WorldWideScience

Sample records for high economic values

  1. Economic value of walkability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2004-10-12

    Traditional transportation planning and evaluation practices treat walking as a minor transport mode. However, it is evident that walking is a critical component of the transport system. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate the value of walking and walkability, which is defined as the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience. The socio-economic benefits of walking and walkability were discussed, including basic mobility, consumer cost savings and reduced external costs. Efficient land use, community livability, improved public health, economic development and support for equity objectives were also presented as potential benefits. It was concluded that walking receives less than its appropriate share of transportation resources, and that improvements in walkability can provide a high economic return on investment. Increased government funding to walking facilities and programs was recommended. Other recommendations included: shifting road space from traffic and parking lanes to sidewalks and paths; and policies to create more walkable safety and comfort. These recommendations comply with other transport and land use management reforms to reduce automobile dependency and create greater accessibility. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  3. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co. LTD, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas.

  4. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas

  5. Creation of a gilded trap by the high economic value of the Maine lobster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneck, R S; Hughes, T P; Cinner, J E; Adger, W N; Arnold, S N; Berkes, F; Boudreau, S A; Brown, K; Folke, C; Gunderson, L; Olsson, P; Scheffer, M; Stephenson, E; Walker, B; Wilson, J; Worm, B

    2011-10-01

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies. ©2011 Society for Conservation

  6. The Economic Value of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arrojo Agudo

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic term of water is seen from the perspective of an ecological economy, an Aristotelian sense that integrates social values, environmental considerations and financial issues. Water should thus be conceptualized as an “ecosocial” good and not merely as a simple factor of production. Therefore, the focus of water management should not limit itself to managing a scarce resource. Rather the focus should be to articulate an institutional framework that would allow for the use of management tools based on the financial value of water (pricing policies, fiscal incentives, economic penalties for inefficiency... fixed to a somewhat interventionist market, or which answers to administration mechanisms, with constraints setting the conditions of sustainablity that the sound management of water requires in each territory. This approach brings to the table a profoundly territorial andcontextualized view of water management within the paradigm of Sustainable Development. Having said this does not imply disregarding the classical economic science tools of cost/benefit analysis, though. Quite the contrary: today, economic science can provide highly useful, multiple concepts and traditional techniques to the creation of a new model of the economic management of water. At bottom, the challenge is to take advantage of the previous conceptual and methodological body of work, refining the work in some cases,contextualizing it in others, and above all, complementing the previous work with other value-based perspectives to develop a multi-criteria decision-making model for the management and financial assessment of water policies.

  7. Valuing values: A history of wilderness economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; H. K. Cordell; N. C. Poudyal

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the U.S. Wilderness Act of 1964, economics as a science was hardly considered applicable to the types of human values set forth in this pathbreaking legislation. Economics was largely confined to the purchasing and labor decisions of households and firms as well the functioning of markets and economies. However, around this time, John Krutilla (1967) in his...

  8. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  9. The Value Chains of High-Technology Products as Factor of formation the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Safronova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the value chain of high-tech products in Asia and the role of this phenomenon in the further consolidation of trade blocs and alliances in the region. The presence of these chains and their gradual transition from a vertically integrated model to a system of horizontal linkages and interdependence leads to the formation of mechanisms of economic de-facto integration (so-called regionalization process. The East Asian region has demonstrated unprecedented high rates of economic growth in recent decades. The countries are actively developing mechanisms of multilateral cooperation, involving partners from across the Asia-Pacific region. Particular features of a new regional architecture of economic relations are becoming more tangible, and the essential element of this architecture is the intra-regional integration. The author presents an assessment of further developments of the Regional comprehensive economic partnership (RCEP using the structural-functional approach and analytical instruments of the international political economy, The creation of this trade block will help less advanced countries of ASEAN to accelerate economic growth and improve the conditions for integration into global value chains. For advanced economies, participation in the RCEP seems controversial, because production chains have well-established formats within the framework of ASEAN +. The political standoff between Washington and Beijing has an impact on dynamics of regional integration. The split among the East Asian countries was galvanized by the Trans-Pacific Partnership Project (TTP, because TPP has objectives that are very similar to those of RCEP (trade liberalization and economic integration. The author concludes that the extension of this partnership in the ASEAN countries can seriously complicate the operation RVEP and enhance the impact of political factors on economic cooperation. In this case, the value of production and supply chains

  10. Creation of a gilded trap by the high economic value of the Maine Lobster Fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steneck, R.S.; Hughes, T.P.; Cinner, J.E.; Adger, W.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of

  11. Value and power in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we rethink the field of value in economic theory. First, we prove that the transhistorical and nominalist approaches show different weaknesses and can not account for the constitutive dimensions of value. Within this context, we demonstrate why value emerged in the first place and what epistemological dimensions it provided and enabled for economic reflexivity. In addition, we demonstrate that it is impossible to understand inherent value as an immanent property of goods in economic transactions and we critique the approach that renders value to the theory of price. Economic relations reflect value-related aspects without which the relations could not be understood. We then analyze the interrelations between power and value, proving the constitutive dimension of power in understanding value, demonstrated in selected examples. We treat power as a constellation in which economic agents act on other subjects to provoke certain activity. Power may occur only where the behaviour of subjects is not entirely determined. Finally, one additional selected example shows the range of this theory of power in terms of positional goods.

  12. The economic value of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of "autonomy", which we interpret as the discretion or ability to make a decision that others disagree with. We show that autonomy is essentially an option for the decisionmaker, and can be valued as such. The value of the autonomy option is decreasing in the extent to

  13. Economic Values and Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikael Malmaeus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute decoupling of GDP growth from resource use implies that economic output can be increased without simultaneously increasing input. The essential meaning of this proposition is that the economic values that represent the GDP can be realized by increasing resource efficiency. Given that the GDP is first and foremost a measure of economic activity rather than welfare the possibility of absolute decoupling is theoretically limited. This paper demonstrates theoretically and empirically that economic values at the macroeconomic level are fundamentally determined by the use of production factors, primarily labor and physical capital. Technical innovations or efficiency gains increasing utility without raising the costs of production do not add to the GDP unless they stimulate investments in physical capital. Hence the neoclassical notion of productivity is only found to be relevant as a microeconomic concept. In practice, GDP growth is mostly explained by capital accumulation and a key question is whether or not capital accumulation can be decoupled from the use of materials and energy. This will determine the possibility of decoupling of GDP growth from resource use and environmental impact. Alternative measures of progress focusing on welfare rather than economic activity are more likely to achieve absolute decoupling.

  14. Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC: A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from agricultural and forestry residues, municipal waste, or herbaceous and woody crops. Instead of putting efforts on steps overcoming the natural resistance of plants to biological breakdown, our study proposes a unique pathway to improve the outcome of the process by co-producing high-value nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. In this study, glucose has been produced by commercial enzymes while the residual solids are converted into NFC via sonification. Here, we report the morphology of fibers changed through the process and yield of glucose in the enzymatic hydrolysis step.

  15. Assessing the economic value of co-optimized grid-scale energy storage investments in supporting high renewable portfolio standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Roderick S.; Munoz, Francisco D.; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a MILP to co-optimize generation, transmission, and storage investments. • We find significant value in co-optimized storage via investment deferrals. • Operational savings from bulk services are small relative to investment deferrals. • Co-optimized energy storage significantly reduces prices associated with RPS. - Abstract: Worldwide, environmental regulations such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) are being broadly adopted to promote renewable energy investments. With corresponding increases in renewable energy deployments, there is growing interest in grid-scale energy storage systems (ESS) to provide the flexibility needed to efficiently deliver renewable power to consumers. Our contribution in this paper is to introduce a unified generation, transmission, and bulk ESS expansion planning model subject to an RPS constraint, formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear program (MILP) optimization model, which we then use to study the impact of co-optimization and evaluate the economic interaction between investments in these three asset classes in achieving high renewable penetrations. We present numerical case studies using the 24-bus IEEE RTS-96 test system considering wind and solar as available renewable energy resources, and demonstrate that up to $180 million/yr in total cost savings can result from the co-optimization of all three assets, relative to a situation in which no ESS investment options are available. Surprisingly, we find that co-optimized bulk ESS investments provide significant economic value through investment deferrals in transmission and generation capacity, but very little savings in operational cost. Finally, we observe that planning transmission and generation infrastructure first and later optimizing ESS investments—as is common in industry—captures at most 1.7% ($3 million/yr) of the savings that result from co-optimizing all assets simultaneously.

  16. Economic demand and essential value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Steven R; Silberberg, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The strength of a rat's eating reflex correlates with hunger level when strength is measured by the response frequency that precedes eating (B. F. Skinner, 1932a, 1932b). On the basis of this finding, Skinner argued response frequency could index reflex strength. Subsequent work documented difficulties with this notion because responding was affected not only by the strengthening properties of the reinforcer but also by the rate-shaping effects of the schedule. This article obviates this problem by measuring strength via methods from behavioral economics. This approach uses demand curves to map how reinforcer consumption changes with changes in the "price" different ratio schedules impose. An exponential equation is used to model these demand curves. The value of this exponential's rate constant is used to scale the strength or essential value of a reinforcer, independent of the scalar dimensions of the reinforcer. Essential value determines the consumption level to be expected at particular prices and the response level that will occur to support that consumption. This approach permits comparing reinforcers that differ in kind, contributing toward the goal of scaling reinforcer value. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali; Ali, Ahmad; de Boer, Hugo J

    2014-10-10

    Poverty is pervasive in the Swat Valley, Pakistan. Most of the people survive by farming small landholdings. Many earn additional income by collecting and selling plant material for use in herbal medicine. This material is collected from wild populations but the people involved have little appreciation of the potential value of the plant material they collect and the long term impact their collecting has on local plant populations. In 2012, existing practices in collecting and trading high value minor crops from Swat District, Pakistan, were analyzed. The focus of the study was on the collection pattern of medicinal plants as an economic activity within Swat District and the likely destinations of these products in national or international markets. Local collectors/farmers and dealers were surveyed about their collection efforts, quantities collected, prices received, and resulting incomes. Herbal markets in major cities of Pakistan were surveyed for current market trends, domestic sources of supply, imports and exports of herbal material, price patterns, and market product-quality requirements. It was observed that wild collection is almost the only source of medicinal plant raw material in the country, with virtually no cultivation. Gathering is mostly done by women and children of nomadic Middle Hill tribes who earn supplementary income through this activity, with the plants then brought into the market by collectors who are usually local farmers. The individuals involved in gathering and collecting are largely untrained regarding the pre-harvest and post-harvest treatment of collected material. Most of the collected material is sold to local middlemen. After that, the trade pattern is complex and heterogeneous, involving many players. Pakistan exports of high value plants generate over US$10.5 million annually in 2012, with a substantial percentage of the supply coming from Swat District, but its market share has been declining. Reasons for the decline were

  18. Economic value of dengue vaccine in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Connor, Diana L; Kitchen, Sarah B; Bacon, Kristina M; Shah, Mirat; Brown, Shawn T; Bailey, Rachel R; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Burke, Donald S; Cummings, Derek A T

    2011-05-01

    With several candidate dengue vaccines under development, this is an important time to help stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, scientists, clinicians, and manufacturers) better understand the potential economic value (cost-effectiveness) of a dengue vaccine, especially while vaccine characteristics and strategies might be readily altered. We developed a decision analytic Markov simulation model to evaluate the potential health and economic value of administering a dengue vaccine to an individual (≤ 1 year of age) in Thailand from the societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effects of ranging various vaccine (e.g., cost, efficacy, side effect), epidemiological (dengue risk), and disease (treatment-seeking behavior) characteristics. A ≥ 50% efficacious vaccine was highly cost-effective [GDP) ($4,289)] up to a total vaccination cost of $60 and cost-effective [GDP ($12,868)] up to a total vaccination cost of $200. When the total vaccine series was $1.50, many scenarios were cost saving.

  19. Value diversity and regional economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Klasing, Mariko; Milionis, Petros

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the link between culture and regional economic development within European countries. Considering a variety of cultural values, we provide evidence that it is the degree of diversity in these values at the regional level that strongly correlates with economic performance rather than

  20. Value function in economic growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagno, Alexander; Tarasyev, Alexandr A.; Tarasyev, Alexander M.

    2017-11-01

    Properties of the value function are examined in an infinite horizon optimal control problem with an unlimited integrand index appearing in the quality functional with a discount factor. Optimal control problems of such type describe solutions in models of economic growth. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived to ensure that the value function satisfies the infinitesimal stability properties. It is proved that value function coincides with the minimax solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Description of the growth asymptotic behavior for the value function is provided for the logarithmic, power and exponential quality functionals and an example is given to illustrate construction of the value function in economic growth models.

  1. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kathleen L; Robbins, Alicia S T

    2015-05-01

    Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements-collectively termed metro nature-generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits.

  2. Economic value of Valentines iron minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, B.

    1960-01-01

    This work is a investigation required by the government of Uruguay about the economic value of iron and manganese deposits in Valentines ferriferrous zone. The purpose is to study the potential commercial for the exportation.

  3. Value pluralism and incommensurability in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirgmaier, Elke; Urhammer, Emil

    2015-01-01

    problems of our time lie in a democracy where multiple values can be communicated. In order to provide inspiration for thinking about such a democracy, this paper provides an overview of a wide range of philosophical positions on values and value pluralism and analyses how values and value pluralism...... territory. This is reflected in a value hegemony framing everything from biodiversity to carbon emissions in monetary terms. We consider this a democratic problem since the diversity of values is thus not fairly represented in our current mode of decision-making. We believe that the solutions to the grand...... are treated in a selection of articles in ecological economics. The paper concludes that the treatment of values and incommensurability in ecological economics can be characterised as ambiguous. There is a need for further research on the theoretical aspects of these issues....

  4. Towards an economic sustainable, high yielding and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values; Paa vaeg mot ett ekonomiskt haallbart, hoegproducerande och klimatsmart jordbruk med hoega landskapsvaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, Karl-Ivar

    2013-07-15

    In 1995-97, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency carried out a futures study with the aim of identifying ways to achieve environmentally friendly, sustainable Swedish agriculture by 2021. The results indicated that major environmental improvements were possible, while also improving profitability and increasing production of food and bioenergy. At a time half way between 1995 and 2021, the trends predicted in that study were compared against actual developments in agriculture. The analysis showed that most objectives regarding environmental quality were on the way to being achieved relatively well. However, profitability continued to be weak, while food production had decreased and bioenergy production was far below the predicted level. The latter means that agriculture was far from achieving the target of compensating for its emissions of greenhouse gases through bioenergy production substituting for fossil energy. This analysis showed that weak profitability and insufficient production capacity at current prices are the greatest sustainability problems in Swedish agriculture. If profitability cannot be improved, agriculture will decline and its positive effects on the landscape will decrease. If production does not increase, there will have to be continued or increased food imports, which are often less favourable from an environmental perspective than food produced in Sweden. If bioenergy production in agriculture does not drastically increase, it will be difficult to realise the vision of a Sweden without net emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The present report updates the futures study. In the evaluation, great emphasis is placed on identifying paths to economically sustainable, high producing and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values. It is assumed that the current agricultural support system is replaced with environmental payment based on landscape and climate benefits. The views expressed in this report are those of its author and

  5. High coking value pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  6. Values as Motivation Factors of Economic Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lačný

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a reflection on the structure of values functioning as motivators of economic behaviour. Considering the principle of rational egoism the author describes three segments of crucial values, which seem to be fundamental, as a matter of the contemporary Euro-American economic value system – freedom and justice; responsibility and confidence; progress, prosperity and rationality. An important methodological basis of presented reflection is the Ethics of social consequences – dynamically developing consequentialist ethical theory, responding to the challenges arising in the field of applied ethics in the framework of efforts to solve practical problems of today's world.

  7. The economic value of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Clarke, J.; Edmonds, J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology is significant and could dwarf the world's total expenditure on fusion energy research and development. However, the realization of these benefits will depend on the economic competitiveness of electricity generation from fusion energy technologies relative to that from other existing fossil fueled and renewable technologies, as well as the time in which fusion energy technologies are available for commercial operation. Utilizing the Second Generation Model, a long-term energy/economics model, the potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology for the United States was assessed. Model scenarios with hypothetical fusion power technologies based on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design with varying cost and time of availability showed that significant economic benefit exists from a competitive fusion technology with cost of electricity (COE) of 0.06 $/kWhr and available in the year 2025. The fusion technology with these characteristics resulted in a total discounted GDP benefit of $105 billion from the year 1995 to 2100. On the other hand, uncompetitive fusion technologies with higher COE of 0.12 and 0.09 $/kWhr had little economic benefits. Moreover, delaying the introduction of all fusion technologies from 2025 to 2050 reduced the economic benefits of fusion technologies by more than 60 percent. Aside from the economic benefit of fusion technologies operating in the United States, the potential economic value of international trade in fusion technologies is likely to be even greater. If the United States could capture just a portion of the global electricity market, the export value of the fusion technology could amount to hundreds of billions of dollars, whereas the cost of importing the technology to the United States will erase any benefits derived from GDP increases

  8. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ECONOMIC VALUE OF ARMY FOREIGN MILITARY SALES ...this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden

  9. The economic value of realized volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jacobs, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so, we ...

  10. Important Value of Economic Potency Mangrove Using NDVI Satellite High Resolution Image To Support Eco Tourism Of Pamurbaya Area (Case Study: East Cost of Surabaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukojo, B. M.; Hidayat, H.; Ratnasari, D.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is a vast maritime country; many mangrove conservations is found around coastal areas of Indonesia. Mangroves support the life of a large number of animal species by providing breeding, spawning and feeding. Mangrove forests as one of the unique ecosystems are potential natural resources, supporting the diversity of flora and fauna of terrestrial aquatic communities that directly or indirectly play an important role for human life in economic, social and environmental terms. East Coast Surabaya is an area with the most extensive and diverse mangrove ecosystems along the coast of Surabaya. Currently Pamurbaya used as a recreational object or nature tourism called eco tours. Utilization of mangrove ecosystem as a place of this eco tour bring positive impact on economic potency around pamurbaya area. So, to know the value of the economic potential of mangrove ecosystems for support of nature tourism Pamurbaya region needs to study mapping mangrove ecosystem conditions in the East Coast area of Surabaya. Mapping of mangrove conditions can use remote sensing technology by utilizing satellite image data with high resolution. Data used for mapping mangrove ecosystem conditions on the east coast of Surabaya are high resolution satellite image data of Pleiades 1A and field observation data such as Ground Control Point, soil spectral parameters and water quality. From satellite image data will be classification of mangrove vegetation canopy classification using NDVI vegetation index method using algorithm formula which then will be tested correlation with field observation data on reflectant value of field and water quality parameter. The purpose of this research is to know the condition of mangrove ecosystem to know the economic potential of mangrove ecosystem in supporting Pamurbaya nature tourism. The expected result of this research is the existence of basic geospatial information in the form of mangrove ecosystem condition map. So that can be used as decision

  11. Economic value evaluation in disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Reicher, Sima; Shani, Mordechai

    2008-05-01

    Chronic disease management has been a rapidly growing entity in the 21st century as a strategy for managing chronic illnesses in large populations. However, experience has shown that disease management programs have not been able to demonstrate their financial value. The objectives of disease management programs are to create quality benchmarks, such as principles and guidelines, and to establish a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. In order to illuminate the essence of disease management and its components, as well as the complexity and the problematic nature of performing economic calculations of their profitability and value, we collected data from several reports that dealt with the economic intervention of disease management programs. The disease management economic evaluation is composed of a series of steps, including the following major categories: data/information technology, information generation, assessment/recommendations, actionable customer plans, and program assessment/reassessment. We demonstrate the elements necessary for economic analysis. Disease management is one of the most innovative tools in the managed care environment and is still in the process of being defined. Therefore, objectives should include the creation of quality measures, such as principles and guidelines, and the establishment of a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them.

  12. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    USASAC leads the AMC Security Assistance Enterprise, develops and manages security assistance programs and foreign military sales cases to build...that leads to cost savings and cost avoidance. The Shadow’s FMS sales are currently 1.6% of the total units in operation and accounts for the same...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales December 2015 MAJ James P. Allen, USA MAJ Scott A. Bailey, USA CPT

  13. The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.; Rosen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that youth are society's future; individuals need to prepare and nurture them if they desire that future to be bright and productive. Yet, with the spotlight currently on slow economic growth and high unemployment across the U.S., there has been little focus on the plight of youth as they transition from school to adult life. But…

  14. Perbedaan Perusahan Pencipta Economic Value Added Positif Dengan Economic Value Added Negatif

    OpenAIRE

    Suripto, Suripto

    2008-01-01

    This research was to explain and analyze the different variable of Inflation Rate,Exchange Rate, Interest Rate, Ratio Plant Asset, Size Measure Company, Profitability, Growth ,LD / E, TD / TA, Stock of Return, Book To Market between company having Economic ValueAdded ( Positive ) and company having Economic Value Added ( Negative ). Analysis which wasused in this research was multivariate analysis of variant (MANOVA). There was different variableof Inflation Rate, Exchange Rate, Interest Rate...

  15. The Economic Value of Predicting Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    evaluation. More specifically, the model mostly generates positive (negative) economic value during times of high (low) macroeconomic uncertainty. Overall, the expectations hypothesis remains a useful benchmark for investment decisions in bond markets, especially in low uncertainty states.......This paper studies whether the evident statistical predictability of bond risk premia translates into economic gains for investors. We propose a novel estimation strategy for affine term structure models that jointly fits yields and bond excess returns, thereby capturing predictive information...... otherwise hidden to standard estimations. The model predicts excess returns with high regression R2s and high forecast accuracy but cannot outperform the expectations hypothesis out-of-sample in terms of economic value, showing a general contrast between statistical and economic metrics of forecast...

  16. The Economic Value of Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems

  17. Risk aversion affects economic values of blue fox breeding scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, J; Kempe, R; Strandén, I; Rydhmer, L

    2016-12-01

    The profit and production of an average Finnish blue fox farm was simulated using a deterministic bio-economic farm model. Risk was included using Arrow-Prat absolute risk aversion coefficient and profit variance. Risk-rated economic values were calculated for pregnancy rate, litter loss, litter size, pelt size, pelt quality, pelt colour clarity, feed efficiency and eye infection. With high absolute risk aversion, economic values were lower than with low absolute risk aversion. Economic values were highest for litter loss (18.16 and 26.42 EUR), litter size (13.27 and 19.40 EUR), pregnancy (11.99 and 18.39 EUR) and eye infection (12.39 and 13.81 EUR). Sensitivity analysis showed that selection pressure for improved eye health depended strongly on proportion of culled animals among infected animals and much less on the proportion of infected animals. The economic value of feed efficiency was lower than expected (6.06 and 8.03 EUR). However, it was almost the same magnitude as pelt quality (7.30 and 7.30 EUR) and higher than the economic value of pelt size (3.37 and 5.26 EUR). Risk factors should be considered in blue fox breeding scheme because they change the relative importance of traits. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Neurocognitive Mechanisms Underlying Value-Based Decision-Making: From Core Values to Economic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eBrosch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC, ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making.

  19. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    VALUE PLAYS A CENTRAL ROLE IN PRACTICALLY EVERY ASPECT OF HUMAN LIFE THAT REQUIRES A DECISION: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making.

  20. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  1. Climate Change Accuracy: Requirements and Economic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lukashin, C.; Thome, K. J.; Baize, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Higher than normal accuracy is required to rigorously observe decadal climate change. But what level is needed? How can this be quantified? This presentation will summarize a new more rigorous and quantitative approach to determining the required accuracy for climate change observations (Wielicki et al., 2013, BAMS). Most current global satellite observations cannot meet this accuracy level. A proposed new satellite mission to resolve this challenge is CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory). CLARREO is designed to achieve advances of a factor of 10 for reflected solar spectra and a factor of 3 to 5 for thermal infrared spectra (Wielicki et al., Oct. 2013 BAMS). The CLARREO spectrometers are designed to serve as SI traceable benchmarks for the Global Satellite Intercalibration System (GSICS) and to greatly improve the utility of a wide range of LEO and GEO infrared and reflected solar passive satellite sensors for climate change observations (e.g. CERES, MODIS, VIIIRS, CrIS, IASI, Landsat, SPOT, etc). Providing more accurate decadal change trends can in turn lead to more rapid narrowing of key climate science uncertainties such as cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. A study has been carried out to quantify the economic benefits of such an advance as part of a rigorous and complete climate observing system. The study concludes that the economic value is $12 Trillion U.S. dollars in Net Present Value for a nominal discount rate of 3% (Cooke et al. 2013, J. Env. Sys. Dec.). A brief summary of these two studies and their implications for the future of climate science will be presented.

  2. Derivation of economic values for production traits in aquaculture species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.P.E.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Besson, M.B.; Komen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background:
    In breeding programs for aquaculture species, breeding goal traits are often weighted based on the desired gains but economic gain would be higher if economic values were used instead. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a bio-economic model to derive economic values

  3. High School Economics. Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie; Smith, Robert F.; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This book opens with an exploration of the fundamental trilogy of economics - scarcity, choice, and cost. Students then examine the broad social goals of an economy in preparation for lessons treating many topics new to the precollege level such as the stock market, public choice, and aggregate supply and demand. The set of 20 lessons include: (1)…

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED AND MARKET VALUE ADDED ON CORPORATE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslim F.A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the influence of economic value added and market value added on corporate value of manufacturing companies on sector consumer goods industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchanges of 2011-2014. The sample of this research was 10 manufacturing companies on sector consumer goods industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchanges. The method used was purposive sampling technique. This research used confirmatory factor analysis to form a combined proxy of corporate value comprised price earning ratio, price to book value and Tobin's Q.

  5. Economic values, ethics, and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Randall A. Kramer

    1995-01-01

    Economic valuations of changes in ecosystem health can provide quantitative information for social decisions. However, willingness to pay for ecosystem health may be motivated by an environmental ethic regarding the right thing to do. Counterpreferential choices based on an environmental ethic are inconsistent with the normative basis of welfare economics. In this...

  6. Economic Value Of Garcinia kola Marketing In Enugu State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Value Of Garcinia kola Marketing In Enugu State, Nigeria. ... returns and identifying and determining the Socio-economic variables that affect the marketers net returns. Three markets, one ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  7. Does education engender cultural values that matter for economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete; Afaf H. Rahim; Precious Zikhali

    2009-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that cultural values matter for economic growth and has specifically identified the achievement motivation as an aspect of culture that engenders economic growth. If specific cultural values engender economic growth, how then can societies promote them? This paper attempts to answer this question using the 2005 wave of the World Values Survey data for 43 countries. We test the contention that education significantly impacts the relative importance an individual pl...

  8. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The ...

  9. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED AND MARKET VALUE ADDED - MODERN INDICATORS FOR ASSESSMENT THE FIRM’S VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE SICHIGEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial theory developed different categories of indicators - traditional and modern - in order to evaluate the firm’s value creation. The shareholders are directly interested by the value added in the company. The value creation is a complex process that implies correct decisions, common responsibility (managers and shareholders and actions towards an efficient and profitable activity. The traditional indicators of performance are not teoritically correlated with the the value creation and in these circumstances, should be used appropriate financial indicators in order to reflect the value of the company. Therefore, the modern indicators used in the value based management framework offer a greater flexibility and efficiency and represent a good alternative for companies. Such performance indicators used to measure the financial results correlated with shareholder wealth are the Economic Value Added (EVA, as a measure of internal performance and the Market Value Added (MVA as a measure of external performance of the company. Starting from the main deficiencies of the accounting indicators, the objective of this this study is to present the relationship between EVA and MVA and their implications on firms’valuation. Thus, the presentation and analysis of these indicators – EVA and MVA - will underline the main features, their correlations, and influence factors but also the main advantage and disadvantage of each indicator, which will enable the managers to make the correct choice and subsequently the best decision regarding the performance measures.

  11. Economic and clinical value of levofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin is a newer fluoroquinolone, with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and good tolerability. This drug has a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile that allows a once-a-day administration and offers the potential for intravenous-to-oral switch therapy. Due to these characteristics, the principal guidelines recommend it, as an option for the empirical therapy of patients with mild or more severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB, complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI and skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI. These pathologies are common causes of morbidity and mortality and place a large burden on medical and economic resources, specially if hospitalization is required. The implementation of a critical pathway, based on levofloxacin use and on a risk prediction rule to establish the need for hospitalization, has the potential to decrease healthcare resource consumption without impairment of clinical outcomes, with respect to conventional management. The possibility of switch therapy allows to reduce length of hospital stay, with a saving in both direct and indirect costs, and an increase in patient satisfaction. In summary, when used according to appropriateness criteria and for approved indications, levofloxacin offers favorable economic features for the healthcare provider, whilst guaranteeing a positive impact on patient functioning and quality of life.

  12. The economic value of coffee (Coffea arabica) genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Gatzweiler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The

  13. Wilderness values: Perspectives from non-economic social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Alan E. Watson

    2007-01-01

    The concept of “values” is one of the most widely used to characterize the human dimensions of natural resources. Yet, clearly it means many different things in different disciplines and in everyday discourse. Background information regarding values from a non-economic social science perspective is provided, with an aim towards stretching the dominant economic paradigm...

  14. Wind farm project economics : value of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs.

  15. The Economic Value of Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Gulie Alexandra Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    The human factor created by physical work and/or intellectual property of all existing material, is unequivocally active value of any work, ie human capital translates into different activities, specialized or not, it creates these individuals. History of the term human capital has experienced over time a series of ups and downs, as agreed or rejected by academia and the political class. Although known affirmation and its conceptual structure only after the seventh decade of the twentieth cen...

  16. Measuring the economic value of wildlife: a caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Stevens

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife values appear to be very sensitive to whether species are evaluated separately or together, and value estimates often seem inconsistent with neoclassical economic theory. Wildlife value estimates must therefore be used with caution. Additional research about the nature of individual value structures for wildlife is needed.

  17. Gas storage - Estimation of the economic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The main purpose of the project is to investigate the economic benefits of underground gas storage used for seasonal smoothing and a strategical security of supply. The benefits from the storage have to be decided based on the costs of alternative have to be ways of securing the energy supply, including evaluation of: demand-dependent prices on natural gas and other fuels (both domestic and foreign markets); interruptible supply; establishment of extra production and transportation capacity from the North Sea; establishment of new connecting systems to neighbouring countries (i.a. German, Poland, Latvia); establishment for import or production and LNG; contracting of storage capacity abroad (Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Latvia). In order to control the estimated costs of storage of natural gas a comparison with market prices for storage capacity and spot prices of natural gas is carried out. The market prices were estimated through a statistical analysis of seasonal variations in gas prices on the American natural gas market. Due to permanent energy taxes, the energy prices only partially reflect the demand and the price elasticity hence is very small, resulting in a need for e.g. gas storage. One purpose of the project is to investigate this system error and to present alternative suggestions for the tax structure. Additionally, the consequences of differentiating production taxes will be addressed. (EG)

  18. Gas storages - Estimation of the economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The main purpose of the project is to investigate the economic benefits of underground gas storage used for seasonal smoothing and a strategical security of supply. The benefits from the storage have to be decided based on the costs of alternative have to be ways of securing the energy supply, including evaluation of: demand-dependent prices on natural gas and other fuels (both domestic and foreign markets); interruptible supply; establishment of extra production and transportation capacity from the North Sea; establishment of new connecting systems to neighbouring countries (i.a. German, Poland, Latvia); establishment for import or production and LNG; contracting of storage capacity abroad (Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Latvia). In order to control the estimated costs of storage of natural gas a comparison with market prices for storage capacity and spot prices of natural gas is carried out. The market prices were estimated through a statistical analysis of seasonal variations in gas prices on the American natural gas market. Due to permanent energy taxes, the energy prices only partially reflect the demand and the price elasticity hence is very small, resulting in a need for e.g. gas storage. One purpose of the project is to investigate this system error and to present alternative suggestions for the tax structure. Additionally, the consequences of differentiating production taxes will be addressed. (EG)

  19. ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED SEBAGAI UKURAN KEBERHASILAN KINERJA MANAJEMEN PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Linawati Utomo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The company's performance is mostly measured by analysis based on the financial ratio for a specific period. This type of measurement is highly dependent upon the accounting methods used in preparing the financial statement. Therefore a company's performance often looks good and improving overtime, but in reality its performance is deteriorating. The unreliable accounting measure needs an improved performance measure that will recognize and encourage management actions and strategies to increase the overall value of the company and ultimately to punish any activity that reduce value. The introduction of Economic Value Added (EVA has been very relevant recently because based on its definition, EVA measures the amount of value added created by specific action or strategy taken in a company. EVA is also used in the process of goal setting, capital budgeting, performance assessment, and most importantly, incentive compensation within a company. Its implication to the overall being of a company is so important these days that it should not be overlooked when companies plan their strategies. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kinerja sebuah perusahaan lebih banyak diukur berdasarkan rasio-rasio keuangan selama satu periode tertentu. Pengukuran berdasarkan rasio keuangan ini sangatlah bergantung pada metode atau perlakuan akuntansi yang digunakan dalam menyusun laporan keuangan perusahaan. Sehingga seringkali kinerja perusahaan terlihat baik dan meningkat, yang mana sebenarnya kinerja tidak mengalami peningkatan dan bahkan menurun. Diperlukannya suatu alat ukur kinerja yang menunjukkan prestasi manajemen sebenarnya dengan tujuan untuk mendorong aktivitas atau strategi yang menambah nilai ekonomis (value added activities dan menghapuskan aktivitas yang merusak nilai (non-value added activities. Economic Value Added (EVA sangat relevan dalam hal ini karena EVA dapat mengukur kinerja (prestasi manajemen berdasarkan besar kecilnya nilai tambah yang diciptakan

  20. Economic values and corporate financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magness, Vanessa

    2003-07-01

    Corporate financial statements do not include environmental values. This deficiency has contributed to the criticism that company managers do not include environmental impacts in the internal decision-making process. The accounting profession has not developed effective environmental reporting guidelines. This situation contributes to a second problem: the apparent inability of corporate reports to provide useful information to external parties. It has been suggested that by using nonmarket valuation methodologies, financial statements can be used to measure progress toward sustainable development. Nonmarket valuations are not generally accepted by the accounting profession. They are too subjective to support effective decisions, and too costly to obtain. Furthermore, demand for this sort of information appears small. Some of these issues may be resolved over time. The most serious challenge, however, concerns how enhanced financial reports would be used. Financial statements are supposed to help investors assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of future cash flows. A substantial portion of environmental value is based on nonuse benefits, much of which will never be realized in company cash flows. In other words, the role of financial statements would have to change. Furthermore, since there is no general agreement as to the meaning of "sustainable development," efforts to operationalize the term have been fraught with difficulty. Moreover, monetization of environmental values could jeopardize their preservation, leaving some to question the overall objective of this form of reporting. For these reasons, while it is to be hoped that better reporting of environmental impacts will be forthcoming, the greatest advances will likely be outside the financial statements themselves.

  1. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Scott, M.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Chatters, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant

  2. Social interactions for economic value? A marketing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vock, M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores emerging social interactions in relation to economic value, more specifically how social interactions at the organizational and individual levels may affect individual consumers and companies economically as well. To help shed light on this broad theme, it focuses on two

  3. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    ) compared the proposed CLARREO advance in satellite absolute calibration for climate change records to an existing system for detecting decadal temperature change using infrared spectra from weather satellites. New results extend this to observational detection of cloud feedback which is the largest uncertainty in determining climate sensitivity and therefore the uncertainty in economic impacts. New results also include the use of multiple societal decision triggers. While CLARREO is used as an example, the value should be considered as relevant to a complete high accuracy climate observing system, as societal decisions are unlikely to be based on one or a few observations. The VOI is found to depend on the required confidence level, the trigger value at which we would abandon the BAU emissions path, the path to which we switch, and the date at which the new system is launched. The VOI of advanced climate observations in this decision context is the surfeit of NPV of averted damages, relative to the existing system. Over all it is in the order of tens of trillions of US dollars in Net Present Value. The results conclude that the economic value of advanced climate observing systems is dramatically larger than their cost, and argues for the continual enhancement of the SCC assessment process.

  4. Pengukuran Kinerja Perusahaan Melalui Economic Value Added (Eva) Dan (Mva) Market Value

    OpenAIRE

    Andhaniwati, Erry

    2011-01-01

    Performance corporating to constitute one of prescriptive factor gets on descent of stock price because firm performance constitute to refuse fathom for investor deeping to determine stock bid price. Economic Value Added, and Market Value Added are umpteen corporate performance grader that can be utilized by investor in assesses how well firm performance. Therefore to the effect this research is subject to be analyse influence among Economic Value Added , and Market Value Added to stock pr...

  5. Links Between Net Present Value and Shareholder Value from a Business Economics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Illés

    2012-01-01

    One of the oft-quoted theorems of finance is that decision making based on net present value will lead to the maximisation of shareholder value. The study analyses the reality background of this theorem within the disciplinary borders of business economics. Since finance is based directly on the bases of microeconomics, the study touches upon the presentation of the different disciplinary frames of business economics and microeconomics. The paper demonstrates that the economic content of shar...

  6. The Economic Value of Predicting Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    the expectations hypothesis (EH) out-ofsample: the forecasts do not add economic value compared to using the average historical excess return as an EH-consistent estimate of constant risk premia. We show that in general statistical signicance does not necessarily translate into economic signicance because EH...... deviations mainly matter at short horizons and standard predictability metrics are not compatible with common measures of economic value. Overall, the EH remains the benchmark for investment decisions and should be considered an economic prior in models of bond risk premia.......This paper studies whether the evident statistical predictability of bond risk premia translates into economic gains for bond investors. We show that ane term structure models (ATSMs) estimated by jointly tting yields and bond excess returns capture this predictive information otherwise hidden...

  7. Resource values in analyzing fire management programs for economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene A. Althaus; Thomas J. Mills

    1982-01-01

    In analyzing fire management programs for their economic efficiency, it is necessary to assign monetary values to the changes in resource outputs caused by, fire. The derivation of resource values is complicated by imperfect or nonexistent commercial market structures. The valuation concept recommended for fire program analyses is willingness-to-pay because it permits...

  8. Economic values of pork production related traits in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate economic values for sow efficiency and meat production traits in the Finnish pork production system including the consideration for subsidies. Economic values were estimated by developing a bio-economic model that describes the Finnish production system. Genetic improvement estimates for meat production traits were also developed in order to evaluate how much genetic gain is reduced due to selection for meat quality. Results showed that the highest economic values, when expressed in genetic standard deviations, were obtained for total number of piglets born (€2.07 per piglet, feed conversion ratio (€2.07 per feed unit per kg, and lean meat percentage (€1.69 per %. Economic values for litter size, piglet mortality, sows length of productive life, and lean meat percentage increased when subsidies were not accounted for in the bio-economic model. Results show further that meat quality should have 15–20 percent weight in the Finnish production trait index in order to prevent its deterioration. When the selection weights are 15–20% for meat quality, the expected loss in genetic gain is approximately 3 percent for other production traits when compared to selection indices where meat quality traits are not included.;

  9. Trading the Economic Value of Unsatisfied Municipal Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Telfah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling and optimization techniques for water resources allocation are proposed to identify the economic value of the unsatisfied municipal water demand against demands emerging from other sectors. While this is always an important step in integrated water resource management perspective, it became crucial for water scarce Countries. In fact, since the competition for the resource is high, they are in crucial need to trade values which will help them in satisfying their policies and needs. In this framework, hydro-economic, social equity and environmental constraints need to be satisfied. In the present study, a hydro-economic decision model based on optimization schemes has been developed for water resources allocation, that enable the evaluation of the economic cost of a deficiency in fulfilling the municipal demand. Moreover, the model enables efficient water resources management, satisfying the demand and proposing additional water resources options. The formulated model is designed to maximize the demand satisfaction and minimize water production cost subject to system priorities, preferences and constraints. The demand priorities are defined based on the effect of demand dissatisfaction, while hydrogeological and physical characteristics of the resources are embedded as constraints in the optimization problem. The application to the City of Amman is presented. Amman is the Capital City of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a Country located in the south-eastern area of the Mediterranean, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. The main challenge for Jordan, that threat the development and prosperity of all sectors, is the extreme water scarcity. In fact, Jordan is classified as semi-arid to arid region with limited financial resources and unprecedented population growth. While the easy solution directly goes to the simple but expensive approach to cover the demand, case study results show that the proposed model plays a major role in

  10. Trading the Economic Value of Unsatisfied Municipal Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfah, Dua'a. B.; Minciardi, Riccardo; Roth, Giorgio

    2018-06-01

    Modelling and optimization techniques for water resources allocation are proposed to identify the economic value of the unsatisfied municipal water demand against demands emerging from other sectors. While this is always an important step in integrated water resource management perspective, it became crucial for water scarce Countries. In fact, since the competition for the resource is high, they are in crucial need to trade values which will help them in satisfying their policies and needs. In this framework, hydro-economic, social equity and environmental constraints need to be satisfied. In the present study, a hydro-economic decision model based on optimization schemes has been developed for water resources allocation, that enable the evaluation of the economic cost of a deficiency in fulfilling the municipal demand. Moreover, the model enables efficient water resources management, satisfying the demand and proposing additional water resources options. The formulated model is designed to maximize the demand satisfaction and minimize water production cost subject to system priorities, preferences and constraints. The demand priorities are defined based on the effect of demand dissatisfaction, while hydrogeological and physical characteristics of the resources are embedded as constraints in the optimization problem. The application to the City of Amman is presented. Amman is the Capital City of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a Country located in the south-eastern area of the Mediterranean, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. The main challenge for Jordan, that threat the development and prosperity of all sectors, is the extreme water scarcity. In fact, Jordan is classified as semi-arid to arid region with limited financial resources and unprecedented population growth. While the easy solution directly goes to the simple but expensive approach to cover the demand, case study results show that the proposed model plays a major role in providing directions to

  11. The economic value of improving the health of disadvantaged Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeni, Robert F; Dow, William H; Miller, Wilhelmine D; Pamuk, Elsie R

    2011-01-01

    Higher educational attainment is associated with better health status and longer life. This analysis estimates the annual dollar value of the benefits that would accrue to less-educated American adults if they experienced the lower mortality rates and better health of those with a college education. Using estimates of differences in mortality among adults aged ≥ 25 years by educational attainment from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey and of education-based differentials in health status from published studies based on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, combined with existing estimates of the economic value of a healthy life year, the economic value of raising the health of individuals with less than a college education to the health of the college educated is estimated. The annual economic value that would accrue to disadvantaged (less-educated) Americans if their health and longevity improved to that of college-educated Americans is $1.02 trillion. This modeling exercise does not fully account for the social costs and benefits of particular policies and programs to reduce health disparities; rather, it provides a sense of the magnitude of the economic value lost in health disparities to compare with other social issues vying for attention. The aggregate economic gains from interventions that improve the health of disadvantaged Americans are potentially large. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. The economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saayman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the potential economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup for South Africa. Problem investigated: The Soccer World Cup (SWC is regarded as the largest sporting event to be hosted and South Africa is investing billions of Rand in the hosting thereof. Based on this the question that comes to mind is, what is the potential economic value of such an event? Previous research attempts to determine the economic value were limited in their focus on what should be included when economic modelling of events is conducted. Most of these studies were done by consultants on behalf of various government departments and consequently, the results of these attempts are criticised for their over-inflating and overestimations by various other researchers. Methodology: The literature review identified many aspects that need to be taken into account when modelling the economic impact of such an event together with aspects identified in the literature review. Lessons from the 2002 Korea/Japan and 2006 Germany Soccer World Cups were used as premise for our estimations. In this article, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE modelling is used to estimate the potential economic value. Findings: The results showed that the 2010 Soccer World Cup would in all probability have positive impacts on the economy of the country in terms of GDP growth and employment, with possible negative effects that include higher inflation and net export losses. Value of research: The value of this research lies in the approach that was followed firstly, by introducing lessons learned from previous World Cups as well as aspects not taken into consideration previously in economic modelling and secondly, by using CGE modelling in determining the economic value. Conclusion: The hosting of the 2010 Soccer World Cup is a major achievement not only for South Africa, but also for the rest of Africa, especially from a marketing point of view. From an

  13. The economic value of LNG in the Korean manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Although LNG is an important input to industrial production for manufacturing firms, its economic value has been rarely investigated in the literature. This paper attempts to estimate the economic value of LNG in Korea's manufacturing sector by employing the concept of the value of marginal product (VMP). For this, we used data on 328 firms using LNG as an input. Two types of production functions (the Cobb–Douglas and trans-log functions) are applied. The result of the specification test indicates that the trans-log function is more appropriate for estimating the data. The output elasticity and VMP of industrial LNG are estimated to be 0.1346 and KRW 6844 (USD 6.22) per m 3 , respectively. The results have important implications for various areas of industrial LNG management. For example, any cost–benefit analysis of new projects providing industrial LNG requires information on the economic value of industrial LNG. In addition, such information is useful for the Korean government's future policies on LNG pricing. - Highlights: • We estimate the economic value of LNG in the Korean manufacturing industry. • We employ the concept of the value of marginal product (VMP). • The VMP of industrial LNG is estimated to be KRW 6844 (USD 6.22) per m 3 . • It significantly outweighs the price of industrial LNG (KRW 629.4 per m 3 )

  14. The Economic Value of Habits in Household Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejan, Ioana; Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Andersen, Laura Mørch

    to adjust habits relevant for these activities. We utilize smart-metered hourly power consumption to unobtrusively measure treatment effects. We find that preventing habits from being adjusted reduces consumer surplus by 76% suggesting a substantial economic value of habits.......People are prone to habits but how important are they for economic outcomes? In a randomized field experiment we compare two treatments with identical economic incentives to adjust a range of household production activities. Treatments only differ in the extent to which they allow households...

  15. VALUE ADDED TAX IN THE ECONOMIC CRISIS CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to present the major aspects concerning the value added tax in the context of economic crisis in European Union countries and Romania. The paper realizes an analysis of the impact of economic crises on VAT in the European space underlining the current situation when the revenues from VAT represent a valuable source of financing the public expenditures. In Romania the economic crises has led to increasing o f VAT rate from 19% to 24%. This measure is an important fiscal measure for the state budget and this study tries to reflect the impact of this VAT rate increase on the public revenues and consumption.

  16. On the relation between ecosystem services, intrinsic value, existence value and economic valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Various attempts have been made to amalgamate the concepts of intrinsic value and ecosystem services, often with a stop-over at the economic concept of existence value. These attempts are based on a confusion of concepts, however. In this article, two types of non-use values are distinguished: warm

  17. Economic assessment of the use value of geospatial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI) contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms) of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1) a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2) a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3) a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  18. Economic and social impact of modernization on cultural values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the relevant theoretical economic approaches that allow us to understand the key elements of cultural values. The paper presents a model envisaged to estimate economic and social impact of modernization on cultural values in modern societies. We employ three indices of social and economic development for each level in Russian Federal districts of Moscow and St. Petersburg in order to reveal their impacts on modernization processes. Our data has been collected via the means of a questionnaire and an opinion poll with the purpose of revealing the value guidelines of society in terms of its modernization. Our results reveal the presence of four relevant levels of value orientations: family orientations, global, work, and personal orientations. Our results demonstrate how modernization is perceived in modern societies, in which spheres it is mostly expressed, and how it influences the society. Moreover, we show the determinants of values within four levels of value orientations. Our findings provide estimations of modern attitudes towards social consciousness in the processes of modernization and reveal basic moral principles that could become a background of new system of values used in modernizing modern societies.

  19. Net present value analysis of the economic production quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Stephen Michael; Warburton, R. D. H.; Zhong, Q. C.

    2013-01-01

    Using Laplace transforms we extend the economic production quantity (EPQ) model by analysing cash flows from a net present value (NPV) viewpoint. We obtain an exact expression for the present value of the cash flows in the EPQ problem. From this, we are able to derive the optimal batch size. We obtain insights into the monotonicity and convexity of the present value of each of the cash flows, and show that there is a unique minimum in the present value of the sum of the cash flows in the exte...

  20. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  1. The Economic Value of Personal Information and Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiin; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2015-01-01

    Personal information is essential in an information-oriented society for societal development and as a valuable business resource. However, because of poor management and a lack of proper protection, leakage of personal information can take place over time, and the standard for compensation is not well established. In order to establish appropriate policies for its protection, we need to know the economic value of personal information. Using conjoint analysis, we analyze the potential value o...

  2. Conceptual Features of Value Management of Socio-Economic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, Galina V.; Musayelyan, Igor K.

    2016-01-01

    The article highlights the need to establish and apply organizational and economic mechanisms that contribute to strengthening moral and ethical components in management. Emphasis is put on the issue of interactions within a company which lays a foundation for value management of socioeconomic systems. It is shown that present-day business…

  3. Measuring the Economic Value of Pre-MBA Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaple, Ronald N.; Johnston, Mark W.; Whittingham, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-MBA work experience is required for admission to many graduate schools of business. In the present study, MBA graduates with a wide range of pre-MBA work experience were surveyed to assess the economic value of such work experience. No evidence was found of a systematic financial advantage to students from working for several years before…

  4. Biodiversity Economics: The Value of Pollination Services to Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    of wild and crop plants are fully or partially dependent on pollinators for their ... Agricultural intensification leads to loss and fragmentation of natural pollinator ..... 0.4, pollination 3.1, pest control of native herbivores 4.5, and 'recreation' [food for ... Ehrlich PR & Michener CD (2004) Economic value of tropical forest to coffee.

  5. The Economic Value of Predicting Stock Index Returns and Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquering, W.; Verbeek, M.J.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the economic value of predicting index returns as well as volatility. On the basis of fairly simple linear models, estimated recursively, we produce genuine out-of-sample forecasts for the return on the S&P 500 index and its volatility. Using monthly data from 1954-1998, we

  6. Enhancing agricultural value chain for economic diversification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined how enhancing the agricultural value chain can contribute to rapid economic diversification in Nigeria within the period of 1981-2015. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model was employed as the econometric method of estimation. The inferences were drawn at 5% significant level. The result ...

  7. Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Bill Smith

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...

  8. THE EFFECT OF LEVERAGE AND ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED ON MARKET VALUE ADDED

    OpenAIRE

    Kristína Jančovičová BOGNÁROVÁ

    2018-01-01

    Economic value added (EVA) is a performance measure developed by Stern Stewart & Co.) that attempts to measure the true economic profit produced by a company. Such a metric is useful for investors who wish to determine how well a company has produced value for its investors, and it can be compared against the company's peers for a quick analysis of how well the company is operating in its industry. Market value added (MVA), on the other hand, is simply the difference between the c...

  9. The Economic Value of Changes in Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    Water quality is from both a European and Danish perspective challenged by private use of the resource. The public good characteristics of the resource require that regulation should internalize the non-market values of water quality, in order to reach an optimal level from a welfare economic...... perspective. Valuation using stated preference techniques to value changes in ecosystem services has been widely used to estimate values of water quality. However, heterogeneity in values exists across different groups in the population. The objective of this PhD-thesis is to explore two different kinds...... of preference heterogeneity, when valuing changes in water quality. The PhD thesis consists of four papers all related to heterogeneity in the public preferences for water quality improvements. Papers referred to as 1, 2 and 3 are based on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) on water quality improvements...

  10. Economic value added or earnings: What explains market value in Indian firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufazil Altaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the claim made by Stern Stewart & Company that economic value added is a better metric that traditional earning based measures in explaining market value. For better exposition, a sample of 325 Indian firms has been divided into two parts- 170 firms belonging to Indian manufacturing companies and 155 companies belonging to the Indian service sector. After performing univariate and multivariate regression analyses, the results of the study reveal that the operating income has a strong linkage with market value added in both manufacturing and service sectors. For both the sectors, the economic value added shows weaker but positive relationship with the market value added.

  11. MODELS OF APPLICATION ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED IN AUTOMOTIVE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva MALICHOVA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises are currently trying to bring new technologies into production and use new procedures and recommendations in various management activities. However, they should not forget to change their approach to the evaluation of the results achieved and focus on the use of modern methods of performance evaluation and prove to apply them in their enterprises. The aim of this paper is to point out several variants of the calculation of Economic value added (EVA indicator, define the possibilities to apply EVA methods to the conditions of enterprises in the Slovak Republic and the need to adjust data providing financial statements and data for current accounts. Application of economic value added should be able to contribute to changes in the views of the owners and managers of enterprises in the Slovak republic for use not only as financial indicators.

  12. KINERJA KEUANGAN KONVENSIONAL, ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED, DAN RETURN SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sudiyatno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh kinerja keuangan konvensional; Return on Asset (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Residual Income (RI, dan kinerja keuangan yang lebih modern; Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap return saham pada perusahaan-perusahaan dalam industry makanan dan minuman yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode sensus, karena semua perusahaan dalam industry makanan dan minuman digunakan sebagai sampel. Namun dalam proses samplingnya mengunakan metode purposive sampling, yaitu menggunakan sampel dengan criteria-kriteria tertentu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Return on Asset (ROA dan Residual Income (RI berpengaruh positif dan secara statistik signifikan terhadap return saham pada level signifikansi 1%. Sedangkan Return on Equity (ROE berpengaruh negative dan secara statistik signifikan terhadap return saham pada level signifikansi 10%, dan Economic Value Added (ERA berpengaruh positif tetapi tidak signifikan terhadap return saham.This study aims to test the effect of conventional financial performance i.e. Return on Asset (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Residual Income (RI, and the more modern financial performance which is Economic Value Added (EVA toward stock returns on companies in the food and beverage industry listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Sampling technique in this study uses the census method, all companies in the food and beverage industry are used as a sample. The process of sampling using purposive sampling method. The result shows that Return On Asset (ROA and Residual Income (RI are positive and statistic significant impact on the stock returns at significance level 1%. While the Return on Equity (ROE is negative and statistic significant impact on the stock returns at significance level 10%, Economic Value Added (EVA is positive and statistic not significant impact on the stock returns.

  13. Economic Assessment of the Use Value of Geospatial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bernknopf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1 a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2 a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3 a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  14. Saving reed lands by giving economic value to reed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W. Croon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the need for renewable energy, the need for nature conservation, the need to double the world’s food production to eliminate hunger, the need to reduce carbon dioxide emission, and the wish to reduce dependency on dwindling oil resources, show that these issues are intimately related and sometimes mutually exclusive. The use of food crops for the production of renewable fuels has resulted in the energy vs. food debate; the use of scarce land and fresh water for the dedicated production of biomass conflicts with food production and nature conservation; the collection of harvest residues and forest wastes as biomass to produce renewable fuels is complex and leaves a CO2 footprint. The several species of reed that grow naturally in deltas, river plains etc. can provide large amounts of biomass but are hardly mentioned in the debates. Harvesting reed does not threaten the nature and the natural functions of reed lands, which are carbon neutral or carbon dioxide sinks. Reed production does not need extensive infrastructure or complex cultivation and does not compete with food production for land and fresh water. Reed lands in many places are under threat of reclamation for economic activities and urbanisation. This trend can be countered if reed is seen to have a proven economic value. In this article I argue that giving a sustainable economic value to reed lands can only be realised if the exploitation is recognised as being environmentally acceptable, commercially feasible and a source of economic gains for all stakeholders. Commercial feasibility can be achieved under present economic conditions only if a reliable supply of considerable volumes of reed at a limited price can be guaranteed.

  15. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis

    OpenAIRE

    George Rivers; Jonathan Foo; Dragan Ilic; Peter Nicklen; Scott Reeves; Kieran Walsh; Stephen Maloney

    2015-01-01

    Questions: What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? Design: A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were ...

  16. The added value of thorough economic evaluation of telemedicine networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff-Pronost, Myriam; Sicotte, Claude

    2010-02-01

    This paper proposes a thorough framework for the economic evaluation of telemedicine networks. A standard cost analysis methodology was used as the initial base, similar to the evaluation method currently being applied to telemedicine, and to which we suggest adding subsequent stages that enhance the scope and sophistication of the analytical methodology. We completed the methodology with a longitudinal and stakeholder analysis, followed by the calculation of a break-even threshold, a calculation of the economic outcome based on net present value (NPV), an estimate of the social gain through external effects, and an assessment of the probability of social benefits. In order to illustrate the advantages, constraints and limitations of the proposed framework, we tested it in a paediatric cardiology tele-expertise network. The results demonstrate that the project threshold was not reached after the 4 years of the study. Also, the calculation of the project's NPV remained negative. However, the additional analytical steps of the proposed framework allowed us to highlight alternatives that can make this service economically viable. These included: use over an extended period of time, extending the network to other telemedicine specialties, or including it in the services offered by other community hospitals. In sum, the results presented here demonstrate the usefulness of an economic evaluation framework as a way of offering decision makers the tools they need to make comprehensive evaluations of telemedicine networks.

  17. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli: origin, distribution, and its economical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense. Capsicum has significantly economical value, for example as spices, vitamine, traditionaly medicine, and as an ornamental plant.

  18. Comparative economic value added on Southeast Asian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintang Dewanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the bank's performance comparison across countries in some ASEAN members which are listed in the stock exchange, as well as to analyse the influence of Economic Value Added (EVA and some financial ratios on the company stock return. Analysis suggests some results. In Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, the movement of EVA follows the movement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. This study also finds that Earning per Share (EPS, only in Singapore, and Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA, only in the Philippines, have an influence on stock return. Only in the Philippines where EVA together with ROA has an effect on stock return.

  19. Economic value added model upon conditions of banking company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of this article is the application of the economic value added model (EVA upon the conditions of a banking company. Due to the character of banking business, which is in a different structure of financial sheet, it is not possible to use the standard model EVA for this banking company. The base of this article is the outlined of basic principles of the EVA mode in a non-banking company. Basic specified banking activity dissimilarities are analysed and a directed methodology adjustment of a model such as this, so that it is possible to use it for a banking company.

  20. Quantifying Economic Value of Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedabdolhossein Mehvar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of quantifying ecosystem services in monetary terms has long been a challenging issue for economists and ecologists. Many case specific valuation studies have been carried out in various parts of the World. Yet, a coherent review on the valuation of coastal ecosystem services (CES, which systematically describes fundamental concepts, analyzes reported applications, and addresses the issue of climate change (CC impacts on the monetary value of CES is still lacking. Here, we take a step towards addressing this knowledge gap by pursuing a coherent review that aims to provide policy makers and researchers in multidisciplinary teams with a summary of the state-of-the-art and a guideline on the process of economic valuation of CES and potential changes in these values due to CC impacts. The article highlights the main concepts of CES valuation studies and offers a systematic analysis of the best practices by analyzing two global scale and 30 selected local and regional case studies, in which different CES have been valued. Our analysis shows that coral reefs and mangroves are among the most frequently valued ecosystems, while sea-grass beds are the least considered ones. Currently, tourism and recreation services as well as storm protection are two of the most considered services representing higher estimated value than other CES. In terms of the valuation techniques used, avoided damage, replacement and substitute cost method as well as stated preference method are among the most commonly used valuation techniques. Following the above analysis, we propose a methodological framework that provides step-wise guidance and better insight into the linkages between climate change impacts and the monetary value of CES. This highlights two main types of CC impacts on CES: one being the climate regulation services of coastal ecosystems, and the other being the monetary value of services, which is subject to substantial uncertainty. Finally, a

  1. Aligning the Economic Value of Companion Diagnostics and Stratified Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Blair

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The twin forces of payors seeking fair pricing and the rising costs of developing new medicines has driven a closer relationship between pharmaceutical companies and diagnostics companies, because stratified medicines, guided by companion diagnostics, offer better commercial, as well as clinical, outcomes. Stratified medicines have created clinical success and provided rapid product approvals, particularly in oncology, and indeed have changed the dynamic between drug and diagnostic developers. The commercial payback for such partnerships offered by stratified medicines has been less well articulated, but this has shifted as the benefits in risk management, pricing and value creation for all stakeholders become clearer. In this larger healthcare setting, stratified medicine provides both physicians and patients with greater insight on the disease and provides rationale for providers to understand cost-effectiveness of treatment. This article considers how the economic value of stratified medicine relationships can be recognized and translated into better outcomes for all healthcare stakeholders.

  2. Climate Change Observation Accuracy: Requirements and Economic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce; Cooke, Roger; Golub, Alexander; Baize, Rosemary; Mlynczak, Martin; Lukashin, Constantin; Thome, Kurt; Shea, Yolanda; Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter; hide

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will summarize a new quantitative approach to determining the required accuracy for climate change observations. Using this metric, most current global satellite observations struggle to meet this accuracy level. CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is a new satellite mission designed to resolve this challenge is by achieving advances of a factor of 10 for reflected solar spectra and a factor of 3 to 5 for thermal infrared spectra. The CLARREO spectrometers can serve as SI traceable benchmarks for the Global Satellite Intercalibration System (GSICS) and greatly improve the utility of a wide range of LEO and GEO infrared and reflected solar satellite sensors for climate change observations (e.g. CERES, MODIS, VIIIRS, CrIS, IASI, Landsat, etc). A CLARREO Pathfinder mission for flight on the International Space Station is included in the U.S. Presidentâ€"TM"s fiscal year 2016 budget, with launch in 2019 or 2020. Providing more accurate decadal change trends can in turn lead to more rapid narrowing of key climate science uncertainties such as cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. A new study has been carried out to quantify the economic benefits of such an advance and concludes that the economic value is $9 Trillion U.S. dollars. The new value includes the cost of carbon emissions reductions.

  3. The Influence of Economic Literacyon Consumption Behaviour Mediated by Local Cultural Values and Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldila Septiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of economics literacy on the students’ consumption behavior through local cultural values and promotions. The mediation used is based on the theories, the empirical studies and the previous studies.Quantitative approach was used in this study. The population was the Pamekasan Senior High Schools students (Class XI IPS, academic year 2012/2013. Proportional random sampling was conducted to take the samples in the population. The data was collected by using the questionnaire and test. Path analysis was used to analyze the data.The findings showe that the economic literacy level influences directly and significantly on the local cultural values, while affected negatively significant on the promotion. Also the economic literacy level influences directly and negatively significant on the consumption behavior. Contrary, the local cultural values influence directly, positively and significantly on the consumption behavior similar to the promotion. Moreover, the economic literacy level influences indirectly and significantly on the consumption behavior through the local cultural values. Similar to the local cultural values, the promotion aspect had the same influence direction. Therefore, this research provided evidence that the economic literacy affected consumption behaviour which are moderated through the value of local culture and promotion aspects

  4. in_focus - Valuing the Environment: Economics for a Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with ... Economics has much to offer in understanding and influencing this behaviour. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science ...

  5. A REVIEW OF THE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED LITERATURE AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Sabol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present a cornucopia of approaches and ways of defining, measuring and using the concept of Economic Value Added (EVA. EVA is a financial performance measure that emphasizes the maximization of shareholder value, as opposed to mere maximization of net profit. The authors familiarize the readers with important ideas and research that have contributed to the development of the concept of EVA. The nature of this paper is exclusive to the review of secondary sources, such as theoretical insights as well as the results of numerous empirical research of EVA. Furthermore, the paper will show various adjustments to financial statements before accounting profits can be used to calculate EVA. The results of the aforementioned research will unequivocally present EVA as one of the most widely used and accepted measures of overall firm performance, gaining more popularity when coupled with the notions of strategic (financial management. The paper concludes by determining the role and place of the concept of EVA in the process of value and performance management, as well as strategic management.

  6. THE EFFECT OF LEVERAGE AND ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED ON MARKET VALUE ADDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Jančovičová BOGNÁROVÁ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic value added (EVA is a performance measure developed by Stern Stewart & Co. that attempts to measure the true economic profit produced by a company. Such a metric is useful for investors who wish to determine how well a company has produced value for its investors, and it can be compared against the company's peers for a quick analysis of how well the company is operating in its industry. Market value added (MVA, on the other hand, is simply the difference between the current total market value of a company and the capital contributed by investors (including both shareholders and bondholders. It is typically used for companies that are larger and publicly-traded. MVA is not a performance metric like EVA, but instead is a wealth metric, measuring the level of value a company has accumulated over time. In order to maximise the value for shareholders, companies should strive towards maximising MVA and not necessarily their total market value. It is believed, that the best way to do so is to maximize EVA, which reflects a company’s ability to earn returns above the cost of capital. The leverage available to companies that incur fixed costs and use borrowed capital with a fixed interest charge has been known and quantified by financial managers for some time. In this research the effect of leverage and EVA on MVA as the measure of shareholder wealth creation was analysed. Leverage and EVA have been used as the independent variables whereas MVA has been used as the measure of shareholder wealth creation. Correlation and regression methods have been employed to find out in what way financial managers can practice the effects of leverage and EVA to maximize MVA. The results showed that EVA and leverage have no profound impact on MVA of the selected Slovak companies

  7. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  8. Economists, value judgments, and climate change. A view from feminist economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of recent discussions about ethical issues in climate change, as engaged in by economists, have focused on the value of the parameter representing the rate of time preference within models of optimal growth. This essay examines many economists' antipathy to serious discussion of ethical matters, and suggests that the avoidance of questions of intergenerational equity is related to another set of value judgments concerning the quality and objectivity of economic practice. Using insights from feminist philosophy of science and research on high reliability organizations, this essay argues that a more ethically transparent, real-world-oriented, and flexible economic practice would lead to more reliable and useful knowledge. (author)

  9. Implementation of Economic Value Added and Market Value Added Analysis as Valuation Tools of Invest Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Daengs GS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For the investors, financial statement is a benchmark of investors in assessing the company's performance. In fact, investors are not always receiving the accurate company's financial statements information and its levels of fairness are in doubt. The financial statement analysis with using financial ratios is not enough. The investors may need to use alternatives financial statement analyses techniques that reflect the actual company's performance. Therefore, both of the investors and the prospective can use Economic Value Added (EVA and Market Value Added (MVA analysis. With these technical analyses, the investors may know the company's performance where they are invested or to be used as a place to invest whether it has value added or not. With the results of these analyses, it is the expected for the investors to be more confident in making decision whether to buy, sell or hold the ownership in the company.

  10. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  11. [Health system reforms, economic constraints and ethical and legal values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillol, Michel; Le Coz, Pierre; Aubry, Régis; Bréchat, Pierre-Henri

    2010-01-01

    Health system and hospital reforms have led to important and on-going legislative, structural and organizational changes. Is there any logic at work within the health system and hospitals that could call into question the principle of solidarity, the secular values of ethics that govern the texts of law and ethics? In order to respond, we compared our experiences to a review of the professional and scientific literature from 1992 to 2010. Over the course of the past eighteen years, health system organization was subjected to variations and significant tensions. These variations are witnesses to a paradigm shift: although a step towards the regionalization of the health system integrating the choice of public health priorities, consultation and participatory democracy has been implemented, nevertheless the system was then re-oriented towards the trend of returning to centralization on the basis of uniting economics, technical modernization and contracting. This change of doctrine may undermine the social mission of hospitals and the principle of solidarity. Progress, the aging population and financial constraints would force policy-makers to steer the health system towards more centralized control. Hospitals, health professionals and users may feel torn within a system that tends to simplify and minimize what is becoming increasingly complex and global. Benchmarks on values, ethics and law for the hospitals, healthcare professionals and users are questioned. These are important elements to consider when the law on the reform of hospitals, patients, health care and territories and regional health agencies is implemented.

  12. Measuring value for money: a scoping review on economic evaluation of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Jesdeep; Lau, Francis

    2013-01-01

    To explore how key components of economic evaluations have been included in evaluations of health information systems (HIS), to determine the state of knowledge on value for money for HIS, and provide guidance for future evaluations. We searched databases, previously collected papers, and references for relevant papers published from January 2000 to June 2012. For selection, papers had to: be a primary study; involve a computerized system for health information processing, decision support, or management reporting; and include an economic evaluation. Data on study design and economic evaluation methods were extracted and analyzed. Forty-two papers were selected and 33 were deemed high quality (scores ≥ 8/10) for further analysis. These included 12 economic analyses, five input cost analyses, and 16 cost-related outcome analyses. For HIS types, there were seven primary care electronic medical records, six computerized provider order entry systems, five medication management systems, five immunization information systems, four institutional information systems, three disease management systems, two clinical documentation systems, and one health information exchange network. In terms of value for money, 23 papers reported positive findings, eight were inconclusive, and two were negative. We found a wide range of economic evaluation papers that were based on different assumptions, methods, and metrics. There is some evidence of value for money in selected healthcare organizations and HIS types. However, caution is needed when generalizing these findings. Better reporting of economic evaluation studies is needed to compare findings and build on the existing evidence base we identified.

  13. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  14. Economic assessment of use values of near-natural forestry compared with rotational forestry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsalu, Dareskedar Workie; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cost-benefit analysis of converting the current rotational forestry (RF) of Norway spruce stand into near-natural forestry (NNF) of beech, based on two representative soil conditions and visitors popular case areas in Denmark, considering welfare economic values of timber......, recreation provision, and groundwater recharge. The study answers the major research question of how large the welfare economic values of recreation and groundwater benefits of the conversion are as compared with timber benefits. The net present values (NPV) of the benefits were calculated for an infinite...... time horizon at a 3 % discount rate. The results reveal that converting into NNF would result in a NPV of at least 6,832 € ha−1 from use values of recreation and water benefit on a site with good soil and a high visitor frequency, as is typical in the eastern part of Denmark. On a site in the west...

  15. The strategic and economic value of exploiting heavy crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    Non-conventional oil, and particularly heavy crude varieties, will play an increasingly important role in meeting growing global energy requirements by 2030 and beyond. These heavy oils currently account for high volumes in certain areas but their proportion of global oil production remains modest for the moment, This should significantly change with the completion of several projects currently underway in Canada and Venezuela. Indeed, the technological innovations occurring over recent years have allowed for a considerable reduction in exploitation costs for these crude varieties and improved economic profitability conditions for the projects. The geographical location of resources (which are independent of the Middle East) and the fact that they are not subject to OPEC quotas also make these crude varieties particularly attractive. (authors)

  16. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ilic, Dragan; Nicklen, Peter; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Maloney, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  18. The economics of fishing the high seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Mayorga, Juan; Costello, Christopher; Kroodsma, David; Palomares, Maria L D; Pauly, Daniel; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk

    2018-06-01

    While the ecological impacts of fishing the waters beyond national jurisdiction (the "high seas") have been widely studied, the economic rationale is more difficult to ascertain because of scarce data on the costs and revenues of the fleets that fish there. Newly compiled satellite data and machine learning now allow us to track individual fishing vessels on the high seas in near real time. These technological advances help us quantify high-seas fishing effort, costs, and benefits, and assess whether, where, and when high-seas fishing makes economic sense. We characterize the global high-seas fishing fleet and report the economic benefits of fishing the high seas globally, nationally, and at the scale of individual fleets. Our results suggest that fishing at the current scale is enabled by large government subsidies, without which as much as 54% of the present high-seas fishing grounds would be unprofitable at current fishing rates. The patterns of fishing profitability vary widely between countries, types of fishing, and distance to port. Deep-sea bottom trawling often produces net economic benefits only thanks to subsidies, and much fishing by the world's largest fishing fleets would largely be unprofitable without subsidies and low labor costs. These results support recent calls for subsidy and fishery management reforms on the high seas.

  19. Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Valuing the environment: Economics for a sustainable future | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Environmental economics can identify the underlying causes of environmental ... A new IDRC book traces how the field has taken shape in developing ... of informal occupations that yield barely subsistence-level incomes.

  1. COMPARISON OF THE ACCOUNTING CONCEPT “FAIR VALUE” WITH OTHER ECONOMIC VALUE CONCEPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Justine Jaunzeme

    2011-01-01

    Fair value is a measurement base found both in International Financial Reporting Standards and in Latvian accounting legislation. For the fair value measurements to be meaningful for financial analysts, consultants and other financial statement users, it is important that the fair value concept be understood in relation to other economic value concepts. The purpose of this paper is to compare the fair value concept of financial accounting to other economic value concepts. The qualitative meth...

  2. The value of nature: Economic, intrinsic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a long standing argument that ecosystems have intrinsic value and therefore there is no need to put a price tag on Mother Nature. The concept of intrinsic value reflects the perspective that nature has value in its own right, independent of human uses. Intrinsic va...

  3. Perception of the economic value of primary care services: a Willingness to Pay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; del Cura-González, María Isabel; Domínguez-Bidagor, Julia; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa

    2010-03-01

    Identify the economic value the user attributes to the visit to the family physician, in a setting of a National Health System, by the Willingness to Pay (WTP) expressed. Economic evaluation study, by the contingent valuation method. Questions were asked about WTP using a payment card format. Interviews were conducted with 451 subjects, in areas with different socioeconomic characteristics. An ordered probit was used to evaluate model's validity. Median WTP expressed was euro18 (interquartile range euro8-28), not including "zero-answers" of thirty-four subjects (7.5%). This value represents 2% of average adjusted family incomes. Patients with higher incomes or with chronic illnesses presented a probability of 5-14 percentage points of expressing a high WTP. For every point of increase of patient satisfaction, the probability of presenting a WTP in the lowest range decreases 7.0 percentage points. Subjects with a low education level and those older than 65 expressed a lower WTP. Accessibility, risk perception, nationality and having private insurance were not related to the WTP expressed. Users of primary care have a clear perception of the economic value of care received from the family physician, even in a framework of providing services financed by taxes and without cost at the moment of use. This value increases in subjects with higher incomes, with greater need for care, or more satisfied.

  4. Handling value added tax (VAT) in economic evaluations: should prices include VAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Mickael; Christiansen, Terkel; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    In health economic evaluations, value added tax is commonly treated as a transfer payment. Following this argument, resources are valued equal to their net-of-tax prices in economic evaluations applying a societal perspective. In this article we argue that if there is the possibility that a new healthcare intervention may expand the healthcare budget, the social cost of input factors should be the gross-of-tax prices and not the net-of-tax prices. The rising interest in cost-benefit analysis and the use of absolute thresholds, net benefit estimates and acceptability curves in cost-effectiveness analysis makes this argument highly relevant for an appropriate use of these tools in prioritisation.

  5. Reassessing the Economic Value of Advanced Level Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Michael; Noyes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the economic return to Advanced level (A-level) mathematics was examined. The analysis was based upon a series of log-linear models of earnings in the 1958 National Child Development Survey (NCDS) and the National Survey of 1980 Graduates and Diplomates. The core finding was that A-level mathematics had a unique earnings premium…

  6. The Socio-Economic Value of Teacher Salaries Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mikhailovna Avraamova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic results of the reform in teachers’ salary, which had a positive impact on the quality of school education, are considered. However, the economic difficulties that our country encounters, may jeopardize the achieved results. The results of the monitoring study of the Center of the Economics of Lifelong Education of RANEPA «Efficiency of the school education» conducted in 2015 in the Sverdlovsk, Voronezh, Ivanovo regions serve as information base. 2800 school teachers, 2800 households having a school student at family, 200 directors of the educational organizations are interviewed according to the survey method. Surveys are conducted on the representative selection including both urban and rural population. It is shown that the average teacher’s salary has reached the level of the average salary in the region in the 2013/2014 that met the requirements of the May Presidential Decree. This ratio was retained next year, and the size of the teachers’ salaries fully reflected the differentiation of the socio-economic indicators of the development of the Russian regions under consideration. The main positive effects of teachers’ salaries raise are: the rejuvenation of the teaching staff, professional development of teachers, their entering the Russian middle class. The authors study the impact of negative phenomena in the economy on the prospects of reproduction of the achieved socio-economic results of teachers’ salaries raise. The reduction of pupils’ parents’ incomes that can lead to a decrease in a request for paid educational services, which is one of the sources of extra-budgetary funding of school education are considered as such effects. From this perspective, the projective educational strategy of the parents of school students is considered. The analysis of the economic activities of school organizations, on the one hand, and educational strategies for the parents of schoolchildren in the conditions of

  7. AUDITING FAIR VALUES IN A SENSITIVE SOCIO-ECONOMICAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Farcane; Delia Deliu; Maria Gheorghian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of fair value was subject of many debates and disputes in recentyears. These debates have focused mainly on the relevance of the concept, but also on thepractical difficulties in determining reasonable estimates, raising particularly the interest ofpractitioners in terms of identifying the best valuation procedures and techniques,respectively auditing fair values. Determining the fair value involves a broad spectrum ofapproaches, from the simplest to the most complex and burdensom...

  8. PENGUKURAN KINERJA PERUSAHAAN PT. HADJI KALLA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kinerja Economic Value Added (EVA) yang dicapai oleh perusahaan PT. Hadji Kalla, sedangkan metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis perkembangan Economic Value Added (EVA), Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT) dan The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the Economic Value Added (EVA), which is achieved by the company PT. Hadji Kalla...

  9. The cost of nuclear electricity: economic values and political calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (monetary inflation; US-style rate-base formula; cost escalation); electricity generation costs (rate-base calculation formula; regulatory versus economic costs; inflationary case; cost-of-service rates versus inflation; first year electricity costs); rate shock (A. comparison with oil; B. nuclear case; C. comparison with coal/nuclear system; vintaged electricity costs versus growth and inflation); conclusions. (U.K.)

  10. Gasification : converting low value feedstocks to high value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.; Lorden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provided a historic overview of the gasification process and described the process chemistry of its two primary reactions, notably partial oxidation and steam reforming. The gasification process involves converting low value carbonaceous solid or liquid feeds to a synthetic gas by reacting the feed with oxygen and steam under high pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gasifier operates under a reducing environment instead of an oxidizing environment, mist sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulphur dioxide. The gasification process also involves cleaning up synthetic gas and acid gas removal; recovery of conventional sulphur; and combustion or further processing of clean synthetic gas. This presentation also outlined secondary reactions such as methanation, water shift, and carbon formation. The negative effects of gasification were also discussed, with particular reference to syngas; metal carbonyls; soot; and slag. Other topics that were presented included world syngas production capacity by primary feedstock; operating IGCC projects; natural gas demand by oil sands supply and demand considerations; reasons for using the gasification process; gasifier feedstocks; and gasification products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of gasification licensors; gasification technologies; gasification experience; and the regulatory situation for greenhouse gas. Gasification has demonstrated excellent environmental performance with sulphur recovery greater than 99 per cent, depending on the the recovery process chosen. The opportunity also exists for carbon dioxide recovery. tabs., figs.

  11. Practice evaluation and sale transactions: preserving value through economic turmoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumblin, Denise L

    2009-12-01

    There are several options to value a veterinary practice (market approach, asset approach, and income approach) and several methods within these approaches. Examples of an income-based approach include excess earnings, discounted future returns, and single period capitalization of earnings. A qualified valuator will use his or her professional opinion and experience to determine the most appropriate method for one's practice situation. This article outlines the excess earnings method for which where the principal components of value are net assets and goodwill.

  12. The Societal and Economic Value of Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient’s lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Conclusions: Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost

  13. 76 FR 70444 - Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9491-7] Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented... Economics Advisory Committee to provide early advice on the value of water to the United States (U.S... to FACA and EPA policy, notice is hereby given that the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee...

  14. A spatial-dynamic value transfer model of economic losses from a biological invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Kent F. Kovacs; Betsy. Von Holle

    2010-01-01

    Rigorous assessments of the economic impacts of introduced species at broad spatial scales are required to provide credible information to policy makers. We propose that economic models of aggregate damages induced by biological invasions need to link microeconomic analyses of site-specific economic damages with spatial-dynamic models of value change associated with...

  15. Cultural differences between East and West Germany after 1991 : Communist values versus economic performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, A.A.J.; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Two decades after reunification substantial economic disparities between East and West Germany remain. With formal institutions being equalized, a typical explanation is that the partition of Germany created differences in economic values and attitudes that continue to feed differences in economic

  16. The Questionable Economic Case for Value-Based Drug Pricing in Market Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the economic theory and interpretation of the concept of "value-based pricing" for new breakthrough drugs with no close substitutes in a context (such as the United States) in which a drug firm with market power sells its product to various buyers. The interpretation is different from that in a country that evaluates medicines for a single public health insurance plan or a set of heavily regulated plans. It is shown that there will not ordinarily be a single value-based price but rather a schedule of prices with different volumes of buyers at each price. Hence, it is incorrect to term a particular price the value-based price, or to argue that the profit-maximizing monopoly price is too high relative to some hypothesized value-based price. When effectiveness of treatment or value of health is heterogeneous, the profit-maximizing price can be higher than that associated with assumed values of quality-adjusted life-years. If the firm sets a price higher than the value-based price for a set of potential buyers, the optimal strategy of the buyers is to decline to purchase that drug. The profit-maximizing price will come closer to a unique value-based price if demand is less heterogeneous. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Give clean air the economic value it deserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, H.

    2000-01-01

    India contributes more to the management of the atmosphere than a country like the Netherlands. This is not to the credit of the Indian government; rather, it is merely a consequence of poverty. Poor people use almost no fossil fuels and emit almost no CO2. Paying developing countries for this environmental service to the world community would create a financial incentive to continue to provide this service in the future, while at the same time generating additional funds to improve the living standards of the poorest people. The attractiveness of this approach depends on one important assumption: the conventional development path - economic growth implies emissions - must be replaced by a sustainable development path delinks economic growth from increasing emissions. Rich industrialised countries also have an interest in such decoupling. The compensation they pay the developing countries would fall proportionately to the reduction of their CO2 emissions. So an incentive is created on both sides to switch over to a low-carbon energy strategy. After the completion of this transition, every country can use as much energy as it wants, because energy consumption would then no longer cause CO2 emissions. This is the picture of the future to which the United Air Fund aspires

  18. Economics of assisted reproduction : Access to fertility treatments and valuing live births in economic terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Ledger, William; Postma, Maarten J.

    2010-01-01

    The intricate relationship between economic conditions and natural fertility is known to influence both the timing and number of children conceived. For infertile couples, the relationship between economics and fertility is more explicit because of the necessity for many couples to pay for treatment

  19. Economic Value of Agroecosystem Services within Wheat Fields in Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Koocheki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to its multifunctional nature agriculture play important roles in ecological processes such as carbon sequestration, flood control, groundwater recharge, nutrient cycling, and purifying water, soil and air in addition to providing food, feed and fiber. These cover almost all ecological services provided by natural ecosystems, including provisioning services, regulating services, supporting services and cultural services (MEA, 2005. Provisioning services are the products obtained from ecosystems, including food, fiber and fuel. Regulating services are the benefits arising from the regulation of ecosystem processes, such as climate regulation, water purification, pollination and the control of pests and diseases. Cultural services are the non-material benefits people obtain from ecosystems, as spiritual enrichment, recreation and aesthetic experiences. Supporting services are those services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services, such as soil formation and nutrient cycling (Norris et al., 2010. However, most of these services are not recognized and their values are hidden to the society. On the other hand, unlike natural ecosystems that only produce positive ecological services, agro-ecosystems also contribute to some negative externalities e.g. emission of greenhouse gases, leaching of chemicals into soil and water resources and reduction of biodiversity that should be taken into account (Norris et al., 2010. Economic valuation of these services makes them attractive for the society and policymakers to pay more attention towards conservation of ecosystem services. In Iran, studies on ecosystem services are scared and in global scale researches are mainly focused on natural ecosystems. In this study the economic value of ecological services as well as negative environmental externalities of wheat fields were estimated in the Khorasan Razavi province. Materials and methods Information was extracted from

  20. THE VALUE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF UNAPPLIED INVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Sorin V. FÂNTÂNĂ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting regulations, the guidelines for their application and other articles by accounting specialists argue that inventions created internally are not recognized as intangible assets. Only assets acquired separately can be measured reliably, based on the document justifying the purchase transaction. Other specialised papers show that it is difficult to establish the existence of this intangible asset and its credible cost. That is, it can give or calculate a value of the invention only if it can show the acceptable cost of achieving it. But all these works argue that the protection of inventions is profitable if it is the basis of a new business, if it promotes or protects the current activity. However, these papers elude - because it is uncomfortable - the situation where an invention created internally has a value only because it forecloses the market. It is curious that an invention has accounting value only when traded.

  1. The importance of actions and the worth of an object: dissociable neural systems representing core value and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Schwartz, Sophie; Sander, David

    2012-01-01

    Neuroeconomic research has delineated neural regions involved in the computation of value, referring to a currency for concrete choices and decisions (‘economic value’). Research in psychology and sociology, on the other hand, uses the term ‘value’ to describe motivational constructs that guide choices and behaviors across situations (‘core value’). As a first step towards an integration of these literatures, we compared the neural regions computing economic value and core value. Replicating previous work, economic value computations activated a network centered on medial orbitofrontal cortex. Core value computations activated medial prefrontal cortex, a region involved in the processing of self-relevant information and dorsal striatum, involved in action selection. Core value ratings correlated with activity in precuneus and anterior prefrontal cortex, potentially reflecting the degree to which a core value is perceived as internalized part of one’s self-concept. Distributed activation pattern in insula and ACC allowed differentiating individual core value types. These patterns may represent evaluation profiles reflecting prototypical fundamental concerns expressed in the core value types. Our findings suggest mechanisms by which core values, as motivationally important long-term goals anchored in the self-schema, may have the behavioral power to drive decisions and behaviors in the absence of immediately rewarding behavioral options. PMID:21642352

  2. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  3. Medicinal and economic value of spondias mombin | Ayoka | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviewed the folk medical value of Spondias mombin with the correlated research findings on the uses of Spondias mombin. Most of the folk uses had been scientifically proven in most of the regions where those beliefs are based. The plant was described with habitat, the local uses including the uses of its parts ...

  4. 77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism... the market and non-market economic values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be... Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. The required information is to conduct focus groups to help in...

  5. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were

  6. A current value Hamiltonian Approach for Discrete time Optimal Control Problems arising in Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Rehana

    2018-01-01

    Pontrygin-type maximum principle is extended for the present value Hamiltonian systems and current value Hamiltonian systems of nonlinear difference equations for uniform time step $h$. A new method termed as a discrete time current value Hamiltonian method is established for the construction of first integrals for current value Hamiltonian systems of ordinary difference equations arising in Economic growth theory.

  7. National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stright, Dana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

  8. The potential economic value of screening hospital admissions for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, S M; Curry, S R; Harrison, L H; Lee, B Y

    2012-11-01

    Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage has a prevalence reported as high as 51-85 %; with up to 84 % of incident hospital-acquired infections linked to carriers. Accurately identifying carriers may limit the spread of Clostridium difficile. Since new technology adoption depends heavily on its economic value, we developed an analytic simulation model to determine the cost-effectiveness screening hospital admissions for Clostridium difficile from the hospital and third party payer perspectives. Isolation precautions were applied to patients testing positive, preventing transmission. Sensitivity analyses varied Clostridium difficile colonization rate, infection probability among secondary cases, contact isolation compliance, and screening cost. Screening was cost-effective (i.e., incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] ≤ $50,000/QALY) for every scenario tested; all ICER values were ≤ $256/QALY. Screening was economically dominant (i.e., saved costs and provided health benefits) with a ≥10.3 % colonization rate and ≥5.88 % infection probability when contact isolation compliance was ≥25 % (hospital perspective). Under some conditions screening led to cost savings per case averted (range, $53-272). Clostridium difficile screening, coupled with isolation precautions, may be a cost-effective intervention to hospitals and third party payers, based on prevalence. Limiting Clostridium difficile transmission can reduce the number of infections, thereby reducing its economic burden to the healthcare system.

  9. The economic value of accurate wind power forecasting to utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S J [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Giebel, G; Joensen, A [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind power, the need for accurate forecasting is becoming ever more important. Wind power is by its very nature intermittent. For utility schedulers this presents its own problems particularly when the penetration of wind power capacity in a grid reaches a significant level (>20%). However, using accurate forecasts of wind power at wind farm sites, schedulers are able to plan the operation of conventional power capacity to accommodate the fluctuating demands of consumers and wind farm output. The results of a study to assess the value of forecasting at several potential wind farm sites in the UK and in the US state of Iowa using the Reading University/Rutherford Appleton Laboratory National Grid Model (NGM) are presented. The results are assessed for different types of wind power forecasting, namely: persistence, optimised numerical weather prediction or perfect forecasting. In particular, it will shown how the NGM has been used to assess the value of numerical weather prediction forecasts from the Danish Meteorological Institute model, HIRLAM, and the US Nested Grid Model, which have been `site tailored` by the use of the linearized flow model WA{sup s}P and by various Model output Statistics (MOS) and autoregressive techniques. (au)

  10. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  11. Getting off on the right foot: subjective value versus economic value in predicting longitudinal job outcomes from job offer negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Jared R; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Kilduff, Gavin J

    2009-03-01

    Although negotiation experiences can affect a negotiator's ensuing attitudes and behavior, little is known about their long-term consequences. Using a longitudinal survey design, the authors tested the degree to which economic and subjective value achieved in job offer negotiations predicts employees' subsequent job attitudes and intentions concerning turnover. Results indicate that subjective value predicts greater compensation satisfaction and job satisfaction and lower turnover intention measured 1 year later. Surprisingly, the economic outcomes that negotiators achieved had no apparent effects on these factors. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Production of High Value Cellulose from Tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R Eric; Dvaid, Keith; McGinley, W Mark; Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sunkara, Mahendra; Colliver, Donald

    2011-06-15

    The Kentucky Rural Energy Supply Program was established in 2005 by a federal direct appropriation to benefit the citizens of the Commonwealth by creating a unified statewide consortium to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in Kentucky. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biomass Programs initially funded the consortium in 2005 with a $2 million operational grant. The Kentucky Rural Energy Consortium (KREC) was formed at the outset of the program to advance energy efficiency and comprehensive research on biomass and bioenergy of importance to Kentucky agriculture, rural communities, and related industries. In recognition of the successful efforts of the program, KREC received an additional $1.96 million federal appropriation in 2008 for renewal of the DOE grant. From the beginning, KREC understood the value of providing a statewide forum for the discussion of Kentucky's long term energy needs and economic development potential. The new funding allowed KREC to continue to serve as a clearinghouse and support new research and development and outreach programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  13. The Economic Value of Corporate Eco-Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenster, N.; Derwall, J.; Bauer, R.; Koedijk, K.

    2006-08-01

    This study adds new insights to the long-running corporate environmental-financial performance debate by focusing on the concept of eco-efficiency. Using a new database of eco-efficiency ratings, we analyze the relation between eco-efficiency and financial performance from 1997 to 2004. We report that eco-efficiency relates positively to operating performance and market value. Moreover, our results suggest that the market's valuation of environmental performance has been time variant, which may indicate that the market incorporates environmental information with a drift. Although environmental leaders initially did not sell at a premium relative to laggards, the valuation differential increased significantly over time. Our results have implications for company managers, who evidently do not have to overcome a tradeoff between eco-efficiency and financial performance, and for investors, who can exploit environmental information for investment decisions

  14. Economic value addition, employment, and enterprise profiles of local authorities in the Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie Francois Toerien

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A strong underlying structure in the economic, demographic, and entrepreneurial domains of local authorities (municipalities in the Free State, South Africa was detected through cluster and other analyses. The structure is indicative of a system in which economic value addition, population size, employment creation, and entrepreneurial domains are dynamically linked. The agriculture, mining, and fuel and chemicals sectors dominate the economic value addition in some municipalities, whereas others are without a single dominating economic sector (i.e. they have well-balanced economies. The agriculture and households sectors are significant sources of employment in all municipalities. Cluster sequence analyses of the municipalities revealed statistically significant recurring patterns of value addition, employment, and entrepreneurship, further strengthening the detection of orderliness, which can promote mutual learning. The Metsimaholo municipality with a significant manufacturing base is an atypical Free State municipality and provides an outstanding example of the economic, demographic, and entrepreneurial impacts of value addition to local or external primary products.

  15. The Economic Value of Mangroves: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa E. Salem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the mangrove ecosystem valuation literature through a meta-regression analysis. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first meta-analysis focusing solely on mangrove forests, whereas previous studies have included different types of wetlands. The number of studies included in the regression analysis is 44 for a total of 145 observations. We include several regressions with the objective of addressing outliers in the data as well as the possible correlations between observations of the same study. We also investigate possible interaction effects between type of service and GDP per capita. Our findings indicate that mangroves exhibit decreasing returns to scale, that GDP per capita has a positive effect on mangrove values and that using the replacement cost and contingent valuation methods produce higher estimates than do other methods. We also find that there are statistically significant interaction effects that influence the data. Finally, the results indicate that employing weighted regressions provide a better fit than others. However, in terms of forecast performance we find that all the estimated models performed similarly and were not able to conclude decisively that one outperforms the other.

  16. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J

    2004-11-15

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  17. The Treatment of Wealth Distribution by High School Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an investigation of the treatment of wealth distribution by high school economics textbooks. The eight leading high school economics texts in the United States were examined.

  18. Nonmarket economic user values of the Florida Keys/Key West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon R. Leeworthy; J. Michael Bowker

    1997-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the nonmarket economic user values for recreating visitors to the Florida Keys/Key West that participated in natural resource-based activities. Results from estimated travel cost models are presented, including visitor’s responses to prices and estimated per person-trip user values. Annual user values are also calculated and presented...

  19. Reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral economic demand for food and their relation to BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Paluch, Rocco A; Carr, Katelyn A; Temple, Jennifer L; Bickel, Warren K; MacKillop, James

    2018-04-01

    Food is a primary reinforcer, and food reinforcement is related to obesity. The reinforcing value of food can be measured by establishing how hard someone will work to get food on progressive-ratio schedules. An alternative way to measure food reinforcement is a hypothetical purchase task which creates behavioral economic demand curves. This paper studies whether reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral demand approaches are assessing the same or unique aspects of food reinforcement for low (LED) and high (HED) energy density foods using a combination of analytic approaches in females of varying BMI. Results showed absolute reinforcing value for LED and HED foods and relative reinforcing value were related to demand intensity (r's = 0.20-0.30, p's demand elasticity (r's = 0.17-0.22, p's demand task, and the differential role of effort in the two tasks. Examples of how a better understanding of food reinforcement may be useful to prevent or treat obesity are discussed, including engaging in alternative non-food reinforcers as substitutes for food, such as crafts or socializing in a non-food environment, and reducing the value of immediate food reinforcers by episodic future thinking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Carrying capacity an approaching procedure to the economic value of natural patrimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandon M, Luis; Ochoa S, German; Ospina N, Efren

    2001-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new alternative method for valorizing the natural heritage of various economically and environmentally important ecosystems. It was conducted in the Piedras Blancas, Antioquia watershed and considered the degree of conservation of the area and its capacity for supporting humans, by means of extractive economic activities. In this way the ecosystem itself provides a natural offer of goods and services and therefore a good approximation of its economic value

  1. The economic value of somatic cell count in South African Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic cell count (SCC) is of economic importance in dairy production as it directly influences the revenue from the sale of milk. The current study was carried out to determine the economic value of SCC in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle, in order to establish its relative emphasis in breeding objectives. Bulk-tank ...

  2. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  3. The Role of Value Added Tax on Economic Growth of Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The achievement of economic growth is crucial for countries sustainable development. Recently, Value Added Tax (VAT) becomes a major worldwide tax instrument which enhances economic growth. Being a tax levied on the final consumption of goods and services, VAT is collected at each stage of production and ...

  4. Economic value of Valentines iron minerals; Valor economico de los minerales de hierro de Valentines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, B.

    1960-07-01

    This work is a investigation required by the government of Uruguay about the economic value of iron and manganese deposits in Valentines ferriferrous zone. The purpose is to study the potential commercial for the exportation.

  5. The Impact of High School Economics on the College Principles of Economics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasfield, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 1,119 students in introductory college economics courses to determine the impact of high school economics on student achievement. Finds that prior high school economics was positively and significantly related to students grades in both introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics courses. (CFR)

  6. Sensitivity analysis of socio-economic values of time for public transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two...... recommended by the Ministry of Transport. Differentiated in-vehicle values prove to generate an even higher increase in time benefits, but vary depending on the projects....

  7. Analisis Economic Value Added (EVA) dalam Menilai Kinerja Keuangan Perusahaan pada PT. Unilever Indonesia, Tbk.

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfauzi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the financial performance of PT. Unilever Indonesia, Tbk which is measured by Economic Value Added (EVA). Variable which is needed to compute The EVA are Net Profit After Tax (NOPAT), Cost of Capital (CoC), and Economic Value Added (EVA). EVA concept is different with another financial performance instruments. Because in computing EVA, Cost of Capital is included. That’s why accounting profitable company doesn’t mean it has positive EV...

  8. Economic valuation of selected direct and indirect use values of the Makgadikgadi wetland system, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlhogile, Tshepo; Arntzen, Jaap; Mabiza, Collin; Mano, Reneth

    Economic valuation of wetlands aims to investigate public preferences for changes in the state of the wetland and the natural resources it constitutes in monetary terms. It provides a means of quantifying the direct and indirect benefits that people derive from wetlands. In addition, it informs management planning and practice about resource options, optimal allocation and also provides information for conservation of the resource. The Makgadikgadi wetland is a unique system that mostly consists of dry pans during most of the year. This study aimed at estimating the value of groundwater recharge and community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) activities within the Makgadikgadi wetland and how these goods and services contribute to the local and national economy. The study used the Total Economic Valuation approach, which considers both the direct and indirect use values of the resource. In essence, the study concentrated on one direct use value (use of resources through CBNRM) and one indirect use value (groundwater recharge). With regard to CBNRM, three community-based organisations (CBOs) were selected for the study and static and dynamic cost-benefit models for these CBOs were developed. The groundwater recharge value was largely determined through desktop review and interviews with stakeholders. The results indicate a small positive contribution of CBOs towards the economy of Botswana and a high potential for communities to derive substantial benefits from the projects because currently benefits realised by communities are limited. CBOs involved in joint venture partnerships with tourism and hunting enterprises benefit more from utilising the wetland’s resources. Groundwater recharge often occurs in areas away from the physical location of the wetland and may not be easily attributable to the wetland. However, the study assessed the value taking into consideration the various sectors which rely on the groundwater resource. The groundwater recharge

  9. "Lost milk?": Counting the economic value of breast milk in gross domestic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of breastfeeding and mothers milk to the economy is invisible in economic statistics. This article demonstrates how the economic value of human milk production can be included in economic statistics such as gross domestic product (GDP) and provides estimates for Australia, the United States, and Norway. The contribution of human milk and lactation to GDP in these countries is estimated using United Nations (System of National Accounting) guidelines and conventional economic valuation approaches to measuring production in GDP. In Australia, current human milk production levels exceed $3 billion annually. The United States has the potential to produce human milk worth more than US$110 billion a year, but currently nearly two thirds of this value is lost due to premature weaning. In Norway, production valued at US$907 million annually is 60% of its potential value. The potential loss of economic value from not protecting women's lactation and milk production from competing market pressures is large. Failure to account for mothers' milk production in GDP and other economic data has important consequences for public policy. The invisibility of human milk reduces the perceived importance of programs and regulations that protect and support women to breastfeed. The value of human milk can be measured using accepted international guidelines for calculating national income and production. It is quantitatively nontrivial and should be counted in GDP.

  10. Pillars of cooperation: Honesty-Humility, social value orientations, and economic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, B.E.; Zettler, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    The current work explores the predictive power of the recently proposed sixth personality dimension, Honesty-Humility, with respect to economic and cooperative behavior. It was expected that this factor should explain how decision makers allocate a valued good to themselves vs. another in the dic......The current work explores the predictive power of the recently proposed sixth personality dimension, Honesty-Humility, with respect to economic and cooperative behavior. It was expected that this factor should explain how decision makers allocate a valued good to themselves vs. another...... in the dictator and the ultimatum game. More importantly, we predicted that Honesty-Humility would explain differences between these games in which the power of the recipient to retaliate is varied. Both conjectures were corroborated in a semi-experimental study with N = 134 participants: individuals low...... in Honesty-Humility made more selfish decisions and only shifted towards a more fair allocation whenever the other was empowered to punish defection. Those high in Honesty-Humility, on the other hand, displayed a stable tendency for choosing a more fair solution - even when they could have defected without...

  11. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  12. Incorporating Risks in Economic Values for Pigs in Smallholder Production Systems in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthias, Jackson; Rewe, Thomas; Okeno, Tobias

    production systems in Kenya. In addition to traditional bio-economic profit model, a risk-rated model was used to derive risk-rated economic values. This model accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and variance of input and output prices. Positive economic values obtained...... for traits DP, LWg, LWs, PoSR, PrSR, SoSR and TNB indicate that targeting them in improvement would positively impact profitability in pig breeding programmes. Accounting for risks in the EVs did not yield errors greater than ±50%. Therefore both traditional and risk-rated models can be satisfactorily used...

  13. Social and economic value of Portuguese community pharmacies in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Jorge; Ferreira, Diana; Afonso-Silva, Marta; Gomes, Marta Vargas; Ferreira, César; Vandewalle, Björn; Marques, Sara; Mota, Melina; Costa, Suzete; Cary, Maria; Teixeira, Inês; Paulino, Ema; Macedo, Bruno; Barbosa, Carlos Maurício

    2017-08-29

    Community pharmacies are major contributors to health care systems across the world. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate community pharmacies services in health care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the social and economic benefits of current and potential future community pharmacies services provided by pharmacists in health care in Portugal. The social and economic value of community pharmacies services was estimated through a decision-model. Model inputs included effectiveness data, quality of life (QoL) and health resource consumption, obtained though literature review and adapted to Portuguese reality by an expert panel. The estimated economic value was the result of non-remunerated pharmaceutical services plus health resource consumption potentially avoided. Social and economic value of community pharmacies services derives from the comparison of two scenarios: "with service" versus "without service". It is estimated that current community pharmacies services in Portugal provide a gain in QoL of 8.3% and an economic value of 879.6 million euros (M€), including 342.1 M€ in non-remunerated pharmaceutical services and 448.1 M€ in avoided expense with health resource consumption. Potential future community pharmacies services may provide an additional increase of 6.9% in QoL and be associated with an economic value of 144.8 M€: 120.3 M€ in non-remunerated services and 24.5 M€ in potential savings with health resource consumption. Community pharmacies services provide considerable benefit in QoL and economic value. An increase range of services including a greater integration in primary and secondary care, among other transversal services, may add further social and economic value to the society.

  14. The economic value of the flow regulation environmental service in a Brazilian urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Guilherme F.; de Souza, Verônica B. F. S.; Moraes, Natália V.

    2017-11-01

    Urban flood management have often focused either on the capacity expansion of drainage systems or on artificial detention storage. While flood control should take part early on urban planning, not enough is known to guide such plans and provide incentive to land use decisions that minimize the vulnerability to localized floods. In this paper, we offer a broader perspective on flood protection, by treating the original hydrologic flow regulation as an environmental service, and exploring how the value of this environmental service drives economic land use decisions that convert original (permeable) land into urbanized (impermeable). We investigate the relationship between land use decisions and their hydrologic consequences explicitly, and use this relationship to simulate resulting land use scenarios depending on the value attached to the environmental service of flow regulation. Rainfall-runoff simulation model results are combined to an optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming approach to model economic land use decisions. The objective function maximizes the total expected land use benefit in an urban area, considering the opportunity cost of permeable areas in the first stage and the resulting loss of the environmental service of flow regulation on the second stage, under several probable hydrological events. A watershed in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is used to demonstrate the approach. Different values attached to the environmental service were tested, from zero to higher than the opportunity cost of land, and artificial detention infrastructure was included to calculate the resulting land use change and the loss in the environmental service value. Results indicate that by valuing the environmental service loss and discounting it from the economic benefits of land use, alternative solutions to land use are found, with decreased peak flows and lower flood frequency. Combined solutions including structural and non

  15. Protecting high value assets in transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennefoss, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the most daunting tasks facing a security manager is how to protect classified or high value assets such as nuclear materials in transit, especially when the shipment is to be handled by a commercial carrier. There are many opportunities for an adversary to gain access to cargo shipments en route, including situations in which the cargo must be held in storage for weeks or even months. Standard commercial alarm systems are not suitable for use in containers subject to vibration or high and low temperature extremes, or situations in which national assets might be used to gain surreptitious access to the container and to defeat the alarm system. A new alarm monitoring system has been developed to provide a secure auditing system for use in rail cars, Conex containers, and other transportable containers. The system, referred to as the PEL-100, electronically supervises intrusion detection sensors mounted on or within a container, and records all intrusion attempts in a secure, solid state memory storage device. The security archive can be withdrawn and reviewed after the container has completed its travels, and will provide a complete audit trail of intrusion attempts in transit. The PEL-100 includes one of the most comprehensive security tamper systems ever fielded, and is intended to operate reliably and securely in an environment subject to vibration, EMI/RFI emissions, electronic spoofing, and physical manipulation. The unit provides a clear and unambiguous indication of tampering and includes a comprehensive internal security system to detect insider tampering

  16. Economic values for milk production and quality traits in south and southeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY, protein (PY and fat productions (FY and somatic cell count (SCC which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$ for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.

  17. The economic value of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil Costa, Marcos; Pires, Gabrielle; Fontes, Vitor; Brumatti, Livia

    2017-04-01

    The rainy Amazon climate allowed important activities to develop in the region as large rainfed agricultural lands and hydropower plants. The Amazon rainforest is an important source of moisture to the regional atmosphere and helps regulate the local climate. The replacement of forest by agricultural lands decreases the flux of water vapor into the atmosphere and changes the precipitation patterns, which may severely affect such economic activities. Assign an economic value to this ecosystem service may emphasize the significance to preserve the Amazon rainforest. In this work, we provide a first approximation of the quantification of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest using the marginal production method. We use climate scenarios derived from Amazon deforestation scenarios as input to crop and runoff models to assess how land use change would affect agriculture and hydropower generation. The effects of forest removal on soybean production and on cattle beef production can both be as high as US 16 per year per ha deforested, and the effects on hydropower generation can be as high as US 8 per year per ha deforested. We consider this as a conservative estimate of a permanent service provided by the rainforest. Policy makers and other Amazon agriculture and energy businesses must be aware of these numbers, and consider them while planning their activities.

  18. Economic values for growth and grade changes of sugar maple in the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Joseph J. Mendel

    1978-01-01

    Current and expected rates of value increase over a 10-year period were developed for sawtimber-size sugar maple based on variable growth rates, expected merchantable height changes, and butt log grade improvement. These economic guides, along with silvicultural considerations, provide a value basis for selecting trees during thinning and determining final harvest...

  19. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a

  20. Determining the disaggregated economic value of irrigation water in the Musi sub-basin in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Davidson, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the residual method is used to determine the disaggregated economic value of irrigation water used in agriculture across crops, zones and seasons. This method relies on the belief that the value of a good (its price by its quantity) is equal to the summation of the quantity of each

  1. Does Bilingualism Have an Economic Value in the Ethnically Mixed Regions of Slovenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, David; Novak Lukanovic, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers whether bilingualism has an economic value in Slovenia's two ethnically mixed regions, or whether its value is more related to identity, and restricted primarily to the personal, educational and cultural spheres. Specifically, it asks whether bilingualism is rewarded on the labour market and what local people think about this…

  2. Attitudes and value orientations of high school students in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoman Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of attitudes and value orientations of high school students comes as the result of research based on data collected during April-June 2011 in six towns in Serbia. The main objective of this research was to detect the dominant attitudes and value orientations of high school students on a scale of traditionalism, homophobia, anti-Romism, ethnic stereotypes and attitudes toward abortion. The research was conducted in the following cities: Belgrade, Krusevac, Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Nis and Novi Pazar. The results showed that high school students in Serbia in regards to their beliefs do not differ much from the general social climate in which they grew up and were educated in. Traditional respondents are represented at the level of 33.9%; 27.9% of them are moderately traditional and 25% of them are non-traditional. On the one side there are extremely radical position of high school students especially in relation to Roma and LGBT people. On the other side, certain number of respondents howed high affinity and positive individual interprets of the lifestyles of those groups (such as the rights of marriage for homosexual population. Attitudes towards women's rights are also bipolar - high school students have a patriarchal attitude towards marriage, family and abortion, but they show sensitivity to the issue of domestic violence. The obtained data should be interpreted in accordance with the changes in Serbian society - economic crisis, privatization, increase of violence in society and family, redefining of gender roles, etc.

  3. Better off Dead: “Value Added” in Economic Policy Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Tombe

    2015-03-01

    -added jobs is to say it creates no income, which is plainly false. If replacing “income” for “value added” leads a claim to not make sense, then it is likely false and the politician or commentator should be dismissed. Disturbingly, this mixed-up thinking matters a lot for the health of Canada’s economy. Public policy often favours supposedly high value-added industries at the expense of others through subsidies or other supports. Instead of creating value, when governments favour one sector over another they invariably hurt the economy by distorting the allocation of labour and capital, which lowers Canada’s overall GDP. This is true for any subsidy made on the basis of “value added” – subsidizing resource extraction would also be economically damaging. There may be other reasons to provide industry supports – but value added is never one of them. Canada’s economy, and everyone in it, would be better off if politicians and public commentators put the phrase “value added” to rest.

  4. Economic Value Creation in Metro Complexes: Case Study on Sadr Station Complex in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is economic value creation methods in metro station centers with the case study of Sadr Station complex in Tehran. The research implements a descriptive approach by benefiting from the data of a cross-sectional survey which was collected by the authors. The target population included all scholars of urban development and transport academics, capitalists and directors of the station complex with the total number of 1,100 people. By using a random sampling, 285 people were surveyed with a 25-item questionnaire developed by the researchers. The results suggest priority of value creation respectively in areas of collaborative, competitive, private, governmental, and personal. The test results also showed that among the components of economic value creation (corporate, individual, competitive, governmental and private, the observed correlation was significant. According to the obtained results, development of economic value creation in station centers seems necessary.

  5. [Ecosystem service value and its aplication in evaluation of eco-economic harmonious development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-zhai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2007-11-01

    Based on the data of land use/cover and by using eco-economic harmony index (EEH) this paper studied the spatiotemporal characteristics of ecosystem service value on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains, and evaluated the harmony degree of eco-economic development in the region. The results showed that the total ecosystem service value on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains was increased from 319.93 x 10(8) yuan in 1989 to 321.26 x 10(8) yuan in 2000, with a net increment of 0.42%. The regional eco-economic development was overall at a low harmony level, being higher in eastern part than in middle and western parts, among which, eight counties had a positive value of EEH and their eco-economic development was harmonious, while seven counties had a negative value of EEH and their eco-economic development was inharmonic. The eco-economic development in the region was at the margin of harmony, and thus, more attention should be paid to strengthen the protection of eco-environment and promote the harmonious development of eco-economy to have a sustainable development.

  6. Economic values for production traits for different sheep breeds in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hysen Bytyqi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.

  7. Political-economic values and the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Miller, Dale T

    2007-02-01

    Values concerning the distribution of wealth are an important aspect of identity for many Americans, and such values may therefore influence how Americans experience their own socioeconomic status (SES). Based on this proposition, the present research examines political-economic values as a moderator of the relationship between SES and self-esteem. Results supported the hypothesis that there is a stronger relationship between SES and self-esteem among individuals who report relatively inegalitarian values than among individuals who report relatively egalitarian values. This result was replicated using both objective and subjective measures of SES. Implications of the present findings for the study of values and well-being, psychological conflict, and the influence of economic factors on self-esteem are discussed.

  8. Transforming a low value coastal area into a high value natural and recreational area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal zone in the Netherlands takes a very peculiar place in the discussion about sustainability in the Netherlands. Large areas are left unused and they remain low cost value areas due to the lack of progressive decision-making. These areas have a low value in economic, recreational and

  9. National cultural values: reflections on the formation process of future leaders in international economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA NIKOLIC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards foreign investments in Serbia has been in rapid progress in recent years. The biggest and most valuable numbers of investments are coming from Italy. The authors’ expectation is that the trend of Italian investments in future will continue; therefore it is of high importance for the representatives of both countries’ business sectors to understand and accept differences and similarities to the other country’s business culture. Research of cultural differences between two nations , which are considered like a frame of business culture, helps avoiding possible misunderstandings and improving business cooperation between two countries. Having in mind students of economics and management, on one hand like future leaders of Italian and Serbian business and on other like representatives of the current education value system in the field of economics and management, this study consists of an application of the 7-D Hofstede Model. The application of the model takes place through the administration of two surveys done by students of Serbian Megatrend University, in Belgrade, and Italian Università degli Studi Gabriele d’Annunzio, in Pescara.

  10. PENILAIAN KINERJA KEUANGAN PT. BANK MUAMALAT INDONESIA, TBK DENGAN METODE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia Ahya Nur Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the financial performance with the use of the EVA method to the assessment of the performance of PT Bank Mualamat Indonesia Tbk in the period 2010 - 2014. The research method used is quantitative descriptive method using Economic Value Added (EVA, which is an analytical method for evaluating the performance a company to take measurements of the profits (value economically produced by the company during the period (period of time specific. The results show the value of Bank Muamalat EVA is negative, meaning that Bank Muamalat in the year 2010- 2014 can not create value-added enterprise or net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT produced by the company is not able to finance or cover all capital costs or expenses incurred. In 2014 the value of EVA Bank Muamalat increasing, although still negative.

  11. Risk-premia, Carry-trade Dynamics, and Economic Value of Currency Speculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the dynamics and assess the economic value of currency speculation by formalizing the concept of a trader inaction range. We show that exchange rate returns comprise a time-varying risk-premium and that uncovered interest parity (UIP) holds in a speculative sense. The often......-cited ‘forward bias puzzle’ originates from the omission of the risk-premium in standard UIP tests. Consistent with its popularity among market professionals, the carry-trade strategy can be rationalized as it systematically collects risk-premia, however, the economic value generated by bilateral carry-trades...

  12. Vrednotne pasti gospodarske tranzicije v Sloveniji = Social and Values Traps of Economic Transition in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Kosec Zorko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition is very unpredictable because of several value changesamong macro-social alterations which are reflected in public opinionvariability, based on the increment of dissatisfaction with new employmentpolicies, relationship with capital(ists and occurrence of socialdiscrepancies. Because of lack of knowledge or interest in politicalparticipation people have mainly described transition as corruptionand political revenge; in public opinion, culprits for the new situationarose from corporate management and the political elite. Nevertheless,with political-economic changes and the era of transition, the cancer cells of socialism-planning macroeconomics are emphasized,as also other economic and value traps which society has never beenprepared for.

  13. Estimating the Total Economic Value of Cultivated Flower Land in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Huang Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many arable land areas have been converted to residential or business uses by Taiwan government authorities, because the low farmland value is associated with the low value of agricultural products. However, agriculture is multifunctional. This study investigates farmland value through Total Economic Value (TEV for Tianwei Township, which is Taiwan’s largest floral farmland region. Direct use value measures the floral products’ output value and recreational benefit. Recreational benefit from visitors’ flower sightseeing was measured by the travel cost method (TCM. Option value and non-use value, including bequest value and existence value, measure the residents’ willingness to pay through the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM. The results show that the total floral products’ output is NT$1.441 billion in 2007, recreational benefit is roughly NT$17.757 billion. The intangible value of option value and non-use values are approximately between NT$5 million to 15 million. Therefore, ignoring various values of farmland might lead to an underestimation of farmland value.

  14. Enhancing High Value Care in Gastroenterology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Katzka, David A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this review is to identify common areas in gastroenterology practice where studies performed provide an opportunity for enhancing value or lowering costs. We provide examples of topics in gastroenterology where clinicians could enhance value by either using less invasive testing, choosing a single best test, or by using patient symptoms to guide additional testing. The topics selected for review are selected in esophageal, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer; functional gastrointestinal diseases (irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth, constipation); immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases; and pancreaticobiliary pathology. We propose guidance to alter practice based on current evidence. These studies support the need to review current practice and to continue performing research to further validate the proposed guidance to enhance value of care in gastroenterology and hepatology. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ANALISIS PENGARUH ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA DAN RASIO KEUANGAN TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Sri Hariani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the simultaneous impact and partial impact of financial ratios (ROA, ROE, EPS and Economic Value-Added (EVA on stock return. One of the four independent variables, that is EVA, are new concepts for measuring financial performance. Explanatory method was used in this research, and the sample was collected using purposive sampling method from Jakarta Islamic Index listed in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI, Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2005 - 2007. Multiple linear regression was used for the analysis in this research.The result of the analysis shows that all independent variables, that is Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, Earnings per Share (EPS and EVA have both simultaneous and partial impact on the dependent variable, that is stock return. An interesting finding is that the regression coefficients are different among the variables. ROE and EPS were found to have positive and significant impact on dependent variable while EVA and ROA were found to have negative and significant impact on dependent variable. A positive value for ROE means that the ROE variable can be taken as a measure for a company’s effectivity in utilizing equity in the effort to gain profit. While EPS was found to have the most dominant impact on stock price. The higher the EPS, the greater management’s success in gaining profit for the shareholder or investors. ROA was found to have negative and significant. A finding of this research which is contrary to previous research is that economic value added (EVA was found to have negative and significant impact on stock price. However this finding can be explained as follows: first, the average debt in the companies in the sample is greater than the value of their equity so that EVA will increase due to the reduction in WACC. The increase in EVA is accompanied by a reduction in stock return. Second, positive EVA is not accompanied by any increase of stock performance in the market; and

  16. Buddhist values as a potential economic determinant in the development of Tuvan society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna S. Tarbastaeva

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article actualizes the study of the influence of Buddhist values on the socio-economic development of Tuvan society. Research on economic success in contemporary world has supported the link between Buddhism and economy. After the spread of Buddhism in the West in the middle of the 20th century, ancient knowledge and practices became available to the urbanized population. Foreign researchers drew attention to their actual potential when conducting financial and industrial activities. Among Western economists, the cornerstone of the idea was laid by E. Schumacher, who published "Small is fine: an economy in which people matter" (1973. Among Asian researchers, an important contribution was made by a Thai monk and philosopher P. Paiotto. As these and other studies show, Buddhism does not encourage poverty, nor call for a rejection of material wealth. It is incorrect to interpret it as an ascetic religion. Buddhist texts contain direct indications concerning the way of earning money and the meaning of well-being. Modern teachers also give advice to laypeople about economic activity. Although in Buddhism practitioners strive, first of all, for spiritual goals —such as liberation from suffering or achieving Buddhahood, laymen are included in social life and have to provide for themselves and their family, which the religious teaching has to account for. Buddhists believe that wealth cannot bring true happiness. Therefore, for a practicing layman, achieving a high level of material well-being is not a life goal. The article presents a summary of the conclusions contemporary economists, psychologists and neurobiologists arrive at, confirming that the empirical correlation between the increase in incomes and happiness is insignificant. Some examples of how Buddhist values help entrepreneurs are also provided. For instance, as a result of faith in the law of karma, there is a greater degree of honesty in business interaction, and a long

  17. The added value of coaching compared to a friendly discussion: Insight from behavioral economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Psiloutsikou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper addresses a criticism of coaching that is rather overlooked in the respective literature but highly discussed among clients. It is often claimed that coaching is nothing more than a chat among friends or colleagues and has, therefore, no added value for a potential customer. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on the respective interdisciplinary literature to identify limitations and biases that are present in general discussions with friends or colleagues but professional coaches should be trained to overcome. Findings – Questions and discussion are indeed at the core of a coaching session, thus bearing much resemblance to a friendly chat. However, the resemblance is superficial. In this paper ten main differences between a coaching session and a discussion with a non-expert are found and analyzed. They are grouped into three categories: Biases, Heuristics and Personal Limitations. Research limitations/implications – Further research will be needed to test empirically the use of input from behavioural economics as a basis for coaching and also to enrich it with additional factors. Moreover, practitioners can use the proposed factors to increase their effectiveness as well as to create a unique selling proposition for their business. Originality/value – The paper discusses specific skills and capabilities that a professional coach must have and provides significant implications for both researchers and practitioners.

  18. Added economic value of limited area multi-EPS weather forecasting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Deckmyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We compare the GLAMEPS system, a pan-European limited area ensemble prediction system, with ECMWF's EPS over Belgium for an extended period from March 2010 until the end of December 2010. In agreement with a previous study, we find GLAMEPS scores considerably better than ECMWF's EPS. To compute the economic value, we introduce a new relative economic value score for continuous forecasts. The added value of combining the GLAMEPS system with the LAEF system over Belgium is studied. We conclude that adding LAEF to GLAMEPS increases the value, although the increase is small compared to the improvement of GLAMEPS to ECMWF's EPS. As an added benefit we find that the combined GLAMEPS-LAEF multi-EPS system is more robust, that is, it is less vulnerable to the (accidental removal of one of its components.

  19. Economic Consequences of Fair Value Accounting and a Change in the Distribution Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Kochiyama, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the economic consequences of fair value accounting and a change in the distribution rule. In Japan, fair value accounting for financial instruments was mandated from 2001, and unrealized revaluation profits were to be included in income statements. As an institutional correspondence to the change in accounting standards, Japanese Commerce Law implemented the deduction of revaluation profits from distributable profits. However, from 2006, the Japanese Company Act changed...

  20. Markovian prediction of future values for food grains in the economic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, S.; Khadar Babu, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    Now-a-days prediction and forecasting are plays a vital role in research. For prediction, regression is useful to predict the future value and current value on production process. In this paper, we assume food grain production exhibit Markov chain dependency and time homogeneity. The economic generative performance evaluation the balance time artificial fertilization different level in Estrusdetection using a daily Markov chain model. Finally, Markov process prediction gives better performance compare with Regression model.

  1. World Heritage Listing of Australian Natural Sites: Tourism Stimulus and its Economic Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Wilson, Clevo

    2001-01-01

    Australia has 14 areas inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list, on the basis of their globally outstanding natural and in some cases also cultural values. Many regard listing as prestigious and believe that it acts as a signalling device like a brand name. But to what extent and in what ways does the extra prestige bestowed by this listing translate into increased economic value for listed properties? This article deals with two main aspects of World Heritage listing. First, examines the ...

  2. Measuring the Total Economic Value of State-Funded Higher Education in Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This is an evaluation of the statewide total economic value of state-funded higher education in Iowa. The analysis is based on Fiscal Year 2010 final budgeted values for Iowa's three Board of Regents universities and their teaching hospital, as well as the state's 15 community colleges. Final budget year data were obtained from the respective state universities' web sites, from the Board of Regents, and from the Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges, 2010, report published by the Iowa...

  3. Individual economical value of plutonium isotopes and analysis of the reprocessing of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.C.; Rubini, L.A.; Barroso, D.E.G.

    1983-01-01

    An economical analysis of plutonium recycle in a PWR reactor, without any modification, is done, supposing an open market for the plutonium. The individual value of the plutonium isotopes is determined solving a system with four equations, which the unknow factors are the Pu-239, Pu-240, pu-241 and Pu-242 values. The equations are obtained equalizing the cost of plutonium fuel cycle of four different isotope mixture to the cost of the uranium fuel cycle. (E.G.) [pt

  4. Integration of multiple determinants in the neuronal computation of economic values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, Anantha P; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo

    2014-08-27

    Economic goods may vary on multiple dimensions (determinants). A central conjecture in decision neuroscience is that choices between goods are made by comparing subjective values computed through the integration of all relevant determinants. Previous work identified three groups of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of monkeys engaged in economic choices: (1) offer value cells, which encode the value of individual offers; (2) chosen value cells, which encode the value of the chosen good; and (3) chosen juice cells, which encode the identity of the chosen good. In principle, these populations could be sufficient to generate a decision. Critically, previous work did not assess whether offer value cells (the putative input to the decision) indeed encode subjective values as opposed to physical properties of the goods, and/or whether offer value cells integrate multiple determinants. To address these issues, we recorded from the OFC while monkeys chose between risky outcomes. Confirming previous observations, three populations of neurons encoded the value of individual offers, the value of the chosen option, and the value-independent choice outcome. The activity of both offer value cells and chosen value cells encoded values defined by the integration of juice quantity and probability. Furthermore, both populations reflected the subjective risk attitude of the animals. We also found additional groups of neurons encoding the risk associated with a particular option, the risky nature of the chosen option, and whether the trial outcome was positive or negative. These results provide substantial support for the conjecture described above and for the involvement of OFC in good-based decisions. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3311583-21$15.00/0.

  5. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  6. Problematic aspects of the economic value added measure in environment of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EVA indicator has been constructed in the recent past as a reaction to requirements of the new economic environment. As the EVA indicator has been introduced by Stewart Stern & Co. in the early nineties, past two decades many economists have been discussing the pros and cons of EVA application as well as various adjustments needed to calculate some relevant result. A range of attitudes to the adjustments to accounting data towards economic data exist there. As the indicator of economic value added is considered to be a criterion of company’s real economic performance it is necessary to be very careful at applying encouraged adjustments. In this article, the authors compare and discuss these adjustments advised in order to reach some ideal number. Accounting differences of US GAAP, IFRS and Czech Accounting Standards are taken into consideration.

  7. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  8. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  9. THE ECONOMIC FARM SIZE AND SUSTAINABLE VALUE DISPARITIES BETWEEN ROMANIA AND THE EU STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania is one of the EU countries with significant agricultural potential. The economic and social changes occurring after 1990 has profoundly affected the agriculture in Romania. The excessive land fragmentation due to land restitution to the former owners and their heirs, as well as the subsequent developments have led to a large number of small-sized agricultural holdings and a small number of large agricultural holdings, in terms of size and economy. The sustainability performance must be assessed from the economic, social and environmental points of view. The paper aims to assess the sustainable performance of the agricultural holdings in Romania on economic size classes, to highlight the directions for enhancing the performance by reorganizing the agricultural structures. For achieving this purpose, we used the Sustainable Value-based approach. The results of comparison between Romania and other EU countries highlight the importance of medium-sized farms, which achieve the best performance expressed by the Sustainable Value.

  10. Bigger is Better, but at What Cost? Estimating the Economic Value of Incremental Data Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, Brian; Perlich, Claudia; Raeder, Troy

    2014-06-01

    Many firms depend on third-party vendors to supply data for commercial predictive modeling applications. An issue that has received very little attention in the prior research literature is the estimation of a fair price for purchased data. In this work we present a methodology for estimating the economic value of adding incremental data to predictive modeling applications and present two cases studies. The methodology starts with estimating the effect that incremental data has on model performance in terms of common classification evaluation metrics. This effect is then translated into economic units, which gives an expected economic value that the firm might realize with the acquisition of a particular data asset. With this estimate a firm can then set a data acquisition price that targets a particular return on investment. This article presents the methodology in full detail and illustrates it in the context of two marketing case studies.

  11. The Economic Value of Fundamental and Technical Information in Emerging Currency Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); T.D. Markwat (Thijs); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe measure the economic value of information derived from macroeconomic variables and from technical trading rules for emerging markets currency investments. Our analysis is based on a sample of 21 emerging markets with a floating exchange rate regime over the period 1997-2007 and

  12. An economic analysis of the value of trade preferences on tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An economic analysis of the value of trade preferences on tobacco, tea and suguar sectors to Malawi. J H Mangisoni. Abstract. No Abstracts Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development Vol. 21 (1) 2005: pp. 1-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. Analysing global value chains using input-output economics : proceed with care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Z.O.; Verspagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Input-output economics has become a popular tool to analyse the international fragmentation of value chains, especially now that several multi-regional tables that cover large parts of the global economy have become available. It has been argued that these tables, when analysed with the help of the

  14. Analysing global value chains using input-output economics: Proceed with care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Ö.; Verspagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Input-output economics has become a popular tool to analyse the international fragmentation of value chains, especially now that several multi-regional tables that cover large parts of the global economy have become available. It has been argued that these tables, when analysed with the help of the

  15. Role of nonmarket economic values in benefit-cost analysis of public forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindy Sorg Swanson; John B. Loomis

    1996-01-01

    Recreation in the Pacific Northwest is a valuable resource. A method is described that translates recreation on USDA Forest Service and U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management lands in northern California, western Oregon, and western Washington into economic value. By assigning recreation to land use type (using the Forest Service recreation opportunity...

  16. The Role of Values in Economic Development: Why Tanzania is Not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic performance depends on people and their values, which involves questions about the nature of virtue, goodness, and duty. The law of supply and demand encompasses production and consumer preference based on rational behaviour in order to maximize utility. Enabling one to obtain what one wants with ...

  17. Measuring the Economic Value of Two Habitat Defragmentation Policy Scenarios for the Veluwe, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der C.M.; Bergh, van den J.C.J.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Nunes, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers an economic value assessment of a nature protection programme in the Veluwe. This programme involves two defragmentation scenarios: the first scenario connects the central part of the Veluwe with the IJssel river forelands in a north-eastern direction, while the second scenario is

  18. Changes in the value chain of scientific information: economic consequences for academic institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the

  19. Value chain analysis of CO2 storage by using the Ecco tool: Storage economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Bos, C.; Chitu, A.; Loveseth, S.; Wahl, P.E.; Coussy, P.; Eickhoff, C.

    2013-01-01

    The ECCO Tool [1, 2] has been developed in the “ECCO – European value chain for CO2” project [3]. ECCO was a collaborating project under the 7th framework programme for research of the EU. The ECCO Tool is a software program designed to evaluate quantitatively the post-tax economics of Carbon

  20. Selected Findings from What's It Worth? The Economic Value of College Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Strohl, Jeff; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    These Selected Findings are part of a larger report: "What's It Worth?: The Economic Value of College Majors." In the full report, readers can find detailed information about earnings, broken down by 171 different undergraduate majors and a variety of demographic factors. The study also analyzes the likelihood that students in specific majors…

  1. The Total Economic Value of Sport Tourism in Belt and Road Development—An Environmental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chu Yeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of the belt and road region leads cities to significantly increase the amount of public expenditure on the new construction of facilities and infrastructure. Mass construction not only relies on many environmental resources, but might also destroy the local natural environment. In order to reveal the importance of the natural environment, this study explores the economic value of the natural landscape for sport tourism in Taiwan. While the concept of total economic value (TEV is applied to the Sun–Moon Lake Swimming Carnival Event, the travel cost method (TCM is adopted to estimate the use value for participants, and the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM and survival analysis are performed to evaluate the non-use value for the residents. The use value is on average NT$ 5668 for one participant. The median willingness to pay for the option value, existence value and bequest value of every resident is NT$433, NT$411 and NT$274, respectively.

  2. The Context and Values Inherent in Human Capital as Core Principles for New Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has a specific focus on the core foundation of New Economic Theory. That is, the focus on human capital and its implications for the theory and method of the new form of political economy. The central issue that is underlined is the importance of scientific and technological innovation and its necessary interdependence on global values and value analysis. The paper discusses the issue of scientific consciousness as a generator of technological value, and places scientific process at the heart of human consciousness. It discusses the complex interdependence of human relational subjectivity, scientific consciousness, and modern science. The paper draws attention to the problems of observation and participation, and the influence of modern quantum physics in drawing attention to aspects of human consciousness that go beyond the points of conventional science, and open up concern for the principle of non-locality. It explores human subjectivity in terms of the way in which “emotionalized behaviors” have effects on scientific objectivity. It also briefly touches on consciousness and its observable scientific role in the possible reconstruction of some aspects of reality. Mention is made of the Copenhagen perspective, the Many Worlds perspective, and the Penrose interpretation. These insights challenge us to explore human consciousness and innovation in economic organization. The discussion also brings in the principle of relational inter-subjectivity, emotion, and consciousness as a potential driver of human capital and value. In short, positive emotions can influence economic decision-making, as can negative emotions. These challenges stress the problem of human relational subjectivity, values, and technology as the tools to better understand the conflicts and potentials of human capital for New Economic Theory. The issue of value-analysis has both a descriptive and normative dimension. Both of these aspects raise important challenges

  3. Wise Choices? The Economics Discourse of a High School Economics and Personal Finance Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Tamara Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Today's high school students will face a host of economic problems such as the demise of the social safety net, mounting college student debt, and costly health care plans, as stated in the rationale for financial literacy provided by the Council for Economic Education's National Standards for Financial Literacy. These problems are compounded by…

  4. Revealing the economic value of managed aquifer recharge: Evidence from a contingent valuation study in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damigos, D.; Tentes, G.; Balzarini, M.; Furlanis, F.; Vianello, A.

    2017-08-01

    Managed aquifer recharge [MAR) is a promising water management tool toward restoring groundwater balance and securing groundwater ecosystem services (i.e., water for drinking, industrial or irrigation use, control of land subsidence, maintenance of environmental flows to groundwater dependent ecosystems, etc.). Obviously, MAR projects can improve the quality of lives of the people by several ways. Thus, from a social perspective, the benefits of MAR cannot and should not be based only on market revenues or costs. Although the value of groundwater, from a social perspective, has been a subject of socio-economic research, literature on the value of MAR per se is very limited. This paper, focusing on Italy which is a country with extensive utilization of MAR, aims to estimate the economic value of MAR and makes a first step toward filling this gap in the literature. For this purpose, the Contingent Valuation method was implemented to provide a monetary estimate and to explore the factors influencing people's attitude and willingness to pay for MAR. The results show that society holds not only use but also significant nonuse values, which are a part of the total economic value (TEV) of groundwater according to related research efforts. To this end, MAR valuation highlights its social importance for groundwater conservation and provides a solid basis for incorporating its nonmarket benefits into groundwater management policies and assessments.

  5. Aquacultural and socio-economic aspects of processing carps into some value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, H S; Sehgal, G K

    2002-05-01

    Carps are the mainstay of Indian aquaculture, contributing over 90% to the total fish production, which was estimated to be 1.77 million metric tonnes in 1996. Carp culture has a great potential for waste utilization and thus for pollution abatement. Many wastes such as cow, poultry, pig, duck, goat, and sheep excreta, biogas slurry, effluents from different kinds of factories/industries have been efficiently used for enhancing the productivity of natural food of carps and related species. Besides, several organic wastes/byproducts such as plant products, wastes from animal husbandry, and industrial by-products have been used as carp feed ingredients to lower the cost of supplementary feeding. However, to ensure the continued expansion of fish ponds and the pollution control, there must be a market for the fish (carps) produced in these ponds. The carps have, however, a low market value due to the presence of intra-muscular bones, which reduces their consumer acceptability. Thus, a need was felt to develop some boneless convenience products for enhancing the consumer acceptability of the carps. Efforts were made to prepare three value-added fish products, namely fish patty, fish finger and fish salad from carp flesh and were compared with a reference product ('fish pakoura'). Sensory evaluation of these products gave highly encouraging results. The methods of preparation of these products were transferred to some progressive farmers of the region who prepared and sold these products at very attractive prices. Carp processing has a great potential for the establishment of a fish ancillary industry and thus for boosting the production of these species. In Punjab alone, there is a potential of consuming 32,448 metric tonnes per annum of such value-added products (which would require 54,080 metric tonnes of raw fish). The development of value-added products has a significant role in raising the socio-economic status of the people associated with carp culture. The

  6. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoltak, M.J.; Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Holland, R.W.

    2018-01-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that

  7. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltak, Michael J; Veling, Harm; Chen, Zhang; Holland, Rob W

    2018-05-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that choices for food items can be increased by training attention toward these items, with a paradigm named cued-approach training (CAT). However, previous work till now has only examined the influence of CAT on choices between two equally valued items. It has remained unclear whether CAT can increase choices for low value items when people choose between a low and high value food item. To address this question in the current study participants were cued to make rapid responses in CAT to certain low and high value items. Next, they made binary choices between low and high value items, where we systematically varied whether the low and high value items were cued or uncued. In two experiments, we found that participants overall preferred high over low value food items for real consumption. More important, their choices for low value items increased when only the low value item had been cued in CAT compared to when both low and high value items had not been cued. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for participants with a relatively small value difference between low and high value items. The present research thus suggests that CAT may be used to boost the choice and consumption of low value items via enhanced attention toward these items, as long as the value difference is not too large. Implications for facilitating choices for healthy food are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous modeling of visual saliency and value computation improves predictions of economic choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towal, R Blythe; Mormann, Milica; Koch, Christof

    2013-10-01

    Many decisions we make require visually identifying and evaluating numerous alternatives quickly. These usually vary in reward, or value, and in low-level visual properties, such as saliency. Both saliency and value influence the final decision. In particular, saliency affects fixation locations and durations, which are predictive of choices. However, it is unknown how saliency propagates to the final decision. Moreover, the relative influence of saliency and value is unclear. Here we address these questions with an integrated model that combines a perceptual decision process about where and when to look with an economic decision process about what to choose. The perceptual decision process is modeled as a drift-diffusion model (DDM) process for each alternative. Using psychophysical data from a multiple-alternative, forced-choice task, in which subjects have to pick one food item from a crowded display via eye movements, we test four models where each DDM process is driven by (i) saliency or (ii) value alone or (iii) an additive or (iv) a multiplicative combination of both. We find that models including both saliency and value weighted in a one-third to two-thirds ratio (saliency-to-value) significantly outperform models based on either quantity alone. These eye fixation patterns modulate an economic decision process, also described as a DDM process driven by value. Our combined model quantitatively explains fixation patterns and choices with similar or better accuracy than previous models, suggesting that visual saliency has a smaller, but significant, influence than value and that saliency affects choices indirectly through perceptual decisions that modulate economic decisions.

  9. Economic Value of the Carbon Sink Services of Tropical Secondary Forests and Its Management Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, O.A.; Carpio, C.E.; Ortiz, R.; Finnegan, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the economic feasibility of secondary forest regeneration and conservation as an alternative in the campaign addressing the problem of global warming. Detailed measurements of tropical secondary forests over time, in different ecological zones of Costa Rica, are used to evaluate carbon storage models. The paper addresses key issues in the international discussion about cross- and within-country compensation for carbon storage services and illustrates a method to compute/predict their economic value over time under a variety of scenarios. The procedure is applicable to other developing countries where secondary forest growth is increasingly important

  10. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced...... changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural...

  11. THE FACTORIAL ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA WITHIN A COMPANY FROM THE ROMANIAN SEASIDE HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-ANDREEA TRANDAFIR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aimed to show that the only indicator that can provide solutions at the operational level of a company is the economic value added. That is why we focused on the factorial analysis of this indicator, trying to highlight the influences that the economic value added determinants had on value destruction in the analysed company.

  12. Work Values, Early Career Difficulties, and the U.S. Economic Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Sage, Rayna Amber; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examine how work difficulties in the early career, and the generally deteriorating work conditions associated with the recent U.S. economic recession, shape individuals’ work values. Drawing on panel data from the Youth Development Study, we test whether individuals change their work values in response to concerns about satisfying material needs or the features of jobs that they are able to attain. Results indicate that extrinsic values are weakened in the face of unemployment, as well as reduced job security, income, and advancement. These patterns support a reinforcement and accentuation model in which workers adjust their values to emphasize what they actually obtain from the job. Intrinsic values are weakened by working in a job unrelated to one’s career plans; they are reinforced by the experience of greater intrinsic rewards and advancement opportunities. PMID:23503050

  13. The economic viability of value-based food chain for dairy farms in mountain regions: an econometric analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prišenk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.

  14. Economic feasibility of the sugar beet-to-ethylene value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Jeroen; Biesheuvel, Kees; De Kok, Ad; Pelt, Henk; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Spork, Ger; Tange, Jan; Wevers, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    As part of a long-term strategy toward renewable feedstock, a feasibility study into options for the production of bioethylene by integrating the sugar beet-to-ethanol-to-ethylene value chain. Seven business cases were studied and tested for actual economic feasibility of alternative sugar-to-ethanol-to-ethylene routes in comparison to fossil-fuel alternatives. An elaborate model was developed to assess the relevant operational and financial aspects of each business case. The calculations indicate that bioethylene from sugar beet is not commercially viable under current market conditions. In light of expected global energy and feedstock prices it is also reasonable to expect that this will not change in the near future. To consider biorenewable sources as starting material, they need to be low in cost (compared to sugar beets) and also require less capital and energy-intensive methods for the conversion to chemicals. In general, European sugar prices will be too high for many chemical applications. Future efforts for in sugar-to-chemicals routes should, therefore, focus on integrated process routes and process intensification and/or on products that contain a significant part of the original carbohydrate backbone. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Review of utility values for economic modeling in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Amélie; Clegg, John; Thuresson, Per-Olof; Lloyd, Adam; McEwan, Phil

    2014-06-01

    Economic analysis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires an assessment of the effect of a wide range of complications. The objective of this article was to identify a set of utility values consistent with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) reference case and to critically discuss and illustrate challenges in creating such a utility set. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies reporting utility values for relevant complications. The methodology of each study was assessed for consistency with the NICE reference case. A suggested set of utility values applicable to modeling was derived, giving preference to studies reporting multiple complications and correcting for comorbidity. The review considered 21 relevant diabetes complications. A total of 16,574 articles were identified; after screening, 61 articles were assessed for methodological quality. Nineteen articles met NICE criteria, reporting utility values for 20 of 21 relevant complications. For renal transplant, because no articles meeting NICE criteria were identified, two articles using other methodologies were included. Index value estimates for T2DM without complication ranged from 0.711 to 0.940. Utility decrement associated with complications ranged from 0.014 (minor hypoglycemia) to 0.28 (amputation). Limitations associated with the selection of a utility value for use in economic modeling included variability in patient recruitment, heterogeneity in statistical analysis, large variability around some point estimates, and lack of recent data. A reference set of utility values for T2DM and its complications in line with NICE requirements was identified. This research illustrates the challenges associated with systematically selecting utility data for economic evaluations. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. “PERFORMANCE TREND” AND “PERFORMANCE CURRENT” RATINGS BY ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU BOGEANU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Value Added (EVA is an index of “durable development.” It was proposed by the Stern-Stewart Office and represents the true economic profit of companies. A company reports economic profit only if thereported accounting profit is higher than the opportunity cost of equity. The authors of the EVA model (Stern-Stewart have also proposed the ways of restating the financial statements to get a “fair image” of the results, thuseliminating the “accounting distortions.”Based on the performance indexes calculated based on EVA and second-generation indexes relating toEVA, we calculated two types of rating: Rating Performance Current and Rating Performance Trend. The rating iscalculated by means of the percentiles technique and the results are split into 22 rating classes.The used database is Russell 3000.

  17. High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

  18. A Health Economics Approach to US Value Assessment Frameworks-Introduction: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter J; Willke, Richard J; Garrison, Louis P

    2018-02-01

    Concerns about rising spending on prescription drugs and other areas of health care have led to multiple initiatives in the United States designed to measure and communicate the value of pharmaceuticals and other technologies for decision making. In this section we introduce the work of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Special Task Force on US Value Assessment Frameworks formed to review relevant perspectives and appropriate approaches and methods to support the definition and use of high-quality value frameworks. The Special Task Force was part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Initiative on US Value Assessment Frameworks, which enlisted the expertise of leading health economists, concentrating on what the field of health economics can provide to help inform the development and use of value assessment frameworks. We focus on five value framework initiatives: the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. These entities differ in their missions, scope of activities, and methodological approaches. Because they are gaining visibility and some traction in the United States, it is essential to scrutinize whether the frameworks use approaches that are transparent as well as conceptually and methodologically sound. Our objectives were to describe the conceptual bases for value and its use in decision making, critically examine existing value frameworks, discuss the importance of sound conceptual underpinning, identify key elements of value relevant to specific decision contexts, and recommend good practice in value definition and implementation as well as areas for further research. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc

  19. The economic impact of reduced value added tax rates for groceries

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    Slavomíra Martinková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The value added tax represents one of the most important sources of state budget revenues of EU Member States. The basic value added tax rate is in the EU currently between 15% in Luxembourg to 27% applied in Hungary. The revenues from this tax represent an average of 17.5% of all tax revenues of EU countries and create an average GDP of 7.0% (year 2016, EU 28. As revenues from value added tax represent a stable income of state budget, the legislative changes in the system of value added tax, mainly its reductions as well as its imposition on groceries, can significantly influence further macroeconomic development. In the last year, the government of the Slovak Republic implemented changes in universal indirect taxing in such way that in addition to the standard value added tax rate of 20%, the Act No. 268/2015 on Value added tax adopted in 2016 a decreased value added tax rate of 10% on selected groceries, in order to support domestic producers and reduce the tax burden of low-income and middle-income groups. According to the European Commission (2007, the reduced rate of value added tax in selected cases has its justification and importance in the country's economy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic impact of the applied reduced value added tax on food in the Slovak Republic in the context of household expenditures and revenues of the state budget.

  20. Valuing Our Communities: Ethical Considerations for Economic Evaluation of Community-Based Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Max; Jones, Damon

    2017-12-01

    Restricted public budgets and increasing efforts to link the impact of community interventions to public savings have increased the use of economic evaluation. While this type of evaluation can be important for program planning, it also raises important ethical issues about how we value the time of local stakeholders who support community interventions. In particular, researchers navigate issues of scientific accuracy, institutional inequality, and research utility in their pursuit of even basic cost estimates. We provide an example of how we confronted these issues when estimating the costs of a large-scale community-based intervention. Principles for valuing community members' time and conducting economic evaluations of community programs are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  1. The economic value of flower tourism at the Namaqua National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I James

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The travel cost method was used to estimate the economic recreational value of flower viewing at the Namaqua National Park. Demographic, time, expenditure, preference and route information was collected from interviews with 160 SA nationals who visited the park in their own car.  Visitors spent an average of $US108 on transportation and $US84 on accommodation in the region. A zonal travel cost model was developed which suggests that the economic recreational value of flower viewing at the park makes to the region is far larger than the annual net loss of $US50 000 which the park makes when only the expenses and revenue of the park are considered.

  2. Microalgal cultivation for value-added products: a critical enviro-economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Pandey, Arya; Ahmad, Shamshad; Kumar, Ashwani; Pathak, Vinayak V; Tyagi, V V

    2017-08-01

    The present review focuses on the cultivation of algal biomass for generating value-added products (VAP) and to assess their economic benefits and harmful environmental impact. Additionally, the impact of bioreactor designs on the yield of microalgal biomass for VAP is also considered. All these factors are discussed in relation to the impact of microalgae production on the bio-economy sector of commercial biotechnology.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED AND CASH CONVERSION CYCLE IN COMPANIES LISTED ON THE WSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bolek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic Value Added (EVA a profitability measure and a Cash Conversion Cycle a liquidity and profitability measure are presented in this article. These ratios represent the dynamic approach to management of companies. The relationship between them may be considered as an advanced approach to management in a current economy based on intangible assets and know- how and capital allocated fast and efficient according to information common access.

  4. Economic Value Added as a Dependence on the Corporate- and Market-life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Zdeněk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic value added (EVA is an indicator which is widely used as the main tool for financial analysis. There are two methods of calculating it. The original method which was made by Stern & Stewart is defined as the net operating profit after taxes minus the cost of capital. The second method which was developed and used by the “Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade” indicates that, the economic value added is the difference between return on equity and the alternate cost of equity that is composed of separate risk rewards, and this “spread” is consequently multiplied by the equity. Economic value added depends on many factors. Whereas some of them are controllable by the company, others are not. This article is focused on the relationship between economic value added and the corporate- vs. market life cycle. This is because, there is an assumption that conditions for developing EVA changes depending on the actual phase of corporate- and market life cycle. In this research, the model by Reiners (2004 is used to identify the phases of corporate- and market life cycle and the method provided by the “Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade” is used to calculate EVA. However, there is a consideration of the relativity of EVA in the form of “spread” because of the intercompany comparison. The study found that, the highest spread is achieved by companies that are in the phase of expansion and phase of market expansion. On the contrary, companies in the phase of declension during market declension achieved the lowest and negative spread.

  5. On estimating the economic value of insectivorous bats: Prospects and priorities for biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Justin G.; Sole, Catherine L.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are among the most economically important nondomesticated mammals in the world. They are well-known pollinators and seed dispersers, but crop pest suppression is probably the most valuable ecosystem service provided by bats. Scientific literature and popular media often include reports of crop pests in the diet of bats and anecdotal or extrapolated estimates of how many insects are eaten by bats. However, quantitative estimates of the ecosystem services provided by bats in agricultural systems are rare, and the few estimates that are available are limited to a single cotton-dominated system in Texas. Despite the tremendous value for conservation and economic security of such information, surprisingly few scientific efforts have been dedicated to quantifying the economic value of bats. Here, we outline the types of information needed to better quantify the value of bats in agricultural ecosystems. Because of the complexity of the ecosystems involved, creative experimental design and innovative new methods will help advance our knowledge in this area. Experiments involving bats in agricultural systems may be needed sooner than later, before population declines associated with white-nose syndrome and wind turbines potentially render them impossible.

  6. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of extreme values of the economic efficiency indicators of transport infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytárová, J.; Vaňková, L.

    2017-10-01

    Paper builds on previous research of the authors into the evaluation of economic efficiency of transport infrastructure projects evaluated by the economic efficiency ratio - NPV, IRR and BCR. Values of indicators and subsequent outputs of the sensitivity analysis show extremely favourable values in some cases. The authors dealt with the analysis of these indicators down to the level of the input variables and examined which inputs have a larger share of these extreme values. NCF for the calculation of above mentioned ratios is created by benefits that arise as the difference between zero and investment options of the project (savings in travel and operating costs, savings in travel time costs, reduction in accident costs and savings in exogenous costs) as well as total agency costs. Savings in travel time costs which contribute to the overall utility of projects by more than 70% appear to be the most important benefits in the long term horizon. This is the reason why this benefit emphasized. The outcome of the article has resulted how the particular basic variables contributed to the total robustness of economic efficiency of these project.

  8. Application of Multi-level Grey Evaluation on Geological Tourism Resources’ Economic Values of Geopark: A Case Study of Huashan Geopark in Shaanxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xianjie

    2018-01-01

    Geo-park gives priority to geographical relic landscapes. It has not only rich geological touristic resources but also extraordinarily high values for economic development. Taking Huashan Geological Park as an example, the thesis systematically analyzes the characteristics of the geological touristic resources in this park. It applies the method of multilevel grey evaluation to establish the evaluation model for the economic values of the touristic resources in the geological park and presents detailed result of the assessment. The result concludes an excellent grade for the comprehensive evaluation of the economic values of Huashan geological touristic resources, reflecting the outstanding natural advantages of the park in geological resources. Moreover, in the single-item evaluations, the scientific evaluation ranks the highest in score, indicating that the geological touristic resources of the park have extraordinary geologically science-popularizing values as a significant condition for the development of scientific tours. It shows that the park is endowed with excellent prospects for economic development.

  9. A comparison of benefit and economic value between two sound therapy tinnitus management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Craig W; Sandridge, Sharon A

    2012-02-01

    Sound therapy coupled with appropriate counseling has gained widespread acceptance in the audiological management of tinnitus. For many years, ear level sound generators (SGs) have been used to provide masking relief and to promote tinnitus habituation. More recently, an alternative treatment device was introduced, the Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment (NTT), which employs spectrally-modified music in an acoustic desensitization approach in order to help patients overcome the disturbing consequences of tinnitus. It is unknown, however, if one treatment plan is more efficacious and cost-effective in comparison to the other. In today's economic climate, it has become critical that clinicians justify the value of tinnitus treatment devices in relation to observed benefit. To determine perceived benefit from, and economic value associated with, two forms of sound therapy, namely, SGs and NTT. Retrospective between-subject clinical study. A sample of convenience comprised of 56 patients drawn from the Tinnitus Management Clinic at the Cleveland Clinic participated. Twenty-three patients selected SGs, and 33 patients selected NTT as their preferred sound therapy treatment option. Sound therapy benefit was quantified using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). The questionnaire was administered before and 6 mo after initiation of tinnitus treatment. Prior to device fitting, all patients participated in a 1.5 hr group education session about tinnitus and its management. Economic value comparisons between sound therapy options were made using a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA). THI scores indicated a significant improvement (p 0.05) between the treatment alternatives at baseline or 6 mo postfitting. The magnitude of improvement for both SGs and NTT was dependent on initial perceived tinnitus handicap. Based on the CEA and CUA economic analyses alone, it appears that the SGs may be the more cost-effective alternative; however, the magnitude of

  10. Retro-Techno-Economic Analysis: Using (Bio)Process Systems Engineering Tools to Attain Process Target Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Felipe F.; Costa, Caliane B B; Secchi, Argimiro R.

    2016-01-01

    Economic analysis, allied to process systems engineering tools, can provide useful insights about process techno-economic feasibility. More interestingly, rather than being used to evaluate specific process conditions, this techno-economic analysis can be turned upside down to achieve target valu...

  11. Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia creeper rail trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; Joshua Gill

    2007-01-01

    Many communities are interested in developing and maintaining recreational trails to benefit trail users and as tourist attractions to stimulate economic growth. In this paper, a study is described which estimates the net economic value to trail users and the local economic impacts of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail in south-western Virginia, USA. The monetary...

  12. Neural correlates of economic value and valuation context: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson-Carr, John; Kokmotou, Katerina; Soto, Vicente; Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Giesbrecht, Timo; Stancak, Andrej

    2018-05-01

    The value of environmental cues and internal states is continuously evaluated by the human brain, and it is this subjective value that largely guides decision making. The present study aimed to investigate the initial value attribution process, specifically the spatiotemporal activation patterns associated with values and valuation context, using electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants completed a stimulus rating task in which everyday household items marketed up to a price of £4 were evaluated with respect to their desirability or material properties. The subjective values of items were evaluated as willingness to pay (WTP) in a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction. On the basis of the individual's subjective WTP values, the stimuli were divided into high- and low-value items. Source dipole modeling was applied to estimate the cortical sources underlying ERP components modulated by subjective values (high vs. low WTP) and the evaluation condition (value-relevant vs. value-irrelevant judgments). Low-WTP items and value-relevant judgments both led to a more pronounced N2 visual evoked potential at right frontal scalp electrodes. Source activity in right anterior insula and left orbitofrontal cortex was larger for low vs. high WTP at ∼200 ms. At a similar latency, source activity in right anterior insula and right parahippocampal gyrus was larger for value-relevant vs. value-irrelevant judgments. A stronger response for low- than high-value items in anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex appears to reflect aversion to low-valued item acquisition, which in an auction experiment would be perceived as a relative loss. This initial low-value bias occurs automatically irrespective of the valuation context. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate the spatiotemporal characteristics of the brain valuation process using event-related potentials and willingness to pay as a measure of subjective value. The N2 component resolves values of objects with a

  13. Health economics evidence for medical nutrition: are these interventions value for money in integrated care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Health care decision-makers have begun to realize that medical nutrition plays an important role in the delivery of care, and it needs to be seen as a sole category within the overall health care reimbursement system to establish the value for money. Indeed, improving health through improving patients' nutrition may contribute to the cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability of health care systems. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill either in Europe or in the United States, which offers specific legislations and guidelines (as provided to patients with special nutritional needs) and indications for nutritional support. Given that the efficacy of medical nutrition has been proven, one can wonder whether the heterogeneous nature of its coverage/reimbursement across countries might be due to the lack of health-related economic evidence or value-for-money of nutritional interventions. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by performing a systematic literature review on health economics evidence regarding medical nutrition, and by summarizing the results of these publications related to the value for money of medical nutrition interventions. A systematic literature search was initiated and executed based on a predefined search protocol following the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) criteria. Following the systematic literature search of recently published literature on health economics evidence regarding medical nutrition, this study aims to summarize the results of those publications that are related to the value for money of medical nutrition interventions. The evaluations were conducted by analyzing different medical nutrition according to their indications, the economic methodology or perspective adopted, the cost source and utility measures, selected efficiency measures, as well as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. A total of 225 abstracts were identified for the detailed review, and the data were

  14. Effects of incorporating environmental cost and risk aversion on economic values of pig breeding goal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B M; de Mey, Y; Bastiaansen, J W M; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2018-06-01

    Economic values (EVs) of traits, accounting for environmental impacts and risk preferences of farmers, are required to design breeding goals that contribute to both economic and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of incorporating environmental costs and the risk preferences of farmers on the EVs of pig breeding goal traits. A breeding goal consisting of both sow efficiency and production traits was defined for a typical Brazilian farrow-to-finish pig farm with 1,500 productive sows. A mean-variance utility function was employed for deriving the EVs at finishing pig level assuming fixed slaughter weight. The inclusion of risk and risk aversion reduces the economic weights of sow efficiency traits (17%) while increasing the importance of production traits (7%). For a risk-neutral producer, inclusion of environmental cost reduces the economic importance of sow efficiency traits (3%) while increasing the importance of production traits (1%). Genetic changes of breeding goal traits by their genetic standard deviations reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and excretions of nitrogen and phosphorus per finished pig by up to 6% while increasing farm profit. The estimated EVs could be used to improve selection criteria and thereby contribute to the sustainability of pig production systems. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The Net Present Value and Other Economic Implications of a Medical Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Uwe E

    2017-07-01

    College graduates' career choices are driven by a complex mixture of factors, one of which is economics. The author comments on the report by Marcu and colleagues in this issue, which focuses strictly on the economics of this decision. Specifically, Marcu and colleagues modeled career choices as long-term financial investments in human capital, which consists of the knowledge and clinical skills physicians gain in undergraduate and graduate medical education. They distill the numerous factors that shape the economics of career choice into a commonly used criterion for long-term financial investments of any kind-namely, the so-called net present value (NPV) of the investment. For them, that investment is the decision to pursue a medical career rather than the next best nonmedical, alternative career. This NPV calculation determines the increase or decrease in wealth, relative to that of the next best alternative career, that a college graduate is thought to experience as of the moment she or he enters medical school simply by choosing a medical career rather than the next best alternative. Marcu and colleagues use this human capital model to explore how different plans to finance a medical school education impact the NPV, all other parameters being equal. The author of this Commentary explains in layman's terms how the NPV is calculated and then raises a number of other issues concerning the economics of a medical career, including medical school tuition, residents' salaries, and investments in human capital as tax deductible.

  16. Impact of the Sugar Import Reduction on Iran Economic Value Added (Input- Output Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Hayatgheibi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at understanding interactions and linkages between the sugar sector with other economic sectors, and the influence of sugar import reduction on the economic value added. To achieve the purpose, the Input-Output table of Iran for the year 2006, Leontief inverse matrix and hypothetical extraction method were used. Based on the results, sugar industry has the most forward linkages with “Manufacture of food products and beverages,…”, “husbandry, aviculture,…”, “cultivation, horticulture”, “bakery products” and “restaurants”. This sector has also strong backward linkages with “cultivation, horticulture”, “chemicals and chemical products”, “other services”, “transport and telecommunication” and “financial services, insurance and bank”. Furthermore, either one unit increase in the final demand of sugar or one unit decrease in the sugar import increases the output of whole economic, agricultural and fishing, industry and mining, and services sectors by 2.3060, 0.6019, 1.4331, and 0.2710 unit, respectively. The increasing coefficients of the value added for the above sectors are 0.4308, 0.3700, and 0.1992 unit, respectively.

  17. An Initial Assessment of the Economic Value of Coastal and Freshwater Wetlands in West Asia

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    Florian V. Eppink

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many countries in West Asia, defined in this study as the Arabic-speaking countries of the Arabian Peninsula plus Turkey and Iran, have enacted environmental conservation laws but regional underlying drivers of environment change, such as rising incomes and fast-growing populations, continue to put pressure on remaining wetlands. This paper aims to inform conservation efforts by presenting the first regional assessment of the economic value of coastal and freshwater wetlands in West Asia. Using scenario analysis we find that, dependent on the discount rate used, the present value of the regional economic loss of not protecting wetlands by 2050 is between US dollar 2.3 billion and US dollar 7.2 billion (expressed in 2007 US dollars. The method used for this assessment, however, is not suitable for expressing national realities adequately. We therefore suggest that detailed localized studies are conducted to improve insight into the drivers and the social and economic effects of wetland loss in West Asia.

  18. Hard times and European youth : The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-01-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by

  19. How much is information worth? Calculating the economic value of a library’s services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Nani França

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the services offered by an informational unit have been characterized by the desired outcome, such as the effective response from a user. These values are made up of enough concrete data if expressed in monetary terms, that is, finding out which is the cost to provide such services. Assigning value to each of the information services offered by university libraries and measuring it are one of the most challenging and less applied managerial tasks in information environments. This paper aims to assign economic value to the services provided by a Brazilian university library, developing a tool that will assist managers in decision -making and evaluation of informational units in order to guarantee the quality of services provided.

  20. ECONOMIC REASONING MAXIMUM SLOPE IN DESIGN HIGH-SPEED LINES

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    CHERNYSHOVA O. S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem The worldwide design standards high-speed lines are somewhat different. This is due to several reasons: different levels of design speed, differences of characteristics of rolling stock and, in particular, the features of the design plan and longitudinal profile, that are associated primarily with the conditions of the relief. In the design of high-speed railways in Ukraine should take into account these features and determine what the maximum slope values can be used in difficult conditions, as well as how it will affect the operational and capital costs. Purpose. To determine the optimal design parameters of the longitudinal profile. Conclusion. The results are based not only on technical, but also economic indicators and allow the assessment of the necessary capital expenditures and expected cost of the railway in the future. Analytical dependences, to predict the expected operating costs of the railway, depending on the maximum slope, its length and the total length of the section.

  1. Value of Residential Investment in Photovoltaics and Batteries in Networks: A Techno-Economic Analysis

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    Damian Shaw-Williams

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has one of the highest rates of residential photovoltaics penetration in the world. The willingness of households to privately invest in energy infrastructure, and the maturing of battery technology, provides significant scope for more efficient energy networks. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the scope for promoting distributed generation and storage from within existing network spending. In this paper, a techno-economic analysis is conducted to evaluate the economic impacts on networks of private investment in energy infrastructure. A highly granular probabilistic model of households within a test area was developed and an economic evaluation of both household and network sectors performed. Results of this paper show that PV only installations carry the greatest private return and, at current battery prices, the economics of combined PV and battery systems is marginal. However, when network benefits arising from reducing residential evening peaks, improved reliability, and losses avoided are considered, this can more than compensate for private economic losses. The main conclusion of this paper is that there is significant scope for network benefits in retrofitting existing housing stock through the incentivization of a policy of a more rapid adoption of distributed generation and residential battery storage.

  2. Análise Financeira pelo Método: Economic Value Added - EVA e Market Value Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenir Menegat

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo se propõe se propõe a apresentar a ferramenta de análise denominada Economic Value Added - EVA, fazer um breve relato de seu surgimento, evolução e evidenciar através de exemplos didáticos o porque de seu sucesso como instrumento de análise empresarial, tornando-se para algumas empresas uma filosofia de gestão norteadora das decisões. Toda sua base teórica está embasada no valor econômico agregado ou adicionado para o acionista, deixando de lado a idéia de gestão com base apenas no resultado, mas no resultado com valor agregado para aquele que investiu seu capital na empresa e dela espera o retorno capaz de suprir sua expectativa que o motivou a empregar seu dinheiro na empresa e não em outra opção do mercado.

  3. Black-white differences in the economic value of improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin M; Topel, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how differences in longevity over time and across groups add to the typical measures of economic progress and intergroup differentials. We focus on gains for and differences between groups defined both by race (black and white) and by gender, relying on willingness to pay as our measure of the economic value of gains in longevity. Measured at birth, the gains for white males between 1968 and 1998 were about 245,000 dollars per person, while the gains for black males were far larger, about 390,000 dollars per person. The gains for women were somewhat smaller, with white females gaining about 150,000 dollars per person and black females gaining about 305,000 dollars per person. Our estimates suggest that differences in income explain about 1/3 to 1/2 of the current black-white gap in longevity.

  4. Valuing geospatial information: Using the contingent valuation method to estimate the economic benefits of Landsat satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John; Koontz, Steve; Miller, Holly M.; Richardson, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    While the U.S. government does not charge for downloading Landsat images, the images have value to users. This paper demonstrates a method that can value Landsat and other imagery to users. A survey of downloaders of Landsat images found: (a) established US users have a mean value of $912 USD per scene; (b) new US users and users returning when imagery became free have a mean value of $367 USD per scene. Total US user benefits for the 2.38 million scenes downloaded is $1.8 billion USD. While these benefits indicate a high willingness-to-pay among many Landsat downloaders, it would be economically inefficient for the US government to charge for Landsat imagery. Charging a price of $100 USD a scene would result in an efficiency loss of $37.5 million a year. This economic information should be useful to policy-makers who must decide about the future of this and similar remote sensing programs.

  5. The cognitive and economic value of a nuclear power plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gil Hwan; Jung, Woo Jin; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yong Tom

    2017-01-01

    We studied the value of a nuclear power plant by considering Koreans' willingness to pay (WTP) for neutralizing the various problems caused by building and operating a new plant. For this, we used a conjoint analysis and ordered logistic regression. We then compared the WTP estimates between various segment groups. The results revealed that each household was willing to pay an additional 99,677 Korean Won (KRW)/mo on average to resolve the negative impacts from a nuclear plant. Therefore, the yearly cognitive and economic value of a nuclear plant in Korea was about 19 trillion KRW. Through a segment analysis, we found that the more educated, younger, and poorer groups gave higher cognitive values than the less educated, older, and richer groups, respectively. Also, people who lived far from a plant gave higher values than people living near a plant, and people with more knowledge about or interest in nuclear energy gave higher values than people with less knowledge or interest. People who felt that nuclear energy is necessary gave higher values to nuclear energy than those who did not. Our results can be used as bases to set targets for promoting nuclear energy and pursuing a national project of building a nuclear power plant

  6. The cognitive and economic value of a nuclear power plant in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Gil Hwan [National Assembly Budget Office (NABO), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo Jin [Information Technology Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yong Tom [School of Business, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    We studied the value of a nuclear power plant by considering Koreans' willingness to pay (WTP) for neutralizing the various problems caused by building and operating a new plant. For this, we used a conjoint analysis and ordered logistic regression. We then compared the WTP estimates between various segment groups. The results revealed that each household was willing to pay an additional 99,677 Korean Won (KRW)/mo on average to resolve the negative impacts from a nuclear plant. Therefore, the yearly cognitive and economic value of a nuclear plant in Korea was about 19 trillion KRW. Through a segment analysis, we found that the more educated, younger, and poorer groups gave higher cognitive values than the less educated, older, and richer groups, respectively. Also, people who lived far from a plant gave higher values than people living near a plant, and people with more knowledge about or interest in nuclear energy gave higher values than people with less knowledge or interest. People who felt that nuclear energy is necessary gave higher values to nuclear energy than those who did not. Our results can be used as bases to set targets for promoting nuclear energy and pursuing a national project of building a nuclear power plant.

  7. The economic value of drought information: Application to water resources management decisions in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Sordo, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Information is valuable when it improves decision-making (e.g., actions can be adjusted to better suit the situation at hand) and enables the mitigation of damage. However, quantifying the value of information is often difficult. Here we explore a general approach to understand the economic value of drought information for water managers framing our approach in the precautionary principle that reminds us that uncertainty is not a reason to postpone or avoid action. We explore how decision making can disregard uncertain effects, taking a short-term approach and focusing instead on the certain costs and benefits of taking action. Two main questions arise: How do we know that advanced drought information is actually helping decisions?; and What is the value of information in the decision process? The approach is applied to several regulated water resources systems in Spain. It first views drought information as a factor in the decision process which can be used by water managers to reduce uncertainty. Second, the value of drought information is the expected gain in a decision outcome (utility) from using additional information. Finally, the gains of improved information are compared with the information collection costs. Here we estimate the value by taking into account the accuracy of the drought information, the subjective probabilities about the value, analyzed as Bayesian probabilities, and the ability or skill of the stakeholders to apply the drought information to modify their actions. Since information may be considered a public good (non-rivalry and non-excludability), it may justify public policy in the provision of information, considering social costs and benefits. The application of the framework to the Spanish case studies shows that information benefits exceeds to costs when drought frequency is 20-40% above normal values; below these values uncertainty in the decisions dominate the results; above these values, the management decisions are limited even

  8. Technical and economic considerations of extra high voltage power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnt, R

    1966-09-01

    The reasons for the employment of higher transmission voltages are listed and the points decisive for the selection of three phase ac or dc systems are reviewed. This is followed by treatment of the technical and economic problems arising in three phase-extra high voltage transmission. These include selection of voltage, economical design of power lines, insulation problems, power supply dependability, equipment rating, and reactive power and stability problems.

  9. Technical and economic considerations of extra high voltage power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnt, R

    1966-09-01

    The reasons for the employment of higher transmission voltages are listed and the points decisive for the selection of three phase ac or dc systems are reviewed. The technical and economic problems arising in three phase extra high voltage transmission are discussed. These include selection of voltage, economical design of power lines, insulation problems, power supply dependability, equipment rating and reactive power and stability problems.

  10. Co-production of electricity and ethanol, process economics of value prior combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treasure, T.; Gonzalez, R.; Venditti, R.; Pu, Y.; Jameel, H.; Kelley, S.; Prestemon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Economics of producing cellulosic ethanol and bio-power in the same facility using an autohydrolysis process. ► Feedstock considerably affect the economics of the biorefinery facility. ► Lower moisture content improves financial performance of the bio-power business. - Abstract: A process economic analysis of co-producing bioethanol and electricity (value prior to combustion) from mixed southern hardwood and southern yellow pine is presented. Bioethanol is produced by extracting carbohydrates from wood via autohydrolysis, membrane separation of byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis of extracted oligomers and fermentation to ethanol. The residual solids after autohydrolysis are pressed and burned in a power boiler to generate steam and electricity. A base case scenario of biomass combustion to produce electricity is presented as a reference to understand the basics of bio-power generation economics. For the base case, minimum electricity revenue of $70–$96/MWh must be realized to achieve a 6–12% internal rate of return. In the alternative co-production cases, the ethanol facility is treated as a separate business entity that purchases power and steam from the biomass power plant. Minimum ethanol revenue required to achieve a 12% internal rate of return was estimated to be $0.84–$1.05/l for hardwood and $0.74–$0.85/l for softwood. Based on current market conditions and an assumed future ethanol selling price of $0.65/l, the co-production of cellulosic bioethanol and power does not produce financeable returns. A risk analysis indicates that there is a probability of 26.6% to achieve an internal rate of return equal or higher than 12%. It is suggested that focus be placed on improving yield and reducing CAPEX before this technology can be applied commercially. This modeling approach is a robust method to evaluate economic feasibility of integrated production of bio-power and other products based on extracted hemicellulose.

  11. Estimation of Economic Value of Use of Wastewater at Agricultural Sector in South of Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasouli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate use of non-conventional water resources including surface runoff and sewage is produced an issue that has emerged as a necessity particularly in Iran. This thread has been created specifically in Tehran. The current study was aimed to investigate the economic value of sewage at Agricultural Sector in South of Tehran with produced approach in the contaminated and clean area. From the results, the average yield of wheat production among the farmers from polluted water was 376 kg ha-1 more than farmers who used clean water. Moreover, the economic value of water was 110 Rials more than farmers who used clean water. According to the results, the total value of wastewater in Tehran in 1405 would be equivalent to 335,480 million Rials. The priorities for interests of irrigation using wastewater from an agricultural perspective suggests that availability and reliability of wastewater than other water sources and low cost of its use is the most important benefit. The next priority result of irrigation with wastewater is increasing crop yield and improving soil fertility. This explains why farmers despite the legal prohibition of the use of untreated sewage continue to utilize this source of irrigation water.

  12. The economic value of biochar in crop production and carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinato, Suzette P.; Yoder, Jonathan K.; Granatstein, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland for carbon sequestration and its soil amendment properties. In particular, we consider the carbon emissions avoided when biochar is applied to agricultural soil, instead of agricultural lime, the amount of carbon sequestered, and the value of carbon offsets, assuming there is an established carbon trading mechanism for biochar soil application. We use winter wheat production in Eastern Whitman County, Washington as a case study, and consider different carbon offset price scenarios and different prices of biochar to estimate a farm profit. Our findings suggest that it may be profitable to apply biochar as a soil amendment under some conditions if the biochar market price is low enough and/or a carbon offset market exists. - Highlights: → We estimate the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland. → We consider biochar's carbon sequestration and soil amendment properties. → Biochar soil application may be profitable if a carbon offset market exists for it. → Farmers may use biochar if its market price is low enough to earn a profit.

  13. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrik O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Saskia Knies,1,2 Johan L Severens1,3 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 2National Health Care Institute, Diemen, 3iMTA Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results: The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839, Belarus ($21,702, and Kazakhstan ($2,295. The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion: Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Keywords: in vitro fertilization, economic value of life, developing countries

  14. Economic Value Approach to Industrial Water Demand Management, A Case Study of Chemical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza tahami pour zarandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limitations in water supply to meet the increasing demand have encouraged both planners and researchers to focus attention on water demand management, in which such economic tools as the water pricing system play a major role. A fundamental component of the pricing system is the estimation of the economic value of water, which reflects a firm’s maximum affordable water price or the ultimate elasticity of industrial water. The present study was conducted to estimate the economic value of water for basic chemical plants, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds (code 2411, representing the four-digit ISIC industrial codes which account for about 14% of the total industrial water consumption. The econometric method of production function within the framework of panel data and the residual method were used. Data were collected from the Census of medium-sized businesses carried out by the Statistical Center of Iran over the period 1997–2013.  Results showed that one cubic meter of water allocated to the plants surveyed creates a value of 3,7071 Rials, which shows a large gap with the current purchase price of 5685 Rials. Moreover, it was found that the present water prices account for only about 1.3 percent of the total production cost of basic chemicals, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds. It may, thus, be concluded that it is reasonable to increase the present water tariffs and discriminate among the various manufacturing codes by differences in tariffs in order to achieve water demand management goals. Finally, the information emerging from the study may be exploited to improve the revenues earned by water authorities or to carry out feasibility studies of industrial water development projects.

  15. Value of Lost Load: An Efficient Economic Indicator for Power Supply Security? A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Thomas, E-mail: t.schroeder@fz-juelich.de; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)

    2015-12-24

    Security of electricity supply has become a fundamental requirement for well-functioning modern societies. Because of its central position in all sections of society, the present paper considers the economic consequences of a power supply interruption. The value of lost load (VoLL) is a monetary indicator expressing the costs associated with an interruption of electricity supply. This paper reviews different methods for calculating VoLL, provides an overview of recently published studies, and presents suggestions to increase the explanatory power and international comparability of VoLL.

  16. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly-Valued Reasons Muslim Caregivers Choose Evangelical Christian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…

  18. Value-Based Pricing and Reimbursement in Personalised Healthcare: Introduction to the Basic Health Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis P. Garrison

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Value-based’ outcomes, pricing, and reimbursement are widely discussed as health sector reforms these days. In this paper, we discuss their meaning and relationship in the context of personalized healthcare, defined as receipt of care conditional on the results of a biomarker-based diagnostic test. We address the question: “What kinds of pricing and reimbursement models should be applied in personalized healthcare?” The simple answer is that competing innovators and technology adopters should have incentives that promote long-term dynamic efficiency. We argue that—to meet this social objective of optimal innovation in personalized healthcare—payers, as agents of their plan participants, should aim to send clear signals to their suppliers about what they value. We begin by revisiting the concept of value from an economic perspective, and argue that a broader concept of value is needed in the context of personalized healthcare. We discuss the market for personalized healthcare and the interplay between price and reimbursement. We close by emphasizing the potential barrier posed by inflexible or cost-based reimbursement systems, especially for biomarker-based predictive tests, and how these personalized technologies have global public goods characteristics that require global value-based differential pricing to achieve dynamic efficiency in terms of the optimal rate of innovation and adoption.

  19. Value-Based Pricing and Reimbursement in Personalised Healthcare: Introduction to the Basic Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Towse, Adrian

    2017-09-04

    'Value-based' outcomes, pricing, and reimbursement are widely discussed as health sector reforms these days. In this paper, we discuss their meaning and relationship in the context of personalized healthcare, defined as receipt of care conditional on the results of a biomarker-based diagnostic test. We address the question: "What kinds of pricing and reimbursement models should be applied in personalized healthcare?" The simple answer is that competing innovators and technology adopters should have incentives that promote long-term dynamic efficiency. We argue that-to meet this social objective of optimal innovation in personalized healthcare-payers, as agents of their plan participants, should aim to send clear signals to their suppliers about what they value. We begin by revisiting the concept of value from an economic perspective, and argue that a broader concept of value is needed in the context of personalized healthcare. We discuss the market for personalized healthcare and the interplay between price and reimbursement. We close by emphasizing the potential barrier posed by inflexible or cost-based reimbursement systems, especially for biomarker-based predictive tests, and how these personalized technologies have global public goods characteristics that require global value-based differential pricing to achieve dynamic efficiency in terms of the optimal rate of innovation and adoption.

  20. Value-Based Pricing and Reimbursement in Personalised Healthcare: Introduction to the Basic Health Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P.; Towse, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Value-based’ outcomes, pricing, and reimbursement are widely discussed as health sector reforms these days. In this paper, we discuss their meaning and relationship in the context of personalized healthcare, defined as receipt of care conditional on the results of a biomarker-based diagnostic test. We address the question: “What kinds of pricing and reimbursement models should be applied in personalized healthcare?” The simple answer is that competing innovators and technology adopters should have incentives that promote long-term dynamic efficiency. We argue that—to meet this social objective of optimal innovation in personalized healthcare—payers, as agents of their plan participants, should aim to send clear signals to their suppliers about what they value. We begin by revisiting the concept of value from an economic perspective, and argue that a broader concept of value is needed in the context of personalized healthcare. We discuss the market for personalized healthcare and the interplay between price and reimbursement. We close by emphasizing the potential barrier posed by inflexible or cost-based reimbursement systems, especially for biomarker-based predictive tests, and how these personalized technologies have global public goods characteristics that require global value-based differential pricing to achieve dynamic efficiency in terms of the optimal rate of innovation and adoption. PMID:28869571

  1. Quick scan of the economical, technological and environmental aspects of biomass value chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, E.; Urbanus, J.; Bloom, J.G.P.

    2011-01-15

    Results are presented of the AERTOs project (Associated European Research and Technology Organisations). The objective is to identify, design and implement joint, long-term, sustainable cooperation activities between RTOs (Research and Technology Organisations). The purpose of this work is a bottom-up approach to develop and deploy joint activities towards a Bio-based Economy. The results of this report will deliver input for a more extensive paper about the position of the RTOs in Europe. This report contains a quick scan of various biomass value chains that could emerge. Together with the AERTOs partners several bio-based chains were selected for further evaluation. Next, the technological, economical and environmental aspects of each step of the production chain were determined. By integrating this data over the full chain, the chains could be compared to each other in a consistent way. A sensitivity analysis then provided insight into the bottlenecks in the value chain.

  2. The economic value of water for irrigation - A contingent valuation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Jaramillo, Luis Alfonso; Gomez Olaya, Alvaro Pio

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes a research carried out in the Corporacion Autonoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (CVC) in which a model of economic and social valuation of the water is meant to be built in the frame of the GIRH's vision in the basin of the Tulua River (Colombia). The estimation of water value is done from a methodological process in two stages. On the one hand, from the supply, where the costs of preserving the basin and constructing civil necessary works to assure an assignment given inside certain levels of reliability, and on the other hand, the value from the demand point of view, estimated on the basis of how much are the user ready to pay for having a certain flow of water.

  3. MODEL PENENTUAN HARGA SAHAM: PENGUJIAN CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL MELALUI PENGUJIAN ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suripto Suripto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research tested the influence of characteristics of the firms and of EVA (Eco-nomic Value Added to stock of returns. This Research sample was company Self-100 ValueCreator of year 2001 until 2006. Result of research indicated that company size measure,profitability, capital structure (characteristics of the firms and EVA by stimulant had aneffect on significant to stock of returns, but by partial only characteristics company. Condi-tion of company fundamentals had an effect on significance to stock of returns. This indica-tion that investor still considered factors of fundamentals was having investment. EVA didnot have an effect on significant to stock of returns. This finding indicated that Model deter-mination of stock of returns (CAPM Irrelevant determined the level of EVA and also indicatedthat CAPM (Capital Assets Pricing Model was not relevant in determining stock of returns inIndonesian Stock Exchange.

  4. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, M.; Pettenella, D.; Secco, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs), and carbon-related services. Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions. Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT), scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services. Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M). Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%). Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy). Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use. (Author)

  5. From failure to value: economic valuation for a selected set of products and services from Mediterranean forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pettenella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: the paper estimates the economic value of a selected range of forest products and services, i.e. roundwood, non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and carbon-related services.Area of study: the research covers 21 Mediterranean countries, distinguished into four sub-regions.Material and methods: data have been gathered from official statistical sources (e.g. FAOSTAT, scientific literature and technical reports. Different estimation approaches based on market-price have been used for different products/services.Main results: the estimated value ranges between €10,512 and €11,158 million (M. Wood products represent more than 85% of the total value. Within them, industrial timber is the most relevant component (65%. Figures for NWFPs are likely to be underestimated because data are available only for some products and countries. When using alternative estimates for pine nuts, pine resin and cork, figures show a €36.8-572 M increase. In geographical terms, the economic value of Mediterranean forests is highly concentrated: North-West Mediterranean countries account for 70%, and nearly 90% is in just four countries (France, Spain, Turkey and Italy.Research highlights: enhancing the offer of Mediterranean forest products and increasing their role in the rural economy could help to reduce the costs of forest protection: a well-structured forest economy ensuring stable flows of incomes can provide a fundamental set of public non-market services and social values to both local people and the whole community. Understanding the true value of natural resources, then, is an essential step for promoting their protection and sustainable use.Abbreviations: Bln: billion; CUM: cubic meter; EM: East Mediterranean; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations; FRA: Forest Resource Assessment; ha: hectare; M: million; NEM: North-East Mediterranean; NWFP: non-wood forest product; NWM: North-West Mediterranean; SM: South Mediterranean. 

  6. Enhancing the economic value and consumer preferences of commercial mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather creative products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahubawa, L.; Pertiwiningrum, A.; Rahmadian, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The research objectives were to design, assess the economic value and consumer preference level of stingray leather products. The research method included a product design, analysis of economic value and consumer preferences. Mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather, with a length of 50 cm and width of 30 cm, were processed into ID card wallet, man and women’s wallet and key holder. The number of respondents involved to analyze the preference level is 75 respondents (students, lecturers and employees of Universitas Gadjah Mada). Indicators of consumer preferences were model, color, price and purchasing power. The price of ID card wallet is Rp. 450,000; women wallet is Rp. 650,000 and a key holder is Rp. 300,000. Consumer preferences on ID card wallet were as follow: 84 % stated very interesting model; 83 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 53 % had enough. Consumer preferences of women’s wallet were as follow: 81 % stated very interesting model; 84 % stated very interesting color; 56 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough. Consumer preferences on key holder were as follow: 49 % stated interesting model; 72 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough.

  7. Economic value of ionophores and propylene glycol to prevent disease and treat ketosis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohary, Khaled; Overton, Michael W; Von Massow, Michael; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Lissemore, Kerry D; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-07-01

    A partial budget model was developed to evaluate the economic value of Rumensin Controlled Release Capsule (CRC) boluses when administered before calving to reduce disease and increase milk production. After accounting for disease incidences in a herd and the percentage by which Rumensin CRC can reduce them, and the increase in milk production attributable to administration of Rumensin CRC, the return on investment (ROI) per lactation was 4:1. Another partial budget model was developed to estimate the economic value of propylene glycol (PG) to treat ketosis when diagnosed by 3 different cow-side tests or when administered to all cows without using any cow-side testing. After accounting for the sensitivity and specificity of each test, ROI per lactation ranged from 2:1 to 4:1. The ROI was 2:1 when no cow-side testing was used. In conclusion, prevention of diseases that occur in the postpartum period and treatment of ketosis after calving yielded a positive ROI that varies based on disease incidence and method of diagnosis.

  8. Scoping study on trends in the economic value of electricity reliability to the U.S. economy; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Joseph; Koomey, Jonathan; Lehman, Bryan; Martin, Nathan; Mills, Evan; Webber, Carrie; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    During the past three years, working with more than 150 organizations representing public and private stakeholders, EPRI has developed the Electricity Technology Roadmap. The Roadmap identifies several major strategic challenges that must be successfully addressed to ensure a sustainable future in which electricity continues to play an important role in economic growth. Articulation of these anticipated trends and challenges requires a detailed understanding of the role and importance of reliable electricity in different sectors of the economy. This report is intended to contribute to that understanding by analyzing key aspects of trends in the economic value of electricity reliability in the U.S. economy. We first present a review of recent literature on electricity reliability costs. Next, we describe three distinct end-use approaches for tracking trends in reliability needs: (1) an analysis of the electricity-use requirements of office equipment in different commercial sectors; (2) an examination of the use of aggregate statistical indicators of industrial electricity use and economic activity to identify high reliability-requirement customer market segments; and (3) a case study of cleanrooms, which is a cross-cutting market segment known to have high reliability requirements. Finally, we present insurance industry perspectives on electricity reliability as an example of a financial tool for addressing customers' reliability needs

  9. Scoping study on trends in the economic value of electricity reliability to the U.S. economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph; Koomey, Jonathan; Lehman, Bryan; Martin, Nathan; Mills, Evan; Webber, Carrie; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-06-01

    During the past three years, working with more than 150 organizations representing public and private stakeholders, EPRI has developed the Electricity Technology Roadmap. The Roadmap identifies several major strategic challenges that must be successfully addressed to ensure a sustainable future in which electricity continues to play an important role in economic growth. Articulation of these anticipated trends and challenges requires a detailed understanding of the role and importance of reliable electricity in different sectors of the economy. This report is intended to contribute to that understanding by analyzing key aspects of trends in the economic value of electricity reliability in the U.S. economy. We first present a review of recent literature on electricity reliability costs. Next, we describe three distinct end-use approaches for tracking trends in reliability needs: (1) an analysis of the electricity-use requirements of office equipment in different commercial sectors; (2) an examination of the use of aggregate statistical indicators of industrial electricity use and economic activity to identify high reliability-requirement customer market segments; and (3) a case study of cleanrooms, which is a cross-cutting market segment known to have high reliability requirements. Finally, we present insurance industry perspectives on electricity reliability as an example of a financial tool for addressing customers' reliability needs.

  10. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

  11. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  12. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2017-01-19

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  13. Is the economic value of hydrological forecasts related to their quality? Case study of the hydropower sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagnole, Manon; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thirel, Guillaume; Gailhard, Joël; Garçon, Rémy

    2017-04-01

    The improvement of a forecasting system and the evaluation of the quality of its forecasts are recurrent steps in operational practice. However, the evaluation of forecast value or forecast usefulness for better decision-making is, to our knowledge, less frequent, even if it might be essential in many sectors such as hydropower and flood warning. In the hydropower sector, forecast value can be quantified by the economic gain obtained with the optimization of operations or reservoir management rules. Several hydropower operational systems use medium-range forecasts (up to 7-10 days ahead) and energy price predictions to optimize hydropower production. Hence, the operation of hydropower systems, including the management of water in reservoirs, is impacted by weather, climate and hydrologic variability as well as extreme events. In order to assess how the quality of hydrometeorological forecasts impact operations, it is essential to first understand if and how operations and management rules are sensitive to input predictions of different quality. This study investigates how 7-day ahead deterministic and ensemble streamflow forecasts of different quality might impact the economic gains of energy production. It is based on a research model developed by Irstea and EDF to investigate issues relevant to the links between quality and value of forecasts in the optimisation of energy production at the short range. Based on streamflow forecasts and pre-defined management constraints, the model defines the best hours (i.e., the hours with high energy prices) to produce electricity. To highlight the link between forecasts quality and their economic value, we built several synthetic ensemble forecasts based on observed streamflow time series. These inputs are generated in a controlled environment in order to obtain forecasts of different quality in terms of accuracy and reliability. These forecasts are used to assess the sensitivity of the decision model to forecast quality

  14. Using crowdsourcing to examine behavioral economic measures of alcohol value and proportionate alcohol reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vanessa; Amlung, Michael; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Petker, Tashia; MacKillop, James

    2017-08-01

    Online crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) are increasingly being used in addictions research. However, there is a relative paucity of such research examining the validity of administering behavioral economic alcohol-related measures, via an online crowdsourcing platform. This study sought to validate an alcohol purchase task (APT) for assessing demand and a questionnaire measure of proportionate alcohol reinforcement, using an online sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Participants (N = 865, 59% female) were recruited via MTurk to complete the APT, proportionate alcohol reinforcement questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and demographics. Responses on the APT were highly systematic (crowdsourcing websites for investigating behavioral economic determinants of alcohol misuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. High historical values of foEs—Reality or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, J.; Boška, J.; Burešová, D.; Kouba, D.

    2012-01-01

    Very high values of foEs had sometimes been reported in the past. These values, as well as all other ionogram-scaled values, had been derived from ionograms under the assumption of the vertical reflection of ordinary mode of sounding radio waves. In the past it was impossible to check the validity of this assumption. However, modern digisondes determine clearly the oblique or extraordinary mode reflections. To test the assumption of the vertical reflection of ordinary mode for high values of foEs, seven summers (June 2004-August 2010) from a midlatitude station Pruhonice are chosen. All hourly values of foEs≥6.0 MHz are selected from this data set, altogether 282 values. In 90% of cases the “classical” way of evaluation of foEs provides values higher than “true” values from modern digisonde (average difference about 1 MHz). 38% of “classical” foEs are oblique reflections, which however do not occur in direction perpendicular to geomagnetic field. The occurrence of high values of foEs varies very much from year to year between 0 and 130 events per year. As for diurnal variation, a pronounced maximum occurs at ˜10:00LT and 16:00LT (secondary), and a minimum after midnight.

  16. Factors influencing high socio-economic class mothers' decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    why high socio-economic class women in the Cape Metropole decide ... as barriers to breast-feeding include a lack of knowledge and experience (38%) as well as a lack of facilities at public ... private practising paediatrician in Stellenbosch for face validity. .... While mothers (n = 39; 70.9%) indicated that the facilities at work.

  17. Strategies for defining traits when calculating economic values for livestock breeding: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present review was (i) to survey different approaches for choosing the complex of traits for which economic values (EVs) are calculated, (ii) to call attention to the proper definition of traits and (iii) to discuss the manner and extent to which relationships among traits have been considered in the calculation of EVs. For this purpose, papers dealing with the estimation of EVs of traits in livestock were reviewed. The most important reasons for incompatibility of EVs for similar traits estimated in different countries and by different authors were found to be inconsistencies in trait definitions and in assumptions being made about relationships among traits. An important problem identified was how to choose the most appropriate criterion to characterise production or functional ability for a particular class of animals. Accordingly, the review covered the following three topics: (i) which trait(s) would best characterise the growth ability of an animal; (ii) how to define traits expressed repeatedly in subsequent reproductive cycles of breeding females and (iii) how to deal with traits that differ in average value between sexes or among animal groups. Various approaches that have been used to solve these problems were discussed. Furthermore, the manner in which diverse authors chose one or more traits from a group of alternatives for describing a specific biological potential were reviewed and commented on. The consequences of including or excluding relationships among economically important traits when estimating the EV for a specific trait were also examined. An important conclusion of the review is that, for a better comparability and interpretability of estimated EVs in the literature, it is desirable that clear and unique definitions of the traits, complete information on assumptions used in analytical models and details on inter-relationships between traits are documented. Furthermore, the method and the model used for the genetic

  18. Impact of energy efficiency measures on the economic value of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Daniela; Bienert, Sven; Schuetzenhofer, Christian; Boazu, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Market driven reasons can strengthen implementation of energy policies in buildings. → Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance are developed. → Recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis are presented. → Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed. → The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures is also in the focus. -- Abstract: A main objective of energy policies is to make all levels of the society, from governments to citizen, interested in increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. One of the most important barriers in implementation of energy policies is that the cost of potential energy savings, typically considered being the only financial benefit, does not sufficiently motivate investments. The target is therefore to identify further possible drivers pushing positive reaction according to energy saving action. The paper discusses whether a market-based instrument, capturing the increase of the economic value of energy efficient buildings, can be also used. Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance, including recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis of investments in weatherization, are developed. By applying the proposed methods, the payback period of investments in energy efficiency measures depends on two factors: potential energy savings and the added value to the property. Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed and provide evidence to the research question. The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures, the possibility of an intangible added value as well as the impact to financial investment decisions is subsequently in the focus.

  19. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  20. Health outcomes are about choices and values: an economic perspective on the health outcomes movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the health outcomes movement is to reorientate health services so that the spotlight shines less on what is done and more on what is achieved. The health outcomes movement, thus far, has been most successful in addressing what appear to be technical questions relating to the measurement and analysis of health outcomes and in placing their routine use on the agenda of clinical practice and health services planning. If there is one lesson to be drawn from an economic perspective, however, it is that health outcomes are about values and not just technicalities. The need to make choices forces one to consider whether what is achieved is also what is most valued. The success of health service delivery, be it at a clinical, planning or systems level, must therefore be measured against agreed objectives. It follows that time must be taken to establish what patients and the community want from their health services and what each is prepared to give up to achieve its ends. Value judgements are unavoidable. The challenge lies not in measuring the outcomes of health interventions but in deciding what the objectives of the health system ought to be.

  1. Economic values and selection index in different Angus-Nellore cross-bred production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, G M; Savegnago, R P; El Faro, L; Mosaquatro Roso, V; de Paz, C C P

    2018-06-01

    Bioeconomic models were developed to calculate economic values (EV) for economically important traits in beef cattle, to evaluate the impact of these traits on production profitability, to assess possible market changes with a payment system and to develop economic selection indexes for Angus cattle for two production systems. Two beef cattle production systems were simulated as follows: a cow-calf cycle (CC) and a complete cycle (CoC). Following selection, positive changes in the EV were observed. In the CC, each 1.0% increment in weaning weight (WW), weaning rate (WR) and pregnancy rate (PR) resulted in increases in US$ 1.30, US$ 3.68 and US$ 3.55 per cow/year in profit, respectively. In the CoC, EV of US$ 1.01, US$ 1.79, US$ 1.19, US$ 1.34, US$ 6.84 and US$ 7.86 per cow/year were obtained for WW, year weight, yearling weight, final weight, WR and PR, respectively. The payment system for carcass quality showed that the scenario considering that 100% of the animals displayed uniform carcasses exhibited the highest EV and was considered optimal. Considering the sensitivity analysis, the price paid per animal was the factor that most affected the EV in both systems. The selection indexes obtained may be used in similar production systems, and the use of EV and selection indexes are important tools for any production system with positive change in profit after selection. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The potential economic value of a cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine in seven endemic countries in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kristina M; Hotez, Peter J; Kruchten, Stephanie D; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-07

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and its associated complications, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL) have emerged as important neglected tropical diseases in Latin America, especially in areas associated with human migration, conflict, and recent deforestation. Because of the limitations of current chemotherapeutic approaches to CL, MCL, and DCL, several prototype vaccines are in different states of product and clinical development. We constructed and utilized a Markov decision analytic computer model to evaluate the potential economic value of a preventative CL vaccine in seven countries in Latin America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. The results indicated that even a vaccine with a relatively short duration of protection and modest efficacy could be recommended for use in targeted locations, as it could prevent a substantial number of cases at low-cost and potentially even result in cost savings. If the population in the seven countries were vaccinated using a vaccine that provides at least 10 years of protection, an estimated 41,000-144,784 CL cases could be averted, each at a cost less than the cost of current recommended treatments. Further, even a vaccine providing as little as five years duration of protection with as little as 50% efficacy remains cost-effective compared with chemotherapy; additional scenarios resembling epidemic settings such as the one that occurred in Chaparral, Colombia in 2004 demonstrate important economic benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Value for money of changing healthcare services? Economic evaluation of quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severens, J

    2003-01-01

    

 There are many instances of perceived or real inefficiencies in health service delivery. Both healthcare providers and policy makers need to know the impact and cost of applying strategies to change the behaviour of individuals or organisations. Quality improvement or implementation research is concerned with evaluating the methods of behavioural change. Addressing inefficiencies in healthcare services raises a series of issues, beginning with how inefficiency itself should be defined. The basic concepts of cost analysis and economic evaluations are explained and a model for working through the economic issues of quality improvement is discussed. This model combines the costs and benefits of corrected inefficiency with the costs and degree of behavioural change achieved by a quality improvement method in the policy maker's locality. It shows why it may not always be cost effective for policy makers to address suboptimal behaviour. Both the interpretation of quality improvement research findings and their local application need careful consideration. The limited availability of applicable quality improvement research may make it difficult to provide robust advice on the value for money of many behavioural quality improvement strategies. PMID:14532369

  4. Influence of Economic Value and Fundamental Analysis Toward Stock Market (Studies on the Retail Trade Industry Sector)

    OpenAIRE

    Widyatmini, Widyatmini; Damanik, Michael Valentino

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is to measure the influence of economics value added and fundamental analysis toward stock price on retail industry. Data which was deployed on this research are company financial report and stock price. Further, data was analyzed using regression method by deploying SPSS software. Research result shows that all independent variables proposed (economics value added, current ratio, quick ratio, total asset turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio, gross profit ma...

  5. Upgrading of lignocellulosic biorefinery to value-added chemicals: Sustainability and economics of bioethanol-derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    with a sustainability assessment method is used as evaluation tool. First, an existing superstructure representing the lignocellulosic biorefinery design network is extended to include the options for catalytic conversion of bioethanol to value-added derivatives. Second, the optimization problem for process upgrade...... of operating profit for biorefineries producing bioethanol-derived chemicals (247 MM$/a and 241 MM$/a for diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene, respectively). Second, the optimal designs for upgrading bioethanol (i.e. production of 1,3-butadiene and diethyl ether) performed also better with respect...... to sustainability compared with the petroleum-based processes. In both cases, the effects of the market price uncertainties were also analyzed by performing quantitative economic risk analysis and presented a significant risk of investment for a lignocellulosic biorefinery (12 MM$/a and 92 MM$/a for diethyl ether...

  6. Values of Land and Renewable Resources in a Three-Sector Economic Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence of capital, land and resource values in a three sector growth model with endogenous wealth and renewable resources. The model is based on the neoclassical growth theory, Ricardian theory and growth theory with renewable resources. The household’s decision is modeled with an alternative approach proposed by Zhang two decades ago. The economic system consists of the households, industrial, agricultural, and resource sectors. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of a unique stable equilibrium point and plot the motion of the dynamic system. The study conducts comparative dynamic analysis with regard to changes in the propensity to consume resources, the propensity to consume housing, the propensity to consume agricultural goods, the propensity to consume industrial goods, the propensity to save, the population, and the output elasticity of capital of the resource sector.

  7. Numerical Weather Prediction and Relative Economic Value framework to improve Integrated Urban Drainage- Wastewater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas

    domains during which the IUDWS can be coupled with the electrical smart grid to optimise its energy consumption. The REV framework was used to determine which decision threshold of the EPS (i.e. number of ensemble members predicting an event) provides the highest benefit for a given situation...... in cities where space is scarce and large-scale construction work a nuisance. This the-sis focuses on flow domain predictions of IUDWS from numerical weather prediction (NWP) to select relevant control objectives for the IUDWS and develops a framework based on the relative economic value (REV) approach...... to evaluate when acting on the forecast is beneficial or not. Rainfall forecasts are extremely valuable for estimating near future storm-water-related impacts on the IUDWS. Therefore, weather radar extrapolation “nowcasts” provide valuable predictions for RTC. However, radar nowcasts are limited...

  8. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5...... different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus...... dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from 149 euro...

  9. Farm-specific economic value of automatic lameness detection systems in dairy cattle: From concepts to operational simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Gucht, Tim; Saeys, Wouter; Van Meensel, Jef; Van Nuffel, Annelies; Vangeyte, Jurgen; Lauwers, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Although prototypes of automatic lameness detection systems for dairy cattle exist, information about their economic value is lacking. In this paper, a conceptual and operational framework for simulating the farm-specific economic value of automatic lameness detection systems was developed and tested on 4 system types: walkover pressure plates, walkover pressure mats, camera systems, and accelerometers. The conceptual framework maps essential factors that determine economic value (e.g., lameness prevalence, incidence and duration, lameness costs, detection performance, and their relationships). The operational simulation model links treatment costs and avoided losses with detection results and farm-specific information, such as herd size and lameness status. Results show that detection performance, herd size, discount rate, and system lifespan have a large influence on economic value. In addition, lameness prevalence influences the economic value, stressing the importance of an adequate prior estimation of the on-farm prevalence. The simulations provide first estimates for the upper limits for purchase prices of automatic detection systems. The framework allowed for identification of knowledge gaps obstructing more accurate economic value estimation. These include insights in cost reductions due to early detection and treatment, and links between specific lameness causes and their related losses. Because this model provides insight in the trade-offs between automatic detection systems' performance and investment price, it is a valuable tool to guide future research and developments. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently

  11. Assessing the Total Economic Value of Improving Water Quality to Inform Water Resources Management: Evidence and Challenges from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, S.; Fukushi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Population growth, high rates of economic development and rapid urbanization in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (SEA) have resulted in degradation and depletion of natural resources, including water resources and related ecosystem services. Many urban rivers in the region are highly polluted with domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes. Policymakers are often aware of the direct value of water resources for domestic and industrial consumption, but they often underestimate the indirect value of these functions, since they are not exchanged in the market and do not appear in national income accounts. Underestimation of pollution and over-exploitation of water resources result in a loss of these benefits and have adverse impacts on nearby residents, threatening the long-term sustainable development of natural resources in the region. Behind these constraints lies a lack of knowledge (ignorance) from governments that a clean water environment could bring significant economic benefits. This study has been initiated to tackle this issue and to foster a more rational approach for sustainable urban development in Metro Manila in the Philippines. We applied a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) based on Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) technique. Results show that users are willing to pay up to PHP 102.42 (2.18) monthly to improve quality of urban waterbodies whereas nonusers are willing to pay up to PHP 366.53 (7.80) as one-time payment towards water quality improvement. The estimated monetary value of water quality improvements would be a useful variable in cost-benefit analyses of various water quality-related policies, in both public and private sectors in Metro Manila. This survey design could serve as a useful template for similar water quality studies in other SEA countries.

  12. Economic values of wilderness recreation and passive use: what we think we know at the beginning of the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Two techniques are used to estimate the economic value of recreation and off-site passive use values of wilderness. Using an average value per recreation day ($39), the economic value of wilderness recreation is estimated to be $574 million annually. Generalizing the two Western passive use values studies we estimate values of Western wilderness in the lower 48 states...

  13. Value innovation: the strategic logic of high growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Why are some companies able to sustain high growth in revenues and profits--and others are not? To answer that question, the authors, both of INSEAD, spent five years studying more than 30 companies around the world. They found that the difference between the high-growth companies and their less successful competitors was in each group's assumptions about strategy. Managers of the less successful companies followed conventional strategic logic. Managers of the high-growth companies followed what the authors call the logic of value innovation. Conventional strategic logic and value innovation differ along the basic dimensions of strategy. Many companies take their industry's conditions as given; value innovators don't. Many companies let competitors set the parameters of their strategic thinking; value innovators do not use rivals as benchmarks. Rather than focus on the differences among customers, value innovators look for what customers value in common. Rather than view opportunities through the lens of existing assets and capabilities, value innovators ask, What if we start anew? The authors tell the story of the French hotelier Accor, which discarded the notion of what a hotel is supposed to look like in order to offer what most customers want: a good night's sleep at a low price. And Virgin Atlantic challenged industry conventions by eliminating first-class service and channeling savings into innovations for business-class passengers. Those companies didn't set out to build advantages over the competition, but they ended up achieving the greatest competitive advantages.

  14. Economic Empowerment of Communities through Tourism: A Pro-Poor Tourism Value Chain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayviscic Mutinda NDIVO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of constraints continue to limit participation of the local people to tourism and travel activities in the less and developing countries. Addressing such constraints has over time formed the focus of development paradigms in these countries. This paper uses analytical literature review for identifying the appropriate strategies promoting host community participation and the benefits of tourism development by giving particular emphasis on less and developing countries. Specifically, the paper critiques pro-poor tourism (PPT and tourism value chain (TVC approaches, in view of their feasibility for ensuring that tourism benefits the poor within the host community. By demonstrating their inherent limitations and strengths as models for empowering poor communities, the paper proposes an integrated model -Pro-Poor Tourism Value Chain- that integrates the strengths of both PPT and TVC approaches into a single framework. This framework would find important policy and practical application in enhancing economic participation of host communities in tourism. To realise this goal, the paper recommends mapping of appropriate TVC nodes, identification of intervention strategies for increasing benefits arising to those already participating in the TVC, and developing capacity of those not involved through pro-poor affirmative initiatives.

  15. Stochasticity in economic losses increases the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Placì, Sarah; Wedekind, Claus

    2015-12-14

    Recent theory predicts harsh and stochastic conditions to generally promote the evolution of cooperation. Here, we test experimentally whether stochasticity in economic losses also affects the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity, a type of cooperation that is very typical for humans. We used a repeated helping game with observers. One subject (the "Unlucky") lost some money, another one (the "Passer-by") could reduce this loss by accepting a cost to herself, thereby building up a reputation that could be used by others in later interactions. The losses were either stable or stochastic, but the average loss over time and the average efficiency gains of helping were kept constant in both treatments. We found that players with a reputation of being generous were generally more likely to receive help by others, such that investing into a good reputation generated long-term benefits that compensated for the immediate costs of helping. Helping frequencies were similar in both treatments, but players with a reputation to be selfish lost more resources under stochastic conditions. Hence, returns on investment were steeper when losses varied than when they did not. We conclude that this type of stochasticity increases the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity.

  16. The economic value of one ton CO2: what system of reference for public action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    Given the convergence of scientific analyses of global warming and its consequences for the planet - evaluated for years by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - it is no longer possible to postpone the efforts required to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. However, the choice of actions to take and the calendar of priorities are proving complex to define: the social and economic consequences are great, and neither France (which represents 2% of global emissions) nor Europe (15%) are up to treating the problem independently of the rest of the world. Faced with this challenge, and with budgetary constraints imposing a rationalisation of expenditure, public action must have measuring instruments at its disposal: the value of one ton of carbon is one such instrument. This Strategic Newswatch has a twofold objective: to recall the usefulness of this reference value which, though it cannot guarantee the validity of different public policies, may contribute to ensuring their consistency; and to present the different approaches and difficulties that producing such a reference system introduces. (author)

  17. Public–private partnerships value in bioenergy projects: Economic feasibility analysis based on two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Bartocci, Pietro; D'Alessandro, Bruno; Arampatzis, Stratos; Manos, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Greece and Italy are facing serious energy challenges concerning sustainability and greenhouse gas emissions as well as security of supply and the competitiveness of the internal energy market. These challenges require investments by the public sector, while the countries have seen in the last years their debts rising. A solution to promote bioenergy business, without rising public debt, could be the use of PPP (Public–Private Partnership). This paper presents a methodology to develop agro-energy business using PPP in two rural areas: the municipality of Evropos (in Greece) and the municipality of Montefalco (in Italy). At first biomass availability is studied, then the optimal technology is selected. Once technological issues have been analyzed PPP value for money has to be assessed. Conventional methods to evaluate economic viability of a project are not enough and a Public-Sector Comparator (PSC) has to be calculated. Typical risks of bioenergy projects are identified, estimating their probabilities and consequences. This will lead to associate a monetary value to each risk. Then the identified risks are allocated among private and public partners, establishing synergies. The allocation of risks will have consequences on the preparation of PPP contract and on partner selection procedure. - Highlights: • PPPs can control or reduce risks in bioenergy business. • Development of a methodology for risk allocation in bioenergy projects. • Development of a methodology for risk valuing in bioenergy projects. • A Public-Sector Comparator has been realized for an agro-energy PPP. • Risk allocation has to be clearly indicated in PPP contract

  18. Examining the economic impacts of hydropower dams on property values using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Curtis; Lewis, Lynne Y

    2009-07-01

    function as real estate amenities and boost local property values. Results with respect to the effect of proximity to hydropower generating plants are equivocal. Homeowners pay a small premium for houses close to hydropower dams in our region, but the statistical significance of that result depends on the specific model form used to estimate the effect. Consideration of the social and economic impacts of dam removal-based river restoration can complement studies of the ecological impacts of the practice. Such studies help us understand the extent to which human society's subjective perception of value of aquatic ecosystems relates to objective measures of ecosystem health. The paper also illustrates how geographic information systems (GIS) can help inform these analyses.

  19. Without blinders: Public values scholarship in Political Science, Economics, and Law—content and contribution to Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Gjalt; van der Wal, Z.

    2017-01-01

    How and why are public values studied within public administration’s cognate disciplines? This question is addressed through a qualitative analysis of 50 public values (PVs) publications in political science, economics, and law published between 1969 and 2014. The findings show that political

  20. Livelihoods, economic contribution and sustainability of the bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) value chain from three provinces of Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iponga, D.M.; Yobo, C.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Bengone, N.N.; Ngoye, A.

    2018-01-01

    In the Congo Basin, the economic, social and environmental value of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), such as bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) is widely acknowledged. However, knowledge of the volumes traded, extent and distribution of revenues along the value chain is limited while little is

  1. Towards a globally optimized crop distribution: Integrating water use, nutrition, and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. F.; Seveso, A.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2016-12-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. In order for food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for `sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing sustainable production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to increase crop production and economic value while minimizing water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of yields and evapotranspiration for 14 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine the potential improvements in calorie (+12%) and protein (+51%) production, economic output (+41%) and water demand (-5%). This approach can also incorporate the impact of future climate on cropland suitability, and as such, be used to provide optimized cropping patterns under climate change. Thus, our study provides a novel tool towards achieving sustainable intensification that can be used to recommend optimal crop distributions in the face of a changing climate while simultaneously accounting for food security, freshwater resources, and livelihoods.

  2. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. Methods Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among women of reproductive age were obtained from the DEMOCOPHES project (1,875 subjects in 17 countries) and literature data (6,820 subjects from 8 countries). The exposures were assumed to comply with log-normal distributions. Neurotoxicity effects were estimated from a linear dose-response function with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost was based on lifetime income, adjusted for purchasing power parity. Results The hair-mercury concentrations were the highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Eastern Europe. The results suggest that, within the EU, more than 1.8 million children are born every year with MeHg exposures above the limit of 0.58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against neurotoxicity or any other adverse effects. Conclusions These estimates document that efforts to combat mercury pollution and to reduce MeHg exposures will have very substantial

  3. Yeast synthetic biology for high-value metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhubo; Liu, Yi; Guo, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, high-value metabolites have been produced through direct extraction from natural biological sources which are inefficient, given the low abundance of these compounds. On the other hand, these high-value metabolites are usually difficult to be synthesized chemically, due to their complex structures. In the last few years, the discovery of genes involved in the synthetic pathways of these metabolites, combined with advances in synthetic biology tools, has allowed the construction of increasing numbers of yeast cell factories for production of these metabolites from renewable biomass. This review summarizes recent advances in synthetic biology in terms of the use of yeasts as microbial hosts for the identification of the pathways involved in the synthesis, as well as for the production of high-value metabolites. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  4. The Portrait of Kuta village Community Economic Activities and Its Application as Economic Learning Source Based on Cultural Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Fitriana Afriza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve students’ knowledge and understanding on pattern development of economic activity on community that retain its local wisdom. Kuta village is located at Karangpaningal Village, Tambaksari District, Ciamis Regency. It is one of traditional villages which still maintains its traditions in harmony with nature. The research was a qualitative study and data were collected by using interviews, observation, and literature study. Findings show that there is a development of the community’s livelihood at Kuta Village. The scope of economic activity is still in micro scale. Then, there is a technological transformation in natural resource management. Therefore, it is very clear that local wisdom is very suitable for subject materials in the form of narratives, stories, posters, or comics.

  5. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  6. Hard times and European youth. The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-02-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Jenner, N; Polce, C; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G

    2014-02-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  8. Economics evaluation for on-site pyrolysis of kraft lignin to value-added chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Sherif; Chaouki, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a series of investigations on pyrolysis of lignin. After obtaining the necessary information regarding the quantity and quality of the obtained products, a first step economics evaluation for converting lignin into chemicals was essential. To accomplish this aim, a pyrolysis plant with a 50t/d capacity was designed, and the total capital investment and operating costs were estimated. Next, the minimal selling price of the obtained dry oil was calculated and the effect of crucial variables on the estimated price was examined. The key result indicates the estimated selling price would not compete with the price of the chemicals that are fossil fuel based, which is primarily due to the high cost of the feedstock. To overcome this challenge, different scenarios for reducing the selling price of the obtained oil, which consequently is helping by taking a place among the fossil fuel based chemicals, were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainability Analysis of Coffee Farming in Protected Forestof West Lampung Based on Enviromental Economic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fembriarti Erry Prasmatiwi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Study on sustainability of multistrata coffee systems is important related to community forest program. This research aims to study: (1 sustainability of coffee farming in protected forest of West Lampung (2 willingness to pay the external cost and its determinant factors. The study was conducted in Sumberjaya, West Lampung Regency from Juni to October 2009. The study used random sampling method with 50 protected forest farmers were interviewed. Extended Cost Benefit Analysis (ECBA was used to address the purpose (1 while analysis of ordinal logistic regression was to address the purpose (2 Financial analysis showed that coffee farming in protected forest is feasible with NPV of IDR 17,719,505/ha, BCR 1.86 and IRR 24.96%. Coffee with complex multipurpose shade (MPTS, multipurpose tree species generated highest NPV. Based on ECBA, sustainability depended on externality cost (environmental and social cost. Coffee farming was not sustainable (shown by negative NPV when externality cost was more than US $536/ha. When externality cost was 458 USD ha-1 year-1 (minimum value NPV is Rp1.648.633/ha, BCR 1,04 and IRR 26,88. Complex multipurpose shade coffee was the most sustainable among the systems. To sustain the environment, farmers willing to pay external cost in average of Rp475,660/year for soil conservation, planting more shade trees, environmental tax, and reforestation. Based on ordinal logistic regression, farm size, land productivity, household income, household size, and knowledge of forest benefits, positively influencid WTP. Policy of community forest (HKm permit that require a minimum of 400 trees/ha could improve sustainability of coffee farming.Key words: Coffee farming, sustainable, protection forest, economic value

  10. Distributions of positive correlations in sectoral value added growth in the global economic network*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-02-01

    International trade has grown considerably during the process of globalization. Complex supply chains for the production of goods have resulted in an increasingly connected International Trade Network (ITN). Traditionally, direct trade relations between industries have been regarded as mediators of supply and demand spillovers. With increasing network connectivity the question arises if higher-order relations become more important in explaining a national sector's susceptibility to supply and demand changes of its trading partner. In this study we address this question by investigating empirically to what extent the topological properties of the ITN provide information about positive correlations in the production of two industry sectors. We observe that although direct trade relations between industries serve as important indicators for correlations in the industries' value added growth, opportunities of substitution for required production inputs as well as second-order trade relations cannot be neglected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the relation between trade and economic productivity and can serve as a basis for the improvement of crisis spreading models that evaluate contagion threats in the case of a node's failure in the ITN.

  11. Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural resource management depends on exploitation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Sanchirico, James N; Baskett, Marissa L

    2018-02-13

    Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target a predator (piscivore) and its prey. We solve for the management (harvest) trajectory that maximizes net present value (NPV) for different ecological interactions and initial conditions that represent different levels of exploitation history. Optimal management trajectories generally approached similar harvest levels, but the pathways toward those levels varied considerably by ecological scenario. Application of the wrong harvest trajectory, which would happen if one type of ecological interaction were assumed but in fact another were occurring, generally led to only modest reductions in NPV. However, the risks were not equal across fleets: risks of incurring large losses of NPV and missing management targets were much higher in the fishery targeting piscivores, especially when piscivores were heavily depleted. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem approach might provide the greatest benefits when used to identify system states where management performs poorly with imperfect knowledge of system linkages so that management strategies can be adopted to avoid those states. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. VANTAGENS E DESVANTAGENS DA MENSURAÇAO DO LUCRO ECONOMICO USO DO ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED - EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Bockmann Siqueira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A globalização da economia, a velocidade e a qualidade das informações, o avanço das telecomunicações e da informatização e o aprimoramento de técnicas gerenciais são aspectos que contribuem de forma expressiva para a crescente e irreversível competitividade dos mercados. Nesse ambiente de rápidas mudanças, onde a busca por resultados e uma constante, o valor tem-se tornado cada vez mais questionado e discutido nas organizações, impondo-se-lhes a necessidade de estar permanentemente alertas e aptas a enfrentar as crises com vistas à produção de riquezas Para tanto as empresas estão sempre em busca de elementos que Ihes proporcionem um diferencial em relação à concorrência, quer seja em termos de estratégias, quer seja em termos de produtos, preços, informações na tecnologia. Dentro dente contexto, e que se desenvolve o presente trabalho, cujo objetivo c fazer uma analise do Economic Value Added - EVA, apresentando o fim a que o modelo se destina, segundo seus criadores, e confrontando diversos posicionamentos em relação it sua eficácia e eficiência, na tentativa de ressaltar seus aspectos positivos e negativos.

  13. APPLYING THE THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS TO INCREASE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED: PART 1—THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malan Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article, presented in two parts, explains how to apply the Theory of Constraints (TOC in a business to increase Economic Value Added (EVA. The first part deals with the theory, while the second part deals with the implementation. The goal of a business, the measurements of the goal and the priority of the measurements are discussed. The future reality of a company which implements TOC principles is shown through cause and effect to lead to an increase in EVA. The increase in EVA is caused by an increase in return on investment and a reduction in the cost of capital. The actions the company must take to increase EVA is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel, aangebied in twee dele, verduidelik hoe om die Teorie van Beperkinge (TVB in a besigheid toe te pas om Ekonomiese Toegevoegde Waarde (ETW te vermeerder. Die eerste gedeelte verduidelik die teorie, terwyl die tweede gedeelte die toepassing hanteer. Die doel van ’n besigheid, die maatstawwe van die doel en die prioriteit van die maatstawwe word bespreek. Deur middel van oorsaak en effek word gewys dat die toekomstige werklikheid van ’n besigheid wat TVB beginsels toepas lei tot ’n toename in ETW. Die toename in ETW word veroorsaak deur ’n toename in opbrengs op belegging en ’n afname in die koste van kapitaal. Die aksies wat ’n besigheid moet neem om ETW te vermeerder, word genoem.

  14. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  15. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B; Buhmann, Anne K; Seal, Charlotte E; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-08-13

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  16. High speed diesel consumption and economic growth in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal [Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon 122001 (India)

    2010-04-15

    This study probes the long-term equilibrium relationship among High Speed Diesel (HSD) consumption, real GDP and price of HSD in India using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration for the time span 1972-1973 to 2005-2006. Empirical results reveal that the series are cointegrated and long term income elasticity for HSD demand in India is 1.27 while that for short-run is 0.46. Both long-run and short-run price elasticities are found to be statistically insignificant. The study also establishes a short-run bi-directional causality between economic growth and HSD consumption and the existence of a long-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth to HSD consumption. Finally, a set of policy prescriptions have been suggested to reduce the consumption of HSD, which should have no adverse impact on economy in the long-run. (author)

  17. How high are option values in energy-efficiency investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Blumstein, C.; Stoft, S.E.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA,

    1995-01-01

    High implicit discount rates in consumers' energy-efficiency investments have long been a source of controversy. In several recent papers, Hassett and Metcalf argue that the uncertainty and irreversibility attendant to such investments, and the resulting option value, account for this anomalously high implicit discounting. Using their model and data, we show that, to the contrary, their analysis falls well short of providing an explanation of this pattern. (author)

  18. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Guobao; Zhen, Zijian; Wang, Peng; Li, Yang; Yin, Huaixian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effec...

  19. "Impact", "Value' and "Bad Economics": Making Sense of the Problem of Value in the Arts and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Questions around the value of the arts and humanities to the contemporary world and the benefits they are expected to bring to the society that supports them through funding have assumed an increased centrality within a number of disciplines, not limited to humanities scholarship. Especially problematic, yet crucial, is the issue of the…

  20. The travel cost method and the economic value of leisure time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent estimates of high values for tourist related recreation USA amenity values indicate that allocation of basic water and terrestrial resources to recreation activities should be given precedence over conventional market oriented activities that often degrade or even extirpate the resource. We discuss at length the travel cost method (TCM), a survey based technique that quantifies the non-market benefits of trips to recreation sites. The TCM has been cast in the role of an ‘umpire’ in recent resource allocation debates. Understanding the key role of the TCM in the debate will aid tourist agency officials throughout the world. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  1. The health impacts and economic value of wildland fire episodes in the U.S.: 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Neal; Alman, Breanna; Broome, Richard A; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Johnston, Fay H; Pouliot, George; Rappold, Ana G

    2018-01-01

    Wildland fires degrade air quality and adversely affect human health. A growing body of epidemiology literature reports increased rates of emergency departments, hospital admissions and premature deaths from wildfire smoke exposure. Our research aimed to characterize excess mortality and morbidity events, and the economic value of these impacts, from wildland fire smoke exposure in the U.S. over a multi-year period; to date no other burden assessment has done this. We first completed a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature and then performed photochemical air quality modeling for the years 2008 to 2012 in the continental U.S. Finally, we estimated the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden of wildland fires. Our models suggest that areas including northern California, Oregon and Idaho in the West, and Florida, Louisiana and Georgia in the East were most affected by wildland fire events in the form of additional premature deaths and respiratory hospital admissions. We estimated the economic value of these cases due to short term exposures as being between $11 and $20B (2010$) per year, with a net present value of $63B (95% confidence intervals $6-$170); we estimate the value of long-term exposures as being between $76 and $130B (2010$) per year, with a net present value of $450B (95% confidence intervals $42-$1200). The public health burden of wildland fires-in terms of the number and economic value of deaths and illnesses-is considerable. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Measuring economic value for tourism destination using contingent valuation method: The Sangiran Sites, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Zukhronah, E.; Handajani, S. S.; Irawan, BRM B.; Hakim, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This purpose of study aims to estimate the economic value for quality improvement in Sangiran, Indonesia. This paper used contingent valuation method. The study was found significant factors affecting the probability of individuals to be willing to pay for quality improvement are the nominal amount bid, gender, and income. The economic value of Sangiran sites tourism was estimated between Rp 2.219 billion per year until Rp 2.756 billion per year. This value can be a guidance for management of the Sangiran as a basic reason for Sangiran’s improvement. The improvement includes to add the collection, to build supporting infrastructure in Sangiran, to increase services, to arrange training for Sangiran staff, and others. The suggestion from this paper, we must support the local government for Sangiran improvement, because it can be profitable and it can give benefits from many aspects includes economic, historical, and education.

  3. THE ADVERTISING-VALUE-EQUIVALENT (AVE METHOD IN QUANTIFYING ECONOMIC VALUES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES: EXPERIENCE OF A PUBLIC-LISTED COMPANY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abu Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Why should public relations (PR not be evaluated for its economic value? Despite the point of its social or intangible values, the argument goes on and on in most management meetings where PR practitioners always face the challenges of justifying their worth – often in monetary terms. In an open dialogue with Grunig during his visit to Malaysia in 2004, this renowned PR guru also expressed the difficulty of quantifying the actual PR worth. It is best to qualify PR values by assessing its priceless relationships with the company’s stakeholders. However, in our routine business life, especially at the middle management level, the above question seems unavoidable. In enhancing excellence for PR and communication management, Ehling (1992 placed the logic underlying the economic values of PR on the relationship between benefits and costs associated with the implementation of a PR programme. The above question and problem serve as the main objective of this article. In exploring the solutions for the quantification of PR values in Malaysia, economic education is taken as a remedy for the absence of knowledge and skills in making intelligent decisions in the marketplace (Baskin et al., 1997; Lattimor et al., 2004. In this research context, the researchers (a combination of a practitioner and an academician respectively confined the scope to the experience of a selected public-listed company for its PR campaign implemented in 2004. Quantification was attempted by evaluating the assessment in print media exposures. All earned media coverage for that particular PR campaign was measured for the media type, space, position, and the corresponding advertising rate. Monetary value was assigned to every single piece of PR news in the way disbursements are made to paid media for advertising activities. The explication of this advertising-value-equivalent (AVE method in quantifying economic values for PR news with regard to the selected campaign was made

  4. Socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality and antibiotics use: A cross-cultural study among European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Lajunen, Timo; Gaygısız, Esma

    There are considerable cross-national differences in public attitudes towards antibiotics use, use of prescribed antibiotics, and self-medication with antibiotics even within Europe. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality characteristics and the antibiotic use in Europe. Data included scores from 27 European countries (14 countries for personality analysis). Correlations between socio-economic variables (Gross National Income per capita, governance quality, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, number of physicians), Hofstede's cultural value dimensions (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, indulgence), national personality characteristic (extraversion, neuroticism, social desirability) and antibiotic use were calculated and three regression models were constructed. Governance quality (r=-.51), mean years of schooling (r=-.61), power distance (r=.59), masculinity (r=.53), and neuroticism (r=.73) correlated with antibiotic use. The highest amount of variance in antibiotic use was accounted by the cultural values (65%) followed by socio-economic factors (63%) and personality factors (55%). Results show that socio-economic factors, cultural values and national personality characteristics explain cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe. In particular, governance quality, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and neuroticism were important factors explaining antibiotics use. The findings underline the importance of socio-economic and cultural context in health care and in planning public health interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The computational form of craving is a selective multiplication of economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konova, Anna B; Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W

    2018-04-17

    Craving is thought to be a specific desire state that biases choice toward the desired object, be it chocolate or drugs. A vast majority of people report having experienced craving of some kind. In its pathological form craving contributes to health outcomes in addiction and obesity. Yet despite its ubiquity and clinical relevance we still lack a basic neurocomputational understanding of craving. Here, using an instantaneous measure of subjective valuation and selective cue exposure, we identify a behavioral signature of a food craving-like state and advance a computational framework for understanding how this state might transform valuation to bias choice. We find desire induced by exposure to a specific high-calorie, high-fat/sugar snack good is expressed in subjects' momentary willingness to pay for this good. This effect is selective but not exclusive to the exposed good; rather, we find it generalizes to nonexposed goods in proportion to their subjective attribute similarity to the exposed ones. A second manipulation of reward size (number of snack units available for purchase) further suggested that a multiplicative gain mechanism supports the transformation of valuation during laboratory craving. These findings help explain how real-world food craving can result in behaviors inconsistent with preferences expressed in the absence of craving and open a path for the computational modeling of craving-like phenomena using a simple and repeatable experimental tool for assessing subjective states in economic terms. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  7. Finnish Highly Skilled Migrants and the European Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koikkalainen Saara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe is home to a globally unique area where the barriers of transnational migration have been largely removed. This article focuses on Finnish highly skilled, intra-European migrants and their labour market situation immediately following the economic crisis of 2008. Based on two consecutive online surveys (carried out in spring 2008 and summer 2010 of tertiary educated Finns living in other EU countries, the article examines the effects of the global economic downturn on the careers of these highly skilled migrants. Only 16 per cent of the respondents report that their labour market situation had worsened. A higher percentage (24% felt that their situation had improved and the majority (54% had either experienced no change in their situation or stated that their reasons for changing jobs or moving had nothing to do with the crisis. The article concludes that these migrants were protected from the full force of the crisis by their high human capital, flexibility of alternating between studying and work, employment in international workplaces and their intra-European migrant status.

  8. Potential value of electronic prescribing in health economic and outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Cooke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Catherine E Cooke1, Brian J Isetts2, Thomas E Sullivan3, Maren Fustgaard4, Daniel A Belletti51PosiHealth Inc., Ellicott City, MD, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems, University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Women’s Health Center, Danvers, MA, USA; 4Assistant Director for Regional Outcomes Research, 5Associate Director for Regional Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: Improving access and quality while reducing expenditures in the United States health system is expected to be a priority for many years. The use of health information technology (HIT, including electronic prescribing (eRx, is an important initiative in efforts aimed at improving safety and outcomes, increasing quality, and decreasing costs. Data from eRx has been used in studies that document reductions in medication errors, adverse drug events, and pharmacy order-processing time. Evaluating programs and initiatives intended to improve health care can be facilitated through the use of HIT and eRx. eRx data can be used to conduct research to answer questions about the outcomes of health care products, services, and new clinical initiatives with the goal of providing guidance for clinicians and policy makers. Given the recent explosive growth of eRx in the United States, the purpose of this manuscript is to assess the value and suggest enhanced uses and applications of eRx to facilitate the role of the practitioner in contributing to health economics and outcomes research.Keywords: electronic prescribing, outcomes research, health information technology

  9. Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Ing, Edwin

    2006-03-28

    The market for grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown dramatically in recent years, driven in large part by PV grant or ''buy-down'' programs in California, New Jersey, and many other states. The recent announcement of a new 11-year, $3.2 billion PV program in California suggests that state policy will continue to drive even faster growth over the next decade. Federal policy has also played a role, primarily by providing commercial PV systems access to tax benefits, including accelerated depreciation (5-year MACRS schedule) and a business energy investment tax credit (ITC). With the signing of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) on August 8, the federal government is poised to play a much more significant future role in supporting both commercial and residential PV systems. Specifically, EPAct increased the federal ITC for commercial PV systems from 10% to 30% of system costs, and also created a new 30% ITC (capped at $2000) for residential solar systems. Both changes went into effect on January 1, 2006, and--absent an extension (for which the solar industry has already begun lobbying)--will last for a period of two years: the new residential ITC will expire, and the 30% commercial ITC will revert back to 10%, on January 1, 2008. How much economic value do these new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers? And what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs? Using a generic (i.e., non-state-specific) cash flow model, this report explores these questions. We begin with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. We conclude with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for

  10. Using Copulas in the Estimation of the Economic Project Value in the Mining Industry, Including Geological Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysa, Zbigniew; Pactwa, Katarzyna; Wozniak, Justyna; Dudek, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Geological variability is one of the main factors that has an influence on the viability of mining investment projects and on the technical risk of geology projects. In the current scenario, analyses of economic viability of new extraction fields have been performed for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. underground copper mine at Fore Sudetic Monocline with the assumption of constant averaged content of useful elements. Research presented in this article is aimed at verifying the value of production from copper and silver ore for the same economic background with the use of variable cash flows resulting from the local variability of useful elements. Furthermore, the ore economic model is investigated for a significant difference in model value estimated with the use of linear correlation between useful elements content and the height of mine face, and the approach in which model parameters correlation is based upon the copula best matched information capacity criterion. The use of copula allows the simulation to take into account the multi variable dependencies at the same time, thereby giving a better reflection of the dependency structure, which linear correlation does not take into account. Calculation results of the economic model used for deposit value estimation indicate that the correlation between copper and silver estimated with the use of copula generates higher variation of possible project value, as compared to modelling correlation based upon linear correlation. Average deposit value remains unchanged.

  11. NILAI EKONOMI TOTAL KONVERSI LAHAN PERTANIAN DI KABUPATEN SLEMAN (Total Economic Value of the Land Agricultural Conversion in Sleman Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Harini

    2013-03-01

    conducted in Sleman Regency through survey methods using 90 respondents as the research samples. The study area is based on a conversion rate of the agricultural land during the period of 17 years. Through Landsat  TM images year 1992 and 2000, also Alos images year 2009, can be determined the conversion of agricultural land all regions in Sleman Regency. Data analysis is performed qualitatively and quantitatively using descriptive statistical test through test models Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR and also Total Economic Value (TEV model. The research result show there are varying levels of the agricultural land conversion in Sleman Regency. The assessment result using TEV method is obtained that in the zone 1 region, the economic value of wetland farming is lower than the area of zone 2, while in the region of zone 3 has a high value. The level of pollution is caused by the conversion of agricultural land which impacted on the results of wetland farming activities. The most pollution which is assumed by the farmers recently is water pollution, otherwise the soil and the air contamination, there is no response by them. The conversion of the agricultural land also impacts to the production of commodities.  The commodities production is also influenced by the area of wetland, technology and productivity in each zone of the study area.

  12. Wetting dynamics at high values of contact line speed

    OpenAIRE

    Пономарев, К. О.; Феоктистов, Дмитрий Владимирович; Орлова, Евгения Георгиевна

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results analyses of dynamic contact angle change under the conditions of substrate wetting by distilled water at high values of the contact line speed was conducted. Three spreading modes for copper substrates with different roughness were selected: drop formation, spreading and equilibrium contact angle formation. Peculiarity of droplet spreading on superhydrophobic surface is found. It consists in a monotonic increase of the advancing dynamic contact angle. The effect of the dr...

  13. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Kelly, Steven

    2017-09-01

    The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules. This review provides a broad overview of the successes, challenges and future prospects for genetic engineering in plants and algae for enhanced or de novo production of biomolecules. The toolbox of technologies and strategies that have been used to engineer metabolism are discussed, and the potential use of engineered plants for industrial manufacturing of large quantities of high-value compounds is explored. This review also discusses the routes that have been taken to modify the profiles of primary metabolites for increasing the nutritional quality of foods as well as the production of specialized metabolites, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. As the universe of high-value biosynthetic pathways continues to expand, and the tools to engineer these pathways continue to develop, it is likely plants and algae will become increasingly valuable for the biomanufacturing of high-value compounds.

  14. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  15. Microprocessor-controlled meter of high Q-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun'kov, S.N.; Konstantinov, V.I.; Masalov, V.L.; Sevrukova, L.M.; Tokarev, A.D.; Usiv, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the functional model of a high-precision microcomputer-controlled test facility for studying the electric and physical parameters of superconducting cavities. The basic unit of the test facility is high-stability retunable RF oscillator. It is designed following the scheme of the frequency phase tuning using standard equipment. The systematic error in measuring the loaded Q-value of reentrant cavities is not larger than 5%. A dedicated built-in microcomputer is used to control the measuring test facility and to make the commutations required. 2 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  17. Health economics of rubella: a systematic review to assess the value of rubella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Morgan, Ian; Levin, Ann

    2013-04-29

    Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health economic evaluations of rubella and CRS to identify gaps in the evidence base and suggest possible areas of future research to support the planned global expansion of rubella vaccination and efforts towards potential rubella elimination and eradication. We performed a systematic search of on-line databases and identified articles published between 1970 and 2012 on costs of rubella and CRS treatment and the costs, cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit of rubella vaccination. We reviewed the studies and categorized them by the income level of the countries in which they were performed, study design, and research question answered. We analyzed their methodology, data sources, and other details. We used these data to identify gaps in the evidence and to suggest possible future areas of scientific study. We identified 27 studies: 11 cost analyses, 11 cost-benefit analyses, 4 cost-effectiveness analyses, and 1 cost-utility analysis. Of these, 20 studies were conducted in high-income countries, 5 in upper-middle income countries and two in lower-middle income countries. We did not find any studies conducted in low-income countries. CRS was estimated to cost (in 2012 US$) between $4,200 and $57,000 per case annually in middle-income countries and up to $140,000 over a lifetime in high-income countries. Rubella vaccination programs, including the vaccination of health workers, children, and women had favorable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost-benefit ratios in high- and middle-income countries. Treatment of CRS is costly and rubella vaccination programs are highly cost-effective. However, in order for research to support the

  18. Enhancing Sustainable Innovation by Design: an Approach to the Co-creation of Economic, Social and Environmental Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Rocchi

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis introduces a new, flexible and easy-to-use methodological design approach to envisioning product-service systems able to create economic value for business, as well as social and environmental benefits for society. Such an approach has been developed to support business

  19. Analisis Determinasi Financial Performance Perusahaan Industri Manufaktur Makanan Dan Minuman Yang Go Public Suatu Pendekatan Metode Economic Value Added (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Affandi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to obtain empirical evidence concerning the effect of Financial Performance Determinant (Capital Structure and Profit Margin on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA method at the food and beverage manufacture business sectors. The results of this study is expected to contribute for the development of financial management and strategic management. The study was carried out at the food and beverage manufacture business sectors registered in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The characteristic of this study is confirmatory research. The research method used is associative and explanatory, and to hypothesis testing of the research has used multiple regression. Sampling method is used purposive sampling with total sample are 15 corporate registered in Bursa Efek Indonesia during 2006-2007 period. While for data processing is used SPSS 14.0 for windows programs. The result of this study is: The first hypothesis testing founded theres the significant effect of capital structure on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA. The second hypothesis testing founded theres the significant effect of profit margin on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA. So, in the EVA predicting can used capital structure and profit margin indicators, because capital structure and profit margin both have a significant effect on effectively Economic Value Added (EVA.

  20. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  1. The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehnberg Clas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.

  2. Optimizing the Wood Value Chain in Northern Norway Taking Into Account National and Regional Economic Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Johansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of past decades of extensive afforestation in Norway, mature forest volumes are increasing. National forestry politics call for sustainable and efficient resource usage and for increased regional processing. Regional policies seek to provide good conditions for such industries to be competitive and to improve regional value creation. We demonstrate how methods from operations research and regional macro-economics may complement each other to support decision makers in this process. The operations research perspective is concerned with finding an optimally designed wood value chain and an aggregated planning of its operations, taking a holistic perspective on strategic-tactical level. Using Input-Output analysis methods based on statistics and survey data, regional macro-economics helps to estimate each industry actor’s value creation and impact on society beyond immediate value chain activities. Combining these approaches in a common mathematical optimization model, a balance can be struck between industry/business and regional political interests. For a realistic case study from the northern part of coastal Norway, we explore this balance from several perspectives, investigating value chain profits, economic ripple effects and regional resource usage.

  3. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  4. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to uniquely assign total angular momentum () values to high-lying even-parity energy levels of atomic samarium. Unique value assignment was done for seven energy levels in the energy region 34,800–36,200 cm-1 , recently observed and reported in ...

  5. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience

  6. Bust economics: foragers choose high quality habitats in lean times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny S. Bleicher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In environments where food resources are spatially variable and temporarily impoverished, consumers that encounter habitat patches with different food density should focus their foraging initially where food density is highest before they move to patches where food density is lower. Increasing missed opportunity costs should drive individuals progressively to patches with lower food density as resources in the initially high food density patches deplete. To test these expectations, we assessed the foraging decisions of two species of dasyurid marsupials (dunnarts: Sminthopsis hirtipes and S. youngsoni during a deep drought, or bust period, in the Simpson Desert of central Australia. Dunnarts were allowed access to three patches containing different food densities using an interview chamber experiment. Both species exhibited clear preference for the high density over the lower food density patches as measured in total harvested resources. Similarly, when measuring the proportion of resources harvested within the patches, we observed a marginal preference for patches with initially high densities. Models analyzing behavioral choices at the population level found no differences in behavior between the two species, but models analyzing choices at the individual level uncovered some variation. We conclude that dunnarts can distinguish between habitat patches with different densities of food and preferentially exploit the most valuable. As our observations were made during bust conditions, experiments should be repeated during boom times to assess the foraging economics of dunnarts when environmental resources are high.

  7. Diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in the obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Dong Yuhai; Yin Jie; Lv Guoyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in patients with obstructive jaundice. Methods: Routine MRI and MRCP examination on 161 patients with obstructive jaundice were carded out with 1.5T Siemens super-conductive magnetic resonance machine. Of them, 103 cases were benign lesions and 58 were malignant after surgical and ERCP pathological confirmation. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of MRCP was 100%, with the qualitative diagnostic accuracy at 90.2%. Conclusion: MRCP was the best method in diagnosing patients with obstructive jaundice, the concerned performances of MRCP could provide the dependable basis for surgical operation project. (authors)

  8. Relationship among performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics, and their ability to predict economic value in the feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K M; Faulkner, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nkrumah, J D; Shike, D W

    2013-12-01

    A 4-yr study was conducted using 736 steers of known Angus, Simmental, or Simmental × Angus genetics to determine performance, carcass, and feed efficiency factors that explained variation in economic performance. Steers were pen fed and individual DMI was recorded using a GrowSafe automated feeding system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada). Steers consumed a similar diet and received similar management each year. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine current economic value of feed efficiency and 2) identify performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics that predict: carcass value, profit, cost of gain, and feed costs. Economic data used were from 2011 values. Feed efficiency values investigated were: feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed to gain), residual feed intake (RFI), residual BW gain (RG), and residual intake and BW gain (RIG). Dependent variables were carcass value ($/steer), profit ($/steer), feed costs ($/steer • d(-1)), and cost of gain ($/kg). Independent variables were year, DMI, ADG, HCW, LM area, marbling, yield grade, dam breed, and sire breed. A 10% improvement in RG (P Profit increased with a 10% improvement in feed efficiency (P profit. Eighty-five percent of the variation in cost of gain was explained by ADG, DMI, HCW, and year. Prediction equations were developed that excluded ADG and DMI, and included feed efficiency values. Using these equations, cost of gain was explained primarily by FCR (R(2) = 0.71). Seventy-three percent of profitability was explained, with 55% being accounted for by RG and marbling. These prediction equations represent the relative importance of factors contributing to economic success in feedlot cattle based on current prices.

  9. Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather A. Sander; Robert G. Haight

    2012-01-01

    A need exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of the values associated with ecosystem services and amenities. This article explores the use of hedonic pricing as a tool for eliciting these values. We take a case study approach, valuing several services provided by ecosystems, namely aesthetic quality (views), access to outdoor recreation, and the benefits...

  10. High value of ecological information for river connectivity restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua; Bradley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ContextEfficient restoration of longitudinal river connectivity relies on barrier mitigation prioritization tools that incorporate stream network spatial structure to maximize ecological benefits given limited resources. Typically, ecological benefits of barrier mitigation are measured using proxies such as the amount of accessible riverine habitat.ObjectivesWe developed an optimization approach for barrier mitigation planning which directly incorporates the ecology of managed taxa, and applied it to an urbanizing salmon-bearing watershed in Alaska.MethodsA novel river connectivity metric that exploits information on the distribution and movement of managed taxon was embedded into a barrier prioritization framework to identify optimal mitigation actions given limited restoration budgets. The value of ecological information on managed taxa was estimated by comparing costs to achieve restoration targets across alternative barrier prioritization approaches.ResultsBarrier mitigation solutions informed by life history information outperformed those using only river connectivity proxies, demonstrating high value of ecological information for watershed restoration. In our study area, information on salmon ecology was typically valued at 0.8–1.2 M USD in costs savings to achieve a given benefit level relative to solutions derived only from stream network information, equating to 16–28% of the restoration budget.ConclusionsInvesting in ecological studies may achieve win–win outcomes of improved understanding of aquatic ecology and greater watershed restoration efficiency.

  11. Value Added Tax Impacton Economic Activity: Importance, Implication and Assessment –The Romanian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MUREȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of VAT upon the economic activity in Romania. By developing a new mathematical model we offer several dy-namic and effcient possibilities for observing the modifcations caused by the temporary reduc-tion of taxes upon the personal incomes which suggest that the resulting additional incomes are often saved and less consumed. Analyzing several temporary reductions in incomes, the model describes also a scheme regarding the developments of economic growth. Based on this scheme, are revealed the different arrangements in which a present economic activity infuences a future one. According to the proposed model, it is highlighted that the national income increases as a response to the aggregated demand.

  12. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  13. Forecasting Value-at-Risk Using High-Frequency Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available in the prediction of quantiles of daily Standard&Poor’s 500 (S&P 500 returns we consider how to use high-frequency 5-minute data. We examine methods that incorporate the high frequency information either indirectly, through combining forecasts (using forecasts generated from returns sampled at different intraday interval, or directly, through combining high frequency information into one model. We consider subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging methods for the indirect case, and factor models with principal component approach, for both direct and indirect cases. We show that in forecasting the daily S&P 500 index return quantile (Value-at-Risk or VaR is simply the negative of it, using high-frequency information is beneficial, often substantially and particularly so, in forecasting downside risk. Our empirical results show that the averaging methods (subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging, which serve as different ways of forming the ensemble average from using high-frequency intraday information, provide an excellent forecasting performance compared to using just low-frequency daily information.

  14. Economic modeling of sealing primary molars using a "value of information" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, J P; van der Goes, D N; Chi, D L

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate 2 primary molar sealant strategies for publicly insured children using an "expected value of perfect information" (EVPI) approach. We converted a 10,000-observation tooth-level cost-effectiveness simulation model comparing 2 primary molar sealant strategies - always seal (AS) and standard care (SC) - with a 1,250-observation child-level model. Costs per child per restoration or extraction averted were estimated. Opportunity losses under the AS strategy were determined for children for whom SC was the optimal choice. We determined the EVPI by multiplying mean opportunity losses by the projected incident population of publicly insured 3-year-olds in the US over 10 years with costs discounted at 2%. All analyses were conducted under assumptions of high and low intrachild correlations between at-risk teeth. The AS strategy cost $43.68 over SC (95% CI: -$5.50, $92.86) per child per restoration or extraction averted under the high intrachild correlation assumption and $15.54 (95% CI $7.86, $23.20) under the low intrachild correlation. Under high intrachild correlation, mean opportunity losses were $80.28 (95% CI: $76.39, $84.17) per child, and AS was the optimal strategy in 31% of children. Under low correlation, mean opportunity losses were $14.61 (95% CI: $12.20, $17.68) and AS was the optimal strategy in 87% of children. The EVPI was calculated at $530,813,740 and $96,578,389 (for high and low intrachild correlation, respectively), for a projected total incident population of 8,059,712 children. On average, always sealing primary molars is more effective than standard care, but widespread implementation of this preventive approach among publicly insured children would result in large opportunity losses. Additional research is needed to identify the subgroups of publicly insured children who would benefit the most from this effective and potentially cost-saving public health intervention. © International & American Associations for Dental

  15. Economic value of ecosystem services in Protected Landscape Areas n the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daněk, Jan; Vačkář, David; Lorencová, Eliška

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 99-112 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecosystem services * economic valuation * Protected Landscape Areas * forest ecosystems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  16. Nonmarket economic values of forest insect pests: An updated literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Rosenberger; Lauren A. Bell; Patricia A. Champ; Eric. L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    This report updates the literature review and synthesis of economic valuation studies on the impacts of forest insect pests by Rosenberger and Smith (1997). A conceptual framework is presented to establish context for the studies. This report also discusses the concept of ecosystem services; identifies key elements of each study; examines areas of future research; and...

  17. Science You Can Use Bulletin: Wildfire triage: Targeting mitigation based on social, economic, and ecological values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl Malcolm; Matthew Thompson; Dave Calkin; Mark Finney; Alan Ager

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the risks of wildfire relative to the valuable resources found in any managed landscape requires an interdisciplinary approach. Researchers at the Rocky Mountain Research Station and Western Wildland Threat Assessment Center developed such a process, using a combination of techniques rooted in fire modeling and ecology, economics, decision sciences, and the...

  18. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  19. Economic value of non-timber forest products among Paser Indigenous People of East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saragih, Bernaulus

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forestry in Indonesia is facing challenges in terms of sustainability and the survival of its inhabitant, indigenous people, not least because the perception of policymakers is that, since the 1970s, forests have provided a major solution to economic development by producing timber,

  20. Smart electric grids. Economic and environmental value, general implementation. September 2017. Contribution by RTE - Full report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This report is the RTE's contribution to studies commissions by public authorities on the social and economic valorisation of smart grids for the different actors. It first proposes an overview of the various considered technical and technological solutions: storage, active management of residential, tertiary and industrial demand, and steerability of renewable energies. After a recall of objectives related to the development of smart grids, the report reviews the methodological framework adopted for a previous study (general principles, modelling principles for the electricity system operation, use of the Flexis model, economic and environmental assessment), and proposes an overview of methodological developments achieved since 2015. It discusses how this study compares with others related to smart grid flexibility published in France and in Europe. Then, after having stated some hypotheses, the report presents the analytical framework for quantitative results, discusses economic and environmental assessments performed for each solution (storage, active management for different sectors, and steerability of wind energy production). The next part presents different global economically relevant scenarios of smart grid deployment, with assessments by 2030

  1. Fair Value Measurement under IFRS 13: A Faithful Representation of Real-World Economic Phenomena?

    OpenAIRE

    Palea Vera; Maino Renato

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss IFRS 13 with regard to private equity valuation We raise issues on the fair value definition as an exit price and question the reliability of valuation techniques which are categorized into Level 2 fair value hierarchy. Our paper questions whether fair value as defined by IFRS 13 is an appropriate measure for private equities and can contribute to enhancing transparency and comparability in financial statements, which is one of the purposes of the IASB and the Europe...

  2. Revealing Components of the Economic Value for Environmental Goods and Services from Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    The overall purpose and contribution of this thesis is increasing the understanding of components of the value of environmental goods. It investigates how the public perceive environmental goods (lay people’s perception) and the elements of it that they value. Providing such knowledge contributes...... to improving valuation methods, e.g. the use of the Choice Experiment (CE) for valuing forest biodiversity conservation. Increasing knowledge of lay people’s perception and mental constructs of environmental goods can help researchers to know how they can present environmental goods in CEs which align...... with respondents’ perceptions and to further understand the appropriate way of measuring these values....

  3. The economic value of transportation energy contingency planning: An objective model for analyzing the economics of domestic renewable energy for supply augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaten, Richard Jay

    1998-12-01

    Petroleum provides 90% of transportation energy needs. Domestic production is decreasing and global demand is increasing. Risk of escalating prices and supply interruptions are compounded by environmental and military externalities and lost opportunities from the failure to develop alternative domestic resources. Within the context of "energy contingency planning" municipalities should evaluate crisis mitigation strategies. Supply augmentation using domestic renewable fuels is proposed to avert future financial liabilities. A method for calculating the economic value of this strategy is demonstrated. An objective function and associated constraints represent the cost of preparing for each of three possible scenarios: status quo, inflationary and crisis. Constraints ensure that municipal fuel needs are met. Environmental costs may be included. Optimal solutions determine the fuel supply mix for each scenario. A 3 x 3 matrix presents the range of actual costs resulting from preparing for each scenario and subsequent three possible outcomes. The distribution of probabilities of the outcomes is applied to the cost matrix and an "expected value" of preparing for each scenario is calculated. An unanticipated crisis outcome results in. The expected value of the cost of preparing for a crisis is cast as an insurance premium against potential economic liability. Policy makers accept the crisis preparation fuel mix if: (a) they agree with the calculated penalty cost, or (b) they accept the burden of the insurance premium. Green Bay Wisconsin was chosen as a sample municipality. Results show that a perceived 10% chance of crisis requires an annual tax of 4.00 per household to avert economic impacts of 50 million. At a perceived 50% chance of crisis preparing for the crisis would begin to save the municipality money.

  4. High-Value Care in the Evaluation of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urja, Prakrity; Nippoldt, Eric H; Barak, Virginia; Valenta, Carrie

    2017-08-01

    ) evaluation.  Appropriate medical treatment with antiplatelets, as indicated by the acute stroke guidelines, was started. The patient was not eligible for thrombolysis. Value-based care emphasizes the decreased usage in investigations or health care of options that do not contribute to the overall health and well-being of the patient. Given our patient's past medical history and the results of previous investigations, we questioned the value of ordering a hypercoagulable evaluation and TEE in our patient. The need for an evaluation of the hypercoagulable state in an elderly patient with ischemic stroke or TIA remains unknown. Our patient had a complete hypercoagulable evaluation done six years earlier. Repeating the hypercoagulable evaluation would not contribute to the treatment decisions and, as a result, would not satisfy the basic criteria for value-based care.The importance of a repeat TEE is uncertain in the evaluation of embolism for a known cause of stroke. Additionally, no change in management was anticipated regardless of the TEE findings, therefore, repeating TEE in our patient was an inappropriate use of resources. Being mindful of value-based care can reduce overall health care costs, maintain our role of being responsible stewards of our limited resources, and continue to provide high-value care for our patients.

  5. Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services and amenities are undeniable valuable. However, their values are poorly recognized and, as a result, ecosystem services and amenities tend to be treated as though valueless. A need thus exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of these values. In this ...

  6. Economic Analysis on Value Chain of Taxi Fleet with Battery-Swapping Mode Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Ning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic analysis model on value chain of taxi fleet with battery-swapping mode in a pilot city. In the model, economic benefits of charging-swapping station group, taxi company, and taxi driver in the region have been taken into consideration. Thus, the model is a multiobjective function and multiobjective genetic algorithm is used to solve this problem. According to the real data collected from the pilot city, the multiobjective genetic algorithm is tested as an effective method to solve this problem. Furthermore, the effects of price of electricity, price of battery package, life cycle of battery package, cost of battery-swapping devices and infrastructure, and driving mileage per day on the benefits of value holders are analyzed, which provide theoretical and practical reference for the deployment of electric vehicles, for the national subsidy criteria adjusment, technological innovation instruction, commercial mode selection, and infrastructure construction.

  7. Valuing carbon assets for high-tech with application to the wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Liyan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Qiang; Huang, Gubo

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the traditional methods for high-tech evaluation, we introduce a new, more active idea for considering the carbon asset effect, in addition to the economic and technological considerations for strategic significance. The method proposed in this paper considers a reduced amount of carbon emissions, less than that of the current industry baseline, to be an asset that is beneficial to a firm that adopts a new technology. The measured carbon asset values vary across different technologies, in different industries and over time. The new method is applied to the valuing of wind energy technology and uses the Weibull distribution to estimate the wind energy capacity and a concrete sensitivity analysis. These applications support the validity of the new method and show that the impact of the fluctuations of carbon sinks on the values of carbon assets is significantly greater than that of volatility in the production output. The paper also presents some policy recommendations based on the results. - Highlights: • Carbon asset dimension for high-tech evaluation. • Valuing wind energy technology by Weibull distribution. • Greater impact of the carbon sink price on the carbon asset value than that of production output. • The environmental risk could be measured based on the carbon asset assessment.

  8. Increasing economic stability of the industrial enterprise as a result of its market value modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efimova M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an urgent problem of the Russian and global economic stability. The issues of management of the modern industrial enterprise in the conditions of variable economy are considered in this research. Also the article highlights the importance of evaluation of industrial enterprises in Russia nowadays. The management model of the industrial enterprise cost based on sustainability criteria is constructed. The author focuses on new approaches to mathematic modeling of business evaluation. The article contains graphs and charts related to performance of enterprise system and different business strategies based on economic sustainability. Relevant problems of management by means of business assessment for enterprises owners and top managers are defined. The aim of the article is to suggest measures for the Russian industry to manage the cost of enterprises and consequently, to make national economy management more effective.

  9. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf, Origanum vulgare (aerial parts, Paeonia emodi (tubers, and Peganum harmala (seeds was also carried out for the first time.

  10. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  12. The Riches of the Ocean for Humankind: Rethinking Value in Economics and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orio Giarini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We acknowledge the inadequacy of the ancient model to develop the wealth of nations and the recognition that both economics and ecology are the best possible ways to manage world and human resources to achieve a better wealth of nations. The rebuilding of economics and of a credible strategy for increasing the wealth and well-being of nations is today at the center of the problem of providing a sound basis for the legitimacy and credibility of public institutions and governments. If the dichotomy between traditional economic goals and new ecological and environmental requirements for sustainable development will not credibly combine, the political consensus and the legitimacy of governments at the local, national, and international levels will have a tendency to produce on the new liberalizing world disaggregation effects that could be as extensive as those witnessed in former Marxist countries. The oceans are a fundamental part of this patrimony and Elisabeth Mann* should be remembered for her very important dedication on this issue.

  13. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON PUBLIC SERVICES OF SOCIAL VALUE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Anda Ioana

    2013-07-01

    equal opportunities, financial security during illness not as simple care of the sick. The paper includes analysis related to: the structure of social protection in our country, the scope of these services, the relationship between social protection and poverty, the way and the degree to which social protection deepens or contribute to poverty reduction. The economic crisis triggered in Europe in 2008that also affects Romania, negatively influenced the evolution of social funds in key areas of public interest, education, health and social care. This results from: decreasing share of social spending in the state budget, decreasing share of these expenses in the total family budget due to lower purchasing power and thus the obligation of individual to reduce or waive some costs of this kind, central and local government bodies inability to meet certain service requirements such at the level of the population and especially low-income population groups. Located in the crisis situation the state must seek solutions to keep social services at an appropriate level because the quantity and quality of these services have an impact upon quality of life and standard of living of many individuals. The results of the analysis indicates us a reduced benefit for this type of service, in our country, with negative effects over the entire society. The conclusions aim to support the fact that social policy from our country is insufficient in relation to the real needs of the population, being strongly influenced by domestic economic situation and the size of the global economic crisis.

  14. Marketing strategies to add economic value, reactions on corporate social responsibility advertising in print media: an Indian company case

    OpenAIRE

    Karunamoorthy, S; Selvarasu, A.; Filipe, J.

    2013-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility advertising (CSR Advertising) results from commercial advertising, having social dimensions. This concept works as a marketing tool of cause-related marketing (CR Marketing). In this study, the case of IOCL (an Indian oil company) is presented to show how the company creates innovative advertising ideas, serves the society, contributes to save environmental natural resources and allows to add economic value. In addition to the usual ways of commercial advertisi...

  15. Efficient Operation of a Multi-purpose Reservoir in Chile: Integration of Economic Water Value for Irrigation and Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Moreno, R.

    2016-12-01

    Operation of hydropower reservoirs in Chile is prescribed by an Independent Power System Operator. This study proposes a methodology that integrates power grid operations planning with basin-scale multi-use reservoir operations planning. The aim is to efficiently manage a multi-purpose reservoir, in which hydroelectric generation is competing with other water uses, most notably irrigation. Hydropower and irrigation are competing water uses due to a seasonality mismatch. Currently, the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs with substantial power capacity is prescribed as the result of a grid-wide cost-minimization model which takes irrigation requirements as constraints. We propose advancing in the economic co-optimization of reservoir water use for irrigation and hydropower at the basin level, by explicitly introducing the economic value of water for irrigation represented by a demand function for irrigation water. The proposed methodology uses the solution of a long-term grid-wide operations planning model, a stochastic dual dynamic program (SDDP), to obtain the marginal benefit function for water use in hydropower. This marginal benefit corresponds to the energy price in the power grid as a function of the water availability in the reservoir and the hydrologic scenarios. This function allows capture technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoir in the power grid and is generated with the dual variable of the power-balance constraint, the optimal reservoir operation and the hydrologic scenarios used in SDDP. The economic value of water for irrigation and hydropower are then integrated into a basin scale stochastic dynamic program, from which stored water value functions are derived. These value functions are then used to re-optimize reservoir operations under several inflow scenarios.

  16. Economic Value of Narrowing the Uncertainty in Climate Sensitivity: Decadal Change in Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing and Low Cloud Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R. M.; Golub, A. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Young, D. F.; Baize, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Several previous studies have been published on the economic value of narrowing the uncertainty in climate sensitivity (Cooke et al. 2015, Cooke et al. 2016, Hope, 2015). All three of these studies estimated roughly 10 Trillion U.S. dollars for the Net Present Value and Real Option Value at a discount rate of 3%. This discount rate is the nominal discount rate used in the U.S. Social Cost of Carbon Memo (2010). The Cooke et al studies approached this problem by examining advances in accuracy of global temperature measurements, while the Hope 2015 study did not address the type of observations required. While temperature change is related to climate sensitivity, large uncertainties of a factor of 3 in current anthropogenic radiative forcing (IPCC, 2013) would need to be solved for advanced decadal temperature change observations to assist the challenge of narrowing climate sensitivity. The present study takes a new approach by extending the Cooke et al. 2015,2016 papers to replace observations of temperature change to observations of decadal change in the effects of changing clouds on the Earths radiative energy balance, a measurement known as Cloud Radiative Forcing, or Cloud Radiative Effect. Decadal change in this observation is direclty related to the largest uncertainty in climate sensitivity which is cloud feedback from changing amount of low clouds, primarily low clouds over the world's oceans. As a result, decadal changes in shortwave cloud radiative forcing are more directly related to cloud feedback uncertainty which is the dominant uncertainty in climate sensitivity. This paper will show results for the new approach, and allow an examination of the sensitivity of economic value results to different observations used as a constraint on uncertainty in climate sensitivity. The analysis suggests roughly a doubling of economic value to 20 Trillion Net Present Value or Real Option Value at 3% discount rate. The higher economic value results from two changes: a

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLECTING ECONOMIC AND OTHER GENERAL FACTORS’ INFLUENCE ON THE VALUE OF PUBLIC COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To make the right decision in regard to the expression of the value of property, equipment or something else, first for appraiser it is necessary to examine the general economic and other factors that may affect the expression of the value of the company. Especially there is a need to pay attention to devote to the expression value of a public company, because the public companies manage property that stems in part by funds from the budget. This is especially important in the case of a country that aspires to become an EU member. The Republic of Serbia signed the first two chapters with the EU in December 2015. Chapter 32 imperatively requires that the Republic of Serbia begins important application of fair expression of value of the property of public enterprises, because it is a section that requires audit activities of the entire public users, and therefore the company.

  18. Value at Risk and Hedge Fund Return - Does High Risk Bring High Return?

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Tao; Zhao, Hongxiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the correlation between live hedge fund return and their value at risk (VaR), and is based on the historical data from May 2000 to April 2010. The authors adopt portfolio level analyses and fund level cross-sectional regression, and find that there is significant positive correlation, both statistically and economically, between the hedge fund return and VaRs (parametric, non-parametric and GARCH). Further research is conducted by sub-dividing the overall period i...

  19. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  20. Evolution of the societal value of water resources for economic development versus environmental sustainability in Australia from 1843 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Wei, J., , Dr; Western, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The scale of human activity in the last 200 years has reached a point where our actions are affecting the global biophysical environment to such a degree and at such a speed that irreversible effects are being observed. Societal values are generally seen as leading to changes in human decisions and actions, but have not been addressed adequately in current water management, which is blind to changes in the social drivers for, or societal responses to, management decisions. This paper describes the evolution of societal value of water resources in Australia over a period of 169 years. These values were classified into two groups: supporting economic development versus supporting environmental sustainability. The Sydney Morning Herald newspaper was used as the main data source to track the changes in the societal value of water resources. Content analysis was used to create a description of the evolution of these societal values. Mathematical regression analysis, in combination of transition theory, was used to determine the stages of transition of the societal value, and the co-evolved social-ecological framework was used to explain how the evolution of societal values interacted with water management policies/practices and droughts. Key findings included that the transition of the societal value of water resources fitted the sigmoid curve - a conceptual S curve for the transition of social systems. Also, the transition of societal value of water resources in Australia went through three stages: (1) pre-development (1900s-1960s), when the societal value of water resources was dominated by economic development; (2) take-off (1962-1980), when the societal value of water resources reflected the increasing awareness of the environment due to the outbreak of pollution events; (3) acceleration (1981-2011), when the environment-oriented societal value of water resources combined with the Millennium Drought to trigger a package of policy initiatives and management practices

  1. The Importance of Economic Perspective and Quantitative Approaches in Oncology Value Frameworks of Drug Selection and Shared Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, A Reginald; Botteman, Marc F; White, Richard E; van Hout, Ben A

    2017-06-01

    The debate around value in oncology drug selection has been prominent in recent years, and several professional bodies have furthered this debate by advocating for so-called value frameworks. Herein, we provide a viewpoint on these value frameworks, emphasizing the need to consider 4 key aspects: (1) the economic underpinnings of value; (2) the importance of the perspective adopted in the valuation; (3) the importance of the difference between absolute and relative measures of risk and measuring patient preferences; and (4) the recognition of multiple quality-of-life (QoL) domains, and the aggregation and valuation of those domains, through utilities within a multicriteria decision analysis, may allow prioritization of QoL above the tallying of safety events, particularly in a value framework focusing on the individual patient. While several frameworks exist, they incorporate different attributes and-importantly-assess value from alternative perspectives, including those of patients, regulators, payers, and society. The various perspectives necessarily lead to potentially different, if not sometimes divergent, conclusions about the valuation. We show that the perspective of the valuation affects the framing of the risk/benefit question and the methodology to measure the individual patient choice, or preference, as opposed to the collective, or population, choice. We focus specifically on the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Value Framework. We argue that its laudable intent to assist in shared clinician-patient decision making can be augmented by more formally adopting methodology underpinned by micro- and health economic concepts, as well as application of formal quantitative approaches. Our recommendations for value frameworks focusing on the individual patient, such as the ASCO Value Framework, are 3-fold: (1) ensure that stakeholders understand the importance of the adopted (economic) perspective; (2) consider using exclusively absolute measures of

  2. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. METHODS: Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among...... with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost.......58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million...

  3. Notes from the field: the economic value chain in disease management organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald

    2006-12-01

    The disease management (DM) "value chain" is composed of a linear series of steps that include operational milestones in the development of knowledge, each stage evolving from the preceding one. As an adaptation of Michael Porter's "value chain" model, the process flow in DM moves along the following path: (1) data/information technology, (2) information generation, (3) analysis, (4) assessment/recommendations, (5) actionable customer plan, and (6) program assessment/reassessment. Each of these stages is managed as a major line of product operations within a DM company or health plan. Metrics around each of the key production variables create benchmark milestones, ongoing management insight into program effectiveness, and potential drivers for activity-based cost accounting pricing models. The value chain process must remain robust from early entry of data and information into the system, through the final presentation and recommendations for our clients if the program is to be effective. For individuals involved in the evaluation or review of DM programs, this framework is an excellent method to visualize the key components and sequence in the process. The value chain model is an excellent way to establish the value of a formal DM program and to create a consultancy relationship with a client involved in purchasing these complex services.

  4. Economic feasibility of high-temperature reactors for industrial cogeneration. An investor's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampe, Jona; Madlener, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the economic potential of using high-temperature nuclear reactors (HTRs) for cogeneration of industrial process heat and electricity. A reference case HTR is found to deliver cost-competitive process heat with temperatures of ≥200°C, rendering the chemical and pulp and paper industries potential candidates. The reference case investment yields a positive net present value of €304 million. Real options analysis is employed to account for the uncertain environment and the resulting managerial flexibilities of the project. A real option model for optimal investment timing is adapted to HTRs for industrial cogeneration. The value of the option to invest in an HTR is determined at €667 million and the electricity price threshold for an optimal investment at 79 €/MWh. Though the option to invest in an HTR represents a significant value for a utility, the investment should be delayed until the electricity price has reached the threshold value. We also propose a model to calculate the option value of switching between two different operating modes (cogeneration vs. electricity only). For the reference case, this option value turns out to be €85 million. (author)

  5. Valuing ecosystem and economic services across land-use scenarios in the Prairie Pothole Regions of the Dakotas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William R.; Hoag, Dana; Koontz, Lynne; Tangen, Brian A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses biophysical values derived for the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North and South Dakota, in conjunction with value transfer methods, to assess environmental and economic tradeoffs under different policy-relevant land-use scenarios over a 20-year period. The ecosystem service valuation is carried out by comparing the biophysical and economic values of three focal services (i.e. carbon sequestration, reduction in sedimentation, and waterfowl production) across three focal land uses in the region [i.e. native prairie grasslands, lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve and Wetlands Reserve Programs (CRP/WRP), and cropland]. This study finds that CRP/WRP lands cannot mitigate (hectare for hectare) the loss of native prairie from a social welfare standpoint. Land use scenarios where native prairie loss was minimized, and CRP/WRP lands were increased, provided the most societal benefit. The scenario modeling projected native prairie conversion to cropland over the next 20 years would result in a social welfare loss valued at over $4 billion when considering the study's three ecosystem services, and a net loss of about $3.4 billion when reductions in commodity production are accounted for.

  6. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  7. Rambutan Seed (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Optimization as Raw Material of High Nutrition Value Processed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahini, M.; Miranti, M. G.; Lukitasari, F.; Novela, L.

    2018-02-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) is a plant that identical with Southeast Asian countries, in some areas of Indonesia no exception, but rambutan seed is considered as a waste. Therefore, it needs to be optimized into raw materials of food and processed with high nutritional value and has economic value. The purpose of this research were: 1) to find the best rambutan seed immersion formula; 2) to know the nutritional value of the best immersed rambutan seed; 3) to produce raw material and various processed of rambutan seed product. The research method was quasi experiment with 6 treatments and 2 factorial design, materials for immersion was NaCl and Ca(OH)2. The results showed that: 1) the best rambutan seed immersion formula was using Ca(OH)2; 2) the best rambutan seed contains 1,6 ash, 31,2 protein, 26,9 fat; 3) the best rambutan seed produce flour and processed of seasoned nuts. This research indicates that rambutan seed is very potential to be an alternative high-value raw materials.

  8. Microalgal biorefinery for bulk and high-value products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Lam, 't G.P.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Olivieri, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising source for proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates for the cosmetic, nutraceutical, chemical, food/feed, and biofuel industry. In comparison with soy and palm oil, microalgae can be produced in a more sustainable way. To make microalgae production economically feasible, all

  9. Microbial biosurfactants with their high-value functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial world is a rich source for finding valuable industrial chemicals and ingredients. Specifically, many microbial metabolites are surface-active compounds that can be developed into bio-based surfactants, detergents, and emulsifiers. Techno-economic analyses for the production of bio-based ...

  10. Providing Students with Pathways to High-Value Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The skills gap--the gap between postsecondary education's production of educated graduates and what employers say they need--has become a top economic priority. Surveys report increasing dissatisfaction among students and employers. Students are upset because fewer than 20 percent of graduating seniors have job offers before graduation. And…

  11. Understanding alliance evolution and termination: Adjustment costs and the economics of resource value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madhok, A.; Keyhani, M; Bossink, B.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Alliances have been studied extensively in the past and various arguments have been suggested to explain their evolution and eventual termination. We argue that one important explanation of alliance termination has remained overlooked, one where the mechanism revolves around resource value and is

  12. Economic Cost-Analysis of the Impact of Container Size on Transplanted Tree Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Garcia Chance

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and costs of varying container sizes have yet to be fully evaluated to determine which container size affords the most advantageous opportunity for consumers. To determine value of the tree following transplant, clonal replicates of Vitex agnus-castus L. [Chaste Tree], Acer rubrum L. var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn. ex Nutt. Sarg. [Drummond Red Maple], and Taxodium distichum (L. Rich. [Baldcypress] were grown under common conditions in each of five container sizes 3.5, 11.7, 23.3, 97.8 or 175.0 L, respectively (#1, 3, 7, 25 or 45. In June 2013, six trees of each container size and species were transplanted to a sandy clay loam field in College Station, Texas. To determine the increase in value over a two-year post-transplant period, height and caliper measurements were taken at the end of nursery production and again at the end of the second growing season in the field, October 2014. Utilizing industry standards, initial costs of materials and labor were then compared with the size of trees after two years. Replacement cost analysis after two growing seasons indicated a greater increase in value for 11.7 and 23.3 L trees compared to losses in value for some 175.0 L trees. In comparison with trees from larger containers, trees from smaller size containers experienced shorter establishment times and increased growth rates, thus creating a quicker return on investment for trees transplanted from the smaller container sizes.

  13. Individual differences in values determine the relative persuasiveness of biospheric, economic and combined appeals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Karlijn; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many environmental campaigns highlight both the environmental and financial benefits of behaviour change, in the hope of motivating a broad audience. But are such mixed appeals more persuasive than separate appeals? We argue that messages tailored to match recipient's prioritised values are more

  14. The Economic Value of Korean Nuclear Power Industry in the National Economy: An Input-Output Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. K.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, S. H. [Nuclear Policy Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In 1978, Korea introduced the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 unit, in parallel with the nation's industrialization policy. Thereafter, Korea has carried out a very ambitious nuclear power program and sustained a strong commitment to nuclear power development. Thus, nuclear is a prime energy source which presently meets about 30 percent of Korea's power demands. Also, Korea won a contract for APR-1400 NPPs to the UAE in 2009 which led to Korea as a significant exporter in the world nuclear market. Recently, the new government of Korea has been launching 'Creative Economy', from this perspective, the quantitative contributions of nuclear sector to the national economic growth are required to be estimated. This paper is to estimate quantitatively the economic values created by nuclear power industry in the framework of national economy. The total economic values created by nuclear power industry are estimated to be 63.6 trillion won for the study period.

  15. Trends in High Nature Value farmland studies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Yanina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the High Nature Value (HNV concept was defined in the early 1990s, several studies on HNV farmland has been increasing over the past 30 years in Europe, highlighting the interest by scientific community of HNV farming systems supporting biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends and main gaps on HNV farmland peer-reviewed publications in order to contribute to the effectiveness of future research in this field. Methods. Searches were conducted using the databases Web of SciencesTM and Scopus in order to identify only peer-reviewed articles on HNV farmland, published prior to July 2017. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data as year, country, type of document, subject area, taxa studied and biodiversity metrics assessed were extracted and explored in order to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of the concept, including the main topics addressed in HNV farmland literature. Results. After screening 308 original articles, 90 were selected for this review. HNV farmland studies involved several disciplines, mainly biodiversity and conservation and environmental sciences and ecology. Most peer-reviewed articles focused on HNV farming were conducted in Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. The main studied taxa were plants and birds. Taxonomic diversity was the biodiversity metric more often used to assess the biodiversity status on HNV farmland areas. A positive correlation was found between HNV farmland area and HNV farmland studies conducted in respective countries. Discussion. The HNV farmland research subject is a relative novel approach, and this systematic review provides a comprehensive overview about the main topics in the HNV farmland peer-reviewed literature contributing to highlight the main gaps and provide some considerations in order to assist the performance of HNV farming systems and conservation policies, addressed to sustain high levels of

  16. Strategies for microbial synthesis of high-value phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijin; Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2018-03-01

    Phytochemicals are of great pharmaceutical and agricultural importance, but often exhibit low abundance in nature. Recent demonstrations of industrial-scale production of phytochemicals in yeast have shown that microbial production of these high-value chemicals is a promising alternative to sourcing these molecules from native plant hosts. However, a number of challenges remain in the broader application of this approach, including the limited knowledge of plant secondary metabolism and the inefficient reconstitution of plant metabolic pathways in microbial hosts. In this Review, we discuss recent strategies to achieve microbial biosynthesis of complex phytochemicals, including strategies to: (1) reconstruct plant biosynthetic pathways that have not been fully elucidated by mining enzymes from native and non-native hosts or by enzyme engineering; (2) enhance plant enzyme activity, specifically cytochrome P450 activity, by improving efficiency, selectivity, expression or electron transfer; and (3) enhance overall reaction efficiency of multi-enzyme pathways by dynamic control, compartmentalization or optimization with the host's metabolism. We also highlight remaining challenges to — and future opportunities of — this approach.

  17. Tree resources Of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India with especial emphasis on conservation status, phenology and economic values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated states of India along international border of Nepal, contributes only about 3% of total forest & tree cover of the country as the major parts of the area is covered by agriculture lands and human populations. The forests are quite fragmented and facing severe anthropogenic pressure in many parts. To protect the existing biodiversity, several forest covers have been declared as National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. In the present study, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KWS has been selected to assess tree diversity, their phenology and economic values as the trees are the major constituent of any forest and more fascinating among all plant groups. The sanctuary consists of tropical moist deciduous type of vegetation and situated along the Indo-Nepal boarder in Bahraich district of Uttar Pradesh, India. After, thorough assessment of the area, a list of 141 tree species belonging to 101 genera and 38 families have been prepared. The family Fabaceae exhibits highest generic and species diversity with 14 genera and 23 species. The genus Ficus of Moraceae has been found the largest with 11 species. Maximum trees with about 51 species have been found to flower in post winter season (February to March in the forest. About 62 trees are used as medicinal for various purposes, 50 as ornamental & avenue trees, 37 as timber wood, 36 as edible, 16 as fire wood and 12 as fodder. Since the sanctuary area has been surrounded by several villages and facing anthropogenic pressure, the public awareness program related with biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses is highly needed to protect the forest covers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9949 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 122-133

  18. Predicting moisture and economic value of solid forest fuel piles for improving the profitability of bioenergy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren, Ari; Kinnunen, Jyrki-Pekko; Sikanen, Lauri

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy contributes 26 % of the total energy use in Finland, and 60 % of this is provided by solid forest fuel consisting of small stems and logging residues such as tops, branches, roots and stumps. Typically the logging residues are stored as piles on site before transporting to regional combined heat and power plants for combustion. Profitability of forest fuel use depends on smart control of the feedstock. Fuel moisture, dry matter loss, and the rate of interest during the storing are the key variables affecting the economic value of the fuel. The value increases with drying, but decreases with wetting, dry matter loss and positive rate of interest. We compiled a simple simulation model computing the moisture change, dry matter loss, transportation costs and present value of feedstock piles. The model was used to predict the time of the maximum value of the stock, and to compose feedstock allocation strategies under the question: how should we choose the piles and the combustion time so that total energy yield and the economic value of the energy production is maximized? The question was assessed concerning the demand of the energy plant. The model parameterization was based on field scale studies. The initial moisture, and the rates of daily moisture change and dry matter loss in the feedstock piles depended on the day of the year according to empirical field measurements. Time step of the computation was one day. Effects of pile use timing on the total energy yield and profitability was studied using combinatorial optimization. Results show that the storing increases the pile maximum value if the natural drying onsets soon after the harvesting; otherwise dry matter loss and the capital cost of the storing overcome the benefits gained by drying. Optimized timing of the pile use can improve slightly the profitability, based on the increased total energy yield and because the energy unit based transportation costs decrease when water content in the biomass is

  19. Sustainability of socio-hydro system with changing value and preference to an uncertain future climate and economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobavannan, Mahendran; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuththu; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2016-04-01

    Water-human systems are coupled and display co-evolutionary dynamics influenced by society's values and preference. This has been observed in the Murrumbidgee basin, Australia where water usage initially focused on agriculture production and until mid-1990's favoured agriculture. This turned around as society became more concerned about the degradation of ecosystems and ultimately water was reallocated back towards the environment. This new water management adversely impacted the agriculture sector and created economic stress in the basin. The basin communities were able to transform and cope with water allocation favouring the environment through sectoral transformation facilitated by movement of capital in a free economy, supported by appropriate strategies and funding. This was helped by the adaptive capacity of people through reemployment in other economic sectors of the basin economy, unemployment for a period of time and migration out of the basin, and crop diversification. This study looks to the future and focuses on how water managers could be informed and prepare for un-foreseen issues coming out of societies changing values and preferences and emerging as different systems in the basin interact with each other at different times and speed. The issues of this type that concern the Murray Darling Basin Authority include a renewed focus and priority on food production due to food scarcity; increased impact and frequency of natural disasters (eg. climate change); regional economic diversification due to the growth of peri-urban development in the basin; institutional capacity for water reform due to new political paradigms (eg. new water sharing plans); and improvement in science and technology (eg. farm practices, water efficiency, water reuse). To undertake this, the study uses a coupled socio-hydrological dynamical system that model the major drivers of changing economic conditions, society values and preference, climatic condition and science and

  20. Using Economic Evaluation to Illustrate Value of Care for Improving Patient Safety and Quality: Choosing the Right Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Lee, Ken K H; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-08-03

    To scale and sustain successful quality improvement (QI) interventions, it is recommended for health system leaders to calculate the economic and financial sustainability of the intervention. Many methods of economic evaluation exist, and the type of method depends on the audience: providers, researchers, and hospital executives. This is a primer to introduce cost-effectiveness analysis, budget impact analysis, and return on investment calculation as 3 distinct methods for each stakeholder needing a measurement of the value of QI at the health system level. Using cases for the QI of hospital-acquired condition rates (e.g., pressure injuries), this primer proceeds stepwise through each method beginning from the same starting point of constructing a model so that the repetition of steps is minimized and thereby capturing the attention of all intended audiences.

  1. Economics in "Global Health 2035": a sensitivity analysis of the value of a life year estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Y; Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K; Resch, Stephen C

    2017-06-01

    In "Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation," The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health (CIH) adds the value of increased life expectancy to the value of growth in gross domestic product (GDP) when assessing national well-being. To value changes in life expectancy, the CIH relies on several strong assumptions to bridge gaps in the empirical research. It finds that the value of a life year (VLY) averages 2.3 times GDP per capita for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) assuming the changes in life expectancy they experienced from 2000 to 2011 are permanent. The CIH VLY estimate is based on a specific shift in population life expectancy and includes a 50 percent reduction for children ages 0 through 4. We investigate the sensitivity of this estimate to the underlying assumptions, including the effects of income, age, and life expectancy, and the sequencing of the calculations. We find that reasonable alternative assumptions regarding the effects of income, age, and life expectancy may reduce the VLY estimates to 0.2 to 2.1 times GDP per capita for LMICs. Removing the reduction for young children increases the VLY, while reversing the sequencing of the calculations reduces the VLY. Because the VLY is sensitive to the underlying assumptions, analysts interested in applying this approach elsewhere must tailor the estimates to the impacts of the intervention and the characteristics of the affected population. Analysts should test the sensitivity of their conclusions to reasonable alternative assumptions. More work is needed to investigate options for improving the approach.

  2. Use and non-use values as motivational construct dimensions for farm animal welfare: impacts on the economic outcome for the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J; Azar, G

    2018-01-24

    This study explored how farmers' motivation in terms of use values and/or non-use values to work with farm animal welfare are associated with the economic outcome for the farm. Use values in farm animal welfare refer to economic value derived from productivity and profitability considerations. Non-use values in farm animal welfare refer to economic value derived from good animal welfare, irrespective of the use the farmer derives from the animal, currently or in the future. The analysis was based on detailed information about the income statements of a sample of Swedish dairy farmers, obtained from the Swedish Farm Economic Survey, complemented with survey information about their perceived use and non-use values in farm animal welfare. The findings suggest that farm economic outcome is significantly associated with motivation in terms of use values, but not so much with motivation in terms of non-use values. This is interesting from a policy point of view, because it indicates that farmers with different approaches to farm animal welfare may experience different economic outcomes for their farms. Findings can, for instance, be used to strengthen farmers' engagement in various private quality assurance standards, which generally focus on values of non-use type, by pointing to that realisation of such values will not impair the economic outcome of the farms. Moreover, findings also suggest that farmers' economic incentives for engagement in such standards may need to be further strengthened in order to become more attractive, as findings point to that a focus on non-use values generally is not associated with more favourable economic outcomes.

  3. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Caixia [State Grid Energy Research Inst., Beijing (China)

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  4. Defining Elements of Value in Health Care-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdawalla, Darius N; Doshi, Jalpa A; Garrison, Louis P; Phelps, Charles E; Basu, Anirban; Danzon, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    The third section of our Special Task Force report identifies and defines a series of elements that warrant consideration in value assessments of medical technologies. We aim to broaden the view of what constitutes value in health care and to spur new research on incorporating additional elements of value into cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). Twelve potential elements of value are considered. Four of them-quality-adjusted life-years, net costs, productivity, and adherence-improving factors-are conventionally included or considered in value assessments. Eight others, which would be more novel in economic assessments, are defined and discussed: reduction in uncertainty, fear of contagion, insurance value, severity of disease, value of hope, real option value, equity, and scientific spillovers. Most of these are theoretically well understood and available for inclusion in value assessments. The two exceptions are equity and scientific spillover effects, which require more theoretical development and consensus. A number of regulatory authorities around the globe have shown interest in some of these novel elements. Augmenting CEA to consider these additional elements would result in a more comprehensive CEA in line with the "impact inventory" of the Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Possible approaches for valuation and inclusion of these elements include integrating them as part of a net monetary benefit calculation, including elements as attributes in health state descriptions, or using them as criteria in a multicriteria decision analysis. Further research is needed on how best to measure and include them in decision making. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Urging Affordable Access to High-Value Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic highlights some of the main messages from the President’s Cancer Panel report Promoting Value, Affordability, and Innovation in Cancer Drug Treatment. The graphic includes the panel’s recommendations to maximize the value and affordability of cancer drug treatment.

  6. Enhancing Economic Stability Utilizing the High Technologies in Community Colleges: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Barbara H.; Kurki, Allan W.

    Strategies to enhance the economic stability of community colleges through high technology approaches are discussed in this paper. First, general economic problems facing higher education are identified, and the ways in which they influence community colleges are described. Next, 10 strategies to aid in the economic recovery of community colleges…

  7. The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quiroga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought events in the Mediterranean are likely to increase in frequency, duration and intensity due to climate change, thereby affecting crop production. Information about drought is valuable for river basin authorities and the farmers affected by their decisions. The economic value of this information and the resulting decisions are of interest to these two stakeholder groups and to the information providers. Understanding the dynamics of extreme events, including droughts, in future climate scenarios for the Mediterranean is being improved continuously. This paper analyses the economic value of information on drought events taking into account the risk aversion of water managers. We consider the effects of drought management plans on rice production in the Ebro river basin. This enables us to compute the willingness to compensate the river basin authority for more accurate information allowing for better decision-making. If runoff is reduced, river basin planners can consider the reduction of water allocation for irrigation in order to eliminate the risk of water scarcity. Alternately, river basin planners may decide to maintain water allocation and accept a reduction of water supply reliability, leaving farmers exposed to drought events. These two alternatives offer different risk levels for crop production and farmers' incomes which determine the value of this information to the river basin authority. The information is relevant for the revision of River Basin Management Plans of the Water Framework Directive (WFD within the context of climate change.

  8. Health economic value of an innovation: delimiting the scope and framework of future market entry agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, Robert; Navarrete, Lucia Fiestas; Ethgen, Olivier; Le Moine, Jean-Gabriel; Gatsinga, René

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our paper is to offer a new, payer-friendly taxonomy of market entry agreements (MEAs) that aims to twin contracts with their methodological designs in an effort to clarify the distinction between contracts that are based on performance and those that are based on demonstrated effect. Our analysis proceeds in two stages: First, we delimit the scope and framework of pay for performance (P4P) and pay for demonstrated effect (P4E) agreements. Second, we distinguish the methodological designs supporting the implementation of each of these contracts. We elucidate why P4P contracts prevent the payer from funding the true effectiveness of an innovation by expanding on their limitations. These include: 1) the normative nature of comparisons, 2) the impossibility of true effect imputability for each individual, and 3) the use of intermediary outcome measures. We then explore three main criticisms that payers must take into account when reasoning in terms of performance rather than in terms of the product effectiveness. The potential effect that performance-based reimbursements may have on dissociating the components of the cost-effectiveness ratio constitutes an obstacle to a true health economic reasoning.

  9. Risk Perception and Economic Value Of Disaster Mitigation Case of Bantul Post Earthquake May 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain empirical evidence of disaster mitigation in Bantul, Indonesia. The expected utility theory and impact of regional characteristics on individual perceptions was used to describe the disaster risk management process. The regional mapping based on hazard level was conducted by a Geographical Information System (GIS. Data used in this research were primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained by distributing questionnaire to some respondents. Sample amounts used were 395 respondents. The research empirical contribution was to economic valuation method used towards safety and efforts to link regional characteristics, individual perception and also their willingness to conduct mitigation. The research practical contribution was to identify some key obstacles in disaster risk management. Based on multiple regression analysis, this study found that educational level, risk aversion degree, trust towards earthquake resistant building, control ability, income level, classification of hazard area contributes to higher Willingness To Pay (WTP for mitigation. It also found that perception towards central governmental roles variable did not affect to WTP for mitigation. However, the income levels of the communities in Bantul positively correspond to WTP for mitigation suggesting that the findings were consistent with the expected utility theory.

  10. Dynamic Economy: the case for a new economic order based on dynamics and related to the value of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, F

    1980-09-01

    Traditional economic tools are unable to deal with the scale and rapid interactions of today's world economies. The outstripping of these regulators by events finds them with neither the gain nor the response rate even to deal with classic problems like involuntary monetary inflation, enforced unemployment, political insecurity, and human drudgery. The Dynamic Economy may be achieved, uses control techniques, and builds upon the known elements of wealth, effort, and energy, to provide a fast, accurate feedback of the unit of added value. 4 references.

  11. THE VALUE OF EDUCATIONAL DEGREES IN TURBULENT ECONOMIC TIMES: EVIDENCE FROM THE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31–37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor’s and Associate’s degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate’s and Bachelor’s recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. PMID:26973042

  12. Hematological and morphometric blood value of four cultured species of economically important tropical foodfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoefa Amália Dal'Bó

    Full Text Available The use and validation of fish health monitoring tools have become increasingly evident due to aquaculture expansion. This study investigated the hematology and blood morphometrics of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Brycon orbignyanus, Oreochromis niloticus and Rhamdia quelen. The fish were kept for 30 days in 300-liter aquariums, after which they were anesthetized with benzocaine and blood was collected from caudal vessels. In comparison to other species, B. orbignyanus presented the highest hematocrit (Ht, RBC averages and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV with a particular range of data. B. orbignyanus presented lower Ht, Hb, RBC averages and values, and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC. Oreochromis niloticus presented lower Ht, Hb, RBC averages and values, and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC. Rhamdia quelen and O. niloticus presented higher variation of White Blood Cells (WBC, neutrophils (Nf, lymphocytes (Lf, monocytes (Mf and thrombocytes (Trb. Data of large axes (LA, minor axes (MA, surface (SF and volume (VL are in the same variance range. This study has demonstrated that hematological variances can occur between animals of different species as well as of the same species.

  13. The value of educational degrees in turbulent economic times: Evidence from the Youth Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31-37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor's and Associate's degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate's and Bachelor's recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The economic value of environmental services on indigenous-held lands in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    Full Text Available Australians could be willing to pay from $878m to $2b per year for Indigenous people to provide environmental services. This is up to 50 times the amount currently invested by government. This result was derived from a nationwide survey that included a choice experiment in which 70% of the 927 respondents were willing to contribute to a conservation fund that directly pays Indigenous people to carry out conservation activities. Of these the highest values were found for benefits that are likely to improve biodiversity outcomes, carbon emission reductions and improved recreational values. Of the activities that could be undertaken to provide the services, feral animal control attracted the highest level of support followed by coastal surveillance, weed control and fire management. Respondents' decisions to pay were not greatly influenced by the additional social benefits that can arise for Indigenous people spending time on country and providing the services, although there was approval for reduced welfare payments that might arise.

  15. An Overview of Value, Perspective, and Decision Context-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Pauly, Mark V; Willke, Richard J; Neumann, Peter J

    2018-02-01

    The second section of our Special Task Force builds on the discussion of value and perspective in the previous article of the report by 1) defining a health economics approach to the concept of value in health care systems; 2) discussing the relationship of value to perspective and decision context, that is, how recently proposed value frameworks vary by the types of decisions being made and by the stakeholders involved; 3) describing the patient perspective on value because the patient is a key stakeholder, but one also wearing the hat of a health insurance purchaser; and 4) discussing how value is relevant in the market-based US system of mixed private and public insurance, and differs from its use in single-payer systems. The five recent value frameworks that motivated this report vary in the types of decisions they intend to inform, ranging from coverage, access, and pricing decisions to those defining appropriate clinical pathways and to supporting provider-clinician shared decision making. Each of these value frameworks must be evaluated in its own decision context for its own objectives. Existing guidelines for cost-effectiveness analysis emphasize the importance of clearly specifying the perspective from which the analysis is undertaken. Relevant perspectives may include, among others, 1) the health plan enrollee, 2) the patient, 3) the health plan manager, 4) the provider, 5) the technology manufacturer, 6) the specialty society, 7) government regulators, or 8) society as a whole. A valid and informative cost-effectiveness analysis could be conducted from the perspective of any of these stakeholders, depending on the decision context. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex Bias in Georgia High School Economics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Glen; Hahn, Carole L.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes 17 secondary level economics textbooks for sex bias. All of the texts reviewed are on Georgia's approved textbook list. Without exception, each of the texts is guilty of sex bias, although to varying degrees. The method used in analyzing the texts is explained. (RM)

  17. The Economic and Social Value of an Image Exchange Network: A Case for the Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ray Cody; Pearson, Kathryn L; Avrin, David E; Leung, Jessica W T

    2017-01-01

    As the health care environment continually changes, radiologists look to the ACR's Imaging 3.0 ® initiative to guide the search for value. By leveraging new technology, a cloud-based image exchange network could provide secure universal access to prior images, which were previously siloed, to facilitate accurate interpretation, improved outcomes, and reduced costs. The breast imaging department represents a viable starting point given the robust data supporting the benefit of access to prior imaging studies, existing infrastructure for image sharing, and the current workflow reliance on prior images. This concept is scalable not only to the remainder of the radiology department but also to the broader medical record. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Discerning Novel Value Chains in Financial Malware: On the Economic Incentives and Criminal Business Models in Financial Malware Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    van Wegberg, R.S.; Klievink, A.J.; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Fraud with online payment services is an ongoing problem, with significant financial-economic and societal impact. One of the main modus operandi is financial malware that compromises consumer and corporate devices, thereby potentially undermining the security of critical financial systems. Recent research into the underground economy has shown that cybercriminals are organised around highly specialised tasks, such as pay-per-install markets for infected machines, malware-as-a-service and mon...

  19. The Role of Economic Uncertainty on the Block Economic Value - a New Valuation Approach / Rola Czynnika Niepewności Przy Obliczaniu Wskaźnika Rentowności - Nowe Podejście

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, H.; Ataee-Pour, M.

    2012-12-01

    The block economic value (EV) is one of the most important parameters in mine evaluation. This parameter can affect significant factors such as mining sequence, final pit limit and net present value. Nowadays, the aim of open pit mine planning is to define optimum pit limits and an optimum life of mine production scheduling that maximizes the pit value under some technical and operational constraints. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the block economic value at the first stage of the mine planning process, correctly. Unrealistic block economic value estimation may cause the mining project managers to make the wrong decision and thus may impose inexpiable losses to the project. The effective parameters such as metal price, operating cost, grade and so forth are always assumed certain in the conventional methods of EV calculation. While, obviously, these parameters have uncertain nature. Therefore, usually, the conventional methods results are far from reality. In order to solve this problem, a new technique is used base on an invented binomial tree which is developed in this research. This method can calculate the EV and project PV under economic uncertainty. In this paper, the EV and project PV were initially determined using Whittle formula based on certain economic parameters and a multivariate binomial tree based on the economic uncertainties such as the metal price and cost uncertainties. Finally the results were compared. It is concluded that applying the metal price and cost uncertainties causes the calculated block economic value and net present value to be more realistic than certain conditions.

  20. Risk Perception and Economic Value Of Disaster Mitigation Case of Bantul Post Earthquake May 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto Suryanto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This study aims to obtain empirical evidence of disaster mitigation in Bantul, Indonesia. The expected utility theory and impact of regional characteristics on individual perceptions was used to describe the disaster risk management process. The regional mapping based on hazard level was conducted by a Geographical Information System (GIS. Data used in this research were primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained by distributing questionnaire to some respondents. Sample amounts used were 395 respondents. The research empirical contribution was to economic valuation method used towards safety and efforts to link regional characteristics, individual perception and also their willingness to conduct mitigation. The research practical contribution was to identify some key obstacles in disaster risk management. Based on multiple regression analysis, this study found that educational level, risk aversion degree, trust towards earthquake-resistant building, control ability, income level, classifi cation of hazard area contributes to higher Willingness To Pay (WTP for mitigation. It also found that perception towards central governmental roles variable did not affect to WTP for mitigation. However, the income levels of the communities in Bantul positively correspond to WTP for mitigation suggesting that the fi ndings were consistent with the expected utility theory. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso

  1. [Economic evaluation od the value of early diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism in hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenne, X; Allenet, B; Laurent, P; Lebrun, T; Wemeau, J L

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the economic consequences of the early screening and management for overt hypothyrodism in elderly women suffering from hypercholesterolaemia. A cost analysis was performed using screening decision tree followed by a Markov model, targeted on an hypothetical cohort of elderly women (i.e. > or = 55 years of age) suffering from hypercholesterolaemia. Two arms were compared, "no diagnosis", patients being treated by lipid lowering drugs in the long run, "diagnosis", patients being screened for thyroid disturbance and proposed adequate correction by hormone treatment. Relevant clinical data introduced into the model were obtained from published data and from experts. At the end of the initial diagnostic, patients could enter three different health states: euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism or overt hypothyroidism. During 30 years, patients were assumed to be seen each year by a general practitioner for clinical examination and cholesterol dosage, plus, according to the health state evolution, TSH and T4 screening. In the baseline analysis, euthyroidian patients who had a inexplicable degradation of hypercholesterolaemia control were tested for TSH and, if abnormal, T4 serum; for subclinical hypothyroidian patients, TSH and T4 were measured every year. The direct costs taken into account were concerning medical supervision, drug treatment and biologic exams. Costs were analysed from the societal perspective and were expressed in 1998 French Francs (FF) with an accounting rate of 5% by year. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. The total cost at 30-year was equal to 25,006 F for "diagnosis" strategy, to 24,390 F for "no diagnosis" strategy. The incremental cost of the first strategy decreased according to the time horizon. It was 6.8% at 5-year and 2.5% at 30-year. Results were sensitive to variation in response rate of hypercholesterolaemic patients to hormone treatment of hypothyroidism (0.25 in base-case). The investment

  2. On the relationship between corporate governance and value creation in an economic crisis: Empirical evidence for the Spanish case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Villanueva-Villar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effect of corporate governance on value creation. It relies upon a dataset that includes the companies listed on the Spanish Stock Exchange for the period from 2005 to 2012. Attention is focused on the structure and composition of boards. In particular, four variables are analyzed: BOARD_SIZE, BOARD_INDEPENDENCE, BOARD_DILIGENCE (measured by the number of meetings, and DUALITY (chairman and chief executive officer being the same person. Over the period of the deepest economic crisis (2009–2012 the most significant variables that had a positive effect on value creation were BOARD_INDEPENDENCE and BOARD_SIZE. Hence, the global financial crisis has highlighted the need for effective corporate governance. Policy makers should think about translating the recommendations of the Good Governance Codes into legislation (mandatory, to improve corporate governance.

  3. T he normative concept of labour citizenship as a determinant of the global value of economic migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni DI LIETO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of the key studies on conceptions of labour, citizenship, and migration, which combine to lay the theoretical foundations of the contemporary global governance in economic migration. The initial concern of this study is to build upon traditional accounts of labour and citizenship in order to develop a link between industrial citizenship and migrant workers’ mobility. Such approach aims at establishing the normative concept of industrial citizenship as a determinant of the social and economic value of human mobility for the purpose of work. This is intended to further the idea that cross-border labour can be not only a pathway to national citizenship for migrants, but also the avenue to the transnational evolution of citizenship in general. The variety of analytical treatments of the concept of labour, citizenship and migration span from ancient Greek philosophy through to the Scholastics and mercantilists, to the forerunners of the classical political economy, and finally to present labour economics, law and political science. Such an interdisciplinary approach challenges the traditional hypothesis of labour as a basic analytical category in which the worker is increasingly invisible, and where the price of labour is regulated through the market in a manner similar to other factors of production.

  4. Assessing the role of socio-economic values on entrepreneurial intentions among university students in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivence Kalitanyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article presents the findings of an empirical fieldwork study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study was to establish how socio-economic values (income, economic development, employment or unemployment in the university students’ direct environment shape their entrepreneurial intentions. Setting and method: The study was built on Ajzen’ psychological model on entrepreneurial intentions, and used a semi-structured questionnaire to collect data from 274 entrepreneurship university students. Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire, where six variables out of nine, had a coefficient alpha of more than 0.7, while the remaining three had a coefficient alpha of between 0.5 and 0.7. This instrument was assessed by both statisticians and academics who are experts in their fields to ensure its validity. Multivariate tests of statistical significance were conducted, where correlation and regression statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: Findings suggest that socio-economic factors have an impact in shaping entrepreneurial intentions of the university students. Conclusion: The study formulates the recommendations to the government, businesses, civil society organisations as well as the community within which students live.

  5. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  6. Value versus Accuracy: application of seasonal forecasts to a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Siddiqui, S.; Badr, H. S.; Shukla, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The unpredictable nature of precipitation within the East African (EA) region makes it one of the most vulnerable, food insecure regions in the world. There is a vital need for forecasts to inform decision makers, both local and regional, and to help formulate the region's climate change adaptation strategies. Here, we present a suite of different seasonal forecast models, both statistical and dynamical, for the EA region. Objective regionalization is performed for EA on the basis of interannual variability in precipitation in both observations and models. This regionalization is applied as the basis for calculating a number of standard skill scores to evaluate each model's forecast accuracy. A dynamically linked Land Surface Model (LSM) is then applied to determine forecasted flows, which drive the Sudanese Hydroeconomic Optimization Model (SHOM). SHOM combines hydrologic, agronomic and economic inputs to determine the optimal decisions that maximize economic benefits along the Sudanese Blue Nile. This modeling sequence is designed to derive the potential added value of information of each forecasting model to agriculture and hydropower management. A rank of each model's forecasting skill score along with its added value of information is analyzed in order compare the performance of each forecast. This research aims to improve understanding of how characteristics of accuracy, lead time, and uncertainty of seasonal forecasts influence their utility to water resources decision makers who utilize them.

  7. Pengaruh Pengungkapan Intellectual Capital (IC dan Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap Harga Saham Perusahaan Manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fauzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at finding out if The Influence of Intellectual Capital (ICand Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The hypothesis of this study is : There is Influence of Intellectual Capital (IC and Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The method used is the author of the survey method with a quantitative approach . This study population is the entire manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange in 2012 his sampling technique is random sampling as many as 36 samples .. Correlation Coefficient significance test ( Test A of 0.512 , indicating that there is a middle relationship between IC and EVA on Stock Price. The results of the coefficient of determination ( R2 Test stated that R2 is 0.262 or 26.2% . This shows that the percentage contribution of the effect of independent variables ( IC and EVA on the dependent variable ( stock price of 26.2 % . Or variations of the independent variables used in the model ( IC and EVA are able to explain 26.2% of variation in the dependent variable ( stock price . While the remaining 73.8 % are influenced or explained by other variables not included in this research model .

  8. Economic viability of transmission capacity expansion at high wind penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    investments and analyses of the Nord Pool price variations. The analyses are done for varying degrees of wind power penetrations ranging from 20% of the West Danish electricity demand up to 100% of the demand. The analyses demonstrate, that while there is an economic potential for some expansion in some years......With growing wind power penetrations in many countries, grid and system integration becomes more and more important issues. This is particularly the case in countries or regions with good wind resources as well as substantial installed wind power capacity as found in e.g. Northern Europe. At 20......% penetration in Western Denmark, the issue is pertinent here in relation to future plans of further expansion which is planned in accordance with the Danish Government’s climate change mitigation initiatives. This paper analyses the potential economic benefit of selling excess electricity production...

  9. ICF reactor economics: identifying the high leverage design features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Parametric studies were carried out for a heavy ion beam (HIB) fusion electric power plant to investigate the effects on the cost of electricity (COE) of variations in several design parameters. In particular, we examined the effects of maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. We find that with a combination of improvements over our base case, HIB fusion can be economically competitive with other future power sources

  10. Electric heating provides a high level of home comfort - economically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M.

    1997-11-01

    Research and development at IVO in the area of electric heating boasts a tradition going back almost thirty years. Research aimed at further progress is continuing. IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically heated houses of the century` project four years ago. The first results show that electric heating continues to be very competitive with other heating systems. It is an economical way of heating the home and it also increases the comfort of those living there

  11. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Feu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the esthetic perception of different appliances by Brazilian lay adults and its influence in the attributed value of orthodontic treatment, considering evaluators' socioeconomic status, age and gender. METHODS: Eight different combinations of orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners were placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile. Standardized frontal photographs were captured and incorporated into a research album. A sample of adults (n = 252, median = 26 years old were asked to rate each image for (1 its attractiveness on a visual analog scale and (2 the willingness to pay (WTP for a cosmetic appliance when compared to a standard metalic appliance and a clear tray aligner. Comparisons between the appliances' attractiveness were performed using the Friedman's test and Dann's post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances' attributed value, socioeconomic status, age, gender, and esthetic perception was assessed using Spearman's correlation analysis. RESULTS: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied significantly in the following hierarchy: Clear aligners>sapphire brackets>self-ligating/conventional stainless steel brackets>and golden metal appliances. The correlation between WTP and esthetic perception was week. However, for individuals with better socioeconomic status and aged between 17-26 years old significantly, a significantly higher WTP was found. CONCLUSION: Clear aligners and sapphire brackets with esthetic archwire were considered better esthetic options in this sample. Nevertheless, patients were not willing to pay more money for appliances they deemed more esthetic, however, they were significantly influenced by their socioeconomic level and age.OBJETIVO: avaliar a percepção de brasileiros adultos leigos para diferentes aparelhos ortodônticos e sua influência na valorização econômica do tratamento, considerando o nível socioeconômico, idade e sexo dos avaliadores. M

  12. The value and economic analysis of routine postoperative carotid duplex ultrasound surveillance after carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuRahma, Ali F; Srivastava, Mohit; AbuRahma, Zachary; Jackson, Will; Mousa, Albeir; Stone, Patrick A; Dean, L Scott; Green, Jason

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have reported on the role of postoperative duplex ultrasound surveillance after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with varying results. Most of these studies had a small sample size or did not analyze cost-effectiveness. We analyzed 489 of 501 CEA patients with patch closure. All patients had immediate postoperative duplex ultrasound examination and were routinely followed up both clinically and with duplex ultrasound at regular intervals of 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and every 12 months thereafter. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the rate of ≥50% and ≥80% post-CEA restenosis over time and the time frame of progression from normal to ≥50% or ≥80% restenosis. The cost of post-CEA duplex surveillance was also estimated. Overall, 489 patients with a mean age of 68.5 years were analyzed. Ten of these had residual postoperative ≥50% stenosis, and 37 did not undergo a second duplex ultrasound examination and therefore were not included in the final analysis. The mean follow-up was 20.4 months (range, 1-63 months), with a mean number of duplex ultrasound examinations of 3.6 (range, 1-7). Eleven of 397 patients (2.8%) with a normal finding on immediate postoperative duplex ultrasound vs 4 of 45 (8.9%) with mild stenosis on immediate postoperative duplex ultrasound progressed to ≥50% restenosis (P = .055). Overall, 15 patients (3.1%) had ≥50% restenosis, 9 with 50% to duplex ultrasound), which equals $1,408,320, to detect only four patients with ≥80% to 99% restenosis who may have been potential candidates for reintervention. This study shows that the value of routine postoperative duplex ultrasound surveillance after CEA with patch closure may be limited, particularly if the finding on immediate postoperative duplex ultrasound is normal or shows minimal disease. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety Margins and Their Economical Value in a De-regulated Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The definition of safety margins is sometimes ambiguous. Depending on assumptions used to evaluate the evolution of plant parameters and on acceptance criteria, the same design could well turn out to have positive, zero, or negative margin for the same operating situation. Very often, considering that an optimized reactor would have to operate with zero margin compared to at least one safety criterion, designers or utilities considered in their analyses penalizing assumptions. This was done for example either considering reduced component capability or very high core peaking factors, the latter generally exceeding by far what would be anticipated in perturbed situations. This approach has three major drawbacks: -having a reasonable understanding of the real importance of safety margins is difficult, -if a non-conservatism is identified in a methodology, there is a high risk of being in a no-compliance situation from a regulatory standpoint, -it leads to a limitation on allowable electrical output and constraints on technical specifications for example. In a regulated market, such a situation can be tolerable as the final customer has to pay the extra financial burden in any case. In a de-regulated market, the situation is significantly different. The final customer can choose his supplier, and is likely to go to those offering the best prices, i.e. those making optimal use of their available resources. There is so a need for better understanding of real plant capabilities. Revisiting assumptions used for evaluating safety margins is so highly recommended, if not imperative, to electricity companies. This will helpful to reshape company strategies in case of evolution of market conditions. (author)

  14. Engineering cyanobacteria to generate high-value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducat, Daniel C; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-02-01

    Although many microorganisms have been used for the bioindustrial generation of valuable metabolites, the productive potential of cyanobacterial species has remained largely unexplored. Cyanobacteria possess several advantages as organisms for bioindustrial processes, including simple input requirements, tolerance of marginal agricultural environments, rapid genetics, and carbon-neutral applications that could be leveraged to address global climate change concerns. Here, we review recent research involving the engineering of cyanobacterial species for the production of valuable bioindustrial compounds, including natural cyanobacterial products (e.g. sugars and isoprene), biofuels (e.g. alcohols, alkanes and hydrogen), and other commodity chemicals. Biological and economic obstacles to scaled cyanobacterial production are highlighted, and methods for increasing cyanobacterial production efficiencies are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A stochastic model for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for production and functional traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne-Marie; Groen, A F; Østergaard, Søren

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to present a model of a dairy cattle production system for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for both production and functional traits under Danish production circumstances. The stochastic model used is dynamic, and simulates production...... was -0.94 €/day per cow-year. Standard deviations of economic values expressing variation in realised profit of a farm before and after a genetic change were computed using a linear Taylor series expansion. Expressed as coefficient of variation, standard deviations of economic values based on 1000...

  16. Economic and Biological Values for Pasture-Based Dairy Cattle Porduction Systems and their Application in Genetic Improvement in the Tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahinya, P K; Otieno, Tobias Okeno; Kosgey, I S

    2015-01-01

    estimated under fixed herd (FH) and pasture (FP) production circumstances assuming milk marketing based on volume, and volume and butter fat. Further, economic values were estimated involving risk using the Arrow Pratt coefficients at two levels. For the former economic values for the traits ranged from KSh...... during the estimation of economic values. Genetic improvements targeting MY and growth traits would be recommended to production system with unlimited feed supply for profit maximization. However, since dairy production systems in the tropics are characterised by feed scarcity, fixing the herd...

  17. The U.S. Federal Government's Efforts to Estimate an Economic Value for Reduced Carbon Emissions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, A.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the technical process and results from recent U.S. Federal government efforts to estimate the “social cost of carbon” (SCC); the monetized damages associated with an incremental increase in carbon dioxide emissions in a given year. The purpose of the SCC estimates is to make it possible for Federal agencies to incorporate the social benefits from reducing CO2 emissions into cost-benefit analyses of regulatory actions that have relatively small impacts on cumulative global emissions. An interagency working group initiated a comprehensive analysis using three integrated assessment models. The interagency group chose to rely on three of the most widely recognized peer-reviewed models to fairly represent differences in the way in which economic impacts from climate change are modeled (DICE, PAGE, and FUND). The main objective of this process was to develop a range of SCC values using a defensible set of input assumptions grounded in the existing scientific and economic literatures. In this way, key uncertainties and model differences transparently and consistently inform the range of SCC estimates used in the rulemaking process. This proved challenging since the literature did not always agree on the best path forward. In some cases the group agreed to a range of assumptions to allow for uncertainty analysis (e.g., they include 5 different socioeconomic scenarios in the Monte Carlo analysis to reflect uncertainty about how future economic and population growth and energy systems will develop over the next 100 years). The four values selected for regulatory analysis included three estimates based on the average SCC from three integrated assessment models over a range of discount rates, since there is wide disagreement on which to apply in an inter-generational context. The fourth value represents the 95th percentile SCC estimate across all three models at a 3 percent discount rate and is included to represent higher

  18. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  19. Analysis of technology and seminar on economic trends about High-intensity LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is divided into two parts. Contents of this report in the first part are technical trends on high-intensity LED which reports introduction of LED as compound semiconductor, white LED? patent issues, review on technology of High-intensity LED and Reliability of High-intensity LED. The second part deals with economic tends about High-intensity LED. This seminar was held to report analysis and economical trends about High-intensity LED by Korea Industrial Education Institute in 2003.

  20. An economic analysis of the value of research and development in the area of fourth generation fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, N.; Mathonniere, G.

    2010-01-01

    According to forecasts, the uranium market could start to become strained by the middle of the century. It is because of this hypothesis that we are in a position to evaluate the value of public research and development in the area of fourth generation fast reactors. In fact, as opposed to current reactors, fast neutron reactors allow for better use of natural uranium, and they will also be able to play an essential role in a 'sustainable' perspective. However, these technologies only emerge as a result of significant progress and require important investments in research and development. In this article, we try to evaluate the economic value of this research and development, ad analyse the interest in having this innovative technology available to cope with the expected increase in the price of uranium. If this increase in price is an entry criterion of a model, the dissemination of this innovation onto the market at the end of the research and development phase is supposedly a risky variable, conditioned by the the implementation of two probable scenarios (p and l-p respectively): 'the fast reactor is competitive and adopted by the industrialists' or 'it does not fulfill these conditions'. In view of its simplified hypotheses, the model gives the value of research and development according to an a priori estimate of p. It is then possible to judge, from a strictly economical standpoint, the relevance of pursuing a research and development programme or not in 2010, which is the date when the public authorities will have to announce their decision. With the deduced data, and a low estimation of research and development costs, the research and development programme is considered profitable, if the probability of p is above 20 %. This threshold increases with the cost of research and development, reaching close to 70 % in an extreme, unrealistic case, where it would be necessary to fund all the research and development (including the prototype) with public funds

  1. Review of Recent US Value Frameworks-A Health Economics Approach: An ISPOR Special Task Force Report [6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Richard J; Neumann, Peter J; Garrison, Louis P; Ramsey, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    The sixth section of our Special Task Force (STF) report reviews and comments on recent US-oriented value assessment frameworks, specifically those published by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We review published commentaries that address the validity, reliability, and conceptual underpinnings of these frameworks. We find common themes of critique regarding the strengths and limitations across frameworks. Particular shortcomings of some frameworks pose greater threats to their face validity and utility compared with others. The most significant limitations include lack of clear perspective (e.g., patient vs. health plan) and poor transparency in accounting for costs and benefits. We then review how each framework adheres to core STF recommendations, with particular emphasis on whether the framework can be used to support coverage decisions by health insurers, and whether it adheres to core principles of cost-effectiveness analysis. The Institute for Clinical and Economic Research framework most closely adheres to core STF recommendations. Others have significant limitations that vary widely from framework to framework. We also review how the frameworks follow STF recommendations for addressing potentially relevant issues beyond cost-effectiveness analysis - for example, equity in resource allocation and patient heterogeneity. Finally, we review whether and how each framework uses value thresholds and addresses affordability concerns. We conclude with suggestions for further research, particularly in the areas of testing the measurement and use of novel elements of value and deliberative processes. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blueprint for action: steps toward a high-quality, high-value maternity care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angood, Peter B; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Ashton, Diane; Burstin, Helen; Corry, Maureen P; Delbanco, Suzanne F; Fildes, Barbara; Fox, Daniel M; Gluck, Paul A; Gullo, Sue Leavitt; Howes, Joanne; Jolivet, R Rima; Laube, Douglas W; Lynne, Donna; Main, Elliott; Markus, Anne Rossier; Mayberry, Linda; Mitchell, Lynn V; Ness, Debra L; Nuzum, Rachel; Quinlan, Jeffrey D; Sakala, Carol; Salganicoff, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Childbirth Connection hosted a 90th Anniversary national policy symposium, Transforming Maternity Care: A High Value Proposition, on April 3, 2009, in Washington, DC. Over 100 leaders from across the range of stakeholder perspectives were actively engaged in the symposium work to improve the quality and value of U.S. maternity care through broad system improvement. A multi-disciplinary symposium steering committee guided the strategy from its inception and contributed to every phase of the project. The "Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", issued by the Transforming Maternity Care Symposium Steering Committee, answers the fundamental question, "Who needs to do what, to, for, and with whom to improve the quality of maternity care over the next five years?" Five stakeholder workgroups collaborated to propose actionable strategies in 11 critical focus areas for moving expeditiously toward the realization of the long term "2020 Vision for a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", also published in this issue. Following the symposium these workgroup reports and recommendations were synthesized into the current blueprint. For each critical focus area, the "Blueprint for Action" presents a brief problem statement, a set of system goals for improvement in that area, and major recommendations with proposed action steps to achieve them. This process created a clear sightline to action that if enacted could improve the structure, process, experiences of care, and outcomes of the maternity care system in ways that when anchored in the culture can indeed transform maternity care. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  3. Communicating climate change – Learning from business: challenging values, changing economic thinking, innovating the low carbon economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaesehage

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The risks and opportunities presented by climate change for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs have been largely overlooked by previous research. The subsequent lack of knowledge in this field makes it difficult for SMEs to engage with climate change in a meaningful, profitable, and sustainable way. Further, current research cannot explain why SMEs rarely engage with climate change. We examine critically 30 SMEs, which engage with climate change knowledges and 5 Innovation-Support-Organizations (ISOs that communicate climate change knowledges. Over a three-year period we explore why and how these businesses approach the knowledge gap between climate change science and business practice, drawing on a variety of ethnographic research methods: (1 in-depth semi-structured and open interviews; (2 participant observations; and (3 practitioners’ workshops. The results demonstrate that business’ mitigation and adaptation strategies are lay-knowledge-dependent, derived from personal values, space, and place identity. To enhance the number of SMEs engaging with climate change, maximize the potential value of climate change for the econo- my and establish a low carbon economy, climate change communication needs to target personal values of business leaders. The message should highlight local impacts of climate change, the benefits of engagement to (the local society and economy, and possible financial benefits for the business. Climate change communication therefore needs to go beyond thinking about potential financial benefits and scientific evidence and challenge values, cultures, and beliefs to stimulate economic, political, and social frameworks that promote values-based decision-making.

  4. Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mariel Austin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Mattel, Monster High dolls topped $500 million in annual sales in 2014, quickly gaining on Barbie, whose $1.3 billion in annual revenue plummeted for the fourth quarter in a row. Monster High's recent ad campaign claims, "We are monsters. We are proud." Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it. Using Jack Halberstam's work on children's culture and Richard Berger's and Rosalind Hanmer's work on fandom, this article explores the queer potential of Monster High. Fans rewrite the Mattel narrative through fan fiction, repainting the dolls, and embodying them through virtual avatars, makeup, and costume play. These fan practices both queer the dolls' identity politics and create communities of interest that act as safe spaces for expressing queer identity and generating fan activism. These fan practices have also influenced Mattel's branding of the dolls, specifically with the recent inclusion of activism campaigns such as WeStopHate and The Kind Campaign into the Monster High Webisodes and Web site. By exploring the queer politics of Monster High fandom, this paper explains how that queering generates social change.

  5. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal

  6. Pipelines for New Chemicals: a strategy to create new value chains and stimulate innovation-based economic revival in Southern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, Kenneth; de Lorenzo, Victor; Verstraete, Willy; Garcia, Jose Luis; Ramos, Juan Luis; Santos, Helena; Economidis, Ioannis; Nogales, Balbina; Timmis, James Kenneth; Fonseca, César; Pruzzo, Carla; Karagouni, Amalia; Panopoulos, Nickolas; Dixon, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Countries of Southern Europe are currently suffering from severe socio-economic pain resulting from high debt levels and austerity measures which constrain investment in innovation-based recovery strategies that are essential for entry into a long-term sustainable period of increasing employment and wealth creation. Young university-educated people are particularly innovative, and hence vital to the development of such strategies, but employment opportunities are poor and many are forced to seek employment that neither profits from their training nor satisfies their justified career expectations, or to emigrate. They are the 'lost generation'. A strategy is proposed here for the creation of Pipelines for New Chemicals, national centre-network partnerships for the discovery-synthesis of new chemicals obtained though harvesting new biological diversity, and their exploitation to develop new medicines, agrochemicals, materials, and other products and applications. The goal is to create new regional motors of economic growth and development, by harnessing the knowledge, motivation and innovation potential of the excellently educated young people of Europe to catalyse the development of new small, medium and large enterprises centred around novel chemicals, and the value chains that will evolve with them, and thereby develop a powerful sector of sustainable growth in employment and social and economic prosperity in Southern Europe. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  8. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  9. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Besson

    Full Text Available In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA to calculate the economic (EV and environmental (ENV values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod, annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed, standing stock (Qstock, and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed. ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish and per farm per year (ENV(farm. Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish and ENV(farm were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  10. Economic value analysis of the return from the Korean astronaut program and the science culture diffusion activity in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Soyeon; Jang, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Hyo Suk; Yu, Jong-Phil; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Joohee; Hur, Hee-Young

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the economic effects from the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity (SCDA). Korea has had a huge practical effect on the development of science and technology and has increased international awareness of Korea by producing Korea's first astronaut. There has also been a large, ripple effect on space related industries. In addition, the KAP has exercised a far-reaching influence on Korean society and culture by boosting all science and engineering and inspiring national pride. After the KAP, astronauts' outreach activities, such as lectures for the general public; interviews on television, newspapers and magazines; participating in children's science camps; and distributing publications and DVDs about astronaut program for general public, were instituted for diffusing science culture. Thus, positive effects such as the promotion of Korea's level of technology, student interest in science and engineering fields, and the expansion of the industrial base were reinforced after the KAP. This study is aimed at evaluating the economic significance and the value of return through analyzing the effects of the KAP and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity.

  11. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  12. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  13. Enhancing the Economic Value of Large Investments in Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS through Inclusion of Ecosystems Services Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Urrestarazu Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS are used in cities across the world as effective flood adaptation responses, their economic viability has frequently been questioned. Inclusion of the monetary value of ecosystem services (ES provided by SuDS can increase the rate of return on investments made. Hence, this paper aims at reviewing the enhancement of the economic value of large-scale investments in SuDS through inclusion of ecosystem services. This study focuses on the flood reduction capacity and the ES benefits of green roofs and rain barrels in the combined sewerage network of Montevideo Municipality in Uruguay. The methodology comprises a cost–benefit analysis—with and without monetised ES provided by SuDS—of two drainage network configurations comprising: (i SuDS; and (ii SuDS and detention storage. The optimal drainage design for both these drainage configurations have been determined using SWMM-EA, a tool which uses multi-objective optimisation based evolutionary algorithm (EA and the storm water management model (SWMM. In both design configurations, total benefits comprising both flood reduction and ES benefits are always higher than their costs. The use of storage along with SuDS provides greater benefits with a larger reduction in flooding, and thus is more cost-effective than using SuDS alone. The results show that, for both of the drainage configurations, the larger investments are not beneficial unless ES benefits are taken into account. Hence, it can be concluded that the inclusion of ES benefits is necessary to justify large-scale investments in SuDS.

  14. The economic value of innovative treatments over the product life cycle: the case of targeted trastuzumab therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Veenstra, David L

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic analyses typically project the expected cost-effectiveness of a new product for a specific indication. This analysis develops a dynamic life-cycle model to conduct a multi-indication evaluation using the case of trastuzumab licensed in the United States for both early-stage and metastatic (or late-stage) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer therapy (early breast cancer [EBC]; metastatic breast cancer [MBC]), approved in 2006 and 1998, respectively. This dynamic model combined information on expected incremental cost-utility ratios for specific indications with an epidemiologically based projection of utilization by indication over the product life cycle-from 1998 to 2016. Net economic value was estimated as the cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained over the life cycle multiplied by a societal valuation of health gains ($/QALY) minus cumulative net direct treatment costs. Sensitivity analyses were performed under a range of assumptions. We projected that the annual number of EBC patients receiving trastuzumab will be more than three times that of MBC by 2016, in part because adjuvant treatment reduces the future incidence of MBC. Over this life cycle, the estimated overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $35,590/QALY with a total of 432,547 discounted QALYs gained. Under sensitivity analyses, the overall ICER varied from $21,000 to $53,000/QALY, and the projected net economic value resulting from trastuzumab treatment ranged from $6.2 billion to $49.5 billion. Average ICERs for multi-indication compounds can increase or decrease over the product life cycle. In this example, the projected overall life-cycle ICER for trastuzumab was less than one half of that in the initial indication. This dynamic perspective-versus the usual static one-highlights the interdependence of drug development decisions and investment incentives, raising important reimbursement policy issues.

  15. Transformation of High School Students' Understanding about Household Work : Through Home Economics Lessons Focused on Relationships with One's Family

    OpenAIRE

    Kishi, Noriko; Suzuki, Akiko; Takahashi, Miyoko

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to clarify learners' understanding about household work and to see how the objectives of Home Economics lessons are achieved. Lessons about household work which were focused on relationships with one's family were given in a high school. 119 student descriptions on lesson worksheets were analyzed. From these data, the learners' understanding was categorized into four domains: feeling, utility, valuing, and social domains. These domains had a hierarchical stru...

  16. A Review of High School Economics in the Philippines: 1902-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Abueg, Luisito C.

    2008-01-01

    Economics is an important component of social science instruction in secondary level education in the Philippines. This paper aims to trace the evolution of economics education in Philippine high school through a review of all available textbooks, from the very beginning of the institution of the subject. Analyzed are the changing context, the correctness of the concepts taught, the language used in the books, the way different contemporary Philippine issues in economic development is treated...

  17. Normative and economic foundations of high-rise construction in the city of Samara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkovskaya, Olga V.; Bocharov, Aleksey Y.; Ilyina, Marina V.; Mamaeva, Olga A.

    2018-03-01

    Every year the number of free land plots for construction of buildings is steadily decreasing in cities. In this regard, the participants in the investment and construction process are increasingly seeking to maximize the use of land. A logical way for this is to use high-rise construction. However, until recently, builders encountered serious obstacles in the form of lack of special norms and rules for the design of high-rise buildings. It led to the need for individual coordination of each high-rise facility, the development and approval of special technical conditions, the passage of numerous administrative approvals. Thus, investment activity regarding the construction of high-rise buildings in the Russian Federation is reduced. In 2016, there were regulatory changes that substantially alleviated these difficulties. In this article, the authors analyze the features of the town-planning normative-legal field of high-rise construction and its development, track the interrelations between the regulatory regulation of the construction of similar facilities, with the real need, the technical feasibility and economic feasibility of their construction in the urban district of Samara. Conclusions and suggestions are also based on the analysis of the norms of urban zoning, the residential real estate market and the value of land plots.

  18. Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: a review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-12-01

    Microalgal biomass as feedstock for biofuel production is an attracting alternative to terrestrial plant utilization for biofuels production. However, today the microalgal cultivation systems for energy production purposes seem not yet to be economically feasible. Microalgae, though cultivated under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, high salinity, high temperature etc. accumulate considerable amounts (up to 60-65% of dry weight) of lipids or carbohydrates along with several secondary metabolites. Especially some of the latter are valuable compounds with an enormous range of industrial applications. The simultaneous production of lipids or carbohydrates for biofuel production and of secondary metabolites in a biorefinery concept might allow the microalgal production to be economically feasible. This paper aims to provide a review on the available literature about the cultivation of microalgae for the accumulation of high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates focusing on stress cultivation conditions. © 2013.

  19. Capturing the real value in high-tech acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S; Tabrizi, B

    1999-01-01

    Eager to stay ahead of fast-changing markets, more and more high-tech companies are going outside for competitive advantage. Last year in the United States alone, there were 5,000 high-tech acquisitions, but many of them yielded disappointing results. The reason, the authors contend, is that most managers have a shortsighted view of strategic acquisitions--they focus on the specific products or market share. That focus might make sense in some industries, where those assets can confer substantial advantages, but in high tech, full-fledged technological capabilities--tied to skilled people--are the key to long-term success. Instead of simply following the "buzz," successful acquires systematically assess their own capability needs. They create product road maps to identify holes in their product line. While the business group determines if it can do the work in-house, the business development office scouts for opportunities to buy it. Once business development locates a candidate, it conducts an expanded due diligence, which goes beyond strategic, financial, and legal checks. Successful acquires are focused on long-term capabilities, so they make sure that the target's products reflect a real expertise. They also look to see if key people would be comfortable in the new environment and if they have incentives to stay on board. The final stage of a successful acquisition focuses on retaining the new people--making sure their transition goes smoothly and their energies stay focused. Acquisitions can cause great uncertainty, and skilled people can always go elsewhere. In short, the authors argue, high-tech acquisitions need a new orientation around people, not products.

  20. Gas in Mozambique, a highly risky economic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    As, after the discovery of gas resources and the development of important coal projects, Mozambique has become an important place of investments and is about to enter a new development phase whereas its steady economic history is only twenty year old, and conflicts left the country with endemic poverty in some regions, an almost total absence of trained workforce, and a striking lack of infrastructures. Moreover, private sector is still poorly developed and in the hands of leaders of the governing party. Based on meetings with politicians, representatives of oil companies, ambassadors, fund donors, representatives of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, journalists and representatives of NGOs, this note proposes an analysis of the way the Mozambican government prepares this new phase of development. The author presents an overview of the status of gas exploitation, outlines that the extraction sector is far from being actually operational, that counter-powers are still weak, and that donors are bringing a support which is often perceived as contradictory

  1. Economic value of angling on the Colorado River at Lees Ferry: Using secondary data to estimate the influence of seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Lucas S.; Rogowski, David L.; Neher, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) on the Colorado River in northern Arizona provides water storage, flood control, and power system benefits to approximately 40 million people who rely on water and energy resources in the Colorado River basin. Downstream resources (e.g., angling, whitewater floating) in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park are impacted by the operation of GCD. The GCD Adaptive Management Program was established in 1997 to monitor and research the effects of dam operations on the downstream environment. We utilized secondary survey data and an individual observation travel cost model to estimate the net economic benefit of angling in GCNRA for each season and each type of angler. As expected, the demand for angling decreased with increasing travel cost; the annual value of angling at Lees Ferry totaled US$2.7 million at 2014 visitation levels. Demand for angling was also affected by season, with per-trip values of $210 in the summer, $237 in the spring, $261 in the fall, and $399 in the winter. This information provides insight into the ways in which anglers are potentially impacted by seasonal GCD operations and adaptive management experiments aimed at improving downstream resource conditions.

  2. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties.

  3. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  4. Economic considerations/comparisons for the disposal of defense high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclaire, D.B.; Lazur, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a summary, in a generic sense, of the economic considerations and comparisons of permanent isolation of defense high-level waste (DHLW) in a licensed geologic repository. Topics considered include underground disposal, economic analysis, comparative evaluations, national defense, radioactive waste facilities, and licensing

  5. Economics (A High School One Semester Course). Instructional Materials/Resources for Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackstadt, Stephen L.; And Others

    Designed to aid teachers of a high school economics course, this curriculum guide is presented in self-contained units of study. Thirteen units, each with specific lessons, cover economic problems, the market system, market structure, market imperfections, government regulation, the national economy, aggregate supply and demand, the business…

  6. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  7. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Michael G.; Harvego, Edwin A.; Gandrik, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322 C and 750 C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  8. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%

  9. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  10. A literature review to evaluate the economic value of ranolazine for the symptomatic treatment of chronic angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellopoulou, Katerina; Kourlaba, Georgia; Maniadakis, Nikos; Vardas, Panagiotis

    2016-05-15

    To conduct a systematic review of the evidence regarding the economic value of ranolazine relative to standard-of-care (SOC) for the treatment of symptomatic chronic stable angina (CSA). Electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords. The identified studies were independently reviewed by two investigators against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Their data were extracted using a relevant form and consequently were synthesized. Studies were also evaluated using the Quality of Health Economic Studies scale. The main outcomes considered were the cost and effectiveness for each comparator and the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life year (QALY) gained. Six studies were included in the review. Five of these assessed the cost-utility of ranolazine added to SOC, compared to SOC alone, using decision trees or Markov models whereas one was a retrospective cost evaluation study. The analysis was conducted from a payer perspective in five studies and from a societal perspective in one study with the time horizon varying between six months and a year. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), ranged from €4000 to €15,000 per QALY gained. Ranolazine appears to be dominant or cost-effective, mainly due to its ability to decrease angina-related hospitalizations and also due to a marginal improvement in quality of life. The acquisition cost of ranolazine was the variable with the greatest impact upon the ICER. The existing evidence, although limited, indicates that ranolazine may be a dominant or cost-effective therapy option, for the treatment of patients with symptomatic CSA. Further research is required to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ranolazine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of productive and carcass traits and economic value of lines selected for different criteria, slaughtered at similar weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Szendrő

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare 3 genetic groups, slaughtered at similar weights, to examine their productive and carcass traits and economic value. Three lines of the Pannon Breeding Programme, selected for different criteria, were examined in the experiment. Pannon Ka (PKa, maternal line does were inseminated with semen of PKa, Pannon White (PWhite or Pannon Large (PLarge, terminal line bucks. The kits (PKa×PKa, PWhite×PKa, PLarge×PKa; n=60 in each genetic group were weaned at 35 d of age and reared until 88, 83 and 79, respectively, when they reached similar body weights for slaughtering (2.8 kg. The weight gain of PLarge×PKa was the largest (51.0 g/d and that of PKa×PKa was the smallest (47.2 g/d, while PWhite×PKa (41.8 g/d was intermediate (P<0.001. Difference was found in feed conversion ratio between weaning and the age of slaughter  PKa×PKa: 3.03 respect to PWhite×PKa: 2.75 and PLarge×PKa: 2.66; , P<0.05. Dressing out percentage and ratio of hind part to reference carcass of PWhite×PKa, PLarge×PKa and PKa×PKa were 62.4 and 37.7, 61.8 and 37.5, 61.3 and 36.8%, respectively (P<0.01. Results show that PLarge×PKa rabbits were able to exceed the average economic indicators compared to other groups. It may be concluded that the production performance of growing rabbits was affected by the adult weight, but the carcass traits were influenced by the computer tomography (CT-based selection.

  12. The value of psychological treatment for borderline personality disorder: Systematic review and cost offset analysis of economic evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuldijk, Denise; McCarthy, Alexandra; Bourke, Marianne E.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a common mental health condition with high patterns of service utilisation of inpatient and community treatment. Over the past five years there has been significant growth in research with economic data, making this systematic review a timely update. Methods Empirical studies written in English or German, published up to December 2015, and cited in major electronic databases were examined using the PRISMA systematic review method. Papers were included that had one of the following: data related to cost of BPD to society, the individual, the carer or families; cost benefits of interventions. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2015 and converted into US- dollars (USD $) using purchasing power parities. Results We identified 30 economic evaluations providing cost data related to interventions for BPD across 134,136 patients. The methodological quality was good, almost all studies fulfilled ≥ 50% of the quality criteria. The mean cost saving for treating BPD with evidence-based psychotherapy across studies was USD $2,987.82 per patient per year. A further mean weighted reduction of USD $1,551 per patient per year (range $83 - $29,392) was found compared to treatment as usual. Evidence-based psychological treatment was both less expensive as well as more effective, despite considerable differences in health cost arrangements between individual studies and countries. Where it was able to be calculated, a significant difference in cost-savings between different types of evidence-based psychotherapies was found. Discussion Individuals with BPD consistently demonstrate high patterns of service utilization and therefore high costs. The findings of this review present a strong argument in favour of prioritizing BPD treatments in reimbursement decisions, both for the affected individual and the family. The provision of evidence based treatment, irrespective of the type of psychological treatment, may lead to widespread

  13. The value of psychological treatment for borderline personality disorder: Systematic review and cost offset analysis of economic evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Meuldijk

    Full Text Available Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD is a common mental health condition with high patterns of service utilisation of inpatient and community treatment. Over the past five years there has been significant growth in research with economic data, making this systematic review a timely update.Empirical studies written in English or German, published up to December 2015, and cited in major electronic databases were examined using the PRISMA systematic review method. Papers were included that had one of the following: data related to cost of BPD to society, the individual, the carer or families; cost benefits of interventions. Reported cost data were inflated to the year 2015 and converted into US- dollars (USD $ using purchasing power parities.We identified 30 economic evaluations providing cost data related to interventions for BPD across 134,136 patients. The methodological quality was good, almost all studies fulfilled ≥ 50% of the quality criteria. The mean cost saving for treating BPD with evidence-based psychotherapy across studies was USD $2,987.82 per patient per year. A further mean weighted reduction of USD $1,551 per patient per year (range $83 - $29,392 was found compared to treatment as usual. Evidence-based psychological treatment was both less expensive as well as more effective, despite considerable differences in health cost arrangements between individual studies and countries. Where it was able to be calculated, a significant difference in cost-savings between different types of evidence-based psychotherapies was found.Individuals with BPD consistently demonstrate high patterns of service utilization and therefore high costs. The findings of this review present a strong argument in favour of prioritizing BPD treatments in reimbursement decisions, both for the affected individual and the family. The provision of evidence based treatment, irrespective of the type of psychological treatment, may lead to widespread reductions in

  14. Precision Health Economics and Outcomes Research to Support Precision Medicine: Big Data Meets Patient Heterogeneity on the Road to Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixi Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The “big data” era represents an exciting opportunity to utilize powerful new sources of information to reduce clinical and health economic uncertainty on an individual patient level. In turn, health economic outcomes research (HEOR practices will need to evolve to accommodate individual patient–level HEOR analyses. We propose the concept of “precision HEOR”, which utilizes a combination of costs and outcomes derived from big data to inform healthcare decision-making that is tailored to highly specific patient clusters or individuals. To explore this concept, we discuss the current and future roles of HEOR in health sector decision-making, big data and predictive analytics, and several key HEOR contexts in which big data and predictive analytics might transform traditional HEOR into precision HEOR. The guidance document addresses issues related to the transition from traditional to precision HEOR practices, the evaluation of patient similarity analysis and its appropriateness for precision HEOR analysis, and future challenges to precision HEOR adoption. Precision HEOR should make precision medicine more realizable by aiding and adapting healthcare resource allocation. The combined hopes for precision medicine and precision HEOR are that individual patients receive the best possible medical care while overall healthcare costs remain manageable or become more cost-efficient.

  15. Teaching Ethics to High School Students: Virtue Meets Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Nygard, Kim; Wood, William C.

    2009-01-01

    When highly visible lapses in ethics occur, education gets some of the blame. Principals in the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis and the Enron scandal had been educated at Harvard and other elite business schools, where professional and moral ideals had arguably been replaced by a focus on profits at the expense of ethics. A long-standing tradition…

  16. Estimating the Economic Value of Environmental Amenities of Isfahan Sofeh Highland Park (The Individual Revealed and Expressed Travel Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amirnejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural resources and the environment, such as mountains are considered public goods. The main features of these public goods are lack of market and price for exchange. This issue leads to a worthless impression about these goods, lack of effort for their conservation and preventing resource degradation. One of the major benefits of environmental resources, such as mountains, is their function as environmental amenities (for leisure and recreation. The estimation of their recreational worth is important as a part of the total value of such resources. In this context, the aim of this study is to estimate the economic value of environmental amenities of Sofeh Highland Park in Isfahan by individual travel cost method. Materials and Methods: Travel cost method is used for the evaluation of public goods or environmental non-market commodities. It is applied to a wide range of areas, including tourism values of lakes and wetlands, coral reefs, biodiversity and national parks, recreational fishing and mountaineering. The travel cost approach does not ask willingness to pay directly, but imputes it from the observed behavior of other visitors through an estimated demand function, which relates the number of observed trips to the incurred travel cost. Underpinning the travel cost method is for the estimation of the recreational demand function, from which consumer surplus estimates can be derived. Consumer surplus -the measure of non-market benefits to the visitors- is the difference between what the visitor would be (theoretically willing to pay to go the intended recreational location, and what they are actually required to pay. In this research, the individual travel cost method was used. For this purpose, a 290 item questionnaire with simple random sampling was filled by travelers in the area in 2013. Then the demand function of environmental amenities (tourism demand was estimated in two scenarios by using negative binomial regression

  17. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  18. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  19. Laboratory testing and economic analysis of high RAP warm mixed asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-24

    This report contains laboratory testing, economic analysis, literature review, and information obtained from multiple producers throughout the state of Mississippi regarding the use of high RAP (50 % to 100%) mixtures containing warm mix additives. T...

  20. High-dimensional data in economics and their (robust) analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), s. 171-183 ISSN 1452-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-07384S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : econometrics * high-dimensional data * dimensionality reduction * linear regression * classification analysis * robustness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Business and management http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/kalina-0474076.pdf