. Electron emission from tungsten surface induced by neon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Zeng, Lixia; Zhao, Yongtao; Liu, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqing; Li, Fuli; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Jieru; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Li, Yongfeng; Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The electron emission from W surface induced by Ne q+ has been measured. For the same charge state, the electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. Meanwhile, the effect of the potential energy of projectile has been found obviously. Our results give the critical condition for ''trampoline effect''

  2. Electron emission from tungsten surface induced by neon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Zeng, Lixia; Zhao, Yongtao; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Jieru; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Li, Yongfeng; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqing; Li, Fuli

    2014-04-01

    The electron emission from W surface induced by Neq+ has been measured. For the same charge state, the electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. Meanwhile, the effect of the potential energy of projectile has been found obviously. Our results give the critical condition for "trampoline effect".

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of secondary electron emission due to ion beam milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahady, Kyle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tan, Shida [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Greenzweig, Yuval [Intel Israel Ltd., Haifa (Israel); Livengood, Richard [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Raveh, Amir [Intel Israel Ltd., Haifa (Israel); Fowlkes, Jason D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rack, Philip [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation study of secondary electron emission resulting from focused ion beam milling of a copper target. The basis of this study is a simulation code which simulates ion induced excitation and emission of secondary electrons, in addition to simulating focused ion beam sputtering and milling. This combination of features permits the simulation of the interaction between secondary electron emission, and the evolving target geometry as the ion beam sputters material. Previous ion induced SE Monte Carlo simulation methods have been restricted to predefined target geometries, while the dynamic target in the presented simulations makes this study relevant to image formation in ion microscopy, and chemically assisted ion beam etching, where the relationship between sputtering, and its effects on secondary electron emission, is important. We focus on a copper target, and validate our simulation against experimental data for a range of: noble gas ions, ion energies, ion/substrate angles and the energy distribution of the secondary electrons. We then provide a detailed account of the emission of secondary electrons resulting from ion beam milling; we quantify both the evolution of the yield as high aspect ratio valleys are milled, as well as the emission of electrons within these valleys that do not escape the target, but which are important to the secondary electron contribution to chemically assisted ion induced etching.

  4. Secondary Electron Emission Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is a vital part of the active protection of the LHC accelerators' elements. It should provide the number of particles lost from the primary hadron beam by measuring the radiation field induced by their interaction with matter surrounding the beam pipe. The LHC BLM system will use ionization chambers as standard detectors but in the areas where very high dose rates are expected, the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) chambers will be employed because of their high linearity, low sensitivity and fast response. The SEM needs a high vacuum for proper operation and has to be functional for up to 20 years, therefore all the components were designed according to the UHV requirements and a getter pump was included. The SEM electrodes are made of Ti because of its Secondary Emission Yield (SEY) stability. The sensitivity of the SEM was modeled in Geant4 via the Photo-Absorption Ionization module together with custom parameterization of the very low energy secondary electron production. ...

  5. Experimental study on secondary electron emission characteristics of Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenghua; Liu, Yudong; Wang, Pengcheng; Liu, Weibin; Pei, Guoxi; Zeng, Lei; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2018-02-01

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) of a surface is the origin of the multipacting effect which could seriously deteriorate beam quality and even perturb the normal operation of particle accelerators. Experimental measurements on secondary electron yield (SEY) for different materials and coatings have been developed in many accelerator laboratories. In fact, the SEY is just one parameter of secondary electron emission characteristics which include spatial and energy distribution of emitted electrons. A novel experimental apparatus was set up in China Spallation Neutron Source, and an innovative method was applied to obtain the whole characteristics of SEE. Taking Cu as the sample, secondary electron yield, its dependence on beam injection angle, and the spatial and energy distribution of secondary electrons were achieved with this measurement device. The method for spatial distribution measurement was first proposed and verified experimentally. This contribution also tries to give all the experimental results a reasonable theoretical analysis and explanation.

  6. Nanopillar arrays on semiconductor membranes as electron emission amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Blick, Robert H

    2008-03-05

    A new transmission-type electron multiplier was fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material by integrating an array of one-dimensional (1D) silicon nanopillars onto a two-dimensional (2D) silicon membrane. Primary electrons are injected into the nanopillar-membrane (NPM) system from the flat surface of the membrane, while electron emission from the nanopillars is probed by an anode. The secondary electron yield (SEY) from the nanopillars in the current device is found to be about 1.8 times that of the plain silicon membrane. This gain in electron number is slightly enhanced by the electric field applied from the anode. Further optimization of the dimensions of the NPM and an application of field emission promise an even higher gain for detector applications and allow for probing of electronic/mechanical excitations in an NPM system stimulated by incident particles or radiation.

  7. Secondary Electron Emission Materials for Transmission Dynodes in Novel Photomultipliers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xia Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary electron emission materials are reviewed with the aim of providing guidelines for the future development of novel transmission dynodes. Materials with reflection secondary electron yield higher than three and transmission secondary electron yield higher than one are tabulated for easy reference. Generations of transmission dynodes are listed in the order of the invention time with a special focus on the most recent atomic-layer-deposition synthesized transmission dynodes. Based on the knowledge gained from the survey of secondary election emission materials with high secondary electron yield, an outlook of possible improvements upon the state-of-the-art transmission dynodes is provided.

  8. Tunneling-Electron-Induced Light Emission from Single Gold Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Arthur; Li, Shaowei; Czap, Gregory; Ho, W

    2016-09-14

    The coupling of tunneling electrons with the tip-nanocluster-substrate junction plasmon was investigated by monitoring light emission in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Gold atoms were evaporated onto the ∼5 Å thick Al2O3 thin film grown on the NiAl (110) surface where they formed nanoclusters 3-7 nm wide. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of these nanoclusters revealed quantum-confined electronic states. Spatially resolved photon imaging showed localized emission hot spots. Size dependent study and light emission from nanocluster dimers further support the viewpoint that coupling of tunneling electrons to the junction plasmon is the main radiative mechanism. These results showed the potential of the STM to reveal the electronic and optical properties of nanoscale metallic systems in the confined geometry of the tunnel junction.

  9. Electron field emission from screen-printed graphene/DWCNT composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Pan, Rong; Chen, Yiwei; Piao, Xianqin; Qian, Min; Feng, Tao; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The field emission performance improved significantly when adding graphene into DWCNTs as the emission material. ► We set up a model of pure DWCNT films and graphene/DWCNT composite films. ► We discussed the contact barrier between emission films and electric substrates by considering the Fermi energies of silver, DWCNT and graphene. - Abstract: The electron field emission properties of graphene/double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) composite films prepared by screen printing have been systematically studied. Comparing with the pure DWCNT films and pure graphene films, a significant enhancement of electron emission performance of the composite films are observed, such as lower turn-on field, higher emission current density, higher field enhancement factor, and long-term stability. The optimized composite films with 20% weight ratio of graphene show the best electron emission performance with a low turn-on field of 0.62 V μm −1 (at 1 μA cm −2 ) and a high field enhancement factor β of 13,000. A model of the graphene/DWCNT composite films is proposed, which indicate that a certain amount of graphene will contribute the electron transmission in the silver substrate/composite films interface and in the interior of composite films, and finally improve the electron emission performance of the graphene/DWCNT composite films.

  10. Schemes of Superradiant Emission from Electron Beams and "Spin-Flip Emission of Radiation"

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A

    2005-01-01

    A unified analysis for Superradiant emission from bunched electron beams in various kinds of radiation scheme is presented. Radiation schemes that can be described by the formulation include Pre-bunched FEL (PB-FEL), Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR), Smith-Purcell Radiation, Cerenkov-Radiation, Transition-Radiation and more. The theory is based on mode excitation formulation - either discrete or continuous (the latter - in open structures). The discrete mode formulation permits simple evaluation of the spatially coherent power and spectral power of the source. These figures of merit of the radiation source are useful for characterizing and comparing the performance of different radiation schemes. When the bunched electron beam emits superradiantly, these parameters scale like the square of the number of electrons, orders of magnitude more than spontaneous emission. The formulation applies to emission from single electron bunches, periodically bunched beams, or emission from a finite number of bunches in a...

  11. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo Torres; Cordero, Marlon Diaz; Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-01-01

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications

  12. Secondary electron emission from metals and semi-conductor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Susumu; Kanaya, Koichi

    1979-01-01

    Attempt was made to present the sufficient solution of the secondary electron yield of metals and semiconductor compounds except insulators, applying the free electron scattering theory to the absorption of secondary electrons generated within a solid target. The paper is divided into the sections describing absorption coefficient and escape depth, quantitative characteristics of secondary yield, angular distribution of secondary electron emission, effect of incident angle to secondary yield, secondary electron yield transmitted, and lateral distribution of secondary electron emission, besides introduction and conclusion. The conclusions are as follows. Based on the exponential power law for screened atomic potential, secondary electron emission due to both primary and backscattered electrons penetrating into metallic elements and semi-conductive compounds is expressed in terms of the ionization loss in the first collision for escaping secondary electrons. The maximum yield and the corresponding primary energy can both consistently be derived as the functions of three parameters: atomic number, first ionization energy and backscattering coefficient. The yield-energy curve as a function of the incident energy and the backscattering coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental results. The energy dependence of the yield in thin films and the lateral distribution of secondary yield are derived as the functions of the backscattering coefficient and the primary energy. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Axial ion-electron emission microscopy of IC radiation hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, B. L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Walsh, D. S.; Swenson, D.

    2002-05-01

    A new system for performing radiation effects microscopy (REM) has been developed at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque. This system combines two entirely new concepts in accelerator physics and nuclear microscopy. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac is used to boost the energy of ions accelerated by a conventional Tandem Van de Graaff-Pelletron to velocities of 1.9 MeV/amu. The electronic stopping power for heavy ions is near a maximum at this velocity, and their range is ˜20 μm in Si. These ions therefore represent the most ionizing form of radiation in nature, and are nearly ideal for performing single event effects testing of integrated circuits. Unfortunately, the energy definition of the RFQ-boosted ions is rather poor (˜ a few %), which makes problematic the focussing of such ions to the submicron spots required for REM. To circumvent this problem, we have invented ion electron emission microscopy (IEEM). One can perform REM with the IEEM system without focussing or scanning the ion beam. This is because the position on the sample where each ion strikes is determined by projecting ion-induced secondary electrons at high magnification onto a single electron position sensitive detector. This position signal is then correlated with each REM event. The IEEM system is now mounted along the beam line in an axial geometry so that the ions pass right through the electron detector (which is annular), and all of the electrostatic lenses used for projection. The beam then strikes the sample at normal incidence which results in maximum ion penetration and removes a parallax problem experienced in an earlier system. Details of both the RFQ-booster and the new axial IEEM system are given together with some of the initial results of performing REM on Sandia-manufactured radiation hardened integrated circuits.

  14. Investigation of pyroelectric electron emission from monodomain lithium niobate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourim, El Mostafa; Moon, Chang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Woon; Kyeong Yoo, In

    2006-01-01

    The behaviors of thermally stimulated electron emission from pyroelectric monodomain lithium niobate single crystal (LiNbO 3 ) were investigated by utilizing a Si p-n junction photodiode as electron detector and a receptive electron beam resist (E-beam resist) as electron collector. In high vacuum (10 -6 Torr), the pyroelectric electron emission (PEE) was found to depend on the exposed emitting polar crystal surface (+Z face or -Z face) and was significantly influenced by the emitter-electron receiver gap distances. Thus, the PEE from +Z face was detected during heating and was activated, in small gaps ( 2 mm) the emission was simply mastered by field emission effect. Whereas, The PEE from -Z face was detected during cooling and was solely due to the field ionization effect. Therewith, for small gaps ( 2 mm) PEE was governed by field ionization generating a soft and continuous plasma ambient atmosphere. Significant decrease of electron emission current was observed from +Z face after successive thermal cycles. A fast and fully emission recovery was established after a brief exposure of crystal to a poor air vacuum of 10 -1 Torr

  15. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archubi, C. D.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  16. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C. D. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Silkin, V. M. [Donostia International Physics Center, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  17. Electron beam induced emission from carbon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, S.; Kammash, T.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma use as a lasing medium has many potential advantages over conventional techniques including increased power levels and greater wavelength ranges. The basic concept is to heat and then rapidly cool a plasma forcing inversion through bottleneck creation between the recombination reaction populating a given energy level and the subsequent decay processes. Much effort has been devoted to plasmas heated by lasers and pinch devices. The authors are concerned here with electron beam heated plasmas focusing on the CIV 5g-4f transition occurring at 2530 Angstroms. These studies were initiated to provide theoretical support for experiments being performed at the University of Michigan using the Michigan Electron Long-Pulse Beam Accelerator (MELBA)

  18. Ultralarge area MOS tunnel devices for electron emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2007-01-01

    density. Oxide thicknesses have been extracted by fitting a model based on Fermi-Dirac statistics to the C-V characteristics. By plotting I-V characteristics in a Fowler plot, a measure of the thickness of the oxide can be extracted from the tunnel current. These apparent thicknesses show a high degree......A comparative analysis of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been employed to characterize the thickness variations of the oxide on different length scales. Ultralarge area (1 cm(2)) ultrathin (similar to 5 nm oxide......) MOS capacitors have been fabricated to investigate their functionality and the variations in oxide thickness, with the use as future electron emission devices as the goal. I-V characteristics show very low leakage current and excellent agreement to the Fowler-Nordheim expression for the current...

  19. Data acquisition electronics for positron emission mammography (PEM) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.D.; Sebastia, A.; Cerda, J.; Esteve, R.; Mora, F.J.; Toledo, J.F.; Benlloch, J.M.; Gimenez, N.; Gimenez, M.; Lerche, Ch. W.; Pavon, N.; Sanchez, F.

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) is an innovative technique to increase sensitivity and overcome the main drawbacks of conventional X-ray screening. However, dedicated PET imaging systems demand specific hardware solutions for data acquisition and processing that can take advantage of the reduction in the number of channels. Data acquisition issues can affect PEM scanners performance and they should be exhaustively addressed in order to exploit the increment in the event count rate. This is crucial in order to reduce both the scanning time and the total injected dose. This paper presents the electronics for our PEM camera prototype that enables us to achieve very high-count rates and perform comprehensive online processing. Results about acquisition in our detector for a typical clinical setup are studied using Monte Carlo simulation of hot lesion phantoms

  20. Ballistic electron emission spectroscopy on Ag/Si devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannani, A; Bobisch, C A; Matena, M; Moeller, R [Department of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)], E-mail: amin.bannani@uni-due.de

    2008-09-17

    In this work we report on ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES) studies on epitaxial layers of silver grown on silicon surfaces, with either a Si(111)-(7 x 7) or Si(100)-(2 x 1) surface reconstruction. The experiments were done at low temperature and in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). In addition, BEES measurements on polycrystalline Ag films grown on hydrogen-terminated H:Si(111)-(1 x 1) and H:Si(100)-(2 x 1) surfaces were performed. The Schottky barrier heights were evaluated by BEES. The results are compared to the values for the barrier height reported for macroscopic Schottky diodes. We show that the barrier heights for the epitaxial films substantially differ from the values measured on polycrystalline Ag films, suggesting a strong effect of the interface on the barrier height.

  1. High emissivity coatings for high temperature application: Progress and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaodong; Li Yibin; Wang Lidong; Sun Yue; Zhang, Sam

    2009-01-01

    High emissivity coatings are widely used in many cases where heat transfers through electromagnetic radiation that arises due to the temperature of a body. Extensive theoretical and experimental efforts have been made to synthesize and investigate high emissivity coatings. The emissivity can be improved through various or combined mechanisms. The characterization of the emissivity is still a fully open problem. In this paper, we review the various mechanisms associated with the emissivity enhancement and emissivity characterization techniques. Based on these literature reviews, the prospect will be presented in the concluding remarks.

  2. Secondary electron emission of sapphire tungsten molybdenum and titanium for Maxwellian incident electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saussez-Hublet, M.-C.; Harbour, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    The second electron emission coefficient of various materials, namely titanium, molybdenum, tungsten and sapphire, has been calculated for a Maxwellian energy distribution from data for a normally incident monoenergetic beam of primary electrons. The most significant difference from the monoenergetic case occurs at low energies. In addition the influence of the incident angle of the electrons is discussed. (author)

  3. Field electron emission from dense array of microneedles of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, F.; Aoyagi, M.; Kitai, T.; Ishikawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    Characteristics of field electron emission from the dense array of microneedles of tungsten prepared on a 10-μm tungsten filament were measured at an environmental pressure of approx.1 x 10 -8 Torr (1.33 x 10 -6 Pa). Electron emission was not uniform over the filament surface, but the variation of emission current with applied voltage explicitly obeyed the Fowler-Nordheim relationship. At an emission current of approx.10 -4 A, a vacuum arc was induced that led to a permanent change in current-voltage characteristic. Current fluctuation was dependent on emitter temperature and applied voltage, and the lowest fluctuation of about 4% was routinely obtained at approx.550 K and at applied voltages several percent lower than the arc-inducing voltage. Macroscopic current density amounted to approx.20-80 mA/cm 2 at the best stability

  4. PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-02-10

    The radiation emission mechanism responsible for both type-II and type-III solar radio bursts is commonly accepted as plasma emission. Recently Ganse et al. suggested that type-II radio bursts may be enhanced when the electron foreshock geometry of a coronal mass ejection contains a double hump structure. They reasoned that the counter-streaming electron beams that exist between the double shocks may enhance the nonlinear coalescence interaction, thereby giving rise to more efficient generation of radiation. Ganse et al. employed a particle-in-cell simulation to study such a scenario. The present paper revisits the same problem with EM weak turbulence theory, and show that the fundamental (F) emission is not greatly affected by the presence of counter-streaming beams, but the harmonic (H) emission becomes somewhat more effective when the two beams are present. The present finding is thus complementary to the work by Ganse et al.

  5. Probabilistic model for the simulation of secondary electron emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Furman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed description of a model and its computational algorithm for the secondary electron emission process. The model is based on a broad phenomenological fit to data for the secondary-emission yield and the emitted-energy spectrum. We provide two sets of values for the parameters by fitting our model to two particular data sets, one for copper and the other one for stainless steel.

  6. Study of luminous emissions associated to electron emissions in radiofrequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates luminous emissions simultaneously to electron emissions and examines their features in order to better understand the field electron emission phenomenon. A RF cavity, operating at room temperature and in pulsed mode, joined to a sophisticated experimental apparatus has been especially developed. The electron and luminous emissions are investigated on cleaned or with metallic, graphitic and dielectric particles contaminated RF surfaces in order to study their influence on these phenomena. During the surface processing, unstable luminous spots glowing during one RF pulse are detected. Their apparition is promoted in the vicinity of the metallic particles or scratches. Two hypotheses could explain their origin: the presence of micro-plasmas associated to electronic explosive emission during processing or the thermal radiation of the melted metal during this emission. Stable luminous spots glowing during several RF pulses are also detected and appear to increase on RF surfaces contaminated with dielectric particles, leading to strong and explosive luminous emissions. Two interpretations are considered: the initiation of surface breakdowns on the dielectric particles or the heating by the RF field at temperatures sufficiently intense to provoke their thermal radiation then their explosion. Finally a superconducting cavity has been adapted to observe luminous spots, which differ from the former ones bu their star shape and could be associated to micro-plasmas, revealed by the starbursts observed on superconducting cavity walls. (author)

  7. Secondary Electron Emission from Plasma Processed Accelerating Cavity Grade Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basovic, Milos [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated

  8. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basovic, Milos

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated

  9. Measurements of the Secondary Electron Emission of Some Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhko, Y.; Hilleret, N.

    2013-01-01

    Charging up the surface of an insulator after beam impact can lead either to reverse sign of field between the surface and collector of electrons for case of thick sample or appearance of very high internal field for thin films. Both situations discard correct measurements of secondary electron emission (SEE) and can be avoided via reducing the beam dose. The single pulse method with pulse duration of order of tens microseconds has been used. The beam pulsing was carried out by means of an analog switch introduced in deflection plate circuit which toggles its output between "beam on" and "beam off" voltages depending on level of a digital pulse. The error in measuring the beam current for insulators with high value of SEE was significantly reduced due to the use for this purpose a titanium sample having low value of the SEE with DC method applied. Results obtained for some not coated insulators show considerable increase of the SEE after baking out at 3500C what could be explained by the change of work functi...

  10. Electron-cyclotron maser emission during solar and stellar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Radio bursts, with high brightness temperature 10 to the 10th power K and high degree of polarization, and the heating of the solar and stellar coronae during flares have been attributed to emission from the semirelativistic maser instability. In plasmas where the electron-plasma frequency, p, omega sub p, and the electron-cyclotron frequency, Omega sub e, are such that omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e 1, x-mode growth dominates while z-mode growth dominates if omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e is of order unity. The actual value of omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e at which x-mode growth dominates is shown to be dependent on the plasma temperature with x-mode growth dominating at higher omega sub p/Omega sub e as the plasma temperature increases. Observations from a set of 20 impulsive flares indicate that the derived conditions for the dominance of x-mode growth are satisfied in about 75 percent of the flares

  11. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  12. Modified Sternglass theory for the emission of secondary electrons by fast-electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suszcynsky, D.M.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Sternglass theory [Sternglass, Phys. Rev. 108, 1 (1957)] for fast-ion-induced secondary-electron emission from metals has been modified to predict the secondary-electron yield from metals impacted by energetic (several keV to about 200 keV) electrons. The primary modification of the theory accounts for the contribution of the backscattered electrons to the production of secondary electrons based on a knowledge of the backscattered-electron energy distribution. The modified theory is in reasonable agreement with recent experimental data from gold targets in the 6--30-keV electron energy range

  13. Band rejection filter for measurement of electron cyclotron emission during electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Makoto; Ohkubo, Kunizo; Kubo, Shin; Idei, Hiroshi.

    1996-05-01

    For the measurement of electron cyclotron emission from the high temperature plasma, a band rejection filter in the range of 40-60 GHz is designed to reject the 53.2 GHz signal with large amplitude from the gyrotron for the purpose of plasma electron heating. The filter developed with ten sets of three quarters-wavelength coupled by TE 111 mode of tunable resonant cavity has rejection of 50 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 500 MHz. The modified model of Tschebysheff type for the prediction of rejection is proposed. It is confirmed that the measured rejection as a function of frequency agrees well with the experimental results for small coupling hole, and also clarified that the rejection ratio increases for the large coupling hole. (author)

  14. New Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostic Based Upon the Electron Bernstein Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Taylor, G.

    1999-01-01

    Most magnetically confined plasma devices cannot take advantage of standard Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) diagnostics to measure temperature. They either operate at high density relative to their magnetic field or they do not have sufficient density and temperature to reach the blackbody condition. The standard ECE technique measures the electromagnetic waves emanating from the plasma. Here we propose to measure electron Bernstein waves (EBW) to ascertain the local electron temperature in these plasmas. The optical thickness of EBW is extremely high because it is an electrostatic wave with a large k(subscript i). One can reach the blackbody condition with a plasma density approximately equal to 10(superscript 11) cm(superscript -3) and electron temperature approximately equal to 1 eV. This makes it attractive to most plasma devices. One serious issue with using EBW is the wave accessibility. EBW may be accessible by either direct coupling or mode conversion through an extremely narrow layer (approximately 1-2 mm) in low field devices

  15. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: COMPLEX ROLE OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSIONS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 μm size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  16. Lunary Dust Grain Charging by Electron Impact: Complex Role of Secondary Electron Emissions in Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Crave, P. D.; LeClair, A.; Spann, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEES). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/ planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEES discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  17. Field emission from a new type of electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of field emission electron source has been developed. In this paper, the construction, characteristics and behaviour of tungsten micropoint emitters coated with a sub-micron layer of hydrocarbon using a TEM with poor ( ∼ 1 0 -3 torr) vacuum conditions are described. The hydrocarbon coating has been verified using the X-Ray energy dispersive analysis technique of a SEM. The technical capabilities and potential of the new type of electron source are compared with those of other comparable composite micropoint field emitters and other types of electron sources currently in use. The emission properties presented here include I-V characteristics, emission images and electron energy spectra of this type of composite micropoint emitters. The effect on the behaviour and characteristics of baking the coated emitters at temperatures ranging between 140 0 C and 350 0 C is also studied. The behaviour of the emitter has been interpreted in terms of a field-induced hot-electron emission mechanism associated with metal-insulator-vacuum (M-I-V) regime

  18. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  19. Relativistic quantum dynamics in strong fields: Photon emission from heavy, few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, T.

    2005-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of the photon emission from highly-charged heavy ions is reviewed. These investigations show that high-Z ions provide a unique tool for improving the understanding of the electron-electron and electron-photon interaction in the presence of strong fields. Apart from the bound-state transitions, which are accurately described in the framework of quantum electrodynamics, much information has been obtained also from the radiative capture of (quasi-) free electrons by high-Z ions. Many features in the observed spectra hereby confirm the inherently relativistic behavior of even the simplest compound quantum systems in nature. (orig.)

  20. Electronic field emission models beyond the Fowler-Nordheim one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    We propose several quantum mechanical models to describe electronic field emission from first principles. These models allow us to correlate quantitatively the electronic emission current with the electrode surface details at the atomic scale. They all rely on electronic potential energy surfaces obtained from three dimensional density functional theory calculations. They differ by the various quantum mechanical methods (exact or perturbative, time dependent or time independent), which are used to describe tunneling through the electronic potential energy barrier. Comparison of these models between them and with the standard Fowler-Nordheim one in the context of one dimensional tunneling allows us to assess the impact on the accuracy of the computed current of the approximations made in each model. Among these methods, the time dependent perturbative one provides a well-balanced trade-off between accuracy and computational cost.

  1. Secondary electron emission induced by channeled relativistic electrons in a (1 1 0) Si crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotchenko, K.B.; Kunashenko, Yu P.; Tukhfatullin, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    A new effect that accompanies electrons channeled in a crystal is considered. This phenomenon was previously predicted was called channeling secondary electron emission (CSEE). The exact CSEE cross-section on the basis of using the exact Bloch wave function of electron channeled in a crystal is obtained. The detailed investigation of CSEE cross-section is performed. It is shown that angular distribution of electrons emitted due to CSEE has a complex form.

  2. First results of correlation electron cyclotron emission on Tore Supra

    OpenAIRE

    Udintsev, V. S.; Goniche, M.; Ségul, J.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Molina, D.; Turco, F.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Maget, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of electron temperature fluctuations by means of correlation electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics aid in understanding the nature of the turbulent transport infusion plasmas. On Tore Supra tokamak, a 32-channel heterodyne ECE radiometer has been upgraded to include two channels for temperature fluctuation measurements. The central frequency of the yttrium iron garnet filter on each channel is remotely monitored by a driver, allowing one to shift the observation volume in...

  3. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  4. Proton and electron impact on molecular and atomic oxygen: I. High resolution fluorescence spectra in the visible and VUV spectral range and emission cross-sections for dissociative ionisation and excitation of O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Schartner, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.11, p.45-58, 2000. Molecular oxygen O 2 was dissociated in collisions with protons and electrons in the intermediate velocity range (p + -energies: 17-800 keV, e - -energies: 0.2-2 keV). Fluorescence from excited atomic and singly ionised fragments and from singly ionised molecules was detected in the VUV and in the visible and near UV spectral range. Highly resolved spectra are presented for the VUV (46-131 nm) and the near UV/visible (340-605 nm) spectral range. Absolute emission cross-sections have been determined for dissociative ionisation and excitation leading to fluorescence in the VUV. Results are compared with published data. (orig.)

  5. Electron cyclotron emission measurements at the stellarator TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichardt, Gabriel; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Koehn, Alf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements in the magnetised plasmas of the stellarator TJ-K are currently performed by means of Langmuir probes. The use of these probes is restricted to relatively low temperatures and the measurement of temperature profiles requires the acquisition of the local current-voltage characteristics which limits strongly the sampling rate. As an alternative, T{sub e} can be measured using the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) that is generated by the gyration of electrons in magnetised plasmas. Magnetic field gradients in the plasma lead to a spatial distribution of emission frequencies and thus the measured intensity at a given frequency can be related to its point of origin. The T{sub e} dependence of the intensity then leads to a temperature profile along the line of sight for Maxwellian velocity distributions. A diagnostic system for T{sub e} measurements using ECE is currently being set up at TJ-K. When non-thermal electrons are present the emission spectrum changes dramatically. Therefore, the ECE can also be used to investigate the contribution of fast electrons to previously observed toroidal net currents in TJ-K. Simulations are used to examine the role of electron drift orbits in generating these currents.

  6. High Energy Electron Detectors on Sphinx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Porte, A.; Zucchini, F.; Calamy, H.; Auriel, G.; Coleman, P. L.; Bayol, F.; Lalle, B.; Krishnan, M.; Wilson, K.

    2008-11-01

    Z-pinch plasma radiation sources are used to dose test objects with K-shell (˜1-4keV) x-rays. The implosion physics can produce high energy electrons (> 50keV), which could distort interpretation of the soft x-ray effects. We describe the design and implementation of a diagnostic suite to characterize the electron environment of Al wire and Ar gas puff z-pinches on Sphinx. The design used ITS calculations to model detector response to both soft x-rays and electrons and help set upper bounds to the spurious electron flux. Strategies to discriminate between the known soft x-ray emission and the suspected electron flux will be discussed. H.Calamy et al, ``Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion,'' Phys Plasmas 15, 012701 (2008) J.A.Halbleib et al, ``ITS: the integrated TIGER series of electron/photon transport codes-Version 3.0,'' IEEE Trans on Nuclear Sci, 39, 1025 (1992)

  7. Analysis of quantum semiconductor heterostructures by ballistic electron emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Daniel K.

    1998-09-01

    The microelectronics industry is diligently working to achieve the goal of gigascale integration (GSI) by early in the 21st century. For the past twenty-five years, progress toward this goal has been made by continually scaling down device technology. Unfortunately, this trend cannot continue to the point of producing arbitrarily small device sizes. One possible solution to this problem that is currently under intensive study is the relatively new area of quantum devices. Quantum devices represent a new class of microelectronic devices that operate by utilizing the wave-like nature (reflection, refraction, and confinement) of electrons together with the laws of quantum mechanics to construct useful devices. One difficulty associated with these structures is the absence of measurement techniques that can fully characterize carrier transport in such devices. This thesis addresses this need by focusing on the study of carrier transport in quantum semiconductor heterostructures using a relatively new and versatile measurement technique known as ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). To achieve this goal, a systematic approach that encompasses a set of progressively more complex structures is utilized. First, the simplest BEES structure possible, the metal/semiconductor interface, is thoroughly investigated in order to provide a foundation for measurements on more the complex structures. By modifying the semiclassical model commonly used to describe the experimental BEES spectrum, a very complete and accurate description of the basic structure has been achieved. Next, a very simple semiconductor heterostructure, a Ga1-xAlxAs single-barrier structure, was measured and analyzed. Low-temperature measurements on this structure were used to investigate the band structure and electron-wave interference effects in the Ga1-xAlxAs single barrier structure. These measurements are extended to a simple quantum device by designing, measuring, and analyzing a set of

  8. Effect of electron emission on an ion sheath structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M K; Phukan, A; Chakraborty, M

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the variations of ion sheath structures due to the emission of both hot and cold electrons in the target plasma region of a double plasma device. The ion sheath is produced in front of a negatively biased plate. The plasma is produced by hot filament discharge in the source region, and no discharge is created in the target region of the device. The plate is placed in the target (diffused plasma) region where cold electron emitting filaments are present. These cold electrons are free from maintenance of discharge, which is sustained in the source region. The hot ionizing electrons are present in the source region. Three important parameters are changed by both hot and cold electrons i.e. plasma density, plasma potential and electron temperature. The decrease in plasma potential and the increase in plasma density lead to the contraction of the sheath. (paper)

  9. Perpendicular electron cyclotron emission from hot electrons in TMX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.; Ellis, R.F.; Lasnier, C.J.; Casper, T.A.; Celata, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Perpendicular electron cyclotron emission (PECE) from the electron cyclotron resonant heating of hot electrons in TMX-U is measured at 30 to 40 and 50 to 75 GHz. This emission is optically thin and is measured at the midplane, f/sub ce/ approx. = 14 GHz, in either end cell. In the west end cell, the emission can be measured at different axial positions thus yielding the temporal history of the hot electron axial profile. These profiles are in excellent agreement with the axial diamagnetic signals. In addition, the PECE signal level correlates well with the diamagnetic signal over a wide range of hot electron densities. Preliminary results from theoretical modeling and comparisons with other diagnostics are also presented

  10. Detectors, sampling, shielding, and electronics for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.

    1981-08-01

    A brief discussion of the important design elements for positron emission tomographs is presented. The conclusions are that the instrumentation can be improved by the use of larger numbers of small, efficient detectors closely packed in many rings, the development of new detector materials, and novel electronic designs to reduce the deadtime and increase maximum event rates

  11. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electr...

  12. Characteristics of the fast electron emission produced during the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water adsorption and other characteristics of the fast electron emission ..... that the surface charges which leak away when there is adosrbed water on ... implies that it is a measure of the supply of excited species rather than due to the charge.

  13. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  14. Electron-electron collision effects on the bremsstrahlung emission in Lorentzian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Kato, Daiji

    2009-01-01

    Electron-electron collision effects on the electron-ion bremsstrahlung process are investigated in Lorentzian plasmas. The effective electron-ion interaction potential is obtained by including the far-field terms caused by electron-electron collisions with an effective Debye length in Lorentzian plasmas. The bremsstrahlung radiation cross section is obtained as a function of the electron energy, photon energy, collision frequency, spectral index and Debye length using the Born approximation for the initial and final states of the projectile electron. It is shown that the non-Maxwellian character suppresses the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section. It is also shown that the electron-electron collision effect enhances the bremsstrahlung emission spectrum. In addition, the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section decreases with an increase in the plasma temperature.

  15. Generation of Low-Energy High-Current Electron Beams in Plasma-Anode Electron Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozur, G. E.; Proskurovsky, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies on the generation of low-energy high-current electron beams in electron guns with a plasma anode and an explosive-emission cathode. The problems related to the initiation of explosive electron emission under plasma and the formation and transport of high-current electron beams in plasma-filled systems are discussed consecutively. Considerable attention is given to the nonstationary effects that occur in the space charge layers of plasma. Emphasis is also placed on the problem of providing a uniform energy density distribution over the beam cross section, which is of critical importance in using electron beams of this type for surface treatment of materials. Examples of facilities based on low-energy high-current electron beam sources are presented and their applications in materials science and practice are discussed.

  16. Emission spectroscopy of highly ionized high-temperature plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belevtsev, A A; Chinnov, V F; Isakaev, E Kh [Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-01

    This paper deals with advanced studies on the optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure highly ionized high-temperature argon and nitrogen plasma jets generated by a powerful arc plasmatron. The emission spectra are taken in the 200-1000 nm range with a spectral resolution of {approx}0.01-0.02 nm. The exposure times are 6 x 10{sup -6}-2 x 10{sup -2} s, the spatial resolution is 0.02-0.03 mm. The recorded jet spectra are abundant in spectral lines originating from different ionization stages. In nitrogen plasmas, tens of vibronic bands are also observed. To interpret and process these spectra such that plasma characteristics can be derived, a purpose-developed automated processing system is applied. The use of a CCD camera at the spectrograph output allows a simultaneous recording of the spectral and chord intensity distributions of spectral lines, which can yet belong to the overlapped spectra of the first and second orders of interference. The modern optical diagnostic means and methods used permit the determination of spatial distributions of electron number densities and temperatures and evaluation of rotational temperatures. The radial profiles of the irradiating plasma components can also be obtained. Special attention is given to the method of deriving rotational temperatures using vibronic bands with an incompletely identified rotational structure.

  17. Electron-electron correlation, resonant photoemission and X-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlebas, J.C.; Kotani, Akio; Tanaka, Satoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In this short review paper we essentially focus on the high energy spectroscopies which involve second order quantum processes, i.e., resonance photoemission, Auger and X-ray emission spectroscopies, denoted respectively by RXPS, AES and XES. First, we summarize the main 3p-RXPS and AES results obtained in Cu and Ni metals; especially we recall that the satellite near the 3p-threshold in the spectra, which arises from a d-hole pair bound state, needs a careful treatment of the electron-electron correlation. Then we analyze the RXPS spectra in a few Ce compounds (CeO 2 , Ce 2 O 3 and CeF 3 ) involving 3d or 4d core levels and we interpret the spectra consistently with the other spectroscopies, such as core XPS and XAS which are first order quantum processes. Finally within the same one-impurity model and basically with the same sets of parameters, we review a theory for the Ce 5p→3d XES, as well as for the corresponding RXES, where (1) the incident X-ray is tuned to resonate with the 3d→4f transition and (2) the X-ray emission due to the 5p→3d transition is actually observed. The paper ends with a general discussion. (author) 77 refs

  18. Electronic emission and electron spin resonance of irradiated clothes: (cottons, synthetic clothes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ajouz Rima, H.

    1984-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to a new method of dosimetry applicable to accidental irradiations. It is based on the use of cotton and synthetic fabric clothes as detectors. It enables absorbed doses and body dose distributions to be estimated after an accidental irradiation. A bibliography on textile fibres used for clothing is presented in the first chapter: origin, structure, industrial treatments, effects of heat, light, ionizing radiations. In the second chapter, electronic emission generated by double stimulation (thermal and optic) is described. This phenomenon reveals changes in the surface state of cotton. Exo-emission was chosen because of its high sensitivity in dosimetry. The third chapter is devoted to the application of electron paramagnetic resonance to the dosimetry of irradiated fabrics. After a brief description of the spectrometer used, the results obtained with commercial cotton fabrics and with a special fabric realized by the Institut Textile de France are described some of these fabrics were subjected to special treatments either before or after irradiation. Synthetic fabrics (polyesters and polypropylene) have also been studied. (author)

  19. Multi-field electron emission pattern of 2D emitter: Illustrated with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ma; Li, Zhibing

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of laser-assisted multi-field electron emission of two-dimensional emitters is investigated theoretically. The process is basically a cold field electron emission but having more controllable components: a uniform electric field controls the emission potential barrier, a magnetic field controls the quantum states of the emitter, while an optical field controls electron populations of specified quantum states. It provides a highly orientational vacuum electron line source whose divergence angle over the beam plane is inversely proportional to square root of the emitter height. Calculations are carried out for graphene with the armchair emission edge, as a concrete example. The rate equation incorporating the optical excitation, phonon scattering, and thermal relaxation is solved in the quasi-equilibrium approximation for electron population in the bands. The far-field emission patterns, that inherit the features of the Landau bands, are obtained. It is found that the optical field generates a characteristic structure at one wing of the emission pattern.

  20. Emissions of Toxic Carbonyls in an Electronic Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs provide a smoke-free alternative for inhalation of nicotine without the vast array of toxic and carcinogenic combustion products produced by tobacco smoke. Elevated levels of toxic carbonyls may be generated during vaporisation; however, it is unclear whether that is indicative of a fault with the device or is due to the applied conditions of the test. A device, designed and built at this facility, was tested to determine the levels of selected toxic carbonyls. The reservoir was filled with approximately 960 mg of an e-liquid formulation containing 1.8% (w/v nicotine. Devices were puffed 200 times in blocks of 40 using a standardised regime consisting of a 55 mL puff volume; 3 s puff duration; 30 s puff interval; square wave puff profile. Confirmatory testing for nicotine and total aerosol delivery resulted in mean (n = 8 values of 10 mg (RSD 12.3% and 716 mg (RSD 11.2%, respectively. Emissions of toxic carbonyls were highly variable yet were between < 0.1% and 22.9% of expected levels from a Kentucky Reference Cigarette (K3R4F puffed 200 times under Health Canada Intense smoking conditions. It has been shown that a device built to a high specification with relatively consistent nicotine and aerosol delivery emits inconsistent levels of carbonyls. The exposure is greatly reduced when compared with lit tobacco products. However, it was observed that as the reservoirs neared depletion then emission levels were significantly higher

  1. Charged particle emission effects on the characteristics of glow discharges with oscillating electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Nikulin, S P

    2001-01-01

    One discusses the effect of selection of charged particles on conditions to maintain and the characteristics of a glow discharge with oscillating electrons. It is shown that there is a pressure dependent optimal level of ion selection when the energy efficiency of ion source reaches its maximum value. It is determined that departure of fast ionizing electrons affects negatively the discharge maintenance wile emission of slow plasma electrons may promote maintenance of a discharge high current shape. It is shown that high efficient electron emission without violation of a discharge stability may take place in a magnetic field due to different nature of spatial distributions of fast and slow particles in discharges with electron oscillation

  2. Double differential distributions of electron emission in ion-atom and electron-atom collisions using an electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Deepankar; Thulasiram, K.V.; Fernandes, W.; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Kadhane, U.; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Yeshpal; Gulyas, L.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2009-01-01

    We study electron emission from atoms and molecules in collisions with fast electrons and heavy ions (C 6+ ). The soft collision electrons (SE), two center electron emission (TCEE), the binary encounter (BE) events and the KLL Auger lines along with the elastically scattered peaks (in electron collisions) are studied using a hemispherical electrostatic electron analyzer. The details of the measurements along with description of the spectrometer and data acquisition system are given. The angular distributions of the low energy (few eV) electrons in soft collisions and the binary encounter electrons at keV energies are compared with quantum mechanical models based on the first Born (B1) and the continuum distorted wave-Eikonal initial state approximation (CDW-EIS).

  3. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  4. Novel simulation method of space charge effects in electron optical systems including emission of electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinka, Jiří; Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 184, JAN (2018), s. 66-76 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : space charge * self-consistent simulation * aberration polynomial * electron emission Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  5. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of kinetic electron emission from metal due to impact of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, J.; Ohya, K.

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation is performed for study of the dependence of kinetic electron emission on nuclear charge of projectile Z 1 , using the nonlinear response theory with the density-functional (DF) formalism to calculate electron excitation cross section. The kinetic yield, energy distribution, excitation depth distribution and emission statistics of emitted electrons showed clear Z 1 oscillations, however, the Z 1 oscillations of them are different from that of the inelastic stopping power, in particular for high Z 1 , due to large elastic energy loss of the ions and secondary cascade process of primary excited electrons within the solid. For high Z 1 , the linear relationship does not exist between them and the inelastic stopping power, although they are closely related to it. The emission of high-energy primary electrons excited by the ion within shallow depth without experiencing the secondary cascade process, results in the Z 1 dependence in the energy distribution, excitation depth distribution and emission statistics of emitted electrons

  7. On novel mechanisms of slow ion induced electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, H.

    2000-09-01

    The present work has contributed in new ways to the field of slow ion induced electron emission. First, measurements of the total electron yield γ for impact of slow singly and multiply charged ions on atomically clean polycrystalline gold and graphite have been made. The respective yields were determined by current measurements and measurements of the electron number statistics. A new mechanism for kinetic emission (KE) below the so called 'classical threshold' was found and discussed. For a given ion species and impact velocity a slight decrease of the yields was found for ion charge state q = 1 toward 3, but no significant differences in KE yields for higher q values. Comparison of the results from gold and graphite showed overall similar behavior, but for C+ a relatively strong difference was observed and ascribed to more effective electron promotion in the C-C- than in the C-Au system. Secondly, for the very specific system H0 on LiF we investigated single electron excitation processes under grazing incidence conditions. In this way long-range interactions of hydrogen atoms with the ionic crystal surface could be probed. Position- and velocity-dependent electron production rates were found which indicate that an electron promotion mechanism is responsible for the observed electron emission. Thirdly, in order to investigate the importance of plasmon excitation and -decay in slow ion induced electron emission, measurements of electron energy distributions from impact of singly and doubly charged ions on poly- and monocrystalline aluminum surfaces were performed. From the results we conclude that direct plasmon excitation by slow ions occurs due to the potential energy of the projectile in a quasi-resonant fashion. The highest relative plasmon intensities were found for impact of 5 keV Ne+ on Al(111) with 5 % of the total yield. For impact of H + and H 2 + characteristical differences were observed for Al(111) and polycrystalline aluminum. We show that

  8. Highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Barnes, Alan V.; Magee, Ed; Newman, Mike; Schenkel, Thomas; McDonald, Joseph W.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2000-01-01

    An emission microscope using highly charged ions as the excitation source has been designed, constructed, and operated. A novel ''acorn'' objective lens has been used to simultaneously image electron and secondary ion emission. A resistive anode-position sensitive detector is used to determine the x-y position and time of arrival of the secondary events at the microscope image plane. Contrast in the image can be based on the intensity of the electron emission and/or the presence of particular secondary ions. Spatial resolution of better than 1 μm and mass resolution m/Δm of better than 400 were demonstrated. Background rejection from uncorrelated events of greater than an order of magnitude is also achieved. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Application of printed nanocrystalline diamond film for electron emission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuxia; Wei Shuyi; Lei Chongmin; Wei Jie; Lu Bingheng; Ding Yucheng; Zhu Changchun

    2011-01-01

    The low-cost and large area screen-printed nano-diamond film (NDF) for electronic emission was fabricated. The edges and corners of nanocrystalline diamond are natural field-emitters. The nano-diamond paste for screen-printing was fabricated of mixing nano-graphite and other inorganic or organic vehicles. Through enough disperse in isopropyl alcohol by ultrasonic nano-diamond paste was screen-printed on the substrates to form NDF. SEM images showed that the surface morphology of NDF was improved, and the nano-diamond emitters were exposed from NDF through the special thermal-sintering technique and post-treatment process. The field emission characteristics of NDF were measured under all conditions with 10 -6 Pa pressure. The results indicated that the field emission stability and emission uniformity of NDF were improved through hydrogen plasma post-treatment process. The turn-on field decreased from 1.60 V/μm to 1.25 V/μm. The screen-printed NDF can be applied to the displays electronic emission cathode for low-cost outdoor in large area.

  10. Ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier with secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmeton, Vincent.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier involving secondary electron emission as a means of ionization. A system of electrodes is used to accelerate said electrons, ionize the gas and extract the ions from thus created plasma. Said ionizer is suitable for bombarding the target in neutron sources (target of the type of nickel molybdenum coated with tritiated titanium or with a tritium deuterium mixture) [fr

  11. Electronic emission produced by light projectiles at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two aspects of the electronic emission produced by light projectiles of intermediate energies have been studied experimentally. In the first place, measurements of angular distributions in the range from θ = 0 deg -50 deg induced by collisions of 50-200 keV H + incident on He have been realized. It was found that the double differential cross section of electron emission presents a structure focussed in the forward direction and which extends up to relatively large angles. Secondly, the dependence of the double differential cross section on the projectile charge was studied using H + and He 3 2+ projectiles of 50 and 100 keV/amu incident on He. Strong deviations from a constant scaling factor were found for increasing projectile charge. The double differential cross sections and the single differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle, and the ratios of the emissions induced by He 3 2+ and H + at equal incident projectile velocities are compared with the 'Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State' (CDW-EIS) approximation and the 'Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo' (CTMC) method. Both approximations, in which the potential of the projectile exercises a relevant role, reproduce the general aspects of the experimental results. An electron analyzer and the corresponding projectile beam line has been designed and installed; it is characterized by a series of properties which are particularly appropriate for the study of double differential electronic emission in gaseous as well as solid targets. The design permits to assure the conditions to obtain a well localized gaseous target and avoid instrumental distortions of the measured distributions. (Author) [es

  12. High Power Electron Accelerator Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, Vadim; Cheskidov, Vladimir; Korobeynikov, G I; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Lukin, A N; Makarov, Ivan; Ostreiko, Gennady; Panfilov, Alexander; Sidorov, Alexey; Tarnetsky, Vladimir V; Tiunov, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    In recent time the new powerful industrial electron accelerators appear on market. It caused the increased interest to radiation technologies using high energy X-rays due to their high penetration ability. However, because of low efficiency of X-ray conversion for electrons with energy below 5 MeV, the intensity of X-rays required for some industrial applications can be achieved only when the beam power exceeds 300 kW. The report describes a project of industrial electron accelerator ILU-12 for electron energy up to 5 MeV and beam power up to 300 kW specially designed for use in industrial applications. On the first stage of work we plan to use the existing generator designed for ILU-8 accelerator. It is realized on the GI-50A triode and provides the pulse power up to 1.5-2 MW and up to 20-30 kW of average power. In the report the basic concepts and a condition of the project for today are reflected.

  13. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, A. M., E-mail: capecea@tcnj.edu [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey 08628 (United States); Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koel, B. E. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γ{sub e}, approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20–600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γ{sub e} = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  14. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capece, A. M.; Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γ e , approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20–600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O 2 and H 2 O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γ e  = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  15. Polarized electron cyclotron emission in the Tokapole II Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengstacke, M.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    To examine the effect of wall reflections we have measured the polarization of second harmonic cyclotron emission (at omega = 2 omega/sub ce/) in the Tokapole II tokamak both with and without a microwave absorber installed within the field of view of the receiving antenna. Indeed, the local elimination of wall reflections markedly enhances the polarization, as described in section II. Section III describes observations consistent with right-hand cutoff effects and an attempt to infer the electron temperature from cyclotron emission in an optically thin plasma

  16. High performance field emission of silicon carbide nanowires and their applications in flexible field emission displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunkang; Chen, Jing; Di, Yunsong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a facile method to fabricate the flexible field emission devices (FEDs) based on SiC nanostructure emitters by a thermal evaporation method has been demonstrated. The composition characteristics of SiC nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), while the morphology was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results showed that the SiC nanowires grew along the [111] direction with the diameter of ˜110 nm and length of˜30 μm. The flexible FEDs have been fabricated by transferring and screen-printing the SiC nanowires onto the flexible substrates exhibited excellent field emission properties, such as the low turn-on field (˜0.95 V/μm) and threshold field (˜3.26 V/μm), and the high field enhancement factor (β=4670). It is worth noting the current density degradation can be controlled lower than 2% per hour during the stability tests. In addition, the flexible FEDs based on SiC nanowire emitters exhibit uniform bright emission modes under bending test conditions. As a result, this strategy is very useful for its potential application in the commercial flexible FEDs.

  17. High performance field emission of silicon carbide nanowires and their applications in flexible field emission displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunkang Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a facile method to fabricate the flexible field emission devices (FEDs based on SiC nanostructure emitters by a thermal evaporation method has been demonstrated. The composition characteristics of SiC nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, while the morphology was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The results showed that the SiC nanowires grew along the [111] direction with the diameter of ∼110 nm and length of∼30 μm. The flexible FEDs have been fabricated by transferring and screen-printing the SiC nanowires onto the flexible substrates exhibited excellent field emission properties, such as the low turn-on field (∼0.95 V/μm and threshold field (∼3.26 V/μm, and the high field enhancement factor (β=4670. It is worth noting the current density degradation can be controlled lower than 2% per hour during the stability tests. In addition, the flexible FEDs based on SiC nanowire emitters exhibit uniform bright emission modes under bending test conditions. As a result, this strategy is very useful for its potential application in the commercial flexible FEDs.

  18. Fundamental harmonic electron cyclotron emission for hot, loss-cone type distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornatici, M.; Ruffina, U.; Westerhof, E.

    1988-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is an important diagnostic tool for the study of hot plasmas. ECE can be used not only to measure the electron temperature but also to obtain information about non-thermal characteristics of the electron distribution function. One such a nonthermal characteristic is a loss-cone anisotropy. Loss-cone anisotropy can give rise to unstable growth of electro-magnetic waves around the harmonics of the electron cyclotron resonance and to increased emissivity of electron cyclotron waves. In case of high electron temperatures, also the dispersion properties of the extraordinary (X-) mode arond the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance are changed due to loss-cone anisotropy. The consequences of these dispersion properties for the emissivity of the fundamental harmonic X-mode are analyzed for perpendicular propagation. The emissivity, is calculated for two types of distribution functions having a loss-cone anisotropy. These distribution functions are a relativistic Dory-Guest-Harris type distribution function and modified relativistic Maxwellian distribution having a loss-cone with rounded edges (author). 9 refs.; 2 figs

  19. Thermal runaway of metal nano-tips during intense electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyritsakis, A.; Veske, M.; Eimre, K.; Zadin, V.; Djurabekova, F.

    2018-06-01

    When an electron emitting tip is subjected to very high electric fields, plasma forms even under ultra high vacuum conditions. This phenomenon, known as vacuum arc, causes catastrophic surface modifications and constitutes a major limiting factor not only for modern electron sources, but also for many large-scale applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although vacuum arcs have been studied thoroughly, the physical mechanisms that lead from intense electron emission to plasma ignition are still unclear. In this article, we give insights to the atomic scale processes taking place in metal nanotips under intense field emission conditions. We use multi-scale atomistic simulations that concurrently include field-induced forces, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that when a sufficiently high electric field is applied to the tip, the emission-generated heat partially melts it and the field-induced force elongates and sharpens it. This initiates a positive feedback thermal runaway process, which eventually causes evaporation of large fractions of the tip. The reported mechanism can explain the origin of neutral atoms necessary to initiate plasma, a missing key process required to explain the ignition of a vacuum arc. Our simulations provide a quantitative description of in the conditions leading to runaway, which shall be valuable for both field emission applications and vacuum arc studies.

  20. Laser-assisted electron emission from gated field-emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, H; Yokoo, K; Mimura, H; Shimawaki, H; Hosono, A

    2002-01-01

    Enhancement of electron emission by illumination of gated field-emitters was studied using a 100 mW cw YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm, intensities up to 10 sup 7 W/m sup 2 and mechanically chopped with a rise time of 4 mu s. When shining an array of 640 silicon emitters, the emission current responded quickly to on-off of the laser. The increase of the emission current was proportional to the basic emission current at low gate voltages, but it was saturated at approx 3 mu A as the basic current approached 100 mu A with the increase of gate voltage. The emission increase was proportional to the square root of laser power at low gate voltages and to the laser power at elevated gate voltages. For 1- and 3-tip silicon emitters, the rise and fall of the current due to on-off of the laser showed a significant time lag. The magnitude of emission increase was independent of the position of laser spot on the emitter base and reached 2 mu A at a basic current of 5 mu A without showing signs of saturation. The mech...

  1. Electron emission and plasma generation in a modulator electron gun using ferroelectric cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shutao; Zheng Shuxin; Zhu Ziqiu; Dong Xianlin; Tang Chuanxiang

    2006-01-01

    Strong electron emission and dense plasma generation have been observed in a modulator electron gun with a Ba 0.67 Sr 0.33 TiO 3 ferroelectric cathode. Parameter of the modulator electron gun and lifetime of the ferroelectric cathode were investigated. It was shown that electron emission from Ba 0.67 Sr 0.33 TiO 3 cathode with a positive triggering pulse is a sort of plasma emission. Electrons were emitted by the co-effect of surface plasma and non-compensated negative polarization charges at the surface of the ferroelectric. The element analyses of the graphite collector after emission process was performed to show the ingredient of the plasma consist of Ba, Ti and Cu heavy cations of the ceramic compound and electrode. It was demonstrated the validity of the Child-Langmuir law by introducing the decrease of vacuum gap and increase of emission area caused by the expansion of the surface plasma

  2. High current polarized electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R.; Adderley, P.; Grames, J.; Hansknecht, J.; Poelker, M.; Stutzman, M.

    2018-05-01

    Jefferson Lab operates two DC high voltage GaAs photoguns with compact inverted insulators. One photogun provides the polarized electron beam at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 200 µA. The other gun is used for high average current photocathode lifetime studies at a dedicated test facility up to 4 mA of polarized beam and 10 mA of un-polarized beam. GaAs-based photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed facilities that must operate in excess of tens of mA of polarized average current. This contribution describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering high beam currents, and techniques that minimize damage due to ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield. Advantages of higher DC voltage include reduced space-charge emittance growth and the potential for better photocathode lifetime. Highlights of R&D to improve the performance of polarized electron sources and prolong the lifetime of strained-superlattice GaAs are presented.

  3. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, Benard; Adderley, Philip; Brittian, Joshua; Clark, J.; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; McCarter, James; Stutzman, Marcy; Suleiman, Riad; Surles-law, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive RandD devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source RandD. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular?Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model?requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlate

  4. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activities, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Tsap, Yuri T., E-mail: huangj@nao.cas.cn [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, 98409 Crimea, Nauchny (Ukraine)

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  5. Radially localized measurements of superthermal electrons using oblique electron cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preische, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaye, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    It is shown that radial localization of optically tin Electron Cyclotron Emission from superthermal electrons can be imposed by observation of emission upshifted from the thermal cyclotron resonance in the horizontal midplane of a tokamak. A new and unique diagnostic has been proposed and operated to make radially localized measurements of superthermal electrons during Lower Hybrid Current Drive on the PBX-M tokamak. The superthermal electron density profile as well as moments of the electron energy distribution as a function of radius are measured during Lower Hybrid Current Drive. The time evolution of these measurements after the Lower Hybrid power is turned off are given and the observed behavior reflects the collisional isotropization of the energy distribution and radial diffusion of the spatial profile

  6. Momentum distribution dependence of induced electron-cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.; Dillenburg, D.

    1983-01-01

    The dependence of the electron-cyclotron wave amplification in an inhomogeneous plasma slab on the electron momentum distribution is investigated. Two types of distributions are considered, both featuring a loss cone and a Maxwellian component. It is shown that the perpendicular emission at the fundamental frequency is in general greatly reduced by the presence of a Maxwellian component and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. The transition from the pure loss cone to the pure Maxwellian case is accompanied by a peculiar behaviour of the dielectric tensor components, which may invalidate the geometrical optics approximation in the calculation of the emission and the commonly held belief that the real part of the refractive index is insensitive to the shape of the momentum distribution function. (Author) [pt

  7. Electron bunchlength measurement from analysis of fluctuations in spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catravas, P.; Leemans, W.P.; Wurtele, J.S.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Segalov, Z.; Wang, X.; Yakimenko, V.

    1999-01-01

    A statistical analysis of fluctuations in the spontaneous emission of a single bunch of electrons is shown to provide a new bunchlength diagnostic. This concept, originally proposed by Zolotorev and Stupakov [1], is based on the fact that shot noise from a finite bunch has a correlation length defined by the bunchlength, and therefore has a spiky spectrum. Single shot spectra of wiggler spontaneous emission have been measured at 632 nm from 44 MeV single electron bunches of 1 - 5 ps. The scaling of the spectral fluctuations with frequency resolution and the scaling of the spectral intensity distribution with bunchlength are studied. Bunchlength was extracted in a single shot measurement. Agreement was obtained between the experiment and a theoretical model, and with independent time integrated measurements. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  8. Performance of a carbon nanotube field emission electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; King, Todd T.; Bis, Rachael A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Herrero, Federico; Lynch, Bernard A.; Roman, Patrick; Mahaffy, Paul

    2007-04-01

    A cold cathode field emission electron gun (e-gun) based on a patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) film has been fabricated for use in a miniaturized reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF MS), with future applications in other charged particle spectrometers, and performance of the CNT e-gun has been evaluated. A thermionic electron gun has also been fabricated and evaluated in parallel and its performance is used as a benchmark in the evaluation of our CNT e-gun. Implications for future improvements and integration into the RTOF MS are discussed.

  9. Alcator C vertical viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Hutchinson, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measured vertically through the center of a tokamak plasma yields detailed information about the electron velocity distribution. A diagnostic developed for this purpose on Alcator C tokamak uses specialized focusing optics to obtain a well collimated viewing chord, a compact viewing dump made of pyrex or Macor to reduce the effects of wall reflection and depolarization, and a rapid-scan polarizing Michelson interferometer - InSb detector system for the spectrum measurement; all constrained by the limited access and the compact size of Alcator C. Results of diffraction analysis are used to evaluate the theoretical performance of the optical system

  10. Electron Bernstein wave emission from an overdense reversed field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Anderson, J.K.; Biewer, T.M.; Craig, D.; Forest, C.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Blackbody levels of emission in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies have been observed from an overdense (ω pe ∼3ω ce ) Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch plasma, a result of electrostatic electron Bernstein waves emitted from the core and mode converted into electromagnetic waves at the extreme plasma edge. Comparison of the measured radiation temperature with profiles measured by Thomson scattering indicates that the mode conversion efficiency can be as high as ∼75%. Emission is preferentially in the X-mode polarization, and is strongly dependent upon the density and magnetic field profiles at the mode conversion point

  11. New detector developments for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.; Lorenz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The strength of quantitative, functional imaging using positron emission tomography, specially in small animals, is limited due to the spatial resolution. Therefore, various tomograph designs employing new scintillators, light sensors, or coincidence electronic are investigated to improve resolution without losses in sensitivity. Luminous scintillators with short light decay time in combination with novel readout schemes using photomultipliers or semiconductor detectors are currently tested by several groups and are implemented in tomographs for small animals. This review summarises the state of development in high resolution positron emission tomography with a detailed description of a system incorporating avalanche photodiode arrays and small scintillation crystals. (orig.) [de

  12. The practicality of high magnification imaging by positron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Pendyala, S.

    1988-01-01

    The positron emission microscope has the capability of contrasting areas having high concentrations of monatomic vacancies and other defects. Since the positrons traveling through the specimen will have energies of the same magnitude as that of valence electrons, image contrast will be sensitive to the chemistry of the specimen. In the near future resolutions of 10 nm or lower will be achieved. Whether or not optical aberrations will permit one atom resolution is not clear. For one atom resolution to be obtained positron emission fluxes must be brightness enhanced to 10 11 sec/sup/minus/1/cm/sup/minus/2/ or greater. 5 refs., 1 fig

  13. Photon emission by electrons and positrons traversing thin single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'chak, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation emission by planar channeled particles (electrons, positrons) in a thin single crystal of thickness L is considered. It is shown that for L approximately πb/THETAsub(L) (b is the lattice constant, THETA sub(L) the Lindhard angle) besides the main spontaneous channeling maxima there exist auxiliary interference maxima, the positions of all the maxima depending on L. The dependence of the radiation spectral intensity on crystal thickness is discussed

  14. Electron Bernstein Wave Coupling and Emission Measurements on NSTX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, G.; Diem, S.J.; Caughman, J.; Efthimion, P.; Harvey, R.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Philips, C.K.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 7 (2006), s. 177 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics/48th./. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , 30.10.2006-3.11.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * MAST * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP06/baps/all_DPP06.pdf

  15. Thermal Electron Bernstein Wave Emission Measurements on NST

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diem, S.J.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Philips, C.K.; Caughman, J.; Wilgen, J.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 7 (2006), s. 134 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics/48th./. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , 30.10.2006-3.11.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * MAST * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP06/baps/all_DPP06.pdf

  16. Measuring the Density of a Molecular Cluster Injector via Visible Emission from an Electron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. M.; Stotler, D. P.

    2010-06-28

    A method to measure the density distribution of a dense hydrogen gas jet is pre- sented. A Mach 5.5 nozzle is cooled to 80K to form a flow capable of molecular cluster formation. A 250V, 10mA electron beam collides with the jet and produces Hα emission that is viewed by a fast camera. The high density of the jet, several 1016cm-3, results in substantial electron depletion, which attenuates the Hα emission. The attenuated emission measurement, combined with a simplified electron-molecule collision model, allows us to determine the molecular density profile via a simple iterative calculation.

  17. Electron field emission from undoped and doped DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakhovskoi, A G; Evtukh, A A; Felter, T E; Klyui, N I; Kudzinovsky, S Y; Litovchenko, V G; Litvin, Y M

    1999-01-01

    Electron field emission and electrical conductivity of undoped and nitrogen doped DLC films have been investigated. The films were grown by the PE CVD method from CH(sub 4):H(sub 2) and CH(sub 4):H(sub 2):N(sub 2) gas mixtures, respectively. By varying nitrogen content in the gas mixture over the range 0 to 45%, corresponding concentrations of 0 to 8% (atomic) could be achieved in the films. Three different gas pressures were used in the deposition chamber: 0.2, 0.6 and 0.8 Torr. Emission current measurements were performed at approximately 10(sup -6) Torr using the diode method with emitter-anode spacing set at 20(micro)m. The current - voltage characteristics of the Si field electron emission arrays covered with DLC films show that threshold voltage (V(sub th)) varies in a complex manner with nitrogen content. As a function of nitrogen content, V(sub th) initially increases rapidly, then decreases and finally increases again for the highest concentration. Corresponding Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots follow F-N tunneling over a wide range. The F-N plots were used for determination of the work function, threshold voltage, field enhancement factor and effective emission area. For a qualitative explanation of experimental results, we treat the DLC film as a diamond-like (sp(sup 3) bonded) matrix with graphite-like inclusions

  18. Electron emission during multicharged ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Meyer, F.W.; Zehner, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent measurements of electron spectra for slow multicharged N ion-surface collisions are presented. The emphasis is on potential emission, i.e. the electron emission related to the neutralization of the ions. When using N ions that carry a K shell vacancy into the collision, characteristic K Auger electron emission from the projectiles is observed, as well as, for specific surfaces, target atom Auger transitions (resulting from vacancy transfer). Measurements of the intensity of these Auger transitions as a function of the time the ions spend above the surface can serve as a useful probe of the timescales characterizing the relevant neutralization processes. This technique is elucidated with the help of some computer simulations. It is shown that neutralization timescales required in the atomic ladder picture, in which neutralization takes place by resonant capture followed by purely intra-atomic Auger transitions, are too long to explain our experimental results. The introduction of additional neutralization/de-excitation mechanisms in the simulations leads to much better agreement with the experiments

  19. Secondary Electron Emission Yields from PEP-II Accelerator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory at SLAC operates with aluminum alloy and copper vacuum chambers, having design positron and electron beam currents of 2 and 1 A, respectively. Titanium nitride coating of the aluminum vacuum chamber in the arcs of the positron ring is needed in order to reduce undesirable electron-cloud effects. The total secondary electron emission yield of TiN-coated aluminum alloy has been measured after samples of beam chamber material were exposed to air and again after electron-beam bombardment, as a function of incident electron beam angle and energy. The results may be used to simulate and better understand electron-cloud effects under actual operating conditions. We also present yield measurements for other accelerator materials because new surface effects are expected to arise as beam currents increase. Copper, in particular, is growing in popularity for its good thermal conductivity and self-radiation-shielding properties. The effect of electron bombardment, ''conditioning'', on the yield of TiN and copper is shown

  20. Secondary emission ion analyzer provided with an electron gun for insulating material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Bruno; Carrier, Patrick; Marguerite, J.-L.; Rocco, J.-C.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a secondary emission ion analyser, fitted with an electron gun. It is used in the mass spectrometry analysis of electrically insulating bodies. It has already been suggested to bombard the target with an electron beam in conjunction with the beam of primary particles, in order to reduce the space charge near the target. The object of this invention is the application of this known process to appliances of the ion analyser type with a high electric field near the target. Its main characteristic is the use of an electron gun emitting an electron beam through the extraction lens placed opposite the target. The extraction electric field influences the path of the electrons but the electric and mechanical specifications of the electron gun in the invention are such that the target is correctly sprayed by the electron beam [fr

  1. Spin-dependent electron emission from metals in the neutralization of He+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.; Roesler, M.; Juaristi, J.I.; Muino, R. Diez; Echenique, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the spin-polarization of electrons emitted in the neutralization of He + ions interacting with metals. All stages of the emission process are included: the spin-dependent perturbation induced by the projectile, the excitation of electrons in Auger neutralization processes, the creation of a cascade of secondaries, and the escape of the electrons through the surface potential barrier. The model allows us to explain in quantitative terms the measured spin-polarization of the yield in the interaction of spin-polarized He + ions with paramagnetic surfaces, and to disentangle the role played by each of the involved mechanisms. We show that electron-electron scattering processes at the surface determine the spin-polarization of the total yield. High energy emitted electrons are the ones providing direct information on the He + ion neutralization process and on the electronic properties of the surface

  2. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-11-23

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications. While there exist bulk material reduction methods to flex them, such thinned CMOS electronics are fragile and vulnerable to handling for high throughput manufacturing. Here, we show a fusion of a CMOS technology compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics, with inkjet and conductive cellulose based interconnects, followed by additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing based packaging) and finally roll-to-roll printing of packaged decal electronics (thin film transistors based circuit components and sensors) focusing on printed high performance flexible electronic systems. This work provides the most pragmatic route for packaged flexible electronic systems for wide ranging applications.

  3. Electron-cyclotron maser emission during flares: emission in various modes and temporal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.; Dulk, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of radiation at the electron-cyclotron frequency, OMEGA sub e, generated by the electron-cyclotron maser instability was proposed as a possible mechanism for transporting energy and heating of the corona during flares. Radiation from the same instability but at harmonics of OMEGA sub e is believed to be the source of solar microwave spike bursts. The actual mode and frequency of the dominant emission from the maser instability is shown to be dependent on: (1) the plasma temperature, (2) the form of the energetic electron distribution, and (3) on the ratio of the plasma frequency omega sub p to OMEGA sub e. As a result, the emission along a flux tube can vary, with emission at harmonics being favored in regions where omega sub p/OMEGA sub e approx. equal to or greater than 1. Changes in the plasma density and temperature in the source region associated with the flare can also cause the characteristics of the emission to change in time

  4. Theory of emission spectra from metal films irradiated by low energy electrons near normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, E.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1980-01-01

    The emission spectrum produced by low energy electrons incident on a rough metal surface has been calculated for a roughness auto-correlation function containing a prominent peak at a high wave vector. For low energy electrons near normal incidence, the high wavevector peak dominates the roughness coupled surface plasmon radiation (RCSPR) process. The calculation yields estimates of the ratio of RCSPR to transition radiation, the dependence of emission intensity on electron energy and the shape and position of the RCSPR peak. The most interesting result is that the high-wavevector roughness can split the RCSPR radiation into peaks lying above and below the asymptotic surface plasma frequency. The results are compared with data from Ag in the following paper. (orig.)

  5. Photo electron emission microscopy of polarity-patterned materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W-C; Rodriguez, B J; Gruverman, A; Nemanich, R J

    2005-01-01

    This study presents variable photon energy photo electron emission microscopy (PEEM) of polarity-patterned epitaxial GaN films, and ferroelectric LiNbO 3 (LNO) single crystals and PbZrTiO 3 (PZT) thin films. The photo electrons were excited with spontaneous emission from the tunable UV free electron laser (FEL) at Duke University. We report PEEM observation of polarity contrast and measurement of the photothreshold of each polar region of the materials. For a cleaned GaN film with laterally patterned Ga- and N-face polarities, we found a higher photoelectric yield from the N-face regions compared with the Ga-face regions. Through the photon energy dependent contrast in the PEEM images of the surfaces, we can deduce that the threshold of the N-face region is less than ∼4.9 eV while that of the Ga-face regions is greater than 6.3 eV. In both LNO and PZT, bright emission was detected from the negatively poled domains, indicating that the emission threshold of the negative domain is lower than that of the positive domain. For LNO, the measured photothreshold was ∼4.6 eV at the negative domain and ∼6.2 eV at the positive domain, while for PZT, the threshold of the negative domain was less than 4.3 eV. Moreover, PEEM observation of the PZT surface at elevated temperatures displayed that the domain contrast disappeared near the Curie temperature of ∼300 deg. C. The PEEM polarity contrast of the polar materials is discussed in terms of internal screening from free carriers and defects and the external screening due to adsorbed ions

  6. Photo electron emission microscopy of polarity-patterned materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.-C.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Gruverman, A.; Nemanich, R. J.

    2005-04-01

    This study presents variable photon energy photo electron emission microscopy (PEEM) of polarity-patterned epitaxial GaN films, and ferroelectric LiNbO3 (LNO) single crystals and PbZrTiO3 (PZT) thin films. The photo electrons were excited with spontaneous emission from the tunable UV free electron laser (FEL) at Duke University. We report PEEM observation of polarity contrast and measurement of the photothreshold of each polar region of the materials. For a cleaned GaN film with laterally patterned Ga- and N-face polarities, we found a higher photoelectric yield from the N-face regions compared with the Ga-face regions. Through the photon energy dependent contrast in the PEEM images of the surfaces, we can deduce that the threshold of the N-face region is less than ~4.9 eV while that of the Ga-face regions is greater than 6.3 eV. In both LNO and PZT, bright emission was detected from the negatively poled domains, indicating that the emission threshold of the negative domain is lower than that of the positive domain. For LNO, the measured photothreshold was ~4.6 eV at the negative domain and ~6.2 eV at the positive domain, while for PZT, the threshold of the negative domain was less than 4.3 eV. Moreover, PEEM observation of the PZT surface at elevated temperatures displayed that the domain contrast disappeared near the Curie temperature of ~300 °C. The PEEM polarity contrast of the polar materials is discussed in terms of internal screening from free carriers and defects and the external screening due to adsorbed ions.

  7. Investigating the effect of electron emission pattern on RF gun beam quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, A. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Velenjak, 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B., E-mail: b-shokri@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Velenjak, 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Velenjak, 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-11

    Thermionic radio frequency gun is one of the most promising choices to gain a high quality electron beam, used in the infrared free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation injectors. To study the quality of the beam in a compact electron source, the emission pattern effect on the beam dynamics should be investigated. In the presented work, we developed a 3D simulation code to model the real process of thermionic emission and to investigate the effect of emission pattern, by considering geometrical constraints, on the beam dynamics. According to the results, the electron bunch emittance varies considerably with the emission pattern. Simulation results have been validated via comparison with the well-known simulation codes such as ASTRA simulation code and CST microwave studio, as well as other simulation results in the literature. It was also demonstrated that by using a continuous wave laser beam for heating the cathode, the emission pattern full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the transverse emission distribution is proportional to FWHM of the Gaussian profile for the laser beam. Additionally, by using the developed code, the effect of wall structure around the cathode on the back bombardment effect has been studied. According to the results, for a stable operation of the RF gun, one should consider the nose cone in vicinity of the cathode surface to reduce the back-bombardment effect. - Highlights: • We developed a 3D code to simulate the beam dynamics of thermionic RF gun. • Te impact of the emission pattern on the beam dynamic was investigated. • Different emission pattern results different emittance in the gun exit. • Using a nosecone around the cathode adjacent wall reduces back bombardment effect.

  8. Study of luminous emissions associated to electron emissions in radiofrequency cavities; Etude des emissions lumineuses associees aux emissions electroniques dans les cavites hyperfrequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maissa, S

    1996-11-26

    This study investigates luminous emissions simultaneously to electron emissions and examines their features in order to better understand the field electron emission phenomenon. A RF cavity, operating at room temperature and in pulsed mode, joined to a sophisticated experimental apparatus has been especially developed. The electron and luminous emissions are investigated on cleaned or with metallic, graphitic and dielectric particles contaminated RF surfaces in order to study their influence on these phenomena. During the surface processing, unstable luminous spots glowing during one RF pulse are detected. Their apparition is promoted in the vicinity of the metallic particles or scratches. Two hypotheses could explain their origin: the presence of micro-plasmas associated to electronic explosive emission during processing or the thermal radiation of the melted metal during this emission. Stable luminous spots glowing during several RF pulses are also detected and appear to increase on RF surfaces contaminated with dielectric particles, leading to strong and explosive luminous emissions. Two interpretations are considered: the initiation of surface breakdowns on the dielectric particles or the heating by the RF field at temperatures sufficiently intense to provoke their thermal radiation then their explosion. Finally a superconducting cavity has been adapted to observe luminous spots, which differ from the former ones bu their star shape and could be associated to micro-plasmas, revealed by the starbursts observed on superconducting cavity walls. (author) 102 refs.

  9. Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.

    2004-01-01

    Emission models that form the basis of self-consistent field computations make use of the approximation that emitted electrons form a smooth space charge jelly. In reality, electrons are discrete particles that are subject to statistical Coulomb interactions. A Monte Carlo simulation tool is used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics. We find that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity distribution is Maxwellian, regardless of the current density. Interactions near the emitter effectively conserve the Maxwellian distribution. The surprising result is that the width of the distribution of transversal velocities does not change. The distribution of longitudinal velocities does broaden, as expected from existing theories

  10. Emission spectra of dimethoxybenzenes by controlled electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Teiichiro; Imasaka, Totaro; Toyoda, Minoru; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ishibashi, Nobuhiko

    1975-01-01

    The emission spectra of o-, m-, and p-dimethoxybenzenes under controlled electron impact excitation (200 eV) were measured in the 220 - 450 nm region at very low pressures. The photoemissions of the excited parent species and such fragment species as H, CH, CO, and CO + were observed and assigned. The relative intensities of the photoemissions of the parent species were compared with those of the fluorescence spectra (photoexcitation) in an n-hexane solution. The excited parent species, H, and CH were concluded to be produced in one-electron processes; however, the CO + species were assumed to be produced in both one- and two-electron processes, and the relative contributions are evaluated. It was concluded that the rate of the predissociation of o-dimethoxybenzene was faster than those of the other two isomers, and the observed characteristics of o-dimethoxybenzene had something to do with this faster rate. (auth.)

  11. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  12. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  13. Mechanism of enhancement of controllable secondary-electron emission from fast single electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorikyan, M.P.; Kavalov, R.L.; Trofimchuk, N.N.; Arvanov, A.N.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    For porous KCl films (density approximately 2 percent, thickness 50-400 μm), the controllable secondary electron emission (CSEE) from fast single electrons with energies of 0.7-2 MeV was studied. An electric field E of approximately 10 4 -10 5 V/cm was set up inside the porous films and the emission curves anti sigma = f(E) and the energy spectra of the secondary electrons were measured. The mean emission coefficient anti sigma increases with increasing E, reaching a value of anti sigma approximately equal to 230. Internal enhancement of CSEE under the action of the E field is explained by a process similar to the Townsend semi-self-maintained discharge in gases. The mean free path L/sub e/ of the secondary electrons estimated on the basis of this mechanism of CSEE enhancement is in good agreement with the L/sub e/ value obtained independently from the energy spectra of the secondary electrons. The report examines the effect of the first critical potential U/sub il/ and of the electron affinity of the dielectric α on the formation of CSEE from a porous dielectric film. The possibility of using such films in particle detectors is discussed

  14. Enhancement of electron field emission of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by nitrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.B. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, 69 Hongguang Rd, Lijiatuo, Banan District, Chongqing 400054 (China); Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Cheng, Q.J. [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chen, X. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ostrikov, K., E-mail: kostya.ostrikov@csiro.au [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-09-22

    Highlights: > A new and custom-designed bias-enhanced hot-filament chemical vapor deposition system is developed to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. > The carbon nanotubes are later treated with nitrogen plasmas. > The electron field emission characteristics of the carbon nanotubes are significantly improved after the nitrogen plasma treatment. > A new physical mechanism is proposed to interpret the improvement of the field emission characteristics. - Abstract: The electron field emission (EFE) characteristics from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) without and with treatment by the nitrogen plasma are investigated. The VACNTs with the plasma treatment showed a significant improvement in the EFE property compared to the untreated VACNTs. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of the VACNTs are extensively examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the significant EFE improvement of the VACNTs after the nitrogen plasma treatment is closely related to the variation of the morphological and structural properties of the VACNTs. The high current density (299.6 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) achieved at a low applied field (3.50 V/{mu}m) suggests that the VACNTs after nitrogen plasma treatment can serve as effective electron field emission sources for numerous applications.

  15. Enhancement of electron field emission of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by nitrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.B.; Cheng, Q.J.; Chen, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new and custom-designed bias-enhanced hot-filament chemical vapor deposition system is developed to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. → The carbon nanotubes are later treated with nitrogen plasmas. → The electron field emission characteristics of the carbon nanotubes are significantly improved after the nitrogen plasma treatment. → A new physical mechanism is proposed to interpret the improvement of the field emission characteristics. - Abstract: The electron field emission (EFE) characteristics from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) without and with treatment by the nitrogen plasma are investigated. The VACNTs with the plasma treatment showed a significant improvement in the EFE property compared to the untreated VACNTs. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of the VACNTs are extensively examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the significant EFE improvement of the VACNTs after the nitrogen plasma treatment is closely related to the variation of the morphological and structural properties of the VACNTs. The high current density (299.6 μA/cm 2 ) achieved at a low applied field (3.50 V/μm) suggests that the VACNTs after nitrogen plasma treatment can serve as effective electron field emission sources for numerous applications.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Charging Properties of Interstellar Type Silica Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The dust charging by electron impact is an important dust charging processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. Incident low energy electrons are reflected or stick to the grains charging the dust grains negatively. At sufficiently high energies electrons penetrate the grains, leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Available classical theoretical models for calculations of SEE yields are generally applicable for neutral, planar, or bulk surfaces. These models, however, are not valid for calculations of the electron impact charging properties of electrostatically charged micron/submicron-size dust grains in astrophysical environments. Rigorous quantum mechanical models are not yet available, and the SEE yields have to be determined experimentally for development of more accurate models for charging of individual dust grains. At the present time, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly for low energy electron impact. The experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated carried out by us in a unique facility at NASA-MSFC, based on an electrodynamic balance, indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (Abbas et al, 2010, 2012). In this paper, we discuss SEE charging properties of individual micron-size silica microspheres that are believed to be analogs of a class of interstellar dust grains. The measurements indicate charging of the 0.2m silica particles when exposed to 25 eV electron beams and discharging when exposed to higher energy electron beams. Relatively large size silica particles (5.2-6.82m) generally discharge to lower equilibrium potentials at both electron energies

  17. Charging of Individual Micron-Size Interstellar/Planetary Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with UV/X-ray radiation, as well as by electron/ion impact. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of individual dust grains is required for understanding of the physical and dynamical processes in space environments and the role of dust in formation of stellar and planetary systems. In this paper, we discuss experimental results on dust charging by electron impact, where low energy electrons are scattered or stick to the dust grains, thereby charging the dust grains negatively, and at sufficiently high energies the incident electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Currently, very limited experimental data are available for charging of individual micron-size dust grains, particularly by low energy electron impact. Available theoretical models based on the Sternglass equation (Sternglass, 1954) are applicable for neutral, planar, and bulk surfaces only. However, charging properties of individual micron-size dust grains are expected to be different from the values measured on bulk materials. Our recent experimental results on individual, positively charged, micron-size lunar dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance facility (at NASA-MSFC) indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a complex process. The electron impact may lead to charging or discharging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration (e.g. Abbas et al, 2010). Here we discuss the complex nature of SEE charging properties of individual micron-size lunar dust grains and silica microspheres.

  18. Anisotropic light emission of single CdSe/CdS tetrapods due to asymmetric electron localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, Thomas; Mauser, Christian; Como, Enrico da; Rogach, Andrey; Feldmann, Jochen [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Talapin, Dmitri V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-07-01

    We have recently reported on highly luminescent CdSe/CdS tetrapod heterostructures, where wurtzite CdS arms were grown on CdSe zinc-blend nuclei. Due to the peculiar energy band alignment the holes remain trapped in the CdSe core, whereas electrons in ideal tetrapods are expected to delocalize symmetrically into the four CdS arms. However, polarization dependent photoluminescence experiments on single tetrapods show asymmetric localization effects for electrons. Whereas in optical excitation nearly no polarization anisotropy is observed, high polarization degrees are present in the emission process. Calculations based on the effective mass approximation show that the electron wavefunction confinement is very sensitive to changes in the shape of the tetrapods. Breaking the symmetry by increasing the thickness of one arm gives rise to a strongly asymmetric localization of the electron and leads to high polarization degrees in emission. The related decrease in electron-hole wavefunction overlap results in a correlation between emission intensity and polarization anisotropy in agreement with our experimental findings.

  19. High-Performance Field Emission from a Carbonized Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Lee, Hak Jun; Yoo, Jae Man; Kim, Taewoo; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2017-12-20

    To broaden the range of application of electron beams, low-power field emitters are needed that are miniature and light. Here, we introduce carbonized cork as a material for field emitters. The light natural cork becomes a graphitic honeycomb upon carbonization, with the honeycomb cell walls 100-200 nm thick and the aspect ratio larger than 100, providing an ideal structure for the field electron emission. Compared to nanocarbon field emitters, the cork emitter produces a high current density and long-term stability with a low turn-on field. The nature of the cork material makes it quite simple to fabricate the emitter. Furthermore, any desired shape of the emitter tailored for the final application can easily be prepared for point, line, or planar emission.

  20. Nonlocal electron kinetics and spectral line emission in the positive column of an argon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskii, Yu; Kalanov, D; Gorchakov, S; Uhrlandt, D

    2015-01-01

    Modern non-local electron kinetics theory predicts several interesting effects connected with spectral line emission from the positive column in the range of low and medium pressures and currents. Some theoretical works describe non-monotonic behavior of the radial profiles of line emission at intermediate pressures and currents between the validity ranges of the non-local and local approximation of the electron kinetics. Despite a great number of publications, there have been no systematic measurements attempting to confirm these theoretical predictions through experiments. In this work the radial profiles of the line emission from the positive column of an argon glow discharge have been measured with high spatial resolution and new effects caused by the narrowing and broadening of the spatial emission profiles with dependence on discharge conditions have been discovered. The effect of intensity maximum shift predicted by theory using a self-consistent model was not found in the experiment. The properties of the spectral line radiation are influenced by the peculiarities of the formation of the high-energy tail of the electron energy distribution function. An interpretation of the observed effects based on the non-local character of the electron kinetics in radially inhomogeneous fields is given. The obtained experimental data are compared with the results of calculations. (paper)

  1. Development of high current electron beam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sun Kook [and others

    1997-05-01

    A high-current electron beam generator has been developed. The energy and the average current of the electron beam are 2 MeV and 50 mA, respectively. The electron beam generator is composed of an electron gun, RF acceleration cavities, a 260-kW RF generator, electron beam optics components, and control system, etc. The electron beam generator will be used for the development of a millimeter-wave free-electron laser and a high average power infrared free-electron laser. The machine will also be used as a user facility in nuclear industry, environment industry, semiconductor industry, chemical industry, etc. (author). 15 tabs., 85 figs.

  2. Development of high current electron beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sun Kook

    1997-05-01

    A high-current electron beam generator has been developed. The energy and the average current of the electron beam are 2 MeV and 50 mA, respectively. The electron beam generator is composed of an electron gun, RF acceleration cavities, a 260-kW RF generator, electron beam optics components, and control system, etc. The electron beam generator will be used for the development of a millimeter-wave free-electron laser and a high average power infrared free-electron laser. The machine will also be used as a user facility in nuclear industry, environment industry, semiconductor industry, chemical industry, etc. (author). 15 tabs., 85 figs

  3. Pitch Angle Scattering of Energetic Electrons by Plasmaspheric Hiss Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, M.; Omura, Y.; Summers, D.

    2017-12-01

    We study scattering of energetic electrons in pitch angles and kinetic energies through their resonance with plasmaspheric hiss emissions consisting of many coherent discrete whistler-mode wave packets with rising and falling frequencies [1,2,3]. Using test particle simulations, we evaluate the efficiency of scattering, which depends on the inhomogeneity ratio S of whistler mode wave-particle interaction [4]. The value of S is determined by the wave amplitude, frequency sweep rate, and the gradient of the background magnetic field. We first modulate those parameters and observe variations of pitch angles and kinetic energies of electrons with a single wave under various S values so as to obtain basic understanding. We then include many waves into the system to simulate plasmaspheric hiss emissions. As the wave packets propagate away from the magnetic equator, the nonlinear trapping potential at the resonance velocity is deformed, making a channel of gyrophase for untrapped electrons to cross the resonance velocity, and causing modulations in their pitch angles and kinetic energies. We find efficient scattering of pitch angles and kinetic energies because of coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction, resulting in electron precipitations into the polar atmosphere. We compare the results with the bounce averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficient based on quasi-linear theory, and show that the nonlinear wave model with many coherent packets can cause scattering of resonant electrons much faster than the quasi-linear diffusion process. [1] Summers, D., Omura, Y., Nakamura, S., and C. A. Kletzing (2014), Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 9134-9149. [2] Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562. [3] Nakamura, S., Y

  4. High-energy gamma-ray emission in compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Four gamma-ray sources have been associated with binary systems in our Galaxy: the micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 and the gamma-ray binaries LS I +61 degrees 303, LS 5039 and PSR B1259-63. These systems are composed of a massive companion star and a compact object of unknown nature, except in PSR B1259-63 where there is a young pulsar. I propose a comprehensive theoretical model for the high-energy gamma-ray emission and variability in gamma-ray emitting binaries. In this model, the high-energy radiation is produced by inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons on ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs injected by a young pulsar in gamma-ray binaries and in a relativistic jet in micro-quasars. Considering anisotropic inverse Compton scattering, pair production and pair cascade emission, the TeV gamma-ray emission is well explained in LS 5039. Nevertheless, this model cannot account for the gamma-ray emission in LS I +61 degrees 303 and PSR B1259-63. Other processes should dominate in these complex systems. In Cygnus X-3, the gamma-ray radiation is convincingly reproduced by Doppler-boosted Compton emission of pairs in a relativistic jet. Gamma-ray binaries and micro-quasars provide a novel environment for the study of pulsar winds and relativistic jets at very small spatial scales. (author)

  5. Electron temperature fluctuation in the HT-7 tokamak plasma observed by electron cyclotron emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yuan, Xu; Jun, Wang; Yi, Yu; Yi-Zhi, Wen; Chang-Xuan, Yu; Wan-Dong, Liu; Bao-Nian, Wan; Xiang, Gao; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Wang, Jian; Xia, Z. G.; Shen, Zuowei

    2009-01-01

    The fluctuation of the electron temperature has been measured by using the electron cyclotron emission imaging in the Hefei Tokamak-7 (HT-7) plasma. The electron temperature fluctuation with a broadband spectrum shows that it propagates in the electron diamagnetic drift direction, and the mean poloidal wave-number k-bar θ is calculated to be about 1.58 cm −1 , or k-bar θρ s thickapprox 0.34. It indicates that the fluctuation should come from the electron drift wave turbulence. The linear global scaling of the electron temperature fluctuation with the gradient of electron temperature is consistent with the mixing length scale qualitatively. Evolution of spectrum of the fluctuation during the sawtooth oscillation phases is investigated, and the fluctuation is found to increase with the gradient of electron temperature increasing during most phases of the sawtooth oscillation. The results indicate that the electron temperature gradient is probably the driver of the fluctuation enhancement. The steady heat flux driven by electron temperature fluctuation is estimated and compared with the results from power balance estimation. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  6. Electron emission from laser irradiating target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 171, 9-10 (2016), s. 754-765 ISSN 1042-0150. [12th Workshop on European Collaboration for Higher Education and Research in Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Protection. Bologna, Catania, Milan, 30.05.2016-01.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : electron emission from plasma * TNSA * TOF * SiC * plastic scintillator * Thomson parabola spectrometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.443, year: 2016

  7. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  8. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  9. Polarization of electron cyclotron emission spectra in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.C. de; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Nagasaki, K.

    1999-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) can be used to determine the electron temperature profile in magnetized plasmas. The complex structure of the magnetic field configuration in the Large Helical Device (LHD), which has a large shear, complicates the analysis of the ECE spectrum. In a sheared magnetic field the propagation of X and O-mode polarization through the plasma are coupled, causing mode conversion and polarization rotation. Mode scrambling is also caused by wall reflections. In this report, this mode conversion in LHD is numerically analyzed. It was found that at low density mode conversion scrambles the ECE spectra. However, at higher density (n eo > 1.0·10 19 m -3 ) the polarization mode is found to rotate with the sheared magnetic field, yielding only a negligible mode conversion. Wall reflections are found to depolarize the ECE spectrum. Notwithstanding the LHD magnetic configuration, it is shown that temperature profiles could be revealed from the ECE spectra. (author)

  10. Enhanced electron emission from coated metal targets: Effect of surface thickness on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madas, Saibabu; Mishra, S. K.; Upadhyay Kahaly, Mousumi

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we establish an analytical formalism to address the temperature dependent electron emission from a metallic target with thin coating, operating at a finite temperature. Taking into account three dimensional parabolic energy dispersion for the target (base) material and suitable thickness dependent energy dispersion for the coating layer, Fermi Dirac statistics of electron energy distribution and Fowler's mechanism of the electron emission, we discuss the dependence of the emission flux on the physical properties such as the Fermi level, work function, thickness of the coating material, and operating temperature. Our systematic estimation of how the thickness of coating affects the emission current demonstrates superior emission characteristics for thin coating layer at high temperature (above 1000 K), whereas in low temperature regime, a better response is expected from thicker coating layer. This underlying fundamental behavior appears to be essentially identical for all configurations when work function of the coating layer is lower than that of the bulk target work function. The analysis and predictions could be useful in designing new coated materials with suitable thickness for applications in the field of thin film devices and field emitters.

  11. Enhanced electron emission from coated metal targets: Effect of surface thickness on performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibabu Madas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we establish an analytical formalism to address the temperature dependent electron emission from a metallic target with thin coating, operating at a finite temperature. Taking into account three dimensional parabolic energy dispersion for the target (base material and suitable thickness dependent energy dispersion for the coating layer, Fermi Dirac statistics of electron energy distribution and Fowler’s mechanism of the electron emission, we discuss the dependence of the emission flux on the physical properties such as the Fermi level, work function, thickness of the coating material, and operating temperature. Our systematic estimation of how the thickness of coating affects the emission current demonstrates superior emission characteristics for thin coating layer at high temperature (above 1000 K, whereas in low temperature regime, a better response is expected from thicker coating layer. This underlying fundamental behavior appears to be essentially identical for all configurations when work function of the coating layer is lower than that of the bulk target work function. The analysis and predictions could be useful in designing new coated materials with suitable thickness for applications in the field of thin film devices and field emitters.

  12. The role of secondary electrons in some experiments determining fluorescence emission from nitrogen C3Πu levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Arqueros, F.

    2005-01-01

    The processes involved in fluorescence emission from C 3 Π u levels of N 2 molecule by electron impact are studied. Secondary electrons are shown to play an important role in typical experiments for the measurement of emission cross sections and fluorescence yields, dominating at high impact energies. A simple model is proposed which accounts for fluorescence measurements in a wide range of experimental conditions, and in particular for some recent results up to 1 GeV energies

  13. Asymmetric electron cyclotron emission from superthermal electrons in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Measurements of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency on the high and low magnetic field side of the TFR Tokamak are reported. In the presence of a superthermal electron component the measured intensities are asymmetric. A theoretical explanation based on the combined effects of the electron relativistic mass variation and the 1/R variation of the tokamak magnetic field is discussed

  14. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie [Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France and Fondation STAE, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234-31432, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2010-09-15

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40{+-}1 eV.

  15. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40±1 eV.

  16. Secondary electron emission and its role in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němeček, Z.; Pavlů, J.; Richterová, I.; Šafránková, J.; Vaverka, J.

    2018-01-01

    The role of dust in the space environment is of increasing interest in recent years and also the fast development of fusion devices with a magnetic confinement brought new issues in the plasma-surface interaction. Among other processes, secondary electron emission plays an important role for dust charging in interplanetary space and its importance increases at and above the surfaces of airless bodies like planets, moons, comets or asteroids. A similar situation can be found in many industrial applications where the dust is a final product or an unintentional impurity. The present paper reviews the progress in laboratory investigations of the secondary emission process as well as an evolution of the modeling of the interaction of energetic electrons with dust grains of different materials and sizes. The results of the model are discussed in view of latest laboratory simulations and they are finally applied on the estimation of an interaction of the solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas with the dust attached to or levitating above the lunar surface.

  17. Sheath and heat flow of a two-electron-temperature plasma in the presence of electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio

    1992-01-01

    The electrostatic sheath and the heat flow of a two-electron-temperature plasma in the presence of electron emission are investigated analytically. It is shown that the energy flux is markedly enhanced to a value near the electron free-flow energy flux as a result of considerable reduction of the sheath potential due to electron emission if the fraction of hot electrons at the sheath edge is much smaller than one. If the hot- to cold-electron temperature ratio is of the order of ten and the hot electron density is comparable to the cold electron density, the action of the sheath as a thermal insulator is improved as a result of suppression of electron emission due to the space-charge effect of hot electrons. (author)

  18. Electron beam injection during active experiments. 1. Electromagnetic wave emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.; Kellogg, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the active injection of an electron beam, a broad spectrum of waves is generated. In this paper examples of spectra from the recent Echo 7 experiment are presented. These results show that the characteristics of the emissions can change substantially with altitude. Two-dimensional (three velocity) relativistic electromagnetic particle simulations are used to investigate the changes in the plasma conditions required to account for the observed spectral variations. It is shown that many of these variations can be accounted for by assuming that the ratio of the electron plasma frequency ω pe to cyclotron frequency Ω e is less than unity at the lower altitudes of about 200 km and near or above unity at apogee of about 300 km. In the former case, whistlers with a cutoff at ω pe , lower hybrid and plasma waves are driven by the parallel beam energy while electromagnetic fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode and electrostatic upper hybrid waves are driven by the perpendicular beam energy through the master instability. E x B drifts driven by perpendicular electric fields associated with the beam-plasma interaction can also be important in generating maser emission, particularly for field-aligned injection where there is no intrinsic perpendicular beam energy. The power in the electrostatic waves is a few percent of the beam energy and that in the electromagnetic waves a few tenths of a percent. In the latter case, where ω pe /Ω e increases above unity, emission in the fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode become suppressed

  19. Theoretical progress in studying the characteristic x-ray emission from heavy few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhykov, Andrey; Stohlker, Thomas; Fritzsche, Stephan; Kabachnik, Nikolai M

    2009-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in the study of the x-ray characteristic emission from highly-charged, few-electron ions is reviewed. These investigations show that the bound-state radiative transitions in high-Z ions provide a unique tool for better understanding the interplay between the structural and dynamical properties of heavy ions. In order to illustrate such an interplay, detailed calculations are presented for the K α1 decay of the helium-like uranium ions U 90+ following radiative electron capture, Coulomb excitation and dielectronic recombination processes.

  20. High resolution and high speed positron emission tomography data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgiss, S.G.; Byars, L.G.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution positron emission tomography (PET) requires many detectors. Thus, data collection systems for PET must have high data rates, wide data paths, and large memories to histogram the events. This design uses the VMEbus to cost effectively provide these features. It provides for several modes of operation including real time sorting, list mode data storage, and replay of stored list mode data

  1. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  2. EFFECTS OF ALFVEN WAVES ON ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER EMISSION IN CORONAL LOOPS AND SOLAR TYPE I RADIO STORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Y. H., E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-06-10

    Solar type I radio storms are long-lived radio emissions from the solar atmosphere. It is believed that these type I storms are produced by energetic electrons trapped within a closed magnetic structure and are characterized by a high ordinary (O) mode polarization. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open problem. Recently, Wu et al. found that Alfven waves (AWs) can significantly influence the basic physics of wave-particle interactions by modifying the resonant condition. Taking the effects of AWs into account, this work investigates electron cyclotron maser emission driven by power-law energetic electrons with a low-energy cutoff distribution, which are trapped in coronal loops by closed solar magnetic fields. The results show that the emission is dominated by the O mode. It is proposed that this O mode emission may possibly be responsible for solar type I radio storms.

  3. Enhanced performance of thermal-assisted electron field emission based on barium oxide nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yunkang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Institute of technology, Nanjing, 211167 (China); Chen, Jing, E-mail: chenjingmoon@gmail.com [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Di, Yunsong [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Zhang, Zichen, E-mail: zz241@ime.ac.cn [Integrated system for Laser applications Group, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A possible mechanism for thermal-assisted electric field was demonstrated. • A new path for the architecture of the novel nanomaterial and methodology for its potential application in the field emission device area was provided. • The turn-on field, the threshold field and the field emission current density were largely related to the temperature of the cathode. • The relationship between the work function of emitter material and the temperature of emitter was found. - Abstract: In this paper, thermal-assisted field emission properties of barium oxide (BaO) nanowire synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The morphology and composition of BaO nanowire were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) respectively. The turn-on field, threshold field and the emission current density could be affected relatively due to the thermal-assisted effect when the electric field was applied, in the meanwhile, the turn-on field for BaO nanowire was measured to be decreased from 1.12 V/μm to 0.66 V/μm when the temperature was raised from 293 K to 593 K, whereas for the threshold field was found to decrease from 3.64 V/μm to 2.12 V/μm. The improved performance was demonstrated due to the reduced work function of the BaO nanowire as the agitation temperature increasing, leading to the higher probability of electrons tunneling through the energy barrier and enhancement of the field emission properties of BaO emitters.

  4. Enhanced performance of thermal-assisted electron field emission based on barium oxide nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yunkang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Di, Yunsong; Zhang, Zichen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A possible mechanism for thermal-assisted electric field was demonstrated. • A new path for the architecture of the novel nanomaterial and methodology for its potential application in the field emission device area was provided. • The turn-on field, the threshold field and the field emission current density were largely related to the temperature of the cathode. • The relationship between the work function of emitter material and the temperature of emitter was found. - Abstract: In this paper, thermal-assisted field emission properties of barium oxide (BaO) nanowire synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The morphology and composition of BaO nanowire were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) respectively. The turn-on field, threshold field and the emission current density could be affected relatively due to the thermal-assisted effect when the electric field was applied, in the meanwhile, the turn-on field for BaO nanowire was measured to be decreased from 1.12 V/μm to 0.66 V/μm when the temperature was raised from 293 K to 593 K, whereas for the threshold field was found to decrease from 3.64 V/μm to 2.12 V/μm. The improved performance was demonstrated due to the reduced work function of the BaO nanowire as the agitation temperature increasing, leading to the higher probability of electrons tunneling through the energy barrier and enhancement of the field emission properties of BaO emitters.

  5. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  6. New channeling effects in the radiative emission of 150 GeV electrons in a thin germanium crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacem, A.; Chevallier, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Kirsch, R.; Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.; Bologna, G.; Peigneux, J.P.; Sillou, D.; Spighel, M.; Cue, N.; Kimball, J.C.; Marsh, B.; Sun, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The orientation dependence of the radiative emission of 150 GeV electrons and positrons incident at small angles with respect to the axial direction of a thin (0.185 mm) Ge crystal has been observed. The processes are well understood, except for channeled electrons, which radiate unexpected high energy photons. (orig.)

  7. Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro; Urano, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The minimum detection limit and spatial resolution for a thinned semiconductor sample were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a Schottky field emission (FE) electron gun and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the FE-EPMA results with those obtained using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that FE-EPMA is largely superior in terms of detection sensitivity. Thin-sample FE-EPMA is demonstrated as a very effective method for high resolution, high sensitivity analysis in a laboratory environment because a high probe current and high signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved. - Highlights: • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution determined for FE-EPMA. • Detection sensitivity of FE-EPMA greatly superior to that of STEM-EDX. • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution controllable by probe current

  8. Low-energy electron transmission and secondary-electron emission experiments on crystalline and molten long-chain alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, N.; Sugita, K.; Seki, K.; Inokuchi, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the results of low-energy electron transmission and secondary-electron emission experiments on thin films of long-chain alkanes deposited on metal substrates. The spectral changes due to crystal-melt phase transition were measured in situ in both experiments. The ground-state energy V 0 of the quasifree electron in crystalline state was determined to be 0.5 +- 0.1 eV. The value of V 0 for the molten state was found to be negative. Further, in the crystalline state evidence is found for a direct correspondence between the transmission maxima and the high value of the density of states in the conduction bands

  9. Fragment ion and electron emission from C sub 6 sub 0 by fast heavy ion impact

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, T; Itoh, A; Tsuchida, H; Nakai, Y

    2003-01-01

    Correlation between electron emission and fragmentation of C sub 6 sub 0 was studied using 847keV Si sup + ions. Mass distribution of fragment ions, number distribution of secondary electrons, and final charge distribution of outgoing projectiles were successfully measured by means of a triple coincidence time-of-flight method. Strong correlation was observed for electron emission and fragmentation.

  10. Silicon-based metallic micro grid for electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehong; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Jung-Il; Kim, Geun-Ju; Heo, Duchang; Shin, Dong Hoon; Sun, Yuning; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2012-01-01

    A micro-scale metal grid based on a silicon frame for application to electron field emission devices is introduced and experimentally demonstrated. A silicon lattice containing aperture holes with an area of 80 × 80 µm 2 and a thickness of 10 µm is precisely manufactured by dry etching the silicon on one side of a double-polished silicon wafer and by wet etching the opposite side. Because a silicon lattice is more rigid than a pure metal lattice, a thin layer of Au/Ti deposited on the silicon lattice for voltage application can be more resistant to the geometric stress caused by the applied electric field. The micro-fabrication process, the images of the fabricated grid with 88% geometric transparency and the surface profile measurement after thermal feasibility testing up to 700 °C are presented. (paper)

  11. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  12. Measurement of the secondary electron emission from CVD diamond films using phosphor screen detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, R.; May, P. W.; Fox, N. A.; Harwood, C. J.; Chatterjee, V.; Smith, J. A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Lapington, J. S.; Osbourne, S.

    2015-03-01

    Diamond-based photomultipliers have the potential to provide a significant improvement over existing devices due to diamond's high secondary electron yield and narrow energy distribution of secondary electrons which improves energy resolution creating extremely fast response times. In this paper we describe an experimental apparatus designed to study secondary electron emission from diamond membranes only 400 nm thick, observed in reflection and transmission configurations. The setup consists of a system of calibrated P22 green phosphor screens acting as radiation converters which are used in combination with photomultiplier tubes to acquire secondary emission yield data from the diamond samples. The superior signal voltage sampling of the phosphor screen setup compared with traditional Faraday Cup detection allows the variation in the secondary electron yield across the sample to be visualised, allowing spatial distributions to be obtained. Preliminary reflection and transmission yield data are presented as a function of primary electron energy for selected CVD diamond films and membranes. Reflection data were also obtained from the same sample set using a Faraday Cup detector setup. In general, the curves for secondary electron yield versus primary energy for both measurement setups were comparable. On average a 15-20% lower signal was recorded on our setup compared to the Faraday Cup, which was attributed to the lower photoluminescent efficiency of the P22 phosphor screens when operated at sub-kilovolt bias voltages.

  13. Enhanced electromagnetic emission from plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, L.

    2007-01-01

    Large amplitude high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves can scatter off dust-acoustic waves in plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons, and can thus be responsible for HF enhanced electromagnetic emissions (EEE). An expression for the ensemble average of the squared HF-EEE vector potential is therefore derived, following the standard parametric interaction formalism and adopting the Rostoker superposition principle. The results should be useful for deducing the dust plasma parameters (e.g. the dust number density and dust charge) in situ, and HF intense EM beams can thus be used for diagnosis of positive dust-electron plasmas in space and laboratories

  14. Chirped Auger electron emission due to field-assisted post-collision interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonitz M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the Auger decay in the temporal domain by applying a terahertz streaking light field. Xenon and krypton atoms were studied by implementing the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH as well as a source of high-order harmonic radiation combined with terahertz pulses from an optical rectification source. The observed linewidth asymmetries in the streaked spectra suggest a chirped Auger electron emission which is understood in terms of field-assisted post-collision interaction. The experimentally obtained results agree well with model calculations.

  15. Study of field induced hot-electron emission using the composite microemitters with varying dielectric layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, M.S.

    1987-07-01

    The analysis of the measurements obtained from the of field emission of electrons from composite metal-insulator (M-I) micropoint cathodes, using the combination of a high resolution electron spectrometer and a field emission microscope, has been presented. Results obtained describe the reversible current-voltage characteristic, emission images and electron energy distribution measurements of both thin and the optimum thick coatings. The observed effects, e.g. the threshold switch-on phenomena and the field-dependence of the F.W.H.M. and energy shift of the electron spectra have been identified in terms of a field-induced hot-electron emission (FIHEE) mechanism resulting from field penetration in the insulating film where conducting channels are formed. The theoretical implications accounts for the channels field intensification mechanism and the conduction properties with applied field, and the F.W.H.M. dependence on electron temperature. The control of the emission process at low fields by the M-I contact junction and at high fields by the bulk properties of the insulator have also been accounted for. These experimental and theoretical findings have been shown to be consistent with recently published data on M-I microstructures on broad-area (BA) high-voltage electrodes. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs

  16. Electron cyclotron emission measurements during 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating in Wendelstein WVII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Gasparino, U.; Tutter, M.; Brakel, R.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Elsner, A.; Engelhardt, K.; Erckmann, V.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mahn, C.; Mueller, G.; Ohlendorf, W.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wobig, H.; Wuersching, E.; Zippe, M.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Raeuchle, E.; Schueller, P.G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, M.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measurements have been carried out on electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator. Blackbody radiation from the thermalized plasma main body as well as radiation from a small amount of weakly relativistic suprathermal electrons has been detected. In addition sideband emission has been observed near the second harmonic of the heating line source. Harmonic generation and parametric wave decay at the upper hybrid layer may be a reasonable explanation. (orig.)

  17. Physics design of the in-vessel collection optics for the ITER electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, W. L., E-mail: w.l.rowan@austin.utexas.edu; Houshmandyar, S.; Phillips, P. E.; Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Beno, J. H.; Ouroua, A. [Center for Electromechanics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Hubbard, A. E. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Khodak, A.; Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Measurement of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is one of the primary diagnostics for electron temperature in ITER. In-vessel, in-vacuum, and quasi-optical antennas capture sufficient ECE to achieve large signal to noise with microsecond temporal resolution and high spatial resolution while maintaining polarization fidelity. Two similar systems are required. One views the plasma radially. The other is an oblique view. Both views can be used to measure the electron temperature, while the oblique is also sensitive to non-thermal distortion in the bulk electron distribution. The in-vacuum optics for both systems are subject to degradation as they have a direct view of the ITER plasma and will not be accessible for cleaning or replacement for extended periods. Blackbody radiation sources are provided for in situ calibration.

  18. The Eindhoven High-Brightness Electron Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Eindhoven High-Brightness programme is aimed at producing ultra-short intense electron bunches from compact accelerators. The RF electron gun is capable of producing 100 fs electron bunches at 7.5 MeV and 10 pC bunch charge. The DC/RF hybrid gun under development will produce bunches <75 fs at

  19. High electron mobility InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R. E.; Li, S. X.; Haller, E. E.; van Genuchten, H. C. M.; Yu, K. M.; Ager, J. W. III; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of InN films with 2 MeV He + ions followed by thermal annealing below 500 deg. C creates films with high electron concentrations and mobilities, as well as strong photoluminescence. Calculations show that electron mobility in irradiated samples is limited by triply charged donor defects. Subsequent thermal annealing removes a fraction of the defects, decreasing the electron concentration. There is a large increase in electron mobility upon annealing; the mobilities approach those of the as-grown films, which have 10 to 100 times smaller electron concentrations. Spatial ordering of the triply charged defects is suggested to cause the unusual increase in electron mobility

  20. Low-energy plasma-cathode electron gun with a perforated emission electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdovitsin, Victor; Kazakov, Andrey; Medovnik, Alexander; Oks, Efim; Tyunkov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    We describe research of influence of the geometric parameters of perforated electrode on emission parameters of a plasma cathode electron gun generating continuous electron beams at gas pressure 5-6 Pa. It is shown, that the emission current increases with increasing the hole diameters and decreasing the thickness of the perforated emission electrode. Plasma-cathode gun with perforated electron can provide electron extraction with an efficiency of up to 72 %. It is shown, that the current-voltage characteristic of the electron gun with a perforated emission electrode differs from that of similar guns with fine mesh grid electrode. The plasma-cathode electron gun with perforated emission electrode is used for electron beam welding and sintering.

  1. Effect of secondary electron emission on the Jeans instability in a dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Susmita; Roy, Banamali; Maity, Saumyen; Khan, Manoranjan; Gupta, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the effect of secondary electron emission on Jeans instability in a dusty plasma has been investigated. Due to secondary electron emission, dust grains may have two stable equilibrium states out of which one is negative and the other is positive. Here both cases have been considered separately. It has been shown that secondary electron emission enhances Jeans instability when equilibrium dust charge is negative. It has also been shown that growth rate of Jeans instability reduces with increasing secondary electron emission when equilibrium dust charge is positive

  2. Vertical one-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic for HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Xu Xiaoyuan; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Baonian; Luhmann, N.C.; Wang, Jian; Xia, Z.G.

    2005-01-01

    A vertical resolved 16-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic has been developed and installed on the HT7 Tokamak for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 0.5 us. The system is working on a fixed frequency 97.5 GHz in the first stage. The sample volumes of the system are aligned vertically with a vertical channel spacing of 11 mm, and can be shifted across the plasma cross-section by varying the toroidal magnetic field. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low cost linear mixer/receiver array and an optical imaging system. The focus location may be shifted horizontally via translation of one of the optical imaging elements. The detail of the system design and laboratory testing of the ECE Imaging optics are presented, together with HT7 plasma data. (author)

  3. The electronics system for the LBNL positron emission mammography (PEM) camera

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, W W; Baker, K; Jones, W; Lenox, M; Ho, M H; Weng, M

    2001-01-01

    Describes the electronics for a high-performance positron emission mammography (PEM) camera. It is based on the electronics for a human brain positron emission tomography (PET) camera (the Siemens/CTI HRRT), modified to use a detector module that incorporates a photodiode (PD) array. An application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) services the photodetector (PD) array, amplifying its signal and identifying the crystal of interaction. Another ASIC services the photomultiplier tube (PMT), measuring its output and providing a timing signal. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and lookup RAMs are used to apply crystal-by-crystal correction factors and measure the energy deposit and the interaction depth (based on the PD/PMT ratio). Additional FPGAs provide event multiplexing, derandomization, coincidence detection, and real-time rebinning. Embedded PC/104 microprocessors provide communication, real-time control, and configure the system. Extensive use of FPGAs make the overall design extremely flexible, all...

  4. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriani, A.B.; Dalila, A.R.; Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N.; Soga, T.; Tanemura, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe 3 C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe 3 C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm −1 at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm −2 , respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters

  5. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, A.B., E-mail: absuriani@yahoo.com [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Dalila, A.R. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Soga, T.; Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe{sub 3}C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe{sub 3}C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm{sup −1} at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm{sup −2}, respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters.

  6. Electron transfer and decay processes of highly charged iodine ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Danjo, Atsunori; Hosaka, Kazumoto

    2005-01-01

    In the present experimental work we have investigated multi-electron transfer processes in I q+ (q=10, 15, 20 and 25) + Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe collisions at 1.5q keV energy. The branching ratios between Auger and radiative decay channels have been measured in decay processes of multiply excited states formed by multi-electron transfer collisions. It has been shown that, in all the multi-electron transfer processes investigated, the Auger decays are far dominant over the radiative decay processes and the branching ratios are clearly characterized by the average principal quantum number of the initial excited states of projectile ions. We could express the branching ratios in high Rydberg states formed in multi-electron transfer processes by using the decay probability of one Auger electron emission. (author)

  7. Laboratory design for high-performance electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Michael A.; Turner, John H.; Hetherington, Crispin J.D.; Cullis, A.G.; Carragher, Bridget; Jenkins, Ron; Milgrim, Julie; Milligan,Ronald A.; Potter, Clinton S.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.; Degenhardt, Lynn; Sides, William H.

    2004-04-23

    Proliferation of electron microscopes with field emission guns, imaging filters and hardware spherical aberration correctors (giving higher spatial and energy resolution) has resulted in the need to construct special laboratories. As resolutions improve, transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) become more sensitive to ambient conditions. State-of-the-art electron microscopes require state-of-the-art environments, and this means careful design and implementation of microscope sites, from the microscope room to the building that surrounds it. Laboratories have been constructed to house high-sensitive instruments with resolutions ranging down to sub-Angstrom levels; we present the various design philosophies used for some of these laboratories and our experiences with them. Four facilities are described: the National Center for Electron Microscopy OAM Laboratory at LBNL; the FEGTEM Facility at the University of Sheffield; the Center for Integrative Molecular Biosciences at TSRI; and the Advanced Microscopy Laboratory at ORNL.

  8. Multi-channel electronics for secondary emission grid profile monitor of TTF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reingardt-Nikoulin, P.; Gaidash, V.; Mirzojan, A.; Kocharyan, V.; Noelle, D.

    2004-01-01

    According to the TTF beam experimental program, a measurement f the time dependence of the energy spread within the bunch train should be done by means of a standard device for profile measurements, that is Secondary Emission Grid (SEMG). SEMG on the high-energy TTF beam is placed in the focal plane of the magnet spectrometer. It should measure the total energy spread in the range from 0.1% up to a few percents for any single or any group of electron bunches in the bunch train of TTF Linac. SEMG profile measurements with new high sensitive electronics are described. Beam results of SEMG Monitor test are given for two modifications of an electronic preamplifier

  9. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) bea...

  10. Calibration and use cases of the electron cyclotron emission diagnostic at Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefel, Udo; Hirsch, Matthias; Ewert, Karsten; Hartfuss, Hans-Juergen; Laqua, Heinrich Peter; Stange, Torsten; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: the W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    The world's largest stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), is equipped with a 140 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system providing up to 5 MW absorbed power in the first operation phase OP1.1. The foreseen X2-heating scenario uses the high absorption of the second harmonic extraordinary electron cyclotron waves, which leads on the other hand to a black body electron cyclotron emission (ECE) being proportional to the local electron temperature. ECE is one of the fundamental operating diagnostics and is planned to yield the electron temperature profile from the very first discharges onwards. Unlike most other ECE diagnostics, the 32 channel ECE radiometer diagnostic (with additional 16 channels with higher radial resolution) at W7-X is absolutely calibrated. It is planned to use this diagnostic for intensive studies on electron heat transport in the upcoming operational phases of W7-X. Simple switch-off experiments for the determination of the energy confinement time should already be possible within the first plasma shots. Due to the high temporal and radial resolution the ECE will be used also to determine the power deposition by modulation of the heating gyrotron. or the localization of a power modulated ECRH to optimize the power deposition. If reasonably equilibrated plasma conditions could be generated in the first operational phase (OP 1.1), first studies on electron thermal diffusivity could also be possible.

  11. Active vacuum brazing of CNT films to metal substrates for superior electron field emission performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Rémi; Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Shorubalko, Ivan; Furrer, Roman; Hack, Erwin; Elsener, Hansrudolf; Gröning, Oliver; Greenwood, Paul; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Teo, Kenneth; Leinenbach, Christian; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2015-02-01

    The joining of macroscopic films of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to titanium substrates is demonstrated by active vacuum brazing at 820 °C with a Ag-Cu-Ti alloy and at 880 °C with a Cu-Sn-Ti-Zr alloy. The brazing methodology was elaborated in order to enable the production of highly electrically and thermally conductive CNT/metal substrate contacts. The interfacial electrical resistances of the joints were measured to be as low as 0.35 Ω. The improved interfacial transport properties in the brazed films lead to superior electron field-emission properties when compared to the as-grown films. An emission current of 150 μA was drawn from the brazed nanotubes at an applied electric field of 0.6 V μm-1. The improvement in electron field-emission is mainly attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between the nanotubes and the substrate. The joints have high re-melting temperatures up to the solidus temperatures of the alloys; far greater than what is achievable with standard solders, thus expanding the application potential of CNT films to high-current and high-power applications where substantial frictional or resistive heating is expected.

  12. Electron Emission by N6+ Ions Scattered at a Magnetized Iron Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solleder, B.; Lemell, C.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Tokesi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Magnetized materials are of considerable interest in the electronics industry (hard discs, spintronics, etc.). A detailed understanding of the properties of magnetized surfaces is therefore important to optimize technical applications. In the last decades, different experimental techniques have been developed to probe spin effects in magnetized materials. In this work the spin polarization of electrons emitted during the impact of N 6+ ions on a magnetized Fe surface is investigated. We study potential emission (PE) of electrons as well as secondary electron (SE) production and transport in the target with the help of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Spin dependence of electron transfer processes and of transport in the solid are included. Fig. 1 shows the results of our simulation for the energy distribution and spin polarization of emitted electrons in comparison with experimental data of Pfandzelter et al. [1] for the interaction of N 6+ ions with magnetized Fe. Electrons with energies higher than 200 eV are predominantly PE electrons, emitted close to the surface via autoionization (AI), Auger capture (AC) and Auger deexcitation (AD) channels. Low energy electrons are dominated by promoted, autoionized, and secondary electrons. The polarization of above surface electrons is determined by the high of the potential barrier separating projectile and target. At large distances, the barrier drops only slightly below the Fermi edge and enables transitions of electrons from this part of the band structure which has about 50% polarization. These electrons are transferred to high n states feeding promotion and AI processes between high lying states. Electrons emitted by these processes therefore reflect the polarization near the Fermi edge. Close to the surface, the barrier is low enough to allow for electron capture from the entire conduction band. K-Auger electrons are emitted in immediate vicinity of the surface and therefore mirror

  13. Detailed modeling of electron emission for transpiration cooling of hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanquist, Kyle M.; Hara, Kentaro; Boyd, Iain D.

    2017-02-01

    Electron transpiration cooling (ETC) is a recently proposed approach to manage the high heating loads experienced at the sharp leading edges of hypersonic vehicles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to investigate the feasibility of ETC in a hypersonic environment. A modeling approach is presented for ETC, which includes developing the boundary conditions for electron emission from the surface, accounting for the space-charge limit effects of the near-wall plasma sheath. The space-charge limit models are assessed using 1D direct-kinetic plasma sheath simulations, taking into account the thermionically emitted electrons from the surface. The simulations agree well with the space-charge limit theory proposed by Takamura et al. for emitted electrons with a finite temperature, especially at low values of wall bias, which validates the use of the theoretical model for the hypersonic CFD code. The CFD code with the analytical sheath models is then used for a test case typical of a leading edge radius in a hypersonic flight environment. The CFD results show that ETC can lower the surface temperature of sharp leading edges of hypersonic vehicles, especially at higher velocities, due to the increase in ionized species enabling higher electron heat extraction from the surface. The CFD results also show that space-charge limit effects can limit the ETC reduction of surface temperatures, in comparison to thermionic emission assuming no effects of the electric field within the sheath.

  14. Modification of C60/C70+Pd film structure under electric field influence during electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwosz, E.; Dluzewski, P.; Kozlowski, M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the modification of structure of C 60 /C 70 +Pd films during cold electron emission from these films. Films were obtained by vacuum thermal deposition from two sources and were characterised before and after electron emission measurements by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Films were composed of nanocrystalline Pd objects dispersed in carbon/fullerenes matrix. I-V characteristics for electron emission were obtained in diode geometry with additionally applied voltage along the film surface. The modification of film structure occurred under applied electric field and the grouping of Pd nano crystals into bigger objects was observed

  15. Photoelectric emission from negative-electron-affinity diamond (111) surfaces: Exciton breakup versus conduction-band emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandis, C.; Pate, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported that bound electron-hole pairs (Mott-Wannier excitons) are the dominant source of photoelectron emission from specially prepared [''as-polished'' C(111)-(1x1):H] negative-electron-affinity diamond surfaces for near-band-gap excitation up to 0.5 eV above threshold [C. Bandis and B. B. Pate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 777 (1995)]. It was found that photoexcited excitons transport to the surface, break up, and emit their electron. In this paper, we extend the study of exciton-derived emission to include partial yield (constant final-state) analysis as well as angular distribution measurements of the photoelectric emission. In addition, we find that exciton-derived emission does not always dominate. Photoelectric emission properties of the in situ ''rehydrogenated'' (111)-(1x1):H diamond surface are characteristically different than emission observed from the as-polished (111)-(1x1):H surface. The rehydrogenated surface has additional downward band bending as compared to the as-polished surface. In confirmation of the assignment of photoelectric yield to exciton breakup emission, we find a significant enhancement of the total electron yield when the downward band bending of the hydrogenated surface is increased. The functional form of the observed total electron yield demonstrates that, in contrast to the as-polished surface, conduction-band electrons are a significant component of the observed photoelectric yield from the in situ hydrogenated (111)-(1x1):H surface. Furthermore, electron emission characteristics of the rehydrogenated surface confirms our assignment of a Fan phonon-cascade mechanism for thermalization of excitons

  16. High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, Yu.; Meshkov, I.; Petrov, A.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Titkova, I.

    2000-01-01

    The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 μA/V 3/2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual)

  17. High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system

    CERN Document Server

    Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M; Titkova, I

    2000-01-01

    The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 mu A/V sup 3 sup / sup 2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual).

  18. Spin-polarized free electron beam interaction with radiation and superradiant spin-flip radiative emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gover

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of spin-polarized free-electron beam interaction with electromagnetic wave at electron-spin resonance conditions in a magnetic field and of superradiant spin-flip radiative emission are analyzed in the framework of a comprehensive classical model. The spontaneous emission of spin-flip radiation from electron beams is very weak. We show that the detectivity of electron spin resonant spin-flip and combined spin-flip/cyclotron-resonance-emission radiation can be substantially enhanced by operating with ultrashort spin-polarized electron beam bunches under conditions of superradiant (coherent emission. The proposed radiative spin-state modulation and the spin-flip radiative emission schemes can be used for control and noninvasive diagnostics of polarized electron/positron beams. Such schemes are of relevance in important scattering experiments off nucleons in nuclear physics and off magnetic targets in condensed matter physics.

  19. Measurement of few-electron uranium ions on a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    The high-energy electron beam ion trap, dubbed Super-EBIT, was used to produce, trap, and excite uranium ions as highly charged as fully stripped U 92+ . The production of such highly charged ions was indicated by the x-ray emission observed with high-purity Ge detectors. Moreover, high-resolution Bragg crystal spectromters were used to analyze the x-ray emission, including a detailed measurement of both the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole transitions. Unlike in ion accelerators, where the uranium ions move at relativistic speeds, the ions in this trap are stationary. Thus very precise measurements of the transition energies could be made, and the QED contribution to the transition energies could be measured within less than 1 %. Details of the production of these highly charged ions and their measurement is given

  20. High energy photon emission from wakefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinella, D. M., E-mail: dfarinel@uci.edu; Lau, C. K.; Taimourzadeh, S.; Hwang, Y.; Abazajian, K.; Canac, N.; Taborek, P.; Tajima, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Zhang, X. M., E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Koga, J. K., E-mail: koga.james@qst.go.jp [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Ebisuzaki, T., E-mail: ebisu@riken.jp [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Experimental evidence has accumulated to indicate that wakefield acceleration (WFA) accompanies intense and sometimes coherent emission of radiation such as from betatron radiation. The investigation of this issue has additional impetus nowadays because we are learning (1) there is an additional acceleration process of the ponderomotive acceleration; (2) WFA may become relevant in much higher density regimes; (3) WFA has been proposed as the mechanism for extreme high energy cosmic ray acceleration and gamma ray bursts for active galactic nuclei. These require us to closely examine the radiative mechanisms in WFA anew. We report studies of radiation from wakefield (self-injected betatron) and ponderomotive (laser field) mechanisms in scalings of the frequency and intensity of the driver, as well as the plasma density.

  1. Self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser devices and nonideal electron beam transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazzarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed, at the SPARC test facility, a procedure for a real time self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (FEL device performance control. We describe an actual FEL, including electron and optical beam transport, through a set of analytical formulas, allowing a fast and reliable on-line “simulation” of the experiment. The system is designed in such a way that the characteristics of the transport elements and the laser intensity are measured and adjusted, via a real time computation, during the experimental run, to obtain an on-line feedback of the laser performances. The detail of the procedure and the relevant experimental results are discussed.

  2. Prompt High Energy Dipole γ Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, A.; Giaz, A; Bracco, A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the collective properties of a nuclear system is a powerful tool to understand the structure which lies inside the nucleus. A successful technique which has been used in this field is the measurement of the γ-decay of the highly collective Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR). In fact, GDR can be used as a probe for the internal structure of hot nuclei and, in addition, constitutes a clock for the thermalization process. Using the fusion-evaporation reaction, it has been recently possible to study (i) the yield of the high-energy γ-ray emission of the Dynamical Dipole which takes place during the fusion process and (ii) the degree of isospin mixing at high temperature in the decay of 80 Zr. In the first case it is important to stress the fact that the predictions of the theoretical models might differ depending on the type of nuclear equation of state (EOS) and on the N-N in-medium cross-section used in the calculations while, in the second physics case, the data are relative to the heaviest N = Z nucleus which has been possible to populate in the I = 0 channel using fusion-evaporation reaction. Both experiments were performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro using the HECTOR-GARFIELD array. The high-energy γ-rays were measured in coincidence with light charged particles and fusion-evaporation residues. (author)

  3. Formation of (Xe2H)* centers in solid Xe via recombination: nonstationary luminescence and 'internal electron emission'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, E.V.; Khyzhniy, I.V.; Uyutov, S.A.; Gumenchuk, G.B.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.; Beyer, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of excimers (Xe 2 H) * in solid Xe doped with molecular hydrogen under electron beam is studied using the original two-stage technique of nonstationary (NS) cathodoluminescence (CL) in combination with the current activation spectroscopy method - thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE). Charged species were generated using a high-density electron beam. The species produced were then probed with a low density beam on gradual sample heating. The near UV emission of the (Xe 2 H) * was used to monitor the neutralization process. It is found that the temperature behavior of the NS CL band of (Xe 2 H) * clearly correlates with the yield of TSEE measured after identical pre-irradiation of the sample. The fingerprints of the thermally stimulated detrapping of electrons - 'internal electron emission' in the spectrum of NS CL point to the essential role of neutralization reaction in the stability of the proton solvated by rare-gas atoms.

  4. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/diamond double-layered structure for improved field electron emission stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@mail.usask.ca; Yang, Q.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.S.

    2013-12-31

    A double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized on silicon substrate by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. The synthesis was achieved by first depositing a layer of diamond on silicon and then depositing a top layer of vertically aligned CNTs by applying a negative bias on the substrate holder. The growth of CNTs was catalyzed by a thin layer of spin-coated iron nitride. The surface morphology and structure of the CNTs/diamond double-layered structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrum, and Raman Spectroscopy. Their field electron emission (FEE) properties were measured by KEITHLEY 237 high voltage measurement unit, showing much higher FEE current stability than single layered CNTs. - Highlights: • A new double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned CNTs and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. • This double-layered structure exhibits superior field electron emission stability. • The improvement of emission stability is due to the combination of the unique properties of diamond and CNTs.

  5. Low-noise heterodyne receiver for electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, B., E-mail: bjtobias@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Luo, C.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Wang, Y. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The critical component enabling electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) to resolve 2D and 3D electron temperature and density perturbations is the heterodyne imaging array that collects and downconverts radiated emission and/or reflected signals (50–150 GHz) to an intermediate frequency (IF) band (e.g. 0.1–18 GHz) that can be transmitted by a shielded coaxial cable for further filtering and detection. New circuitry has been developed for this task, integrating gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) mounted on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate. The improved topology significantly increases electromagnetic shielding from out-of-band interference, leads to 10× improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio, and dramatic cost savings through integration. The current design, optimized for reflectometry and edge radiometry on mid-sized tokamaks, has demonstrated >20 dB conversion gain in upper V-band (60-75 GHz). Implementation of the circuit in a multi-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) array will improve the diagnosis of edge-localized modes and fluctuations of the high-confinement, or H-mode, pedestal.

  6. High-gradient electron accelerator powered by a relativisitic klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Boyd, J.K.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Haimson, J.; Hoag, H.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Houck, T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Mecklenburg, B.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Ryne, R.D.; Sessler, A.M.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have used relativistic klystron technology to extract 290 MW of peak power at 11.4 GHz from an induction linac beam, and to power a short 11.4-GHz high-gradient accelerator. We have measured rf phase stability, field emission, and the momentum spectrum of an accelerated electron beam. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80 MW of relativistic klystron power

  7. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  8. Electron emission regulator for an x-ray tube filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, H.E.; Randall, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray tube ma regulator has an scr phase shift voltage regulator supplying the primary winding of a transformer whose secondary is coupled to the x-ray tube filament. Prior to initiation of an x-ray exposure, the filament is preheated to a temperature corresponding substantially to the electron emissivity needed for obtaining the desired tube ma during an exposure. During the preexposure interval, the phase shift regulator is controlled by a signal corresponding to the sum of signals representative of the voltage applied to the filament transformer, the desired filament voltage and the space charge compensation needed for the selected x-ray tube anode to cathode voltage. When an exposure is initiated, control of the voltage regulator is switched to a circuit that responds to the tube current by controlling the amount of phase shift and, hence, the voltage supplied to the transformer. Transformer leakage current compensation is provided during the exposure interval with a circuit that includes an element whose impedance is varied in accordance with the anode-to-cathode voltage setting so the element drains off tube current as required to cancel the effect of leakage current variations

  9. Evaluation of high-energy brachytherapy source electronic disequilibrium and dose from emitted electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Facundo; Granero, Domingo; Pérez-Calatayud, José; Melhus, Christopher S; Rivard, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    The region of electronic disequilibrium near photon-emitting brachytherapy sources of high-energy radionuclides (60Co, 137CS, 192Ir, and 169Yb) and contributions to total dose from emitted electrons were studied using the GEANT4 and PENELOPE Monte Carlo codes. Hypothetical sources with active and capsule materials mimicking those of actual sources but with spherical shape were examined. Dose contributions due to source photons, x rays, and bremsstrahlung; source beta-, Auger electrons, and internal conversion electrons; and water collisional kerma were scored. To determine if conclusions obtained for electronic equilibrium conditions and electron dose contribution to total dose for the representative spherical sources could be applied to actual sources, the 192Ir mHDR-v2 source model (Nucletron B.V., Veenendaal, The Netherlands) was simulated for comparison to spherical source results and to published data. Electronic equilibrium within 1% is reached for 60Co, 137CS, 192Ir, and 169Yb at distances greater than 7, 3.5, 2, and 1 mm from the source center, respectively, in agreement with other published studies. At 1 mm from the source center, the electron contributions to total dose are 1.9% and 9.4% for 60Co and 192Ir, respectively. Electron emissions become important (i.e., > 0.5%) within 3.3 mm of 60Co and 1.7 mm of 192Ir sources, yet are negligible over all distances for 137Cs and 169Yb. Electronic equilibrium conditions along the transversal source axis for the mHDR-v2 source are comparable to those of the spherical sources while electron dose to total dose contribution are quite different. Electronic equilibrium conditions obtained for spherical sources could be generalized to actual sources while electron contribution to total dose depends strongly on source dimensions, material composition, and electron spectra.

  10. Signatures of hot electrons and fluorescence in Mo Kα emission on Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S. B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Rochau, G. A.; Dunham, G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Ouart, N.; Dasgupta, A.; Giuliani, J. L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Apruzese, J. P. [Consultant to NRL through Engility Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Recent experiments on the Z accelerator have produced high-energy (17 keV) inner-shell K-alpha emission from molybdenum wire array z-pinches. Extensive absolute power and spectroscopic diagnostics along with collisional-radiative modeling enable detailed investigation into the roles of thermal, hot electron, and fluorescence processes in the production of high-energy x-rays. We show that changing the dimensions of the arrays can impact the proportion of thermal and non-thermal K-shell x-rays.

  11. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas studied by two terahertz pulse experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas induced by strong terahertz (THz) transient is investigated using two THz pulse experiments. It is shown that UV emission from nitrogen plasma generated by liberated electrons is a good indication of the local...

  12. Electron and photon emissions from gold nanoparticles irradiated by X-ray photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casta, R., E-mail: castaromain@gmail.com, E-mail: romain.casta@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Champeaux, J.-P.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Sence, M.; Cafarelli, P. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, CNRS, UMR 5589 (France)

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we develop a totally new probabilistic model for the electron and photon emission of gold nanoparticles irradiated by X-ray photons. This model allows direct applications to recent researches about the radiotherapy enhancement by gold nanoparticles in the context of cancer treatment. Our model uses, in a complete original way, simulated Auger cascade and stopping power to compute electron emission spectra, photon emission spectra and released energy inside the material of gold nanoparticles. It allows us to present new results about the electron and photon emission of gold nanoparticle irradiated by hard X-rays.

  13. Electron dynamics in RF sources with a laser controlled emission

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Metrochenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission radiofrequency (RF) electron sources are sources of electron beams with extremely high brightness. Beam bunching processes in such devices are well studied in case when laser pulse duration is much lower of rf oscillation period.At the same time photoemission RF guns have some merits when operating in 'long-pulse' mode. In this case the laser pulse duration is much higher of rf oscillation period but much lower of rise time of oscillations in a gun cavity. Beam parameters at the gun output are compared for photoemission and thermoemission cathode applications. The paper presents results of a beam dynamics simulation in such guns with different resonance structures. Questions connected with defining of the current pulse peak value that can be obtained in such guns are discussed.

  14. Carrier emission from the electronic states of self-assembled indium arsenide quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.W.; Song, A.M.; Missous, M.; Hawkins, I.D; Hamilton, B.; Engstroem, O.; Peaker, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    We have used the new technique of high resolution (Laplace) transient spectroscopy to examine the electronic states of ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots of InAs in a GaAs matrix. These have been produced by solid source MBE. We have monitored the s and p state occupancies as a function of time under thermal excitation over a range of temperatures after electrons have been captured by the quantum dots with different Fermi level positions. This can provide more information about the interaction of the dots with the host matrix than is possible with optical techniques and gives new fundamental insights into how such dots may operate in electronic devices such as memory and sensors. The increase in resolution of Laplace transient spectroscopy over conventional experiments reveals quite specific rates of carrier loss which we attribute to tunnelling at low temperatures and a combination of thermal emission and tunnelling as the temperature is increased

  15. Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu,Q.

    2008-10-01

    The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a novel approach to generating electrons. By following the primary electron beam, which is generated by traditional electron sources, with an amplifier, the electron beam available to the eventual application is increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in current. Diamond has a very wide band gap of 5.47eV which allows for a good negative electron affinity with simple hydrogenation, diamond can hold more than 2000MV/m field before breakdown. Diamond also provides the best rigidity among all materials. These two characters offer the capability of applying high voltage across very thin diamond film to achieve high SEY and desired emission phase. The diamond amplifier also is capable of handling a large heat load by conduction and sub-nanosecond pulse input. The preparation of the diamond amplifier includes thinning and polishing, cleaning with acid etching, metallization, and hydrogenation. The best mechanical polishing available can provide high purity single crystal diamond films with no less than 100 {micro}m thickness and <15 nm Ra surface roughness. The ideal thickness for 700MHz beam is {approx}30 {micro}m, which requires further thinning with RIE or laser ablation. RIE can achieve atomic layer removal precision and roughness eventually, but the time consumption for this procedure is very significant. Laser ablation proved that with <266nm ps laser beam, the ablation process on the diamond can easily achieve removing a few microns per hour from the surface and <100nm roughness. For amplifier application, laser ablation is an adequate and efficient process to make ultra thin diamond wafers following mechanical polishing. Hydrogenation will terminate the diamond surface with monolayer of hydrogen, and form NEA so that secondary electrons in the conduction band can escape into the vacuum. The method is using hydrogen cracker to strike hydrogen atoms onto the bare diamond surface to form H-C bonds. Two independent

  16. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Sanyam, E-mail: bajaj.10@osu.edu; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M. [Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  17. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10 7  cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10 11  cm −2 . An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs

  18. Ion induced electron emission statistics under Agm- cluster bombardment of Ag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuers, A.; Penning, R.; Wucher, A.

    2018-05-01

    The electron emission from a polycrystalline silver surface under bombardment with Agm- cluster ions (m = 1, 2, 3) is investigated in terms of ion induced kinetic excitation. The electron yield γ is determined directly by a current measurement method on the one hand and implicitly by the analysis of the electron emission statistics on the other hand. Successful measurements of the electron emission spectra ensure a deeper understanding of the ion induced kinetic electron emission process, with particular emphasis on the effect of the projectile cluster size to the yield as well as to emission statistics. The results allow a quantitative comparison to computer simulations performed for silver atoms and clusters impinging onto a silver surface.

  19. A new approach to nuclear microscopy: The ion-electron emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Walsh, D.S.; Senftinger, B.; Mellon, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new multidimensional high lateral resolution ion beam analysis technique, Ion-Electron Emission Microscopy or IEEM is described. Using MeV energy ions, IEEM is shown to be capable of Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) measurements in semiconductors. IEEM should also be capable of microscopically and multidimensionally mapping the surface and bulk composition of solids. As such, IIEM has nearly identical capabilities as traditional nuclear microprobe analysis, with the advantage that the ion beam does not have to be focused. The technique is based on determining the position where an individual ion enters the surface of the sample by projection secondary electron emission microscopy. The x-y origination point of a secondary electron, and hence the impact coordinates of the corresponding incident ion, is recorded with a position sensitive detector connected to a standard photoemission electron microscope (PEEM). These signals are then used to establish coincidence with IBICC, atomic, or nuclear reaction induced ion beam analysis signals simultaneously caused by the incident ion

  20. Incident ion charge state dependence of electron emission during slow multicharged ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, I.G.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic variations in the total electron yield γ as a function of crystal azimuthal orientation are reported for slow N 2+ , N 5+ and N 6+ ions incident on a Au(011) single crystal, together with measurements of γ as a function of incident ion velocity. Kinetic electron emission is shown to arise predominantly in close collisions between incident ions and target atoms, and potential electron emission is found to be essentially constant within our present velocity range. The incident ion charge state is shown to play no role in kinetic electron emission. Extremely fast neutralization times of the order of 10 - 15 secs are needed to explain the observations

  1. Electron clouds in high energy hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor

    2013-08-29

    The formation of electron clouds in accelerators operating with positrons and positively charge ions is a well-known problem. Depending on the parameters of the beam the electron cloud manifests itself differently. In this thesis the electron cloud phenomenon is studied for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) conditions, and for the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-100 as a part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the FAIR conditions the extensive use of slow extraction will be made. After the acceleration the beam will be debunched and continuously extracted to the experimental area. During this process, residual gas electrons can accumulate in the electric field of the beam. If this accumulation is not prevented, then at some point the beam can become unstable. Under the SPS and LHC conditions the beam is always bunched. The accumulation of electron cloud happens due to secondary electron emission. At the time when this thesis was being written the electron cloud was known to limit the maximum intensity of the two machines. During the operation with 25 ns bunch spacing, the electron cloud was causing significant beam quality deterioration. At moderate intensities below the instability threshold the electron cloud was responsible for the bunch energy loss. In the framework of this thesis it was found that the instability thresholds of the coasting beams with similar space charge tune shifts, emittances and energies are identical. First of their kind simulations of the effect of Coulomb collisions on electron cloud density in coasting beams were performed. It was found that for any hadron coasting beam one can choose vacuum conditions that will limit the accumulation of the electron cloud below the instability threshold. We call such conditions the ''good'' vacuum regime. In application to SIS-100 the design pressure 10{sup -12} mbar corresponds to the good vacuum regime. The transition to the bad vacuum

  2. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime

  3. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierno, S. P., E-mail: sp.tierno@upm.es; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L. [Department of Applied Physics, E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.

  4. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.

  5. High energy electron positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; Υ Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the Υ; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles

  6. High energy electron multibeam diffraction and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Alain.

    1980-04-01

    The different theories of dynamical scattering of electrons are firstly reviewed with special reference to their basis and the validity of the different approximations. Then after a short description of the different experimental set ups, structural analysis and the investigation of the optical potential by means of high energy electrons will be surveyed

  7. Electron emission from a double-layer metal under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuchang; Li, Suyu; Jiang, Yuanfei; Chen, Anmin, E-mail: amchen@jlu.edu.cn; Ding, Dajun; Jin, Mingxing, E-mail: mxjin@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate electron emission during femtosecond laser ablation of single-layer metal (copper) and double-layer structures. The double-layer structure is composed of a surface layer (copper) and a substrate layer (gold or chromium). The calculated results indicate that the double-layer structure brings a change to the electron emission from the copper surface. Compared with the ablation of a single-layer, a double-layer structure may be helpful to decrease the relaxation time of the electron temperature, and optimize the electron emission by diminishing the tailing phenomenon under the same absorbed laser fluence. With the increase of the absorbed laser fluence, the effect of optimization becomes significant. This study provides a way to optimize the electron emission which can be beneficial to generate laser induced ultrafast electron pulse sources.

  8. High-efficient electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavatskikh, K.V.; Zverev, B.V.; Kalyuzhnyj, V.E.; Morozov, V.L.; Nikolaev, S.V.; Plotnikov, S.N.; Sobenin, N.P.; Vovna, V.A.; Gryzlov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison analysis of ELA on running and still waves designed for 10 MeV energy and with high efficiency is carried out. It is shown, that from the point of view of dimensions ELA with a still wave or that of a combined type is more preferable. From the point of view of impedance characteristics in any variant with application of magnetron as HF-generator it is necessary to implement special requirements to the accelerating structure if no ferrite isolation is provided in HF-channel. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. An experimental study of electron transfer and emission during particle-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, C.T.

    2000-09-01

    A new coincidence technique has been developed and used to study the secondary electron emission that arises during the interaction of ions with surfaces. This coincidence technique allows the secondary electron emission statistics due to the impact of singly, doubly and multiply charged ions on surfaces to be measured in coincidence with reflected particles, in specific charge states and with specific post-collision trajectories. This system has been used to study the impact of 8 keV H + ions on polycrystalline copper and aluminium targets. Under these conditions the potential emission contribution is negligible and the electron emission is almost entirely due to kinetic emission processes. The sub-surface contribution to the observed electron emission has been isolated using two newly developed models. These models provide valuable information about the depth and amount of surface penetration and on the probability for subsequent electron transport to the surface. The impact of 2 - 100 keV Xe q+ (q = 1 - 10) ions on polycrystalline copper has also been studied using this system. From the subsequent data the potential and kinetic contributions to secondary electron emission have been separated using a previously established model for potential emission. The resulting kinetic emission yield increases with increasing ion impact energy, consistent with current concepts on quasimolecular ionisation. For ions impacting at large incident angles evidence for sub-surface emission has also been observed. The degree of penetration increases with ion impact energy, consistent with current concepts on this effect. The formation of H - ions from incident H + ions has also been studied by measuring the secondary electron emission statistics in coincidence with reflected particles in specific final charge states. This preliminary data is consistent with a two-step process of Auger neutralisation followed by resonant electron capture to the affinity level. However this mechanism

  10. Intensities of the Venusian N2 electron-impact excited dayglow emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; F. Hać, Nicholas E.

    2013-12-01

    Dayglow emissions are signatures of both the energy deposition into an atmosphere and the abundances of the species from which they arise. The first N2 dayglow emissions from Mars, the (0,5) and (0,6) bands of the N2 Vegard-Kaplan band system, were detected by the Spectroscopy for Investigations of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) UV spectrometer on board the Mars Express spacecraft. The Vegard-Kaplan band system arises from the transition from the lowest N2 triplet state (A3Σu+;v') to the electronic ground state (X1Σg+;v″). It is populated by direct electron-impact excitation and by cascading from higher triplet states. The Venus UV dayglow is currently being probed by an instrument similar to SPICAM, the Spectroscopy for the Investigations of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) UV spectrometer on Venus Express, but no N2 emissions have been detected. Because the N2 mixing ratios in the Venus thermosphere are larger than those in the thermosphere of Mars and the solar flux is greater at the orbit of Venus than that at Mars, we expect the Venus N2 emissions to be significantly more intense than those of Mars. A prediction of the intensities of various N2 emissions from Venus could be used to guide observations by the SPICAV and other instruments that are used to measure the Venus dayglow. Employing updated data, we here construct models of the low and high solar activity thermospheres of Venus, and we compute the integrated overhead intensities of 17 N2 band systems and limb profiles of the Vegard-Kaplan bands. The ratios of the predicted intensities of the various N2 bands at Venus to those at Mars are in the range 5.5-9.5.

  11. ROLE OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTERS IN HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm 2 have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector

  12. Study of Deformation Phenomena in TRIP/TWIP Steels by Acoustic Emission and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderov, M. L.; Segel, C.; Weidner, A.; Biermann, H.; Vinogradov, A. Yu.

    2018-04-01

    Modern metastable steels with TRIP/TWIP effects have a unique set of physical-mechanical properties. They combine both high-strength and high-plasticity characteristics, which is governed by processes activated during deformation, namely, twinning, the formation of stacking faults, and martensitic transformations. To study the behavior of these phenomena in CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP steels and stainless CrNiMo steel, which does not have these effects in the temperature range under study, we used the method of acoustic emission and modern methods of signal processing, including the cluster analysis of spectral-density functions. The results of this study have been compared with a detailed microstructural analysis performed with a scanning electron microscope using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

  13. Swift heavy ion induced electron emission from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Gervais, Benoit; Lanzanò, Gaetano; De Filippo, Enrico; Caron, Michel; Beuve, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We briefly summarize the results of numerous experiments performed at GANIL aimed at measuring electron yields and doubly differential yields (energy or velocity spectra at different ejection angles, angular distributions). These studies, supported by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations, contributed decisively to our understanding of the very first step in energy deposition in matter, i.e. ionization and subsequent electron transport through condensed matter. The emitted electron spectrum contains a rich variety of features including binary encounter electrons (BEE), convoy electrons (CE), Auger electrons (AE) and the low-energy peak of “secondary” electrons (SE). (paper)

  14. Intravenous coronary angiography utilizing K-emission and bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by electron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with synchrotron radiation at SSRL and NSLS have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an intense source of monochromatic X-rays. Because of the high cost of an electron synchrotron, theoretical analysis and experiments using inanimate phantoms has been undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of using the spectrum produced by two appropriately chosen anode materials when bombarded with electrons in the 100--500 keV energy range for angiography. By using the X-rays emitted at 120 degree to the incident electron direction, about 20--30% of the X-ray intensity would be due to K-emission lines. Calculations using the TIGERP Monte Carlo Code, have shown that high quality angiograms of human coronary arteries should be possible with a contrast agent containing ytterbium, if an electron beam pulses of 16 kJ were used for each anode target. The experimental program supported in part by the DOE has consisted of these theoretical calculations and experiments at the Dynamitron Electron Accelerator Facility at BNL

  15. Extreme ultraviolet narrow band emission from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Sheng, L. S.; Zhang, G. B.; Tian, Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is considered as the most promising solution at and below dynamic random access memory 32 nm half pitch among the next generation lithography, and EUV light sources with high output power and sufficient lifetime are crucial for the realization of EUVL. However, there is no EUV light source completely meeting the requirements for the commercial application in lithography yet. Therefore, ECR plasma is proposed as a novel concept EUV light source. In order to investigate the feasibility of ECR plasma as a EUV light source, the narrow band EUV power around 13.5 nm emitted by two highly charged ECR ion sources--LECR2M and SECRAL--was measured with a calibrated EUV power measurement tool. Since the emission lines around 13.5 nm can be attributed to the 4d-5p transitions of Xe XI or the 4d-4f unresolved transition array of Sn VIII-XIII, xenon plasma was investigated. The dependence of the EUV throughput and the corresponding conversion efficiency on the parameters of the ion source, such as the rf power and the magnetic confinement configurations, were preliminarily studied

  16. Real-time measurement of electron beam weld penetration in uranium by acoustic emission monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, J.W.; Murphy, J.L.

    1991-07-01

    High quality electron beam (EB) welds are required in uranium test articles. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques are under development with the goal of measuring weld penetration in real-time. One technique, based on Average Signal Level (ASL) measurement was used to record weld AE signatures. Characteristic AE signatures were recorded for bead-on-plate (BOP) and butt joint (BJ) welds made under varied welding conditions. AE waveforms were sampled to determine what microscopic AE behavior led to the observed macroscopic signature features. Deformation twinning and weld expulsion are two of the main sources of emission. AE behavior was correlated with weld penetration as measured by standard metallographic techniques. The ASL value was found to increase approximately linearly with weld penetration in BJ welds. These results form the basis for a real-time monitoring technique for weld penetration. 5 refs

  17. Nitrogen plasma formation through terahertz-induced ultrafast electron field emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy and electron diffraction techniques rely on electron sources. Those sources require strong electric fields to extract electrons from metals, either by the photoelectric effect, driven by multiphoton absorption of strong laser fields, or in the static field emission regime....... Terahertz (THz) radiation, commonly understood to be nonionizing due to its low photon energy, is here shown to produce electron field emission. We demonstrate that a carrier-envelope phase-stable single-cycle optical field at THz frequencies interacting with a metallic microantenna can generate...... and accelerate ultrashort and ultrabright electron bunches into free space, and we use these electrons to excite and ionize ambient nitrogen molecules near the antenna. The associated UV emission from the gas forms a novel THz wave detector, which, in contrast with conventional photon-counting or heat...

  18. Method of synthesizing small-diameter carbon nanotubes with electron field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie (Inventor); Du, Chunsheng (Inventor); Qian, Cheng (Inventor); Gao, Bo (Inventor); Qiu, Qi (Inventor); Zhou, Otto Z. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube material having an outer diameter less than 10 nm and a number of walls less than ten are disclosed. Also disclosed are an electron field emission device including a substrate, an optionally layer of adhesion-promoting layer, and a layer of electron field emission material. The electron field emission material includes a carbon nanotube having a number of concentric graphene shells per tube of from two to ten, an outer diameter from 2 to 8 nm, and a nanotube length greater than 0.1 microns. One method to fabricate carbon nanotubes includes the steps of (a) producing a catalyst containing Fe and Mo supported on MgO powder, (b) using a mixture of hydrogen and carbon containing gas as precursors, and (c) heating the catalyst to a temperature above 950.degree. C. to produce a carbon nanotube. Another method of fabricating an electron field emission cathode includes the steps of (a) synthesizing electron field emission materials containing carbon nanotubes with a number of concentric graphene shells per tube from two to ten, an outer diameter of from 2 to 8 nm, and a length greater than 0.1 microns, (b) dispersing the electron field emission material in a suitable solvent, (c) depositing the electron field emission materials onto a substrate, and (d) annealing the substrate.

  19. Power electronics solution to dust emissions from thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power stations emit significant amounts of fly ash and ultra fine particles into the atmosphere. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP or electro filters remove flying ashes and fine particles from the flue gas before passing the gas into the chimney. Maximum allowable value of dust is 50 mg/m3 and it requires that the efficiency of the ESPs better than 99 %, which calls for an increase of active surface of the electrodes, hence increasing the filter volume and the weight of steel used for the filter. In previous decades, electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants were fed by thyristor controlled, single phase fed devices having a high degree of reliability, but with a relatively low collection efficiency, hence requiring large effective surface of the collection plates and a large weight of steel construction in order to achieve the prescribed emission limits. Collection efficiency and energy efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator can be increased by applying high frequency high voltage power supply (HF HV. Electrical engineering faculty of the University of Belgrade (ETF has developed technology and HF HV equipment for the ESP power supply. This solution was subjected to extensive experimental investigation at TE Morava from 2008 to 2010. High frequency power supply is proven to reduce emission two times in controlled conditions while increasing energy efficiency of the precipitator, compared to the conventional thyristor controlled 50Hz supply. Two high frequency high voltage unit AR70/1000 with parameters 70 kV and 1000 mA are installed at TE Morava and thoroughly testes. It was found that the HF HV power supply of the ESP at TE Morava increases collection efficiency so that emission of fine particles and flying ashes are halved, brought down to only 50 % of the emissions encountered with conventional 50 Hz thyristor driven power supplies. On the basis of this study, conclusion is drawn that the equipment comprising HF HV

  20. Proceedings of the 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, Gerardo

    2003-01-01

    The 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating was held in Aix-en-Provence (France) from 13 to 16 May 2002. The meeting was hosted by the Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion (CEA/Cadarache, France), with additional financial support from: - Region Provence-Alpes Cote d'Azur - The City of Aix-en-Provence - Communaute de l'Agglomeration du Pays d'Aix - Thales Electron Devices (France) - Alstom Magnets and Superconductors (France) - Spinner GmbH (Germany). The members of the local organizing committee were: G. Giruzzi, M. Lennholm, R. Magne and V. Poli, from CEA/Cadarache. The composition of the International Programme Committee was the following: M. Bornatici (Italy), A. Costley (ITER), E. de la Luna (Spain), G. Giruzzi (France), W. Kasparek (Germany), B. Lloyd (UK), J. Lohr (USA), K. Sakamoto (Japan). The subjects of the meeting were classified in four main topics: Electron Cyclotron Theory; Electron Cyclotron Emission; Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Experiments; Electron Cyclotron Technology. The results presented in these topics have been summarised in the closing session by E. Westerhof, A. Kraemer-Flecken, T. Goodman and G. Bosia, respectively. The workshop was attended by 85 participants from 18 countries, providing 10 invited talks, 30 oral presentations and 50 posters. The success of the workshop is mainly due to the amount and quality of their work and of their presentations. The generosity of the sponsors, the selection and advice work of the International Programme Committee, as well as the contribution of the chairmen and of the summary speakers should also be warmly acknowledged. The papers in this collection have been reproduced directly from the authors' manuscripts, provided either as camera-ready texts or as pdf files. The constraints on the papers lengths and formats have been kept to a minimum, on purpose. This series of workshops has now reached a good level of maturity, with well established

  1. A method to measure the suprathermal density distribution by electron cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutter, M.

    1986-05-01

    Electron cyclotron emission spectra of suprathermal electrons in a thermal main plasma are calculated. It is shown that for direction of observation oblique to the magnetic field, which decays in direction to the receiver, one may obtain information on the spatial density distribution of the suprathermal electrons from those spectra. (orig.)

  2. Field emission from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, N.; van Druten, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Individual multiwalled carbon nanotube field emitters were prepared in a scanning electron microscope. The angular current density, energy spectra, and the emission stability of the field-emitted electrons were measured. An estimate of the electron source brightness was extracted from the

  3. Kinetic electron emission from metal surfaces induced by impact of slow ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Zdeněk; Lorinčík, Jan

    -, č. 625 (2014), s. 7-9 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10086 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Ion induced kinetic electron emission * Electronic excitation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.925, year: 2014

  4. K-α emission form medium and high-Z materials irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Zhavoronkov, N.; Andreev, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Fast electrons are created at the target surface during the interaction of high intensity ultra short laser pulses with solids. Fast electrons penetrate deep into the target where they generate K-α and Bremsstrahlung radiation. Generated high brightness K-α pulses offer the prospect of creating a cheap and compact X-ray source, posing a promising alternative to synchrotron radiation, e.g. in medical application and in material science. With an increase in laser intensity, efficient X-ray emission in the multi-keV range with pulse duration shorter than few picoseconds is expected. This short incoherent but monochromatic X-ray emission synchronized with laser pulses may be used for time-resolved measurements. Acceleration of fast electrons, their transport and K-α photon generation and emission from the target surface in both forward and backward directions are studied here numerically. The results are compared to recent experiments studying K-α emission from the front and rear surface of copper foil targets of various thicknesses and for various parameters of the laser plasma interaction. One-dimensional PIC simulations coupled with 3D time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations show that account of ionization processes and of density profile formed by laser ASE emission is essential for reliable explanation of experimental data. While sub-relativistic intensities are optimum for laser energy transformation into K-α emission for medium-Z targets, relativistic laser intensities have to be used for hard X-ray generation in high-Z materials. The cross-section for K-α shell ionization of high-Z elements by electrons increases or remains approximately constant within a factor of two at relativistic electron energies up to electron energies in the 100-MeV range. Moreover, the splitting ratio of K-α photon emission to Auger electron emission is favorable for high-Z materials, and thus efficient K-α emission is possible. In our

  5. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  6. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar 17+ and Ar 18+ ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu -1 , charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu -1 for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar 17+ and Ar 18+ ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu -1 , charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar 16+ and Xe 44+ and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  7. Optical and x-ray imaging of electron beams using synchrotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the case of very low emittance electron and positron storage ring beams, it is impossible to make intrusive measurements of beam properties without increasing the emittance and possibly disrupting the beam. In cases where electron or positron beams have high average power densities (such as free electron laser linacs), intrusive probes such as wires and optical transition radiation screens or Cherenkov emitting screens can be easily damaged or destroyed. The optical and x-ray emissions from the bends in the storage rings and often from linac bending magnets can be used to image the beam profile to obtain emittance information about the beam. The techniques, advantages and limitations of using both optical and x-ray synchrotron emission to measure beam properties are discussed and the possibility of single bunch imaging is considered. The properties of suitable imagers and converters such as phosphors are described. Examples of previous, existing and planned applications are given where available, including a pinhole imaging system currently being designed for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  8. Optical and x-ray imaging of electron beams using synchrotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the case of very low eniittance electron and positron storage ring beams, it is impossible to make intrusive measurements of beam properties without increasing the emittance and possibly disrupting the beam. In cases where electron or positron beams have high average power densities (such as free electron laser linacs), intrusive probes such as wires and optical transition radiation screens or Cherenkov emitting screens can be easily damaged or destroyed. The optical and x-ray emissions from the bends in the storage rings and often from linac bending magnets can be used to image the beam profile to obtain emittance information about the beam. The techniques, advantages and limitations of using both optical and x-ray synchrotron emission to measure beam properties are discussed and the possibility of single bunch imaging is considered. The properties of suitable imagers and converters such as phosphors are described. Examples of previous, existing and planned applications are given where available, including a pinhole imaging system currently being designed for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  9. Characteristics of a wire ion plasma source and a secondary emission electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki; Osawa, Teruya; Urai, Hajime; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Tamagawa, Tohru

    1993-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of a wire ion plasma source (WIPS) and a secondary emission electron gun, for which the WIPS is used as an ion source, will be reported. The WIPS is a cold-cathode gaseous discharge device, in which a radial electron trapping permits an extremely low pressure gaseous discharge with very low applied voltages. The time evolutions of temperature and density of afterglow plasma were measured with a double probe. In the case of P 0 = 25 mTorr He and the maximum discharge current of 200 A, the temperature and density of electron were about 20 eV and of the order of 10 18 m -3 , respectively, just after the distinction of discharge. The ion current density measured by a biased ion collector (BIC) on the discharge tube wall was found to reach up to 300 mA/cm 2 . A secondary emission electron gun was set on the discharge tube wall opposite to the BIC. An earthed mesh net is installed at a height of 8 mm just in front of the cathode. The maximum negative bias voltage applied to the cathode is limited to -50 kV by the local breakdown in the gun, which occurred synchronously with the WIPS discharge. The electron beam current was measured by the BIC, in which an aluminum foil with a width of 2 μm was placed on instead of the earthed mesh net. At the cathode voltage of -30 kV, the measured beam current density was 220 mA/cm 2 . The extraporation of the resulted curve indicates that if the cathode voltage is -100 kV, the current density will reach to 1 A/cm 2 . The energy spectrum of the electron beam was measured with a magnetic energy analyzer, which was set in place of the BIC. The energy spread is about 300 eV at the central energy of 40 keV. Thus, they demonstrated the possibility of a high current density secondary emission electron gun, for which a WIPS is used as an ion source

  10. Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    2012-10-01

    At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.

  11. Limitation of the electron emission in an ion diode with magnetic self-insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Yu. I.; Guselnikov, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    The results of a study of the generation of a pulsed ion beam of gigawatt power formed by a diode with an explosive-emission potential electrode in a mode of magnetic self-insulation are presented. The studies were conducted at the TEMP-4M ion accelerator set in double pulse formation mode: the first pulse was negative (300-500 ns and 100-150 kV) and the second, positive (150 ns and 250-300 kV). The ion current density was 20-40 A/cm 2 ; the beam composition was protons and carbon ions. It was shown that plasma is effectively formed over the entire working surface of the graphite potential electrode. During the ion beam generation, a condition of magnetic cutoff of electrons along the entire length of the diode (B/B cr ≥ 4) is fulfilled. Because of the high drift rate, the residence time of the electrons and protons in the anode-cathode gap is 3-5 ns, while for the C + carbon ions, it is more than 8 ns. This denotes low efficiency of magnetic self-insulation in a diode of such a design. At the same time, it has been experimentally observed that, during the generation of ion current (second pulse), the electronic component of the total current is suppressed by a factor of 1.5-2 for a strip diode with plane and focusing geometry. A new model of the effect of limiting the electron emission explaining the decrease in the electronic component of the total current in a diode with magnetic self-insulation is proposed.

  12. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  13. Compact high-current, subnanosecond electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpak, V G; Shunajlov, S A; Ulmaskulov, M R; Yalandin, M I [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Electrophysics; Pegel, I V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). High-Current Electronics Inst.; Tarakanov, V P [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High-Temperature Inst.

    1997-12-31

    A compact subnanosecond, high-current electron accelerator producing an annular electron beam of duration up to 300 - 400 ps, energy about 250 keV, and current up to 1 kA has been developed to study transient processes in pulsed power microwave devices. The measuring and recording techniques used to experimentally investigate the dynamics of the beam current pulse and the transformation of the electron energy during the transportation of the beam in a longitudinal magnetic field are described. The experimental data obtained are compared with the predictions of a numerical simulation. (author). 6 figs., 5 refs.

  14. Photon emission induced by impact of electrons on molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprang, H.A. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses both the history and the present state of emission spectroscopy and presents several previously published papers giving experimental data on some diatomic molecules and for chloro-fluoro methanes. (G.T.H.)

  15. Electron Bernstein wave simulations and comparison to preliminary NSTX emission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub; Pavlo, Pavol; Taylor, Gary; Diem, Steffi; Vahala, Linda; Vahala, George

    2006-01-01

    Simulations indicate that during flattop current discharges the optimal angles for the aiming of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) antennae are quite rugged and basically independent of time. The time development of electron Bernstein wave emission (EBWE) at particular frequencies as well as the frequency spectrum of EBWE as would be seen by the recently installed NSTX antennae are computed. The simulation of EBWE at low frequencies (e.g., 16 GHz) agrees well with the recent preliminary EBWE measurements on NSTX. At high frequencies, the sensitivity of EBWE to magnetic field variations is understood by considering the Doppler broadened electron cyclotron harmonics and the cutoffs and resonances in the plasma. Significant EBWE variations are seen if the magnetic field is increased by as little as 2% at the plasma edge. The simulations for the low frequency antenna are compared to preliminary experimental data published separately by Diem et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum.77 (2006)

  16. High-brightness electron source driven by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Geng Rongli; Wang Lifang

    1996-01-01

    A DC high-brightness laser driven by photo emissive electron gun is being developed at Beijing University, in order to produce 50∼100 ps electron bunches of high quality. The gun consists of a photocathode preparation chamber and a DC acceleration cavity. Different ways of fabricating photocathode, such as chemical vapor deposition, ion beam implantation and ion beam enhanced deposition, can be adopted. The acceleration gap is designed with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. 100 kV DC high voltage is fed to the anode through a careful designed ceramic insulator. The laser system is a mode locked Nd-YAG oscillator proceeded by an amplifier at 10 Hz repetition rate, which can deliver three different wavelength (1064/532/266 nm). The combination of a superconducting cavity with the photocathode preparation chamber is discussed

  17. A vacuum sealed high emission current and transmission efficiency carbon nanotube triode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, Yunsong [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Qilong; Zhang, Xiaobing, E-mail: bell@seu.edu.cn; Lei, Wei; Du, Xiaofei; Yu, Cairu [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-04-15

    A vacuum sealed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) triode with a concave and spoke-shaped Mo grid is presented. Due to the high aperture ratio of the grid, the emission current could be modulated at a relatively high electric field. Totally 75 mA emission current has been obtained from the CNTs cathode with the average applied field by the grid shifting from 8 to 13 V/μm. Whilst with the electron transmission efficiency of the grid over 56%, a remarkable high modulated current electron beam over 42 mA has been collected by the anode. Also contributed by the high aperture ration of the grid, desorbed gas molecules could flow away from the emission area rapidly when the triode has been operated at a relative high emission current, and finally collected by a vacion pump. The working pressure has been maintained at ∼1 × 10{sup −7} Torr, seldom spark phenomena occurred. Nearly perfect I-V curve and corresponding Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plot confirmed the accuracy of the measured data, and the emission current was long term stable and reproducible. Thusly, this kind of triode would be used as a high-power electron source.

  18. A new calculational method to assess the therapeutic potential of Auger electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Charlton, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a new computer code to estimate the efficacy of Auger electron sources in cancer therapy. Auger electron emission accompanies the decay of many radionuclides already commonly used in nuclear medicine, for example; 99m Tc and 201 Tl. The range of these electrons is in general sub-cellular, therefore, the toxicity of the source depends on the site of decay relative to the genetic material of the cell. Electron track structure methods have been used which enable the study of energy deposition from Auger sources down to the Angstrom level. A figure for the minimum energy required per single strand break is obtained by fitting our energy deposition calculations for 125 I decays in a model of the DNA to experimental data on break lengths from 125 I labeled plasmid fragments. This method is used to investigate the efficiency of double strand break production by other Auger sources which have potential value for therapy. The high RBE of Auger sources depends critically on the distance between the source and target material. The application of Auger emitters for therapy may necessitate a carrier molecule that can append the source to the DNA. Many DNA localizing agents are known in the field of chemotherapy, some of which could be carrier molecules for Auger sources; the halogenated thymidine precursors are under scrutiny in this field. The activation of Auger cascades in situ by high energy, collimated X ray and neutron beams is also assessed

  19. Monte-Carlo simulations of secondary electron emission from CsI, induced by 1-10 keV X-rays and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkerman, A.; Gibrekhterman, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.

    1992-05-01

    A model for electron transport and emission in CsI is proposed. It is based on theoretically calculated microscopic cross-sections for electron interaction with the nuclear and the electronic components of the solid. A Monte Carlo program based on this model was developed to simulate secondary electron emission induced by X-rays and electrons in the energy range of 1 to 10 keV. The calculated secondary emission yields agree with existing experimental data. The model provides all necessary characteristics for the design of radiation detectors based on secondary electron emission. It can be expanded to higher incident energies and other alkali halides. (author)

  20. Investigation of electron emission properties of Ba-activated tungsten cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, I; Josepovits, V K; Sneider, J; Toth, Z

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigated the electron emission properties of high-pressure discharge lamp cathode tips. The work function (Φ) of the cathode tip was measured by using the Kelvin probe method and by work function spectroscopy (WFS). The Kelvin probe method was used to measure the average work function of tips under atmospheric pressure in air. By WFS we could measure the local work function value of tips in the selected spots under ultra high vacuum conditions. The chemical composition analysis was carried out in the same chamber by Auger electron spectroscopy. The focus of this study is to investigate the influence of sintering temperature of cathodes (1500-1700 deg. C) and lamp operation time (0-12 000 h) on the work function. The comparison of the work function of both cathodes as a function of operation time originating from the two different ends of the ceramic tube is also considered. In order to understand the structure of the layers on the cathode tips we also give results obtained on a flat tungsten foil covered with Ba-containing emission material. The flat samples were measured using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and WFS

  1. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heays, A. N. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T., E-mail: heays@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}Π {sub g} , b {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  2. Electrom emission from slow highly charged ions interacting with a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Kurz, H.; Toeglhofer, K.; Winter, H.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in investigating electron emission from slow highly charged ions approaching a metal surface is discussed. In particular, new informations on generation and decay of transient multiply excited ''hollow atoms'' developing during these processes have been gained from measurement of the statistics of emitted electrons (ES). ES and precise total electron yields derived from the former have been measured for normal incidence of slow (impact velocity 1/15.10 4 ms -1 ) multicharged ions N q+ (q≤6), Ne q+ (q≤10), Ar q+ (q≤16), Kr q+ (q≤10), Xe q+ (q≤10) and I q+ (q≤25) on clean polycrystalline gold. A classical over-barrier approach as recently introduced by Burgdoerfer et al. 1991 has been extended and successfully applied to model the measured impact-velocity dependences of total electron yields. In this way contributions from different electron emission mechanisms could be identified. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of electron density and electron temperature of a cascaded arc plasma using laser Thomson scattering compared to an optical emission spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, WANG; Cong, LI; Jielin, SHI; Xingwei, WU; Hongbin, DING

    2017-11-01

    As advanced linear plasma sources, cascaded arc plasma devices have been used to generate steady plasma with high electron density, high particle flux and low electron temperature. To measure electron density and electron temperature of the plasma device accurately, a laser Thomson scattering (LTS) system, which is generally recognized as the most precise plasma diagnostic method, has been established in our lab in Dalian University of Technology. The electron density has been measured successfully in the region of 4.5 × 1019 m-3 to 7.1 × 1020 m-3 and electron temperature in the region of 0.18 eV to 0.58 eV. For comparison, an optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system was established as well. The results showed that the electron excitation temperature (configuration temperature) measured by OES is significantly higher than the electron temperature (kinetic electron temperature) measured by LTS by up to 40% in the given discharge conditions. The results indicate that the cascaded arc plasma is recombining plasma and it is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). This leads to significant error using OES when characterizing the electron temperature in a non-LTE plasma.

  4. Generalized formula for electron emission taking account of the polaron effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengolts, Yu A.; Beril, S. I.; Barengolts, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    A generalized formula is derived for the electron emission current as a function of temperature, field, and electron work function in a metal-dielectric system that takes account of the quantum nature of the image forces. In deriving the formula, the Fermi-Dirac distribution for electrons in a metal and the quantum potential of the image obtained in the context of electron polaron theory are used.

  5. Ion emission from laser-produced plasmas with two electron temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickens, L.M.; Allen, J.E.; Rumsby, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytic theory for the expansion of a laser-produced plasma with two electron temperatures is presented. It is shown that from the ion-emission velocity spectrum such relevant parameters as the hot- to -cold-electron density ratio, the absolute hot- and cold-electron temperatures, and a sensitive measure of hot- and cold-electron temperature ratio can be deduced. A comparison with experimental results is presented

  6. Study of electrons photoemitted from field emission tips. Progress report, July 1, 1979-March 1, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenberger, R.

    1980-02-01

    Photo-induced field emission is a technique which studies electrons that have been photoemitted from a field emission tip. This new experimental method promises to combine the proven utility of both field emission and photoemission for investigating the electronic states near a metal surface. The primary objective of the research being performed is to investigate photo-induced field emitted electrons using a tuneable cw dye laser. To fully exploit this continuously tuneable photon source, a differential energy analyzer is being constructed to allow energy resolved measurements of the photo-field emitted electrons. This report describes the progress made in implementing experiments on photo-induced field emission from July 1979 to March 1980

  7. Characteristics of Biogenic VOCs Emission and its High-Resolution Emission Inventory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Li, Y.; Xie, S.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), with high emission and reactivity, can have substantial impacts on the haze and photochemical pollution. It is essential to establish an accurate high-resolution BVOC emission inventory in China for air quality simulation and decision making. Firstly, a semi-static enclosure technique is developed for the field measurements of BVOC emission rates from 50 plant species in China. Using the GC-MS/FID system, 103 VOC species for each plant species are measured. Based on the field measurements in our study and the reported emission rates at home and abroad, a methodology for determining the emission categories of BVOCs is developed using statistical analysis. The isoprene and monoterpene emission rates of 192 plant species/genera in China are determined based on the above emission categories. Secondly, a new vegetation classification with 82 plant functional types (PFTs) is developed based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations, China's official statistical data and Vegetation Atlas of China (1:1,000,000). The leaf biomass is estimated based on provincial vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The WRF model is used to determine meteorological variables at a high spatio-temporal resolution. Using MEAGNv2.1 and the determined emission rates in our study, the high-resolution emission inventories of isoprene, 37 monoterpene species, 32 sesquiterpene species, and other VOCs (OVOCs) from 82 PFTs in China for 1981-2013 are established. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2013 are 55.88 Tg, including 33.87 Tg isoprene, 6.36 Tg monoterpene, 1.29 Tg sesquiterpene, and 14.37 Tg OVOCs. The distribution of isoprene emission fluxes is consistent with the distribution of broadleaf trees, especially tree species with high or higher emission potential. During 1981-2013, China's BVOC emissions have increased by 47.48% at an average rate of 1.80% yr-1. Emissions of isoprene have the largest enhancement

  8. A theoretical analysis of ballistic electron emission microscopy: band structure effects and attenuation lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, P.L. de; Reuter, K.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.; Flores, F.; Hohenester, U.; Kocevar, P.

    1998-01-01

    Using quantum mechanical approach, we compute the ballistic electron emission microscopy current distribution in reciprocal space to compare experimental and theoretical spectroscopic I(V) curves. In the elastic limit, this formalism is a 'parameter free' representation of the problem. At low voltages, low temperatures, and for thin metallic layers, the elastic approximation is enough to explain the experiments (ballistic conditions). At low temperatures, inelastic effects can be taken into account approximately by introducing an effective electron-electron lifetime as an imaginary part in the energy. Ensemble Monte Carlo calculations were also performed to obtain ballistic electron emission microscopy currents in good agreement with the previous approach. (author)

  9. Calculation of X-ray emission produced by a quasi-monoenergetic electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaei, M.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. By using an intense ultrafast laser interaction with plasma, generation of accelerated relativistic electrons with quasi monoenergetic spectrum has been possible. Analytic expressions for spectra and emission efficiencies of x-rays bremsstrahlung and characteristic line emission produced by a quasi-monoenergetic electron distribution from several targets are investigated. In this work, a Gaussian profile is assumed for the quasi-monoenergetic electron spectrum. The produced x-ray radiations are compared with the previous achieved results for a Maxwellian electron profile. These results and achievements are discussed in detail. Also, the outcomes can be evaluated with the experimental and simulated results.

  10. Plasma potential measurements in the edge region of the ISTTOK plasma, using electron emissive probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, C.; Balan, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Cabral, J.A.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H. F.C.; Varandas, C.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently started to use electron-emissive probes for direct measurements of the plasma potential and its fluctuations in the edge region of the plasma ring in the tokamak ISTTOK in Lisbon, Portugal. This method is based on the fact that the electron emission current of such a probe is able to compensate electron temperature variations and electron drifts, which can occur in the edge plasma region of magnetized fusion devices, and which are making measurements with cold probes prone to errors. In this contribution we present some of the first results of our investigations in ISTTOK.(author)

  11. The practical model of electron emission in the radioisotope battery by fast ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhine, N.S.; Balebanov, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Under the theoretical analysis of secondary-emission radioisotope source of current the estimate of energy spectrum F(E) of secondary electrons with energy E emitted from films is the important problem. This characteristic knowledge allows, in particular, studying the volt-ampere function, the dependence of electric power deposited in the load on the system parameters and so on. Since the rigorous calculations of energy spectrum F(E) are the complicated enough and labour-intensive there is necessity to elaborate the practical model which allows by the simple computer routine on the basis of generalized data (both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations) on the stopping powers and mean free path of suprathermal electrons to perform reliable express-estimates of the energy spectrum F(E) and the volt-ampere function I(V) for the concrete materials of battery emitter films. This paper devoted to description of of the practical model to calculate electron emission characteristics under the passage of fast ion fluxes from the radioisotope source through the battery emitter. The analytical approximations for the stopping power of emitter materials, the electron inelastic mean free path, the ion production of fast electrons and the probability for them to arrive the film surface are taken into account. In the cases of copper and gold films, the secondary electron escaping depth, the position of energy spectrum peak are considered in the dependence on surface potential barrier magnitude U. According to our calculations the energy spectrum peak shifted to higher electron energy under the U growth. The model described may be used for express estimates and computer simulations of fast alpha-particles and suprathermal electrons interactions with the solid state plasma of battery emitter films, to study the electron emission layer characteristics including the secondary electron escaping depth, to find the optimum conditions for excitation of nonequilibrium

  12. Contribution of charge-transfer processes to ion-induced electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, M.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Charge changing events of ions moving inside metals are shown to contribute significantly to electron emission in the intermediate velocity regime via electrons coming from projectile ionization. Inclusion of equilibrium charge state fractions, together with two-electron Auger processes and resonant-coherent electron loss from the projectile, results in reasonable agreement with previous calculations for frozen protons, though a significant part of the emission is now interpreted in terms of charge exchange. The quantal character of the surface barrier transmission is shown to play an important role. The theory compares well with experimental observations for H projectiles. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. High-field electron-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, F V.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in novel technologies (including chirped-pulse amplification, femtosecond laser systems operating in the TW-PW range, high-gradient rf photoinjectors, and synchronized relativistic electron bunches with subpicosecond durations and THz bandwidths) allow experimentalists to study the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultrahigh-intensity photon fields. Ponderomotive scattering can accelerate these electrons with extremely high gradients in a three-dimensional vacuum laser focus. The nonlinear Doppler shift induced by relativistic radiation pressure in Compton backscattering is shown to yield complex nonlinear spectra which can be modified by using temporal laser pulse shaping techniques. Colliding laser pulses, where ponderomotive acceleration and Compton backscattering are combined, could also yield extremely short wavelength photons. Finally, one expects strong radiative corrections when the Doppler-upshifted laser wavelength approaches the Compton scale. These are discussed within the context of high-field classical electrodynamics, a new discipline borne out of the aforementioned innovations

  14. Radio emission from Supernovae and High Precision Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Torres, M. A.

    1999-11-01

    -similarly and spherically symmetric expanding, and that the radio emission comes only from its shell. We take into account radiative losses due to synchrotron emission and losses due to the supernova expansion. Although relatively simple, the model retains the main physical features involving the process of radio emission. Our code, MOSES (MOdeling of Synchrotron Emissiom from Supernovae), reproduces fairly well the radio light curves for SN 1993J obtained from single dish measurements. Constrained by our VLBI measurements, we fitted the light curves of the supernova by adjusting five parameters, namely: index of the injected distribution of relativistic electrons, p; ratio of the mass-loss rate to the wind velocity of the supernova progenitor, M_w; and the initial values for the injection of electrons, N_0, the low-energy cut-off of the relativistic electrons, emin, and the magnetic field, B_0. To get a reasonable fit, we need: values of the spectral index, p, very close to three; a wind parameter M_w approx 1.7, thus indicating the existence of a strong presupernova wind ( 8.5*10^{-5} solar masses per year); low initial values of N_0 ( 7 * 10^{-7} erg^{p-1} cm^3); initially high low-energy cut-offs of the relativistic electrons (Erel approx. 90 m_e*c^2); and high initial magnetic fields (B_0 approx. 30 Gauss). An uncertainty of about a factor 2 is likely to exist for such parameters as B_0, N_0, and E_min. In contrast, both p and M_w seem to be well constrained to their nominal values. We stress that the large magnetic field required represents a relatively shocking result in view of the usually small (a few microgauss) interstellar magnetic fields, and tends to favor theories in which the magnetic field is amplified in situ by turbulences inside the supernova shell.

  15. Transport Theory for Kinetic Emission of Secondary Electrons from Solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    a solid is derived. To find the former, existing computations for ion slowing down and experimental and theoretical ones for electron bombardment can be utilized. The energy and angular distribution of the secondary electrons and the secondary electron yield are both expressed as products of the deposited...... in the keV region is largely taken into account. The predicted energy and angular distribution agree with absolute spectra for incident electrons, whereas the agreement with absolute spectra for incident protons is less satisfactory. Extrapolation of the energy distribution down to the vacuum level gives...

  16. Experimental Development of Low-emittance Field-emission Electron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueangaranwong, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Buzzard, C. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Divan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Korampally, V. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Piot, P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-10-10

    Field emission electron sources are capable of extreme brightness when excited by static or time-dependent electro- magnetic fields. We are currently developing a cathode test stand operating in DC mode with possibility to trigger the emission using ultra-short (~ 100-fs) laser pulses. This contribution describes the status of an experiment to investigate field-emission using cathodes under development at NIU in collaboration with the Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials.

  17. Free-electron laser emission architecture impact on extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Wood, Obert R.; Barletta, William A.

    2017-10-01

    Laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV sources have demonstrated ˜125 W at customer sites, establishing confidence in EUV lithography (EUVL) as a viable manufacturing technology. However, for extension to the 3-nm technology node and beyond, existing scanner/source technology must enable higher-NA imaging systems (requiring increased resist dose and providing half-field exposures) and/or EUV multipatterning (requiring increased wafer throughput proportional to the number of exposure passes). Both development paths will require a substantial increase in EUV source power to maintain the economic viability of the technology, creating an opportunity for free-electron laser (FEL) EUV sources. FEL-based EUV sources offer an economic, high-power/single-source alternative to LPP EUV sources. Should FELs become the preferred next-generation EUV source, the choice of FEL emission architecture will greatly affect its operational stability and overall capability. A near-term industrialized FEL is expected to utilize one of the following three existing emission architectures: (1) self-amplified spontaneous emission, (2) regenerative amplifier, or (3) self-seeding. Model accelerator parameters are put forward to evaluate the impact of emission architecture on FEL output. Then, variations in the parameter space are applied to assess the potential impact to lithography operations, thereby establishing component sensitivity. The operating range of various accelerator components is discussed based on current accelerator performance demonstrated at various scientific user facilities. Finally, comparison of the performance between the model accelerator parameters and the variation in parameter space provides a means to evaluate the potential emission architectures. A scorecard is presented to facilitate this evaluation and provides a framework for future FEL design and enablement for EUVL applications.

  18. Electron density in the emission-line region of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshni, Y.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Inglis-Teller relation, generalized for a hydrogen-like or alkali-like ion with an arbitrary core charge, is used to estimate the electron density in the emission-like region of Wolf-Rayet stars. It is found that the electron density in the region which gives rise to He II emission lines is approximately = 4 x 10 14 cm -3 . (Auth.)

  19. Electron and X-ray emission in collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerlee, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents experimental results of electron and X-ray emission following slow collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms. The aim of the investigation was to study the mechanisms which are responsible for the emission. (G.T.H.)

  20. Application of a sawtooth surface to accelerator beam chambers with low electron emission rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Tsuchiya, M.; Nishidono, T.; Kato, N.; Satoh, N.; Endo, S.; Yokoyama, T.

    2003-01-01

    One of the latest problems in positron or proton accelerators is a single-beam instability due to an electron cloud around the beam. The instability, for an example, causes a beam size blow up of the positron beam and deteriorates the performance of the electron-positron collider. the seed of the electron cloud is the electrons emitted from the surface of the beam chamber, which consists of electrons due to the synchrotron radiation (photoelectrons) and sometimes those multiplied by the multipactoring. Suppressing the electron emission from the surface is, therefore, an essential way to cure the instability. Here a rough surface with a sawtooth structure (sawtooth surface) is proposed to reduce the electron emission from the surface of the beam chamber. A new rolling-tap method is developed for this study to make the sawtooth surface in a circular beam chamber with a length of several meters. The first experiment using a test chamber at a photon beam line of the KEK Photon Factory verifies its validity. The photoelectron emission from the sawtooth surface reduces by one order of magnitude compared to the usual smooth surface. In the second experiment under a bunched positron beam in the KEK B-Factory, however, the electron emission is comparable to that of a smooth surface and the behavior is quite different from the previous one. The reason is that the beam field excites the multipactoring of electrons and the decrease of the photoelectron emission by the sawtooth surface is wiped out. The sawtooth surface will be effective to reduce the electron emission under the situation with external magnetic fields or without strong beam fields where the electron multipactoring hardly occurs

  1. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, D.; Tománek, P.; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 395, FEB 15 (2017), s. 157-161 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : field emission * HOPG * scanning electron microscopy * scanning near-field optical microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Nano-processes (applications on nano-scale) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  2. Surface influence on convoy electron emission at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the dependence of the production of convoy electrons induced by H + - 60 KeV with surface conditions of Al targets by in situ deposition of Na and O. The conclusion is that convoy electron production increases with the work function of the surface. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  3. High-resolution observation by double-biprism electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Ken; Tonomura, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Tetsuya; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution electron holography has been achieved by using a double-biprism interferometer implemented on a 1 MV field emission electron microscope. The interferometer was installed behind the first magnifying lens to narrow carrier fringes and thus enabled complete separation of sideband Fourier spectrum from center band in reconstruction process. Holograms of Au fine particles and single-crystalline thin films with the finest fringe spacing of 4.2 pm were recorded and reconstructed. The overall holography system including the reconstruction process performed well for holograms in which carrier fringes had a spacing of around 10 pm. High-resolution lattice images of the amplitude and phase were clearly reconstructed without mixing of the center band and sideband information. Additionally, entire holograms were recorded without Fresnel fringes normally generated by the filament electrode of the biprism, and the holograms were thus reconstructed without the artifacts caused by Fresnel fringes

  4. Electron cyclotron emission from optically thin plasma in compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Hiroshi; Kubo, Shin; Hosokawa, Minoru; Iguchi, Harukazu; Ohkubo, Kunizo; Sato, Teruyuki.

    1994-01-01

    A frequency spectrum of second harmonic electron cyclotron emission was observed for an optically thin plasma produced by fundamental electron cyclotron heating in a compact helical system. A radial electron temperature profile deduced from this spectrum neglecting the multiple reflections effect shows a clear difference from that measured by Thomson scattering. We relate the spectrum with the electron temperature profile by the modified emission model including the scrambling effect. The scrambling effect results from both mode conversion and change in the trajectory due to multiple reflections of the emitting ray at the vessel wall. The difference between the two temperature profiles is explained well by using the modified emission model. Reconstruction of the electron temperature profile from the spectrum using this model is also discussed. (author)

  5. Helium ion beam induced electron emission from insulating silicon nitride films under charging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu. V.; Anikeva, A. E.; Vyvenko, O. F.

    2018-06-01

    Secondary electron emission from thin silicon nitride films of different thicknesses on silicon excited by helium ions with energies from 15 to 35 keV was investigated in the helium ion microscope. Secondary electron yield measured with Everhart-Thornley detector decreased with the irradiation time because of the charging of insulating films tending to zero or reaching a non-zero value for relatively thick or thin films, respectively. The finiteness of secondary electron yield value, which was found to be proportional to electronic energy losses of the helium ion in silicon substrate, can be explained by the electron emission excited from the substrate by the helium ions. The method of measurement of secondary electron energy distribution from insulators was suggested, and secondary electron energy distribution from silicon nitride was obtained.

  6. High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2014-05-01

    A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of 5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

  7. The influence of oxidation properties on the electron emission characteristics of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Xiaoning, E-mail: znn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Wenjiang [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wei, Haicheng [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan750021 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Evaluated the oxidation properties of porous silicon from semi-quantitative methods. • Discovered the relationship between oxidation properties and emission characteristics. • Revealed the micro-essence of the electron emission of the porous silicon. - Abstract: In order to investigate the influence of oxidation properties such as oxygen content and its distribution gradient on the electron emission characteristics of porous silicon (PS) emitters, emitters with PS thickness of 8 μm, 5 μm, and 3 μm were prepared and then oxidized by electrochemical oxidation (ECO) and ECO-RTO (rapid thermal oxidation) to get different oxidation properties. The experimental results indicated that the emission current density, efficiency, and stability of the PS emitters are mainly determined by oxidation properties. The higher oxygen content and the smaller oxygen distribution gradient in the PS layer, the larger emission current density and efficiency we noted. The most favorable results occurred for the PS emitter with the smallest oxygen distribution gradient and the highest level of oxygen content, with an emission current density of 212.25 μA/cm{sup 2} and efficiency of 59.21‰. Additionally, it also demonstrates that thick PS layer benefits to the emission stability due to its longer electron acceleration tunnel. The FN fitting plots indicated that the effective emission areas of PS emitters can be enlarged and electron emission thresholds is decreased because of the higher oxygen content and smaller distribution gradient, which were approved by the optical micrographs of top electrode of PS emitters before and after electron emission.

  8. The influence of oxidation properties on the electron emission characteristics of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Li; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wang, Wenjiang; Wei, Haicheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluated the oxidation properties of porous silicon from semi-quantitative methods. • Discovered the relationship between oxidation properties and emission characteristics. • Revealed the micro-essence of the electron emission of the porous silicon. - Abstract: In order to investigate the influence of oxidation properties such as oxygen content and its distribution gradient on the electron emission characteristics of porous silicon (PS) emitters, emitters with PS thickness of 8 μm, 5 μm, and 3 μm were prepared and then oxidized by electrochemical oxidation (ECO) and ECO-RTO (rapid thermal oxidation) to get different oxidation properties. The experimental results indicated that the emission current density, efficiency, and stability of the PS emitters are mainly determined by oxidation properties. The higher oxygen content and the smaller oxygen distribution gradient in the PS layer, the larger emission current density and efficiency we noted. The most favorable results occurred for the PS emitter with the smallest oxygen distribution gradient and the highest level of oxygen content, with an emission current density of 212.25 μA/cm"2 and efficiency of 59.21‰. Additionally, it also demonstrates that thick PS layer benefits to the emission stability due to its longer electron acceleration tunnel. The FN fitting plots indicated that the effective emission areas of PS emitters can be enlarged and electron emission thresholds is decreased because of the higher oxygen content and smaller distribution gradient, which were approved by the optical micrographs of top electrode of PS emitters before and after electron emission.

  9. High current density M-type cathodes for vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ji; Yu Zhiqiang; Shao Wensheng; Zhang Ke; Gao Yujuan; Yuan Haiqing; Wang Hui; Huang Kaizhi; Chen Qilue; Yan Suqiu; Cai Shaolun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated high current density emission capabilities of M-type cathodes used for vacuum electron devices (VEDs). The experimental results of emission and lifetime evaluating in both close-spaced diode structure and electron gun testing vehicles are given. Emission current densities measured in the diode structure at 1020 deg. C Br in the CW mode were above 10 A/cm 2 ; while in electron gun testing vehicles, emission current densities were above 8 A/cm 2 in CW mode and above 32 A/cm 2 in pulsed mode, respectively. The current density above 94 A/cm 2 has been acquired in no. 0306 electron gun vehicle while the practical temperature is 1060 deg. C Br . For a comparison some of the data from I-scandate cathodes are presented. Finally, several application examples in practical travelling wave tubes (TWTs) and multi beam klystrons (MBKs) are also reported

  10. Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams and X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Erofeev, M. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams (SAEBs) and X-ray emission in nitrogen, as well as the transition from a single-pulse mode to a pulse-periodic mode with a high repetition frequency, was studied experimentally. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode, the full width at halfmaximum of the SAEB is larger and the decrease rate of the gap voltage is lower than those in the single-pulse mode. It is found that, when the front duration of the voltage pulse at a nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr decreases from 2.5 to 0.3 ns, the X-ray exposure dose in the pulse-periodic mode increases by more than one order of magnitude and the number of SAEB electrons also increases. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode of a diffuse discharge, gas heating in the discharge gap results in a severalfold increase in the SAEB amplitude (the number of electrons in the beam). At a generator voltage of 25 kV, nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr, and pulse repetition frequency of 3.5 kHz, a runaway electron beam was detected behind the anode foil.

  11. Electron field emission from sp -induced insulating to metallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. MS received 20 ... emissions of amorphous carbon films have been investigated. The observed ... water followed by acetone was positioned at the centre of first zone ..... clusters islands, surface geometry, and internal structures of the films.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of heavy ion induced kinetic electron emission from an Al surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ohya, K

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to study heavy ion induced kinetic electron emission from an Al surface. In the simulation, excitation of conduction band electrons by the projectile ion and recoiling target atoms is treated on the basis of the partial wave expansion method, and the cascade multiplication process of the excited electrons is simulated as well as collision cascade of the recoiling target atoms. Experimental electron yields near conventional threshold energies of heavy ions are simulated by an assumption of a lowering in the apparent surface barrier for the electrons. The present calculation derives components for electron excitations by the projectile ion, the recoiling target atoms and the electron cascades, from the calculated total electron yield. The component from the recoiling target atoms increases with increasing projectile mass, whereas the component from the electron cascade decreases. Although the components from the projectile ion and the electron cascade increase with...

  13. Coherent spontaneous radiation from highly bunched electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Coherent spontaneous radiation has now been observed in several FELs, and is a subject of great importance to the design of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. We report observations of coherent spontaneous radiation in both FIREFLY and the mid-infrared FEL at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. Coherent emission has been observed at wavelengths as short as 5 microns, and enhancement over incoherent levels by as much as a factor of 4x10 4 has been observed at longer wavelengths. The latter behavior was observed at 45 microns in FIREFLY with short bunches produced by off-peak acceleration and dispersive compression. We present temporal measurements of the highly bunched electron distributions responsible for the large enhancements, using both transition radiation and energy-phase techniques

  14. Enhanced flashover strength in polyethylene nanodielectrics by secondary electron emission modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwang Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the correlation between secondary electron emission (SEE characteristics and impulse surface flashover in polyethylene nanodielectrics both theoretically and experimentally, and illustrates the enhancement of flashover voltage in low-density polyethylene (LDPE through incorporating Al2O3 nanoparticles. SEE characteristics play key roles in surface charging and gas desorption during surface flashover. This work demonstrates that the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticles decreases the SEE coefficient of LDPE and enhances the impact energy at the equilibrium state of surface charging. These changes can be explained by the increase of surface roughness and of surface ionization energy, and the strong interaction between nanoparticles and the polymer dielectric matrix. The surface charge and flashover voltage are calculated according to the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA model, which reveals that the positive surface charges are reduced near the cathode triple point, while the presence of more nanoparticles in high loading samples enhances the gas desorption. Consequently, the surface flashover performance of LDPE/Al2O3 nanodielectrics is improved.

  15. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  16. High energy electron irradiation of flowable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermann, B.P.

    1975-01-01

    In order to efficiently irradiate a flowable material with high energy electrons, a hollow body is disposed in a container for the material and the material is caused to flow in the form of a thin layer across a surface of the body from or to the interior of the container while the material flowing across the body surface is irradiated. (U.S.)

  17. KEK/NAGOYA/SLAC: Highly polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the push by the Japanese KEK Laboratory, in collaboration with university groups and overseas laboratories, to develop new techniques for the future Japan electronpositron collider (JLC), a recent achievement is a significant increase in the efficient yield of highly polarized electrons

  18. Analysis of Field Emission of Fabricated Nanogap in Pd Strips for Surface Conduction Electron-Emitter Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Li, Yiming; Tsai, Chih-Hao; Pan, Fu-Ming

    2008-04-01

    We study the field emission (FE) property of a nanometer-scale gap structure in a palladium strip, which was fabricated by hydrogen absorption under high-pressure treatment. A vigorous cracking process could be accompanied by extensive atomic migration during the hydrogen treatment. A three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell method is adopted to simulate the electron emission in a surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) device. Examinations of conducting characteristics, FE efficiency, the local field around the emitter, and the current density on the anode plate with one FE emitter are conducted. The image of a light spot is successfully produced on a phosphor plate, which implies that the explored electrode with nanometer separation possesses a potential SED application. Experimental observation and numerical simulation show that the proposed structure can be used as a surface conduction electron emitter and has a high FE efficiency with low turn-on voltage and a different electron emission mechanism. This study benefits the advanced SED design for a new type of electron source.

  19. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-10-14

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  20. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  1. HYDRO2GEN: Non-thermal hydrogen Balmer and Paschen emission in solar flares generated by electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druett, M. K.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. Sharp rises of hard X-ray (HXR) emission accompanied by Hα line profiles with strong red-shifts up to 4 Å from the central wavelength, often observed at the onset of flares with the Specola Solare Ticinese Telescope (STT) and the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST), are not fully explained by existing radiative models. Moreover, observations of white light (WL) and Balmer continuum emission with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRISH) reveal strong co-temporal enhancements and are often nearly co-spatial with HXR emission. These effects indicate a fast effective source of excitation and ionisation of hydrogen atoms in flaring atmospheres associated with HXR emission. In this paper, we investigate electron beams as the agents accounting for the observed hydrogen line and continuum emission. Methods: Flaring atmospheres are considered to be produced by a 1D hydrodynamic response to the injection of an electron beam defining their kinetic temperatures, densities, and macro velocities. We simulated a radiative response in these atmospheres using a fully non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) approach for a 5-level plus continuum hydrogen atom model, considering its excitation and ionisation by spontaneous, external, and internal diffusive radiation and by inelastic collisions with thermal and beam electrons. Simultaneous steady-state and integral radiative transfer equations in all optically thick transitions (Lyman and Balmer series) were solved iteratively for all the transitions to define their source functions with the relative accuracy of 10-5. The solutions of the radiative transfer equations were found using the L2 approximation. Resulting intensities of hydrogen line and continuum emission were also calculated for Balmer and Paschen series. Results: We find that inelastic collisions with beam electrons strongly increase excitation and ionisation of hydrogen atoms from the chromosphere to photosphere. This leads to an increase in Lyman continuum

  2. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a promine...

  3. Thermionic and Photo-Excited Electron Emission for Energy-Conversion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Patrick T. [Birck Nanotechnology Center, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Reifenberger, Ronald G. [Birck Nanotechnology Center, School of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Fisher, Timothy S., E-mail: tsfisher@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnology Center, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-12-09

    This article describes advances in thermionic and photo-emission materials and applications dating back to the work on thermionic emission by Guthrie (1873) and the photoelectric effect by Hertz (1893). Thermionic emission has been employed for electron beam generation from Edison’s work with the light bulb to modern day technologies such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The photoelectric effect has been utilized in common devices such as cameras and photocopiers while photovoltaic cells continue to be widely successful and further researched. Limitations in device efficiency and materials have thus far restricted large-scale energy generation sources based on thermionic and photoemission. However, recent advances in the fabrication of nanoscale emitters suggest promising routes for improving both thermionic and photo-enhanced electron emission along with newly developed research concepts, e.g., photonically enhanced thermionic emission. However, the abundance of new emitter materials and reduced dimensions of some nanoscale emitters increases the complexity of electron-emission theory and engender new questions related to the dimensionality of the emitter. This work presents derivations of basic two and three-dimensional thermionic and photo-emission theory along with comparisons to experimentally acquired data. The resulting theory can be applied to many different material types regardless of composition, bulk, and surface structure.

  4. Penetration length-dependent hot electrons in the field emission from ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Li, Zhibing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of field emission, whether or not hot electrons can form in the semiconductor emitters under a surface penetration field is of great concern, which will provide not only a comprehensive physical picture of field emission from semiconductor but also guidance on how to improve device performance. However, apart from some theoretical work, its experimental evidence has not been reported yet. In this article, the field penetration length-dependent hot electrons were observed in the field emission of ZnO nanowires through the in-situ study of its electrical and field emission characteristic before and after NH3 plasma treatment in an ultrahigh vacuum system. After the treatment, most of the nanowires have an increased carrier density but reduced field emission current. The raised carrier density was caused by the increased content of oxygen vacancies, while the degraded field emission current was attributed to the lower kinetic energy of hot electrons caused by the shorter penetration length. All of these results suggest that the field emission properties of ZnO nanowires can be optimized by modifying their carrier density to balance both the kinetic energy of field induced hot electrons and the limitation of saturated current under a given field.

  5. Diffuse galactic continuum emission measured by COMPTEL and the cosmic-ray electron spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. W.; Diehl, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; Varendorff, M.; Youssefi, G.; Bloemen, H.; Hermsen, W.; De Vries, C.; Morris, D.; Stacy, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Diffuse galactic continuum gamma-ray emission in the 0.75-30 MeV range from the inner Galaxy has been studied using data from COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. Observations of the inner Galaxy from the Sky Survey have been used. The imaging properties of COMPTEL enable spatial analysis of the gamma-ray distribution using model fitting. A model based on atomic and molecular gas distributions in the Galaxy has been used to derive the emissivity spectrum of the gamma-ray emission and this spectrum is compared with theoretical estimates of bremsstrahlung emission from cosmic-ray electrons.

  6. Field emission studies of silver nanoparticles synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Vishwas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bhise, A.B.; Poddar, Pankaj; Joag, D.S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Field emission has been studied for silver nanoparticles (25-200 nm), deposited within a cylindrical silver target in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Particle size distribution was controlled by optimum biasing voltages between the chamber and the target. Presence of non-oxidized silver was confirmed from the X-Ray diffraction analysis; however, thin protective layer of oxide was identified from the selective area electron diffraction pattern obtained with transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were seen to exhibit hilly pointed like structures when viewed under the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The emissive properties of these particles were investigated by field emission microscopy. It is found that this technique of deposition is ideal for formation of nanoparticles films on different substrate geometries with size controllability as well as its application to emission devices.

  7. Status of electron temperature and density measurement with beam emission spectroscopy on thermal helium at TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, O.; Beigman, I. L.; Vainshtein, L. A.; Schweer, B.; Kantor, M.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Xu, Y.; Krychowiak, M.; Lehnen, M.; Samm, U.; Unterberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    Beam emission spectroscopy on thermal helium is used at the TEXTOR tokamak as a reliable method to obtain radial profiles of electron temperature T-e(r, t) and electron density ne(r, t). In this paper the experimental realization of this method at TEXTOR and the status of the atomic physics employed

  8. Band-to-Band Tunneling-Dominated Thermo-Enhanced Field Electron Emission from p-Si/ZnO Nanoemitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhizhen; Huang, Yifeng; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi

    2018-06-13

    Thermo-enhancement is an effective way to achieve high performance field electron emitters, and enables the individually tuning on the emission current by temperature and the electron energy by voltage. The field emission current from metal or n-doped semiconductor emitter at a relatively lower temperature (i.e., current saturation was observed in the thermo-enhanced field emission measurements. The emission current density showed about ten-time enhancement (from 1.31 to 12.11 mA/cm 2 at 60.6 MV/m) by increasing the temperature from 323 to 623 K. The distinctive performance did not agree with the interband excitation mechanism but well-fit to the band-to-band tunneling model. The strong thermo-enhancement was proposed to be benefit from the increase of band-to-band tunneling probability at the surface portion of the p-Si/ZnO nanojunction. This work provides promising cathode for portable X-ray tubes/panel, ionization vacuum gauges and low energy electron beam lithography, in where electron-dose control at a fixed energy is needed.

  9. Electron emission relevant to inner-shell photoionization of condensed water studied by multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikosaka, Y., E-mail: hikosaka@las.u-toyama.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Mashiko, R.; Konosu, Y.; Soejima, K. [Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Shigemasa, E. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); SOKENDAI, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy is applied to the study of electron emissions from condensed H2O molecules. • Coincidence Auger spectra are obtained for different photoelectron energies. • The energy distribution of the slow electrons ejected in the Auger decay is deduced from three-fold coincidences. - Abstract: Multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy using a magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer has been applied to the study of the Auger decay following O1s photoionization of condensed H{sub 2}O molecules. Coincidence Auger spectra are obtained for three different photoelectron energy ranges. In addition, the energy distribution of the slow electrons ejected in the Auger decay of the O1s core hole is deduced from three-fold coincidences.

  10. Design and testing of an electron Bernstein wave emission radiometer for the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caughman, J.B.O.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Carter, M.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Fernandez, A.

    2005-01-01

    Efficient Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) mode conversion is important for heating dense plasmas in TJ-II. The O-X-B mode conversion scenario is being considered for heating plasmas with densities over 1,3 x 10 19 m -3 , which will be very interesting to study high-density physics and for heating NBI plasmas. Measurement of the thermal EBW emission from the plasma allows the EBW mode conversion efficiency to be determined, and also has the potential to offer a diagnostic for measuring electron temperature profile evolution in overdense plasmas. A dual-polarized quad-ridged broadband horn with a focusing lens will be used to measure the EBW emission at 28 GHz on TJ-II. A focused beam is needed to achieve efficient coupling at the mode conversion layer. Emission from the plasma is reflected from a steerable internal mirror, propagates through a glass lens, and is focused on the horn. The field pattern from the horn-lens combination has been measured as a function of horn-lens spacing and lens focal length with a 3-D scanning system in an effort to minimize the beam waist at the plasma edge. Beam waist sizes have been measured at distances of up to 80 cm from the lens. Details of the experimental results and future plans will be presented. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. A part of this work is performed under support of Spanish 'Subdireccion General de Proyectos de Investigacion, Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia' with reference ENE2004-06957]. (author)

  11. On the synchrotron emission in kinetic simulations of runaway electrons in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, L.; del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2017-12-01

    Developing avoidance or mitigation strategies of runaway electrons (REs) in magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) plasmas is of crucial importance for the safe operation of ITER. In order to develop these strategies, an accurate diagnostic capability that allows good estimates of the RE distribution function in these plasmas is needed. Synchrotron radiation (SR) of RE in MCF, besides of being one of the main damping mechanisms for RE in the high energy relativistic regime, is routinely used in current MCF experiments to infer the parameters of RE energy and pitch angle distribution functions. In the present paper we address the long standing question about what are the relationships between different REs distribution functions and their corresponding synchrotron emission simultaneously including: full-orbit effects, information of the spectral and angular distribution of SR of each electron, and basic geometric optics of a camera. We study the spatial distribution of the SR on the poloidal plane, and the statistical properties of the expected value of the synchrotron spectra of REs. We observe a strong dependence of the synchrotron emission measured by the camera on the pitch angle distribution of runaways, namely we find that crescent shapes of the spatial distribution of the SR as measured by the camera relate to RE distributions with small pitch angles, while ellipse shapes relate to distributions of runaways with larger the pitch angles. A weak dependence of the synchrotron emission measured by the camera with the RE energy, value of the q-profile at the edge, and the chosen range of wavelengths is observed. Furthermore, we find that oversimplifying the angular dependence of the SR changes the shape of the synchrotron spectra, and overestimates its amplitude by approximately 20 times for avalanching runaways and by approximately 60 times for mono-energetic distributions of runaways1.

  12. Reduction of organic solvent emission by industrial use of electron-beam curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haering, E.

    1982-01-01

    Most industrial finishing processes operate by the use of liquid organic coating materials drying by solvent evaporation and subsequent chemical crosslinking reactions, in many cases also releasing cleavage products. These organic emissions contribute to air pollution and therefore many countries have issued restrictions in order to protect the environment. Complementary to other modern methods for reducing this problem, radiation chemistry enables an approach by radical chain polymerization which can be induced by exposure to electron radiation. This procedure is known as electron-beam curing of coatings or the EBC process. It utilizes well-developed accelerator equipment with voltages of 150 to 400kV at a minimum energy consumption. There is no necessity to use irradiation facilities based on the decay of radioisotopes. Free radical polymerization requires unsaturated resins as pain binders and polymerizable liquid compounds (monomers) as reactive diluents. Their crosslinking yields a high molecular network, the coating, without any emission of organic solvents or cleavage products. Moreover, the radiochemical formation of the paint film occurs extremely rapidly. The technical application of EBC coatings began by coating automotive plastic parts; a little later the finishing of wood products gained more industrial use as a non-polluting and energy-saving coating technology. Application methods in coating plastic foils in combination with vacuum metallizing and the production of decorative laminating papers for furniture followed. In 1981 new EBC pilot lines were installed for curing top coats on PVC foil and also for the coating of prefinished steel wheels for automobiles. In comparison with conventional solvent-based methods the industrial EBC process results in a nearly complete reduction of organic solvent emission avoiding air pollution and saving valuable petrochemical raw materials. This paper reviews the development of EBC during the last decade. (author)

  13. Electron emission and energy loss in grazing collisions of protons with insulator surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravielle, M. S.; Miraglia, J. E.; Aldazabal, I.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V. H.; Aumayr, F.; Lederer, S.; Winter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Electron emission from LiF, KCl, and KI crystal surfaces during grazing collisions of swift protons is studied using a first-order distorted-wave formalism. Owing to the localized character of the electronic structure of these surfaces, we propose a model that allows us to describe the process as a sequence of atomic transitions from different target ions. Experimental results are presented for electron emission from LiF and KI and energy loss from KI surfaces. Calculations show reasonable agreement with these experimental data. The role played by the charge of the incident particle is also investigated

  14. Direct and Indirect Electron Emission from the Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Y.; Rahbek, D. B.; Klærke, B.; Bochenkova, A. V.; Andersen, L. H.

    2012-09-01

    Photoelectron spectra of the deprotonated green fluorescent protein chromophore have been measured in the gas phase at several wavelengths within and beyond the S0-S1 photoabsorption band of the molecule. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) was determined to be 2.68±0.1eV. The data show that the first electronically excited state is bound in the Franck-Condon region, and that electron emission proceeds through an indirect (resonant) electron-emission channel within the corresponding absorption band.

  15. UV-radiation-induced electron emission by hormones. Hypothesis for specific communication mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, Althanstr. 14, UZAII, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17{beta}-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e{sub aq}{sup -}), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e{sub aq}{sup -} and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.

  16. High Arctic Nitrous Oxide Emissions Found on Large Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. P.; Sayres, D. S.; Dobosy, R.; Anderson, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    As the planet warms, greenhouse gas emissions from thawing permafrost can potentially increase the net radiative forcing in our climate structure. However, knowledge about Arctic N2O emissions is particularly sparse. Increasing evidence suggests emissions from permafrost thaw may be a significant natural source of N2O. This evidence, though, is either based on lab experiments or in situ chamber studies, which have extremely limited spatial coverage. Consequently, it has not been confirmed to what extent these high emissions are representative of broader arctic regions. Using an airborne eddy covariance flux technique, we measured N2O fluxes over large regions of Alaska in August 2013. From these measurements, we directly show that large areas of this Arctic region have high N2O emissions.

  17. Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with forward directed light emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Reineke, Sebastian; Furno, Mauro; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for highly efficient and energy saving illumination has increased considerably during the last decades. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are promising candidates for future lighting technologies. They offer high efficiency along with excellent color quality, allowing substantially lower power consumption than traditional illuminants. Recently, especially top-emitting devices have attracted high interest due to their compatibility with opaque substrates like metal sheets. In this contribution, we demonstrate top-emitting OLEDs with white emission spectra employing a multilayer hybrid cavity structure with two highly efficient phosphorescent emitter materials for orange-red (Ir(MDQ)2(acac)) and green (Ir(ppy)3) emission as well as the stable fluorescent blue emitter TBPe. To improve the OLED performance and modify the color quality, two different electron blocking layers and anode material combinations are tested. Compared to Lambertian emission, our devices show considerably enhanced forward emission, which is preferred for most lighting applications. Besides broadband emission and angle independent emission maxima, power efficiencies of 13.3 lm/W at 3 V and external quantum efficiencies of 5.3% are achieved. The emission shows excellent CIE coordinates of (0.420,0.407) at approx. 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and color rendering indices up to 77.

  18. Linear surface photoelectric effect of gold in intense laser field as a possible high-current electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, G.; Horvath, Z.G.; Toth, C.; Fotakis, C.; Hontzopoulos, E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were conducted on radiation-induced electron emission processes on a gold target surface with a high-intensity (2 MW/cm 2 ) KrF laser (λ = 248 nm). The single photon surface photoelectric emission obtained can be used for high-current density electron sources. The measured polarization dependence of electron current shows the dominance of the surface-type effect over that of the volume type, thereby making it possible to optimize the short, high-density electron current creation conditions. The advantage of the grazing light incidence and the multiphoton photoeffect giving rise to a 500 A/cm 2 electron current has been demonstrated

  19. Cosmic-ray electrons and galactic radio emission - a conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Daniel, R.R.; Stephens, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to attempts in the past to deduce information of astrophysical importance from a study of the galactic non-thermal continuum in relation to cosmic ray electrons observed in the neighbourhood of the Earth. Such investigations were carried out using the cosmic ray electron data obtained from a single experiment or by making use of an average spectrum derived from world data, although it was known that the flux values observed by different investigators in any energy band differed by as much as a factor of 4. This has led to conflicting conclusions being drawn from the analysis of data of different observers. The present authors used a different approach for analysing the observational data, based on arguments of internal consistency between each measured electron spectrum and the magnetic field strength and the dimension of the radio-emitting region required to explain the radio observations. Such an approach makes it possible to highlight the inconsistencies associated with some of the electron measurements and permits certain inferences of cosmic ray and astrophysical interest. From the discussion it is concluded that the observed spectral index of the radio continuum in the Galaxy is in conflict with some of the cosmic ray electron measurements; also that the absolute intensities of cosmic ray electrons as measured in some experiments are so low that they cannot be reconciled either with the interstellar magnetic field limits or with the extent of the galactic disk, and it is likely that the field strength derived from Faraday rotation measurements gives only a lower limit to the local magnetic field in the Galaxy. (U.K.)

  20. Secondary electron emission from 0.5--2.5-MeV protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, T.A.; Anno, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    Measurement of the secondary electron currents leaving Al, V, Fe, 316 stainless steel, Nb, and Mo foils undergoing 0.5--2.5-MeV proton and deuteron bombardment were made to determine the secondary electron emission ratios for these ions. The measured secondary electron yields were of the order of 1.0, with the deuterons producing generally higher yields than the protons

  1. Mode-converted electron Bernstein wave emission research on CDX-U and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C; Jones, B.; Munsat, T.; Hosea, J.C; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Spaleta, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bell, G.L.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) may enable electron temperature profile measurements and local electron heating and current drive in high β overdense (ω pe /ω ce >>1) plasmas. Significant results are presented from the measurement of X-mode radiation, converted from EBWs observed normal to the magnetic field on the mid-plane of overdense plasmas in CDX-U and NSTX. A radially scannable, in-vessel, quad-ridged antenna and Langmuir probe array on CDX-U studied EBW to X-mode conversion. A local limiter optimized the conversion efficiency by modifying the density scale length at the mode conversion layer. The fundamental EBW conversion efficiency increased, by an order of magnitude, to ∼100% when the local limiter and antenna were inserted near the conversion layer. This technique can be extended to large, high temperature devices. Another significant observation was that the EBW emission source was localized near the electron cyclotron resonance. As a result, mode-converted EBW radiometry has measured radial transport in CDX-U. In addition, a threefold increase in conversion efficiency was observed at the L to H transition in NSTX. Measured conversion efficiency agreed well with theoretical predictions. EBW ray tracing and bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck codes are being used to model EBW heating and current drive scenarios for NSTX equilibria with β up to 40%. So far, results show that it is possible to drive localized currents on the high field side of the magnetic axis in NSTX at β ∼ 12% with current drive efficiency which compares favorably with ECCD. (authors)

  2. Energy-filtered real- and k-space secondary and energy-loss electron imaging with Dual Emission Electron spectro-Microscope: Cs/Mo(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzelakowski, Krzysztof P., E-mail: k.grzelakowski@opticon-nanotechnology.com

    2016-05-15

    Since its introduction the importance of complementary k{sub ||}-space (LEED) and real space (LEEM) information in the investigation of surface science phenomena has been widely demonstrated over the last five decades. In this paper we report the application of a novel kind of electron spectromicroscope Dual Emission Electron spectroMicroscope (DEEM) with two independent electron optical channels for reciprocal and real space quasi-simultaneous imaging in investigation of a Cs covered Mo(110) single crystal by using the 800 eV electron beam from an “in-lens” electron gun system developed for the sample illumination. With the DEEM spectromicroscope it is possible to observe dynamic, irreversible processes at surfaces in the energy-filtered real space and in the corresponding energy-filtered k{sub ǁ}-space quasi-simultaneously in two independent imaging columns. The novel concept of the high energy electron beam sample illumination in the cathode lens based microscopes allows chemically selective imaging and analysis under laboratory conditions. - Highlights: • A novel concept of the electron sample illumination with “in-lens” e- gun is realized. • Quasi-simultaneous energy selective observation of the real- and k-space in EELS mode. • Observation of the energy filtered Auger electron diffraction at Cs atoms on Mo(110). • Energy-loss, Auger and secondary electron momentum microscopy is realized.

  3. A computational study on the electronic and field emission properties of Mg and Si doped AlN nanocones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Leila; Soleymanabadi, Hamed; Panahyab, Ataollah

    2018-05-01

    Following an experimental work, we explored the effect of replacing an Al atom of an AlN nanocone by Si or Mg atom on its electronic and field emission properties using density functional theory calculations. We found that both Si-doping and Mg-doping increase the electrical conductivity of AlN nanocone, but their influences on the filed emission properties are significantly different. The Si-doping increases the electron concentration of AlN nanocone and results in a large electron mobility and a low work function, whereas Mg-doping leads to a high hole concentration below the conduction level and increases the work function in agreement with the experimental results. It is predicted that Si-doped AlN nanocones show excellent filed emission performance with higher emitted electron current density compared to the pristine AlN nanocone. But the Mg-doping meaningfully decreases the emitted electron current density from the surface of AlN nanocone. The Mg-doping can increase the work function about 41.9% and the Si-doping can decrease it about 6.3%. The Mg-doping and Si-doping convert the AlN nanocone to a p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively. Our results explain in a molecular level what observed in the experiment.

  4. Multi-technique application of a double reflection electron emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-liang, J.; Bao-gui, S.; Guo-jun, Z

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the results acquired with the most recently developed double reflection electron emission microscope applied in different imaging modes are presented. The novel illumination system is based on a (100)-oriented single crystalline W wire electron microreflector and an electron gun placed in the back focal plane of the immersion objective. After being elastically reflected from the W tip surface, the primary electrons of energy ranging from 1 to 6 keV are decelerated to the desired impact energy in the range 0 to 200 eV for mirror electron microscopy (MEM), low energy electron emission microscopy (LEEM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) modes or to 5 keV for the secondary electron imaging mode. Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), MEM, LEEM, secondary images of Pd/Si(111) and a set of selected area LEED patterns of the W(100) surface taken at energies ranging from 5 to 40 eV are presented for the first time. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  5. Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation tool, which was used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics, was discussed. It was found that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity

  6. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  7. Considerations for high-brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now used in many areas of physics research and in industrial and medical applications. New uses are being studied to address major societal needs in energy production, materials research, generation of intense beams of radiation at optical and suboptical wavelengths, treatment of various kinds of waste, and so on. Many of these modern applications require a high intensity beam at the desired energy, along with a very good beam quality in terms of the beam confinement, aiming, or focusing. Considerations for ion and electron accelerators are often different, but there are also many commonalties, and in fact, techniques derived for one should perhaps more often be considered for the other as well. We discuss some aspects of high-brightness electron sources here from that point of view. 6 refs

  8. Electron emission following collisions between multi-charged ions and D2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, G.

    2004-05-01

    Dissociative ionisation mechanisms induced in collisions involving a highly charged ion (S 15+ , 13.6 MeV/u) and a molecular deuterium target, have been studied through momentum vector correlations of both the D + fragments and the electrons produced. An experimental apparatus has been developed in order to detect in coincidence all the charged particles produced during the collision. The measurement of their momentum vectors, which allows one to determine both their kinetic energy and direction of emission with respect to the projectile one, combines Time of Flight, Position Sensitive Detection, and multi-coincidence techniques. The correlation of the fragment and electron kinetic energies enables not only to determine branching ratios between the dissociative ionisation pathways, but also to separate unambiguously kinetic energy distributions of fragments associated to each process. Finally, the angular distributions of ejected electrons, as a function of the orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the projectile direction, are deduced from the spatial correlation. Measurements are compared to theoretical angular distributions obtained using the CDW-EIS (Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State) method. (author)

  9. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  10. Design of the 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument for the J-TEXT tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X M; Yang, Z J; Ma, X D; Zhu, Y L; Luhmann, N C; Domier, C W; Ruan, B W; Zhuang, G

    2016-11-01

    A new 2D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic is being developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. It will provide the 2D electron temperature information with high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution. The new ECEI instrument is being designed to support fundamental physics investigations on J-TEXT including MHD, disruption prediction, and energy transport. The diagnostic contains two dual dipole antenna arrays corresponding to F band (90-140 GHz) and W band (75-110 GHz), respectively, and comprises a total of 256 channels. The system can observe the same magnetic surface at both the high field side and low field side simultaneously. An advanced optical system has been designed which permits the two arrays to focus on a wide continuous region or two radially separate regions with high imaging spatial resolution. It also incorporates excellent field curvature correction with field curvature adjustment lenses. An overview of the diagnostic and the technical progress including the new remote control technique are presented.

  11. Design of the 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument for the J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, X. M.; Yang, Z. J., E-mail: yangzj@hust.edu.cn; Ma, X. D.; Ruan, B. W.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhu, Y. L. [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W. [Davis Millimeter Wave Research Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A new 2D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic is being developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. It will provide the 2D electron temperature information with high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution. The new ECEI instrument is being designed to support fundamental physics investigations on J-TEXT including MHD, disruption prediction, and energy transport. The diagnostic contains two dual dipole antenna arrays corresponding to F band (90-140 GHz) and W band (75-110 GHz), respectively, and comprises a total of 256 channels. The system can observe the same magnetic surface at both the high field side and low field side simultaneously. An advanced optical system has been designed which permits the two arrays to focus on a wide continuous region or two radially separate regions with high imaging spatial resolution. It also incorporates excellent field curvature correction with field curvature adjustment lenses. An overview of the diagnostic and the technical progress including the new remote control technique are presented.

  12. Electronics, information, Communication and high technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The contents of this book are summary of investigation, investigation system, purpose of investigation, characteristic of this investigation, important studying and development filed, compare of the level of research and development, policy, characteristic of the respondent, a future illustration in 2025 cause of hindrance of realization, propel method of research and development, the prediction of the realization period the result of investigation in electronics, information communication and high technology.

  13. Space-resolved characterization of high frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma in nitrogen, applying optical emission spectroscopy and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Ruhrmann, Cornelia; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Averaged plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density are determined by characterization of high frequency (2.4 GHz) nitrogen plasma using both experimental methods, namely optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and microphotography, and numerical simulation. Both direct and step-wise electron-impact excitation of nitrogen emissions are considered. The determination of space-resolved electron distribution function, electron density, rate constant for electron-impact dissociation of nitrogen molecule and the production of nitrogen atoms, applying the same methods, is discussed. Spatial distribution of intensities of neutral nitrogen molecule and nitrogen molecular ion from the microplasma is imaged by a CCD camera. The CCD images are calibrated using the corresponding emissions measured by absolutely calibrated OES, and are then subjected to inverse Abel transformation to determine space-resolved intensities and other parameters. The space-resolved parameters are compared, respectively, with the averaged parameters, and an agreement between them is established. (paper)

  14. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard photoelectron emission microscope set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, Oswald; Zeppenfeld, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The first results of secondary electron images excited by 3-4.3 keV electrons are presented. The images are obtained with a standard FOCUS-PEEM set-up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 deg. with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼-(V 1 +5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The material contrast obtained in these difference images is discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer

  15. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  16. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the large helical device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation, the polychromator monitors second harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz). At sufficient high density, the second harmonic X-mode polarisation is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarisation. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarisation was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarisation rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarisation rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator

  17. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the Large Helical Device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation the polychromator monitors 2nd harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz) with a spectral resolution of 1.5 GHz. At sufficient high density the 2nd harmonic X-mode polarization is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarization. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarization was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarization rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarization rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator. (author)

  18. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the Large Helical Device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation the polychromator monitors 2nd harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz) with a spectral resolution of 1.5 GHz. At sufficient high density the 2nd harmonic X-mode polarization is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarization. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarization was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarization rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarization rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator. (author)

  19. Construction of electron accelerator for studying secondary emission in dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, R.

    1990-01-01

    An acelerator for the generation of low energy electrons (in the 0.4 to 20 keV range) was constructed. The accelerator is equipped with some devices especially designed for the investigation of the electrical properties of electron-irradiated dielectrics. In this work we have employed it for the study of the secondary electron emission of irradiated polymers. Reference is made to a method proposed by H. von Seggern (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, p.1503 (1985)] which was intended for the determination of the electron emission yield especially between the two cross-over points in a single run, here called the dynamical method. We have been able to prove that, contrary to expectation, this method does not give correct results over the entire emission curve. Rather it gives yield values which are too low by 25% in the region where the emission exhibits a maximum, due to the interaction between the electron emission process and the positive surface charge of the dielectric. However the method needs not to be dismissed entirely. As it is, it can be used advantageously for the precise determination of the energy of the second cross-over point. In addition, with the same set up, the method could be improved by replacing the continuous irradiation of the sample by a pulsed irradiation, leading to results essentially the same as those shown in the literature. Finally analysing the process of interaction between the positive charge of the dielectric and the mechanism of electron emission in several situations, we were able: I) to determine the maximum value and the average value of the escape depth of the emitted electrons; II) for a sample with a net positive charge, to show that the positive charge resides very near the surface of incidence; III) for a sample with a net negative charge, to show that the positive charge also resides near the surface while the (prevalent) negative charge resides in the bulk of the material. (author)

  20. Electron beam emission and interaction of double-beam gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Nitin; Kumar, Narendra; Pratap, Bhanu; Purohit, L.P.; Sinha, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The complete electrical design of electron gun and interaction structure of double-beam gyrotron. ► EGUN code is used for the simulation of electron gun of double-beam gyrotron. ► MAGIC code is used for the simulation of interaction structure of double-beam gyrotron. ► Design validations with other codes. - Abstract: This paper presents the numerical simulation of a double-beam magnetron injection gun (DB-MIG) and beam-wave interaction for 60 GHz, 500 kW gyrotron. The beam-wave interaction calculations, power and frequency growth estimation are performed by using PIC code MAGIC. The maximum output power of 510 kW at 41.5% efficiency, beam currents of 6 A and 12 A, electron beam velocity ratios of 1.41 and 1.25 and beam voltage of 69 kV are estimated. To obtain the design parameters, the DB-MIG with maximum transverse velocity spread less than 5% is designed. The computer simulations are performed by using the commercially available code EGUN and the in-house developed code MIGANS. The simulated results of DB-MIG design obtained by using the EGUN code are also validated with another trajectory code TRAK, which are in good agreement.

  1. Electron beam emission and interaction of double-beam gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udaybir, E-mail: uday.ceeri@gmail.com [Gyrotron Laboratory, Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Department of Physics, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar 249404 (India); Kumar, Anil [Gyrotron Laboratory, Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Kumar, Nitin, E-mail: nitin_physika@rediffmail.com [Gyrotron Laboratory, Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Kumar, Narendra; Pratap, Bhanu [Gyrotron Laboratory, Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Purohit, L.P. [Department of Physics, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar 249404 (India); Sinha, A.K., E-mail: aksinha@ceeri.ernet.in [Gyrotron Laboratory, Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complete electrical design of electron gun and interaction structure of double-beam gyrotron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGUN code is used for the simulation of electron gun of double-beam gyrotron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAGIC code is used for the simulation of interaction structure of double-beam gyrotron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design validations with other codes. - Abstract: This paper presents the numerical simulation of a double-beam magnetron injection gun (DB-MIG) and beam-wave interaction for 60 GHz, 500 kW gyrotron. The beam-wave interaction calculations, power and frequency growth estimation are performed by using PIC code MAGIC. The maximum output power of 510 kW at 41.5% efficiency, beam currents of 6 A and 12 A, electron beam velocity ratios of 1.41 and 1.25 and beam voltage of 69 kV are estimated. To obtain the design parameters, the DB-MIG with maximum transverse velocity spread less than 5% is designed. The computer simulations are performed by using the commercially available code EGUN and the in-house developed code MIGANS. The simulated results of DB-MIG design obtained by using the EGUN code are also validated with another trajectory code TRAK, which are in good agreement.

  2. Highly integrated electronics for the star TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, A.A.; Bieser, F.; Hearn, W.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Millaud, J.; Noggle, T.; Rai, G.; Ritter, H.G.; Wieman, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The concept for the STAR TPC front-end electronics is presented and the progress toward the development of a fully integrated solution is described. It is the goal of the R+D program to develop the complete electronics chain for the STAR central TPC detector at RHIC. It is obvious that solutions chosen e.g. for ALEPH are not adequate for the 150000 channels that need to be instrumented for readout. It will be necessary to perform all the signal processing, digitization and multiplexing directly on the detector in order to reduce per channel cost and the amount of cabling necessary to read out the information. We follow the approach chosen by the EOS TPC project, where the readout electronics on the detector consists of an integrated preamplifier, a hybrid shaping amplifier, an integrated switched capacitor array and a highly multiplexed ADC. The STAR electronics will be further integrated so that approximately 16 channels of the preamplifier, the shaper, the analog store and the ADC will be contained in two integrated circuits located directly on the pad plane.

  3. On the regularities of gamma-ray initiated emission of really-secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudskij, M.Ya.; Roldugin, N.N.; Smirnov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Emission regularities of the really-secondary electrons from metals are discussed on the basis of experimental data on electron emission characteristics under gamma radiation of incident quanta produced for a wide energy range (Esub(γ)=0.03+-2 MeV) and atomic numbers of target materials (Z=13+-79). Comparison with published experimental and calculated data is performed. It is shown that yield of the really-secondary electrons into vacuum from the target surface bombarded with a normally incident collimated beam of gamma radiation calculating on energy unit absorbed in the yield zone of the really-secondary electrons is determined only with the target material emittivity and can be calculated if spatial-energy distributions and the number of secondary fast electrons emitted out of the target are known

  4. Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zholents

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique for the generation of a solitary attosecond x-ray pulse in a free-electron laser (FEL, via a process of self-amplified spontaneous emission. In this method, electrons experience an energy modulation upon interacting with laser pulses having a duration of a few cycles within single-period wiggler magnets. Two consecutive modulation sections, followed by compression in a dispersive section, are used to obtain a single, subfemtosecond spike in the electron peak current. This region of the electron beam experiences an enhanced growth rate for FEL amplification. After propagation through a long undulator, this current spike emits a ∼250   attosecond x-ray pulse whose intensity dominates the x-ray emission from the rest of the electron bunch.

  5. The future of the SIRAD SEE facility Ion-Electron Emission Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wyss, J; Kaminski, A; Magalini, A; Nigro, M; Pantano, D; Sedhykh, S

    2002-01-01

    The SIRAD facility is dedicated to radiation damage studies on semiconductor detectors, electronic devices and systems, using proton and ion beams delivered by a 15 MV tandem accelerator. It is routinely used by groups involved in detector development for elementary particle physics, electronic device physics and space applications. In particular, Single Event Effect studies are very important to the latter two activities. Presently, the facility can only characterize the global sensitivity of a device or system to single ion impacts. To map out the sensitivity of a device with micrometric resolution, following an idea developed at SANDIA, we will implement an Ion-Electron Emission Microscope (IEEM) to reconstruct the X,Y and time coordinates of an impacting energetic ion by imaging the secondary electrons emitted by the sample using a standard emission electron microscope and position sensitive detector system. After describing typical Single Event Effect activities at SIRAD we will discuss the basic princip...

  6. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Biteau, J.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connaughton, V.; Cui, W.; Falcone, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ∼70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ∼71 ks (∼20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst

  7. The characterization of the high-frequency vibronic contributions to the 77 K emission spectra of ruthenium-am(m)ine-bipyridyl complexes, their attenuation with decreasing energy gaps, and the implications of strong electronic coupling for inverted-region electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Puhui; Chen, Yuan-Jang; Uddin, Md Jamal; Endicott, John F

    2005-06-02

    The 77 K emission spectra of a series of [Ru(Am)6-2n(bpy)n]2+ complexes (n = 1-3) have been determined in order to evaluate the effects of appreciable excited state (e)/ground state (g) configurational mixing on the properties of simple electron-transfer systems. The principal focus is on the vibronic contributions, and the correlated distortions of the bipyridine ligand in the emitting MLCT excited state. To address the issues that are involved, the emission band shape at 77 K is interpreted as the sum of a fundamental component, corresponding to the {e,0'} --> {g,0} transition, and progressions in the ground-state vibrational modes that correlate with the excited-state distortion. Literature values of the vibrational parameters determined from the resonance-Raman (rR) for [Ru(NH3)4bpy]2+ and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ are used to model the emission spectra and to evaluate the spectral analysis. The Gaussian fundamental component with an energy Ef and bandwidth Deltanu1/2 is deconvoluted from the observed emission spectrum. The first-, second-, and third-order terms in the progressions of the vibrational modes that contribute to the band shape are evaluated as the sums of Gaussian-shaped contributions of width Deltanu1/2. The fundamental and the rR parameters give an excellent fit of the observed emission spectrum of [Ru(NH3)4bpy]2+, but not as good for the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ emission spectrum probably because the Franck-Condon excited state probed by the rR is different in symmetry from the emitting MLCT excited state. Variations in vibronic contributions for the series of complexes are evaluated in terms of reorganizational energy profiles (emreps, Lambdax) derived from the observed spectra, and modeled using the rR parameters. This modeling demonstrates that most of the intensity of the vibronic envelopes obtained from the frozen solution emission spectra arises from the overlapping of first-order vibronic contributions of significant bandwidth with additional convoluted

  8. The importance of plasma effects on electron-cyclotron maser-emission from flaring loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. R.; Vlahos, L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    Electron cyclotron maser instability has been suggested as the cause of the observed short (10-20 msec), intense (an approximate brightness temperature of 10 to the 15th K) and up to 100% polarized microwave solar emission. It is shown that plasma effects and thermal cyclotron damping, ignored in previous theories, play an important role in controlling the frequency range of the emission. The radio emission is suppressed for ratios of the plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency smaller than 0.4. An examination of the cyclotron damping, reveals that the maser action is suppressed unless a large fraction (i.e., over 10%) of the accelerated electrons participates in the emission process.

  9. Continuous Emission Spectrum Measurement for Electron Temperature Determination in Low-Temperature Collisional Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiuyan; Li Hong; Chen Zhipeng; Xie Jinlin; Liu Wandong

    2011-01-01

    Continuous emission spectrum measurement is applied for the inconvenient diagnostics of low-temperature collisional plasmas. According to the physical mechanism of continuous emission, a simplified model is presented to analyze the spectrum in low temperature plasma. The validity of this model is discussed in a wide range of discharge parameters, including electron temperature and ionization degree. Through the simplified model, the continuous emission spectrum in a collisional argon internal inductively coupled plasma is experimentally measured to determine the electron temperature distribution for different gas pressures and radio-frequency powers. The inverse Abel transform is also applied for a better spatially resoluted results. Meanwhile, the result of the continuous emission spectrum measurement is compared to that of the electrostatic double probes, which indicates the effectiveness of this method. (low temperature plasma)

  10. Development of remote controlled type field-emission type scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Ryo; Nishino, Yasuharu; Mita, Naoaki; Nakata, Masahito; Harada, Katsuya; Nozawa, Yukio; Amano, Hidetoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-10-01

    The extending burn-up of Light Water Reactor Fuels has been promoted to reduce costs of the power generation and amount of waste mass. Information about the fuel behavior under high burn-up operation is needed to assess safety of the high burn-up fuels. Microstructures formed in high burn-up fuel pellets and Zircaloy tubes influence on their integrity. The fundamental information about morphology, sizes, and element compositions in those microstructures is necessary to estimate the formation mechanism and change in the properties of the fuels. The Field Emission type Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), which is effective for observation of very small area, i.e., nano-size structures, has been hence installed at the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in JAERI. FE-SEM is designed for the remote handling type to use high radioactive materials and has equipments to keep the safety for operators. The Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) with a radiation-shielding collimator has been also equipped on FE-SEM to determine element compositions in the structures. Characterization tests were carried out using Zircaloy cladding tubes with oxide films and hydrides of confirm machine performance. In the results of the tests, high-resolution images with a magnification of 30,000 were obtained. Those results show that the apparatus maintains the original high performance with standard type. (author)

  11. Disparity of secondary electron emission in ferroelectric domains of YMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shaobo; Deng, S. Q.; Yuan, Wenjuan; Yan, Yunjie; Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Ceramics and Fine Processing, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, J.; Li, J. Q. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-07-20

    The applications of multiferroic materials require our understanding about the behaviors of domains with different polarization directions. Taking advantage of the scanning electron microscope, we investigate the polar surface of single crystal YMnO{sub 3} sample in secondary electron (SE) mode. By slowing down the scanning speed of electron beam, the negative surface potential of YMnO{sub 3} can be realized, and the domain contrast can be correspondingly changed. Under this experimental condition, with the help of a homemade Faraday cup, the difference of intrinsic SE emission coefficients of antiparallel domains is measured to be 0.12 and the downward polarization domains show a larger SE emission ability. Our results indicate that the total SE emission of this material can be altered by changing the ratio of the antiparallel domains, which provide an avenue for device design with this kind of materials.

  12. Analysis of the electronic structure of human hemoglobin from soft X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatov, A.V.; Kravtsova, A.N.; Fedorovich, E.N.; Ankudinov, A.; Moewes, A.; Kurmaev, E.Z.

    2005-01-01

    We present X-ray emission spectra (XES) of human hemoglobin excited near the iron L 2,3 threshold and the nitrogen and carbon K-edges. The experiment is compared with our calculations of the corresponding spectra and gives good agreement. We find that the Fe L 3 emission is affected by the nearest nitrogen atoms located in the heme plane around the central iron atom. The distribution of the partial electronic densities of states of hemoglobin is determined

  13. Parametric analysis of the soft electron emission in ion-helium collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cravero, W.R. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)); Garibotti, C.R. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)); Gasaneo, G. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina))

    1994-03-01

    We studied the doubly differential cross section (DDCS) for ion-helium ionization, in the region of near zero emission velocity. We expanded the DDCS in powers of the electron emission velocity, with angle-dependent weight coefficients, which are determined from available experimental data and calculated using the CDW-EIS theory. We also compared this expansion with a previously used Legendre polynomials expansion of the DDCS. (orig.)

  14. Electron cyclotron emission radiometer upgrade on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z. J.; Pan, X. M., E-mail: panxiaoming@hust.edu.cn; Ma, X. D.; Ruan, B. W.; Zhou, R. B.; Zhang, C. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2016-11-15

    To meet experimental requirements, the J-TEXT electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic is being upgraded. The front end antenna and transmission line have been modified and a new 8-channel W-band detecting unit has been developed. The improved ECE system will extend the frequency range from 94.5-124.5 GHz to 80.5-124.5 GHz. This will enable the system to cover the most plasma in the radius direction for B{sub T} = 1.8–2.2 T, and it even can cover almost the whole plasma range ρ = − 0.8–0.9 (minus means the high field side) at B{sub T} = 1.8 T. A new auxiliary channel bank with 8 narrow band, tunable yttrium iron garnet filters is planned to add to the ECE system. Due to observations along a major radius, perpendicular to B{sub T}, and relatively low electron temperature, Doppler and relativistic broadening are minimal and thus high spatial resolution measurements can be made at variable locations with these tunable channels.

  15. Focussed ion beam thin sample microanalysis using a field emission gun electron probe microanalyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Field emission gun electron probe microanalysis (FEG-EPMA) in conjunction with wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry using a low acceleration voltage (V acc) allows elemental analysis with sub-micrometre lateral spatial resolution (SR). However, this degree of SR does not necessarily meet the requirements associated with increasingly miniaturised devices. Another challenge related to performing FEG-EPMA with a low V acc is that the accuracy of quantitative analyses is adversely affected, primarily because low energy X-ray lines such as the L- and M-lines must be employed and due to the potential of line interference. One promising means of obtaining high SR with FEG-EPMA is to use thin samples together with high V acc values. This mini-review covers the basic principles of thin-sample FEG-EPMA and describes an application of this technique to the analysis of optical fibres. Outstanding issues related to this technique that must be addressed are also discussed, which include the potential for electron beam damage during analysis of insulating materials and the development of methods to use thin samples for quantitative analysis.

  16. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    .]. -- Working Group 1. Summary of working group 1 on electron sources / M. Ferrario and G. Gatti. Design and RF measurements of an X-band accelerating structure for the SPARC project / D. Alesini ... [et al.]. Mitigation of RF gun breakdown by removal of tuning rods in high field regions / A.M. Cook... [et al.]. Measurements of quantum efficiency of Mg films produced by pulsed laser ablation deposition for application to bright electron sources / G. Gatti ... [et al.]. The S-band 1.6 cell RF gun correlated energy spread dependence on Pi and 0 mode relative amplitude / F. Schmerge ... [et al.]. RF gun photo-emission model for metal cathodes including time dependent emission / J.F. Schmerge ... [et al.]. Superconducting photocathodes / J. Smedley ... [et al.]. -- Working Group 2. Summary of Working Group 2: diagnostics and beam manipulation / G. Travish. Observation of coherent edge radiation emitted by a 100 Femtosecond compressed electron beam / G. Andonian, M, Dunning, E. Hemsing, J. B. Rosenzweig ... [et al.]. PARMELA simulations for PITZ: first machine studies and interpretation of measurements / M. Boscolo ... [et al.]. The LCLS single-shot relative bunch length monitor system / M.P. Dunning ... [et al.]. Beam shaping and permanent magnet quadrupole focusing with applications to the plasma wakefield accelerator / R.J. England ... [et al.]. Commissioning of the SPARC movable emittance meter and its first operation at PITZ / D. Filippetto... [et al.]. Experimental testing of dynamically optimized photoelectron beams / J.B. Rosenzweig ... [et al.]. Synchronization between the laser and electron beam in a photocathode RF gun / A. Sakumi ... [et al.]. Method of bunch radiation photochronography with 10 Femtosecond and less resolution / A. Tron and I. Merinov -- Working Group 3. New challenges in theory and modeling-summary for working group 3. L. Giannessi. Resonant modes in a 1.6 cells RF gun / M. Ferrario and C. Ronsivalle. Emittance degradation due to wake fields in a high

  17. Artificial optical emissions at HAARP for pump frequencies near the third and second electron gyro-harmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kosch

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available High-power high-frequency radio waves beamed into the ionosphere cause plasma turbulence, which can accelerate electrons. These electrons collide with the F-layer neutral oxygen causing artificial optical emissions identical to natural aurora. Pumping at electron gyro-harmonic frequencies has special significance as many phenomena change their character. In particular, artificial optical emissions become strongly reduced for the third and higher gyro-harmonics. The High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility is unique in that it can select a frequency near the second gyro-harmonic. On 25 February 2004, HAARP was operated near the third and passed through the second gyro-harmonic for the first time in a weakening ionosphere. Two novel observations are: firstly, a strong enhancement of the artificial optical emission intensity near the second gyro-harmonic, which is opposite to higher gyro-harmonics; secondly, the optical enhancement maximum occurs for frequencies just above the second gyro-harmonic. We provide the first experimental evidence for these effects, which have been predicted theoretically. In addition, irregular optical structures were created when the pump frequency was above the ionospheric critical frequency.

    Keywords. Active experiments – Auroral ionosphere – Wave-particle interactions

  18. Artificial optical emissions at HAARP for pump frequencies near the third and second electron gyro-harmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kosch

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available High-power high-frequency radio waves beamed into the ionosphere cause plasma turbulence, which can accelerate electrons. These electrons collide with the F-layer neutral oxygen causing artificial optical emissions identical to natural aurora. Pumping at electron gyro-harmonic frequencies has special significance as many phenomena change their character. In particular, artificial optical emissions become strongly reduced for the third and higher gyro-harmonics. The High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility is unique in that it can select a frequency near the second gyro-harmonic. On 25 February 2004, HAARP was operated near the third and passed through the second gyro-harmonic for the first time in a weakening ionosphere. Two novel observations are: firstly, a strong enhancement of the artificial optical emission intensity near the second gyro-harmonic, which is opposite to higher gyro-harmonics; secondly, the optical enhancement maximum occurs for frequencies just above the second gyro-harmonic. We provide the first experimental evidence for these effects, which have been predicted theoretically. In addition, irregular optical structures were created when the pump frequency was above the ionospheric critical frequency.Keywords. Active experiments – Auroral ionosphere – Wave-particle interactions

  19. Single impacts of keV fullerene ions on free standing graphene: Emission of ions and electrons from confined volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Geng, Sheng; Schweikert, Emile A., E-mail: schweikert@chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3144 (United States); Czerwinski, Bartlomiej [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences–Bio and Soft Matter (IMCN/BSMA), Université Catholique de Louvain, 1 Croix du Sud, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Applied Physics, Division of Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå (Sweden); Young, Amanda E. [Materials Characterization Facility, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3122 (United States); Delcorte, Arnaud [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences–Bio and Soft Matter (IMCN/BSMA), Université Catholique de Louvain, 1 Croix du Sud, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2015-10-28

    We present the first data from individual C{sub 60} impacting one to four layer graphene at 25 and 50 keV. Negative secondary ions and electrons emitted in transmission were recorded separately from each impact. The yields for C{sub n}{sup −} clusters are above 10% for n ≤ 4, they oscillate with electron affinities and decrease exponentially with n. The result can be explained with the aid of MD simulation as a post-collision process where sufficient vibrational energy is accumulated around the rim of the impact hole for sputtering of carbon clusters. The ionization probability can be estimated by comparing experimental yields of C{sub n}{sup −} with those of C{sub n}{sup 0} from MD simulation, where it increases exponentially with n. The ionization probability can be approximated with ejecta from a thermally excited (3700 K) rim damped by cluster fragmentation and electron detachment. The experimental electron probability distributions are Poisson-like. On average, three electrons of thermal energies are emitted per impact. The thermal excitation model invoked for C{sub n}{sup −} emission can also explain the emission of electrons. The interaction of C{sub 60} with graphene is fundamentally different from impacts on 3D targets. A key characteristic is the high degree of ionization of the ejecta.

  20. Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon- and metal-surfaces bombarded by slow hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusca, S.; Winter, HP.; Aumayr, F.; Díez Muiño, R.; Juaristi, J. I.

    2003-04-01

    Total yields for kinetic electron emission (KE) have been determined for impact of hydrogen monomer-, dimer- and trimer-ions (impact energy armour in magnetic fusion devices. The data are compared with KE yields for impact of same projectile ions on atomically clean highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and polycrystalline gold. We discuss KE yields for the different targets if bombarded by equally fast molecular and atomic ions in view to "projectile molecular effects" (different yields per proton for equally fast atomic and molecular ions), which are expected from calculated electronic projectile energy losses in these target materials.