WorldWideScience

Sample records for high educational background

  1. Family Background and Educational Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    enrollments, especially for females. Not only did the educational opportunities for individuals with disadvantaged backgrounds improve absolutely, but their relative position also improved. A similarly dramatic increase in attendance at university for the period 1985-2005 was found for these cohorts when......We examine the participation in secondary and tertiary education of five cohorts of Danish males and females who were aged twenty starting in 1982 and ending in 2002. We find that the large expansion of secondary education in this period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in gymnasium...

  2. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2018-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7 th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. About a theoretical Background of Outdoor Education in High School : A practical approach to the Integrated Classes

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 豊; 佐野, 裕

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to consider the educational values and prospects of outdoor education at the Integrated Classes for high school in Japan. As it should be recognized that "the cultivation of the vitality for children to live" is the most important educational target of the New Japanese Government Curriculum Guidelines. The vitality for children to live is explained as the abilities to feel nature, to collaborate with others, to take initiative, and to take own risk, for example. It should be s...

  4. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  5. Environmental literacy based on educational background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agfar, A.; Munandar, A.; Surakusumah, W.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to examine attitude, knowledge and cognitive skill. To collect data we used survey method, was conducted in Pahawang, Lampung. Respondents of this research are coastal society of Pahawang, 114 participants determined using purposive sampling, from two areas in the village, Pahawang and Penggetahan. Data were analyzed using both quantitative and descriptive. Environmental literacy of the society which is primary school graduate is moderate category (85.61), consist of 38.90% in low category and 61.10% in moderate category. Environmental literacy of junior high school graduate is moderate (99.36), consist of 12% in low category, 76% in moderate category and 12% in high category. Environmental literacy of senior high school graduate is moderate (108.85), consist of 84.90% moderate category and 15.10% in high category. But, undergraduate society is high category (118.53). Details 0% low category 52.94% moderate category and 47.06% in high category. This finding research has revelaed that the educational background affects the level of environmental literacy. This finding research has revealed that the educational background affects the level of environmental literacy.

  6. Family Background and Educational Success in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntoch, James

    This research examines the role of family background variables in the determination of educational attainment in Denmark. A categorical representation of the highest level of education attained is the dependent variable. It is analyzed by procedures which take account of the presence of unobserva...... procedures are in the spirit of the work of Cameron and Heckman (1998), but are more general. Econometric issues and the results of what other Scandinavian researchers in this area have found are also discussed in section 4....

  7. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  8. National Security Education Program: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Riddle, Wayne C

    2005-01-01

    ... (NSEA, Title VIII of P.L. 102-183), provides aid for international education and foreign language studies by American undergraduate and graduate students, plus grants to institutions of higher education...

  9. Moral Education USA: Background and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    Current trends in ethical/moral instruction are placed in context by tracing educational and social change from the 19th century to the present. The focus on religion for salvation and on good behavior lasted in modified form well into the 19th century. In the late 19th century curriculum in the schools changed due to immigration, industrialism,…

  10. Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    Below the doses of 100-200 mSv of radiation exposure, no acute health effect is observed, and the late health effects such as cancer are yet unclear. The problems making the risk evaluation of low dose radiation exposure difficult are the fact that the magnitude of expected health effects are small even if the risk is assumed to increase in proportion to radiation doses. As a result, studies need to be large particular when dealing with rare disease such as cancer. In addition, the expected health effects are so small that they can easily be masked by lifestyles and environmental factors including smoking. This paper will discuss cancer risk possibly associated with low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure, describing epidemiological studies on the residents in the high-background radiation areas. (author)

  11. Astronomy: social background of students of the integrated high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Barbosa, J. I. L.

    2017-07-01

    Astronomy-related contents exist in almost all levels of basic education in Brazil and are also frequently disseminated through mass media. Thus, students form their own explanations about the phenomena studied by this science. Therefore, this work has the objective of identifying the possible social background of the Integrated High School students on the term Astronomy. It is a research of a basic nature, descriptive, and for that reason a quali-quantitative approach was adopted; the procedures to obtain the data were effected in the form of a survey. The results show that the tested students have a social background about the object Astronomy, which is on the one hand fortified by elements they have made or which is part of the experience lived by the respondents within the formal space of education, and on the other hand based on elements possibly disseminated through the mass media.

  12. Cosmic microwave background distortions at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Peratt, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyze the deviation of the cosmic background radiation spectrum from the 2.76+-0.02 0 Κ blackbody curve. If the cosmic background radiation is due to absorption and re-emission of synchrotron radiation from galactic-width current filaments, higher-order synchrotron modes are less thermalized than lower-order modes, causing a distortion of the blackbody curve at higher frequencies. New observations of the microwave background spectrum at short wavelengths should provide an indication of the number of synchrotron modes thermalized in this process. The deviation of the spectrum from that of a perfect blackbody can thus be correlated with astronomical observations such as filament temperatures and electron energies. The results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions of other models which assume the presence of intergalactic superconducting cosmic strings

  13. Family Background and Educational Path of Italian Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergolini, Loris; Vlach, Eleonora

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse social inequalities along the horizontal dimension of education in Italy. More precisely, we focus on the role of family background in completing specific fields of study at both secondary and tertiary levels of education. To mitigate the limitations of the traditional sequential model, we construct a typology of…

  14. Family Background of Beginning Education Students: Implications for Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Roger A.; Coll, Kenneth M.; Osguthorpe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education has not historically focused on the social and emotional development of teachers even though there is evidence that such variables influence student success (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). We believe such a focus is important and we explored variables in teacher education students' families of origin that underpin social and…

  15. Listening to Students from Refugee Backgrounds: Lessons for Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Sommers, Shirley; Kisiara, Otieno

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a study that examined how students from refugee backgrounds cope with victimization and bullying in three urban high schools in the United States. Qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were employed. Twelve high school students from refugee backgrounds participated in the study, which involved focus group…

  16. Scholastic Ability vs. Family Background in Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    This research examines the role of scholastic ability and family background variables in the determination of educational attainment in Denmark. A categorical representation of the highest level of education attained by the individual is the dependent variable. It is analyzed by procedures which...... take account of the presence of unobservable factors. Parent's education and occupation along with an indicator of scholastic ability which is represented by a set of aptitude tests explain a small but significant portion of the variation in their children's educational success. Women are shown...... to respond differently to their environments than men and including these test scores does not remove the need to deal with unmeasured attributes. On the basis of the available data, family background variables as a group contribute more to the explained variation in the data than the test scores. Finally...

  17. Family Background and Changing Educational Choices in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    We examine the participation in upper secondary and tertiary education in 1985 and 2005 using a generalization of the famous Mare educational transition model. The large expansion of secondary education in this twenty year period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in the proportion of thi...... ago. As a result Denmark has become a more mobile society. This conclusion is based a new mobility index which we have developed to measure the relative dependence of respondent educational success on family background variables.......We examine the participation in upper secondary and tertiary education in 1985 and 2005 using a generalization of the famous Mare educational transition model. The large expansion of secondary education in this twenty year period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in the proportion...... of this age group which obtained a gymnasium qualification. We find that factors not related to the observable characteristics of the household in which the respondent was raised have become more important relative to family background variables for upper secondary school success than they were a generation...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AND STUDY FACILITIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ALOKAN, FUNMILOLA BOSEDE; OSAKINLE, EUNICE OLUFUNMILAYO; ONIJINGIN, EMMANUEL OLUBU

    2013-01-01

    There has been an outcry against the poor performance of students in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Nigeria. This study investigated the difference between the academic performance of students from parents with high educational background and students from parents with low educational background. It also investigated the influence of having study facilities at home on academic performance. The population for this study comprised all public secondary school students in Ondo St...

  19. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Safe and Inclusive Cities: ... improving urban environments and public spaces might have on reducing the city's high ... violence against women among urban youth of working class neighbourhoods of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi,.

  20. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  1. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  2. Cosmic far-infrared background at high galactic latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.; Puget, J.L.; Fazio, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    We predict far-infrared background fluxes from various cosmic sources. These fluxes lie near the high-frequency side of the blackbody radiation spectrum. These sources could account for a significant fraction of the background radiation at frequencies above 400 GHz which might be misinterpreted as a ''Comptonization'' distortion of the blackbody radiation. Particular attention is paid to the possible contributions from external galaxies, from rich clusters of galaxies, and from galactic dust emission

  3. Cosmic far-infrared background at high galactic latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.; Puget, J.L.; Fazio, G.G.

    1976-12-01

    Far-infrared background fluxes from various cosmic sources are predicted. These fluxes lie near the high-frequency side of the blackbody radiation spectrum. These sources could account for a significant fraction of the background radiation at frequencies above 400 GHz, which might be misinterpreted as a comptonization distortion of the blackbody radiation. Particular attention is paid to the possible contributions from external galaxies, rich clusters of galaxies and from galactic dust emission

  4. MDT Performance in a High Rate Background Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin; Hessey, N P; Riegler, W

    1998-01-01

    A Cs137 gamma source with different lead filters in the SPS beam-line X5 has been used to simulate the ATLAS background radiation. This note shows the impact of high background rates on the MDT efficiency and resolution for three kinds of pulse shaping and compares the results with GARFIELD simulations. Furthermore it explains how the performance can be improved by time slewing corrections and double track separation.

  5. SCIENTIFIC PARADIGM SHIFT AS THE BACKGROUND OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Tabanakova

    2017-01-01

    the tendencies of the domestic linguistic education flimsiness: fundamental linguistic education tends to become popularized linguistic knowledge; there is no conception of linguistic education based on all the basic language functions.However, the author notes the natural language to be the most difficult, most multipurpose and multidimensional sign system. Language simultaneously performs various functions: a form, way, tool, and means of structuring and systematized description of knowledge. Artificial computer languages provide the speed and efficiency of storage, processing and information transfer, i.e. perform tool function support not being a means of thought broadcasting. Semantic information processing is carried out by linguists «manually»; therefore, fundamental linguistic knowledge is required in the fields of semantics, syntactics, pragmatics of the language sign, laws of linguistic nominations, laws of references, regularities of perception and reproduction, mechanisms of understanding and interpretation, etc.Practical significance. Philosophical conceptualization of a modern paradigm of scientific linguistic knowledge allows to draw a conclusion on the need of fundamental linguistic education support at the high level on behalf of preservation, realization and full development of all unique functions of a natural language as means of thinking and communication, a tool of information technologies and a sign system, and, at last, as a cultural phenomenon.

  6. Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrik, D; Jakubek, J; Pospisil, S; Vacik, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high γ and e(-) radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 μm(2)) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin (10)B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10(-4).

  7. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  8. Beta activity measurements in high, variable gamma backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanga, D.; Sandu, E.; Craciun, L.

    1997-01-01

    In many cases beta activity measurements must be performed in high and variable gamma backgrounds. In such instances it is necessary to use well-shielded detectors but this technique is limited to laboratory equipment and frequently insufficient. In order to perform in a simple manner beta activity measurements in high and variable backgrounds a software-aided counting technique have been developed and a counting system have been constructed. This technique combines the different counting techniques with traditional method of successive measurement of the sample and background. The counting system is based on a programmable multi-scaler which is endowed with appropriate software and allow all operations to be performed via keyboard in an interactive fashion. Two large - area proportional detectors were selected in order to have the same background and the same gamma response within 5%. A program has been developed for the counting data analysis and beta activity computing. The software-aided counting technique has been implemented for beta activity measurement in high and variable backgrounds. (authors)

  9. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Albert

    2011-08-04

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large Hadron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise measurement of trajectories of traversing muons. In order to determine the momentum of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the muon in a single tube has to be more accurate than {sigma}{<=}100 {mu}m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and the high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and {gamma}s in the muon spectrometer. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned, which will increase the background counting rates considerably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber technology to provide the required accuracy of the position measurement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the drift tube chambers are described: - In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more linear drift gas can provide precise position measurement without changing the existing hardware. - At very high background rates drift tube chambers consisting of tubes with a diameter of 15 mm are a valuable candidate to substitute the CSC muon chambers. The single tube resolution of the gas mixture Ar:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} in the ratio of 96:3:1 Vol %, which is more linear and faster as the currently used drift gas Ar:CO{sub 2} in the ratio of 97:3 Vol %, was determined at the Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility at Garching and at high {gamma}-background counting rates at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The alternative gas mixture shows similar resolution without background. At high background counting rates it shows better resolution as the standard gas. To analyse the data the various parts of the setup have to be aligned precisely to each other. The change to an alternative gas mixture allows the use of the existing hardware. The second approach are drift tubes

  10. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, Albert; Dünnweber, Wolfgang

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large H adron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise m easurement of trajec- tories of traversing muons. In order to determine the moment um of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the m uon in a single tube has to be more accurate than σ ≤ 100 m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and th e high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and γ s in the muon spectrome- ter. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade [1] to 5 10 34 cm − 2 s − 1 is planned, which will increase the background counting rates consider ably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber tech- nology to provide the required accuracy of the position meas urement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the dri ft tube chambers are described: • In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more lin ear ...

  11. Health effects in residents of regions with high background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible health problems created by high natural levels of background radiation are hard to detect, partly because the health problems involved would exist to some degree irrespective of radiation exposure, partly because other factors affect the incidence of such problems, and partly because the differences between normal background radiation levels and radiation levels found in most high-radiation areas are not extreme. Nevertheless, the need to know about such health effects is evident, and so various studies conducted over the past 30 years have sought to determine whether those effects exist and what they are. Overall, however, the fragmentary and uncertain nature of many of these findings makes it hard to draw firm conclusions about the health risks involved or the desirability of countermeasures. So despite considerable efforts and some progress over the past three decades, the need for a clear quantitative assessment of the consequences is as great as ever

  12. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Dalen, Jan Van; Van Der Vleuten, Cees Pm

    2011-12-01

    To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30 internal medicine residents with 7-10 patients each in the internal medicine outpatient clinics. The patients were categorized into a group with a high and a group with a low educational level. We ranked the data into 41 RIAS utterances and RIAS-based composite categories in order of observed frequency during consultations. The residents invariantly used a paternalistic style irrespective of patients' educational background. The RIAS utterances and the composite categories show no significant relationship between communication style and patients' educational level. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country use a paternalistic communication style during consultations, regardless of patients' educational background. To approach a more partnership doctor-patient communication, culture and clinical environment concern of Southeast Asian should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Background Music in Educational Games: Motivational Appeal and Cognitive Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Stephanie B.; Marte, Birgit; Albert, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Most game-designers likely stick to the assumption that background music is a design feature for fostering fun and game play. From a psychological point of view, these (intuitive) aspects act upon the intrinsic motivation and the flow experience of players. However, from a pure cognitive perspective on instructional design, background music could…

  14. Profile of graduates of Israeli medical schools in 1981--2000: educational background, demography and evaluation of medical education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi; Shalev, Ilana

    2005-05-01

    In light of changes in the medical profession, the different requirements placed on physicians and the evolving needs of the healthcare system, the need arose to examine the medical education curriculum in Israel. This survey, conducted by the Samuel Neaman Institute for Science and Technology, summarizes 20 years of medical education in Israel's four medical schools, as the first stage in mapping the existing state of medical education in Israel and providing a basis for decision-making on future medical education programs. To characterize the academic background of graduates, evaluate their attitudes towards current and alternative medical education programs, and examine subgroups among graduates according to gender, medical school, high school education, etc. The survey included graduates from all four Israeli medical schools who graduated between the years 1981 and 2000 in a sample of 1:3. A questionnaire and stamped return envelope were sent to every third graduate; the questionnaire included open and quantitative questions graded on a scale of 1 to 5. The data were processed for the entire graduate population and further analyzed according to subgroups such as medical schools, gender, high school education, etc. The response rate was 41.3%. The survey provided a demographic profile of graduates over a 20 year period, their previous educational and academic background, additional academic degrees achieved, satisfaction, and suggestions for future medical education programs. The profile of the medical graduates in Israel is mostly homogenous in terms of demographics, with small differences among the four medical schools. In line with recommendations of the graduates, and as an expression of the changing requirements in the healthcare system and the medical profession, the medical schools should consider alternative medical education programs such as a bachelor's degree in life sciences followed by MD studies, or education programs that combine medicine with

  15. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  16. Historical Background of Inclusive Education Development in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andriichuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes and interprets the comprehensive presentation of the development of inclusive education in some Nordic countries, namely Sweden, Norway and Iceland. The article states that the special education is still an alternative form of education for children with special needs who cannot attend secondary schools in the majority of the countries. Thus, the relation between inclusive and special education allows the author to draw some parallels between these two types of study to trace the transition from one to another. The author concludes that the history of inclusive education formation in Sweden, Norway and Iceland has much in common, but the Icelandic education system has characteristics which distinguish it from the two others.

  17. On the frequency dependence of the high temperature background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.; Hermida, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    The high temperature background (HTB) damping in metals and alloys has been measured mostly as a function of temperature. These data were described by several empirical expressions proposed in the literature. In the present work, HTB in pure Mg and in two alloys (Zry-4 and Cu-5 at.%Au), measured with a torsion pendulum with variable moment of inertia, are analyzed on considering a new treatment of the data. This analysis provides an useful tool to determine whether a damping process is linear or not. (orig.)

  18. Sociopolitical Viewpoints as Narrated by Family and Educational Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sares, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the role social and educational history have on people's views of helpfulness, trustfulness, liberalism, and confidence in the government and organized labor; results were obtained through General Social Survey (GSS) responses. Finds support for the premise that sociopolitical and prosocial views can be traced to educational and…

  19. Down syndrome and the high background radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Soren, D.C.; Anil Kumar, V.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy-21 is a complex human clinical entity compromising several functional, structural and developmental features with wide variation in expression levels. The diagnosis is confirmed in majority of the cases by an extra dose of chromosome 21 by cytogenetics and occasionally it may be due to either chromosomal translocation or mosaicism (different cell lines in the same individual). The extra chromosome 21 is usually formed by non-disjunction during meiosis and is the most common numerical chromosomal anomaly compatible with life, as chromosome 21 is one of the smallest with relatively fewer genes most of which are reckoned to be non lethal. Though exact causative factors and pathogenesis is not fully understood, a rise in maternal age at conception coupled with deleterious environmental influence on an ageing ovum is a recognized risk factor. The de novo nature of trisomy-21 and its relatively higher frequency makes it a reliable indicator to assess the role of chronic high background radiation in inducing germ line mutation and congenital malformation. Many other relatively common congenital malformations with multifactorial origin may not have this de novo property and associating its incidence with the prevailing natural background radiation become more complex. In vitro studies have shown association between high intensity radiation and genetics effects but such a relationship so far was not established between DS and radiation

  20. Correlation Among Students’ Family Background, Academic Performance in Junior High School, and Senior High School Tracking in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fu Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There were numerous previous studies on educational tracking. However, most of the data adopted in these studies were collected a decade ago, involving sample population 20-64 years of age. Among them, many elderly samples had undergone senior high school tracking in the early years. The present study used the data of students and parents from the 3rd wave (2005 of the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS. A path analysis was conducted to investigate the inequality of opportunities involved in the influence of student family background on educational tracking at the senior high school stage. The results show: although the overall percentage of junior high school graduates entering advanced levels was approximately 100% and almost all students of different family backgrounds entered advanced levels, the most crucial factor among those affecting educational tracking of senior high school stage was students’ academic performance during junior high school. Students with higher family socioeconomic status and fewer siblings showed better academic performance in junior high schools, and consequently had higher possibilities of entering public senior high schools leading to a more promising future. This indicates that though the inequality in the quantity of opportunities approached 0, the inequality in the quality of opportunities still remained, which fails to support the hypothesis of the maximally maintained inequality of educational opportunity (MMI; however, the result supports the hypothesis of the effectively maintained inequality of educational opportunity (EMI.

  1. Creating Unity through Celebrating Diversity: A Case Study That Explores the Impact of Music Education on Refugee Background Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the impact of music education on students in an F-12 school in Victoria, Australia that is considered as having a high percentage of young people with a refugee background. Key findings from this research indicated that music education had a positive impact on this group of young…

  2. Database on epidemiological survey in high background radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sunyuan; Guo Furong; Liu Yusheng

    1992-01-01

    In order to store and check the data of the health survey in high background radiation area (HBRA) and control area in Guangdong Province, and to use these data in future, three databases were set up by using RBASE 5000 database software. (1) HD: the database based on the household registers especially established for the health survey from 1979 to 1986, covering more than 160000 subjects and 2200000 data. (2) DC: the database based on the registration cards of deaths from cancers and all other diseases during the period of 1975-1986 including more than 10000 cases and 260000 data. (3) MCC: the database for the case-control study on mutation-related factors for four kinds of cancers (liver, stomach, lung cancers and leukemia), embracing 626 subjects and close to 90000 data. The data in the databases were checked up with the original records and compared with the manual analytical results

  3. Current Commitments under the GATS in Educational Services. Background Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The GATS is a multilateral, legally enforceable agreement among members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that regulates international trade services. Rules regulating internationally traded educational services, which include various types of exchange programs, are part of the agreement. Among the 42 member countries that have made…

  4. Peculiar velocity effects in high-resolution microwave background experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challinor, Anthony; Leeuwen, Floor van

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the impact of peculiar velocity effects due to the motion of the solar system relative to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on high resolution CMB experiments. It is well known that on the largest angular scales the combined effects of Doppler shifts and aberration are important; the lowest Legendre multipoles of total intensity receive power from the large CMB monopole in transforming from the CMB frame. On small angular scales aberration dominates and is shown here to lead to significant distortions of the total intensity and polarization multipoles in transforming from the rest frame of the CMB to the frame of the solar system. We provide convenient analytic results for the distortions as series expansions in the relative velocity of the two frames, but at the highest resolutions a numerical quadrature is required. Although many of the high resolution multipoles themselves are severely distorted by the frame transformations, we show that their statistical properties distort by only an insignificant amount. Therefore, the cosmological parameter estimation is insensitive to the transformation from the CMB frame (where theoretical predictions are calculated) to the rest frame of the experiment

  5. Background field coils for the High Field Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Jewell, A.M.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The High Field Test Facility (HFTF), presently under construction at LLNL, is a set of superconducting coils that will be used to test 1-m-o.d. coils of prototype conductors for fusion magnets in fields up to 12 T. The facility consists of two concentric sets of coils; the outer set is a stack of Nb-Ti solenoids, and the inner set is a pair of solenoids made of cryogenically-stabilized, multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductor, developed for use in mirror-fusion magnets. The HFTF system is designed to be parted along the midplane to allow high-field conductors, under development for Tokamak fusion machines, to be inserted and tested. The background field coils were wound pancake-fashion, with cold-welded joints at both the inner and outer diameters. Turn-to-turn insulation was fabricated at LLNL from epoxy-fiberglass strip. The coils were assembled and tested in our 2-m-diam cryostat to verify their operation

  6. Health effects in residents of high background radiation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.; Komarov, E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies carried out in various countries and by the World Health Organization on health effects of exposure of populations to high levels of natural background radiation result in observations of different significance. There are indications of changes in chromosome aberration rate; Down's syndrome has been observed to be possibly related to radiation exposure; malignant neoplasms in bone apparently correspond to high concentrations of 226 Ra in drinking water. Although various researchers have looked for them, effects have not been demonstrated regarding cancer mortality (other than malignant neoplasms involving bone), gross congenital abnormalities, fertility index, growth and development, hereditary disease (other than the possibility of Down's syndrome), infant mortality, longevity, multiple births, sex ratio, or spontaneous abortion rate. On the basis of reported data clear quantitative conception of the risk of low-level radiation from natural sources could not be developed and feasibility studies of further epidemiological programmes should be organized. The possibility of reducing the collective population dose from natural sources could be further explored and a basis for necessary legal action on establishment of standards for possible sources of natural radiation, such as building materials, fertilizers, natural gas and water, might be developed. (author)

  7. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  8. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  10. Background problem for a large solid angle, high sensitivity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.

    1977-01-01

    With extremely good vacuum (10 -11 to 10 -13 torr) and well controlled beams, the ISR has a good reputation for clean beam conditions and low background for most types of experiments. However, for a detector covering a large solid angle, measuring processes with small cross sections (approximately 10 -38 cm 2 ) there are serious background problems which took almost a year to solve. Since ISABELLE may have similar problems, a summary is given of experience at the ISR with the hope that some of the solutions can be installed in ISABELLE at an early stage

  11. Adolescents' educational aspirations and ethnic background: The case of students of African and Latin American migrant origins in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gil-Hernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minority students were found to have high educational aspirations, considering their background characteristics. This finding is often attributed to 'migrant optimism.' Yet, whether socioeconomic, educational, or demographic differences between and within ethnic groups mediate and/or moderate students' educational aspirations remains an inconclusive question. Objective: This study investigates the educational aspirations of children of African and Latin American migrants in Spain, looking at four critical factors: (1 family background, (2 educational performance, (3 years lived in Spain, and (4 language used at home. Methods: Data comes from the 2010 General Evaluation of Educational Diagnostic (GEED on lower-secondary students aged 14 (n = 19,293, on average. Multivariate logistic models are applied using mediation and moderation analyses. Results: Results show that (1 minority students have higher college aspirations than students of Spanish origin after accounting for parental socioeconomic status and educational performance; (2 ethnic differentials in aspirations - especially for pupils with Latin American origin - are concentrated among low-performing and disadvantaged students; (3 recent arrival in Spain is not significantly associated with differences in educational aspirations within minority groups; (4 speaking Spanish at home does not lead to differences in aspirations for pupils of African origin. Conclusions: Migrant optimism, as opposed to family language use and years of contact with the Spanish culture and society, seems to be an important factor for the high (net educational aspirations of students from African and Latin American backgrounds. Contribution: The article provides new evidence on ethnic heterogeneity in educational aspirations, being the first that uses representative data from the whole Spanish educational system.

  12. Nature of the Background Ultraviolet Radiation Field at High Redshifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 19-27 .... to know the shape of the ionizing radiation to determine the ionization parameter from the C II to C IV ratio. ... different shapes of the background radiation spectrum as explained in the text. The solid lines.

  13. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Dacre Jane; Woolf Katherine; McManus IC

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A lev...

  14. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, I. C.; Woolf, K.; Dacre, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students.Methods: Attainment at GCSE and A level, and ...

  15. College for some to college for all: social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly A

    2008-06-01

    The educational expectations of 10th-graders have dramatically increased from 1980 to 2002. Their rise is attributable in part to the changing educational composition of students' parents and related to the educational profiles of their expected occupations. Students whose parents have gone to college are more likely to attend college themselves, and students expect occupations that are more prestigious in 2002 than in 1980. The educational requirements of particular occupation categories have risen only slightly. These analyses also reveal that educational expectations in recent cohorts are more loosely linked to social background and occupational plans than they were in 1980. The declining importance of parents' background and the decoupling of educational and occupational plans, in addition to a strong and significant effect of cohort on educational expectations, suggest that the expectation of four-year college attainment is indeed becoming the norm.

  16. Dietary education must fit into everyday life: a qualitative study of people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hempler NF

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nana F Hempler,1 Sara Nicic,1 Bettina Ewers,2 Ingrid Willaing1 1Health Promotion Research, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark; 2Nutrition and Food Services Department, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark Background: The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. Results: Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants’ taste preferences in the educational setting. Conclusion: Dietary education that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more focus should be placed on collaborative processes in the dietary educational setting in order to achieve appropriate education and to improve communication between this population and health care professionals. Keywords: dietary diabetes

  17. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W; Damian, Rodica

    2016-01-01

    People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health-including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents' attractiveness-and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds than for people from advantaged

  18. Attempt to measure the cosmic background radiation at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, Jacques; Le Boiteux, Henri

    1959-01-01

    Results are given of the measurement by G.M. tubes of hard component of cosmic background between o and 60 km of altitude, at 43 deg. N latitude, on january 27, 1959 (17 h. GMT). The counting rate starts at 0.3 pulses per second (sea level) reaches a maximum value of 15.6 (18 km) and remains constant at 5.7 above 40 km. Reprint of a paper published in Le Journal de Physique et le Radium, t. 20, p. 573, may 1959

  19. The interaction of family background and personal education on depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preschool Education in Today's World: Teaching Children with Diverse Backgrounds and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, M. Susan; Johnson, Richard T.; Assaf, Mona M.

    2012-01-01

    Future early childhood educators need to know how to teach "all" young learners effectively--including children with diverse cultural, linguistic, and economic backgrounds and children with special needs. This core textbook equips early childhood educators with the knowledge they'll need to succeed in the classroom and ensure the best…

  1. Students' Moral Reasoning as Related to Cultural Background and Educational Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Yam, Miriam; And Others

    The relationship between moral development and cultural and educational background is examined. Approximately 120 Israeli youth representing different social classes, sex, religious affiliation, and educational experience were interviewed. The youth interviewed included urban middle and lower class students, Kibbutz-born, Youth Aliyah…

  2. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion and toward Students with Special Educational Needs from Different Ethnic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Maria; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Glock, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers' implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and preservice teachers' explicit attitudes toward inclusive education. Preservice teachers (N = 46) completed an evaluative priming task and…

  3. Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tropf, Felix C.; Mandemakers, Jornt J.

    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is

  4. Policies and Background Literature for Self-Education on Research Data Management: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Librarians navigating research data management self-education have an increasing body of literature to choose from, which may become overwhelming. This annotated bibliography reviews: (1) U.S. federal policies; (2) articles; and (3) books to assist librarians who are self-educating on research data management or are seeking background reading…

  5. Educational background of nurses and their perceptions of the quality and safety of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Reece P; Pretorius, Ronel; Klopper, Hester

    2015-04-30

    International health systems research confirms the critical role that nurses play in ensuring the delivery of high quality patient care and subsequent patient safety. It is therefore important that the education of nurses should prepare them for the provision of safe care of a high quality. The South African healthcare system is made up of public and private hospitals that employ various categories of nurses. The perceptions of the various categories of nurses with reference to quality of care and patient safety are unknown in South Africa (SA). To determine the relationship between the educational background of nurses and their perceptions of quality of care and patient safety in private surgical units in SA. A descriptive correlational design was used. A questionnaire was used for data collection, after which hierarchical linear modelling was utilised to determine the relationships amongst the variables. Both the registered- and enrolled nurses seemed satisfied with the quality of care and patient safety in the units were they work. Enrolled nurses (ENs) indicated that current efforts to prevent errors are adequate, whilst the registered nurses (RNs) obtained high scores in reporting incidents in surgical wards. From the results it was evident that perceptions of RNs and ENs related to the quality of care and patient safety differed. There seemed to be a statistically-significant difference between RNs and ENs perceptions of the prevention of errors in the unit, losing patient information between shifts and patient incidents related to medication errors, pressure ulcers and falls with injury.

  6. High resolution gamma spectrometry of size-separated soils from high background areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.R.; Sadasivan, S.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Soil samples from a high background area of Kerala were analysed for their natural radionuclide content and distribution with particle size. The samples exhibited inhomogeneity in activity distribution. The smaller size particles had higher activity. The open air dose estimates are also presented. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii testing not only university students (Experiment 1 but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2. Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  8. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Nina; Shao, Zeshu; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i) using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii) testing not only university students (Experiment 1) but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2). Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed. PMID:28751871

  9. Health effects in residents of high background radiation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Although the health effects of radiation doses in occupationally exposed persons had received attention, it was not until the 1950s, when the atmospheric atom bomb tests of the United States and the Soviet Union had raised the level of environmental radioactivity, that the long-term effects of low-level radiation dosage became a matter of popular concern throughout the world. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was created, and the World Health Organization (WHO) appointed an expert committee to provide advice concerning radiation and human health. In its first report, the WHO expert committee identified several areas of high natural radiation where studies of the exposed population might possibly provide information concerning the effects of chromic low-level radiation dosage

  10. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab

  11. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, R [Library of Parliament, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Science and Technology Div.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab.

  12. High-resolution subgrid models: background, grid generation, and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehili, Aissa; Lang, Günther; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    The basic idea of subgrid models is the use of available high-resolution bathymetric data at subgrid level in computations that are performed on relatively coarse grids allowing large time steps. For that purpose, an algorithm that correctly represents the precise mass balance in regions where wetting and drying occur was derived by Casulli (Int J Numer Method Fluids 60:391-408, 2009) and Casulli and Stelling (Int J Numer Method Fluids 67:441-449, 2010). Computational grid cells are permitted to be wet, partially wet, or dry, and no drying threshold is needed. Based on the subgrid technique, practical applications involving various scenarios were implemented including an operational forecast model for water level, salinity, and temperature of the Elbe Estuary in Germany. The grid generation procedure allows a detailed boundary fitting at subgrid level. The computational grid is made of flow-aligned quadrilaterals including few triangles where necessary. User-defined grid subdivision at subgrid level allows a correct representation of the volume up to measurement accuracy. Bottom friction requires a particular treatment. Based on the conveyance approach, an appropriate empirical correction was worked out. The aforementioned features make the subgrid technique very efficient, robust, and accurate. Comparison of predicted water levels with the comparatively highly resolved classical unstructured grid model shows very good agreement. The speedup in computational performance due to the use of the subgrid technique is about a factor of 20. A typical daily forecast can be carried out in less than 10 min on a standard PC-like hardware. The subgrid technique is therefore a promising framework to perform accurate temporal and spatial large-scale simulations of coastal and estuarine flow and transport processes at low computational cost.

  13. Education policies for Special Education in Brazil: a brief historical background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Lucato Sigolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper delivers an analysis and a systematization of the Brazilian legislation (from the nineteenth century to the year 2009 regarding the education of disabled people, as well as their rights and the services meant to support them. This research, which is based on collected data from relevant literature and documents, reviews the historical process of the trajectory of the Special Education in Brazil. The study indicates that educational policies in Brazil have identified the Special Education students differently over time. The teaching of students with disabilities or who failed to adapt themselves to regular education was offered separately from the common education. Due to the advancements on studies and research in the fields of Education and Human Rights, educational laws and practices began to change, which prompted the need of a reorganization of both the common schools and the special schools.

  14. Adolescent tobacco use in the Netherlands: social background, education and school organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, C.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.; Monshouwer, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article empirically examines the effect of social background, education, and school organization on adolescent tobacco use in the Netherlands. We test theories of norm enforcing and horizon expanding social networks and distinction by examining the relationship between daily smoking behavior

  15. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Dalen, J.V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). METHODS: We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30

  16. Higher Education Decisions in Peru: On the Role of Financial Constraints, Skills, and Family Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juan F.; Yamada, Gustavo; Arias, Omar

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relative importance of short-term financial constraints "vis-a-vis" skills and other background factors when explaining higher education access in Peru. We focus on the disparities in university enrollment between rich and poor households. We use a novel household survey that includes special tests to measure…

  17. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  18. The noise background and its suppression in high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangcheng

    1996-01-01

    In the modern high energy physics experiments, system is very complicated and from a lot of sources may originate noise and background. How to reduce and restrain noise and backgrounds? It should use different suppression mode for different kinds of noise and backgrounds

  19. [The influence of migration background and parental education on childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemann, A; Ernert, A; Rücker, P; Babitsch, B; Wiegand, S

    2011-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the influence of migration background and parental education on the degree of obesity and the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents (N=492) requiring sociopediatric care were investigated. Two regression models were computed with the dependent variables BMI-SDS and MS, respectively. Age, gender, migration background, and parental education were used as independent variables. When controlling for age and gender, higher BMI-SDS were found among Turkish patients (β=0.21; p=0.002) and patients with other migration backgrounds (β=0.11; p=0.085) compared to German patients. The BMI-SDS values were also higher among patients from families with a low parental education level compared to those with a higher education level (β=0.31; peducation, when controlling for age, gender, and BMI-SDS. Obesity therapy should be increasingly tailored to the needs of identified risk groups. This will also allow for a targeted prevention of comorbidities.

  20. Diving Deep: A Comparative Study of Educator Undergraduate and Graduate Backgrounds and Their Effect on Student Understanding of Engineering and Engineering Careers, Utilizing an Underwater Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, J. Adam

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that educators having degrees in their subjects significantly enhances student achievement, particularly in secondary mathematics and science (Chaney, 1995; Goe, 2007; Rowan, Chiang, & Miller, 1997; Wenglinsky, 2000). Yet, science teachers in states that adopt the Next Generation Science Standards will be facilitating classroom engineering activities despite the fact that few have backgrounds in engineering. This quantitative study analyzed ex-post facto WaterBotics (an innovative underwater robotics curriculum for middle and high school students) data to determine if educators having backgrounds in engineering (i.e., undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering) positively affected student learning on two engineering outcomes: 1) the engineering design process, and 2) understanding of careers in engineering (who engineers are and what engineers do). The results indicated that educators having backgrounds in engineering did not significantly affect student understanding of the engineering design process or careers in engineering when compared to educators having backgrounds in science, mathematics, technology education, or other disciplines. There were, however, statistically significant differences between the groups of educators. Students of educators with backgrounds in technology education had the highest mean score on assessments pertaining to the engineering design process while students of educators with disciplines outside of STEM had the highest mean scores on instruments that assess for student understanding of careers in engineering. This might be due to the fact that educators who lack degrees in engineering but who teach engineering do a better job of "sticking to the script" of engineering curricula.

  1. Epidemiological investigation of radiological effects in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Luxin; Zha, Yongru; Tao, Zufan; He, Weihui; Chen, Deqing; Yuan, Yongling

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to provide some information for providing whether any detrimental effects exist in a large population whose families have been continuously exposed to a low dose rate radiation. Two areas in Yangjiang Country, characterized by high background radiation (HBR) with environmental gamma exposure, large population size and long-term inhabitants, were selected for evaluation of late effects of HBR. The areas with normal radiation background close to the Yangjiang Country were selected as control areas. Up to 1986 approximately one million person-years in each area in both HBR and control areas have been observed. No increase of cancer mortality was found in the HBR areas; on the contrary, cancer mortality tended to be lower in the HBR areas than the control areas. The prevalence of hereditary diseases and congenital defects was similar in both HBR and control areas, but the frequency of Down's syndrome was higher in the HBR areas (through within the normal range) than the control areas. A possible explanation is the difference of age of maternity between the HBR and control areas, and the extremely low frequency in the control areas. Possible factors influencing the incidence of mutationbased diseases were comparable in the HBR and control groups. However, the cultural and educational levels were somewhat different, probably affecting health status and family planning. It is likely that there may be a dose threshold for cancer incidence, but this remains to be determined by further research. (N.K.)

  2. Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, Felix C; Mandemakers, Jornt J

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within-identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within-identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment-not genetic factors-that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944-1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.

  3. Signal-to-noise ratios of multiplexing spectrometers in high backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knacke, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios and the amount of multiplexing gain achieved with a Michelson spectrometer during detector and background noise are studied. Noise caused by the warm background is found in 10 and 20-micron atmospheric windows in high resolution Fourier spectroscopy. An equation is derived for the signal-to-noise ratio based on the number of channels, total time to obtain the complete spectrum, the signal power in one spectral element, and the detector noise equivalent power in the presence of negligible background. Similar expressions are derived for backgrounds yielding a noise equivalent power to a spectral element, and backgrounds having flat spectra in the frequency range under investigation.

  4. A geophysical tour of high background radiation areas of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, D.; Kher, R.K.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison of the findings including health effects in four major high natural background areas of the world are given. Such high background areas could prove to be a radiation ecology laboratory gifted by nature and provide further insight in the relation of radiation, natural or otherwise and human health. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Orientations in adolescent use of information and communication technology: a digital divide by sociodemographic background, educational career, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusilta, Leena K; Lintonen, Tomi P; Rimpelä, Arja H

    2007-01-01

    The role of information and communication technology (ICT) in adolescents' lives was studied, with emphasis on whether there exists a digital divide based on sociodemographic background, educational career, and health. The assumption was that some groups of adolescents use ICT more so that their information utilization skills improve (computer use), while others use it primarily for entertainment (digital gaming, contacting friends by mobile phone). Data were collected by mailed survey from a nationally representative sample of 12- to 18-year-olds (n=7,292; response 70%) in 2001 and analysed using ANOVA. Computer use was most frequent among adolescents whose fathers had higher education or socioeconomic status, who came from nuclear families, and who continued studies after compulsory education. Digital gaming was associated with poor school achievement and attending vocational rather than upper secondary school. Mobile phone use was frequent among adolescents whose fathers had lower education or socioeconomic status, who came from non-nuclear families, and whose educational prospects were poor. Intensive use of each ICT form, especially of mobile phones, was associated with health problems. High social position, nuclear family, and a successful educational career signified good health in general, independently of the diverse usage of ICT. There exists a digital divide among adolescents: orientation to computer use is more common in educated well-off families while digital gaming and mobile phone use accumulate at the opposite end of the spectrum. Poorest health was reported by mobile phone users. High social background and success at school signify better health, independently of the ways of using ICT.

  6. BACKGROUND OF EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY INITIATION AS CENTERS OF CREATIVE INTELLIGENTSIA IN UKRAINE (late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Popeleshko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with socio-political and pedagogical background of educational communities in Ukraine as centers of forming creative intellectuals (late 19th century. Activities of educational societies of the late 19th century create a whole era in the development of education and culture history in Ukraine. Their work in the field of education has gained public appeal joining the General process of national revival. Progressive Ukrainian intelligentsia, working in societies, awakens the national consciousness, lay the foundations of mother tongue education. The emergence and activities of various public organizations in Ukraine in late 19th century are a kind of a phenomenon that has not only cultural and enlightening nature, but also an educational one. One of the main objectives is to change the content and quality of Ukrainian people’s education. Through an analysis of historical and pedagogical sources we have found that the end of the 19th century became for Ukrainians in Dnieper Ukraine the period of confrontation with the authorities for preserving the national culture. Changes in the Russian Empire began a strong push for the national awakening and intensification of national consciousness of the intelligentsia in the Ukrainian provinces. Seeing their duty in developing the national culture, Ukrainian intelegencia launched special enlightening trend. For the first time in the history of Ukrainian society pedagogical problems were widely discussed by the public, besides they became the subject of public initiatives, the country’s life was enriched with a new phenomenon – public-educational movement. The participants of the educational movement of the Ukrainian intelligentsia in cities led to the logical replacement of single individual cultural work to the activities of the whole associations, communities. In communities the future leaders of the enlightenment movement were formed. They were teachers, scientists, doctors, who

  7. The Educational Strategies of Danish University Students from Professional and Working-Class Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Munk, Martin D.; Eiberg, Misja

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the various educational strategies, attitudes and behaviors adopted and displayed by Danish university students from professional class and working-class backgrounds. While access to universities in Denmark remains unequal, certain types of universities and fields of study h...... have wider participation among working-class students than others. At the same time a range of qualitative studies show that working-class students tend to be more risk aversive when it comes to job security and to the economic costs of studying. They tend to lack a sense of belonging...... grants and have no tuition fees, and because the social democratic welfare regime gives a central place to the notion of equality of opportunity in the education system. We ask how and to what extent Danish students’ choice of university program, their educational strategies and attitudes and behaviors...

  8. Family background buys an education in Minnesota but not in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-09-01

    Educational attainment, the highest degree or level of schooling obtained, is associated with important life outcomes, at both the individual level and the group level. Because of this, and because education is expensive, the allocation of education across society is an important social issue. A dynamic quantitative environmental-genetic model can help document the effects of social allocation patterns. We used this model to compare the moderating effect of general intelligence on the environmental and genetic factors that influence educational attainment in Sweden and the U.S. state of Minnesota. Patterns of genetic influence on educational outcomes were similar in these two regions, but patterns of shared environmental influence differed markedly. In Sweden, shared environmental influence on educational attainment was particularly important for people of high intelligence, whereas in Minnesota, shared environmental influences on educational attainment were particularly important for people of low intelligence. This difference may be the result of differing access to education: state-supported access (on the basis of ability) to a uniform higher-education system in Sweden versus family-supported access to a more diverse higher-education system in the United States.

  9. Investigating the Use of Compliments and Compliment Responses in Persian: Effect of Educational Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shahidi Pour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the effect of the social variable of education on the use of compliments and compliment responses in Persian. To this end, a Discourse Completion Task (DCT was administered to 200 native Persian speakers from different educational backgrounds. In general, the results revealed that participants tended to use explicit unbound semantic formula as well as non-compliment strategies to give compliments the most. However, they used future reference, contrast, request, and 'other' strategies the least. Furthermore, they followed accept, reject, and evade trend when replying to compliments. Surprisingly, the most common subcategory of compliment response strategy used by participants was downgrade. Return and appreciation tokens were the second and third most frequently used strategies. However, they never used reassignment and topic shift to respond to compliments. In particular, the results suggested the effect of education on determining compliments and compliment responses patterns. While lower educated people preferred non-compliment strategies, higher educated people preferred explicit semantic formula strategies to give compliments the most. In replying to compliments, downgrade occurred most frequently across different educational levels except PhD/MD level. PhD/MD holders used appreciation token the most. The second most frequently used compliment response strategy by all educational levels was return. However, despite minor differences, no marked difference was found among educational levels regarding the least frequent compliments and compliment responses. The findings can provide valuable insight into the cultural and socio-cultural factors affecting the way people compliment, perceive the compliments, and respond to the compliments made on them.

  10. Migration background is associated with caries in Viennese school children, even if parents have received a higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvikl, Barbara; Haubenberger-Praml, Gertraud; Drabo, Petra; Hagmann, Michael; Gruber, Reinhard; Moritz, Andreas; Nell, Andrea

    2014-05-09

    A low level of education and the migration background of parents are associated with the development of caries in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a higher educational level of parents can overcome risks for the development of caries in immigrants in Vienna, Austria. The educational level of the parents, the school type, and the caries status of 736 randomly selected twelve-year-old children with and without migration background was determined in this cross sectional study. In children attending school in Vienna the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was determined. For statistical analysis, a mixed negative-binomial-model was used. The caries status of the children with migration background was significantly worse compared to that of the native Viennese population. A significant interaction was found between migration background and the educational level of the parents (p = 0.045). No interaction was found between the school type and either the migration background (p = 0.220) or the education level of the parents (p = 0.08). In parents with a higher scholarly education level, migration background (p education level, however, migration background and school type had no significant association with DMFT values. These data indicate that children with a migration background are at higher risk to acquire caries than other Viennese children, even when the parents have received a higher education.

  11. he (UnAttractiveness of Vocational and Technical Education: Theoretical Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lovšin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of the lack of attractiveness of vocational and technical education via a review of legislation on counselling practices, implementing documents, and the social factors by means of which the education system can influence the individual’s decision. It is apparent that legislation regulating the organisation and content of career counselling services in educational sector is inadequate. The organisation of career counselling at the level of implementation is also inadequate. Counsellors advise individuals on the basis of their academic results and the results of aptitude tests. Counselling practices deriving from theories that place career planning and management skills in the foreground are more rarely represented. Theories that treat career decisions as a social process show that at the level of the student population the choice of the type of school is a rational decision based primarily on the economic position and level of education to which a specific educational pathway is generally supposed to lead. The lower attractiveness of vocational and technical education coincides with the fact that representatives of lower social classes have a weaker economic position and more frequently have vocational and technical education qualifications than representatives of higher social classes. Nevertheless, the trend of high unemployment among young people with academic qualifications, which opposite of the traditional situation, indicates that it will be necessary to include career planning and management skills in the educational contents of institutionalised and formal education as a whole.

  12. Does School Admission by Zoning Affect Educational Inequality? A Study of Family Background Effect in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…

  13. Diabetes nurse educators' experiences of providing care for women, with gestational diabetes mellitus, from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary

    2014-05-01

    To explore diabetes nurse educators' experiences of providing care for women, with gestational diabetes mellitus, from disadvantaged backgrounds and to gather information which would assist with the development of an educational programme that would support both women and diabetes educators. Rates of gestational diabetes mellitus have increased dramatically in recent years. This is concerning as gestational diabetes mellitus is linked to poorer pregnancy outcomes including hypertension, stillbirth, and nursery admission. Poorest outcomes occur among disadvantaged women. gestational diabetes mellitus is also associated with maternal type 2 diabetes and with child obesity and type 2 diabetes among offspring. Effective self-management of gestational diabetes mellitus reduces these risks. Diabetes nurse educators provide most education and support for gestational diabetes mellitus self-management. An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach, as espoused by Smith and Osborn (Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods, 2008, Sage, London, 51), provided the framework for this study. The views of six diabetes educators were explored through in-depth interviewing. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to steps outlined by Smith and Osborn (Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods, 2008, Sage, London, 51). Three themes emerged from the data: (1) working in a suboptimal environment, (2) working to address the difficulties and (3) looking to the future. Throughout, the diabetes nurse educators sought opportunities to connect with women in their care and to make the educational content understandable and meaningful. Low literacy among disadvantaged women has a significant impact on their understanding of gestational diabetes mellitus information. In turn, catering for women with low literacy contributes to increased workloads for diabetes nurse educators, making them vulnerable to burnout. There is a need

  14. Does shared family background influence the impact of educational differences on early mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Mortensen, Laust H; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms behind social differences in mortality rates have been debated. The authors examined the extent to which shared family background and health in early life could explain the association between educational status and all-cause mortality rates using a sibling design. The study......-cause mortality that was strongest for males, increased with younger birth cohorts, and tended to be strongest in the analyses of death before 45 years of age. The associations were attenuated slightly in the intersibling analyses and after adjustment for serious health conditions in early life. Hence, health...

  15. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  16. Educational Background and Academic Rank of Faculty Members within US Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assemi, Mitra; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M; Corelli, Robin L

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition.

  17. Past and present views in the approach to the problem of high natural background areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastino, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    High natural background areas are of great interest because they present anomalous conditions in their geological and geochemical features and consequently in the background radiation levels. High natural background areas have been recognised as representing a valid field of investigation for assessing the effects induced by low-level exposures. Such an approach represents the first attempt to draw an environmental impact evaluation, even if focussed on a single potentially harmful parameter only. Past and current studies on High Background Radiation Areas are reviewed with special emphasis on the ongoing programs and prospectives; their significance is discussed on the basis of the sectorial approach mostly used in the environmental studies. A more complete approach is suggested based on the impact evaluation and extention to all the potentially harmful environmental factors

  18. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in lymphocytes of inhabitants in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinsheng; Zheng Qiaoling

    1985-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 126 students of 15-16 years old, living in the high background radiation area, and from 124 controls of the same age range, living in the normal background radiation area. All students were interviewed for evaluation of their health status. Whole blood cultures were done with RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum and antibiotics, The culture were incubated for 54-56 h in the presence of BrdU (10 μg/ml). Metaphases were stained for SCE using a modified techniqu of perry and Wolff. From each person 20 second division metaphases were analysed for SCEs. The average frequencies of SCEs observed in the high background group and the control group are presented. More SCEs were observed in the high background group than in the control with a statistically signigicant difference. In regard to the sex factor, it was found that the SCE frequencies in both sexes of the high background group were slightly higher than those in the control group. These findings suggest that continuous low-level irradiation by the high background radiation may induce increased frequency of SCEs

  19. Interrater and Intrarater Reliability of the Tuck Jump Assessment by Health Professionals of Varied Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA, a clinical plyometric assessment, identifies 10 jumping and landing technique flaws. The study objective was to investigate TJA interrater and intrarater reliability with raters of different educational and clinical backgrounds. Methods. 40 participants were video recorded performing the TJA using published protocol and instructions. Five raters of varied educational and clinical backgrounds scored the TJA. Each score of the 10 technique flaws was summed for the total TJA score. Approximately one month later, 3 raters scored the videos again. Intraclass correlation coefficients determined interrater (5 and 3 raters for first and second session, resp. and intrarater (3 raters reliability. Results. Interrater reliability with 5 raters was poor (ICC = 0.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.33–0.62. Interrater reliability between 3 raters who completed 2 scoring sessions improved from 0.52 (95% CI 0.35–0.68 for session one to 0.69 (95% CI 0.55–0.81 for session two. Intrarater reliability was poor to moderate, ranging from 0.44 (95% CI 0.22–0.68 to 0.72 (95% CI 0.55–0.84. Conclusion. Published protocol and training of raters were insufficient to allow consistent TJA scoring. There may be a learned effect with the TJA since interrater reliability improved with repetition. TJA instructions and training should be modified and enhanced before clinical implementation.

  20. The declining influence of family background on educational attainment in Australia: The role of measured and unmeasured influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N; Mooi-Reci, Irma

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines changes in the influence of family background, including socioeconomic and social background variables on educational attainment in Australia for cohorts born between 1890 and 1982. We test hypotheses from modernization theory on sibling data using random effects models and find: (i) substantial declines in the influence of family background on educational attainment (indicated by the sibling intraclass correlations); (ii) declines in the effects of both economic and cultural socioeconomic background variables; (iii) changes in the effects of some social background variables (e.g., family size); (iv) and declines in the extent that socioeconomic and social background factors account for variation in educational attainment. Unmeasured family background factors are more important, and proportionally increasingly so, for educational attainment than the measured socioeconomic and social background factors analyzed. Fixed effects models showed steeper declines in the effects of socioeconomic background variables than in standard analyses suggesting that unmeasured family factors associated with socioeconomic background obscure the full extent of the decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  2. Educational Status of Dental Basic Science Course and its Correlation with Students' Educational Background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic science course plays a pivotal role in the academic achievement of the students. The scientific background and educational performance of the students are also influential in this period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the educational status of dental basic science course in the first three admissions (2009-2011 and its association with students’ educational background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all dental students admitted to school of dentistry in 2009-2011 years were included. The students’ academic background (scores, grade point average, score of comprehensive basic sciences examination (CBSE were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: Kermanshah dental students admitted to university in 2009-2011 were mostly female (59.2%, belonged to regions 2 and 3 (81.6% of university entrance exam, had sciences diploma (89.8% and their grade point average of diploma was nearly 18. There was a significant difference between the three groups of students admitted to university in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Arabic, English language and Theology lessones of entrane exam (P<0.05. The students’ failure rate was 1.5% in university coureses. They all (100% passed CBSE and were ranked second nationally in the year. There was no significant difference between male and female students in terms of age, diploma grade point average, grade point average of basic sciences and score of CBSE. Conclusion: Basic science courses of dentistry in Kermanshah enjoyed a rather constant status and students had a good academic level in these courses.

  3. Effect of family background on the educational gradient in lifetime fertility of Finnish women born 1940-50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisén, Jessica; Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    An inverse association between education and fertility in women has been found in many societies but the causes of this association remain inadequately understood. We investigated whether observed and unobserved family-background characteristics explained educational differences in lifetime fertility among 35,212 Finnish women born in 1940-50. Poisson and logistic regression models, adjusted for measured socio-demographic family-background characteristics and for unobserved family characteristics shared by siblings, were used to analyse the relationship between education and the number of children, having any children, and fertility beyond the first child. The woman's education and the socio-economic position of the family were negatively associated with fertility. Observed family characteristics moderately (3-28 per cent) explained the association between education and fertility, and results from models including unobserved characteristics supported this interpretation. The remaining association may represent a causal relationship between education and fertility or joint preferences that form independently of our measures of background.

  4. Precision tracking at high background rates with the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hertenberger, Ralf; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since start of data taking the ATLAS muon spectrometer performs according to specification. End of this decade after the luminosity upgrade of LHC by a factor of ten the proportionally increasing background rates require the replacement of the detectors in the most forward part of the muon spectrometer to ensure high quality muon triggering and tracking at background hit rates of up to 15,kHz/cm$^2$. Square meter sized micromegas detectors together with improved thin gap trigger detectors are suggested as replacement. Micromegas detectors are intrinsically high rate capable. A single hit spatial resolution below 40,$mu$m has been shown for 250,$mu$m anode strip pitch and perpendicular incidence of high energy muons or pions. The ongoing development of large micromegas structures and their investigation under non-perpendicular incidence or in high background environments requires precise and reliable monitoring of muon tracks. A muon telescope consisting of six small micromegas works reliably and is presently ...

  5. The Tax Treatment of Training and Educational Expenses. Background Paper No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, John M.; Smolensky, Eugene

    For those students incurring direct educational expenditures that are high enough, the current personal income tax will discourage investment in human capital, assuming tax rates are essentially proportional over the relevant range. In all probability, however, any distortion between investment in human and physical capital is quantitatively…

  6. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  7. Investigation on Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Yongru

    1989-01-01

    After the survey in 1975 and 1979 of Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area, we made a follow-up investigation in 1985 and 1986. All the obtained data are analysed. 25258 children in high background radiation area were examined and 22 children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity rate being 0.87%. 21837 children in control area were examined and four children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity being 0.18%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. It was noted that the occurrence of Down's syndrome was related to the maternal age but there was no evidence suggesting a close relationship between high background radiation and the development of Down's syndrome

  8. Association Between Educational Level and Risk of Cancer in HIV-infected Individuals and the Background Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Dalton, Susanne O

    2015-01-01

    -infected individuals diagnosed (without intravenous drug abuse or hepatitis C infection) (n = 3205), and a background population cohort matched by age, gender, and country of birth (n = 22 435) were analyzed. Educational level (low or high) and cancer events were identified in Danish national registers. Cumulative...... incidences, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and survival using Kaplan-Meier methods were estimated. RESULTS: Low educational level was associated with increased risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to population controls: all (adjusted-IRRs: 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-1.7] vs 1.......1 [95% CI, .9-1.2]), tobacco- and alcohol-related (2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.4] vs 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.6]), and other (1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.8] vs 0.9 [95% CI, .7-1.0]). Educational level was not associated with infection-related or ill-defined cancers. One-year-survival was not associated with educational level...

  9. Self-reported maternal expectations and child-rearing practices : Disentangling the associations with ethnicity, immigration, and educational background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durgel, E.S.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Yagmurlu, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at: (1) disentangling the associations between ethnicity, immigration, educational background, and mothers’ developmental expectations and (self-reported) child-rearing practices; and (2) identifying the cross-cultural differences and similarities in developmental expectations and

  10. Social Background, Civic Education and Political Participation of Young People – the German Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Onken

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to social and political change the process of young citizens’ political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which influence the individual propensity to participate in politics. The impact of the financial and economic crisis in Europe on political attitudes will also be considered, taking in account sociological aspects. Based on the empirical findings we discuss implications for civic education. In contrast to many discussions in literature about this issue, in which the focus is on the need to put the various influences of political socialization into a broader context, we argue that the parental social background is the crucial upstream factor, prior to e.g. civic education. The conclusion indicates that a group‐specific educational approach, taking into account the social background, is the most promising one for reaching the normative goal of civic education: Politically self‐determined citizens. Aufgrund der sozialen und politischen Veränderungen ist die politische Sozialisation Jugendlicher in den Westeuropäischen Demokratien auf eine neue Grundlage gestellt worden. In diesem Beitrag diskutieren wir Aspekte dieser Entwicklung und zeigen, welche Folgen sich aus diesen ergeben. Wir analysieren empirische Befunde aus Deutschland mit dem Schwerpunkt auf die Frage, welche sozialen Faktoren relevant sind für die individuelle politische Partizipationsbereitschaft. Der Einfluss der Finanz‐ und Wirtschaftskrise in Europa auf politische Einstellungen wird dabei ebenfalls betrachtet. Dies geschieht unter Berücksichtigung der soziologischen Aspekte. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse Fragen wir nach den Folgen für die politische Bildung. Im Gegensatz zu dem in der Literatur häufig vertretenen Ansatz, die politische

  11. Cytogenetic findings from inhabitants of different ages in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqing; Yao Suyan; Zhang Chaoyang

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between high background radiation and injurious effect on inhabitants. Method: Peripheral blood samples were collected from the inhabitants of 10, 40, 55 and 70 years old in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, Chromosome preparations were carried out with conventional whole-blood microculture. Results: The percentage of dicentric chromosome with fragments in inhabitants of HBRA was significantly higher than that in control areas (CA) (0.469% vs. 0.315%, P<0.01), and there was an increase in the aberration frequencies with age (or accumulated doses). Conclusion: Chromosome aberration is an extremely sensitive indicator of radiation damage and a good radio-biodosimeter

  12. Investigation and analysis of etiology of down's syndrome in children of high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Yongru

    1985-01-01

    In order to find out what caused the differences in incidences of Down's syndrome between the children in high background radiation area and those in control area, investigation and analysis were carried ou in 5 aspects based on the original data and the information from the previous survey. These are: the incidences of congenital malformations in normal areas, the age distribution of children examined, the maternal age, the dates of birth of afflicted children, and the radiation exposure of mothers. The results suggested that the higher incidence of Down's syndrome in high background area might be related to the materal age. Further studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion

  13. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Cha Yongru; Zhou Shunyuan

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  14. Cross-National Comparisons of Background and Confidence in Visual Arts and Music Education of Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Bowie, Deirdre

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study on pre-service teachers' background and confidence in music and visual arts education. The study involved 939 non-specialist pre-service primary teachers from five countries. Initially the paper identifies the students' perceptions of their background and confidence in relation to music and visual arts…

  15. A Preventive Intervention Program for Urban African American Youth Attending an Alternative Education Program: Background, Implementation, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Steven B; Hanlon, Thomas E; O'Grady, Kevin E; Watts, Amy M; Pothong, Pattarapan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted of structured group mentoring, parental support, and community outreach services administered to alternative education students and their primary caregiver(s) during the school year. Over a two-year intake period, 109 youth participated in the present process evaluation study. Findings from the study not only provided relevant demographic information on the characteristics of youth likely to be included in such programs but also indicated the importance of including the family in the rehabilitation effort and the need for school administrative system support for the underlying alternative education approach. The information presented in this report has a direct bearing on the planning of future prevention efforts conducted in similar settings that are aimed at reducing problem behaviors and promoting positive lifestyles among high-risk youth.

  16. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Detection of admittivity anomaly on high-contrast heterogeneous backgrounds using frequency difference EIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J; Seo, J K

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a multiple background subtraction method in frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (fdEIT) to detect an admittivity anomaly from a high-contrast background conductivity distribution. The proposed method expands the use of the conventional weighted frequency difference EIT method, which has been used limitedly to detect admittivity anomalies in a roughly homogeneous background. The proposed method can be viewed as multiple weighted difference imaging in fdEIT. Although the spatial resolutions of the output images by fdEIT are very low due to the inherent ill-posedness, numerical simulations and phantom experiments of the proposed method demonstrate its feasibility to detect anomalies. It has potential application in stroke detection in a head model, which is highly heterogeneous due to the skull.

  18. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacre Jane

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W and non-white (NW students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. Results NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. Conclusion The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32.

  19. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane

    2008-04-16

    UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32.

  20. PCA-based approach for subtracting thermal background emission in high-contrast imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, S.; Quanz, S. P.; Amara, A.; Meyer, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    Aims.Ground-based observations at thermal infrared wavelengths suffer from large background radiation due to the sky, telescope and warm surfaces in the instrument. This significantly limits the sensitivity of ground-based observations at wavelengths longer than 3 μm. The main purpose of this work is to analyse this background emission in infrared high-contrast imaging data as illustrative of the problem, show how it can be modelled and subtracted and demonstrate that it can improve the detection of faint sources, such as exoplanets. Methods: We used principal component analysis (PCA) to model and subtract the thermal background emission in three archival high-contrast angular differential imaging datasets in the M' and L' filter. We used an M' dataset of β Pic to describe in detail how the algorithm works and explain how it can be applied. The results of the background subtraction are compared to the results from a conventional mean background subtraction scheme applied to the same dataset. Finally, both methods for background subtraction are compared by performing complete data reductions. We analysed the results from the M' dataset of HD 100546 only qualitatively. For the M' band dataset of β Pic and the L' band dataset of HD 169142, which was obtained with an angular groove phase mask vortex vector coronagraph, we also calculated and analysed the achieved signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Results: We show that applying PCA is an effective way to remove spatially and temporarily varying thermal background emission down to close to the background limit. The procedure also proves to be very successful at reconstructing the background that is hidden behind the point spread function. In the complete data reductions, we find at least qualitative improvements for HD 100546 and HD 169142, however, we fail to find a significant increase in S/N of β Pic b. We discuss these findings and argue that in particular datasets with strongly varying observing conditions or

  1. Further investigation on chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of inhabitants in high background radiation area in Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqing; Zhang Chaoyang; Yao Suyan

    1985-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 122 healthy secondary school students at the age of 15 to 16 living in a high background radiation region and from 99 controls, All subjects from both areas had lived there since their births; they were non-smokers and without history of exposure to medical X-rays. The youngsters of 15 to 16 years old who were native-born and grew up in the high background radiation area received approximately 3.5 rad more cumulative γ-ray exposure than those in the control area. For each individual 200 M-1 cells were analysed. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in the high background group was 0.47/100 cells, while that in the control group was 0.33/100 cells, the diffrence being statistically significant. The frequencies of acentrics (fragment, acentric ring and minute), dicentrics and stable aberrations (inversion and translocation) were 0.41, 0.021 and 0.045/100 cells respectively in the high background group, and 0.30, 0.020 and 0.005/100 cells respectively in the control group. Only the difference of stable aberrations between the two groups was significant

  2. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  3. Objectively assessed recess physical activity in girls and boys from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Georges; Ridgers, Nicola D; Blaes, Aurélie; Aucouturier, Julien; Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2014-02-21

    The school environment influences children's opportunities for physical activity participation. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively measured school recess physical activity in children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. Four hundred and seven children (6-11 years old) from 4 primary schools located in high socioeconomic status (high-SES) and low socioeconomic status (low-SES) areas participated in the study. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometry during morning and afternoon recess during a 4-day school week. The percentage of time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, very high and in moderate- to very high-intensity physical activity were calculated using age-dependent cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts per minute. Boys were significantly (p active than girls. No difference in sedentary time between socioeconomic backgrounds was observed. The low-SES group spent significantly more time in light (p physical activity compared to the high-SES group. High-SES boys and girls spent significantly more time in moderate (p physical activity than low-SES boys. Differences were observed in recess physical activity levels according to socioeconomic background and sex. These results indicate that recess interventions should target children in low-SES schools.

  4. Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER

    OpenAIRE

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Online presentation and webinar by Stracke, C. M. (2017, 18 December) on "Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER" for the Belt and Road Open Education Learning Week by the Beijing Normal University, China.

  5. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  6. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.; Beebe, G.W.; Zha, Y.R.; Kaplan, M.M.; Tao, Z.F.; Maxon, H.R. III; Zhang, S.Z.; Schneider, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areas were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage

  7. Mechanism of high-temperature background of internal friction in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapoval, B.I.; Arzhavitin, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Data of theoretical and experimental studies on energy dissipation in vibrating metal at small amplitudes and elevated temperatures (high temperature background of internal friction) are generalized and systematized. Evolution of knowledge of the background as a phenomenon influenced mainly by crystal structure defects - their form, quantity, mobility and interaction is followed. Considered is a wide range of investigated metal states and measurement conditions, and interrelations with other characteristics, for instance, strength ones. On the basis of the data obtained by authors and other investigations a concept of an additional third stage of the background increase with the temperature - the stage of deviation from exponential dependence at premelting point, is introduced. 107 refs.; 32 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Nested case-control study on the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Sun Quanfu; Yuan Yongling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted based on 106517 subjects. 98 cases that died of NPC were detected during a follow-up program for 9 years. Univariate analysis and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression were used to analyze associations between the exposure factors and NPC. Results: Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels, salted fish intake, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study was 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusion: Salted fish intake was a strong risk factor of NPC. Education, the history of chronic rhinitis and the family history of NPC were also related to NPC risk. The exposure to high background radiation in HBRA of Yangjiang was not related to NPC risk with or without the adjustment for those major risk determinants of NPC

  9. Do Vocational Pathways Improve Higher Education Access for Women and Men from Less Privileged Social Backgrounds? : A Comparison of Vocational Tracks to Higher Education in France and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Imdorf, Christian; Koomen, Maarten; Murdoch, Jake; Guégnard, Christine

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Educational policy developments in France and Switzerland have increased eligibility for higher education. This paper explores the extent to which vocationally orientated pathways to higher education reduce social inequalities in France and Switzerland. More specifically, we analyse how the vocational pathway facilitates access to higher education for male and female students from lower cultural capital backgrounds. We refer to gender theory to link young people's subj...

  10. Cancer occurrence in the high natural background radiation area of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan Nair, M.; Sreedevi Amma, N.; Ramachandran, T.P.; Varghese Cherian; Jayalakshmy, P.; Mani, K.S.; Boban, T.G.; Jayadevan, S.; Gangadharan, P.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the health effects if any, in populations living in high background radiation areas, the Department of Atomic Energy has sanctioned a 5-year project to establish a Registry covering Karunagappally taluk. The study proposes to cover a population of about 1,00,000 persons living in high background radiation areas where the radiation levels range anywhere between 10 and 825 μR/h inside the houses; for comparison the study proposes to cover another 3,00,000 persons living in nearby normal areas where the natural radiation levels range between 6 and 200 μ R/h. The data collected so far in the first 2.5 years are presented in this paper which covers a population of about 1,10,000 persons living in three villages. No attempt is made to interpret the data at this preliminary stage. (author). 7 tabs

  11. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  12. Large Aperture "Photon Bucket" Optical Receiver Performance in High Background Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture groundbased "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications, with acceptable performance even when pointing close to the sun, is receiving considerable attention. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere becomes significant at micron wavelengths when pointing to a few degrees from the sun, even with the narrowest bandwidth optical filters. In addition, high quality optical apertures in the 10-30 meter range are costly and difficult to build with accurate surfaces to ensure narrow fields-of-view (FOV). One approach currently under consideration is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of large 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large FOV generated by state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels with rms surface accuracies on the order of a few microns, corresponding to several-hundred micro-radian FOV, hence generating centimeter-diameter focused spots at the Cassegrain focus of 34-meter antennas. Assuming pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Poisson-distributed photon-counting detection, a "polished panel" photon-bucket receiver with large FOV will collect hundreds of background photons per PPM slot, along with comparable signal photons due to its large aperture. It is demonstrated that communications performance in terms of PPM symbol-error probability in high-background high-signal environments depends more strongly on signal than on background photons, implying that large increases in background energy can be compensated by a disproportionally small increase in signal energy. This surprising result suggests that large optical apertures with relatively poor surface quality may nevertheless provide acceptable performance for deep-space optical communications, potentially enabling the construction of cost-effective hybrid RF/optical receivers in the future.

  13. Disparities in HPV and Cervical Cancer Screening between Highly Educated White and Minority Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennefield, Zinobia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…

  14. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru [Guangdong Inst. of Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou (China); Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Yuan Yongling; Tao Zufan; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death ({+-}5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education=3.8, 95% CI=1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR=14.2, 95% CI=2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI=0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI=0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish

  15. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru; Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Yuan Yongling; Tao Zufan; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the major determinants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the high-background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang, China and to evaluate their potential confounding effects on the NPC risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. A matched case-control study was conducted using those who died of NPC during the period 1987-1995. Two controls were randomly selected for each case from those who died from causes other than malignancies and external causes. Cases and their controls were matched with respect to sex and the years of birth and death (±5 years). Study subjects' next-of-kin were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, dietary habits, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, disease history, pesticide use, medical X-ray exposure, the family history of NPC and so on. We succeeded in interviewing 97 cases and 192 controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that NPC risk was associated with the consumption of salted fish, homemade pickles, and fermented soy beans, education levels, the history of chronic rhinitis, and the family history of NPC. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that education levels (Odds ratio (OR) for middle school or higher levels vs. no school education=3.8, 95% CI=1.2 to 11.8), salted fish intake (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7 to 6.1), the history of chronic rhinitis (OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.3 to 10.1), and the family history of NPC (OR=14.2, 95% CI=2.7 to 73.4) were independent risk factors of NPC. Tobacco smoking (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7 to 2.1), and alcohol consumption (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.5 to 1.9) were not significantly related to NPC risk. The ORs of NPC risk comparing HBRA and a nearby control area before and after adjustment for the major risk determinants identified in the present study were 0.86 (95% CI=0.50 to 1.50) and 0.87 (95% CI=0.45 to 1.67), respectively. Salted fish intake was

  16. Cytogenetic investigation in a population living in the high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deqing, C.

    1980-04-01

    On the basis of the previous investigation, 24,000 metaphases of the lymphocytes of 120 inhabitants from Tongyou region, where the highest individual cummulative exposure per year of 372 mR in weighted average was recorded in the high background radiation area selected, have been analysed with the method recommended by WHO in 1973, in order to determine the extent of human chromosome aberrations induced by the high background radiation of various levels. The results show that the difference between the total number of chromosome breakages in the individuals living in the high background radiation area and that in the control area (0.32x10/sup -2/ and 0.27x10/sup -2/ per cell respectively) is not significant whereas that between the numbers of two-hite aberrations (mainly dicentric) in the same two groups (0.042x10/sup -2/ and 0.0048x10/sup -2/ per cell) is significant (X/sup 2/ = 6.1475, P<0.05). In addition, the normal value of the chromosome aberrations of human lymphocytes was analyzed.

  17. Down's syndrome and related abnormalities in an area of high background radiation in coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochupillai, N.; Verma, I.C.; Grewal, M.S.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a coastal area of Kerala, Southern India, the background radiation is between 1500 and 3000 mR/yr, this being due to the presence of Th-containing monazite mineral in the soil. During an epidemiological study of modular lesions of the thyroid in this area an apparently high prevalence of Down's syndrome and other forms of severe mental retardation was observed. A house-to-house survey of relevant abnormalities in this area was made, and also in a comparable control area without high background radiation. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in a sample of the population in the study and control areas was also investigated. The observations support the view that radiation induces genetic anomalies occur with above average frequency in the population living in the area with high background radiation. Only gross abnormalities evident in clinical examination were recorded. The study and control populations were similar in age and sex structure and general sociologic conditions. Severe mental retardation was the commonest abnormality encountered, and 85% of the abnormalities detected in the study population were genetic in origin, compared with 56% in the control population. Prevalence of Down's syndrome was 0.93 per 1000 in the study population. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation dose in the high background radiation area in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christa, E P; Jojo, P J; Vaidyan, V K; Anilkumar, S; Eappen, K P

    2012-03-01

    A systematic radiological survey has been carried out in the region of high-background radiation area in Kollam district of Kerala to define the natural gamma-radiation levels. One hundred and forty seven soil samples from high-background radiation areas and five samples from normal background region were collected as per standard sampling procedures and were analysed for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K by gamma-ray spectroscopy. External gamma dose rates at all sampling locations were also measured using a survey meter. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K was found to vary from 17 to 3081 Bq kg(-1), 54 to 11976 Bq kg(-1) and BDL (67.4 Bq kg(-1)) to 216 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the study area. Such heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the region may be attributed to the deposition phenomenon of beach sand soil in the region. Radium equivalent activities were found high in several locations. External gamma dose rates estimated from the levels of radionuclides in soil had a range from 49 to 9244 nGy h(-1). The result of gamma dose rate measured at the sampling sites using survey meter showed an excellent correlation with dose rates computed from the natural radionuclides estimated from the soil samples.

  19. Background studies of high energy γ rays from (n,γ) reactions in the CANDLES experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Akutagawa, K.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Dokaku, F.; Fushimi, K.; Kakubata, H.; Kanagawa, K.; Katagiri, S.; Kawasaki, K.; Khai, B. T.; Kino, H.; Kinoshita, E.; Kishimoto, T.; Hazama, R.; Hiraoka, H.; Hiyama, T.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Moser, M.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Sato, H.; Shamoto, K.; Shimada, M.; Shokati, M.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Takihira, Y.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Teranishi, K.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Tsuzuki, M.; Umehara, S.; Wang, W.; Yoshida, S.; Yotsunaga, N.

    2018-07-01

    High energy γ rays with several MeV produced by (n,γ) reactions can be a trouble for low background measurements in the underground laboratories such as double beta decay experiments. In the CANDLES project, which aimed to observe the neutrino-less double beta decay from 48Ca, γ rays caused by (n,γ) reactions were found to be the most significant background. The profile of the background was studied by measurements with a neutron source and a simulation with a validity check of neutron processes in Geant4. The observed spectrum of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions was well reproduced by the simulated spectra, which were originated from the surrounding rock and a detector tank made of stainless steel. The environmental neutron flux was derived by the observed event rate of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions using the simulation. The thermal and non-thermal neutron flux were found to be (1.3 ± 0.6) ×10-6 cm-2s-1 and (1.1 ± 0.5) ×10-5 cm-2s-1 , respectively. It is necessary to install an additional shield to reduce the background from (n,γ) reaction to the required level.

  20. Bilingual Education Act: Background and Reauthorization Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    The Bilingual Education Act (BEA) title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), is the federal program intended to help children who are limited English proficient (LEP) learn English. BEA activities focus on transitional bilingual education; developmental bilingual education; special alternative instruction (such as English as…

  1. Transition from high schools to engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Holgaard, Jette Egelund; Clausen, Nicolaj Riise

    2017-01-01

    Pre-university engineering education has received increasing attention to attract more students to engineering and make them better prepared to enter engineering studies at university level. Denmark is one of the countries that offer established high school curriculum that makes engineering...... the core identity of the school. In a longitudinal research project, the cohort of all Danish engineering students who were enrolled in 2010 has been followed. This study takes a quantitative approach to highlight the differences in preparedness for engineering students who have a background...... themselves as being better prepared in relation to the conduct of experiments, engineering analysis and tolls, as well as in relation to process competences as design, problem solving and teamwork. The students from the profession-oriented high schools also find themselves better prepared in relation...

  2. Radioactivity in food crops from high background radiation area in southwest area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanthi, G.; Maniyan, C.G.; Allan Gnana Raj, G.; Thampi Thanka Kumaran, J.

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate radioactive concentration in food crops grown in naturally high-background radiation areas in southwest India. Seventeen varieties of food crops were collected from different parts of Kanyakumari district. The gross alpha and beta activities of the collected samples were measured using alpha scintillation counter and low beta counter respectively. The alpha activity was maximum in tapioca (497± 72 Bq kg -1 ) and the beta activity was maximum in paddy grain (10,946±583 Bq kg -1 ). The gamma activity of the food samples was studied by measuring the activity concentration of the radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Th, 238 U, 40 K) in the food crops. The radioactivity content of the food crops from high-background radiation area was higher when compared to similar samples collected from low-background radiation area. The daily radionuclide intake from the food crops grown and consumed by the public was 127.696 Bq and daily internal dose resulting from ingestion of radionuclides in food was 2.34 μSv. (author)

  3. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  4. In vivo measurement of uranium in the human chest under high background conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, P.J.; Feather, J.I.

    1981-08-01

    The use of a low-background counting room was considered essential for in vivo gamma counting of uranium in the human chest. When such measurements were, however, carried out under relatively high background conditions, this necessitated a new method of analysis. It was found that a linear relationship between LnN and E exists for each individual where N is the count rate per keV and E the energy in keV, for gamma energies between 90 keV and 300 keV. The displacements from this straight line at the energy values of 90 and 186 keV then represent the contribution of the uranium present. These displacements were calibrated for natural uranium. It was possible to detect contamination levels of lower than half MPLB [af

  5. On the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the high-redshift metagalactic ionizing background

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aloisio, Anson; Upton Sanderbeck, Phoebe R.; McQuinn, Matthew; Trac, Hy; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the claimed detection of a large population of faint active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift, recent studies have proposed models in which AGNs contribute significantly to the z > 4 H I ionizing background. In some models, AGNs are even the chief sources of reionization. If proved true, these models would make necessary a complete revision to the standard view that galaxies dominated the high-redshift ionizing background. It has been suggested that AGN-dominated models can better account for two recent observations that appear to be in conflict with the standard view: (1) large opacity variations in the z ˜ 5.5 H I Ly α forest, and (2) slow evolution in the mean opacity of the He II Ly α forest. Large spatial fluctuations in the ionizing background from the brightness and rarity of AGNs may account for the former, while the earlier onset of He II reionization in these models may account for the latter. Here we show that models in which AGN emissions source ≳50 per cent of the ionizing background generally provide a better fit to the observed H I Ly α forest opacity variations compared to standard galaxy-dominated models. However, we argue that these AGN-dominated models are in tension with constraints on the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Under standard assumptions about the spectra of AGNs, we show that the earlier onset of He II reionization heats up the IGM well above recent temperature measurements. We further argue that the slower evolution of the mean opacity of the He II Ly α forest relative to simulations may reflect deficiencies in current simulations rather than favour AGN-dominated models as has been suggested.

  6. Self-reported maternal expectations and child-rearing practices: Disentangling the associations with ethnicity, immigration, and educational background

    OpenAIRE

    Durgel, Elif S.; Van de Vijver, Fons J.R.; Yagmurlu, Bilge

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at: (1) disentangling the associations between ethnicity, immigration, educational background, and mothers’ developmental expectations and (self-reported) child-rearing practices; and (2) identifying the cross-cultural differences and similarities in developmental expectations and child-rearing practices. Participants were 111 Dutch and 111 Turkish immigrant mothers in the Netherlands, and 242 Turkish mothers living in Turkey. Dutch and higher-educated mothers had a ...

  7. Multicultural Education: Learners with Diverse Linguistic and Cultural Background : A Case Study of one Primary School in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tosic, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate how a primary school in Norway addresses learners with diverse linguistic and cultural background, in this study referred as culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CLD learners). The study is founded on the premises of multicultural education (MCE) which is considered essential to address the education of CLD learners. Therefore, the scope of the study is based on a five- category theoretical framework comprising: understanding the concept ...

  8. Sociopolitical Change and Inequality of Educational Opportunities: Influences of Family Background and Institutional Factors on the Acquisition of Education (1940-2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunling, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the influences of family background and institutional factors on the acquisition of education (1940-2001) and demonstrates that the increase or decrease in the inequality of educational opportunity allocations are closely linked to the government's relevant policies. The rapid growth of the inequality in educational…

  9. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha (India))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Gusain, G. S.; Rautela, B. S.; Sagar, D. V.; Prasad, G.; Shahoo, S. K.; Ishikawa, T.; Omori, Y.; Janik, M.; Sorimachi, A.; Tokonami, S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to radon, 222 Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, 220 Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to 220 Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of 220 Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha (India)) presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  10. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha (India))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S [Dept. of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249199 (India); Sagar, D V [Health Physics Unit EAD, BARC, IRE, OSCOM, Matikhalo, Ganjam, Odisha 761 045 (India); Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S [Inst. of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki Univ., Aomori 036-8564 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to radon, {sup 222}Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, {sup 220}Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to {sup 220}Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of {sup 220}Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha (India)) presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  11. ON THE EFFECT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND IN HIGH-REDSHIFT (SUB-)MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cunha, Elisabete; Groves, Brent; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Weiss, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, Frank [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Elbaz, David; Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Maiolino, Roberto [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Riechers, Dominik [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Smail, Ian, E-mail: cunha@mpia.de [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-20

    Modern (sub-)millimeter interferometers enable the measurement of the cool gas and dust emission of high-redshift galaxies (z > 5). However, at these redshifts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is higher, approaching, and even exceeding, the temperature of cold dust and molecular gas observed in the local universe. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the warmer CMB on (sub-)millimeter observations of high-redshift galaxies. The CMB affects the observed (sub-)millimeter dust continuum and the line emission (e.g., carbon monoxide, CO) in two ways: (1) it provides an additional source of (both dust and gas) heating and (2) it is a non-negligible background against which the line and continuum emission are measured. We show that these two competing processes affect the way we interpret the dust and gas properties of high-redshift galaxies using spectral energy distribution models. We quantify these effects and provide correction factors to compute what fraction of the intrinsic dust (and line) emission can be detected against the CMB as a function of frequency, redshift, and temperature. We discuss implications on the derived properties of high-redshift galaxies from (sub-)millimeter data. Specifically, the inferred dust and molecular gas masses can be severely underestimated for cold systems if the impact of the CMB is not properly taken into account.

  12. Effect of family background on the educational gradient in lifetime fertility of Finnish women born 1940–50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisén, Jessica; Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    An inverse association between education and fertility in women has been found in many societies but the causes of this association remain inadequately understood. We investigated whether observed and unobserved family-background characteristics explained educational differences in lifetime fertility among 35,212 Finnish women born in 1940–50. Poisson and logistic regression models, adjusted for measured socio-demographic family-background characteristics and for unobserved family characteristics shared by siblings, were used to analyse the relationship between education and the number of children, having any children, and fertility beyond the first child. The woman's education and the socio-economic position of the family were negatively associated with fertility. Observed family characteristics moderately (3–28 per cent) explained the association between education and fertility, and results from models including unobserved characteristics supported this interpretation. The remaining association may represent a causal relationship between education and fertility or joint preferences that form independently of our measures of background. PMID:24946905

  13. Localities With Elevated Radiation Background in the High Karst Zone of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, R.; Andjelic, T.; Zekic, R.; Antovic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed to find localities in Montenegro with an elevated terrestrial gamma background was conducted during the period 2008-2009. For this purpose, 138 localities which have geological formations known to contain minerals with potentially high concentrations of U, Th and K, were selected throughout the country for a dosimetric survey. There are four distinctive geotectonic units in Montenegro: the Adriatic-Ionian Zone (JZ), the Budva-Cukali Zone (BZ), the High Karst Zone (VK), and the Durmitor Tectonic Unit (DTJ). The central and southern parts of Montenegro belong to the VK zone, whose geological structure is predominated by Mesozoic carbonate sediments, with occurrences of red and white bauxite formations, Triassic volcanic rocks, Paleogene flysch sediments and Quaternary sediments. In total, 38 localities belonging to the VK zone were selected for field investigations of terrestrial radiation. Knowing from earlier investigations that in Montenegro the average absorbed dose-rate in the air, 1 m above the ground, is 55 nGy/h, it was arbitrarily adopted that only localities with absorbed doses at least 50 % above this average value would be considered as having a relatively elevated radiation background. Field measurements have shown that 12 of the surveyed localities in the VK zone have such elevated dose values, five of them being with the highest dose rates in Montenegro. Among these five sites, the highest dose rate (192 nGy/h) was found at a locality which lies on andesite volcanic rock, while the other four localities (131 - 149 nGy/h) lie on bauxite deposits. Compared to the other areas in the world known to have a high natural radiation background, all of these localities in Montenegro have a moderately elevated radiation level. From the 12 localities with a relatively elevated radiation background, soil samples have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 226Ra and 137Cs

  14. The Educational Background of Women Working for Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 20 women in governmental and nongovernmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro revealed the following: (1) formal education programs lacked courses on gender issues; (2) nonformal education was a potential source of gender awareness; and (3) informal education was the main source of gender awareness. (SK)

  15. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  16. Study of the CMS RPC detector performance in high radiation background conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Miguel Colin, Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    The RPC system at the CMS Detector is operating successfully from beginning of the data taking. The high instantaneous luminosity causes an extremely high flux of ionizing particles. The long period of operation (Run1 and Run2) in a huge radiation background conditions, gives the opportunity to study the operation capability of the RPCs and also to predict a data-driven extrapolation about the expecting particle rates at HL LHC (High Luminosity) scenario. The obtained results in terms of measured rate, currents and integrated charged will be presented in the poster. When it is possible they will be compared to the relevant results obtained from the dedicated study where a set of test chambers have been irradiated at GIF++ laboratory setup.

  17. State Recognition of High Voltage Isolation Switch Based on Background Difference and Iterative Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayuan; Yu, Chengtao; Bo, Bin; Xue, Yu; Xu, Changfu; Chaminda, P. R. Dushantha; Hu, Chengbo; Peng, Kai

    2018-03-01

    The automatic recognition of the high voltage isolation switch by remote video monitoring is an effective means to ensure the safety of the personnel and the equipment. The existing methods mainly include two ways: improving monitoring accuracy and adopting target detection technology through equipment transformation. Such a method is often applied to specific scenarios, with limited application scope and high cost. To solve this problem, a high voltage isolation switch state recognition method based on background difference and iterative search is proposed in this paper. The initial position of the switch is detected in real time through the background difference method. When the switch starts to open and close, the target tracking algorithm is used to track the motion trajectory of the switch. The opening and closing state of the switch is determined according to the angle variation of the switch tracking point and the center line. The effectiveness of the method is verified by experiments on different switched video frames of switching states. Compared with the traditional methods, this method is more robust and effective.

  18. The Influence of Education and Family Background on Women's Earnings in Midlife: Evidence from a British National Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, Diana; Head, Fenny; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Observes that research on the influence of education on adult earnings hasn't focused on differences between women. Looks at British women born immediately after World War Two. Shows that women who were able to take advantage of expanded educational opportunities and achieve high educational qualifications earned significantly more than less…

  19. Dry deposition of sulphur at a high-altitude background station in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available station also plays a role in the observed day-to-day variation as pollutants are trapped immediately below this layer. The pressure difference between the base of the absolutely stable layer and the surface pressure at Ben MacDhui is used to indicate... AT A HIGH-ALTITUDE BACKGROUND STATION IN SOUTH AFRICA MARK ZUNCKEL1;2 , STUART PIKETH1 and TALI FREIMAN1 1 Climatology Research Group, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2 CSIR Environmentek, P.O. Box 17001, Congella, South Africa...

  20. Learning to Lead in Higher Education: Insights into the Family Backgrounds of Women University Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the lived experiences of women university presidents related to becoming leaders or learning to lead. This manuscript highlights the research focused on the immediate family backgrounds and influences on these presidents. The research question was as follows: With regard to their family backgrounds and…

  1. Bullying in German Primary Schools: Gender Differences, Age Trends and Influence of Parents' Migration and Educational Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…

  2. Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Educational Background, and Supporting Factors on ICT Readiness of Technical and Vocational Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…

  3. A Tale of Five Countries: Background and Confidence in Preservice Primary Teachers in Drama Education across Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Bowie, Deirdre E.

    2013-01-01

    In many public primary schools across different countries, generalist primary teachers are required to teach all subjects, including music, dance, drama and visual arts. This study investigates the background and confidence of preservice primary teachers from five countries in relation to drama and drama education. It also examines if there is a…

  4. Diversity in Intensive English Language Centres in South Australia: Sociocultural Approaches to Education for Students with Migrant or Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2016-01-01

    While there is a body of research concerning the education of students with migrant or refugee backgrounds, little of this research focuses on primary school-aged children. In order to address this gap, the current paper utilises data gained from an ethnographic study to consider the challenges and opportunities associated with diverse classrooms…

  5. What? Me? Teach Dance? Background and Confidence of Primary Preservice Teachers in Dance Education across Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Bowie, Deirdre E.

    2013-01-01

    In primary schools across many countries, dance is now included within the arts key learning area with its own outcomes and content. But as future teachers of dance and other art forms, how do preservice generalist primary teachers perceive their background and confidence in relation to dance and dance education? This study investigates the…

  6. The Relationship between Cultural Background and Parental Perceptions of Functional Educational Programming for Students with Severe Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Eileen

    The study examined whether a relationship exists between cultural background (Caucasian, Hispanic, or Black) and families' attitudes toward educational programming for a family member with severe disabilities. Useable surveys were returned by 91 respondents out of the 103 of 337 families (31%) to whom surveys had been distributed. The 40-item…

  7. A Survey of Elementary and Secondary Music Educators' Professional Background, Teaching Responsibilities and Job Satisfaction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy K.; Koner, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this exploratory study was to examine the current trends of K-12 music educators in the United States regarding their (a) professional background, (b) classroom teaching responsibilities, and (c) job satisfaction. Participants included seven thousand four hundred and sixty-three (N = 7,463) currently employed music teachers who were…

  8. Acceptance of homosexuality through education? Investigating the role of education, family background and individual characteristics in the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Roi, Chaïm; Mandemakers, Jornt

    Higher educated people tend to be more accepting of homosexuality than lower educated people. This has inspired claims that education leads to a higher acceptance of homosexuality. Alternatively, the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality could be confounded by (un)observed

  9. Analytical expression for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung background in high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S; Brahme, A.

    1995-01-01

    Qualification of the bremsstrahlung photon background generated by an electron beam in a phantom is important for accurate high energy electron beam dosimetry in radiation therapy. An analytical expression has been derived for the background of phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane parallel electron beams normally incident on phantoms of any atomic number between 4 and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U). The expression can be used with fairly good accuracy in the energy range between 1 and 50 MeV. The expression is globally based on known scattering power and radiation and collision stopping power data for the phantom material at the mean energy of the incident electrons. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated in the phantom is derived by folding the bremsstrahlung energy fluence with a simple analytical one-dimensional photon energy deposition kernel. The energy loss of the primary electrons and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are taken into account in the analytical formula. The photon energy deposition kernel is used to account for the bremsstrahlung produced at one depth that will contribute to the down stream dose. A simple analytical expression for photon energy deposition kernel is consistent with the classical analytical relation describing the photon depth dose distribution. From the surface to the practical range the photon dose increases almost linearly due to accumulation and buildup of the photon produced at different phantom layers. At depths beyond the practical range a simple exponential function can be use to describe the bremsstrahlung attenuation in the phantom. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated distributions using ITS3 Monte Carlo Code were used. Good agreement is found between the analytical expression and Monte Carlo calculation. Deviations of 5% from Monte Carlo calculated bremmstrahlung background are observed for high atomic number materials. The method can

  10. High repetition rate laser-driven MeV ion acceleration at variable background pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joseph; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John; Frische, Kyle; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, W. M.

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) can produce highly energetic photons, electrons, and ions with numerous potential real-world applications. Many of these applications will require repeatable, high repetition targets that are suitable for LPI experiments. Liquid targets can meet many of these needs, but they typically require higher chamber pressure than is used for many low repetition rate experiments. The effect of background pressure on the LPI has not been thoroughly studied. With this in mind, the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Lab has carried out MeV ion and electron acceleration experiments at kHz repetition rate with background pressures ranging from 30 mTorr to >1 Torr using a submicron ethylene glycol liquid sheet target. We present these results and provide two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation results that offer insight on the thresholds for the efficient acceleration of electrons and ions. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  11. A survey of senile dementia in the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Su Gasaki, H.; Yang Yuhua

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term low dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposure on the prevalence rate of senile dementia, further assess the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on central nervous system and study the pathogen of senile dementia, and provide direct observational data of human beings. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of senile dementia was carried out in high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, China. The survey was conducted in two stages. For the initial screening, Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) was used for all subjects. In the second stage, the stage of diagnosis, special questionnaires of healthy state of old people were sued. The final diagnoses were made according to the third revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III-R) of American Psychiatric Association. Results: 1018 inhabitants aged 65 years and over, including 513 persons in HBRA and 505 in CA were observed. According to DSM III-R, 61 cases (31 cases in HBRA and 30 cases in CA) of senile dementia were diagnosed. The prevalence rates of senile dementia are 6.04% in HBRA and 5.94% in CA, the total prevalence rate being 5.99%. Conclusion: No significant statistical difference in the prevalence rate of senile dementia between the two areas was found, suggesting that the prevalence rate of senile dementia in these areas is not associated with the high background radiation exposure

  12. Cytogenetic study of stable chromosome aberrations in residents of a high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Chen Deqing; Wei Lvxin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of high background radiation on the induction of stable chromosome aberrations. Methods: By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique chromosome Nos. 1, 2 and 4 were painted using specific biotin-labeled whole chromosome painting probes. Peripheral blood specimens were taken from 31 individuals living in the high background radiation area (HRBA) and 29 individuals in the control area. Results: No significant difference was found in the frequencies of translocations between HBRA and the control (P>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) for both children and elderly individuals. On the other hand, correlation between age and translocation frequencies was significant at the 1% level (r s =0.388 with 56DF). Conclusion: There are no differences in the frequencies of translocations between HBRA and the control area. The present result indicates that the contribution of an elevated level of natural radiation in HBRA in China to the induction rate of stable type aberrations (translocations) dose not have a significant effect compared with the contributions from all other sources such as chemical mutagens and(or) metabolic factors. (authors)

  13. Radon-thoron exposures in high background radiation areas: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    The radon-thoron measurements reported in literature for the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the world are summarised here. The most important areas covered are the Radon Spas and the thorium bearing monazite deposits. Special mention is made of the ongoing programmes of radon-thoron survey in the monazite beach areas of India; preliminary measurements indicate significant levels of thoron exposures. The diurnal and seasonal variations are quite wide underscoring the importance of carrying out integrated measurements for meaningful assessments of population exposures. Radon-thoron inhalation dose rates upto 30 mSv/y have been measured in lran as well as India. It has been generally observed that the cumulative population doses due to radon-thoron inhalation are as high as those due to the external exposures in these HBRAs. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  14. The (Un)Attractiveness of Vocational and Technical Education: Theoretical Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovšin, Miha

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of the lack of attractiveness of vocational and technical education via a review of legislation on counselling practices, implementing documents, and the social factors by means of which the education system can influence the individual's decision. It is apparent that legislation regulating the organisation and…

  15. Pedagogical Background for Technology Education--Meaningful Learning in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Ossi

    2009-01-01

    One important theme in technology education is the growing need to develop the type of pedagogies that encourage pupils in authentic and meaningful learning experiences. Often, the teaching strategies of technology education are only a matter of teaching the handling of materials and tools, and the production of mere objects does not consider how…

  16. Child Health and School Readiness: Background Paper on a National Education Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas

    One of the objectives of the U.S. Department of Education's National Goals for Education is that "Children will receive the nutrition and health care needed to arrive at school with healthy minds and bodies, and the number of low birthweight babies will be significantly reduced through enhanced prenatal health systems." This paper…

  17. Design and Craft Education in Iceland, Pedagogical Background and Development: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Brynjar; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2009-01-01

    Sloyd pedagogy was introduced towards the close of the 18th century to Icelandic educators. Subsequently craft was established as a specific subject aimed at general education. In the beginning craft was called "school industry," to distinguish it from "home industry" whose aim was to help homes to be self-sufficient for…

  18. Beyond the Cientificos: The Educational Background of the Porfirian Political Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jacqueline

    1983-01-01

    Broadening the investigation of Mexico's Porfirian political elite, the study examines the education, professional training, and alternatives to formal education of 70 Union Liberal delegates. The delegates represent a microcosm of the political leaders of the middle Porfirian period. The article also discusses the formation of the Union Liberal.…

  19. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  20. Pathways of Intergenerational Transmission of Advantages during Adolescence: Social Background, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Wiebke; Schunck, Reinhard; Diewald, Martin; Johnson, Wendy

    2017-10-01

    Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability. By integrating two strands of research, a clearer picture of the pathways linking the family of origin, cognitive ability, and early educational outcomes can be reached. Using the population-based TwinLife study in Germany, we investigated multidimensional pathways linking parental socioeconomic position to their children's cognitive ability and academic track attendance in the secondary school. The sample included twins (N = 4008), respectively ages 11 and 17, and siblings (N = 801). We observed strong genetic influences on cognitive ability, whereas shared environmental influences were much more important for academic tracking. In multilevel analyses, separate dimensions of socioeconomic resources influenced child cognitive ability, controlling parental cognitive ability. Controlling adolescent cognitive ability and parental cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic resources also directly affected track attendance. This indicated that it is crucial to investigate the intertwined influences on educational outcomes in adolescence of both cognitive ability and the characteristics of the family of origin.

  1. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  2. Review of epidemiological and cytogenetic studies on high background radiation area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2008-01-01

    Emerging scientific knowledge in the field of radiation biology has put into question the generic use of a simple linear extrapolation of radiation effects from high to low dose or dose rate. Though the direct information of biological effects at low dose or low dose rate has been accumulated, it is still immature to mention health effects as the consequence of biological effects. As epidemiological data have been the main sources of direct information on human health effects, studies of the health of population exposed by low dose or low dose rate ionizing radiation will help to improve our understanding. In this meaning, the epidemiological studies of residents in high background radiation areas (HBRA), which are supported by us, will provide important direct information on the biological and health effects of chronic low dose rate ionizing radiation. The epidemiological results in HBRA in China showed there are no significant increases of cancer risks caused by the high background levels of ionizing radiation. From the results which come from cytogeneticl studies, the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations have shown good correlation with cumulative doses in their lifetimes, which indicated it is a sensitive and informative biomarker. On the other hand, the frequencies of stable chromosomal aberrations have shown no significant difference and the frequency was much higher than that of unstable type aberrations. It suggests that mutagenic factors other than radiation contribute more than the elevated level of radiation to the induction of DNA rearrangements which could lead to the increase of cancer risk in HBRA in China. (author)

  3. Ingestion of polonium ((210)Po) via dietary sources in high background radiation areas of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Rao, D D; Sathyapriya, R; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kuruva, Jaya Krishna; Hari, Shanmugamsundaram

    2014-10-01

    To study the distribution of Polonium ((210)Po) activity in dietary sources in the high background radiation zone of Puttetti in southern Tamil Nadu. (210)Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individual representatives living in the high background areas by 24-h Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was performed by collecting the food samples such as, cereals, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk grown in the high background radiation zone of southern Tamil Nadu as a part of baseline study in this region. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials consumed including the beverages in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in the village of Puttetti. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide (210)Po was estimated. The average concentration of (210)Po in DDS (n = 33) was found to be 74 mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into eight food groups. The average concentration of (210)Po in the eight food groups namely leafy vegetables was 2176 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), vegetables 55 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 10), roots and tubers 251 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 4), fruits 65 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 5), fish 345 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 2), meat food 117 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), milk 20 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 1) and cereal 290 (n = 1) mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight, respectively. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to (210)Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. The overall results showed that the MBS was moderately higher than the DDS in all age groups. Moreover, a DDS approach may even be more realistic, as cooked foodstuffs are used for dietary exposure assessment. The study confirms that the current levels of (210)Po do not pose a significant radiological risk to the local inhabitants.

  4. A novel robust and efficient algorithm for charge particle tracking in high background flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, C; Cisbani, E; Dotto, A Del

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosity that will be reached in the new generation of High Energy Particle and Nuclear physics experiments implies large high background rate and large tracker occupancy, representing therefore a new challenge for particle tracking algorithms. For instance, at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) (VA,USA), one of the most demanding experiment in this respect, performed with a 12 GeV electron beam, is characterized by a luminosity up to 10 39 cm -2 s -1 . To this scope, Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) based trackers are under development for a new spectrometer that will operate at these high rates in the Hall A of JLab. Within this context, we developed a new tracking algorithm, based on a multistep approach: (i) all hardware - time and charge - information are exploited to minimize the number of hits to associate; (ii) a dedicated Neural Network (NN) has been designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector; (iii) the measurements of the associated hits are further improved in resolution through the application of Kalman filter and Rauch- Tung-Striebel smoother. The algorithm is shortly presented along with a discussion of the promising first results. (paper)

  5. Problems Concerning Dose Assessments in Epidemiology of High Background Radiation Areas of Yangjiang, China (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.X.; Yuan, Y.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study on radiation levels and dose assessments in the epidemiology of a high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA) is to respond to the needs of epidemiology in these areas, where the inhabitants are continuously exposed to low dose, low dose rate ionising radiation. A brief description is given of how the research group evaluated the feasibility of the investigation by analysing the population size and the radiation levels, how simple reliable methods were used to get the individual annual dose for every cohort member, and how the cohort members were classified into various dose groups for dose-effect relationship analysis. Finally, the use of dose group classification for cancer mortality studies is described. (author)

  6. Ultra low energy-ultra low background high purity germanium detectors for studies on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, A.K.; Singh, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M.K.; Wong, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) are the leading DM candidates. Super symmetric particles (SUSY) are one of the leading WIMP candidates. To probe this least explored region Taiwan EXperiments On NeutrinO collaboration is pursuing research and development program by using High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe). These detectors offer a matured technology to scale up the detectors and achieve sub-keV level threshold i.e. few hundreds of eV, economically. The various detectors developed by the collaboration is shown in the below figure. The current goal of the collaboration is to develop detectors of kg-scale target mass, ∼100 eV threshold and low-background specification for the studies on WIMPs, μ v and neutrino - nucleus coherent scattering

  7. Concentration of 210Po in local foodstuffs grown nearby High Background Areas (HBRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamesh Viswanathan, B.; Arunachalam, Kantha D.; Sathesh Kumar, A.; Jayakrishna, K.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    210 Po is the decay product of natural radionuclide of 238 U series. The presence of a radionuclide migrates from soil > plant > food and ingested by the humans residing in the areas of syentite rocks nearby the High Background Radiation Area's (HBRA). The food samples were studied by Market Basket Study (MBS). The average concentration of 210 Po in foodstuffs like green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, roots and tubers; fruits, fish, other flesh foods, milk and cereals were 1671 ± 163.3, 28.2 ± 7.3, 320 ± 99, 53 ± 17.5, 251.5 ± 54.5, 37 ± 14.5, 16 ± 6 and 230 ± 75 mBq. Kg -1 fresh weight. (author)

  8. The Age of Studies and Reports: Selected Elements Concerning the Background of Encounters Defining the Power of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Tašner and Slavko Gaber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we discuss the time before the “age of reports”. Besides the Coleman Report in the period of Coleman, the Lady Plowden Report also appeared, while there were important studies in France (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1964; Peyre, 1959 and studies that inaugurated comprehensive education in Nordic countries. We focus on the period after the World War II, which was marked by rising economic nationalism, on the one hand, and by the second wave of mass education, on the other, bearing the promise of more equality and a reduction of several social inequalities, both supposed to be ensured by school. It was a period of great expectations related to the power of education and the rise of educational meritocracy. On this background, in the second part of the paper, the authors attempt to explore the phenomenon of the aforementioned reports, which significantly questioned the power of education and, at the same time, enabled the formation of evidence-based education policies. In this part of the paper, the central place is devoted to the case of socialist Yugoslavia/Slovenia and its striving for more equality and equity through education. Through the socialist ideology of more education for all, socialist Yugoslavia, with its exaggerated stress on the unified school and its overemphasised belief in simple equality, overstepped the line between relying on comprehensive education as an important mechanism for increasing the possibility of more equal and just education, on the one hand, and the myth of the almighty unified school capable of eradicating social inequalities, especially class inequalities, on the other. With this radical approach to the reduction of inequalities, socialist policy in the then Yugoslavia paradoxically reduced the opportunity for greater equality, and even more so for more equitable education.

  9. High education and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie; Stefanescu, Petre

    1998-01-01

    The Faculty of Energy of the University 'Politecnica' in Bucharest is the only faculty in Romania in the field of nuclear energy education. With an experience of more than 29 years, the Faculty of Energy offers the major 'Nuclear Power Plants', which students graduate after a 5-year education as engineers in the Nuclear Power Plant major. Among the principal objectives of the development and reshape of the Romanian education system was mentioned the upgrading of organizational forms by introducing the transfer credit system, and starting in the fall '97 by accrediting Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Master education. As a result of co-operation and assistance offered by TEMPUS-SENECA program, the new major is shaped and endowed with a modern curriculum harmonized with UE and IAEA requirements and a modern and performing laboratory. This way the Romanian higher education offers a fully correct and concordant structure with UE countries education. (authors)

  10. Research and higher education background of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.

    2002-01-01

    The connection of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, with research and development as well as with higher education is discussed. The main research areas include reactor physics, thermohydraulics, radiochemistry and radiochemical analysis, electronics and nuclear instruments, computers, materials science. The evolution of relations with higher education in Hungary and the PNPP is presented, before and after the installation of the various units. (R.P.)

  11. Relationship between Background Parenchymal Enhancement on High-risk Screening MRI and Future Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Saha, Ashirbani; Ghate, Sujata V; Kim, Connie; Soo, Mary Scott; Yoon, Sora C; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2018-03-27

    To determine if background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk women correlates with future cancer. All screening breast MRIs (n = 1039) in high-risk women at our institution from August 1, 2004, to July 30, 2013, were identified. Sixty-one patients who subsequently developed breast cancer were matched 1:2 by age and high-risk indication with patients who did not develop breast cancer (n = 122). Five fellowship-trained breast radiologists independently recorded the BPE. The median reader BPE for each case was calculated and compared between the cancer and control cohorts. Cancer cohort patients were high-risk because of a history of radiation therapy (10%, 6 of 61), high-risk lesion (18%, 11 of 61), or breast cancer (30%, 18 of 61); BRCA mutation (18%, 11 of 61); or family history (25%, 15 of 61). Subsequent malignancies were invasive ductal carcinoma (64%, 39 of 61), ductal carcinoma in situ (30%, 18 of 61) and invasive lobular carcinoma (7%, 4of 61). BPE was significantly higher in the cancer cohort than in the control cohort (P = 0.01). Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were 2.5 times more likely to develop breast cancer than women with minimal BPE (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8, P = .005). There was fair interreader agreement (κ = 0.39). High-risk women with greater than minimal BPE at screening MRI have increased risk of future breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition status in residents in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Shujie; Li Xiaojuan; Sun Quanfu; Wei Lvxin; Gen Jiwu; Wen Cuiju; Tan Huizhen; Zou Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the current status of nutrition and examine the difference between inhabitants in the high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA). Methods: Sixty and sixty-five male farmers aged 50 and over were randomly selected from HBRA and CA, respectively. Information on dwelling history, history of disease, medical treatment and X-ray examination were collected by interview. Body height and weight were measured, and BMIs were calculated. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin, triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo A1 and Apo B were measured. Results: There was difference in BMI distribution between the two groups. Averages of total biochemistry indexes measured were in normal range in the two groups. With adjustment to age distribution, the serum levels of total protein, albumin and triacylglycerol (TG) of residents in CA were higher than those in HBRA; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was higher in HBRA than that in CA. Conclusions: This serum assay of nutrients in HBRA and CA residents confirmed the results obtained from previous surveys. Both HBRA and CA residents have similar nutrition status, residents in CA consumed more animal protein and fat compared with those in HBRA. (authors)

  13. Cognitive development in Dutch primary education, the impact of individual background and classroom composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; Schildkamp, Kim; Folmer, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 815 Dutch pupils from 49 classes was followed from age 6 (Dutch Grade 3) through age 11 (Grade 7) to estimate growth trajectories for pupils with different socio-ethnic backgrounds. The results indicate that the disadvantage for spelling already present in Grade 3 increases more strongly

  14. Towards a High Temporal Frequency Grass Canopy Thermal IR Model for Background Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.; Koenig, George G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results towards understanding high temporal frequency thermal infrared response from a dense plant canopy and compare the application of our model, driven both by slowly varying, time-averaged meteorological conditions and by high frequency measurements of local and within canopy profiles of relative humidity and wind speed, to high frequency thermal infrared observations. Previously, we have employed three-dimensional ray tracing to compute the intercepted and scattered radiation fluxes and for final scene rendering. For the turbulent fluxes, we employed simple resistance models for latent and sensible heat with one-dimensional profiles of relative humidity and wind speed. Our modeling approach has proven successful in capturing the directional and diurnal variation in background thermal infrared signatures. We hypothesize that at these scales, where the model is typically driven by time-averaged, local meteorological conditions, the primary source of thermal variance arises from the spatial distribution of sunlit and shaded foliage elements within the canopy and the associated radiative interactions. In recent experiments, we have begun to focus on the high temporal frequency response of plant canopies in the thermal infrared at 1 second to 5 minute intervals. At these scales, we hypothesize turbulent mixing plays a more dominant role. Our results indicate that in the high frequency domain, the vertical profile of temperature change is tightly coupled to the within canopy wind speed In the results reported here, the canopy cools from the top down with increased wind velocities and heats from the bottom up at low wind velocities. .

  15. High ability education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Baltzer, Kirsten; Kyed, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Chapter in peer refereed book on gifted education. The chapter offers a state of the art review on gifted education literature, and reports the results from a Danish study on giftedness revealing that 42 % had more problems and far more problems than typically reported by children and adolescents...

  16. Background on Establishing a Working Group to Create Home Clinical Cases for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Taketo

    2017-01-01

    In Japan there are concerns that there will be a surge in social insurance costs such as medical and nursing care expenses as a result of the baby boom generation reaching the late stages of old age (75 years old and beyond) around 2025 ("The 2025 Problem"). In 2012, the "Outline on Social Insurance and Tax Reform" was approved by the Japanese cabinet and government, including "construction of regional comprehensive care". To promote participation in home medical care by pharmacists, this article presents the roles demanded of pharmacists in regional comprehensive care from the standpoint of physicians, and the discussion of case studies bridging the gap from knowledge learned in lectures to practical applications. In the field of medical education, "The 2023 Problem", regarding standards of education on a global level, caused medical schools across Japan to scramble for curriculum reform, specifically in the demand for increased time spent in clinical training and the expansion of community-based medical education. The current state of community-based medical education will be reviewed. In light of these developments, "the working group to create home clinical cases for education" was developed by clinical pharmacists in the field and university faculty members at Daiichi University of Pharmacy.

  17. Explaining Conflicting Results in Research on the Heterogeneous Effects of Parental Separation on Children's Educational Attainment According to Social Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio; Boertien, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in how the effects of parental separation on children's educational attainment vary with social background. On the one hand, parents with more resources might be better able to prevent possible adverse events like separation to affect their children's outcomes. On the other hand, children from higher social backgrounds might have more resources to lose from a parental separation. A wide range of empirical studies on the issue have come to inconsistent conclusions, with support found for both perspectives. The aim of this paper is to monitor the influence of methodological and operational choices on the different results observed across studies. We focus on aspects such as the operationalization of key variables, the measurement of inequality in absolute and relative terms and the different strategies used to address endogeneity. We study the effects of parental separation on educational attainment for a cohort of British children born in 1970 and find that conclusions change depending on whether social background is measured using the mother's or father's characteristics and whether relative or absolute differences between groups are considered. Results are relatively insensitive to the operationalization of dependent variables and the treatment of missing data. When using data from Understanding Society instead of the British Cohort Study, results also did not change. We reflect on how these findings can explain the contradictory results from earlier studies on the topic, and how heterogeneity in the effects of parental separation by socio-economic background should be interpreted.

  18. Backgrounds of Outdoor Education: A Review of Early Studies in Camping as Education. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Morris

    Until the depression of the 1930s, camping was valued simply for its recreational and health benefits. Then, with the advent of the philosophy of progressivism and the consequent changes in educational goals and practices, the educational potentials of camping also began to be examined. Attempts to redefine the role of camping and to seek…

  19. World high background natural radiation areas: Need to protect public from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of findings on radiological measurements, radiobiological and epidemiological studies in some main world high background natural radiation (HBNR) areas such as in Brazil, China, India and Iran are presented and discussed with special regard to remediation of radiation exposure of inhabitants in such areas. The current radiation protection philosophy and recommendations applied to workers and public from operation of radiation and nuclear applications are based on the linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The inhabitants of HBNR and radon prone areas receive relatively high radiation doses. Therefore, according to the LNT concept, the inhabitants in HBNR areas and in particular those in Ramsar are considered at risk and their exposure should be regulated. The HBNR areas in the world have different conditions in terms of dose and population. In particular, the inhabitants in HBNR areas of Ramsar receive very high internal and external exposures. This author believes that the public in such areas should be protected and proposes a plan to remedy high exposure of the inhabitants of the HBNR areas of Ramsar, while maintaining these areas as they stand to establish a national environmental radioactivity park which can be provisionally called “Ramsar Research Natural Radioactivity Park” (RRNRP). The major HBNR areas, the public exposure and the need to remedy exposures of inhabitants are reviewed and discussed. - Highlights: ► Highlights of findings on studies in HBNR areas are reviewed and discussed. ► The need to protect HBNR area inhabitants and remedy public exposure is emphasized. ► A collective approach is proposed to remedy exposure of Ramsar HBNR area inhabitants. ► Relocation of HBNR area inhabitants and establishing a park at the location is proposed. ► The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed and recommendations are made

  20. The Charter State Option: Charting a Course toward Federalism in Education. Backgrounder No. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Dan; Feinberg, Evan; Marshall, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Across the United States, nearly 50 million students are served by 96,000 public schools. Federal policymakers cannot be expected to diagnose the diverse learning needs of these students and to craft solutions adequate to meet all of them. Four decades, eight reauthorizations of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and expenditure of…

  1. Finding Voice: The Higher Education Experiences of Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Doris; Egan, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in the student body, particularly the inclusion of disadvantaged groups, has been incorporated into the discourse of inclusive education, with social justice and equality now part of the agenda. However, the conflation of diversity with equality potentially obscures some structural elements of the contemporary university system. This…

  2. Education of the Deaf Act: Background and Reauthorization Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This summary of the Education of the Deaf Act (Public Law 99-371) discusses the special institutions funded under the act and other issues related to the Act's reauthorization. The National Technical Institute for the Deaf (Rochester, New York) and Gallaudet University (District of Columbia) provide postsecondary training for deaf individuals.…

  3. Youths with Migration Backgrounds and Their Experiences of Physical Education: An Examination of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D.; Barker-Ruchti, N.; Gerber, M.; Gerlach, E.; Sattler, S.; Pühse, U.

    2014-01-01

    While understanding young people has never been easy, migration trends make it increasingly difficult. Many classrooms have become culturally heterogeneous and teachers are often faced with pupils with diverse linguistic and cultural heritages. Current scholarship suggests that as a discipline, physical education has not adapted to this diversity.…

  4. Obama's 2013 Education Budget and Blueprint: A Costly Expansion of Federal Control. Backgrounder, No. 2677

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.; Sheffield, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    President Obama's FY 2013 budget request includes another major spending increase for the Department of Education--2.5 percent more than last year--to nearly $70 billion. American taxpayers are calling for spending restraint in Washington, yet President Obama's proposals would exacerbate the existing bureaucratic maze of federal programs and…

  5. Background of Individual Education Plans (IEPs) Policy in Some Countries: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Mohammed Ali; Kheirallah, Sahar Abdelfattah

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a cogent outline of the current policies that six separate countries have on Individual Education Plans (IEPs), identifying the key features in each system. The chosen countries are Australia (Queen Island), Canada (British Columbia), New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Saudi Arabia. The…

  6. Education and the Children of One-Parent Families: A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barb

    Current literature about children of one-parent families can provide educators with information on what effects living in a one-parent family have on a child's personality, behavior, and academic performance. Research indicates that at the elementary level children often fear abandonment, act aggressively, and display attention-seeking behaviors…

  7. The Experiences of Israeli Early Childhood Educators Working With Children of Ethiopian Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Firstater

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study offers an in-depth examination of the experiences of early childhood educators, focusing on their work with Ethiopian immigrant children and their families. We aim to describe and analyze the teachers’ insider views vis-à-vis the challenges faced by these children and their parents in the Israeli preschool system. Using narrative methodology, the analysis of findings is based upon 20 stories written by 10 early childhood educators. It reveals that for these teachers, the chief struggle is their relationship with the parents of their Ethiopian pupils, one characterized by difficulties, frustrations, and burdens. The engagement with parents of Ethiopian children exhibited a range of possibilities: from the expression of patronizing, hierarchical viewpoints, to a search for ad hoc ways of coping with a persistent cultural gap, to the attainment of genuine, successful partnerships. Lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding of the unique cultural attributes of the Ethiopian community appears to be the basis for the teachers’ view of the parents as lacking faith in them and in the educational system as a whole. In addition, suggestions are made about implications for educational practice and for policies that might assist teachers in ameliorating these challenges via the development of, and professional training in, skills which help coping with the problems and dilemmas unique to the multicultural classroom.

  8. A Fluorogenic TMP-tag for High Signal-to-Background Intracellular Live Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chaoran

    2013-01-01

    Developed to compliment the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging, chemical tags enjoy the benefit of modular incorporation of organic fluorophores, opening the possibility of high photon output and special photophysical properties. However, the theoretical challenge in using chemical tags as opposed to fluorescent proteins for high-resolution imaging is background noise from unbound and/or non-specifically bound ligand-fluorophore. We envisioned we could overcome this limit by engineering fluorogenic trimethoprim-based chemical tags (TMP-tags) in which the fluorophore is quenched until binding with E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (eDHFR) tagged protein displaces the quencher. Thus, we began by building a non-fluorogenic, covalent TMP-tag based on a proximity-induced reaction known to achieve rapid and specific labeling both in vitro and inside of living cells. Here we take the final step and render the covalent TMP-tag fluorogenic. In brief, we designed a trimeric TMP-fluorophore-quencher molecule (TMP-Q-Atto520) with the quencher attached to a leaving group that, upon TMP binding to eDHFR, would be cleaved by a cysteine residue (Cys) installed just outside the binding pocket of eDHFR. We present the in vitro experiments showing that the eDHFR:L28C nucleophile cleaves the TMP-Q-Atto520 rapidly and efficiently, resulting in covalent labeling and remarkable fluorescence enhancement. Most significantly, while only our initial design, TMP-Q-Atto520 achieved the demanding goal of not only labeling highly abundant, localized intracellular proteins, but also less abundant, more dynamic cytoplasmic proteins. These results suggest that fluorogenic TMP-tag can significantly impact highresolution live cell imaging and further establish the potential of proximity-induced reactivity and organic chemistry more broadly as part of the growing toolbox for synthetic biology and cell engineering. PMID:23745575

  9. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernardis P; Ade; Bock; Bond; Borrill; Boscaleri; Coble; Crill; De Gasperis G; Farese; Ferreira; Ganga; Giacometti; Hivon; Hristov; Iacoangeli; Jaffe; Lange; Martinis; Masi; Mason; Mauskopf; Melchiorri; Miglio; Montroy; Netterfield

    2000-04-27

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole Ipeak = (197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta T200 = (69 +/- 8) microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models.

  10. The Game Prisoner’s Bar: A Research on Their Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Brasó Rius

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The collaborative game of Prisoner’s Base (also called Prisoner’s Bars has formed part of the cultural repository of Western civilisation from very remote times. Nevertheless, the anthropological, sociological and educational roots of this game have been only very slightly researched. Starting with a cultural assessment of its origins, we attempt to ascertain exactly why this physical-recreational game has remained practically unaltered over the centuries. The study adopts an approach that covers historical-genealogical and interdisciplinary phenomenological aspects (the latter concerning anthropology, sociology and education, supported by a broad-ranging documentary review of primary sources. The results lead us to sustain that, within the internal logic of Prisoner’s Base, there are the underlying socialising codes of contemporary education, through which its lasting presence guarantees the theory of the «process of civilisation» in the West. This interpretation also contributes to valuing its phenomenological comprehension within the history of physical games and the role that these play in society.

  11. Profiles of doses to the population living in the high background radiation areas in Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chougaonkar, M.P. E-mail: mpckar@hotmail.com; Eappen, K.P.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Shetty, P.G.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sadasivan, S.; Venkat Raj, V

    2004-07-01

    A sample study of the profiles of radiation exposures to the populations living in the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the monazite-bearing region in Kerala, India, has been conducted by monitoring 200 dwellings selected from two villages in this region. Each of these dwellings was monitored for 1 year and the study lasted for a period of 2 years. The indoor gamma ray dose measurements were carried out using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and the inhalation doses due to radon, thoron and their progenies were monitored using solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) based twin-cup dosimeters. Outdoor gamma ray dose measurements were carried out using Geiger Muller (GM) tube based survey meters. Annual effective doses were computed, using occupancy factors of 0.8 and 0.2, respectively, for indoor and outdoor, by adding the three components. Occupants of 41.6% of the houses surveyed were observed to receive the annual effective doses ranging between 0.5 and 5 mSv/a, 41.6% between 5 and 10 mSv/a, 10.2% between 10 and 15 mSv/a and 6.6% greater than 15 mSv/a. The inhalation component was generally smaller than the external gamma ray component and on an average it was found to constitute about 30% of the total dose. The paper presents the details of the methodology adopted and the analysis of the results.

  12. Experimental test of the background rejection, through imaging capability, of a highly segmented AGATA germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncel, M.; Recchia, F.; Quintana, B.; Gadea, A.; Farnea, E.

    2010-01-01

    The development of highly segmented germanium detectors as well as the algorithms to identify the position of the interaction within the crystal opens the possibility to locate the γ-ray source using Compton imaging algorithms. While the Compton-suppression shield, coupled to the germanium detector in conventional arrays, works also as an active filter against the γ rays originated outside the target, the new generation of position sensitive γ-ray detector arrays has to fully rely on tracking capabilities for this purpose. In specific experimental conditions, as the ones foreseen at radioactive beam facilities, the ability to discriminate background radiation improves the sensitivity of the gamma spectrometer. In this work we present the results of a measurement performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) aiming the evaluation of the AGATA detector capabilities to discriminate the origin of the γ rays on an event-by-event basis. It will be shown that, exploiting the Compton scattering formula, it is possible to track back γ rays coming from different positions, assigning them to specific emitting locations. These imaging capabilities are quantified for a single crystal AGATA detector.

  13. Study of thorium uptake by inhabitants of a high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Juliao, L.M.Q.C.; Lourenco, M.C.; Lauria, D.

    2002-01-01

    Buena, located in the North of Rio de Janeiro, is characterized by its high natural radiation background, due to large deposits of monazite sand. The foodstuffs consumed by the population are basically composed of local products, which contain significant amounts of thorium. The analysis of complete cooked meals have shown an average daily intake of 18 mBq.d -1 of 232 Th and 189 mBq.d -1 of 228 Th. The average urine to feces ratio of 232 Th from samples of volunteers was found equal to 7.5x10 -2 . The comparison of the experimental data with the predicted urine to feces ratios derived using the biokinetic model for thorium described by the ICRP publication 69 and simulating inhalation and ingestion separately, lead to the conclusion that the thorium intake is a combination of inhalation and ingestion. The clearance rate of thorium of monazite in lungs has apparently behaved as Type M compound. Inhalation is the biggest contributor for the committed effective dose due to thorium internal exposure. (author)

  14. Fluctuations in radiation backgrounds at high redshift and the first stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzbauer, Lauren Nicole

    The first stars to light up our universe are as yet unseen, but there have been many attempts to elucidate their properties. The characteristics of these stars (`Population/Pop III' stars) that we do know lie mostly within theory; they formed out of metal-free hydrogen and helium gas contained in dark matter minihalos at redshifts z 20-30. The extent to which Pop III star formation reached into later times is unknown. Current and near future instruments are incapable of resolving individual Pop III stars. Consequently, astronomers must devise creative means with which to indirectly predict and measure and their properties. In this thesis, we will investigate a few of those means. We use a new method to model fluctuations of the Lyman-Werner (LW) and Lyman-alpha radiation backgrounds at high redshift. At these early epochs the backgrounds are symptoms of a universe newly lit with its first stars. LW photons (11.5-13.6 eV) are of particular interest because they dissociate molecular hydrogen, the primary coolant in the first minihalos that is necessary for star formation. By using a variation of the `halo model', which describes the spatial distribution and clustering of halos, we can efficiently generate power spectra for these backgrounds. Spatial fluctuations in the LW and (indirectly) the Lyman-alpha BG can tell us about the transition from primordial star formation to a more metal-enriched mode that marks the beginning of the second generation of stars in our Universe. The Near Infrared Background (NIRB) has for some time been considered a potential tool with which to indirectly observe the first stars. Ultraviolet (UV) emission from these stars is redshifted into the NIR band, making the NIRB amenable for hunting Pop III stellar signatures. There have been several measurements of the NIRB and subsequent theoretical studies attempting to explain them in recent years. Though controversial, residual levels of the mean NIRB intensity and anisotropies have been

  15. High pulse number thermal shock tests on tungsten with steady state particle background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, M.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th; Pintsuk, G.; Sergienko, G.; Steudel, I.; Unterberg, B.; Wessel, E.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal fatigue of metallic materials, which will be exposed to severe environmental conditions e.g. plasma facing materials in future fusion reactors, is an important issue in order to predict the life time of complete wall components. Therefore experiments in the linear plasma device PSI-2 were performed to investigate the synergistic effects of high pulse number thermal shock events (L = 0.38 GW m-2, Δt = 0.5 ms) and stationary D/He (6%) plasma particle background on the thermal fatigue behavior of tungsten. Similar to experiments with pure thermal loads, the induced microstructural and surface modifications such as recrystallization and roughening as well as crack formation become more pronounced with increasing number of thermal shock events. However, the amount of damage significantly increases for synergistic loads showing severe surface roughening, plastic deformation and erosion resulting from the degradation of the mechanical properties caused by bombardment and diffusion of D/He to the surface and the bulk of the material. Additionally, D/He induced blistering and bubble formation were observed for all tested samples, which could change the thermal and mechanical properties of near surface regions.

  16. Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Prasad, G.; Gusain, G. S.; Rautela, B. S.; Choubey, V. M.; Vidya Sagar, D.; Tokonami, S.; Sorimachi, A.; Sahoo, S. K.; Janik, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa (India). This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m -3 and the below detection level to 77 Bq m -3 , respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m -3 , preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  17. Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S [Dept. of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Badshahi Thaul, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India); Choubey, V M [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001 (India); Vidya Sagar, D [Health Physics Unit (EAD, BARC), IRE, OSCOM, Matikhalo, Dt. Ganjam, Orissa 761 045 (India); Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Sahoo, S K; Janik, M; Ishikawa, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263 8555 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa (India). This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m{sup -3} and the below detection level to 77 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m{sup -3}, preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  18. A highly sensitive technique for detecting catalytically active nanoparticles against a background of general workplace aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, N; Weis, F; Seipenbusch, M; Kasper, G; Binder, A

    2011-01-01

    A new measurement technique was studied using catalysis to specifically detect airborne nanoparticles in presence of background particles in the workplace air. Catalytically active nanoparticles produced by spark discharge were used as aerosol catalysts. According to these particles suitable catalytic test reactions were chosen and investigated by two different approaches: catalysis on airborne nanoparticles and catalysis on deposited nanoparticles. The results indicate that catalysis is applicable for the specific measurement of nanoparticles in the workplace air. Catalysis on airborne particles is suitable for the specific detection of very active nanoparticles, e.g. platinum or nickel, at high concentrations of about 10 7 /cm 3 . The approach of catalysis on deposited particles is better suited for nanoparticle aerosols at low concentrations, for slow catalytic reactions or less active nanoparticles like iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). On the basis of the experimental results detection limits in the range of μg or even ng were calculated which assure the good potential of catalysis for the specific detection of nanoparticles in the workplace air based on their catalytic activity.

  19. Concentrations of radionuclides in cassava growing in high background radiation area and their transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jialin, Huang; Yongru, Zha; Yicao, Guo

    1985-04-01

    The concentrations of several natural radionuclides in common cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing in Yangjiang County, a high background radiation area in Guangdong Province, and their uptake from soil and distribution in the plant were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of natural uranium and thorium in cassava root are of the order of 10/sup -6/ g/kg, and those of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210 and polonium-210 are of the order of 10/sup -11/ Ci/kg. The highest level is 9.30 +- 0.30 x 10/sup -11/ Ci/kg (lead-210), and the lowest is 3.99 +- 0.20 x 10/sup -11/ Ci/kg (radium-226). The levels of natural uranium, thorium, radium-226 and polonium-210 in cassava are below the limits stipulated by the regulations for food hygiene in China, while the lead-210 level approaches the limit. It is noticeable that the highest level of radium-228 is 7.28 +- 1.03 x 10/sup -11/ Ci/kg, 10.4 times higher than the limit. The transfer of all the nuclides from soil to different parts of cassava shows a pattern contrary to that of he nuclides in the other regions where uranium-and radium-containing waste water and phosphate fertilizer are used in agriculture.

  20. Concentrations of radionuclides in cassava growing in high background radiation area and their transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jialin; Zha Yongru; Guo Yicao

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations of several natural radionuclides in common cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing in Yangjiang County, a high background radiation area in Guangdong Province, and their uptake from soil and distribution in the plant were investigated. The results show that the concentrations of natural uranium and thorium in cassava root are of the order of 10 -6 g/kg, and those of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210 and polonium-210 are of the order of 10 -11 Ci/kg. The highest level is 9.30 +- 0.30 x 10 -11 Ci/kg (lead-210), and the lowest is 3.99 +- 0.20 x 10 -11 Ci/kg (radium-226). The levels of natural uranium, thorium, radium-226 and polonium-210 in cassava are below the limits stipulated by the regulations for food hygiene in China, while the lead-210 level approaches the limit. It is noticeable that the highest level of radium-228 is 7.28 +- 1.03 x 10 -11 Ci/kg, 10.4 times higher than the limit. The transfer of all he nuclides from soil to different parts of cassava shows a pattern contrary to that of he nuclides in the other regions where uranium-and radium-containing waste water and phosphate fertilizer are used in agriculture

  1. Chromosome translocation in residents of the high background radiation areas in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Isamu; Minamihisamatsu, Masako; Wang Chunyan; Wei Zhang; Chen Deqing; Morishima, Hiroshige; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    We performed a cytogenetical study using chromosome painting analysis on 9 residents of the naturally high background radiation areas (HBRA) and 8 residents of the control areas in southern China. The estimated dose (air kerma) of each resident measured by an electric pocket dosimeter showed 2.20-4.23 mGy/year in HBRA and 0.56-0.70 mGy/year in the control areas. A total of 14,096 cells (1,566 cells/case) in the former and 17,522 cells (2,190 cells/case) in the latter were analyzed. Children, both in HBRA and in the control areas, had translocations at low frequencies. The frequency of translocations among elder individuals varied widely and it was not possible to detect dose effect although it was detected in dicentrics. The effect of radiation on the induction of chromosome aberrations, which have a statistically potential risk of causing malignant or congenital diseases, seems to be less significant than those of metabolic factors and/or mutagenic agents (excluding radiation) even in HBRA in China. (author)

  2. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222 Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  3. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Simon, Steven L [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wojcik, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar) and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica - CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot [Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Radiological and Human Health Division, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hayata, Isamu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: jhendry2002uk@yahoo.com

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  4. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors. PMID:19454802

  5. Low risk of pulmonary tuberculosis of residents in high background radiation area, Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaojuan; Sun Quanfu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the pulmonary tuberculosis mortality risk of the residents in high background radiation area (HBRA), Yangjiang, China. Methods: A cohort including 89 694 persons in HBRA and 35 385 persons in control area (CA) has been established since 1979. Person-year tables based on classified variables including sex, attained age, follow-up calendar year, and dose-rate group (high, intermediate, and low in HBRA, and control group) were tabulated using DATAB in EPICURE. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risks (RR) of infectious and parasitic disease especially for pulmonary tuberculosis. Cumulative dose for each cohort member was obtained. Results: Two million person-years were accumulated by follow-up and 612 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis ascertained. Compared with risk in the control area, statistically significant lower risk of pulmonary tuberculosis was observed in HBRA among those who aged 60 years and over; markedly decreased risk occurred among males; no significant difference was found among the 6 follow-up stages, two subregions in the HBRA, or different diagnostic facilities. A statistically significantly negative dose-response was observed (P<0.001), the higher accumulative dose, the lower dose the pulmonary tuberculosis mortality risk. Its excess relative risk (ERR/Sv) was estimated to be -1.09 (95% CI: -1.34, -0.85). No established risk factors could explain this lower risk. Conclusions: The mortality of puhnonary tuberculosis among residents in HBRA who were chronically exposed to low-dose radiation was statistically significantly lower than that in the control area, and a significant dose-response relationship was observed, which probably resulted from the immunoenhancement of low dose radiation. (authors)

  6. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  7. Issues and Methodologies in Large-Scale Assessments. Special Issue 2: Measuring Students' Family Background in Large-Scale International Education Studies. IERI Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between students' family background and achievement is often seen as an important topic in regard to equality and equity of educational provision. The results of various education studies show that the family background of students correlates with students' academic achievement at school. This paper focuses on the measurement of…

  8. Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants in sleep centers and clinics: a survey of current roles and educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Loretta; Cartwright, Ann; Collop, Nancy; Freedman, Neil; McLeod, Don; Weaver, Terri E; Rogers, Ann E

    2014-05-15

    To survey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) and Physician Assistant (PA) utilization, roles and educational background within the field of sleep medicine. Electronic surveys distributed to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) member centers and APRNs and PAs working within sleep centers and clinics. Approximately 40% of responding AASM sleep centers reported utilizing APRNs or PAs in predominantly clinical roles. Of the APRNs and PAs surveyed, 95% reported responsibilities in sleep disordered breathing and more than 50% in insomnia and movement disorders. Most APRNs and PAs were prepared at the graduate level (89%), with sleep-specific education primarily through "on the job" training (86%). All APRNs surveyed were Nurse Practitioners (NPs), with approximately double the number of NPs compared to PAs. APRNs and PAs were reported in sleep centers at proportions similar to national estimates of NPs and PAs in physicians' offices. They report predominantly clinical roles, involving common sleep disorders. Given current predictions that the outpatient healthcare structure will change and the number of APRNs and PAs will increase, understanding the role and utilization of these professionals is necessary to plan for the future care of patients with sleep disorders. Surveyed APRNs and PAs reported a significant deficiency in formal and standardized sleep-specific education. Efforts to provide formal and standardized educational opportunities for APRNs and PAs that focus on their clinical roles within sleep centers could help fill a current educational gap.

  9. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  10. Emerging Consumerism and the Accelerated "Education Divide": The Case of Specialized High Schools in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong

    2007-01-01

    This paper criticizes the neoliberal shift in Korean education toward educational consumerism by analyzing the boom in Specialized High schools (SHs). For its theoretical background, this paper discusses the issues of freedom, equal opportunity, and choice in education, and investigates how neoliberal consumerism has been encouraging the boom in…

  11. Background observations on the SMM high energy monitor at energies greater than 10 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The background rate in any gamma ray detector on a spacecraft in near-earth orbit is strongly influenced by the primary cosmic ray flux at the spacecraft's position. Although the direct counting of the primary cosmic rays can be rejected by anticoincident shields, secondary production cannot be. Secondary production of gamma rays and neutrons in the instrument, the spacecraft, and the earth's atmospheric are recorded as background. A 30 day data base of 65.5 second records has been used to show that some of the background rates observed on the Gamma Ray Spectrometer can be ordered to a precision on the order of 1 percent This ordering is done with only two parameters, namely the cosmic ray vertical cutoff rigidity and the instrument's pointing angle with respect to the earth's center. This result sets limits on any instrumental instability and also on any temporal or spatial changes in the background radiation field.

  12. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore high school students’ motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Design Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. Setting One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March–December 2015. Participants Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. Methods The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. Results The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students’ autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students’ expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students’ interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. Conclusions The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students’ motivation decreases. Medical schools

  13. Cosmological implications of the MAXIMA-1 high-resolution cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stompor, R.; Abroe, M.; Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Barbosa, D.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lee, A.T.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological implications of the new constraints on the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy derived from a new high-resolution analysis of the MAXIMA-1 measurement. The power spectrum indicates excess power at lsimilar to 860 over the average level of power at 411 less than or equal to l less than or equal to 785. This excess is statistically significant at the similar to 95 percent confidence level. Its position coincides with that of the third acoustic peak, as predicted by generic inflationary models selected to fit the first acoustic peak as observed in the data. The height of the excess power agrees with the predictions of a family of inflationary models with cosmological parameters that are fixed to fit the CMB data previously provided by BOOMERANG-LDB and MAXIMA-1 experiments. Our results therefore lend support for inflationary models and more generally for the dominance of adiabatic coherent perturbations in the structure formation of the universe. At the same time, they seem to disfavor a large variety of the nonstandard (but inflation-based) models that have been proposed to improve the quality of fits to the CMB data and the consistency with other cosmological observables. Within standard inflationary models, our results combined with the COBE/Differential Microwave Radiometer data give best-fit values and 95 percent confidence limits for the baryon density, Omega (b)h(2)similar or equal to 0.033 +/- 0.013, and the total density, Omega =0.9(-0.16)(+0.18). The primordial spectrum slope (n(s)) and the optical depth to the last scattering surface (tau (c)) are found to be degenerate and to obey the relation n(s) similar or equal to (0.99 +/- 0.14) + 0.46tau (c), for tau (c) less than or equal to 0.5 (all at 95 percent confidence levels)

  14. High-stakes educational testing and democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between high-stakes educational testing and democracy drawn from the experiences of 20th-century high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish history of education. The article presents various concepts of democracy using leading propositions within...... the field of education. Then a sample of relevant historic case studies are examined in light of these definitions. Among other things, the article concludes that a combination of different evaluation technologies – some formative and some summative – might be the safest way to go from a democratic...

  15. The Importance of Geographical Education and Training at Universities and Methodological Background for Teaching Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Brkić-Vejmelka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article treats the importance of education of the future geography teachers at the Department of Geography, University of Zadar. The main part deals with the students of the same division (all years and refers to the choice of studies; attitudes of students towards their future job (teacher's job particulary and how much they are content with the readyness for school. The second part of the survey (done with the final year students deals with their attitudes about teacher's job after they have gone through the pedagogical group of subjects and student trainee period. The third one refers to the research carried out among the mentors who estimated the importance of some courses for the teacher's job and evaluated the students' work at school.

  16. Association Between Educational Level and Risk of Cancer in HIV-infected Individuals and the Background Population: Population-based Cohort Study 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Dalton, Susanne O; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-11-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk of cancer. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of socioeconomic position on risk and prognosis of cancer in HIV infection. Population-based cohort-study, including HIV-infected individuals diagnosed (without intravenous drug abuse or hepatitis C infection) (n = 3205), and a background population cohort matched by age, gender, and country of birth (n = 22 435) were analyzed. Educational level (low or high) and cancer events were identified in Danish national registers. Cumulative incidences, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and survival using Kaplan-Meier methods were estimated. Low educational level was associated with increased risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to population controls: all (adjusted-IRRs: 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-1.7] vs 1.1 [95% CI, .9-1.2]), tobacco- and alcohol-related (2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.4] vs 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.6]), and other (1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.8] vs 0.9 [95% CI, .7-1.0]). Educational level was not associated with infection-related or ill-defined cancers. One-year-survival was not associated with educational level, but HIV-infected individuals with low educational level had lower 5-year-survival following infection-related and ill-defined cancers. Education is associated with risk and prognosis of some cancers in HIV infection, and diverges from what is observed in the background population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Job Satisfaction of High School Journalism Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jack; Phillips, Kay D.

    Four research questions are posed to explore the job satisfaction of high school journalism educators. A national random sample of 669 respondents shows that journalism educators are generally satisfied with their jobs--more so than teachers in other disciplines. Multiple regression analysis using Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory as a…

  18. The horizontal working mobility of employees with garment technique educational background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supraptono, Eko; Sudana, I. Made; Rini, Sri Hastuti Eko

    2018-03-01

    The purposes of this report are: 1) to know how is the working mobility for garment employees, 2) to analyze the factors that caused working mobility, and new working orientation who searched by garment employees. This research is using qualitative and quantitative approach. The Informant in this research is gotten by purposive action. The data collecting techniques are observations, interviews, and documentations. The data analysis is using descriptive qualitative analysis by observing every aspect. The result of research shows that the criteria of the labor migration was high. It can be seen from Ungaran Sari Garment Company. The length of the migration is high, between 1 until 6 months. and the types of new job that searched by the employees is appropriate job vacancy with their competence. Some factors that influence the working mobility are mental of the workers and company management system. The orientation of the new job is feeling comfortable while working.

  19. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  20. Neutron detection in a high gamma-ray background with EJ-301 and EJ-309 liquid scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Nebbia, G.; Viesti, G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a fast digitizer, the neutron–gamma discrimination capability of the new liquid scintillator EJ-309 is compared with that obtained using standard EJ-301. Moreover the capability of both the scintillation detectors to identify a weak neutron source in a high gamma-ray background is demonstrated. The probability of neutron detection is PD=95% at 95% confidence level for a gamma-ray background corresponding to a dose rate of 100 μSv/h.

  1. Effect of high gamma background on neutron sensitivity of fission detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.; Prasad, K.R.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Tests were performed on two parallel plate and two cylindrical fission detectors in pulse and dc mode. The effect of gamma background on neutron sensitivity was studied in thermal neutron flux from 30 nv to 60 nv over which gamma field intensity ranging from 230 kR/h to 3.7 MR/h was superposed. In the case of one of the parallel plate detectors the fall in neutron sensitivity was observed to be 3.7% at 1 MR/h and negligible below 1 MR/h. In the case of one of the cylindrical counters the fall in neutron sensitivity was negligible below 500 kR/h and 37% at 1 MR/h. The data was used to derive the design parameters for a wide range fission detector to be procured for PFBR instrumentation for operation at 600 degC and gamma background of 1 MR/h. (author)

  2. A case study of pedagogy of mathematics support tutors without a background in mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the pedagogical skills and knowledge of three tertiary-level mathematics support tutors in a large group classroom setting. This is achieved through the use of video analysis and a theoretical framework comprising Rowland's Knowledge Quartet and general pedagogical knowledge. The study reports on the findings in relation to these tutors' provision of mathematics support to first and second year undergraduate engineering students and second year undergraduate science students. It was found that tutors are lacking in various pedagogical skills which are needed for high-quality learning amongst service mathematics students (e.g. engineering/science/technology students), a demographic which have low levels of mathematics upon entering university. Tutors teach their support classes in a very fast didactic way with minimal opportunities for students to ask questions or to attempt problems. It was also found that this teaching method is even more so exaggerated in mandatory departmental mathematics tutorials that students take as part of their mathematics studies at tertiary level. The implications of the findings on mathematics tutor training at tertiary level are also discussed.

  3. Working with Practicing Teachers in a High-Stakes Teaching Context to Rethink Their Pedagogical Practices with Children of Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.; Weber, Natalie Babiak

    2016-01-01

    The public education system in the United States continues to struggle in educating children of diverse backgrounds. Many have addressed this issue by documenting how certain practices teach children particular types of knowledge and skills. This developmental focus on what should be happening to children of diverse backgrounds tends to ignore the…

  4. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-02

    To explore high school students' motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March-December 2015. Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students' autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students' expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students' interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students' motivation decreases. Medical schools should be aware of this and could create opportunities to acquire healthcare

  5. Design and environmental applications of an ultra-low-background, high-efficiency intrinsic Ge gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.

    1981-04-01

    A coincidence shielded intrinsic Ge gamma-ray spectrometer incorporating a 25% efficient, high resolution coaxial diode inside a 30 cm diameter NaI(Tl) shield is described. System design eliminates the major cause of background and minimizes cosmic-ray created background events through the use of electronic means. The system provides a peak-to-Compton ratio of greater than 1000 to 1 for 137 Cs and high sensitivity for both low and high level radionuclide measurements. At 3 MeV the background is 0.000058 counts per minute per keV. At 1 MeV it is 0.00048 counts per minute per keV, and at 0.5 MeV it is 0.0045 counts per minute per keV. Traces of primordial radionuclides create background events such as at 2.614 MeV (0.016 counts per minute total peak area), at 2.448 MeV (0.0058 counts per minute per total peak area), and at 2.204 MeV (0.023 counts per minute per total peak area). The system is discussed with respect to its background design, methods to improve its design, and its application to measurements of neutron activated and environmental materials problems

  6. Characterization of gaseous detectors at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility: GEM performance in presence of high background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097588

    Muon detection is an efficient tool to recognize interesting physics events over the high background rate expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The muon systems of the LHC experiments are based on gaseous ionization detectors. In view of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade program, the increasing of background radiation could affect the gaseous detector performance, especially decreasing the efficiency and shortening the lifetime through ageing processes. The effects of charge multiplication, materials and gas composition on the ageing of gaseous detectors have been studied for decades, but the future upgrade of LHC requires additional studies on this topic. At the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), a radioactive source of cesium-137 with an activity of 14 TBq is used to reproduce reasonably well the expected background radiation at HL-LHC. A muon beam has been made available to study detector performance. The characterization of the beam trigger will be discussed in the present w...

  7. Hawkes process model with a time-dependent background rate and its application to high-frequency financial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data. The branching ratio, which quantifies the level of the endogeneity of markets, estimated by our model is 0.41, suggesting the relative importance of exogenous factors in the market dynamics. We also demonstrate that it is critically important to appropriately model the time-dependent background rate for the branching ratio estimation.

  8. Hawkes process model with a time-dependent background rate and its application to high-frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data. The branching ratio, which quantifies the level of the endogeneity of markets, estimated by our model is 0.41, suggesting the relative importance of exogenous factors in the market dynamics. We also demonstrate that it is critically important to appropriately model the time-dependent background rate for the branching ratio estimation.

  9. Effects of Family Educational Background, Dwelling and Parenting Style on Students' Academic Achievement: The Case of Secondary Schools in Bahir Dar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Melaku Anteneh

    2017-01-01

    This study predominantly focuses on investigating the respective impacts of family educational background, dwelling background and parenting styles on students' overall academic performance with respect to governmental secondary schools in Bahir Dar town, Ethiopia. A descriptive survey method was employed. A 42 items questionnaire was constructed…

  10. VirSchool: The Effect of Background Music and Immersive Display Systems on Memory for Facts Learned in an Educational Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Eric; Richards, Deborah; Bilgin, Ayse; Thompson, William Forde; Heiden, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Game technology has been widely used for educational applications, however, despite the common use of background music in games, its effect on learning has been largely unexplored. This paper discusses how music played in the background of a computer-animated history lesson affected participants' memory for facts. A virtual history lesson was…

  11. Resolution and Efficiency of the ATLAS Muon Drift-Tube Chambers at High Background Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, M.; Horvat, S.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Manz, A.; Mohrdieck-Mock, S.; Rauscher, F.; Richter, Robert; Staude, A.; Stiller, W.

    2016-01-01

    The resolution and efficiency of a precision drift-tube chamber for the ATLAS muon spectrometer with final read-out electronics was tested at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN in a 100 GeV muon beam and at photon irradiation rates of up to 990 Hz/square cm which corresponds to twice the highest background rate expected in ATLAS. A silicon strip detector telescope was used as external reference in the beam. The pulse-height measurement of the read-out electronics was used to perform time-slewing corrections which lead to an improvement of the average drift-tube resolution from 104 microns to 82 microns without irradiation and from 128 microns to 108 microns at the maximum expected rate. The measured drift-tube efficiency agrees with the expectation from the dead time of the read-out electronics up to the maximum expected rate.

  12. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background from the high Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amber Dawn

    A measurement of the angular spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) between l = 50 and l = 400 is described. Data were obtained using HEMT radiometers at 30 and 40 GHz with angular resolutions of ≈1 deg and ≈0.7 deg respectively and with SIS based receivers at 144 GHz with angular resolution of ≈0.2 deg. Observations were made from Cerro Toco in the Chilean altiplano at an altitude of 17,000 feet in the Northern Chilean Andes. We find that the angular spectrum rises from l = 50 to a peak at l ≈ 200 and falls off at higher angular scales. A peak in the angular spectrum with amplitude, deltaTl ≈ 85muK is thus located for the first time with a single instrument at l ≈ 200. In addition, we find that the detected anisotropy has the spectrum of the CMB. Cosmological implications of this result are discussed.

  13. High-energy neutrino background: Limitations on models of deuterium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out that Epstein's model for deuterium production via high-energy spallation reactions produces high-energy neutrinos in sufficient quantity to stand out above those that are produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the Earth's atmosphere. That the Reines experiment detected neutrinos of atmospheric origin without detecting any cosmic component restricts deuterium production by spallation reactions to very high redshifts (z> or approx. =300). Improved neutrino experiments may be able to push these limits back to recombination

  14. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  15. "Low Income Doesn't Mean Stupid and Destined for Failure": Challenging the Deficit Discourse around Students from Low SES Backgrounds in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jade; Devlin, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The discourse around students from low socio-economic backgrounds often adopts a deficit conception in which these students are seen as a "problem" in higher education. In light of recent figures pointing to an increase in the number and proportion of these students participating in higher education [Pitman, T. 2014. "More Students…

  16. Low Noise Infrasonic Sensor System with High Reduction of Natural Background Noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kern, F; Africk, S; Cataldi, P; Chaves, R

    2006-01-01

    ...) coaxial cables, theoretically of arbitrary length, specially terminated and connected to state of the art, ultra high input impedance quiet amplifiers, tailored to the unique characteristics of the sensor outputs...

  17. Radiation exposure map based on fuzzy logic for the representation of areas with high natural background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Wagner Eustaquio de; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The identification of areas with high concentrations of natural radionuclides is an important task in classifying these areas in relation to the health risk for residents in the region. The aim of this work is to identify areas of high exposure to nuclear radiation using a geographic representation based on the theory of fuzzy sets. Radiometric data obtained from previous works developed in a region of high concentrations in natural uranium were used to create a fuzzy map of the local radiation levels. During the image processing, a nonlinear filter was applied to eliminate noise i.e. to reduce isolated pixels that would eventually cause major uncertainties in the results. A resulting image was geographically positioned (WGS40) and obtained in gray scale. This image was fuzzified for membership functions that represent linguistic variables as low exposure, medium exposure and high exposure. After representing the membership grade in a RGB (red, green and blue) image it was possible to visualize the radiation level in the area of exposure. When compared to data from the region, results demonstrated the good efficiency of the technique here employed for the representation of areas with high radioactivity levels. The image obtained also provided important information about those areas where exposure to radiation is more pronounced. Hence, the fuzzy map can be applied in decision-making of experts when a risk situation is identified. (author)

  18. High-level radioactive waste management in the United States. Background and status: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The US high-level radioactive waste disposal program is investigating a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether or not it is a suitable location for the development of a deep mined geologic repository. At this time, the US program is investigating a single site, although in the past, the program involved successive screening and comparison of alternate locations. The United States civilian reactor programs do not reprocess spent fuel; the high-level waste repository will be designed for the emplacement or spent fuel and a limited amount of vitrified high-level wastes from previous reprocessing in the US. The legislation enabling the US program also contains provisions for a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility, which could provide temporary storage of spent fuel accepted for disposal, and improve the flexibility of the repository development schedule

  19. Statistical removal of background signals from high-throughput 1H NMR line-broadening ligand-affinity screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, Bradley; Sisco, Nicholas J.; Powers, Robert

    2015-01-01

    NMR ligand-affinity screens are vital to drug discovery, are routinely used to screen fragment-based libraries, and used to verify chemical leads from high-throughput assays and virtual screens. NMR ligand-affinity screens are also a highly informative first step towards identifying functional epitopes of unknown proteins, as well as elucidating the biochemical functions of protein–ligand interaction at their binding interfaces. While simple one-dimensional 1 H NMR experiments are capable of indicating binding through a change in ligand line shape, they are plagued by broad, ill-defined background signals from protein 1 H resonances. We present an uncomplicated method for subtraction of protein background in high-throughput ligand-based affinity screens, and show that its performance is maximized when phase-scatter correction is applied prior to subtraction

  20. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation areas its potential contribution to evaluating risk of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Nair, R.K.; Nakamura, Seiichi; Mizuno, Shoich

    2008-01-01

    The health effect of low-level ionizing radiation is yet unclear. As pointed out by Upton in his review (Upton, 1989), low-level ionizing radiation seems to have different biological effects from what high-level radiation has. Its evaluation requires epidemiological studies of scale-large cohorts (ICRP 99, 2005) such of atomic bomb survivors and nuclear workers. Epidemiological studies in high-background radiation (HBR) areas are also expected to make a significant contribution toward this end. Among several HBR areas in the world, Yangjiang, Guangdong Province in China, Karunagappally in Kerala State of India, Manawalakurichi and Koodankulam in Tamil Nadu of India, and Ramsar in Iran are important areas where epidemiological studies are possible, because of their relatively high background radiation levels and large population sizes. (author)

  1. Dose for background radioactivity in areas with high radioactivity levels in the Pinar del Rio province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaide Orpi, J.; Oliveira Acosta, J.; Valdes Hernadez, G.M.; Leal Ramirez, M.R.; Blanco Jorrin, N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective the work is to know the areas with high natural radiation doses, for they were used it the data obtained by the studies it has more than enough favorability for radioactive minerals carried out in different regions to the Pinar del Rio province in the 1986 to 1993 years and the doses calculations they were carried out according to the effective methodology

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the background microbial loads and quality of cantaloupe puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10 days at 4 degrees C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5 g) was pressure tr...

  3. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan SERİN, Alper AYTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Total Quality Management (TQM has been even more common and most recently its use in high education has been discussed. Likewise the enterprises producing various products, universities have also inputs, processes, and outputs. Due to conditions of competition, universities have to improve the qualities of these inputs, processes, and outputs, according to satisfaction, demands, and expectations of internal and external customers. If the TQM has been implemented in the universities with a manner that aims for customer satisfaction (students, lecturers, public and private establishments, and families, supports constant development, ensures participatory approach, and encourages working in groups, it will provide universities with effectiveness, efficiency, dynamics, and economics. In this study, common problems of universities, definitions of quality and TQM in high education, customer concept at universities, and factors affecting the quality of education have been explained. Besides, in order TQM approach to be successfully implemented in the universities, various suggestions have been presented.

  4. Knowing One's Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Stefan; Rudert, Selma C; Marksteiner, Tamara; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    -generation status may not be sufficient to fully understand the importance of parental educational background for students' well-being. More specifically, continuing-generation students might reap benefits from their parental educational background. These benefits widen the social gap in academia in addition to the disadvantages of students with first-generation status. In sum, understanding the benefits of continuing-generation status has important implications for interventions aiming to reduce social class gaps in academia.

  5. Natural radionuclide and radiological assessment of building materials in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Moghaddam, Masoud Vahabi; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2013-04-01

    Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg(-1), 187 Bqkg(-1), and 1350 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.

  6. Conditioning the gamma spectrometer for activity measurement at very high background

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Weihua; Zhang, Liguo; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    The application of a high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer in determining the fuel element burnup in a future reactor is studied. The HPGe detector is exposed by a Co60 source with varying irradiation rate from 10 kcps to 150 kcps to simulate the input counting rate in real reactor environment. A Cs137 and a Eu152 source are positioned at given distances to generate certain event rate in the detector with the former being proposed as a labeling nuclide to measure the burnup of fuel ...

  7. A prospective study on congenital malformations in the high background radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hospital based epidemiological study on congenital anomalies carried out in the high level natural radiation (HLNR) areas of southern Kerala since 1995 to assess the hereditary effects, if any, of HLNR is reported here. Thorium, Uranium to a limited extent, and corresponding decay products in the natural deposits of monazite sand is the source of radiation. HLNR and normal level natural radiation (NLNR) areas are interwoven due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of monazite in the region. Areas with a mean dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and those with 1.5 mGy/year or less, as NLNR. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. The comparison of individual malformation in HLNR and NLNR areas are presented and efforts are on to accrue sufficient sample size to enable the comparison

  8. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  9. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the background microbial loads and quality of cantaloupe puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike; Fan, Xuetong; Juneja, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10days at 4°C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5g) was pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Microflora populations, soluble solid content, pH, color, antioxidant activity, appearance and aroma were measured at 1, 6, and 10d of storage. Results showed that high pressure treatment of 300MPa (8°C and 15°C) resulted in reduction of total aerobic plate count from 3.3 to 1.8logCFU/g. The treatment reduced the populations of native aerobic plate count to non-detectable levels (detection limit 1logCFU/g) at 400MPa and 500MPa pressures at 15°C. Pressure treatment completely inactivated mold and yeast in puree below the limits of detection at day 1 and no regrowth was observed during 10days of storage at 4°C while mold and yeast in untreated puree survived during the storage. High pressure treatment did not show any adverse impact on physical properties as soluble solid content (SSC, 11.2°Brix) and acidity (pH, 6.9). The instrumental color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were affected due to HHP treatment creating a slightly lighter product, compared to control, as indicated by higher L.* and lower a* values. However the change was not detected by the sensory panel while evaluating appearance scores. Pressure treatment did not affect the antioxidant capacity of puree product compared to control. Visual appearance and sniffing aroma test by panel revealed no adverse changes in the sensory parameters as a result of HHP treatment. HHP method described in this study appears to be a promising way to inactivate spoilage microorganisms in the cantaloupe puree and maintain quality. This study provides a viable option for preservation and marketing this product. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Assessment of immune surveillance among inhabitants of high natural background radiation areas in Ramsar-Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sileh, Sajad Borzouei; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Mostafazade, Amrollah; Abedian, Said

    2010-01-01

    In this study by Multi-parameter flow cytometry, immunologic analyze is performed on peripheral blood, NK cells, most effective cells in innate immune and the proportion of TCD8/TCD4 cells that is effective in cellular immune system will be determined. Lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1 or CD107a) is used as a functional marker for the identification of natural killer cell activity. Immune surveillance and immune system role in tumoral defense in Ramsar inhabitants will be determined. Radiation dose rate in Talesh mahalle is very high and was many times greater than Chaparsar (another region in Ramsar). Immune surveillance and immune system role in tumoral defense in Talesh mahalle inhabitants will be compared to Chaparsar inhabitants. If this doesn't have significant difference, we should think about some other aspects such as free radical scavengers that will study later

  11. State of the art of D ampersand D Instrumentation Technology: Alpha counting in the presence of high background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    Discrimination of alpha activity in the presence of a high radiation background has been identified as an area of concern to be studied for D ampersand D applications. Upon evaluating the range of alpha detection needs for D ampersand D operations, we have expanded this study to address the operational concern of greatly expediting alpha counting of rough surfaces and rubble. Note that the term, ''rough surfaces'' includes a wide range of practical cases, including contaminated equipment and work surfaces. We have developed provisional applications requirements for instrumentation of this type; and we also have generated the scope of a program of instrument evaluation and testing, with emphasis on practical implementation. In order to obtain the full operational benefit of alpha discrimination in the presence of strong beta-gamma radiation background, the detection system must be capable of some form of remote or semi-remote operation in order to reduce operator exposure. We have identified a highly promising technique, the long-range alpha detector (LRAD), for alpha discrimination in the presence of high radiation background. This technique operates upon the principle of transporting alphaionized air to an ionization detector. A transport time within a few seconds is adequate. Neither the provisional requirements nor the evaluation and testing scope were expressly tailored to force the selection of a LRAD technology, and they could be used as a basis for studies of other promising technologies. However, a technology that remotely detects alpha-ionized air (e. g., LRAD) is a natural fit to the key requirements of rejection of high background at the survey location and operator protection. Also, LRAD appears to be valuable for D ampersand D applications as a means of greatly expediting surface alpha-activity surveys that otherwise would require performing time-consuming scans over surfaces of interest with alpha detector probes, and even more labor-intensive surface

  12. High background radiation area: an important source of exploring the health effects of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luxin

    1997-01-01

    Objective: For obtaining more effective data from epidemiological investigation in high background radiation areas, it is necessary to analyze the advantages, disadvantages, weak points and problems of this kind of radiation research. Methods: For epidemiological investigation of population health effects of high background radiation, the author selected high background radiation areas of Yangjiang (HBRA) and a nearby control area (CA) as an instance for analysis. The investigation included classification of dose groups, comparison of the confounding factors in the incidence of mutation related diseases, cancer mortalities and the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations between HBRA and CA. This research program has become a China-Japan cooperative research since 1991. Results: The confounding factors above-mentioned were comparable between HBRA and CA, and within the dose groups in HBRA, based on a systematic study for many years. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations increased with the increase of cumulative dose, but not for children around or below 10 years of age. The relative risks (RR) of total and site-specific cancer mortalities for HBRA were lower or around 1.00, compared with CA. The incidence of hereditary diseases and congenital deformities in HBRA were in normal range. The results were interpreted preliminarily by the modified 'dual radiation action' theory and the 'benefit-detriment competition' hypothesis. Conclusions: The author emphasizes the necessity for continuing epidemiological research in HBRA, especially for international cooperation. He also emphasizes the importance of combination of epidemiology and radiobiology

  13. Using education on irradiated foods to change behavior of Korean elementary, middle, and high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Eunok; Kim, Jaerok; Choi, Yoonseok

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Educational interventions targeted food selection perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Education regarding irradiated food was intended to change food selection behavior specific to it. SUBJECTS AND METHODS There were 43 elementary students (35.0%), 45 middle school students (36.6%), and 35 high school students (28.5%). The first step was research design. Educational targets were selected and informed consent was obtained in step two. An initial survey was cond...

  14. 34 CFR 300.18 - Highly qualified special education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly qualified special education teachers. 300.18... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE... special education teachers. (a) Requirements for special education teachers teaching core academic...

  15. Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz L. Mróz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs. MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  16. Radioecology teaching: evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R M; Okuno, E; Gomes, P R S; Veiga, R; Estellita, L; Mangia, L; Uzeda, D; Soares, T; Facure, A; Brage, J A P; Mosquera, B; Carvalho, C; Santos, A M A

    2004-01-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic which is not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers are not able to show experimentally or discuss with their students the effects of exposure to terrestrial radiation. This paper presents a laboratory experiment in a teaching programme on the physics of ionizing radiation. It is based on the evaluation of the background radiation levels from areas with high concentrations of natural or artificial radionuclides in the soil. A brief analysis of the theory behind the technique and a description of some measurements, including their interpretations, are presented

  17. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmen-tal degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the com-panies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into par-ticular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto- matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  18. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmental degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the companies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into particular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto-matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  19. Adolescent gynecomastia is associated with a high incidence of obesity, dysglycemia, and family background of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gynecomastia during adolescence is common though etiology is not clear. We studied the clinical and hormonal profile of adolescent patients with gynecomastia. Methodology: Patients who had onset of breast development between age 10 and 20 years were included in this study. Their clinical profile, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were studied. Results: Of 94 patients with gynecomastia, 4 had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 4 had hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 1 had fibroadenosis, but in majority (90.4%, no apparent cause for breast enlargement was evident. In the idiopathic group, majority were obese (63%. Fourteen (16% patients had impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Another twenty patients had subtle abnormalities (high 1 h glucose or glucose peak at 2 h. Twenty-nine percent of lean and 38% of obese patients had mild abnormalities in glucose profile. Sixty percent of patients had family background of diabetes. Obese patients had lower testosterone as compared to lean patients; however, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were similar in the two groups. Conclusion: Gynecomastia during adolescence is associated with obesity, dysglycemia, and family background of diabetes mellitus.

  20. High dynamic range low-noise focal plane readout for VLWIR applications implemented with current mode background subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Chao; Shaw, Timothy; Wrigley, Chris; Peddada, Pavani; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1998-09-01

    Design and operation of a low noise CMOS focal pa;ne readout circuit with ultra-high charge handling capacity is presented. Designed for high-background, VLWIR detector readout, each readout unit cell use an accurate dynamic current memory for automatic subtraction of the dark pedestal in current domain enabling measurement of small signals 85 dB below the dark level. The redout circuit operates with low-power dissipation, high linearity, and is capable of handling pedestal currents up to 300 nA. Measurements indicate an effective charge handling capacity of over 5 X 10(superscript 9) charges/pixel with less than 10(superscript 5) electrons of input referred noise.

  1. A case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma among inhabitants in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Sun Quanfu; Yuan Yongling

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to confirm and explore main risk factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in cohort members of the investigated areas, and evaluate effects of confounding factors on cancer risk associated with exposure to high background radiation. Methods: The deceased cases of NPC during the period of 1987-1995 were selected as study subjects for each of whom two controls were randomly selected from potential control subjects who died from causes other than malignant tumors and external causes, and matched for sex and years of birth and death (within 5 years). Using structure questionnaire, the relevant information including socioeconomic status, dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, history of illness, agricultural use of pesticide, medical X-ray exposure and familial history of NPC were collected. The odds ratio (OR) was used as a measure of association between NPC and the risk factors. Results: 102 cases and 202 controls were successfully investigated. Single factor conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of NPC was closely positively associated with intake of salted fish, pickles, fermented soybeans, cured meats, history of chronic rhinitis and familial history of NPC. Further multiple conditional logistic regression analysis turned out that intake of salted fish, history of chronic rhinits and familial history of NPC were the independent risk factors of NPC. After controlling for history of chronic rhinits and familial history of NPC, the results based on multiple conditional logistic regression analysis from high background radiation, intake of salted fish and fermented soybeans, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption showed that only intake of salted fish was a significant risk factor (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.52-5.18), tobacco smoking (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.65-2.22), alcohol consumption (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.38-1.78) and exposure to high background radiation (OR= 0.86, 95% CI 0.44-1.68) did not

  2. Proposal for the revision of the Background Questionnaire on education and training for the 2nd cycle of PIAAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, James; Massing, Natascha; Schneider, Silke; van der Velden, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we provide suggestions for improving the way in which education is surveyed in PIAAC. We critically assess how the concepts of educational attainment, educational pathways and non-formal training were measured in the first cycle, and suggest improvements in how these can be measured

  3. High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Avenarius, Derk [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    In our experience, diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) is hard to interpret in children who commonly have foci of restricted diffusion in their skeletons unrelated to pathology, sometimes in an asymmetrical pattern. This raises serious concern about the accuracy of DWIBS in cancer staging in children. To describe the signal distribution at DWIBS in the normal developing lumbar spine and pelvic skeleton. Forty-two healthy children underwent an MR DWIBS sequence of the abdomen and pelvis. An axial short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence was used. Two radiologists did a primary review of the images and based on these preliminary observations, separate scoring systems for the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femoral epiphyses/femoral heads were devised. Visual evaluation of the images was then performed by the two radiologists in consensus. The scoring was repeated separately 2 months later by a third radiologist. Restricted diffusion was defined as areas of high signal compared to the background. Coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats were used to assess the vertebral bodies. For the pelvis, the extension of high signal for each bone was given a score of 0 to 4. Cohen's Kappa interobserver agreement coefficients of signal distribution and asymmetry were calculated. All children had areas of high signal, both within the lumbar vertebral bodies and within the pelvic skeleton. Three patterns of signal distribution were seen in the lumbar spine, but no specific pattern was seen in the pelvis. There was a tendency toward a reduction of relative area of high signal within each bone with age, but also a widespread interindividual variation. Restricted diffusion is a normal finding in the pelvic skeleton and lumbar spine in children with an asymmetrical distribution seen in 48% of normal children in this study. DWIBS should be used with caution for cancer staging in children as this could

  4. High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Avenarius, Derk; Olsen, Oeystein E.

    2011-01-01

    In our experience, diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) is hard to interpret in children who commonly have foci of restricted diffusion in their skeletons unrelated to pathology, sometimes in an asymmetrical pattern. This raises serious concern about the accuracy of DWIBS in cancer staging in children. To describe the signal distribution at DWIBS in the normal developing lumbar spine and pelvic skeleton. Forty-two healthy children underwent an MR DWIBS sequence of the abdomen and pelvis. An axial short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence was used. Two radiologists did a primary review of the images and based on these preliminary observations, separate scoring systems for the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femoral epiphyses/femoral heads were devised. Visual evaluation of the images was then performed by the two radiologists in consensus. The scoring was repeated separately 2 months later by a third radiologist. Restricted diffusion was defined as areas of high signal compared to the background. Coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats were used to assess the vertebral bodies. For the pelvis, the extension of high signal for each bone was given a score of 0 to 4. Cohen's Kappa interobserver agreement coefficients of signal distribution and asymmetry were calculated. All children had areas of high signal, both within the lumbar vertebral bodies and within the pelvic skeleton. Three patterns of signal distribution were seen in the lumbar spine, but no specific pattern was seen in the pelvis. There was a tendency toward a reduction of relative area of high signal within each bone with age, but also a widespread interindividual variation. Restricted diffusion is a normal finding in the pelvic skeleton and lumbar spine in children with an asymmetrical distribution seen in 48% of normal children in this study. DWIBS should be used with caution for cancer staging in children as this could lead

  5. Biological effects of low-dose radiation on human population living in high-background radiation areas of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    High-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast is densely populated and known for its wide variation in background radiation dose levels due to uneven distribution of monazite in the beach sand. The background radiation dose varies from 1 to 45 mGv/y. The areas with >1.5mGy/y is considered as HLNRA. Human population inhabiting in this area are exposed to low-dose chronic radiation since generations. Hence, this population provides an ideal situation to study dose response and adaptive response, if any, due to natural chronic low-dose exposure. It has been investigated extensively to study the biological and health effects of long-term low-dose/low-dose radiation exposure. So far over 150, 000 newborns monitored from hospital-based study did not reveal any significant difference in the incidence of any of the malformations and stillbirth between HLNRA and adjacent control areas. A case-control study on cleft lip/palate and mental retardation did not show any association with background radiation dose. Cytogenetic investigation of over 27,000 newborns did not show any significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and karyotype anomalies. DNA damage endpoints, such as micronuclei, telomere length and DNA strand breaks, did not reveal any significant difference between control and exposed population. Studies on DNA damage and repair revealed efficient repair of DNA strand breaks in HLNRA individuals. Molecular studies using high throughput microarray analysis indicated a large number of genes involved in various molecular and cellular pathways. Indications of in vivo radioadaptive response due to natural chronic low-dose exposure in this population have important implications to human health. (author)

  6. Ethnic Background and the Transition from Vocational Education to Work: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Differences in Labour Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Idunn

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of ethnic background on employment and earnings among people with a vocational education in Norway. I differentiate between three different groups: majority, first-generation non-Westerners and second-generation non-Westerners. Panel data from several public register databases of the entire population of…

  7. Equity in the Turkish Education System: A Multilevel Analysis of Social Background Influences on the Mathematics Performance of 15-Year-Old Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Caner

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discover the level of equity in the Turkish education system using maths outcomes of 15-year-old students in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) exam. In order to do that, associations between various social background variables and student performance are analysed via multilevel models. Female pupils,…

  8. An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Luxin [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divide into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed. (author)

  9. An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divide into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed. (author)

  10. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  11. A low-background piston-cylinder-type hybrid high pressure cell for muon-spin rotation/relaxation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermadini, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Elender, M.; Simutis, G.; Guguchia, Z.; Kamenev, K. V.; Amato, A.

    2017-10-01

    A low background double-wall piston-cylinder-type pressure cell is developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The cell is made from BERYLCO-25 (beryllium copper) and MP35N nonmagnetic alloys with the design and dimensions which are specifically adapted to muon-spin rotation/relaxation (μSR) measurements. The mechanical design and performance of the pressure cell are evaluated using finite-element analysis (FEA). By including the measured stress-strain characteristics of the materials into the finite-element model, the cell dimensions are optimized with the aim to reach the highest possible pressure while maintaining the sample space large (6 mm in diameter and 12 mm high). The presented unconventional design of the double-wall piston-cylinder pressure cell with a harder outer MP35N sleeve and a softer inner CuBe cylinder enables pressures of up to 2.6 GPa to be reached at ambient temperature, corresponding to 2.2 GPa at low temperatures without any irreversible damage to the pressure cell. The nature of the muon stopping distribution, mainly in the sample and in the CuBe cylinder, results in a low-background μSR signal.

  12. High Frequency Propagation modeling in a disturbed background ionosphere: Results from the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D. R.; Groves, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment to study the interactions of artificial ionization and the background plasma. The rockets released samarium metal vapor in the lower F-region of the ionosphere that ionized forming a plasma cloud. A host of diagnostic instruments were used to probe and characterize the cloud including the ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar, multiple GPS and optical instruments, satellite radio beacons, and a dedicated network of high frequency (HF) radio links. Data from ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar and HF radio links have been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on radio wave propagation. During the first release the ionosphere was disturbed, rising rapidly and spread F formed within minutes after the release. To address the disturbed conditions present during the first release, we have developed a new method of assimilating oblique ionosonde data to generate the background ionosphere that can have numerous applications for HF systems. The link budget analysis of the received signals from the HF transmitters explains the missing low frequencies in the received signals along the great circle path. Observations and modeling confirm that the small amounts of ionized material injected in the lower-F region resulted in significant changes to the natural propagation environment.

  13. High sensitivity isotope analysis with a 252Cf--235U fueled subcritical multiplier and low background photon detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Laul, J.C.; MacMurdo, K.W.

    1976-09-01

    A 252 Cf activation analysis facility has been developed for routine multielement analysis of a wide variety of solid and liquid samples. The facility contains six sources of 252 Cf totaling slightly over 100 mg. These sources are placed in a 93 percent 235 U-enriched uranium core which is subcritical with a K effective of 0.985 (multiplication factor of 66). The system produces a thermal flux on the order of 10 +1 neutrons per square centimeter per second. A pneumatic rabbit system permits automatic irradiation, decay, and counting regimes to be performed unattended on the samples. The activated isotopes are analyzed through their photon emissions with state-of-the-art intrinsic Ge detectors, Ge(Li) detectors, and NaI(Tl) multidimensional gamma ray spectrometers. High efficiency (25 percent), low background, anticoincidence shielded Ge(Li) gamma ray detector systems have been constructed to provide the lowest possible background, yet maintain a peak to Compton ratio of greater than 1000 to 1. The multidimensional gamma ray spectrometer systems are composed of 23 cm diameter x 20 cm thick NaI(Tl) crystals surrounded by NaI(Tl) anticoincidence shields. The detection limits for over 65 elements have been determined for this system. Over 40 elements are detectable at the 1 part per million level at a precision of +-10 percent

  14. Equal Opportunities? The Effect of Social Background on Transition from Education to Work among Graduates in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opheim, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the impact of parental education on the education-to-work transition among graduates in Norway during the time period 1987-2001. Four indicators of labour market success are examined: (1) main activity after graduation, (2) mismatch in the labour market, (3) type of job position, and (4) monetary outcome. The findings indicate…

  15. [The reasons and background for the rise of college education of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-jie; Huang, Ying; Li, Jie

    2009-09-01

    With western learning spreading throughout the orient, the survival and development of TCM was restrained to a large degree due to the medical administrative policy, educational system and diffusion of western medicine at different social levels. Facing this adversity, the TCM sector complied with the changing times and survived through persistent efforts as well as wide and solid popular foundations, striving actively for the legitimacy status of TCM education and establishing several TCM colleges. During the course of running the colleges, the TCM sector was brave in changing ideas and giving and accepting new knowledge, it explored a comprehensive educational syllabus, which not only promoted the development of TCM education in the Republican period of China, but also laid a foundation for TCM education in the new period.

  16. Excess relative risk of solid cancer mortality after prolonged exposure to naturally occurring high background radiation in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Akiba, Suminori (and others)

    2000-10-01

    A study was made on cancer mortality in the high-background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex- and age-specific occupancy factors, cumulative doses were calculated for each subject. In this article, we describe how the indirect estimation was made on individual dose and the methodology used to estimate radiation risk. Then, assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995, we estimate the excess relative risk per Sievert for solid cancer to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69). Also, we estimate the excess relative risks of four leading cancers in the study areas, i.e., cancers of the liver, nasopharynx, lung and stomach. In addition, we evaluate the effects of possible bias on our risk estimation. (author)

  17. Estimation of thorium intake due to consumption of vegetables by inhabitants of high background radiation area by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Suma Nair; Prabhath, R.K.; Madhu Nair; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the thorium concentration in locally grown vegetables in high background radiation area (HBRA) of southern coastal regions of India. Locally grown vegetables were collected from HBRA of southern coastal regions of India. Thorium concentration was quantified using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at CIRUS reactor and counted using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. The annual intake of thorium was evaluated using the consumption data provided by National Nutrition Monitoring Board. The daily intake of 232 Th from the four food categories (green leafy vegetables, others vegetables, roots and tubers, and fruits) ranged between 0.27 and 5.352 mBq d -1 . The annual internal dose due to ingestion of thorium from these food categories was 46.8 x 10 -8 for female and 58.6 x 10 -8 Sv y -1 for male. (author)

  18. The flip-over effect in pulsed laser deposition: Is it relevant at high background gas pressures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro; Schneider, Christof W.; Döbeli, Max; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The flip-over effect in PLD is observed up to high deposition pressures. • Consistent congruent transfer of the target composition is generally not correct. • The choice of deposition pressure can change the film composition strongly. • Large compositional changes appear at high off-axis angles and large spot sizes. - Abstract: In pulsed laser deposition the use of a rectangular or elliptical beam spot with a non 1:1 aspect ratio leads to the so called flip-over effect. Here, the longest dimension of the laser spot results in the shortest direction of plasma plume expansion. This effect has been mainly reported for vacuum depositions of single element targets and is particularly noticeable when the aspect ratio of the beam spot is large. We investigate the flip-over effect in vacuum and at three relevant background-gas pressures for pulsed laser deposition using a La 0.4 Ca 0.6 MnO 3 target by measuring the thickness dependence of the deposited material as a function of angle. The film thicknesses and compositions are determined by Rutherford backscattering and argon is used to reduce the influence of additional chemical reactions in the plasma. The results show the prevalence of the flip-over effect for all pressures except for the highest, i.e. 1 × 10 −1 mbar, where the film thickness is constant for all angles. The composition profiles show noticeable compositional variations of up to 30% with respect to the target material depending on the background gas pressure, the angular location, and the laser spot dimensions.

  19. The flip-over effect in pulsed laser deposition: Is it relevant at high background gas pressures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Schneider, Christof W., E-mail: christof.schneider@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The flip-over effect in PLD is observed up to high deposition pressures. • Consistent congruent transfer of the target composition is generally not correct. • The choice of deposition pressure can change the film composition strongly. • Large compositional changes appear at high off-axis angles and large spot sizes. - Abstract: In pulsed laser deposition the use of a rectangular or elliptical beam spot with a non 1:1 aspect ratio leads to the so called flip-over effect. Here, the longest dimension of the laser spot results in the shortest direction of plasma plume expansion. This effect has been mainly reported for vacuum depositions of single element targets and is particularly noticeable when the aspect ratio of the beam spot is large. We investigate the flip-over effect in vacuum and at three relevant background-gas pressures for pulsed laser deposition using a La{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} target by measuring the thickness dependence of the deposited material as a function of angle. The film thicknesses and compositions are determined by Rutherford backscattering and argon is used to reduce the influence of additional chemical reactions in the plasma. The results show the prevalence of the flip-over effect for all pressures except for the highest, i.e. 1 × 10{sup −1} mbar, where the film thickness is constant for all angles. The composition profiles show noticeable compositional variations of up to 30% with respect to the target material depending on the background gas pressure, the angular location, and the laser spot dimensions.

  20. Radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide content in building materials of high background areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavarnegin, E.; Fathabadi, N.; Vahabi Moghaddam, M.; Vasheghani Farahani, M.; Moradi, M.; Babakhni, A.

    2013-01-01

    Radon exhalation rates from building materials used in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Ramsar were measured using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. Radon exhalation rates from these samples varied from below the lower detection limit up to 384 Bq.m −2 h −1 . The 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma- ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bq kg −1 , 187 Bq kg −1 and 1350 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The linear correlation coefficient between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration was 0.90. The result of this survey shows that radon exhalation rate and radium content in some local stones used as basements are extremely high and these samples are main sources of indoor radon emanation as well as external gamma radiation from uranium series. -- Highlights: ► In the selection process of local samples, portable scintillometer (NaI) was used. ► The activity concentration of 226 Ra varied from below the MDL up to 86400 Bq kg −1 . ► The activity concentration of 232 Th varied from below the MDL up to 187 Bq kg −1 . ► The activity concentration of 40 K varied from below the MDL up to 1350 Bq kg −1

  1. Radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide content in building materials of high background areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, E; Fathabadi, N; Vahabi Moghaddam, M; Vasheghani Farahani, M; Moradi, M; Babakhni, A

    2013-03-01

    Radon exhalation rates from building materials used in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Ramsar were measured using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. Radon exhalation rates from these samples varied from below the lower detection limit up to 384 Bq.m(-2) h(-1). The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma- ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bq kg(-1), 187 Bq kg(-1) and 1350 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The linear correlation coefficient between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration was 0.90. The result of this survey shows that radon exhalation rate and radium content in some local stones used as basements are extremely high and these samples are main sources of indoor radon emanation as well as external gamma radiation from uranium series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of radiation background at various high altitude locations in preparation for rare event search in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Dey, S.; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Syam, D., E-mail: rupamoy@gmail.com, E-mail: dey_s2001@yahoo.com, E-mail: sanjay@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: atanu.maulik@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: sibaji.raha@jcbose.ac.in, E-mail: syam.debapriyo@gmail.com [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block-EN, Sector-V, Kolkata-700091 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Various phenomenological models presented over the years have hinted at the possible presence of strangelets, which are nuggets of Strange Quark Matter (SQM), in cosmic rays. One way to search for such rare events is through the deployment of large area Nuclear Track Detector (NTD) arrays at high mountain altitudes. Before the deployment of any such array can begin, a detailed study of the radiation background is essential. Also, a proper understanding of the response of detectors exposed to extreme weather conditions is necessary. With that aim, pilot studies were carried out at various high altitude locations in India such as Darjeeling (2200 m a.m.s.l), Ooty (2200 m a.m.s.l) and Hanle (4500 m a.m.s.l). Small arrays of CR-39 as well as high threshold Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detectors were given open air exposures for periods ranging from three months to two years. The findings of such studies are reported in this paper.

  3. Education of Social Skills among Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.

    2016-01-01

    Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…

  4. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2008-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women-non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian-using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have "high labor force attachment" (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading.

  5. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women—non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian—using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have “high labor force attachment” (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading. PMID:26097255

  6. The Significance of Education for Establishment in the Care Sector: Women and Men and Care Workers with a Migrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Stina; Ahnlund, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have followed women and men with a Swedish or an immigrant background that have completed the Upper Secondary Health Care Program. In which occupations do they work? Who employs them? Which target groups do they serve? Official statistics and survey data were used. The interaction between occupational structure and educational…

  7. Australian School Practices and the Education Experiences of Students with a Refugee Background: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily; Ziaian, Tahereh; Esterman, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Schools have the potential for significant impact on the lives of Australian students with a refugee background. Many of these young people speak at least one language other than English, have previous histories of interrupted schooling or have experienced trauma during times of displacement and forced migration. Combined with the further…

  8. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  9. Evaluation of thyroid function in female subjects living in the high natural background radiation area of Karunagappally, Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, A.; Nair, Raghu Ram K.; Jayalakshmi, P.; Sebastian, P.; Akiba, S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been reported to cause non cancer thyroid abnormalities like diffuse goiter and thyroid nodules. The present study was undertaken to see if there are any morphological and functional changes taking place in the thyroid due to chronic low level radiation exposure. 257 female subjects living in the four high background radiation panchayats of Chavara, Neendakara, Alappad and Panmana were selected for the study after getting informed consent. 5 ml of blood was drawn from these subjects for assessing thyroid function. The subjects were all staying in the same area since their birth and had not moved out for more than one year at a stretch. The average age of the subjects was 40.5y with a range of 17-66y. The cumulative dose had a mean of 226.3 mGy and a range of 20.6-937.8 mGy. 95 subjects from the low background area of Oachira and Thevalakkara were selected as controls in the age group of 18-63y with a mean age of 47.1y. The mean cumulative dose of this group was 35.9 mGy with a minimum of 5.3 mGy and a maximum of 106.8 mGy. 5 ml blood was collected from these subjects for thyroid function studies. All the subjects underwent ultrasound examination of the thyroid using a 10 MHz frequency linear probe. The following parameters were studied to assess thyroid function: Free T4, TSH, Antithyroglobulin antibody (ATG), Parathyroid hormone. Ultrasound images showed the following common features: Normal - 171, Suggestive of Thyroiditis - 106, Multinodular Goitre - 63, Diffuse Goitre - 5, Solitary Nodule - 31. 73 subjects had elevated TSH and 190 subjects had raised ATG. A significant numbers of subjects had features of thyroiditis. A comparative evaluation with control subjects will be done to assess its significance with reference to cumulative dose

  10. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  11. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. Andrew [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Mortazavi, S.M. Javad [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Medical Physics Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of {sup 226}Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from

  12. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, P. Andrew; Mortazavi, S.M. Javad

    2001-01-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of 226 Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from leukemia, breast and

  13. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation characteristic of the new high background radiation area of lambwe east southern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achola, S.O.; Patel, J.P.; Angeyo, H.K.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Rocks and soils from a number of areas underlined by carbonatite rocks in Kenya have been associated with high levels of natural background radioactivity. People in such high background radiation areas (HBRA), are exposed to abnormally high annual absorbed dose (that have health implications) than the global normal 1 mSvyr-1. In this paper, results of field background radiation measurements, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in (mainly carbonatite rock and soil) matrices, and estimated annual external effective dose rates are presented for South and North Ruri hills in Lambwe East location of Suba District, which lies roughly between latitudes 0°30'S and 1°00'S, bounded on the east by longitude 34°30'E and on the west by the shores of Lake Victoria 16 and Winnam Gulf. Altitudes in the region range from about 1000 m on the shores of Lake Victoria to above 1800 m on top of the Ruri hills. The main geological features are carbonatite formations. Twenty one samples were analyzed using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentrations ranged 14.18 - 6559.99 Bqkg-1 (average: 1396.85 Bqkg-1) for Th-232; 2.73 - 499.24 Bqkg-1 (average: 178.69 Bqkg-1) for U-238; and 56.67 - 1454.73 Bqkg-1 (average: 508.67 Bqkg-1) for K-40. The variability in Th distribution could be due to another contributing factor apart from carbonatite: Homa hills geothermal field fluids might be responsible for delivery of Th to surface rocks; some hot spots have travertine deposits. Measured absorbed dose rates in air outdoors range 700 - 6000.00 nGyh-1 (mean: 2325.84 nGy h-1); assuming 0.4 occupancy factor, these values correspond to individual annual effective dose rates of 1.717 - 14.717 mSvyr-1 (mean: 5.705 mSv yr-1). Measured absorbed dose rates are higher than calculated values since they include the contribution of cosmic rays. The natural radioactivity is fractionated with higher levels in the soils than carbonatite rocks

  14. Development of High Frequency Transition-Edge-Sensor Polarimeters for Next Generation Cosmic Microwave Background Experiments and Galactic Foreground Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Samantha; Sierra, Carlos E.; Austermann, Jason Edward; Beall, James; Becker, Dan; Dober, Bradley; Duff, Shannon; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Van Lanen, Jeffrey L.; McMahon, Jeff; Simon, Sara M.; Ullom, Joel; Vissers, Michael R.; NIST Quantum Sensors Group

    2018-06-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a powerful tool for probing the earliest moments of the universe and therefore have the potential to transform our understanding of cosmology. In particular, precision measurements of its polarization can reveal the existence of gravitational waves produced during cosmic inflation. However, these observations are complicated by the presence of astrophysical foregrounds, which may be separated by using broad frequency coverage, as the spectral energy distribution between foregrounds and the CMB is distinct. For this purpose, we are developing large-bandwidth, feedhorn-coupled transition-edge-sensor (TES) arrays that couple polarized light from waveguide to superconducting microstrip by use of a symmetric, planar orthomode transducer (OMT). In this work, we describe two types of pixels, an ultra-high frequency (UHF) design, which operates from 195 GHz-315 GHz, and an extended ultra-high frequency (UHF++) design, which operates from 195 GHz-420 GHz, being developed for next generation CMB experiments that will come online in the next decade, such as CCAT-prime and the Simons Observatory. We present the designs, simulation results, fabrication, and preliminary measurements of these prototype pixels.

  15. A novel background reduction strategy for high level triggers and processing in gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cabras, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M. M.; De Sabata, F.; Mansutti, O.; Frailis, M.; Persic, M.; Bigongiari, C.; Doro, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.; Scalzotto, V.; Paoletti, R.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is now at the leading edge for studies related both to fundamental physics and astrophysics. The sensitivity of gamma detectors is limited by the huge amount of background, constituted by hadronic cosmic rays (typically two to three orders of magnitude more than the signal) and by the accidental background in the detectors. By using the information on the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov light, the background can be reduced. We will present here the results obtained wit...

  16. Attitudes and Motivation toward Learning the English Language among Students from Islamic Education System Background: Exploring the Views of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sheikh Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of attitudes and motivation has increasingly investigated the nature and role of motivation in L2 learning process, and many are inspired by Canadian psychologists, Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert [1]. However, in Malaysia, there has been only a meagre number of research that investigates teachers' perceptions on attitudes and motivation of students from religious school background. It is of great significance to explore the attitudes and motivation of these groups of students because the students appeared to be weak in the English language and they also held negative perceptions toward the language [2, 3]. The present study is needed to attain authentic information about possible connections between teachers' personal experiences, their perspectives and their practices regarding teaching and learning of students from the aforementioned background. This qualitative research study contains in-depth teacher interviews that document their personal perceptions, ways of dealing with students in the specified setting, and their suggestions on improving the attitudes and motivation of learning English for students from religious school background. Findings are presented according to the research questions intended for the study and several conclusions were drawn from the data. 

  17. Designed Green Toolbox as built environment educating method-analytical comparison between two groups of students with different cultural background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Fiky, U.; Hamdy, I.; Fikry, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with evaluating and testing the application process of green architecture design strategies using a tool-box as a built environment educating method and a pre-design reminder. Understanding the suggested green design strategies, testing the tool-box effectiveness,

  18. The Age of Studies and Reports: Selected Elements Concerning the Background of Encounters Defining the Power of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tašner, Veronika; Gaber, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we discuss the time before the "age of reports". Besides the Coleman Report in the period of Coleman, the Lady Plowden Report also appeared, while there were important studies in France (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1964; Peyre, 1959) and studies that inaugurated comprehensive education in Nordic countries. We focus on…

  19. Educational background and professional participation by federal wildlife biologists: Implications for science, management, and The Wildlife Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    Over 2,000 people are employed in wildlife biology in the United States federal government. The size of this constituency motivated me to examine the amount of formal education federal biologists have received and the extent of continuing education they undertake by reading journals or attending scientific meetings. Most federal biologists who are members of The Wildlife Society (TWS) have a graduate degree. However, one-third have only a Bachelor of Science degree, despite the current trend toward hiring people with graduate degrees. Most federal biologists are not research biologists. Numbers of journals subscribed to was positively related to educational level. Less than one-third of all wildlife biologists employed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service are members of TWS or subscribe to any of its journals. In contrast, the majority of presenters at the TWS 2000 Annual Conference were research biologists and members of TWS. The failure of many federal wildlife biologists to read scientific literature or attend professional meetings indicates a failure to promote the importance of continuing education in the federal workplace. I identify 2 potential adverse impacts of this failing: an inability to recognize important and relevant scientific contributions and an ineffectiveness in carrying out adaptive management.

  20. Teacher Educators' and Student Teachers' Beliefs about Preparation for Working with Families Including Those from Diverse Socioeconomic and Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haem, Jeanne; Griswold, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined teacher preparation for developing family partnerships. The attitudes and practices of teacher educators and the attitudes and experiences of student teachers were explored in focus groups, documents, and a survey instrument. Results indicated that although partnerships were considered important by faculty and…

  1. Aesthetic activities and aesthetic attitudes: influences of education, background and personality on interest and involvement in the arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Furnham, A

    2006-11-01

    There have been few studies of why some people are frequently involved in aesthetic activities such as going to the theatre, reading or playing musical instruments, whereas others are less involved. This study assesses the broad roles of education, personality and demographic factors such as social class, age and sex. More aesthetic activity was associated with music and art education, whereas science education had a substantial negative relationship with aesthetic activity, both directly and also indirectly via reduced art education. More aesthetic activity was particularly related to higher scores on the personality factor of openness, and also to lower scores on agreeableness and conscientiousness. Higher parental social class was also associated with more aesthetic activity, as also was lower age. Sex had no relationship to aesthetic activity, as neither did masculinity-femininity. Positive aesthetic attitudes were also related moderately to aesthetic activity, but were particularly strongly related to openness to experience, and somewhat less to extraversion. Class, age and sex had no direct relationship to aesthetic attitudes.

  2. Successes and failures of inclusive education of youth from migrant backgrounds: The Turkish second generation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schnell, Ph.; Schiff, C.; Szalai, J.

    2014-01-01

    This book compares the educational experiences of adolescents from a variety of 'visible' ethnic minority groups such as Roma in Central Europe, post-colonial minorities in France and England, Turks and Arabs in Germany, and recent immigrants in Scandinavia. Focusing on underprivileged urban

  3. The Analysis of Fourth Grade Primary Students' Reader Self-Perceptions in Terms of Gender and Preschool Educational Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagirli, Muhittin; Okur, Burçin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse perceptions of fourth grade primary school students on their reading ability. In study, screening model was used as a quantitative research method. The sample of this research was selected by convenience sampling. The sample consisted of 556 fourth grade students who received education in 8 public schools in…

  4. A novel background reduction strategy for high level triggers and processing in gamma-ray Cherenkov detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabras, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M. M.; De Sabata, F.; Mansutti, O.; Frailis, M.; Persic, M.; Bigongiari, C.; Doro, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.; Scalzotto, V.; Paoletti, R.; Scribano, A.; Turini, N.; Moralejo, A.; Tescaro, D.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is now at the leading edge for studies related both to fundamental physics and astrophysics. The sensitivity of gamma detectors is limited by the huge amount of background, constituted by hadronic cosmic rays (typically two to three orders of magnitude more than the signal) and by the accidental background in the detectors. By using the information on the temporal evolution of the Cherenkov light, the background can be reduced. We will present here the results obtained within the MAGIC experiment using a new technique for the reduction of the background. Particle showers produced by gamma rays show a different temporal distribution with respect to showers produced by hadrons; the background due to accidental counts shows no dependence on time. Such novel strategy can increase the sensitivity of present instruments

  5. Establishment of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines of old residents in high background radiation area in Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xue; Feng Jiangbing; Chen Deqing; Liu Qingjie; Cha Yongru; Zou Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the immortalized cell lines of peripheral blood lymphocytes for old male residents in high background radiation area (HBRA) in Guangdong, China, in order to preserve the specific genomic resources of residents in HBRA for the further genetic and molecular biological study on HBRA. Methods: The peripheral blood samples of 20 old male residents in HBRA were collected after informed consent. The immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines, 2 fox each resident, were established with Epstein-Barr virus. After being frozen and recovered, the cell viability, the contamination of bacterium and mycoplasma were analyzed. The stabilization of cell lines was decided by comparing the karyotypes of the peripheral blood lymphocytes and the cell lines. Results: 40 cell lines for 20 residents in HBRA were successfully established.. The recovery rate of cell lines after being frozen was 100% . All the cell viablity after recovery was higher than 90%, and no contamination of bacteria and mycoplasma occurred. The karyotypes of the 20th generation cell lines were not change. Conclusion: The immortalized cell lines established in this study could provide biological resources for further study on genetics and molecular biology in HBRA. (authors)

  6. Measurement of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area in Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling

    2000-01-01

    The investigators have measured concentrations of Rn-222, rn-220 and their decay products in high background radiation area (HBRA) and the neighboring control area (CA), as well as the equilibrium factor F for Rn-222. The average concentrations of Rn-222 in the air indoors and outdoors in the HBRA are 42.6 and 17.3 Bq/m 3 respectively, and CA, 13.2 and 11.7 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The average α-potential energy concentrations for daughters of Rn-222 indoors and outdoors in HBRA are 0.109 and 0.051 μJ/m 3 , CA, 0.045 and 0.041 μJ/m 3 , respectively. The average α-potential energy values for daughters of Rn-220 indoor and outdoor in HBRA are 0.249 and 0.053 μJ/m 3 , CA, 0.051 and 0.025 μJ/m 3 , respectively. With regard to equilibrium factor F for Rn-222, the authors have also measured 52 points of 10 hamlets in HBRA (indoor 31, outdoor 21), 9 points of 2 hamlets in CA (indoor 5, outdoor 4), respectively. These figures are 0.46, 0.53, 0.62 and 0.64, respectively

  7. Non-cancer disease mortality among inhabitants in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China (1979-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Akiba, Suminori; Zou Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Much is still unknown about the health effects of low-level radiation on human health, particularly on the risk of non-cancer diseases. A review by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) scientists has concluded that the association of atomic-bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is almost certain since the relationship was shown by incidence and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis. In addition to the studies of atomic bomb survivors, the association of CVD with radiation exposure was observed in several other studies, including the follow-up study of patients treated for Hodgkin lymphoma, ankylosing spondilitis, peptic ulcer and scoliosis as well as nuclear workers. The inhabitants in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, China receive the external radiation doses of 1.33 mSv in excess every year, mainly from exposure to terrestrial gamma ray, when compared to the residents in the neighboring control area (CA). Our most recent analysis of cancer mortality among residents in the HBRA and the CA showed no evident difference between the two areas. It should be of note that the crude cancer mortality rate in the study population was 60/100,000 person-years, which is much lower than cancer mortality in developed countries. On the other hand, non cancer deaths accounted for 90% of all deaths. In this report, we present the results of mortality analysis for non-cancer diseases during the period 1979-1998. (author)

  8. Analysis of data (1987-1995) from investigation of cancer mortality in high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Akiba, S.; Zha Yongru

    1999-01-01

    Objective: This investigation is a special project of High Background Radiation Research Group. The objective of the cancer mortality study in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China, which was started in 1972, was to estimate cancer risk associated with the low level radiation exposure of average annual effective dose of 6.4 mSv in HBRA. Since 1991, the study has been conducted collaboratively by Chinese and Japanese scientists with the purpose of accumulating further person years (Pyr) of observation for improving the statistical precision and seeing the reproducibility of the previous results. Methods: The cancer mortality data of 1987-1995 covered in the current cooperative study were collected by a retrospective and/or prospective survey from a fixed cohort. The mortality investigation on the spot consisted of two steps, i.e. the follow-up of members in the cohort and the ascertainment of the death causes. Based on the hamlet-specific average annual external dose, the members of the cohort in HBRA were classified into three groups: high, medial and low dose groups. Risk comparisons between each of the three dose groups with the control group from control area (CA) were conducted by means of relative risk (RR). The RR and the excess relative risk coefficient (ERR per sievert) and their y 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using AMFIT program in Epicure. Results: During the period 1987-1995, there were 5161 total deaths and 557 cancer deaths among 926238 Pyr at risk in the cohort of 106517 subjects. The RR (95% CI) adjusted for sex and age group for all cancers of whole HBRA was 0.96 (0.80-1.15). As for the site-specific cancer of whole HBRA, the RRs for leukemia, cancers of nasopharynx, esophagus and intestine were larger than one, while the RRs for cancers of stomach, liver, lungs, female breast, thyroid and lymphoma were less than one. However, all of them were not statistically different from one (P>0.05 for all). The

  9. Does a Nutrition Education Programme Change the Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Diets among High School Adolescents in Chennai, India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…

  10. Analysis of the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis under high-flow oxygen therapy during emergency transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamano, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Genta; Tomishima, Yutaka; Jinta, Torahiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    High-flow oxygen is often administered to patients during emergency transport and can sometimes cause respiratory acidosis with disturbed consciousness, thereby necessitating mechanical ventilation. Although oxygen titration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during emergency transport reduces mortality rates, the clinical risk factors for respiratory acidosis in emergency settings are not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis during pre-hospital transport. This was a retrospective study of patients who arrived at our hospital by emergency transport in 2010 who received high-flow oxygen while in transit. Respiratory acidosis was defined by the following arterial blood gas readings: pH, ≤7.35; PaCO 2 , ≥45 mmHg; and HCO 3 - , ≥24 mmol/L. The risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In 765 study patients, 66 patients showed respiratory acidosis. The following risk factors for respiratory acidosis were identified: age, ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-2.8); transportation time, ≥10 min (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7); three digits on the Japan Coma Scale (OR 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7-5.8); percutaneous oxygen saturation, ≤90% (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0); tuberculosis (OR 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4-15.1); asthma (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6-5.3); pneumonia (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7-3.1); and lung cancer (OR 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1). These underlying diseases as risk factors included both comorbid diseases and past medical conditions. The factors identified may contribute to the development of respiratory acidosis. Further studies on preventing respiratory acidosis will improve the quality of emergency medical care.

  11. Metal-as-insulation variant of no-insulation HTS winding technique: pancake tests under high background magnetic field and high current at 4.2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécrevisse, T.; Badel, A.; Benkel, T.; Chaud, X.; Fazilleau, P.; Tixador, P.

    2018-05-01

    In the framework of a project aiming at fabricating a 10 T high temperature superconducting (HTS) insert to operate in a 20 T background field, we are investigating the behavior of pancakes consisting of a REBCO HTS tape co-wound with a stainless steel tape (metal-as-insulation (MI) coil). The MI winding is inducing a significant turn-to-turn electrical resistance which helps to reduce the charging time delay. Despite this resistance, the self-protection feature of no-insulation coils is still enabled, thanks to the voltage limit of the power supply. We have built a single pancake coil representative of the pancake that will be used in the insert and performed tests under very high background magnetic field. Our coil experienced over 100 heater induced quenches without a measureable increase of its internal resistance. We have gathered stability and quench behavior data for magnetic fields and engineering current densities (je ) in the range of 0–17 T and 0–635 A mm‑2 respectively. We also present our very first experiments on the insert/outsert interaction in the case of a resistive magnet fault. We show that if self-protection of the MI winding is really effective in the case of a MI coil quench, a major issue comes from the outsert fault which induces a huge current inside the MI coil.

  12. Preliminary analysis of data (1987-1990) from investigation of cancer mortality in high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Sun Quanfu; Zhang Shouzhi

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The cancer mortality study conducted in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China, was started in 1972. The major objective of the study was to estimate cancer risk associated with the low level radiation exposure in HBRA. Since 1991, the cancer mortality data were collected from a fixed cohort instead of a dynamic one as in the previous stage. The purpose of the study in the current stage was to accumulate further person-years (Pyr) of observation for improving the statistical power of test in the estimates of cancer risk associated with the natural radiation exposure and to see the reproducibility of the previous results. Methods: The collection of cancer mortality data consisted of two phases, the survey of demography and the ascertainment of death causes. The estimates of relative risk (RR) were calculated by AMFIT in Epicure (Hirosoft International Corp., 1988-1992). Results: During the period of 1987-1990 there were 231 cancer deaths among 421640 Pyr at risk in the cohort of 106517 subjects, which were classified into four groups based on the hamlet-specific average annual gamma ray absorbed doses: three groups (high , medial and low doses) from HBRA and control group from CA. The RRs adjusted for sex and age for each dose group in HBRA compared with the control group for overall cancers and for all cancers except leukemia were less than 1 except for the low dose group, and there seemed to be a trend of RR decrease with the increase of exposure dose from natural radiation, though there was no statistically significant difference. As for the site-specific cancer studied, the cancers of lungs, liver, stomach, nasopharynx and leukemia, the RRs were also less than 1 except for nasopharynx cancer and for leukemia in the high dose group. The analysis of combined data ( 1979-1990) showed similar results. Conclusion: Although the sample size was not large enough to make definite conclusion statistically, the observation of current

  13. Assuming measurement invariance of background indicators in international comparative educational achievement studies: a challenge for the interpretation of achievement differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Wendt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale cross-national studies designed to measure student achievement use different social, cultural, economic and other background variables to explain observed differences in that achievement. Prior to their inclusion into a prediction model, these variables are commonly scaled into latent background indices. To allow cross-national comparisons of the latent indices, measurement invariance is assumed. However, it is unclear whether the assumption of measurement invariance has some influence on the results of the prediction model, thus challenging the reliability and validity of cross-national comparisons of predicted results. Methods To establish the effect size attributed to different degrees of measurement invariance, we rescaled the ‘home resource for learning index’ (HRL for the 37 countries ( $$n=166,709$$ n = 166 , 709 students that participated in the IEA’s combined ‘Progress in International Reading Literacy Study’ (PIRLS and ‘Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study’ (TIMSS assessments of 2011. We used (a two different measurement models [one-parameter model (1PL and two-parameter model (2PL] with (b two different degrees of measurement invariance, resulting in four different models. We introduced the different HRL indices as predictors in a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with mathematics achievement as the dependent variable. We then compared three outcomes across countries and by scaling model: (1 the differing fit-values of the measurement models, (2 the estimated discrimination parameters, and (3 the estimated regression coefficients. Results The least restrictive measurement model fitted the data best, and the degree of assumed measurement invariance of the HRL indices influenced the random effects of the GLMM in all but one country. For one-third of the countries, the fixed effects of the GLMM also related to the degree of assumed measurement invariance. Conclusion The

  14. The Relationship of a Pilot's Educational Background, Aeronautical Experience and Recency of Experience to Performance In Initial Training at a Regional Airline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Nancy R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a pilot's educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience relate to their performance during initial training at a regional airline. Results show that variables in pilots' educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience do predict performance in training. The most significant predictors include years since graduation from college, multi-engine time, total time and whether or not a pilot had military flying experience. Due to the pilot shortage, the pilots entering regional airline training classes since August 2013 have varied backgrounds, aeronautical experience and recency of experience. As explained by Edward Thorndike's law of exercise and the law of recency, pilots who are actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit strong performance in those areas and pilots who have not been actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit degraded performance in those areas. Through correlation, chi-square and multiple regression analysis, this study tests this theory as it relates to performance in initial training at a regional airline.

  15. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants in the high background radiation areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2000-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external exposure to natural radiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control areas (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied in which the exposed individual doses were estimated from the environmental radiation doses measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. We analyzed the dose in the hamlets and the variation in the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and several hamlets of different dose levels in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we estimated individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows. The environmental radiation doses are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiations. The indoor radiation doses were due to exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and were about two times as large as the outdoor radiation doses. The difference between indoor and outdoor doses was not observed in CA. The occupancy factor was influenced by the age of individuals and by the season of the year. The occupancy factor was higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher dose rates of exposure to those age groups. A good correlation was observed between the dose assessed indirectly and that measured directly and the

  16. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Valentin; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc

    2010-05-01

    A new, long open-path instrument for monitoring of path-averaged methane and water vapor concentrations will be presented. The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver - distant retroreflector). A VCSEL tunable diode laser (TDL) with a central wavelength of 1654 nm is used as a light source. A specially designed, single-cell, hollow-cube retroreflector with 150 mm aperture will be installed at 1200 m from the transceiver in the final deployment at Jungfraujjoch and 100 mm retroreflectors will be used in the other applications. The receiver is built around a 20 cm Newtonian telescope. To avoid distortions in the shape of a methane line, caused by atmospheric turbulences, the line is scanned within 1 µs. Fast InGaAs photodiodes and 200 MHz are used to achieve this scanning rate. The expected concentration resolution for the above mentioned path lengths is of the order of 2 ppb. The instrument is developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland and will be used within the GAW+ CH program for long-term monitoring of background methane concentration in the Swiss Alps. After completing the initial tests at EPFL the instrument will be installed in 2012 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (HARSJ) located at 3580 m ASL. The HARSJ is one of the 24 global GAW stations and carries on continuous observations of a number of trace gasses, including methane. One of the goals of the project is to compare path-averaged to ongoing point measurements of methane in order to identify possible influence of the station. Future deployments of a copy of the instrument include the Colombian part of Amazonia and Siberian wetlands.

  17. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants in the high background radiation areas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external exposure to natural radiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control areas (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied in which the exposed individual doses were estimated from the environmental radiation doses measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. We analyzed the dose in the hamlets and the variation in the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and several hamlets of different dose levels in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we estimated individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows. The environmental radiation doses are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiations. The indoor radiation doses were due to exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and were about two times as large as the outdoor radiation doses. The difference between indoor and outdoor doses was not observed in CA. The occupancy factor was influenced by the age of individuals and by the season of the year. The occupancy factor was higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher dose rates of exposure to those age groups. A good correlation was observed between the dose assessed indirectly and that measured directly and the

  18. Biological effects of high level natural background radiation on human population residing in Kerala coast, South West India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The populations residing in Kerala coast are exposed to elevated natural background radiation since many generations. Extensive studies conducted by Bio-Medical group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center have generated wealth of data from this area dealing with epidemiology, monitoring the newborns for malformations, Health Audit Survey, Dosimetry and biological studies using cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques. Our studies on congenital malformations and chromosomal anomalies in children born to parents residing in High Level Natural Radiation Areas in Kerala have not shown any significant difference from normal radiation areas. Screening of over 1,25,000 consecutively born children showed an incidence rate which is comparable in both areas. Other factors such as consanguinity, maternal age and gravida status are more significant contributors than radiation dose to the risk for having malformation in child. Radiation prevalent in the HLNRA is in the dose range of above 1.5 to about 50 mGy per year which translates to doses in the range of nGy per hour. This clearly indicate the number of cells exposed to radiations will be one in few thousand or ten thousands. This throws up challenges in our capability to investigate the effects of radiation on cells. It has become imperative to develop and exploit techniques which will detect responses in single cells and would be able screen large number of cells at a time. Developments in cell biology and molecular biology are now giving us these capabilities. Use of flowcytometer and next generation sequencing would enable us to address many of these questions and provide meaningful approaches to understand the effects of such low dose radiation

  19. Reanalysis of noncancer deaths (1987-1995) among residents in high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru; Sun Quanfu; Liu Yusheng; Li Jia; Tao Zufan; Wei Lvxin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To further analyze non-cancer mortality rates and relevant influencing factors among the residents in high background radiation area(HBRA) and its control area (CA). Methods: The data for the period 1987-1995 were obtained from a fixed cohort by prospective survey. The mortality investigation on the spot consisted of two steps, i.e. the follow-up of the cohort members and the ascertainment of causes of death. On the basis of the hamlet-specific average of annual external dose, the cohort members were classified into four groups for internal comparison: high, medial and low dose groups in HBRA and control group in CA. Relative risk (RR), excess relative risk(ERR/Sv) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using AMFIT program in Epicure. Results: During the period 1987-1995, the noncancer mortality in HBRA increased by 9% compared with that in the control group, and the relative risk of noncancer diseases was 1.09 (P=0.01), indicating a statistically significant excess mortality in the HBRA. The significantly increased noncancer death was caused by diseases of digestive system, with a RR of 1.46(P=0.006); the relative risk of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis was 1.98(P=0.004). The significantly decreased noncancer death rates were observed for the infectious and parasitic diseases, the RR being 0.81(P=0.04); for pulmonary tuberculosis, RR 0.58(P<0.001). The homogeneity tests of risks across the four dose-groups revealed that the RRs for diseases of digestive system and for liver cirrhosis were significantly different, P values being 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. The ERR(95% CI)/Sv for diseases of digestive system and liver cirrhosis were 2.18(0.22, 7.64) and 10.94(1.34, NA), respectively. Conclusion: The death rates from diseases of digestive system, especially chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis were statistically significantly higher, and that from pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly lower in the HBRA than those in the control

  20. Four years of highly time resolved measurements of elemental and organic carbon at a rural background site in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Saliou; Fusek, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Šmejkalová, Adéla Holubová; Holoubek, Ivan

    2018-06-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in fine atmospheric aerosols (PM2.5: aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) have been measured with a semi-automatic instrument during a 4-year survey at the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK), Czech Republic. Ground based measurements were performed from March 2013 to December 2016 with a field Semi-Continuous OCEC Aerosol Analyzer (Sunset Laboratory Inc., USA). The variation of EC and OC concentrations and the OC/EC ratio was characterized for different seasons and days of the week. During our survey, higher concentrations of EC and OC were observed in winter (0.83 ± 0.67 and 3.33 ± 2.28 μg m-3, respectively), and lower concentrations were recorded in summer (0.34 ± 0.18 and 2.30 ± 1.15 μg m-3, respectively). Inversely, the OC/EC ratio with mean value (5.1 ± 2.6) characteristic to rural background area was higher in summer (7.33 ± 3.23) in comparison to the other seasons. Since the data contain values below detection and quantification limits of the measuring device (i.e., censored values), statistical methods for censored data have been used in order to compare mean EC and OC concentrations between various seasons. It was found out that there is a significant difference between summer and the other seasons with the exception of mean OC concentrations at noon. In most cases, there was also a significant difference between winter and the other seasons. Moreover, it was found out that when dealing with OC concentrations, it is possible to replace censored values by a constant and still obtain reasonable results. In case of EC concentrations, the method based on censored distributions should be preferred when the sample size is small and the proportion of censored values is high. The diurnal variation of EC and OC is less pronounced in summer. During working days, the EC diurnal pattern displays a morning (between 6:00 and 10:00) and an afternoon/evening (between 18:00 and 22:00) peaks, while

  1. Do Highly Educated Women Choose Smaller Families?

    OpenAIRE

    Hazan, Moshe; Zoabi, Hosny

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that in developed countries income and fertility are negatively correlated. We present new evidence that between 2001 and 2009 the cross-sectional relationship between fertility and women's education in the U.S. is U-shaped. At the same time, average hours worked increase monotonically with women's education. This pattern is true for all women and mothers to newborns regardless of marital status. In this paper, we advance the marketization hypothesis for explainin...

  2. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  3. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants on high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige [Kinki Univ., Atomic Energy Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Tatsumi, Kusuo [Kinki Univ., Life Science Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu [Health Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan); Yuan Yongling [Labor Hygiene Institute of Hunan Prov. (China); Wei Luxin [Laboratory of Industorial Hygiene, Ministry of Health (China)

    2001-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on the natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external to natural radiation in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control area (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by the personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied to estimate the exposed dose rates from the environmental radiation dose rates measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. An individual radiation dose roughly correlates with the environmental radiation dose and the life style of the inhabitant. We have analyzed the environmental radiation doses in the hamlets and the variation of the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and the several hamlets of the different level doses in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we made estimations of individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from the direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The environmental radiation dose rates are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiation. The indoor radiation dose rates were due to the exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and they were about twice higher than the outdoor radiation dose rates. This difference was not observed in CA. (2) The occupancy factor was affected by the age of individuals and the seasons of a year. Indoor occupancy factors were higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher

  4. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants on high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2001-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on the natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external to natural radiation in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control area (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by the personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied to estimate the exposed dose rates from the environmental radiation dose rates measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. An individual radiation dose roughly correlates with the environmental radiation dose and the life style of the inhabitant. We have analyzed the environmental radiation doses in the hamlets and the variation of the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and the several hamlets of the different level doses in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we made estimations of individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from the direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows: 1) The environmental radiation dose rates are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiation. The indoor radiation dose rates were due to the exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and they were about twice higher than the outdoor radiation dose rates. This difference was not observed in CA. 2) The occupancy factor was affected by the age of individuals and the seasons of a year. Indoor occupancy factors were higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher

  5. The cultural background of the non-academic concept of psychology in Japan: its implications for introductory education in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non-Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding differs cross-culturally. This study examined whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced Japanese students differed from the concept held by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to as , which includes the ideographic character , literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that psychology will be disproportionately associated with emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese students produced a J-curve, indicating that our prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed in Japan because a majority of people share this concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only preference in students' association of intelligence or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we identified whether students' believe that psychology encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of explicitly defining the non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in Japan. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Teaching Evolution in New Jersey Public High Schools: Examining the Influence of Personal Belief and Religious Background on Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between New Jersey biology teachers' personal characteristics and religious backgrounds and the time spent and approach to teaching evolution. The research instrument chosen was a cross-sectional survey. Survey questions were presented in various forms: fill in, single response, Likert…

  7. Study of cancer mortality among inhabitants in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China (1979-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Sun Quanfu; Li Jia; Liu Yusheng; Wei Lvxin; Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru; Yuan Yongling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to explore cancer risk associated with the low-level radiation exposure of average annual effective dose of 6.4 mSv occurring in the high background radiation area (HBRA) in Yangjiang of Guangdong Province, China. Methods: The data of cancer mortality for period of 1979-1986 were collected in prospective follow-up survey of dynamic populations and those of 1987-1998 were obtained from a fixed cohort in the same method. Record linkage was used to combine the two data sets. The external dose received by the inhabitants was estimated on the basis of hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex-age-specific occupancy factors, and the fixed values of internal dose regardless of sex and age was assumed. Relative risk (RR) and excess relative risk coefficient (ERR/Sv) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the AMFIT in Epicure. Results: During the period of 1979-1998, the follow-up for 125 079 subjects accumulated 1 992 940 person-years and identified 12 444 deaths, including 1202 cancer deaths. The RR of mortality of all cancers in whole HBRA was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.14) showing no statistical difference between the HBRA and the control area (CA). The RRs of all cancers in low, intermediate and high dose groups in the HBRA did not show statistical difference from the control group, either. The region (Yangdong and Yangxi) and the follow-up period(1979-1986 and 1987-1998) did not evidently modify the results, and the restriction of cancer cases to those with pathology information made no statistically significant change in RRs. In site-specific cancer analysis, only the RR of esophageal cancer showed statistical excess in the HBRA, the others did not show statistical difference between the HBRA and the CA. The comparison of RRs of site-specific cancer mortality among different dose groups and the dose-response analysis of site-specific cancer mortality related to cumulative individual lifetime dose did not give

  8. Profiles of Change: Lessons for Improving High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This feature has told stories of high school physical educators who have refused to accept the status quo of high school physical education programs. They have identified problems, initiated innovations in their own classes, implemented changes beyond their classes, and moved toward institutionalizing improvements throughout their programs and…

  9. Sexuality Education in Junior High Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, N.; Shinohara, H.; Tashiro, M.; Suzuki, S.; Hirose, H.; Ikeya, H.; Ushitora, K.; Komiya, A.; Watanabe, M.; Motegi, T.; Morioka, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to determine via responses to three questionnaire surveys how sexuality education programs are conducted at junior high schools in Japan. Study 1 examined the practice of sexuality education in schools, Study 2 investigated junior high school students' (age 12-13 and 14-15 years) knowledge of sexuality, and Study 3 examined…

  10. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  11. For Education Entrepreneurs, Innovation Yields High Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Julie Landry

    2014-01-01

    Education entrepreneurs create either a for-profit or nonprofit enterprise, based on their fundraising needs, the revenue model that will suit their product or service, and the employees they hope to entice. Those who take the for-profit route face mistrust on the part of policymakers and many parents, and for-profit ventures have consequently…

  12. Topological background on charmed and beauty particle pairs produced in high energy hadron interactions in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that by making use of the fact that new flavors must be produced in pairs in strong interactions and that beauty particles are expected to decay often into charmed particles, the contribution of background simulating decays can be computed from a pure topological point of view. Topics covered include the emulsion data, the search for charmed particles, the search for beauty particles, detection efficiency, and the evaluation of mean life-time. It is assumed that in the interaction of (350-400) GeV hadrons in emulsion the production rate of charmed particle pairs is 5X10 -3 /interaction. The corresponding figures for BB production are estimated to be 10 3 times smaller. It is noted that some neutral decay topology, like 4 or more charged prongs, are much less affected by background

  13. Distance Education of Vocational High Schools in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe GÜNTER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of vocational high schools is to teach qualified, high self-sufficient, self-confident, technical staff who have critical and mathematical thinking competence and who can utilize science and technology efficiently. However, because of the limitations of traditional education, students can not take enough education attendance. In this context; along with the advances in science and technology area, “Web- Based Distance Education Programme”, which provides equal education conditions to students, is developed. This programme has got great progresses in abroad, and has also started to practice in Turkish Vocational High Schools. It is determined that some Vocational High Schools have applied Web-Based Distance Education in Medical Documentation and Secretarial (MDS and Medical Laboratory Techniques (MLT Associate Degree Programmes which are also existed in Bülent Ecevit University (BEU Ahmet Erdoğan Health Services Vocational High School. It is observed that the universities, that implemented distance education in these associate degree programmes, have higher technical infrastructure and they design a constructivism-based modules. It is considered that this distance education programme for MDS and MLT Associate Degree Programmes in certain Vocational Schools, can also be implemented for students in Medical Documentation and Secretarial (MDS and Medical Laboratory Techniques (MLT which continues education by computers and overhead projector that is slightly different from traditional education.

  14. Study on the Introduction of High-Quality Educational Resources for Sino-Foreign Cooperative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    In Sino-foreign cooperative education, high-quality introduced educational resources must benefit the growth and development of students, facilitate the school's capacity building and the improvement of overall educational standards, and promote national socioeconomic development. It is necessary to establish and perfect the various working…

  15. Teaching Civic Education in a Migrating Global Community: How Can Students with a Migration Background Contribute to Didactics and Civic Education Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Susann

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The article enquires about how young migrants perceive and evaluate civic education in school and what expectations they have of the subject. Method: The article is based on a qualitative-oriented research work based on the Grounded Theory; surveys were made by interviews with students. Findings: The article emphasises that educational…

  16. Views of West African surgeons on how well their educational and professional backgrounds may have prepared them for health leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O; Nkanga, Dennis; Onakoya, Adeola

    2010-12-01

    Because of the appalling health indices in West Africa, Physicians there need to be at the forefront of the organizational challenge in managing and improving health systems. To collate the views of West African surgeons on how well their educational and professional backgrounds may have prepared them for leadership and managerial roles in health care, and draw appropriate policy implications. Filled structured questionnaires from 110 surgeons that were attending an annual conference were analyzed. The respondents' bio data, professional, educational, health administrative backgrounds were probed. Their views on justifications for physicians' involvement in health managerial roles, probable influence of some physicians' characteristic traits and professional attributes on health leadership roles, and suggestions for improvement were also collated. 71.8% of the respondents had held or were then holding health-related administrative posts; 90% had attended different varieties of management courses; 95.4% identified physicians as the inherent leaders of the health care team; but only 28.4% adjudged their health management role "strongly important" (28.4%) among their multi-faceted roles; and they largely agreed that some stated professional and characteristic traits of physicians tend to make them poor leaders and managers. Our findings suggest that the preparations that the respondents got from their formal and professional education for leadership and managerial roles in health care were not optimal. We recommend for a paradigm shift for physicians on health leadership issue which is to be facilitated by a well-focused short time duration health management course for all physicians, particularly specialists.

  17. RE-SEARCHING SECONDARY TEACHER TRAINEES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND FACE-TO-FACE MODE: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta GARG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and socio-economic status. Distance trainees outperformed the on-campus trainees on their preference for left-hemispheric styles of learning and thinking, budgeting time, learning motivation, overall study habits, academic motivation, attitude towards education, work methods, interpersonal relations, and on their perception about relevance of course content of theory papers in B.Ed., but on-campus trainees outperformed distance trainees on preference for right-hemispheric learning styles, need for achievement, motivation for sports, attitude towards teaching profession, child-centered practices, teachers, overall attitude towards teaching along with their perception for development of teaching skills and attitude, personality development during B.Ed. course. In academic performance distance trainees lag behind the on-campus trainee in their marks in theory papers, skills in teaching and in aggregate.

  18. Assessing Civic Competency and Engagement in Higher Education: Research Background, Frameworks, and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-15-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Cabrera, Julio C.; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Civic learning is increasingly recognized as important by the higher education and workforce communities. The development of high-quality assessments that can be used to evaluate students' civic learning during the college years has become a priority. This paper presents a comprehensive review of existing frameworks, definitions, and assessments…

  19. Some historical background to the IAEA Definition and Recommendations concerning high-level radioactive wastes or other high-level radioactive matter unsuitable for dumping at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The need for internationally acceptable standards and regulations for preventing pollution of the sea by radioactive materials was recognized by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which adopted the Convention on the High Seas in April 1958. Article 25 of the Convention provides that ''every State shall take measures to prevent pollution of the seas from the dumping of radioactive wastes, taking into account any standards and regulations which may be formulated by the competent international organizations.'' The Conference also adopted a resolution recommending that the IAEA pursue studies and take action to assist States in controlling the discharge of radioactive materials into the sea. When the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was adopted at the Intergovernmental Conference in London, 1972, the IAEA was given specific responsibilities to define criteria and standards for dealing with the questions of sea disposal of radioactive wastes. The IAEA Definition and Recommendations concerning ''high-level radioactive wastes or other high-level radioactive matter unsuitable for dumping at sea'' identify material, the radioactive content of which is at such a level that the Parties to the Convention would wish to prevent any participating State from issuing a special permit even after a detailed appraisal of the safety of the proposed operation, and even for the sector of the marine environment furthest removed from man, i.e. the deep sea with depth greater than 4000 m. Some historical background to these problems is discussed and some of the Japanese findings of the deep sea survey in the Pacific are introduced for comparison with the North Atlantic data which formed a basis of the IAEA Definition and Recommendations for the London Dumping Convention

  20. A low-background piston-cylinder type hybrid high pressure cell for muon-spin rotation/relaxation experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Shermadini, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Elender, M.; Simutis, G.; Guguchia, Z.; Kamenev, K. V.; Amato, A.

    2017-01-01

    A low background double-wall piston-cylinder-type pressure cell is developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The cell is made from BERLYCO-25 (beryllium copper) and MP35N nonmagnetic alloys with the design and dimensions which are specifically adapted to muon-spin rotation/relaxation (muSR) measurements. The mechanical design and performance of the pressure cell are evaluated using finite-element analysis (FEA). By including the measured stress-strain characteristics of the material into the ...

  1. Four years of highly time resolved measurements of elemental and organic carbon at a rural background site in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mbengue, Saliou; Fusek, M.; Schwarz, J.; Vodička, P.; Holubová Šmejkalová, Adéla; Holoubek, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 182, jun (2018), s. 335-346 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015037; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001315 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654109 - ACTRIS-2 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Air masses origin * Censored data * Elemental organic carbon * OC/EC ratio * Rural background site * Variability Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  2. Four Years of Highly Time Resolved Measurements of Elemental and Organic Carbon at a Rural Background Site in Central Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mbengue, S.; Fusek, M.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Holubová Šmejkalová, Adéla; Holoubek, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 182, June 2018 (2018), s. 335-346 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015037; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001315 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654109 - ACTRIS-2 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : elemental - organic carbon * OC/EC ratio * rural background site * air masses origin * censored data * variability OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  3. Efficient disk-to-disk copy through long-distance high-speed networks with background traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanida, Naoki; Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We propose 'ICDC - InterContinental Disk Copy', a data sharing facility between distant places. ICDC aims to transfer huge amount of data files easily on Long Fat-pipe Networks with some background traffic. ICDC consists of commodity PCs and Solid State Drives and we apply Inter Packet Gap tuning technique to it. Using 'ICDC-1 Gbps model', we transferred data between Tokyo and Cadarache via New York. We attained about 860 Mbps, i.e., 86% usage of the network bottleneck bandwidth.

  4. Resolution and Efficiency of Monitored Drift-Tube Chambers with Final Read-out Electronics at High Background Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbert, J; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck-Möck, S; Rauscher, F; Richter, R; Staude, A; Stiller, W

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a monitored drift-tube chamber for ATLAS with the final read-out electronics was tested at the Gamma Irradiation facility at CERN under varyin photon irradiation rates of up to 990~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$ which corresponds to 10 times the highest background rate expected in ATLAS. The signal pulse-height measurement of the final read-out electronics was used to perform time-slewing corrections. The corrections improve the average single-tube resolution from 106~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the nominal discriminator threshold of 44~mV without irradiation, and from 114~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the maximum nominal irradiation rate in ATLAS of 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The reduction of the threshold from 44~mV to 34~mV and the time-slewing corrections lead to an average single-tube resolution of 82~$\\mu$m without photon background and of 89~$\\mu$m at 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The measured muon detection efficiency agrees with the expectation for the final read-out electronics.

  5. The flip-over effect in pulsed laser deposition: Is it relevant at high background gas pressures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro; Schneider, Christof W.; Döbeli, Max; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In pulsed laser deposition the use of a rectangular or elliptical beam spot with a non 1:1 aspect ratio leads to the so called flip-over effect. Here, the longest dimension of the laser spot results in the shortest direction of plasma plume expansion. This effect has been mainly reported for vacuum depositions of single element targets and is particularly noticeable when the aspect ratio of the beam spot is large. We investigate the flip-over effect in vacuum and at three relevant background-gas pressures for pulsed laser deposition using a La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 target by measuring the thickness dependence of the deposited material as a function of angle. The film thicknesses and compositions are determined by Rutherford backscattering and argon is used to reduce the influence of additional chemical reactions in the plasma. The results show the prevalence of the flip-over effect for all pressures except for the highest, i.e. 1 × 10-1 mbar, where the film thickness is constant for all angles. The composition profiles show noticeable compositional variations of up to 30% with respect to the target material depending on the background gas pressure, the angular location, and the laser spot dimensions.

  6. Multicultural science education in Lesotho high school biology classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthathakane, Malefu Christina

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated how Basotho high school biology students responded to a multicultural science education (MCSE) approach. Students' home language---Sesotho---and cultural experiences were integrated into the teaching of a unit on alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) abuse. The focus was on students whose cultural background is African and who are English second language users. The study was conducted in three high school biology classrooms in Lesotho where the ATOD unit was taught using MCSE. A fourth biology classroom was observed for comparison purposes. In this classroom the regular biology teacher taught ATOD using typical instructional strategies. The study was framed by the general question: How does a multicultural science education approach affect Basotho high school biology students? More specifically: How does the use of Sesotho (or code-switching between Sesotho and English) and integration of Basotho students' cultural knowledge and experiences with respect to ATOD affect students' learning? In particular how does the approach affect students' participation and academic performance? A qualitative research method was used in this study. Data were drawn from a number of different sources and analyzed inductively. The data sources included field-notes, transcripts of ATOD lessons, research assistant lesson observation notes and interviews, regular biology teachers' interviews and notes from observing a few of their lessons, students' interviews and pre and posttest scripts, and other school documents that recorded students' performance throughout the year. Using the students' home language---Sesotho---was beneficial in that it enabled them to share ideas, communicate better and understand each other, the teacher and the material that was taught. Integrating students' cultural and everyday experiences was beneficial because it enabled students to anchor the new ATOD ideas in what was familiar and helped them find the relevance of the unit by

  7. Highly educated but in the wrong field?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, David; Steinmetz, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

      This paper investigates the impact of gender differences in tertiary education, i.e., field of study and level of tertiary degree, on two selected labour market risks: unemployment and low-status jobs. Using Labour Force Survey data from the year 2000, results of the logistic regression models...... and non-linear decomposition analyses generally confirm our expectation that the field of study explains a sizable portion of the gender gap in unemployment and low-status jobs in both countries. However, the level of tertiary degree earned explains only part of the female disadvantage behind holding...

  8. High School Diversification against Educational Equality: A Critical Analysis of Neoliberal Education Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeongran

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study…

  9. High School Computer Science Education Paves the Way for Higher Education: The Israeli Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The gap between enrollments in higher education computing programs and the high-tech industry's demands is widely reported, and is especially prominent for women. Increasing the availability of computer science education in high school is one of the strategies suggested in order to address this gap. We look at the connection between exposure to…

  10. The Relationship between Career Technology Education and High School Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Patricia Lynn Garnto

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between programs in Career Technology and Agriculture Education (CTAE) utilized by a school district in northern Georgia and the relative effect the programs had on high school graduation. Career technology and agriculture education (CTAE) programs engage students and prepare them for college or career…

  11. The Migration of Highly Educated Asians: Brain Drain Boomerang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The heavy migration of highly educated Asians to the United States since the early 1970s is examined, noting advantages and disadvantages to the countries of origin and to the United States as well as the historical, educational, and economic factors causing this migration. It is concluded that, despite considerable loss, developing countries do…

  12. High-Poverty Urban High School Students' Plans for Higher Education: Weaving Their Own Safety Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilesiz, Sebnem; Drotos, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates high-poverty urban high school students' views of and plans regarding higher education, using Bourdieu's theory of reproduction in education as theoretical framework. Interview data from 76 students from six high-poverty urban schools in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States were analyzed using…

  13. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  14. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    2017-08-01

    To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire, and children's dietary intakes. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to assess the associations between the parental feeding styles studied ('control', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding') and children's dietary intakes (consumption of fruit, vegetables, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)). The modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations was explored. North-western part of the Netherlands. Children aged 3-7 years (n 5926). Both 'encouragement' and 'control' were associated with higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of SSB, but only 'encouragement' was positively associated with fruit and water intakes. 'Instrumental feeding' showed a positive association with SSB and negative associations with fruit, vegetable and water consumption. No significant associations were found for 'emotional feeding'. Maternal educational level and children's ethnicity moderated some associations; for example, 'control' was beneficial for vegetable intake in all subgroups, whereas the association with SSB was beneficial only in highly educated mothers. The study shows that both encouraging and controlling feeding styles may improve children's dietary behaviour, while 'instrumental feeding' may have a detrimental effect. Furthermore, maternal educational level and children's ethnicity influence these associations. The study's findings could provide a basis for development of interventions to improve parental feeding styles.

  15. Critical-thinking ability in respiratory care students and its correlation with age, educational background, and performance on national board examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Richard B; Wilkins, Robert L; Gardner, Donna D; Restrepo, Ruben D

    2011-03-01

    Critical thinking is an important characteristic to develop in respiratory care students. We used the short-form Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal instrument to measure critical-thinking ability in 55 senior respiratory care students in a baccalaureate respiratory care program. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient to assess the relationships between critical-thinking score, age, and student performance on the clinical-simulation component of the national respiratory care boards examination. We used chi-square analysis to assess the association between critical-thinking score and educational background. There was no significant relationship between critical-thinking score and age, or between critical-thinking score and student performance on the clinical-simulation component. There was a significant (P = .04) positive association between a strong science-course background and critical-thinking score, which might be useful in predicting a student's ability to perform in areas where critical thinking is of paramount importance, such as clinical competencies, and to guide candidate-selection for respiratory care programs.

  16. Astronomy Education Project for Guangdong High Schools F. P. Pi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, ... an astronomy education project for high school teachers and students was initiated ... ipality, universities and research institutes, professional and amateur astronomical.

  17. Theoretical perspectives for the Environmental Education in high school. Theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Haydé Gutiérrez Sabogal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the background and conclusions of an Environmental Education purpose —EE— supported by theoretical models able to frame processes of teaching and learning applied to EE in the high school. All of this come from strict revision and analysis of complemented educational didactics, through the professional teaching experience. To reveal this conceptual framework, the activities are posed and developed within the Environmental School Project —ESP— of the District Education Institute —DEI— Ignacio Pescador as a mode to put into practice the analyzed theory. Thus, the results obtained validate the referential framework proposed to produce knowledge about the instructive theory — which is aimed to professional teachers who will be added to the teaching process of EE into the high school institutes— and the process of knowledge creation in the student body.

  18. In high school and pregnant: the importance of educational and fertility expectations for subsequent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the High School and Beyond data (1980–1992) to examine the importance of educational and fertility expectations in explaining the achievement gap of adolescent mothers for over 5,500 young women from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Using a non-parametric local propensity score regression, the study finds that the economic disadvantage associated with having a child in high school is particularly large in poor socioeconomic environments; however, this disadvantage is a result of preexisting differences in the educational and fertility expectations and is not because of a diminished capacity of the socioeconomic environment to mediate the effect of an unplanned childbirth. The findings suggest that childcare assistance and other policies designed to alleviate the burden of child rearing for young mothers of low means may not produce the desired improvement in their subsequent educational and labor market outcomes. A much earlier policy intervention with a focus on fostering young women's outlook for the future is needed.

  19. The Implementation of Character Education at Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the implementation of character education at Senior High School in Sumedang Regency, West Java, Indonesia. A content analysis method was employed to collect the data with interviews with six teachers from six different senior high schools, which represent the rural, transitional, and urban areas. The findings revealed that: (1 not all teachers understand the concept of character education; (2 the character education has not been done systematically or has not had the specific design/model for the teaching and learning process. Most teachers embedded the character values during the teaching and learning process as a form of character education. For example, through Qur’an recitation, learning tasks, group discussion, lecture, socio-drama, observation and admonition, and even through teachers’ model. Meanwhile, outside the class, character education was implemented through competition and extracurricular activities; (3 the evaluation of character education was relatively varied, such as an observation followed by admonition, group guidance, and also focusing on behavior and affective assessment in the classroom learning process. This research implied that it is needed to make a policy on a program development through the Bureau of Education to improve Senior High School teachers’ knowledge and skills in implementing the character education.

  20. Football as promotion of active citizenship and identity development - supporting boys in a school with high percentage migration background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud; Stelter, R

    . They show a more profound understanding of the structure of the local society. The team members, who have participated regularly show increased self-confidence and express realistic expectations of their football and school ability. Lastly the social and cultural coherence in the team has been expressed......This study aims to investigate the possible effects of football as a social tool to develop social capability, identity and active citizenship in an area with major social challenges in Denmark. Through the team processes inherent in football, boys, aged 12 to 16 from a public school......, are encouraged and motivated to develop life-skills to support everyday life. Furthermore they learn to be part of a team, enhancing their social capability which expands their possibilities for adjusting to society. 3 weekly training sessions, matches and coach education for motivated boys are part of the study...

  1. Will highly educated women have more children in the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2017-01-01

    "Will highly educated women have more children in the future?" In this contribution, I address this question by looking at both fertility and fertility intentions; i.e., the number of children people plan to have over their reproductive lives. Intended births are highly correlated with actual births, and in low-fertility settings, childbearing has become associated with the couple's agency. On the other hand, education, which is a marker of income and social status, has remained an i...

  2. Expectations on Track? High School Tracking and Adolescent Educational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of adaptation in expectation formation processes by analyzing how educational tracking in high schools affects adolescents' educational expectations. I argue that adolescents view track placement as a signal about their academic abilities and respond to it in terms...... of modifying their educational expectations. Applying a difference-in-differences approach to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, I find that being placed in an advanced or honors class in high school positively affects adolescents’ expectations, particularly if placement is consistent across...... subjects and if placement contradicts tracking experiences in middle school. My findings support the hypothesis that adolescents adapt their educational expectations to ability signals sent by schools....

  3. From the Reality of Work to Grounded Work-Based Learning in German Vocational Education and Training: Background, Concept and Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gessler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Riga Conclusions" of the European Ministries of Education of 22 June 2015 for the orientation of vocational education and training in Europe are promoting work-based learning as one of five "medium-term deliverables" for the next five years. But: How should and can work-based teaching and learning be designed? Our approach was developed within the German Dual VET System. Therefore it is not surprising that the work reality is for us the major principle for designing curricula and learning settings. As a starting point for developing didactical measures in the field of vocational education and training it is crucial in this approach to identify practices, routines and experiences of skilled workers that are experts for what they are doing. What are those people doing when handling a task, how are they acting, what work objects and tools are they operating with, and what requirements do they have to be aware of? To answer these kinds of questions, the real work in practice must be explored. A useful approach for doing this is a vocational work process analysis. The next step comprises developing a workbased learning project for the classroom. These two steps, vocational work process analysis and work-based learning projects, build the core of the article and enable a grounded work-based learning. Additional the changing priorities of curriculum design in the last century are introduced to reach a better understanding of the background and the actual work-oriented focus in German Dual VET. Our key proposition is: If work-based learning in vocational schools is wanted, the gap between the reality of work and the formal learning settings has to be closed.

  4. Long-lived legacy: Managing high-level and transuranic waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The document focuses on high-level and transuranic waste at the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Reviews some of the critical areas and aspects of the DOE waste problem in order to provide data and further analysis of important issues. Partial contents, High-Level Waste Management at the DOE Weapons Complex, are as follows: High-Level Waste Management: Present and Planned; Amount and Distribution; Current and Potential Problems; Vitrification; Calcination; Alternative Waste Forms for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Technologies for Pretreatment of High-Level Waste; Waste Minimization; Regulatory Framework; Definition of High-Level Waste; Repository Delays and Contingency Planning; Urgency of High-Level Tank Waste Treatment; Technologies for High-Level Waste Treatment; Rethinking the Waste Form and Package; Waste Form for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Releases to the Atmosphere; Future of the PUREX Plant at Hanford; Waste Minimization; Tritium Production; International Cooperation; Scenarios for Future HLW Production. Partial contents of Chapter 2, Managing Transuranic Waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex, are as follows: Transuranic Waste at Department of Energy Sites; Amount and Distribution; Waste Management: Present and Planned; Current and Potential Problems; Three Technologies for Treating Retrievably Stored Transuranic Waste; In Situ Vitrification; The Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Plan (RDDT ampersand E); Actinide Conversion (Transmutation); Waste Minimization; The Regulatory Framework; Definition of, and Standards for, Disposal of Transuranic Waste; Repository Delays; Alternative Storage and Disposal Strategies; Remediation of Buried Waste; The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; Waste Minimization; Scenarios for Future Transuranic Waste Production; Conditions of No-Migration Determination

  5. Temporal distribution and potential sources of atmospheric mercury measured at a high-elevation background station in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Lee, Chung-Te; Ou Yang, Chang-Feng; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2010-07-01

    Measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate mercury (PHg) have been conducted at Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in Taiwan since April 2006. This was the first long-term free tropospheric atmospheric Hg monitoring program in the downwind region of East Asia, which is a major Hg emission source region. Between April 13, 2006 and December 31, 2007, the mean concentrations of GEM, RGM, and PHg were 1.73 ng m -3, 12.1 pg m -3, and 2.3 pg m -3, respectively. A diurnal pattern was observed for GEM with afternoon peaks and nighttime lows, whereas the diurnal pattern of RGM was opposite to that of GEM. Spikes of RGM were frequently observed between midnight and early morning with concurrent decreases in GEM and relative humidity and increases in O 3, suggesting the oxidation of GEM and formation of RGM in free troposphere (FT). Upslope movement of boundary layer (BL) air in daytime and subsidence of FT air at night resulted in these diurnal patterns. Considering only the nighttime data, which were more representative of FT air, the composite monthly mean GEM concentrations ranged between 1.06 and 2.06 ng m -3. Seasonal variation in nighttime GEM was evident, with lower concentrations usually occurring in summer when clean marine air masses prevailed. Between fall and spring, air masses passed the East Asian continent prior to reaching LABS, contributing to the elevated GEM concentrations. Analysis of GEM/CO correlation tends to support the argument. Good GEM/CO correlations were observed in fall, winter, and spring, suggesting influence of anthropogenic emission sources. Our results demonstrate the significance of East Asian Hg emissions, including both anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, and their long-range transport in the FT. Because of the pronounced seasonal monsoon activity and the seasonal variation in regional wind field, export of the Asian Hg emissions to Taiwan occurs mainly during fall

  6. A new high background radiation area in the Geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.C.; Sharma, S.P.; Sengupta, D.; Sandilya, M.K.; Bhaumik, B.K.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone is investigated for the first time in a geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa state in India. The surrounding area comprises a geothermal region which has surveyed using a portable pulsed Geiger-Muller counter. On the basis of findings of GM counter, an area was marked as a high radiation zone. Soil and rock samples collected from the high radiation zone were analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry (GRS) using NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity is found to be contributed mainly by thorium. Concentration of thorium is reported to be very high compared to their normal abundance in crustal rocks. Further, concentrations of 238 U and 40 K are also high compared to normal abundance in crustal rocks but their magnitude is comparatively less than that of thorium. The average concentrations of 238 U (i.e. U(β-γ)), 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 33, 459ppm and 3%, respectively, in soils and 312, 1723ppm and 5%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Maximum concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 95, 1194ppm and 4%, respectively, in soils and 1434, 10,590ppm and 8%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Radioactive element emits various energies in its decay chain. High energies are utilized to estimate the concentration of actual 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using a NaI(Tl) detector, however, low energies are used for the same in an HPGe detector. Some of the rock samples (eight in number) were also analyzed using HPGe detector for studying the behavior of low energies emitted in the decay series of uranium and thorium. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air and external annual dose rate of the high radiation zone are calculated to be 2431nGy/h and 3.0mSv/y, respectively. It is approximately 10 times greater than the dose rates obtained outside the high radiation zone. The high concentration of uranium and thorium may be one of the possible heat sources together with the normal geothermal gradient for hot springs

  7. Epidemiological and radio-biological studies in high background radiation areas of Kerala coast: implications in radiation protection science and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2018-01-01

    Till date, Linear No Threshold hypothesis (LNT) is well accepted in radiation protection science in spite of its limitations. However, dose response studies using multiple biological end points from high-background radiation areas have challenged the linearity. Radio-biological and epidemiological studies from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast showed non-linearity as well as efficient repair of DNA damage in HLNRA indicating that dose limits for public exposure needs to be revisited which may have implications in radiation protection science, human health and low dose radiation biology. However, further studies using high throughput approach is required to identify chronic radiation signatures in human population exposed to elevated level of natural background radiation

  8. Radiochemical and radioecological studies on Brazilian areas of high natural background. Progress report, October 30, 1974--October 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Penna-Franca, E.; Rocha-Nogueira, A.; Christian-Pfeiffer, W.

    1975-11-01

    The absorption of 212 Pb and/or 212 Bi by ertythrocytes was investigated in an attempt to explain the in vivo genesis of somatic chromosomal aberrations of the type detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers professionally exposed to 220 Rn and its decay products, as well as in dwellers of Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Drift-Tube Chambers at High Background Rates and in Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00213689; Horvat, S.; Legger, F.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Richter, R.; Valderanis, Ch.; Rauscher, F.; Staude, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer uses drift-tube chambers for precision tracking. The performance of these chambers in the presence of magnetic field and high radiation fluxes is studied in this article using test-beam data recorded in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The measurements are compared to detailed predictions provided by the Garfield drift-chamber simulation programme.

  10. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  11. Analysis of Institutional Competitiveness of Junior High Schools through the Admission Test to High School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendáriz, Joyzukey; Tarango, Javier; Machin-Mastromatteo, Juan Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational research studies 15,658 students from 335 secondary schools in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, through the results of the examination of admission to high school education (National High School Admission Test--EXANI I from the National Assessment Center for Education--CENEVAL) on logical-mathematical and verbal…

  12. Measurements of incoherent light and background structure at exo-Earth detection levels in the High Contrast Imaging Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Eric; Shaklan, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    A major component of the estimation and correction of starlight at very high contrasts is the creation of a dark hole: a region in the vicinity of the core of the stellar point spread function (PSF) where speckles in the PSF wings have been greatly attenuated, up to a factor of 1010 for the imaging of terrestrial exoplanets. At these very high contrasts, removing these speckles requires distinguishing between light from the stellar PSF scattered by instrument imperfections, which may be partially corrected across a broad band using deformable mirrors in the system, from light from other sources which generally may not. These other sources may be external or internal to the instrument (e.g. planets, exozodiacal light), but in either case, their distinguishing characteristic is their inability to interfere coherently with the PSF. In the following we discuss the estimation, structure, and expected origin of this incoherent" signal, primarily in the context of a series of experiments made with a linear band-limited mask in Jan-Mar 2013. We find that the incoherent" signal at moderate contrasts is largely estimation error of the coherent signal, while at very high contrasts it represents a true floor which is stable over week-timescales.

  13. PISA and High-Performing Education Systems: Explaining Singapore's Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi; Gopinathan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Singapore's remarkable performance in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has placed it among the world's high-performing education systems (HPES). In the literature on HPES, its "secret formula" for education success is explained in terms of teacher quality, school leadership, system characteristics and educational…

  14. Top soil radioactivity assessment in a high natural radiation background area: the case of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Terina, Franck; Solonjara, Asivelo F; Andriambololona, Raoelina

    2008-11-01

    The village of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe, Madagascar (47 degrees 02'40''E, 19 degrees 57'17''S) is located in a high natural radioactivity area. In order to evaluate the natural radionuclide content in soil, sampling was done on-site by the transect method (85 soil samples) and off-site through transects across and beyond the region (up to a range of 100 km), to determine the natural radioactivity variation within vs. outside the region, and to detect significant differences, taking into account spatial variability.

  15. Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Lifelines project aims to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively using climate change curricula by creating professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who, through remote meetings and workshops, maintain ongoing communication and sharing of best practices among colleagues to strengthen knowledge and promote effective teaching strategies. The project explores techniques to achieve the most effective teleconferencing meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development — practicing what we preach. To date, Lifelines PLCs have set up websites and e-mail lists for sharing information. Teleconferences and webinars have been held using services such as Skype, ReadyTalk, and Wiggio. Many of the meetings have been recorded and archived for the benefit of members who could not attend in real-time.

  16. Simple catalytic cell for restoring He leak detector sensitivity on vacuum systems with high D2 backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busath, J.; Chiu, H.K.

    1998-12-01

    The DIII-D National Fusion Facility at General Atomics focuses on plasma physics and fusion energy science. The DIII-D tokamak is a 35 m 3 toroidal vacuum vessel with over 200 ports for diagnostic instrumentation, cryogenics, microwave heating, and four large neutral beam injectors. Maintaining vacuum in the 10 -8 Torr range is crucial for producing high performance plasma discharges. He leak checking the DIII-D tokamak and the neutral beamlines has historically been difficult. D 2 is used as the fuel gas in most plasma discharges and neutral beams. After plasma operations, D 2 out-gassing from the torus walls and internal beamline components can exceed 10 -4 std cc/s. The mass of the D 2 molecule (4.028 u) is indistinguishable from that of the He atom (4.003 u) to a standard mass spectrometer leak detector. High levels of D 2 reduce leak detector sensitivity and effectively mask the He trace gas signal rendering normal leak checking techniques ineffective. A simple apparatus was developed at GA to address these problems. It consists of a palladium based catalyst cell and associated valves and piping placed in series with the leak detector. This reduces the D 2 throughput by a factor greater than 10,000, restoring leak detector sensitivity. This paper will briefly discuss the development of the cell, the physical processes involved, the tests performed to quantify and optimize the processes, and the operational results at DIII-D

  17. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  18. Knowing One’s Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Janke

    2017-08-01

    focusing solely on first-generation status may not be sufficient to fully understand the importance of parental educational background for students’ well-being. More specifically, continuing-generation students might reap benefits from their parental educational background. These benefits widen the social gap in academia in addition to the disadvantages of students with first-generation status. In sum, understanding the benefits of continuing-generation status has important implications for interventions aiming to reduce social class gaps in academia.

  19. Knowing One’s Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Stefan; Rudert, Selma C.; Marksteiner, Tamara; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    -generation status may not be sufficient to fully understand the importance of parental educational background for students’ well-being. More specifically, continuing-generation students might reap benefits from their parental educational background. These benefits widen the social gap in academia in addition to the disadvantages of students with first-generation status. In sum, understanding the benefits of continuing-generation status has important implications for interventions aiming to reduce social class gaps in academia. PMID:28824505

  20. High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chun

    2011-01-01

    An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

  1. Literacy Teaching Aids from High/Scope Educational Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2005

    2005-01-01

    High/Scope's approach to education is a blend of Jean Piaget's constructivist theory of child development and the best of traditional teacher experience. The High/Scope approach is about helping students gain knowledge and skills in important content areas, such as language and literacy, initiative and social relations, movement, music, and…

  2. Estimation and comparison of baseline frequencies of micronuclei among the new-borns from natural high background radiation and control areas of Kerala coast in south India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Thampi, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the studies it is concluded that the elevated level of natural radiation has no significant effect of micronucleus formation in high background radiation area (HBRA) new-borns as compared to control area. It is also in agreement with the results of cytogenetic investigations on new-borns from HBRA and control area using chromosome aberration analysis method. The significance, if any, of the slightly lower micronuclei (MN) frequency observed in HBRA, is not clear at this stage. Further investigations on a larger number of new-borns from both the areas are necessary in order to draw firm conclusions. It appears that, this is the first attempt to estimate the baseline frequency of MN among the new-borns from a natural high background radiation area. (author). 9 refs

  3. High-frequency background modulation fringe patterns based on a fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model for 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinran; Kofman, Jonathan

    2017-07-10

    A new fringe projection method for surface-shape measurement was developed using four high-frequency phase-shifted background modulation fringe patterns. The pattern frequency is determined using a new fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model that allows only two corresponding-point candidates in the measurement volume. The correct corresponding point is selected with high reliability using a binary pattern computed from intensity background encoded in the fringe patterns. Equations of geometry-constraint parameters permit parameter calculation prior to measurement, thus reducing measurement computational cost. Experiments demonstrated the ability of the method to perform 3D shape measurement for a surface with geometric discontinuity, and for spatially isolated objects.

  4. The use of high technology in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; McBride, Annette C.

    2015-10-01

    There has been a huge increase in the use of high technology in education. In this paper we discuss some aspects of technology that have major applications in STEM education, namely, (a) virtual reality systems, (b) personal electronic response systems aka "clickers", (c) flipped classrooms, (d) mobile learning "m-Learning", (e) massive open online courses "MOOCS", (f) internet-of-things and (g) cloud computing.

  5. Psycho-educational program for high school females

    OpenAIRE

    Perla Caridad López Hernández; Laura López Angulo; Eneida Bravo Polanco; Carmen Benítez Cabrera; Lisbet Cepero Águila; Rafael Luis Pino Pich

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: sex education provides knowledge, values and attitudes that both, men and women need to live with dignity and develop fully and happily. Objective: to determine the usefulness of applying a psycho-educational program on female sexuality in high school. Methods: a quasi-experimental study conducted between September 2007 and June 2008, based on a sample composed of 180 ninth grade females living in Cumanayagua's urban area. Variables analyzed: adolescents knowledge on sex-relate...

  6. Electromagnetic analysis of a superconducting transformer for high current characterization of cable in conduit conductors in background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Tan, Yunfei; Fang, Zhen; Jiang, Donghui; Chen, Zhiyou; Chen, Wenge; Kuang, Guangli

    2017-10-01

    A large cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) test facility has been designed and fabricated at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CHMFL) in order to meet the test requirement of the conductors which are applied to the future fusion reactor. The critical component of the test facility is an 80 kA superconducting transformer which consists of a multi-turn primary coil and a minor-turn secondary coil. As the current source of the conductor samples, the electromagnetic performance of the superconducting transformer determines the stability and safety of the test facility. In this paper, the key factors and parameters, which have much impact on the performance of the transformer, are analyzed in detail. The conceptual design and optimizing principles of the transformer are discussed. An Electromagnetic-Circuit coupled model built in ANSYS Multiphysics is successfully used to investigate the electromagnetic characterization of the transformer under the dynamic operation condition.

  7. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on background microflora and furan formation in fruit purée based baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultur, Gulcin; Misra, N N; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Gökmen, Vural; Alpas, Hami

    2018-03-01

    The baby foods industry is currently seeking technologies to pasteurize products without formation of processing contaminants such as furan. This work demonstrates the applicability of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a non-thermal decontamination intervention for fruit purée based baby foods. HHP processing was evaluated at 200, 300, and 400 MPa pressures, for 5, 10 and 15 min of treatment times at 25, 35 and 45 °C. HHP application at 400 MPa, 45 °C for 15 min ensured complete inactivation (about 6 log 10 ) of total mesophilic aerophiles, as well as yeasts and molds. No furan was detected in HHP processed products. Thus, the key advantage of HHP over thermal processing is the ability to achieve commercially acceptable microbiological inactivation while avoiding the formation of processing contaminants such as furan.

  8. Annual effective dose equivalents arising from inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghou

    1985-01-01

    The author presents the data of on-the-sport investigations in the high background radiation area in Yangjiang County in 1975 and 1981. Monazite sand is contained in the soil of this area. The average concentrations of 222 Rn in the air indoors and out doors of the high background radiation area are 31.8 and 16.4 Bqm -3 respectively, which are equal to 2.9 and 1.5 times the average concentrations in the control area. The average concentrations of 220 Rn in the air indoors and outdoors of the high background area are 167.5 and 18.4 Bqm -3 , corresponding to 9.6 and 4.8 times those of the control area respectively. The average potential alpha energy concentrations for daughters of 222 Rn indoors and outdoors are 0.1 and 0.097 μJm -3 , which are equal to 2.6 and 2.2 times those of the control are respectively. The average potential alpha energy concentrations for daughters of 220 Rn indoors and outdoors are 0.255 and 0.053 μJm -3 , corresponding to 3.7 and 2.7 times those of the control area respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalents arising from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area are estimated to be 2.8 mSv per caput, in which 40.5% arise from 220 Rn and its decay products. This result is about 3 times that in the neighboring control area

  9. Characteristics of background radiation behind one-dimensional radiation shielding of high-energy particle beams; Kharakteristiki fonovogo izlucheniya za odnomernymi radiatsionnymi zashchitami puchkov vysokoehnergeticheskikh chastits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatkov, D V; Kryuchkov, V P

    1994-12-31

    The calculational investigations of component, spatial and energy distributions of background radiation behind radiation shielding of high-energy hadron beams were carried out. The relations between different ingredients of radiation have been obtained. The numerous data of spatial and energy distribution of protons, neutrons, pions and photons in homogeneous and heterogeneous shielding from concrete and iron, presented in the paper, can be used as a reference data. 23 refs., 50 figs.

  10. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  11. Monsoon-facilitated characteristics and transport of atmospheric mercury at a high-altitude background site in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the influence of monsoonal climate and transport of atmospheric mercury (Hg in southwestern China, measurements of total gaseous mercury (TGM, defined as the sum of gaseous elemental mercury, GEM, and gaseous oxidized mercury, GOM, particulate bound mercury (PBM and GOM were carried out at Ailaoshan Station (ALS, 2450 m a.s.l. in southwestern China from May 2011 to May 2012. The mean concentrations (± SD for TGM, GOM and PBM were 2.09 ± 0.63, 2.2 ± 2.3 and 31.3 ± 28.4 pg m−3, respectively. TGM showed a monsoonal distribution pattern with relatively higher concentrations (2.22 ± 0.58 ng m−3, p  =  0.021 during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM, from May to September and the east Asia summer monsoon (EASM, from May to September periods than that (1.99 ± 0.66 ng m−3 in the non-ISM period. Similarly, GOM and PBM concentrations were higher during the ISM period than during the non-ISM period. This study suggests that the ISM and the EASM have a strong impact on long-range and transboundary transport of Hg between southwestern China and south and southeast Asia. Several high TGM events were accompanied by the occurrence of northern wind during the ISM period, indicating anthropogenic Hg emissions from inland China could rapidly increase TGM levels at ALS due to strengthening of the EASM. Most of the TGM and PBM events occurred at ALS during the non-ISM period. Meanwhile, high CO concentrations were also observed at ALS, indicating that a strong south tributary of westerlies could have transported Hg from south and southeast Asia to southwestern China during the non-ISM period. The biomass burning in southeast Asia and anthropogenic Hg emissions from south Asia are thought to be the source of atmospheric Hg in remote areas of southwestern China during the non-ISM period.

  12. Transfer factor of the radionuclides in food crops from high-background radiation area of south west India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanthi, G.; Thampi Thanka kumaran, J.; Allen Gnana raj, G.; Maniyan, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to obtain the transfer factor (TF) of long-lived radionuclides because soil type and vegetation can affect TF. We studied the food crops commonly consumed by the general public of Kanyakumari district of south India. The main focus was on rice, fruits, vegetables and tapioca because the consumption of these is high. The soil to rice TF for the radionuclides, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K are 8.8 x 10. -2 , 14.2 x 10. -2 , 5.8 x 10. -2 and 6.3 x 10. -2 , respectively. The TF of tapioca for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K are 6.2 x 10 -2 , 11 x 10 -2 , 1.9 x 10 -2 and 8.9 x 10 -2 , respectively. For fruits and vegetables, the TFs are low. In the majority of the crops the non-edible parts accumulate more radionuclides than the edible parts. (authors)

  13. Serratia sp. ZF03: an efficient radium biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Farideh; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza; Atarilar, Ali

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize (226)Ra biosorbing indigenous bacterial strains from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of (226)Ra by using biochemical and molecular approaches. Fifteen bacteria were isolated and their phylogenetic affiliations were determined based on their 16S rRNA gene and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 analysis. A pigmented Serratia sp. ZF03 strain isolated from the water with (226)Ra content of 50471 mBq l(-1), caused 70% removal of (226)Ra at a radioactivity level of 50 Bq ml(-1), after 5 min and 75-80% in equilibrium time of 1 h, depending on the particular biosorption system and experimental conditions studied. The biosorption equilibrium was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Effect of different physico-chemical parameters on (226)Ra sorption, FTIR, SEM and TEM analysis were also investigated. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon-Based Oxamate Cobalt(III) Complexes as Bioenzyme Mimics for Contaminant Elimination in High Backgrounds of Complicated Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zheng, Yun; Jiang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ran; Pei, Kemei; Chen, Wenxing

    2017-10-12

    Complex wastewater with massive components is now a serious environmental issue facing humanity. Selective removal of low-concentration contaminants in mixed constituents holds great promise for increasing water supplies. Bioenzymes like horseradish peroxidase exhibit oxidizing power and selectivity. Here, we manufactured its mimic through immobilizing non-heme oxamate anionic cobalt(III) complex ([Co III (opba)] - , opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamate)) onto pyridine (Py) modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes ([Co III (opba)] - -Py-MWCNTs, MWCNTs = multiwalled carbon nanotubes), where MWCNTs captured substrates and Py functioned as the fifth ligand. We chose typical azo dye (C.I. Acid Red 1) and antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) as model substrates. Without •OH, this catalyst could detoxify target micropollutants efficiently at pH from 8 to 11. It also remained efficient in repetitive tests, and the final products were non-poisonous OH-containing acids. Combined with radical scavenger tests and electron paramagnetic resonance result, we speculated that high-valent cobalt-oxo active species and oxygen atom transfer reaction dominated in the reaction pathway. According to density functional theory calculations, the electron spin density distribution order showed that electron-withdrawing ligand was beneficial for inward pulling the excess electron and lowering the corresponding energy levels, achieving an electrophilic-attack enhancement of the catalyst. With target removal property and recyclability, this catalyst is prospective in water detoxication.

  15. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  16. Exploring the MIS M2 glaciation occurring during a warm and high atmospheric CO2 Pliocene background climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ning; Ramstein, Gilles; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Sepulchre, Pierre; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn

    2017-08-01

    Prior to the Northern Hemisphere glaciation around ∼2.7 Ma, a large global glaciation corresponding to a 20 to 60 m sea-level drop occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 (3.312-3.264 Ma), interrupted the period of global warmth and high CO2 concentration (350-450 ppmv) of the mid Piacenzian. Unlike the late Quaternary glaciations, the M2 glaciation only lasted 50 kyrs and occurred under uncertain CO2 concentration (220-390 ppmv). The mechanisms causing the onset and termination of the M2 glaciation remain enigmatic, but a recent geological hypothesis suggests that the re-opening and closing of the shallow Central American Seaway (CAS) might have played a key role. In this article, thanks to a series of climate simulations carried out using a fully coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) and a dynamic ice sheet model, we show that re-opening of the shallow CAS helps precondition the low-latitude oceanic circulation and affects the related northward energy transport, but cannot alone explain the onset of the M2 glaciation. The presence of a shallow open CAS, together with favourable orbital parameters, 220 ppmv of CO2 concentration, and the related vegetation and ice sheet feedback, led to a global ice sheet build-up producing a global sea-level drop in the lowest range of proxy-derived estimates. More importantly, our results show that the simulated closure of the CAS has a negligible impact on the NH ice sheet melt and cannot explain the MIS M2 termination.

  17. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high......A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  18. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  19. Strategies of high-performing paramedic educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gregg S; Romero, Gabriel A; Fernandez, Antonio R; Studnek, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    To identify the specific educational strategies used by paramedic educational programs that have attained consistently high success rates on the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) examination. NREMT data from 2003-2007 were analyzed to identify consistently high-performing paramedic educational programs. Representatives from 12 programs that have maintained a 75% first-attempt pass rate for at least four of five years and had more than 20 graduates per year were invited to participate in a focus group. Using the nominal group technique (NGT), participants were asked to answer the following question: "What are specific strategies that lead to a successful paramedic educational program?" All 12 emergency medical services (EMS) educational programs meeting the eligibility requirements participated. After completing the seven-step NGT process, 12 strategies were identified as leading to a successful paramedic educational program: 1) achieve and maintain national accreditation; 2) maintain high-level entry requirements and prerequisites; 3) provide students with a clear idea of expectations for student success; 4) establish a philosophy and foster a culture that values continuous review and improvement; 5) create your own examinations, lesson plans, presentations, and course materials using multiple current references; 6) emphasize emergency medical technician (EMT)-Basic concepts throughout the class; 7) use frequent case-based classroom scenarios; 8) expose students to as many prehospital advanced life support (ALS) patient contacts as possible, preferably where they are in charge; 9) create and administer valid examinations that have been through a review process (such as qualitative analysis); 10) provide students with frequent detailed feedback regarding their performance (such as formal examination reviews); 11) incorporate critical thinking and problem solving into all testing; and 12) deploy predictive testing with analysis prior to

  20. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  1. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eRönnberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC and updating ability (UA. The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing MLL. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech-fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  2. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. Objective: To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Methods: Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. Results: The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6 mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6 mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  3. The Effect of Nutrition Education on Eating Disorders Attitude in Girls High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahiminia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adolescence is one of the important period in growth and evolution process, Also, eating disorders in adolescences, especially girls is one of the major problems in communities. Therefore, an effective education is of special priority for prevention of eating disorders. The current study was performed with the goal of assessment of the effect of nutrition education on eating disorders attitude in girls high school students. Methods: This non-experimental study with a single group pre- and post-test design, was performed using purposive sampling method on 97 students of the first year of high school, in 2015. Data collection tool was EAT-26 standardized questionnaire, which was completed by the participants using self-report method before and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean score of abnormal eating attitude decreased from 1.7±0.04 (before education to 1.4±0.06 (after education. Also, there was a significant statistical difference between the results of before and after education (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that nutrition education has brought about desired changes in the attitude. However, the increase of nutrition awareness and attitude change can gradually lead to behavior change. Therefore, the current study can help the authorities to include a wider range of nutritional education in the curriculum of students in dorder to prevent eating disorder.

  4. Quantification of DNA repair capacity (DRC) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals from natural high background radiation areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Seshadri, M.

    2011-01-01

    Human populations residing in the coastal areas of Kerala from Neendakara in south to Purakkad in north receive high level natural background radiation primarily due to the presence of thorium ( 232 Th) in the monazite containing beach sand. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the health effects of natural high level radiation on humans. Earlier studies from our laboratory in newborns for incidence of congenital malformations, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations failed to show any significant health or biological effects due to high level natural radiation exposure. The current study used alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay due to its sensitivity, speed, flexibility and low cost. Biological effects of low level natural radiation was studied by assessing individual's DNA Repair Capacity (DRC), which is essential for maintaining the genome integrity. DNA damage was estimated in terms of DNA strand breaks per million base pairs (SB/106 bp). In our earlier study using comet assay, DNA SBs increased with age in subjects from normal background radiation area (NBRA). However, significant inverse correlation was observed in subjects from high background radiation area (HBRA). Further, spontaneous DNA SBs in elderly subjects (? 41 years) from HBRA was significantly lower compared to the subjects from NBRA. The present study was carried out in 90 healthy adult male subjects of which, 63 subjects belonged to HBRA and 27 subjects from NBRA. The annual effective dose in HBRA subjects was 5.87 ± 4.17 mSv year-1 (Mean ± S.D., range 1.07-17.41) and in NBRA subjects was ? 1mSv year-1. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from these individuals were irradiated with 4Gy of 60 Co gamma rays (1.4Gy/minute, Low dose irradiator 2000, BRIT, India) and DNA repair was assessed at 30 minutes. As the results were not normally distributed, the data were log transformed to normalize variance. Regression analysis was carried out to determine the relative

  5. Comparative Study of Mental Health of High School Teachers and Educational Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Shakiba

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teachers have an important effect on mental health and development of students. Teaching and counseling may be stressful jobs. The objective of this study was to compare psychological status of high school teachers and educational counselors measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI.Materials and Method: In a cross-sectional study 60 teachers (20 male and 40 female and 60 educational counselors (20 male and 40 female from high schools of Zahedan city were recruited randomly and asked to complete Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Iranian short form of MMPI. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t test.Results: The results showed significant differences between teachers and educational counselors in 6 clinical scales of MMPI so that the teachers had higher scores than educational counselors in D (depression, Pd (psychopathy, Pa (paranoid, Pt (Psychastenia, Sc (schizophrenia and Ma (hypomania scales of MMPI. Mean scores of Male counselors in hysteria and psychopathy were higher than female's scores and also female teachers had higher mean scores in hypochondria, hysteria, paranoid, psychastenia and schizophrenia than male teachers.Conclusion: Although the profiles of both teachers and educational counselors were normal but teachers had higher mean scores than counselors, thus, efforts need to be made to explore possible factors associated to those differences

  6. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  7. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C.G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: → The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. → The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. → As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. → Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. → These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  8. Evaluation Policy and Integral Education Program in the High School of Pernambuco State Education System: the limits of the centrality of evaluation in education policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Ninive Pinto Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at evaluating the results of the relationship between 1. The Educational Responsibility Policy; 2. The Evaluation Policy defined by the Pernambuco State Education System; and 3. The process of implementation of the Integral Education Program (PEI, Brazilian Portuguese abbreviation in High School Reference Institutions (EREMs, Brazilian Portuguese abbreviation and in the State Technical Schools (ETEs, Brazilian Portuguese abbreviation. Based on document and content analyses, a qualitative study was carried out whose data collection instruments were interviews with managers, teachers, students and technicians, along with questionnaires applied to the students. The theoretical background included Freitas (2012, Ravitch (2011, Algebaile (2009, among others. The results revealed that in the PEI implementation process, the evaluation through results is related to command-and-control strategies which broaden and intensify teachers‟ and students‟ school hours, working as a neoliberal and managerial laboratory in education. From this research perspective, the conclusion was that strategies such as increasing the years of study and the school hours disguise problems such as the crisis of structural unemployment and the reduction in investments provided for in social policies as a whole.

  9. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  10. Curriculum Orientations and Educational Philosophies of High School Arabic Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalem, Abeer Saleh

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the curriculum orientations of High school Arabic teacher in Riyadh city and to examine the relationship between curriculum orientation and their educational philosophies. The quantitative method (descriptive study) was adopted in this questionnaire survey-based study. Mean and standard deviation for the overall of…

  11. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index, "t"(244)…

  12. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  13. The Danish Folk High School: An Experiment in Humanistic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, David Charles

    This historical and comparative study examines the folk high school movement in Denmark from the standpoint of the New Humanism as expressed in the writings of Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, Sidney Jourard, and others. These schools are unique among the many educational forms and institutions western man has developed. Private, nonprofit residential…

  14. High School to Postsecondary Education: Challenges of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Susan Hudson; Seeley, Cathy L.

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers help prepare their high school students to make the critical transition to what comes after they graduate? Teachers cannot wait until students are seniors to inspire them to consider postsecondary education or training, and at the same time prepare them to succeed when they get there. It is increasingly important for students to…

  15. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  16. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  17. Investigation of artifacts caused by deuterium background correction in the determination of phosphorus by electrothermal atomization using high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessuy, Morgana B.; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Lepri, Fabio G.; Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard; Silva, Marcia M.; Heitmann, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The artifacts created in the measurement of phosphorus at the 213.6-nm non-resonance line by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using line source atomic absorption spectrometry (LS AAS) and deuterium lamp background correction (D 2 BC) have been investigated using high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS). The absorbance signals and the analytical curves obtained by LS AAS without and with D 2 BC, and with HR-CS AAS without and with automatic correction for continuous background absorption, and also with least-squares background correction for molecular absorption with rotational fine structure were compared. The molecular absorption due to the suboxide PO that exhibits pronounced fine structure could not be corrected by the D 2 BC system, causing significant overcorrection. Among the investigated chemical modifiers, NaF, La, Pd and Pd + Ca, the Pd modifier resulted in the best agreement of the results obtained with LS AAS and HR-CS AAS. However, a 15% to 100% higher sensitivity, expressed as slope of the analytical curve, was obtained for LS AAS compared to HR-CS AAS, depending on the modifier. Although no final proof could be found, the most likely explanation is that this artifact is caused by a yet unidentified phosphorus species that causes a spectrally continuous absorption, which is corrected without problems by HR-CS AAS, but which is not recognized and corrected by the D 2 BC system of LS AAS

  18. Capacitance–voltage and current–voltage characteristics for the study of high background doping and conduction mechanisms in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzazi, Boussairi; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The cause of high background doping was confirmed and characterized. ► The current–voltage characteristics deviate from the thermionic emission. ► The recombination current is attributed to a hole trap (E V + 0.52 eV). ► The hole trap (E V + 0.52 eV) was confirmed by DLTS measurements. -- Abstract: The temperature dependence of capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current voltage (I–V) characteristics were used to study the cause of high background doping and the underlying current transport mechanisms in GaAsN Schottky diode grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). In one hand, a nitrogen-related sigmoid increase of junction capacitance and ionized acceptor concentration was observed in the temperature range 70–100 K and was attributed to the thermal ionization of a nitrogen–hydrogen-related deep acceptor-state, with thermal activation energy of approximately 0.11 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM) of GaAsN. This acceptor state is mainly responsible for the high background doping in unintentionally doped GaAsN grown by CBE. On the other hand, the I–V characteristics at different temperatures were found to deviate from the well known pure thermionic-emission mechanism. Based on their fitting at each temperature, the recombination current in the space charge region of GaAsN Schottky diode was mainly attributed to a hole trap, localized at 0.51 eV above the VBM. Given the accuracy of measurements, this result was confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy measurements. Nevertheless, considering the Shockley–Read–Hall model of generation-recombination, the recombination activity of this defect was quantified and qualified to be weak compared with the markedly degradation of minority carrier lifetime in GaAsN material

  19. Sex differences in aggression among children of low and high gender inequality backgrounds: a comparison of gender role and sexual selection theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivette, Amy E; Eisner, Manuel; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is well understood in aggression research that males tend to exhibit higher levels of physical aggression than females. Yet there are still a number of gaps in our understanding of variation in sex differences in children's aggression, particularly in contexts outside North America. A key assumption of social role theory is that sex differences vary according to gender polarization, whereas sexual selection theory accords variation to the ecological environment that consequently affects male competition [Archer, J. (2009). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249-311; Kenrick, D., & Griskevicious, V. (2009). More holes in social roles [Comment]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 283-285]. In the present paper, we explore these contradicting theoretical frameworks by examining data from a longitudinal study of a culturally diverse sample of 863 children at ages 7-13 in Zurich, Switzerland. Making use of the large proportion of children from highly diverse immigrant background we compare the size of the sex difference in aggression between children whose parents were born in countries with low and with high levels of gender inequality. The results show that sex differences in aggression are generally larger among children with parents from high gender inequality backgrounds. However, this effect is small in comparison to the direct effect of a child's biological sex. We discuss implications for future research on sex differences in children's aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring the background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, V.; van den Bergh, H.; Parlange, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    A new long-open-path instrument developed at EPFL for methane and water vapor observation will be presented. The instrument is developed and will be used within the GAW+ CH program and aims at long-term monitoring of background methane concentration at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 mASL). The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver -distant retroreflector) using a 1.65 nm tunable diode laser (TDL) and a retroreflector at 1200 m from the transceiver. The data will be compared with in-situ measurements to evaluate the effect of the station on the in-situ data.

  1. Background-free beta-decay half-life measurements by in-trap decay and high-resolution MR-ToF mass analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. N.; Atanasov, D.; Blaum, K.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Welker, A.; Wienholtz, F.; Zuber, K.

    2016-06-01

    In-trap decay in ISOLTRAP's radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion beam cooler and buncher was used to determine the lifetime of short-lived nuclides. After various storage times, the remaining mother nuclides were mass separated from accompanying isobaric contaminations by the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator (MR-ToF MS), allowing for a background-free ion counting. A feasibility study with several online measurements shows that the applications of the ISOLTRAP setup can be further extended by exploiting the high resolving power of the MR-ToF MS in combination with in-trap decay and single-ion counting.

  2. The health benefits of secondary education in adolescents and young adults: An international analysis in 186 low-, middle- and high-income countries from 1990 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Russell M. Viner; Dougal S. Hargreaves; Joseph Ward; Chris Bonell; Ali H. Mokdad; George Patton

    2017-01-01

    Background: The health benefits of secondary education have been little studied. We undertook country-level longitudinal analyses of the impact of lengthening secondary education on health outcomes amongst 15-24 year olds. Methods: Exposures: average length of secondary and primary education from 1980 to 2013. Data/Outcomes: Country level adolescent fertility rate (AFR), HIV prevalence and mortality rate from 1989/90 to 2013 across 186 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Analysi...

  3. Background and stimulus-induced patterns of high metabolic activity in the visual cortex (area 17) of the squirrel and macaque monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, A.L.; Hendrickson, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    We have used 2-deoxy-D-[ 14 C]glucose (2-DG) autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry to examine background and stimulus-induced patterns of metabolic activity in monkey striate cortex. In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that binocularly or monocularly viewed diffuse white light or binocularly viewed bars of many orientations and spatial frequencies, 2-DG consumption was not uniform across the cortex but consisted of regularly spaced radial zones of high uptake. The zones extended through all laminae except IVc beta and, when viewed tangentially, formed separate patches 500 microns apart. The cytochrome oxidase stain in these animals also revealed patches of high metabolism which coincided with the 2-DG patches. Squirrel monkeys binocularly viewing vertical stripes showed parallel bands of increased 2-DG uptake in the cortex, while the cytochrome label in these animals remained patchy. When monkeys were kept in the dark during 2-DG exposure, 2-DG-labeled patches were not seen but cytochrome oxidase-positive patches remained. In macaque (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys, binocular stimulation with many orientations and spatial frequencies produced radial zones of high 2-DG uptake in layers I to IVa and VI. When viewed tangentially, these zones formed a dots-in-rows pattern with a spacing of 350 X 500 microns; cytochrome oxidase staining produced an identical pattern. Macaca differed from Saimiri in that monocular stimulation labeled alternate rows. These results indicate that there are radial zones of high background metabolism across squirrel and macaque monkey striate cortex. In Saimiri these zones do not appear to be related to an eye dominance system, while in Macaca they do. The presence of these zones of high metabolism may complicate the interpretation of 2-DG autoradiographs that result from specific visual stimuli

  4. Academic coordination at university: Strategies for high quality education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Durán Bellonch

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Most lecturers and professors involved in teaching School Management and Education Management courses have been engaged in developing some innovative actions to improve the training quality that we offer to students in the Pedagogy degree at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. These actions are aimed at increasing co-ordination among the teaching staff when designing and implementing the course curricula. Co-ordination meetings, exchanges of teaching experiences, discussions about what, how and when to teach the different contents, in which courses and at what level, methodological issues pointed out through technical description cards or the elaboration of study cases to be solved have become the basis of relevant actions during the last academic years. This paper explains each one of them, and provides useful information about the theoretical background, the process carried out, some of the results obtained, the output and the tools created.

  5. Dose-effect relationship in production of dicentrics and rings in blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tao; Hayata, I.; Wang Cunyan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dose-effect relationship in the production of chromosome aberrations by high background radiation by using statistically appropriate individual measurements. Methods: Chromosome analysis was performed in separated blood lymphocytes of 39 family members of different ages from either high background radiation area (HBRA) or control area (CA). Individual cumulative doses ranged from 23.9-261.3 and 5.2-29.8 mGy for HBRA and CA, respectively. A total of about 100,000 cells were scored and dicentric and ring chromosome (dic + Rc) aberrations recorded. Results: In the case of HBRA, individual chromosome aberration frequencies increased with age within each family. The increasing trend was in general not significantly different among families. The increase in individual aberration was closely correlated with age and cumulative dose. Age-and dose-effect relationship fit well the linear equation: Y = 0.0448X + 0.4913 (R 2 = 0.7814) for age and Y 0.0156X + 0.5715 (R 2 = 0.7061) for cumulative dose, respectively. In the case of CA, there was no significant difference in aberration yields among individuals of different ages, and the group mean aberration frequency was 1.24 +- 0.69 x 10 -3 . Conclusions: Dic and Rc can continuously accumulate over a lifetime chronic low dose exposures, and can serve as a reliable biological indicator. However, the ultimate sensitivity is about 50 mGy

  6. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Zarei, Samira; Taheri, Mohammad; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Ranjbar, Sahar; Momeni, Fatemeh; Masoomi, Samaneh; Ansari, Leila; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taeb, Shahram; Zarei, Sina; Haghani, Masood

    2017-04-01

    Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ), Staphylococcus aureus , and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6) mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6) mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  7. Optimisation of the Read-out Electronics of Muon Drift-Tube Chambers for Very High Background Rates at HL-LHC and Future Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Sebastian; Gadow, Philipp; Ecker, Katharina; Fink, David; Fras, Markus; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Müller, Felix; Richter, Robert; Schmid, Clemens; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian; Zhao, Yazhou

    2016-01-01

    In the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and sMDT chambers with half of the tube diameter of the MDTs are used for precision muon track reconstruction. The sMDT chambers are designed for operation at high counting rates due to neutron and gamma background irradiation expected for the HL-LHC and future hadron colliders. The existing MDT read-out electronics uses bipolar signal shaping which causes an undershoot of opposite polarity and same charge after a signal pulse. At high counting rates and short electronics dead time used for the sMDTs, signal pulses pile up on the undershoot of preceding background pulses leading to a reduction of the signal amplitude and a jitter in the drift time measurement and, therefore, to a degradation of drift tube efficiency and spatial resolution. In order to further increase the rate capability of sMDT tubes, baseline restoration can be used in the read-out electronics to suppress the pile-up effects. A discrete bipolar shaping circuit with baseline...

  8. SCHOOL, UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL ACCESSIBILITY: DISCUSSING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENTS WITH HIGH SKILLS/GIFTEDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about educational accessibility in academic research constitutes a necessity in view of the reality of education today and investigations unexplored, such as the relation between the high skills/giftedness -AH/SD-, researchin university and educational accessibility. This paper aims to discuss the dialogue between school and university research regarding the accessibility of students with AH/SD, seeking to highlight some actions related to a research project of theUniversidade Federal de Santa Maria/RS. The discussion in this article is guided in a qualitative perspective, is the main theoretical support studies of Manzini (2005 and Freitas and Pérez (2010. Among the main considerations, it follows that: shared responsibility between school and university, through action research projects, contributes significantly to the establishment of educational accessibility for students with AH/SD.

  9. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression....... This study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 149...... participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used...

  10. Special Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Brienne

    2017-01-01

    Special education teachers are in high demand and greatly needed to meet the needs of the growing population of students qualified for special education services under the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004. The increasing attrition rates of special education teachers are a social justice issue that needs attention. The…

  11. High Spectral Resolution Observation of the Soft Diffuse X-ray Background in the Direction of the Galactic Anti-Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Dallas; Eckart, Mega E.; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Jaeckel, Felix; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; McCammon, Dan; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Porter, Frederick S.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.

    2018-01-01

    High spectral resolution observations in the soft x-rays are necessary for understanding and modelling the hot component of the interstellar medium and its contribution to the Soft X-ray Background (SXRB). This extended source emission cannot be resolved with most wavelength dispersive spectrometers, making energy dispersive microcalorimeters the ideal choice for these observations. We present here the analysis of the most recent sounding rocket flight of the University of Wisconsin-Madison/Goddard Space Flight Center X-ray Quantum Calorimeter (XQC), a large area silicon thermistor microcalorimeter. This 111 second observation integrates a nearly 1 steradian field of view in the direction of the galactic anti-center (l, b = 165°, -5°) and features ~5 eV spectral resolution below 1 keV. Direct comparison will also be made to the previous, high-latitude observations.

  12. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. An extra issue: background of the geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, an extra issue of the progress report, was prepared for the expected readers of the report to have background information on the geological disposal. Thus it gives information about (1) generation of high-level radioactive wastes, (2) history of plans proposed for HLW disposal in Japan, and (3) procedure until the geological disposal plan is finally adopted and basic future schedules. It further discusses on such problems in HLW treatment and disposal, as for example a problem of reliable safety for a very long period. (Ohno, S.)

  13. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific

  14. Creativity Education Model through Dance Creation for Students of Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malarsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to realize dance as a real product of a dance education process. The product is packaged in a form of audio-visual as well as a scientific publication. As the benefit from this study, the product can be used by school and specifically by dance teacher as a guidance in conducting dance lesson at school. The study on the model of creativity education through the creation is being understood as a form of developmental research. As a developmental research, the research plan is initiated by analyzing the teaching material related to dance lesson, and relate it to the creativity education which has to be accomplished through dance lesson, specifically for Junior High School students. The study will be continued with theoretical/ conceptual analysis and observation which is related to creativity education through the dance creation. In the end of this study, model of creativity education through dance creation is produced, particularly for students of Junior High School level. Results of the study show that, in doing creativity activity through dance creation, the value of the dance as an art is not become the primary aim. Moreover, the main aim of this process is towards the creativity process itself. While producing and creating the dance, two major educational points are derived, which are: the creativity and product value in a form of dance. Based on background of the idea, through this pilot project, the creativity of creating dance for public schools students, especially Junior High School, is possible to be done and used as a dance creativity learning model in Junior High School. Two suggestions are formulated in this study: (1 it is suggested for dance teachers in public schools, in this context is Junior High School teachers, to set their teaching and learning process into the creativity education as it is implied in curriculum. (2 In order to achieve the creativity education itself, the dance creation as one of art subject

  15. Critical Chemistry Education in a Private, Suburban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Patrick; Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2018-01-01

    This critical ethnography documents how a group of 25 students and their teacher/researcher in a suburban, private school setting, the vast majority from the dominant cultural background, engaged with and enacted a critical chemistry education together. Critical chemistry education contextualizes chemistry in socially relevant issues and problematizes participants' conceptual frameworks for understanding the intersections between chemistry and our capitalist society by identifying the shortcomings of traditional scientific language to sufficiently interrogate privilege and oppression. Qualitative data from teacher/researcher field notes and journal, classroom video transcripts, questionnaires, focus group interviews, and student artifacts document that while it is difficult for the teacher/researcher and the students of this setting to reflect upon their own positions of privilege, together they interpreted and made meaning of their experience by (1) developing the ability to critically analyze the products of science for the potential of oppression, (2) developing an understanding of inequity in science, and (3) evaluating and respecting diverse knowledge bases. Based on the findings, we suggest students should be encouraged to problematize socially situated science issues related to settings close to their own communities, students should participate in structured and purposeful journaling to improve their metacognition and critical reflexivity, and critical pedagogues must be explicit with students in their Marxist-based interpretation of the global capitalist super structure.

  16. Modeling strong‐motion recordings of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake with high stress‐drop subevents and background slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Strong‐motion recordings of the Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake were modeled using a compound rupture model consisting of (1) a background slip distribution with large correlation lengths, relatively low slip velocity, and long peak rise time of slip of about 10 s and (2) high stress‐drop subevents (asperities) on the deeper portion of the rupture with moment magnitudes 7.9–8.2, high slip velocity, and rise times of slip of about 2 s. In this model, the high‐frequency energy is not produced in the same location as the peak coseismic slip, but is generated in the deeper part of the rupture zone. Using synthetic seismograms generated for a plane‐layered velocity model, I find that the high stress‐drop subevents explain the observed Fourier spectral amplitude from about 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. Broadband synthetics (0–10 Hz) were calculated by combining deterministic synthetics derived from the background slip and asperities (≤1  Hz) with stochastic synthetics generated only at the asperities (≥1  Hz). The broadband synthetics produced response spectral accelerations with low bias compared to the data, for periods of 0.1–10 s. A subevent stress drop of 200–350 bars for the high‐frequency stochastic synthetics was found to bracket the observed spectral accelerations at frequencies greater than 1 Hz. For most of the stations, the synthetics had durations of the Arias intensity similar to the observed records.

  17. All about High/Scope: Practical Summaries of High/Scope's History, Educational Approach, and Curriculum. Numbers 1-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann S.

    This document is comprised of 10 High/Scope fact sheets for parents, detailing the history of the High/Scope educational approach and describing its educational practice and curriculum. The major topic for each four-page fact sheet follows: (1) educational approach, including goals for young children and features of the High/Scope approach to…

  18. Impact of High Mathematics Education on the Number Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Julie; Göbel, Silke M.

    2012-01-01

    In adult number processing two mechanisms are commonly used: approximate estimation of quantity and exact calculation. While the former relies on the approximate number sense (ANS) which we share with animals and preverbal infants, the latter has been proposed to rely on an exact number system (ENS) which develops later in life following the acquisition of symbolic number knowledge. The current study investigated the influence of high level math education on the ANS and the ENS. Our results showed that the precision of non-symbolic quantity representation was not significantly altered by high level math education. However, performance in a symbolic number comparison task as well as the ability to map accurately between symbolic and non-symbolic quantities was significantly better the higher mathematics achievement. Our findings suggest that high level math education in adults shows little influence on their ANS, but it seems to be associated with a better anchored ENS and better mapping abilities between ENS and ANS. PMID:22558077

  19. Alterations in lipids & lipid peroxidation in rats fed with flavonoid rich fraction of banana (Musa paradisiaca) from high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kripa; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2005-12-01

    A group of villages in Kollam district of Kerala, southern part of India are exposed to a higher dose of natural radiation than global average. Yet no adverse health effects have been found in humans, animals and plants in these areas. The present study was carried out to understand whether radiation affects the quantity and quality of flavonoids in plants grown in this area of high radiation, and to assess the effect of feeding flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) of the two varieties of banana to rats on their biochemical parameters like lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzyme levels. A total of 42 albino rats were equally divided into 7 groups. Rats fed laboratory diet alone were grouped under group I (normal control). Groups II and V received flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) from the fruits of two varieties of Musa paradisiaca, Palayamkodan and Rasakadali respectively from normal background radiation area (Veli) and treated as controls. Rats of groups III and IV received FRF of Palayamkodan from high background radiation areas (HBRAs) - Neendakara and Karunagappally respectively while groups VI and VII received FRF of Rasakadali from HBRAs. At the end of the experimental period of 45 days, lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes from liver, heart and kidney were analyzed. FRF of Palayamkodan and Rasakadali varieties showed significant hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. But these activities were found to be lowered in plants grown in HBRAs, particularly in Karunagappally area. Of the two, Palayamkodan variety was more effective in reducing lipids and lipid peroxides. MDA and hydroperoxides were significantly diminished in rats given FRF of banana from Veli (control area) only. FRF from plants grown in HBRAs exerted inhibition in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats and this inhibitory effect was maximum in rats fed FRF from Karunagappally. Banana grown in HBRAs is of lower quality with less efficient antioxidant system

  20. Glutamate decarboxylase and. gamma. -aminobutyric acid transaminase activity in brain structures during action of high concentrated sulfide gas on a background of hypo- and hypercalcemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadyrov, G.K.; Aliyev, A.M.

    Activity of the following enzymes was studied on the background of hypo- and hypercalcemia and exposure to high concentration of sulfide gas: glutamate decarboxylase (GDC) and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T). These enzymes regulate metabolism of GABA. The results showed that a 3.5 hr exposure to sulfide gas at a concentration of 0.3 mg/1 led to significantly increased activity of GDC in cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and in brain stem. Activity of GABA-T dropped correspondingly. On the background of hypercalcemia induced by im. injection of 10% calcium gluconate (0.6 m1/200 g body weight of experimental rats) the negative effect caused by the exposure to sulfide gas was diminished. Under conditions of hypocalcemia (im. injection of 10 mg/200 g body weight of sodium oxalate), exposure to sulfide gas led to a significantly decreased activity of GDC and GABA-T in the hemispheres and in the brain stem, but in the cerebellum the activity of GDC increased sharply while that of GABA-T decreased correspondingly. 8 refs.

  1. School motivation and high school dropout: the mediating role of educational expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Wolters, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    A good deal of evidence indicates that students' motivational beliefs and attitudes play a critical role in their academic success. Research studies on how motivational factors may help determine whether students remain in high school or drop out, however, are relatively few. More specifically, there is a lack of research examining the dynamics of whether students' motivational beliefs from earlier in high school might be used to predict their status as a dropout in their final year. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating role of students' educational expectations in linking students' school motivation to their dropout status by utilizing a nationally representative dataset. The present study used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002). The final sample consisted of 16,194 students, with approximately 54% White, 13% Black, 16% Hispanic, and 10% Asian students, and the rest were Native American, Hawaiian, multiracial, or of other races. Structural equation modelling was employed to conduct the mediational analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the relationships between student ability beliefs in math and English and student behaviour of dropping out were fully mediated by students' educational expectations. The results also revealed that student intrinsic value in math and English had significant indirect relations with student behaviour of leaving school through students' educational expectations. The results of this study suggest that explanations for student dropout status that rely solely on students' social background and school behaviours without considering their motivation are incomplete. The study expands the extant research by showing possible pathways that motivate students to persist in high school. These pathways are specifically rooted in students' ability beliefs and intrinsic interest in learning through their relationships with students' expectations for their education. © 2012 The

  2. Educating Students to Boost Innovation and High-tech Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf Henrik

    . A key challenge faced by entrepreneurs aiming at starting their “own” high-tech company is the high costs and, thereby, the difficulty of accessing appropriate amount of financing without quickly losing ownership and hence incentive in their business. One possible solution is customer-based financing...... something with a culture, something that permeates the way one thinks of. Educating students in an innovative research environment is key to inspiring them to think commercially. It is in this light, among others, that one should view the advantages of close collaboration between academia and industry...

  3. High rate of virologic suppression with darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy among highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients: results of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Vidal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± raltegravir ± enfuvirtide ± maraviroc after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6. The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2. At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90% had an HIV RNA level 100 000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.

  4. High rate of virologic suppression with darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy among highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients: results of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Vidal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± raltegravir ± enfuvirtide ± maraviroc after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6. The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2. At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90% had an HIV RNA level 100 000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.

  5. Epidemiology of non-syndromic cleft lip/palate in the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of the South west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, with natural deposits of monazite sand containing thorium (8-10%) and Uranium (0.3%), is a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district and is one among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand causes wide variation in dose ranging from <1 to 45 mGy/year. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation areas (NLNRA). A total of 134,178 newborns were monitored and non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP) was detected in 143 newborns (1.07%). Cleft lip with cleft palate (59.4%) was more common than cleft lip (18.2%) or Cleft palate (22.4%) alone and 11.9% had other malformation(s) together with NSCLP. There was no evidence to suggest that NSFC was significantly associated with prevailing dose level of area of mother's residence, maternal age birth, gravida, ethnicity or consanguinity

  6. Alteration of strain background and a high omega-6 fat diet induces earlier onset of pancreatic neoplasia in EL-Kras transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eric C; Strouch, Matthew J; Barron, Morgan R; Ding, Yongzeng; Melstrom, Laleh G; Krantz, Seth B; Mullapudi, Bhargava; Adrian, Kevin; Rao, Sambasiva; Adrian, Thomas E; Bentrem, David J; Grippo, Paul J

    2011-06-15

    Diets containing omega-6 (ω-6) fat have been associated with increased tumor development in carcinogen-induced pancreatic cancer models. However, the effects of ω-6 fatty acids and background strain on the development of genetically-induced pancreatic neoplasia is unknown. We assessed the effects of a diet rich in ω-6 fat on the development of pancreatic neoplasia in elastase (EL)-Kras(G12D) (EL-Kras) mice in two different backgrounds. EL-Kras FVB mice were crossed to C57BL/6 (B6) mice to produce EL-Kras FVB6 F1 (or EL-Kras F1) and EL-Kras B6 congenic mice. Age-matched EL-Kras mice from each strain were compared to one another on a standard chow. Two cohorts of EL-Kras FVB and EL-Kras F1 mice were fed a 23% corn oil diet and compared to age-matched mice fed a standard chow. Pancreata were scored for incidence, frequency, and size of neoplastic lesions, and stained for the presence of mast cells to evaluate changes in the inflammatory milieu secondary to a high fat diet. EL-Kras F1 mice had increased incidence, frequency, and size of pancreatic neoplasia compared to EL-Kras FVB mice. The frequency and size of neoplastic lesions and the weight and pancreatic mast cell densities in EL-Kras F1 mice were increased in mice fed a high ω-6 fatty acid diet compared to mice fed a standard chow. We herein introduce the EL-Kras B6 mouse model which presents with increased frequency of pancreatic neoplasia compared to EL-Kras F1 mice. The phenotype in EL-Kras F1 and FVB mice is promoted by a diet rich in ω-6 fatty acid. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  7. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  8. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  9. Integration of educational methods and physical settings: design guidelines for High/Scope methodology in pre-schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Izadpanah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality design and appropriate space organization in preschool settings can support preschool children's educational activities. Although the relationship between the well-being and development of children and physical settings has been emphasized by many early childhood researchers, there is still a need for theoretical design guidelines that are geared towards the improvement of this issue. This research focuses on High/Scope education and aims to shape a theoretical guideline that raises teachers' awareness about the potential of learning spaces and guides them to improve the quality of the physical spaces. To create a theoretical framework, reliable sources are investigated in the light of High/Scope education and the requirements of pre-school children educational spaces. Physical space characteristics, the preschool child's requirements and High/Scope methodology identified design inputs, design considerations and recommendations that shape the final guideline for spatial arrangement in a High/Scope setting are integrated. Discussions and suggestions in this research benefit both designers and High/ Scope teaching staff. Results help High/Scope teaching staff increase the quality of a space in an educational setting without having an architectural background. The theoretical framework of the research allows designers to consider key features and users' possible activities in High/ Scope settings and shape their designs accordingly.

  10. Reflections on having children in the future—interviews with highly educated women and men without children

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a trend to delay birth of the first child until the age at which female reproductive capacity has started to decrease. The aim of the present study was to explore how highly educated women and men reflected on future parenthood. Methods Twenty-two women and 18 men, who had started their professional career, were subjected to individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with qualitative content analysis guiding the analysis. Results All informants, except for three wom...

  11. The use of high-speed imaging in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, H.; McNamara, G.; Rayner, J.

    2017-02-01

    Recent improvements in camera technology and the associated improved access to high-speed camera equipment have made it possible to use high-speed imaging not only in a research environment but also specifically for educational purposes. This includes high-speed sequences that are created both with and for a target audience of students in high schools and universities. The primary goal is to engage students in scientific exploration by providing them with a tool that allows them to see and measure otherwise inaccessible phenomena. High-speed imaging has the potential to stimulate students' curiosity as the results are often surprising or may contradict initial assumptions. "Live" demonstrations in class or student- run experiments are highly suitable to have a profound influence on student learning. Another aspect is the production of high-speed images for demonstration purposes. While some of the approaches known from the application of high speed imaging in a research environment can simply be transferred, additional techniques must often be developed to make the results more easily accessible for the targeted audience. This paper describes a range of student-centered activities that can be undertaken which demonstrate how student engagement and learning can be enhanced through the use of high speed imaging using readily available technologies.

  12. Functionalized vertical GaN micro pillar arrays with high signal-to-background ratio for detection and analysis of proteins secreted from breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mun-Ki; Kim, Gil-Sung; Jeong, Jin-Tak; Lim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Won-Yong; Umar, Ahmad; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2017-11-02

    The detection of cancer biomarkers has recently attracted significant attention as a means of determining the correct course of treatment with targeted therapeutics. However, because the concentration of these biomarkers in blood is usually relatively low, highly sensitive biosensors for fluorescence imaging and precise detection are needed. In this study, we have successfully developed vertical GaN micropillar (MP) based biosensors for fluorescence sensing and quantitative measurement of CA15-3 antigens. The highly ordered vertical GaN MP arrays result in the successful immobilization of CA15-3 antigens on each feature of the arrays, thereby allowing the detection of an individual fluorescence signal from the top surface of the arrays owing to the high regularity of fluorophore-tagged MP spots and relatively low background signal. Therefore, our fluorescence-labeled and CA15-3 functionalized vertical GaN-MP-based biosensor is suitable for the selective quantitative analysis of secreted CA15-3 antigens from MCF-7 cell lines, and helps in the early diagnosis and prognosis of serious diseases as well as the monitoring of the therapeutic response of breast cancer patients.

  13. Mobile learning and high-lighting language education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Jane

    Mobile learning and high-profiling language education. The number of students learning a second or foreign language and participating in instruction in languages other than English has been in decline for some time. There seems to be such a general tendency across nations albeit for a variety...... of reasons idiosyncratic to the particular national conditions. This paper gives an account of a diversified national project designed to infuse foreign language learning classes in upper secondary schools in Denmark with renewed enthusiasm through systematically experimenting with the new media by taking...... advantage of the social side in their application. The aim has been to make language classes attractive and relevant and to highlight the attractiveness and fun in learning through web 2.0 and mobile units. The overall project was supported by the Danish ministry of education as well as the individual...

  14. Social economical and psychological considerations in conveying potential radiation risks from high level natural background radiation to the residents of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Ghiassi-nejad, M.

    2003-01-01

    X-rays and radioactivity were discovered more than 100 years ago but the need for protection against very low doses of ionizing radiation and especially different levels of natural radiation is still among the most controversial matters in radiobiology and radiation protection. According to formal reports, some areas in Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, are the inhabited areas with the highest levels of natural radiation studied so far. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy y''-1 and the highest recorded external gamma dose rates are about 130 mGy y''-1. We have previously shown that in high background radiation areas (HBRAs), cultured human lymphocytes of the inhabitants whose cumulative radiation doses were as much as 170 times more than those of a control area when subjected to 1.5 Gy challenge dose,were significantly more radioresistant compared to the residents of the control area (Mortazavi et al. 2002a,b, Mortazavi and Karam 2002, Ghiassi-Najed et al. 2002). The people who live in these areas are usually unaware of the high levels of natural radiation in their environment. Studies performed on the residents of these areas have indicated that the effective dose of the inhabitants, in some cases, is much higher than the dose limits for occupational irradiation. Considering recent policies of ICRP regarding suggesting dose limits for exposure to natural sources of ionizing including radon, it seems that the inhabitants should become familiar with the possible risks of the exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation. They should also realize that studies performed over the past years have indicated no detrimental effect. On the other hand, according to ICRP suggestions and considering the experiences in other countries, especially evacuation of the residents of contaminated areas after Chernobyl accident, setting any radiation protection regulation for the inhabitants without considering social, economic and

  15. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and

  16. The Impact of Educational Intervention on Aggression Level among High School Students in Ilam-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Bahari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundManagement and control of adolescence aggression improves constructive relationships, quality of life, and academic achievement. This research aimed to study the impact of educational intervention on reduction of aggression among male high school students in Ilam city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis quasi-experimental intervention study using the pretest-posttest method was conducted on 70 aggressive male high school students in Ilam who were selected using the convenience sampling method. First, students were asked to fill out the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQand 70 of them with the highest score of aggression were selected as the sample. They received educational intervention for eight 90-minute sessions  during one month. Then post-test data were collected and follow-up at three months after the intervention and statistically analyzed using SPSS-20.ResultsThe mean age of subjects was 15.81±1.24 years old. 83% belonged to the urban community and 12.5% belonged to the rural community. The results showed that the educational intervention was effective in reduction of aggression levels and its four subscales (P

  17. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  18. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High performance leadership in unusually challenging educational circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hargreaves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on findings from the results of a study of leadership in high performing organizations in three sectors. Organizations were sampled and included on the basis of high performance in relation to no performance, past performance, performance among similar peers and performance in the face of limited resources or challenging circumstances. The paper concentrates on leadership in four schools that met the sample criteria.  It draws connections to explanations of the high performance ofEstoniaon the OECD PISA tests of educational achievement. The article argues that leadership in these four schools that performed above expectations comprised more than a set of competencies. Instead, leadership took the form of a narrative or quest that pursued an inspiring dream with relentless determination; took improvement pathways that were more innovative than comparable peers; built collaboration and community including with competing schools; and connected short-term success to long-term sustainability.

  20. Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudzadeh, Nasrin; Zakeri, Fardideh; Lotfabad, Tayebe bagheri; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Hoseein Shahbani; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isolation and characterization of a novel cadmium-biosorbent (Brevundimonas sp. ZF12) from high background radiation areas. ► Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 caused 50% removal of cadmium at the concentration level of 250 ppm. ► Solution pH values used for the reusability study have powerful desorptive features to recover Cd ions sorbed onto the biomass. ► This is the first study carried out so far for the cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel biosorbent Brevundimonas sp. ZF12. ► In our opinion, the isolate can be an attractive alternative to remove the cadmium-containing wastewaters. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to screen cadmium biosorbing bacterial strains isolated from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of radium ( 226 Ra) in Ramsar using a batch system. Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain isolated from the water with high 226 Ra content caused 50% removal of cadmium at a concentration level of 250 ppm. The biosorption equilibrium data are fitted well by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo second-order model. The effect of different physico-chemical parameters like biomass concentration, pH, cadmium concentration, temperature and contact time on cadmium sorption was also investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD analytical techniques. A high desorption efficiency (above 90%) was obtained using a pH range of 2.0–4.0. Reusability of the biomass was examined under consecutive biosorption–desorption cycles repeated thrice. In conclusion, Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 is proposed as an excellent cadmium biosorbent that may have important applications in Cd removal from wastewaters.

  1. Cosmic Microwave Background as a Thermal Gas of SU(2 Photons: Implications for the High-z Cosmological Model and the Value of H0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, we are facing a 3σ tension in the most basic cosmological parameter, the Hubble constant H0. This tension arises when fitting the Lambda-cold-dark-matter model (ΛCDM to the high-precision temperature-temperature (TT power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB and to local cosmological observations. We propose a resolution of this problem by postulating that the thermal photon gas of the CMB obeys an SU(2 rather than U(1 gauge principle, suggesting a high-z cosmological model which is void of dark-matter. Observationally, we rely on precise low-frequency intensity measurements in the CMB spectrum and on a recent model independent (low-z extraction of the relation between the comoving sound horizon rs at the end of the baryon drag epoch and H0 (rsH0=const. We point out that the commonly employed condition for baryon-velocity freeze-out is imprecise, judged by a careful inspection of the formal solution to the associated Euler equation. As a consequence, the above-mentioned 3σ tension actually transforms into a 5σ discrepancy. To make contact with successful low-z  ΛCDM cosmology we propose an interpolation based on percolated/depercolated vortices of a Planck-scale axion condensate. For a first consistency test of such an all-z model we compute the angular scale of the sound horizon at photon decoupling.

  2. Interprofessional education in pharmacology using high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brittney A; Seefeldt, Teresa M; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Hendrickx, Lori D; Lubeck, Paula M; Farver, Debra K; Heins, Jodi R

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the feasibility of an interprofessional high-fidelity pharmacology simulation and its impact on pharmacy and nursing students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge. Pharmacy and nursing students participated in a pharmacology simulation using a high-fidelity patient simulator. Faculty-facilitated debriefing included discussion of the case and collaboration. To determine the impact of the activity on students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and their ability to apply pharmacology knowledge, surveys were administered to students before and after the simulation. Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams scale (ATHCT) scores improved from 4.55 to 4.72 on a scale of 1-6 (p = 0.005). Almost all (over 90%) of the students stated their pharmacology knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge improved following the simulation. A simulation in pharmacology is feasible and favorably affected students' interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge perceptions. Pharmacology is a core science course required by multiple health professions in early program curricula, making it favorable for incorporation of interprofessional learning experiences. However, reports of high-fidelity interprofessional simulation in pharmacology courses are limited. This manuscript contributes to the literature in the field of interprofessional education by demonstrating that an interprofessional simulation in pharmacology is feasible and can favorably affect students' perceptions of interprofessionalism. This manuscript provides an example of a pharmacology interprofessional simulation that faculty in other programs can use to build similar educational activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Family Background, University Quality and Educational Mismatch on Wage: An Analysis Using a Young Cohort of Italian Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of university quality, family background and mismatch on the wages of young Italian graduates. An empirical analysis is undertaken using a representative sample of graduates merged with a dataset containing information on the characteristics of universities. By utilizing quantile regression techniques, some evidence…

  4. X-Rays from NGC 3256: High-Energy Emission in Starburst Galaxies and Their Contribution to the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Edward C.; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Helfand, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The infrared-luminous galaxy NGC 3256 is a classic example of a merger-induced nuclear starburst system. We find here that it is the most X-ray-luminous star-forming galaxy yet detected (L 0.5-10keV =1.6x10 42 ergs s-1). Long-slit optical spectroscopy and a deep, high-resolution ROSAT X-ray image show that the starburst is driving a ''superwind'' which accounts for ∼20% of the observed soft X-ray emission. Analysis of X-ray spectral data from ASCA indicates this gas has a characteristic temperature of kT≅0.3 keV. Our model for the broadband X-ray emission of NGC 3256 contains two additional components: a warm thermal plasma (kT≅0.8 keV) associated with the central starburst, and a hard power-law component with an energy index of α X ≅0.7. We discuss the energy budget for the two thermal plasmas and find that the input of mechanical energy from the starburst is more than sufficient to sustain the observed level of emission. We also examine possible origins for the power-law component, concluding that neither a buried AGN nor the expected population of high-mass X-ray binaries can account for this emission. Inverse Compton scattering, involving the galaxy's copious flux of infrared photons and the relativistic electrons produced by supernovae, is likely to make a substantial contribution to the hard X-ray flux. Such a model is consistent with the observed radio and IR fluxes and the radio and X-ray spectral indices. We explore the role of X-ray-luminous starbursts in the production of the cosmic X-ray background radiation. The number counts and spectral index distribution of the faint radio source population, thought to be dominated by star-forming galaxies, suggest that a significant fraction of the hard X-ray background could arise from starbursts at moderate redshift. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  5. Background and rationale for the Society of Behavioral Medicine's position statement: expand United States health plan coverage for diabetes self-management education and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Lisa K; Fisher, Edwin B; Gerber, Ben S

    2015-09-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) recognizes that diabetes self-management (DSM) education and support are fundamental to teaching people how to manage their diabetes and decrease disease-related complications. Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides an opportunity to expand DSM education and support to many people who are currently excluded from such services due to lack of insurance coverage, current policy barriers, or simple failure of healthcare systems to provide them. Extending the range and provision of such services could translate into reduced diabetic complications, a reduction in unnecessary healthcare utilization, and significant health-related cost savings on a national level. SBM recommends that public and private insurers be required to reimburse for 12 h of DSM education and support annually for anyone with diabetes. Further, SBM recognizes that a range of modes and providers of DSM education and support have been shown effective, and that patient preferences and resources may influence choice. To address this, SBM urges health organizations to increase and diversify approaches toward DSM education and support they offer.

  6. 教師背景與初職位置:中學教師背景特質對取得各類型教職位置的影響 Teacher’s Background and the First Teaching Job: The Effects of the Background Characteristics of High School Teachers on Their First Teaching Job-Getting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    紀金山 Chin-Shan Chi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available 目前中學教師供過於求的情形,已使得其教職位置的取得愈來愈市場化。本研究藉由各類型中學新制教師特質的分布情形,說明師資培育制度改革後教師背景特質對取得初職位置的影響。本文先以邏輯迴歸分析探討影響私立高職教職取得的背景變項作用,其次以私立高職教職為參照組的多元邏輯迴歸分析,探討影響其他類型教職取得的背景變項作用,結果發現教師背景特質對取得公立學校教職與私立高職教職的影響效果有明顯差異。比較各類背景特質的作用,人力資本變項的影響最為重要,它對於取得私立高職教職位置,有相對性的負向顯著影響;另一方面,它則是影響公立學校教職位置取得的有利變項,其中教師甄試表現、學歷種類和學歷高低的影響最顯著。 Since the new Teacher Education Act in 1994, the oversupply of teacher candidates brings to change the first-teaching-job-getting (FTJG from traditional embedded approach to a new quasi-market one. This article tries to delineate the effects of the background characteristics of high school teachers on their FTJG. I took the private vocation-high school as a basic group and analyzed the effects of related factors on it with logistic regression. Then I explored the effects of related factors on the others categories through multinomial logit model with private vocation-high school as the reference group. In summary, the entrants’ human capital is not beneficial to the FTJG of the private vocation-high schools. However the effect of human capital is the most important to the FTJG of the public schools, especially according to the performance of the job-seeking test, and the objective variables of education background.

  7. MODELING OF SYSTEM COMPONENTS OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Samerkhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the principles of System Studies, describes the components of the educational programs of the control system. Educational Program Management is a set of substantive, procedural, resource, subject-activity, efficiently and evaluation components, which ensures the integrity of integration processes at all levels of education. Ensuring stability and development in the management of educational programs is achieved by identifying and securing social norms, the status of the educational institution program managers to ensure the achievement of modern quality of education.Content Management provides the relevant educational content in accordance with the requirements of the educational and professional standards; process control ensures the efficient organization of rational distribution process flows; Resource Management provides optimal distribution of personnel, information and methodological, material and technical equipment of the educational program; contingent management provides subject-activity interaction of participants of the educational process; quality control ensures the quality of educational services.

  8. High level expression and characterization of tannase tan7 using Aspergillus niger SH-2 with low-background endogenous secretory proteins as the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengling; Wang, Bin; Ye, Yanrui; Pan, Li

    2018-04-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase, EC3.1.1.20) catalyzes the hydrolysis of hydrolyzable tannins. It is used in the manufacture of instant tea and in the production of gallic acid. In this study, we reported that the overexpression, purification and characterization of an Aspergillus niger tannase. The tannase gene was cloned from A. niger SH-2 and expressed in the A. niger strain Bdel4 which is low-background of secreted proteins. The recombinant tannase was purified by desalting, followed by gel filtration for characterization. The tannase activity achieved 111.5 U/mL at 168 h, and the purity of the enzyme in the broth supernatant was estimated to be over 70%. The optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant tannase was ∼40 °C and 7.0, respectively. The tannase activity was inhibited by Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ba 2+ , Ni 2+ and EDTA, and was enhanced by Mn 2+ and Co 2+ . Since A. niger is a GRAS microorganism, the recombinant tannase could be purification-free due to its high purity. The results of this study suggested that this recombinant strain could be subjected to large-scale production of A. niger tannase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Tong; Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; equilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined. (author)

  10. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY LEVEL AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL SAMPLES FROM A HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA ON EASTERN COAST OF INDIA (ODISHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Kierepko, R; Sorimachi, A; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to determine the radioactivity concentration of soil samples from different sites of a high background radiation area in the eastern coast of India, Odisha state. The dose rate measured in situ varied from 0.25 to 1.2 µSv h -1 The gamma spectrometry measurements indicated Th series elements as the main contributors to the enhanced level of radiation and allowed the authors to find the mean level of the activity concentration (±SD) for 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K as 130±97, 1110±890 and 360±140 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Human exposure from radionuclides occurring outdoor was estimated based on the effective dose rate, which ranged from 0.14±0.02 to 2.15±0.26 mSv and was higher than the UNSCEAR annual worldwide average value 0.07 mSv. Additionally, X-ray fluorescence analysis provided information about the content of major elements in samples and indicated the significant amount of Ti (7.4±4.9 %) in soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Excess relative risk for solid cancer mortality during prolonged exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan; Yuan Yongling; Zou Jianming; Cha Yongru; Jian Yuannu; Wei Luxin; Akiba, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the excess relative risk for solid cancer associated with chronically exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China. Methods: Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex-and age-specific occupancy factors, the authors calculated cumulative doses for each cohort member. Assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995 and Poisson model, the authors estimated the excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancer. Results: The ERR per Sv of all solid cancer is estimated to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69 to 95%). The corresponding figures for cancers of liver, nasopharynx, lungs and stomach are -0.99 (-1.60, 0.10), 0.10 (-1.21, 3.28), -0.68 (-1.58, 1.66) and -0.27 (-1.37, 2.69) respectively. Conclusion: The association between ERR of solid cancer and dose can not be found

  12. The world's high background natural radiation areas (HBNRAs) revisited: A broad overview of the dosimetric, epidemiological and radiobiological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    The residents of the world's high background natural radiation areas (HBNRAs), such as Ramsar (in Iran), Guarapari (in Brazil), Orissa and Kerala (in India) and Yangjiang (in China) have lived in these areas for generations under extraordinary radiation fields. The failure of earlier epidemiological studies to report any substantial increase in cancer incidence in HBNRAs has raised some controversy regarding the validity of the linear no-threshold hypothesis. This paper reviews some of the most recent studies of HBNRAs with the intent of stimulating greater research interest in the dosimetric, epidemiological and radiobiological issues related to the world's HBNRAs and proposes solutions to the challenges facing HBNRA studies. This paper may serve as a useful reference for some of the harder-to-find literature. - Highlights: • Some of the challenging issues of HBNRAs have not been resolved. • A literature review of the most recent studies of HBNRAs has been conducted. • An overview of some of the challenging issues and viable solutions are presented

  13. CREATING EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL TO HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION WITH COMIC BOOKS: THE VACCINA´S HISTORY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Corrêa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Comic book "The Vaccine’s History" is part of a project that creates educational material intended to improve high school education, and is being developed for approximately ten years at the Bioenergetics Laboratory under Prof. Leopoldo de Meis supervision. The project's objective is joining art and science language to create more interesting and playful science education diffusion material for high school students and the general public, working as an entertainment or as an auxiliary tool for teachers in their classrooms. The book’s subject is the history of immunology, from primitive man until present times, using comic book language. An extensive research was necessary in the elaboration of this present work to produce a book that is as true to facts as possible and, at the same time, develop an accessible language to general public. Collaboration of diverse scientists from the Immunology research field made possible an accurate use of academic information, translating this knowledge to students and general pub lic about many topics of discovery and production of vaccines. All products of this project were well received by school teachers all over the country (Brazil, according to data obtained with letters and comments, and the number of requested materials of  the previous works developed by this research group.

  14. Astronomy Education in Morocco - New Project for Implementing Astronomy in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.

  15. Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM10 at an urban background site in a high-altitude Latin American megacity (Bogota, Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Omar; Sánchez de la Campa, A M; Amato, Fulvio; Catacolí, Ruth A; Rojas, Néstor Y; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-02-01

    Bogota registers frequent episodes of poor air quality from high PM 10 concentrations. It is one of the main Latin American megacities, located at 2600 m in the tropical Andes, but there is insufficient data on PM 10 source contribution. A characterization of the chemical composition and the source apportionment of PM 10 at an urban background site in Bogota was carried out in this study. Daily samples were collected from June 2015 to May 2016 (a total of 311 samples). Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble compounds (SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , NH 4 + ), major elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P) and trace metals (V, Cd, Pb, Sr, Ba, among others) were analyzed. The results were interpreted in terms of their variability during the rainy season (RS) and the dry season (DS). The data obtained revealed that the carbonaceous fraction (∼51%) and mineral dust (23%) were the main PM 10 components, followed by others (15%), Secondary Inorganic Compounds (SIC) (11%) and sea salt (0.4%). The average concentrations of soil, SIC and OC were higher during RS than DS. However, peak values were observed during the DS due to photochemical activity and forest fires. Although trace metals represented <1% of PM 10 , high concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and Sb on RS, and Cu on DS, were obtained. By using a PMF model, six factors were identified (∼96% PM 10 ) including fugitive dust, road dust, metal processing, secondary PM, vehicles exhaust and industrial emissions. Traffic (exhaust emissions + road dust) was the major PM 10 source, accounting for ∼50% of the PM 10 . The results provided novel data about PM 10 chemical composition, its sources and its seasonal variability during the year, which can help the local government to define control strategies for the main emission sources during the most critical periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental 238U and 232Th concentration measurements in an area of high level natural background radiation at Palong, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, A Termizi; Hussein, A Wahab M A; Wood, A Khalik

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of uranium-238 and thorium-232 in soil, water, grass, moss and oil-palm fruit samples collected from an area of high background radiation were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA). U-238 concentration in soil ranged from 4.9 mg kg(-1) (58.8 Bq kg(-1)) to 40.4 mg kg(-1) (484.8 Bq kg(-1)), Th-232 concentration ranged from 14.9 mg kg(-1) (59.6 Bq kg(-1)) to 301.0 mg kg(-1) (1204 Bq kg(-1)). The concentration of U-238 in grass samples ranged from below the detection limit to 0.076 mg kg(-1) (912 mBq kg(-1)), and Th-232 ranged from 0.008 mg kg(-1) (32 mBq kg(-1)) to 0.343 mg kg(-1) (1.372 Bq kg(-1)). U-238 content in water samples ranged from 0.33 mg kg(-1) (4.0 Bq L(-1)) to 1.40 mg kg(-1) (16.8 Bq L(-1)), and Th-232 ranged from 0.19 mg kg(-1) (0.76 Bq L(-1)) to 0.66 mg kg(-1) (2.64 Bq L(-1)). It can be said that the concentrations of environmental U-238 and Th-232 in grass and water samples in the study area are insignificant. Mosses were found to be possible bio-radiological indicators due to their high absorption of the heavy radioelements from the environment.

  17. Assessment of external and internal doses due to farming in high background radiation areas in old tin mining localities in Jos-plateau, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N.N.; Farai, I.P.; Alausa, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Farming on soils situated in high background radiation areas can result to enhanced radiation exposure scenarios and pathways to humans. To assess the likely levels of exposures, farm soil samples were collected from different farmlands in three old tin mining localities (Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp) in Jos Plateau Nigeria, known for high radiations. The soil samples were analyzed for the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The outdoor annual effective dose rates were calculated using the activity concentrations of the radionuclides and were found to vary from 0.07 mSv to 2.02 mSv across the three localities. Considering dust generation from soil tillage and inadvertent ingestion of soil particles, the likely internal radiation hazards were estimated using conservative dust and soil loading factors. The total average annual effective dose rates due to 226 Ra and 232 Th that could result from dust inhalation and ingestion of soil particles were 16.9 μSv, 8.1 μSv and 8.8 μSv, respectively for Bitsichi, Bukuru and Ropp. Though these values are about 5% the outdoor exposures to the farmers in those farms and greater than 1 μSv y-1, from the point of view of radiation protection and risk, they are significant. It suffices to say, therefore, that the results of this study will create the possibility of the importance to evaluate the health risk among the farming population and workplace environments which often is not covered by regulations concerning health protection. (author)

  18. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style

  19. An Investigation of Technology Avoidance Effect into Higher Education Environments: Some Empirical Evidence of Marketing Students' Background and Their Use of Personal Computers Outside the Academic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test a research hypothesis in order to explain the technology avoidance effect in higher educational environments. We addressed the core research themes of our study using a survey. Our intention was to test marketing students' perceptions in order to investigate the potent influence of a climate of…

  20. An investigation of the relationships between junior high school students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables and structure of knowledge recall of biological content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrius, Olive Joyce

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Junior High School students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables (e.g. cognitive factors, prior knowledge, preference for science versus non-science activities, formal and informal activities) and structure of information recall of biological content. In addition, this study will illustrate how flow maps, a graphic display, designed to represent the sequential flow and cross linkage of ideas in information recalled by the learner can be used as a tool for analyzing science learning data. The participants (46 junior high school students) were taught a lesson on the human digestive system during which they were shown a model of the human torso. Their pattern of information recall was determined by using an interview technique to elicit their understanding of the functional anatomy of the human digestive system. The taped responses were later transcribed for construction of the flow map. The interview was also used to assess knowledge recall of biological content. The flow map, science interest questionnaire and the cognitive operations (based on content analysis of student's narrative) were used to analyze data from each respondent. This is a case study using individual subjects and interview techniques. The findings of this study are: (1) Based on flow map data higher academic ability students have more networking of ideas than low ability students. (2) A large percentage of 9th grade low ability students intend to pursue science/applied science course work after leaving school but they lack well organized ways of representing science knowledge in memory. (3) Content analysis of the narratives shows that students with more complex ideational networks use higher order cognitive thought processes compared to those with less networking of ideas. If students are to make a successful transition from low academic performance to high academic performance it seems that more emphasis should be placed on