WorldWideScience

Sample records for high duty-cycle visible

  1. Evolution of high duty cycle echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenton, M. B.; Faure, P. A.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Duty cycle describes the relative 'on time' of a periodic signal. In bats, we argue that high duty cycle (HDC) echolocation was selected for and evolved from low duty cycle (LDC) echolocation because increasing call duty cycle enhanced the ability of echolocating bats to detect, lock onto and track...... relative to background objects and their prey. HDC echolocators are particularly sensitive to amplitude and frequency glints generated by the wings of fluttering insects. We hypothesize that narrowband/CF calls produced at high duty cycle, and combined with neurobiological specializations for processing....... In contrast, bats using HDC echolocation emit long duration, narrowband calls dominated by a single constant frequency (CF) separated by relatively short periods of silence. HDC bats separate pulse and echo in frequency by exploiting information contained in Doppler-shifted echoes arising from their movements...

  2. High duty cycle to low duty cycle: echolocation behaviour of the hipposiderid bat Coelops frithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ying-Yi; Fang, Yin-Ping; Chou, Cheng-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Chi; Chang, Hsueh-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeally echolocating bats avoid self-deafening (forward masking) by separating pulse and echo either in time using low duty cycle (LDC) echolocation, or in frequency using high duty cycle (HDC) echolocation. HDC echolocators are specialized to detect fluttering targets in cluttered environments. HDC echolocation is found only in the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae in the Old World and in the New World mormoopid, Pteronotus parnellii. Here we report that the hipposiderid Coelops frithii, ostensibly an HDC bat, consistently uses an LDC echolocation strategy whether roosting, flying, or approaching a fluttering target rotating at 50 to 80 Hz. We recorded the echolocation calls of free-flying C. frithii in the field in various situations, including presenting bats with a mechanical fluttering target. The echolocation calls of C. frithii consisted of an initial narrowband component (0.5±0.3 ms, 90.6±2.0 kHz) followed immediately by a frequency modulated (FM) sweep (194 to 113 kHz). This species emitted echolocation calls at duty cycles averaging 7.7±2.8% (n = 87 sequences). Coelops frithii approached fluttering targets more frequently than did LDC bats (C.frithii, approach frequency  = 40.4%, n = 80; Myotis spp., approach frequency  = 0%, n = 13), and at the same frequency as sympatrically feeding HDC species (Hipposideros armiger, approach rate  = 53.3%, n = 15; Rhinolophus monoceros, approach rate  = 56.7%, n = 97). We propose that the LDC echolocation strategy used by C. frithii is derived from HDC ancestors, that this species adjusts the harmonic contents of its echolocation calls, and that it may use both the narrowband component and the FM sweep of echolocations calls to detect fluttering targets.

  3. High duty cycle to low duty cycle: echolocation behaviour of the hipposiderid bat Coelops frithii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Ho

    Full Text Available Laryngeally echolocating bats avoid self-deafening (forward masking by separating pulse and echo either in time using low duty cycle (LDC echolocation, or in frequency using high duty cycle (HDC echolocation. HDC echolocators are specialized to detect fluttering targets in cluttered environments. HDC echolocation is found only in the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae in the Old World and in the New World mormoopid, Pteronotus parnellii. Here we report that the hipposiderid Coelops frithii, ostensibly an HDC bat, consistently uses an LDC echolocation strategy whether roosting, flying, or approaching a fluttering target rotating at 50 to 80 Hz. We recorded the echolocation calls of free-flying C. frithii in the field in various situations, including presenting bats with a mechanical fluttering target. The echolocation calls of C. frithii consisted of an initial narrowband component (0.5±0.3 ms, 90.6±2.0 kHz followed immediately by a frequency modulated (FM sweep (194 to 113 kHz. This species emitted echolocation calls at duty cycles averaging 7.7±2.8% (n = 87 sequences. Coelops frithii approached fluttering targets more frequently than did LDC bats (C.frithii, approach frequency  = 40.4%, n = 80; Myotis spp., approach frequency  = 0%, n = 13, and at the same frequency as sympatrically feeding HDC species (Hipposideros armiger, approach rate  = 53.3%, n = 15; Rhinolophus monoceros, approach rate  = 56.7%, n = 97. We propose that the LDC echolocation strategy used by C. frithii is derived from HDC ancestors, that this species adjusts the harmonic contents of its echolocation calls, and that it may use both the narrowband component and the FM sweep of echolocations calls to detect fluttering targets.

  4. Development of 700 pps high-duty-cycle line-type pulse modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H.; Satoh, K.; Miura, A. [NIHON KOSHUHA Co., LTD., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The high-duty-cycle line-type pulse modulator has been developed to drive the 5.5 MW S-band klystron at the 700 pps maximum repetition-rate and the 14 {mu}sec flat-top pulse-width. To keep an enough recovery time to the thyratron-tube, the command charging scheme was adopted. To do this, a charging SCR-bank has been developed, which is capable of handling the peak charging current of 50 A. The system achieved the world wide highest average output-power of 205 kW. Two modulators have been installed in a new high-duty-cycle electron linear accelerator, which has been started its business operation in March 1996 as an electron-beam-sterilization facility. (J.P.N)

  5. A New High Frequency Injection Method Based on Duty Cycle Shifting without Maximum Voltage Magnitude Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    The conventional high frequency signal injection method is to superimpose a high frequency voltage signal to the commanded stator voltage before space vector modulation. Therefore, the magnitude of the voltage used for machine torque production is limited. In this paper, a new high frequency...... amplitude. This may be utilized to develop new position estimation algorithm without involving the inductance in the medium to high speed range. As an application example, a developed inductance independent position estimation algorithm using the proposed high frequency injection method is applied to drive...... injection method, in which high frequency signal is generated by shifting the duty cycle between two neighboring switching periods, is proposed. This method allows injecting a high frequency signal at half of the switching frequency without the necessity to sacrifice the machine fundamental voltage...

  6. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates....... The lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper is a suitable generator yielding fast pulse repetition rates and stable equidistant frequency steps. Theoretical range resolution profiles of modulated lidars are presented....

  7. Design of a high-efficiency seven-port beam splitter using a dual duty cycle grating structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fung Jacky; Chung, Po Sheun

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a compact seven-port beam splitter which is constructed using only a single-layer high-density grating with a dual duty cycle structure. The properties of this grating are investigated by a simplified modal method. The diffraction efficiency can be achieved around 10% more than conventional Dammann gratings while the uniformity can still be maintained at less than 1%. The effect of deviations from the design parameters on the performance of the grating is also presented.

  8. A high-performance gradient insert for rapid and short-T2 imaging at full duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiger, Markus; Overweg, Johan; Rösler, Manuela Barbara; Froidevaux, Romain; Hennel, Franciszek; Wilm, Bertram Jakob; Penn, Alexander; Sturzenegger, Urs; Schuth, Wout; Mathlener, Menno; Borgo, Martino; Börnert, Peter; Leussler, Christoph; Luechinger, Roger; Dietrich, Benjamin Emanuel; Reber, Jonas; Brunner, David Otto; Schmid, Thomas; Vionnet, Laetitia; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this study was to devise a gradient system for MRI in humans that reconciles cutting-edge gradient strength with rapid switching and brings up the duty cycle to 100% at full continuous amplitude. Aiming to advance neuroimaging and short-T 2 techniques, the hardware design focused on the head and the extremities as target anatomies. A boundary element method with minimization of power dissipation and stored magnetic energy was used to design anatomy-targeted gradient coils with maximally relaxed geometry constraints. The design relies on hollow conductors for high-performance cooling and split coils to enable dual-mode gradient amplifier operation. With this approach, strength and slew rate specifications of either 100 mT/m with 1200 mT/m/ms or 200 mT/m with 600 mT/m/ms were reached at 100% duty cycle, assuming a standard gradient amplifier and cooling unit. After manufacturing, the specified values for maximum gradient strength, maximum switching rate, and field geometry were verified experimentally. In temperature measurements, maximum local values of 63°C were observed, confirming that the device can be operated continuously at full amplitude. Testing for peripheral nerve stimulation showed nearly unrestricted applicability in humans at full gradient performance. In measurements of acoustic noise, a maximum average sound pressure level of 132 dB(A) was determined. In vivo capability was demonstrated by head and knee imaging. Full gradient performance was employed with echo planar and zero echo time readouts. Combining extreme gradient strength and switching speed without duty cycle limitations, the described system offers unprecedented options for rapid and short-T 2 imaging. Magn Reson Med 79:3256-3266, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Novel packaging for CW and QCW diode laser modules for operation with high power and duty cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Wilhelm; Lotz, Jens; Kissel, Heiko; Biesenbach, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Continuous wave (CW) and quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operated diode laser bars and arrays have found a wide range of industrial, medical, scientific, military and space applications with a broad variety in wavelength, pulse energy, pulse duration and beam quality. Recent applications require even higher power, duty cycles and power density. The heat loss will be dissipated by conductive cooling or liquid cooling close to the bars. We present the latest performance and reliability data of two novel high-brightness CW and QCW arrays of customized and mass-production modules, in compact and robust industry design for operation with high power and high duty cycles. All designs are based on single diode packages consisting of 10mm laser bars, soft or hard soldered between expansion matched submounts. The modular components cover a wide span of designs which differ basically in water/conduction (active/passive) cooled, single, linear (horizontal and vertical) arranged designs, as well as housed and unhoused modules. The different assembling technologies of active and passive cooled base plates affect the heat dissipation and therefore the reachable power at different QCW operating conditions, as well as the lifetime. As an example, a package consisting of 8 laser diodes, connected to a 28.8*13.5*7.0mm3 DCB (direct copper bonded) submount, passively or actively cooled is considered. This design is of particular interest for mobile applications seamless module to module building system, with an infinite number of laser bars at 1.7mm pitch. Using 940nm bars we can reach an optical output power per bar of 450W at 25°C base plate temperature with 10Hz, 1.2% duty cycle and 1.2ms pulse duration. As an additional example, micro channel coolers can be vertically stacked up to 50 diodes with a 1,15mm pitch. This design is suitable for all applications, demanding also compactness and light weight and high power density. Using near infrared bars and others, we can reach an optical

  10. Diversification and reproductive isolation: cryptic species in the only New World high-duty cycle bat, Pteronotus parnellii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular techniques are increasingly employed to recognize the presence of cryptic species, even among commonly observed taxa. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats using high-duty cycle echolocation may be more likely to speciate quickly. Pteronotus parnellii is a widespread Neotropical bat and the only New World species to use high-duty cycle echolocation, a trait otherwise restricted to Old World taxa. Here we analyze morphological and acoustic variation and genetic divergence at the mitochondrial COI gene, the 7th intron region of the y-linked Dby gene and the nuclear recombination-activating gene 2, and provide extensive evidence that P. parnellii is actually a cryptic species complex. Results Central American populations form a single species while three additional species exist in northern South America: one in Venezuela, Trinidad and western Guyana and two occupying sympatric ranges in Guyana and Suriname. Reproductive isolation appears nearly complete (only one potential hybrid individual found. The complex likely arose within the last ~6 million years with all taxa diverging quickly within the last ~1-2 million years, following a pattern consistent with the geological history of Central and northern South America. Significant variation in cranial measures and forearm length exists between three of the four groups, although no individual morphological character can discriminate these in the field. Acoustic analysis reveals small differences (5–10 kHz in echolocation calls between allopatric cryptic taxa that are unlikely to provide access to different prey resources but are consistent with divergence by drift in allopatric species or through selection for social recognition. Conclusions This unique approach, considering morphological, acoustic and multi-locus genetic information inherited maternally, paternally and bi-parentally, provides strong support to conclusions about the cessation of gene flow and

  11. EPA Nonregulatory Nonroad Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA nonregulatory, nonroad duty cycles for equipment such as agricultural tractors, backhoe loaders,crawlers tractors, excavators, arc welding skid steer loaders, and wheel loaders. Also,test procedures, laboratory methods, and emissions for this equipmen

  12. Progress in high duty cycle, highly efficient fiber coupled 940-nm pump modules for high-energy class solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, R.; Frevert, C.; Eppich, B.; Rieprich, J.; Ginolas, A.; Kreutzmann, S.; Knigge, S.; Erbert, G.; Crump, P.

    2018-03-01

    Diode lasers pump sources for future high-energy-class laser systems based on Yb-doped solid state amplifiers must deliver high optical intensities, high conversion efficiency (ηE = > 50%) at high repetition rates (f = 100 Hz) and long pulse widths (τ = 0.5…2 ms). Over the last decade, a series of pump modules has been developed at the Ferdinand-BraunInstitut to address these needs. The latest modules use novel wide-aperture single emitter diode lasers in passively side cooled stacks, operate at τ = 1 ms, f = 100…200 Hz and deliver 5…6 kW optical output power from a fiber with 1.9 mm core diameter and NA of 0.22, for spatial brightness BΩ > 1 MW/cm2 sr. The performance to date and latest developments in these high brightness modules are summarized here with recent work focusing on extending operation to other pumping conditions, as needed for alternative solid state laser designs. Specifically, the electro-optic, spectral and beam propagation characteristics of the module and its components are studied as a function of τ for a fixed duty cycle DC = 10% for τ = 1...100 ms, and first data is shown for continuous wave operation. Clear potential is seen to fulfill more demanding specifications without design changes. For example, high power long-pulse operation is demonstrated, with a power of > 5 kW at τ = 100 ms. Higher brightness operation is also confirmed at DC = 10% and τ = 1 ms, with > 5 kW delivered in a beam with BΩ > 4 MW/cm2 sr.

  13. 40 CFR 94.105 - Duty cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty cycles. 94.105 Section 94.105... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.105 Duty cycles. (a) Overview. For....8(e), engines shall be tested using the appropriate duty cycles described in this section. (b...

  14. Laterally coupled distributed feedback lasers emitting at 2 μm with quantum dash active region and high-duty-cycle etched semiconductor gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatryfonos, Konstantinos; Saladukha, Dzianis; Merghem, Kamel; Joshi, Siddharth; Lelarge, Francois; Bouchoule, Sophie; Kazazis, Dimitrios; Guilet, Stephane; Le Gratiet, Luc; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Huyet, Guillaume; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2017-02-01

    Single-mode diode lasers on an InP(001) substrate have been developed using InAs/In0.53Ga0.47As quantum dash (Qdash) active regions and etched lateral Bragg gratings. The lasers have been designed to operate at wavelengths near 2 μm and exhibit a threshold current of 65 mA for a 600 μm long cavity, and a room temperature continuous wave output power per facet >5 mW. Using our novel growth approach based on the low ternary In0.53Ga0.47As barriers, we also demonstrate ridge-waveguide lasers emitting up to 2.1 μm and underline the possibilities for further pushing the emission wavelength out towards longer wavelengths with this material system. By introducing experimentally the concept of high-duty-cycle lateral Bragg gratings, a side mode suppression ratio of >37 dB has been achieved, owing to an appreciably increased grating coupling coefficient of κ ˜ 40 cm-1. These laterally coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) lasers combine the advantage of high and well-controlled coupling coefficients achieved in conventional DFB lasers, with the regrowth-free fabrication process of lateral gratings, and exhibit substantially lower optical losses compared to the conventional metal-based LC-DFB lasers.

  15. Analysis and design of a high-linearity receiver RF front-end with an improved 25%-duty-cycle LO generator for WCDMA/GSM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Song; Li Weinan; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated receiver RF front-end that meets WCDMA/GSM system requirements is presented. It supports SAW-less operation for WCDMA. To improve the linearity in terms of both IP3 and IP2, the RF front-end is comprised of multiple-gated LNAs with capacitive desensitization, current-mode passive mixers with the proposed IP2 calibration circuit and reconfigurable Tow-Thomas-like biquad TIAs. A new power-saving multi-mode divider with low phase noise is proposed to provide the 4-phase 25%-duty-cycle LO. In addition, a constant-g m biasing with a non-chip resistor is adopted to make the conversion gain invulnerable to the process and temperature variations of the transimpedance. This RF front-end is integrated in a receiver with an on-chip frequency synthesizer in 0.13 μm CMOS. The measurement results show that owing to this high-linearity RF front-end, the receiver achieves −6 dBm IIP3 and better than +60 dBm IIP2 for all modes and bands. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Automatic control of clock duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor); Seefeldt, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In general, this disclosure is directed to a duty cycle correction (DCC) circuit that adjusts a falling edge of a clock signal to achieve a desired duty cycle. In some examples, the DCC circuit may generate a pulse in response to a falling edge of an input clock signal, delay the pulse based on a control voltage, adjust the falling edge of the input clock signal based on the delayed pulse to produce an output clock signal, and adjust the control voltage based on the difference between a duty cycle of the output clock signal and a desired duty cycle. Since the DCC circuit adjusts the falling edge of the clock cycle to achieve a desired duty cycle, the DCC may be incorporated into existing PLL control loops that adjust the rising edge of a clock signal without interfering with the operation of such PLL control loops.

  17. 40 CFR 1033.530 - Duty cycles and calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty cycles and calculations. 1033.530... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.530 Duty cycles and calculations. This section describes how to apply the duty cycle to measured emission rates to calculate cycle...

  18. Electrofishing power requirements in relation to duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Dolan, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Under controlled laboratory conditions we measured the electrical peak power required to immobilize (i.e., narcotize or tetanize) fish of various species and sizes with duty cycles (i.e., percentage of time a field is energized) ranging from 1.5% to 100%. Electrofishing effectiveness was closely associated with duty cycle. Duty cycles of 10-50% required the least peak power to immobilize fish; peak power requirements increased gradually above 50% duty cycle and sharply below 10%. Small duty cycles can increase field strength by making possible higher instantaneous peak voltages that allow the threshold power needed to immobilize fish to radiate farther away from the electrodes. Therefore, operating within the 10-50% range of duty cycles would allow a larger radius of immobilization action than operating with higher duty cycles. This 10-50% range of duty cycles also coincided with some of the highest margins of difference between the electrical power required to narcotize and that required to tetanize fish. This observation is worthy of note because proper use of duty cycle could help reduce the mortality associated with tetany documented by some authors. Although electrofishing with intermediate duty cycles can potentially increase effectiveness of electrofishing, our results suggest that immobilization response is not fully accounted for by duty cycle because of a potential interaction between pulse frequency and duration that requires further investigation.

  19. 46 CFR 111.25-15 - Duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty cycle. 111.25-15 Section 111.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motors § 111.25-15 Duty cycle. Each motor must be rated for continuous duty, except a motor for an...

  20. Wi-Fi Coexistence with Duty Cycled LTE-U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of Wi-Fi and LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U technologies has drawn significant concern in industry. In this paper, we investigate the Wi-Fi performance in the presence of duty cycle based LTE-U transmission on the same channel. More specifically, one LTE-U cell and one Wi-Fi basic service set (BSS coexist by allowing LTE-U devices to transmit their signals only in predetermined duty cycles. Wi-Fi stations, on the other hand, simply contend the shared channel using the distributed coordination function (DCF protocol without cooperation with the LTE-U system or prior knowledge about the duty cycle period or duty cycle of LTE-U transmission. We define the fairness of the above scheme as the difference between Wi-Fi performance loss ratio (considering a defined reference performance and the LTE-U duty cycle (or function of LTE-U duty cycle. Depending on the interference to noise ratio (INR being above or below −62 dbm, we classify the LTE-U interference as strong or weak and establish mathematical models accordingly. The average throughput and average service time of Wi-Fi are both formulated as functions of Wi-Fi and LTE-U system parameters using probability theory. Lastly, we use the Monte Carlo analysis to demonstrate the fairness of Wi-Fi and LTE-U air time sharing.

  1. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulon DJK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dina Joy K Abulon Medical Affairs, Alcon Research, Ltd, Lake Forest, CA, USA Purpose: We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. Methods: The CONSTELLATION® Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT® vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+®, 25, 23, and 20 gauge operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. Results: At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Conclusion: Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration. Keywords: enhanced 25-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, 20-gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, aspiration, Constellation Vision System

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as specified in § 1042.505(b)(1): (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E3 mode No...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed engines: (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: D2 mode number Engine speed...

  4. ZENK expression in the auditory pathway of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) as a function of D note number and duty cycle of chick-a-dee calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Erin N; Schuldhaus, Brenna C; Congdon, Jenna V; Hahn, Allison H; Campbell, Kimberley A; Wilson, David R; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2018-06-08

    Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use their namesake chick-a-dee call for multiple functions, altering the features of the call depending on context. For example, duty cycle (the proportion of time filled by vocalizations) and fine structure traits (e.g., number of D notes) can encode contextual factors, such as predator size and food quality. Wilson and Mennill [1] found that chickadees show stronger behavioral responses to playback of chick-a-dee calls with higher duty cycles, but not to the number of D notes. That is, independent of the number of D notes in a call, but dependent on the overall proportion of time filled with vocalization, birds responded more to higher duty cycle playback compared to lower duty cycle playback. Here we presented chickadees with chick-a-dee calls that contained either two D (referred to hereafter as 2 D) notes with a low duty cycle, 2 D notes with a high duty cycle, 10 D notes with a high duty cycle, or 2 D notes with a high duty cycle but played in reverse (a non-signaling control). We then measured ZENK expression in the auditory nuclei where perceptual discrimination is thought to occur. Based on the behavioral results of Wilson and Mennill [1], we predicted we would observe the highest ZENK expression in response to forward-playing calls with high duty cycles; we predicted we would observe no significant difference in ZENK expression between forward-playing high duty cycle playbacks (2 D or 10 D). We found no significant difference between forward-playing 2 D and 10 D high duty cycle playbacks. However, contrary to our predictions, we did not find any effects of altering the duty cycle or note number presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fabrication of Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite coating for Li-ion batteries by pulse electrodeposition: Effects of duty cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cetinkaya, Tugrul; Alp, Ahmet; Akbulut, Hatem

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite electrodes prepared by pulse electrodeposition at different duty cycle. • The effect of duty cycle studied on electrochemical properties of composite electrodes. • A high reversible capacity, and good cyclability were achieved for Sn–Ni/MWNT (75% duty cycle). - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite was prepared by ultrasonic-pulse electrodeposition on a copper substrate in a pyrophosphate bath at different duty cycles. Surface morphology of produced Sn–Ni/MWCNT composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was conducted to understand the elemental surface composition of composites. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was carried out to investigate structure of Sn–Ni/MWCNT composites. The electrochemical performance of Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite electrodes were investigated by charge/discharge tests and cyclic voltammetric experiments. The cells discharge capacities were determined by cyclic testing by a battery tester at a constant current in voltage range between 0.02 V and 1.5 V. The duty cycle was shown to be a crucial factor to improve Sn–Ni/MWCNT composite anodes for cyclability and reversible capacity.

  6. 47 CFR 27.50 - Power limits and duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.50 Power limits and duty cycle. (a) The.... In measuring transmissions in this band using an average power technique, the peak-to-average ratio (PAR) of the transmission may not exceed 13 dB. (6) Peak transmit power must be measured over any...

  7. INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HVAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in homes during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study and the Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study. A temperature sensor/logger placed on an outlet...

  8. 40 CFR 1039.510 - Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which duty cycles do I use for... ENGINES Test Procedures § 1039.510 Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing? (a) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with one of the following transient duty cycles to determine...

  9. 40 CFR 1048.510 - What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What transient duty cycles apply for... Procedures § 1048.510 What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing? (a) Starting with the 2007 model year, measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with the duty cycle described in...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine... Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E4 Mode No. Enginespeed 1 Torque(percent) 2...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld engines with the following steady-state duty cycle: G3 mode No. Engine speed a Torque(percent) b Weighting...

  12. Effects of duty cycle on microstructure and corrosion behavior of TiC coatings prepared by DC pulsed plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanaghi, Ali; Rouhaghdam, Ali Reza Sabour; Ahangarani, Shahrokh; Chu, Paul K.; Farahani, Taghi Shahrabi

    2012-01-01

    Titanium carbide coatings are deposited on hot-work steel (H 11 ) by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) and the dependence of the corrosion behavior on fabrication parameters is investigated. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman and electrochemical tests are used to study the structure as well as corrosion behaviors. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction reveals the (2 0 0) plane implying that the TiC coatings are deposited via the kinetics-limited crystal growth mechanism and under thermodynamically stable conditions. The SEM results indicate that the formation of a homogeneous and uniform titanium carbide nanostructure coatings. Potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance tests performed in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 and 0.05 M NaCl show that the TiC coating produced using a 40% duty cycle possesses high corrosion resistance in both media. The R p values of the TiC coating (50% duty cycle) in 0.05 M NaCl and the other TiC coating (40% duty cycle) in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 are approximately four and sixteen orders of magnitude higher than that of the bare steel, respectively. Our results reveal that the duty cycles not only affect the structure and morphology of the coatings but also influence the electrochemical properties.

  13. Sensitivity study on Duty cycles for Actuator fatigue analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacamon, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    During the aircraft's ight, the control surfaces that enable the aircraft to perform the required maneuvers and the actuator that control them have to withstand loads. Those loads will a ect the actuators lifetime and that is why it is very important to be able to predict their amplitude in order to make sure the actuators will last long enough and be ecient enough during the aircraft lifetime. Duty cycles are thus computed in order to compute the actuators fatigue severity and endurance crit...

  14. Imprints of quasar duty cycle on the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgar, Florian; Eames, Evan; Hottier, Clément; Semelin, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    Quasars contribute to the 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) primarily through their ionizing UV and X-ray emission. However, their radio continuum and Lyman-band emission also regulates the 21-cm signal in their direct environment, potentially leaving the imprint of their duty cycle. We develop a model for the radio and UV luminosity functions of quasars from the EoR, and constrain it using recent observations. Our model is consistent with the recent discovery of the quasar J1342+0928 at redshift ˜7.5, and also predicts only a few quasars suitable for 21-cm forest observations (˜10 mJy) in the sky. We exhibit a new effect on the 21-cm signal observed against the CMB: a radio-loud quasar can leave the imprint of its duty cycle on the 21-cm tomography. We apply this effect in a cosmological simulation and conclude that the effect of typical radio-loud quasars is most likely negligible in an SKA field of view. For a ˜10mJy quasar the effect is stronger though hardly observable at SKA resolution. Then we study the contribution of the lyman band (Ly-α to Ly-β) emission of quasars to the Wouthuisen-Field coupling. The collective effect of quasars on the 21-cm power spectrum is larger than the thermal noise at low k, though featureless. However, a distinctive pattern around the brightest quasars in an SKA field of view may be observable in the tomography, encoding the duration of their duty cycle. This pattern has a high signal-to-noise ratio for the brightest quasar in a typical SKA shallow survey.

  15. Vehicle modeling and duty cycle analysis to validate technology feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, S. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The National Centre for Advanced Transportation (CNTA) is a non-profit organization with a board consisting of representatives from the transportation industry, public service and public transit organizations, research and teaching institutions, and from municipal and economic development organizations. The objectives of the CNTA are to accelerate the introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles; act as a catalyst in projects; assist in increasing Canadian technology assets; initiate and support electric vehicle conversion projects; increase Canadian business for electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and plug-in electric vehicles; and provide a cost-effective solution and aggressive payback for road/off-road vehicles. This presentation provided an overview of the objectives and services of the CNTA. It discussed various road and off-road vehicles, duty cycle and technology of electric vehicles. Specific topics related to the technology were discussed, including configuration; controls and interface; efficiency maps; models and simulation; validation; and support. figs.

  16. Reliability-Aware Cooperative Node Sleeping and Clustering in Duty-Cycled Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeungeun Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Duty-cycled sensor networks provide a new perspective for improvement of energy efficiency and reliability assurance of multi-hop cooperative sensor networks. In this paper, we consider the energy-efficient cooperative node sleeping and clustering problems in cooperative sensor networks where clusters of relay nodes jointly transmit sensory data to the next hop. Our key idea for guaranteeing reliability is to exploit the on-demand number of cooperative nodes, facilitating the prediction of personalized end-to-end (ETE reliability. Namely, a novel reliability-aware cooperative routing (RCR scheme is proposed to select k-cooperative nodes at every hop (RCR-selection. After selecting k cooperative nodes at every hop, all of the non-cooperative nodes will go into sleep status. In order to solve the cooperative node clustering problem, we propose the RCR-based optimal relay assignment and cooperative data delivery (RCR-delivery scheme to provide a low-communication-overhead data transmission and an optimal duty cycle for a given number of cooperative nodes when the network is dynamic, which enables part of cooperative nodes to switch into idle status for further energy saving. Through the extensive OPNET-based simulations, we show that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the existing geographic routing schemes and beaconless geographic routings in wireless sensor networks with a highly dynamic wireless channel and controls energy consumption, while ETE reliability is effectively guaranteed.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.514 - Cycle-validation criteria for operation over specified duty cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycle-validation criteria for operation over specified duty cycles. 1065.514 Section 1065.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.514 Cycle-validation criteria for operation over specified duty...

  18. CMOS single-stage input-powered bridge rectifier with boost switch and duty cycle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzuan, Roskhatijah; Mohd Salleh, Mohd Khairul; Hamzah, Mustafar Kamal; Ab Wahab, Norfishah

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a single-stage input-powered bridge rectifier with boost switch for wireless-powered devices such as biomedical implants and wireless sensor nodes. Realised using CMOS process technology, it employs a duty cycle switch control to achieve high output voltage using boost technique, leading to a high output power conversion. It has only six external connections with the boost inductance. The input frequency of the bridge rectifier is set at 50 Hz, while the switching frequency is 100 kHz. The proposed circuit is fabricated on a single 0.18-micron CMOS die with a space area of 0.024 mm2. The simulated and measured results show good agreement.

  19. Determination of the duty cycle of WLAN for realistic radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Pareit, Daan; Vermeeren, Günter; Naudts, Dries; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Moerman, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are commonly deployed in various environments. The WLAN data packets are not transmitted continuously but often worst-case exposure of WLAN is assessed, assuming 100% activity and leading to huge overestimations. Actual duty cycles of WLAN are thus of importance for time-averaging of exposure when checking compliance with international guidelines on limiting adverse health effects. In this paper, duty cycles of WLAN using Wi-Fi technology are determined for exposure assessment on large scale at 179 locations for different environments and activities (file transfer, video streaming, audio, surfing on the internet, etc.). The median duty cycle equals 1.4% and the 95th percentile is 10.4% (standard deviation SD = 6.4%). Largest duty cycles are observed in urban and industrial environments. For actual applications, the theoretical upper limit for the WLAN duty cycle is 69.8% and 94.7% for maximum and minimum physical data rate, respectively. For lower data rates, higher duty cycles will occur. Although counterintuitive at first sight, poor WLAN connections result in higher possible exposures. File transfer at maximum data rate results in median duty cycles of 47.6% (SD = 16%), while it results in median values of 91.5% (SD = 18%) at minimum data rate. Surfing and audio streaming are less intensively using the wireless medium and therefore have median duty cycles lower than 3.2% (SD = 0.5-7.5%). For a specific example, overestimations up to a factor 8 for electric fields occur, when considering 100% activity compared to realistic duty cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 1045.505 - How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles? 1045.505 Section 1045.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-modal duty cycles? (a) This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. We... Act. Conduct duty-cycle testing as follows: (1) For discrete-mode testing, sample emissions separately...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.505 - Testing engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ramped-modal duty cycles. 1042.505 Section 1042.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... duty cycles. This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. In some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine. In these cases, you...

  2. A Biologically Inspired Energy-Efficient Duty Cycle Design Method for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of emerging wireless sensor networks technology has encouraged researchers to develop new energy-efficient duty cycle design algorithm in this field. The energy-efficient duty cycle design problem is a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we investigate an improved elite immune evolutionary algorithm (IEIEA strategy to optimize energy-efficient duty cycle design scheme and monitored area jointly to enhance the network lifetimes. Simulation results show that the network lifetime of the proposed IEIEA method increased compared to the other two methods, which means that the proposed method improves the full coverage constraints.

  3. Prolonged electrical stimulation-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle activation and sitting pressure in spinal cord injury: Effect of duty cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Karin J.A. Legemate; MD Christof A. J. Smit; MSc Anja de Koning; PhD Sonja de Groot; MD, PhD Janneke M. Stolwijk-Swuste; PhD Thomas W.H. Janssen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—Pressure ulcers (PUs) are highly prevalent in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES) activates muscles and might reduce risk factors. Our objectives were to study and compare the effects of two duty cycles during 3 h of ES-induced gluteal and hamstring activation

  4. Prolonged electrical stimulation-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle activation and sitting pressure in spinal cord injury : Effect of duty cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christof A. J.; Legemate, Karin J. A.; de Koning, Anja; de Groot, Sonja; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are highly prevalent in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES) activates muscles and might reduce risk factors. Our objectives were to study and compare the effects of two duty cycles during 3 h of ES-induced gluteal and hamstring activation on

  5. Internet Enabled Remote Driving of a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System for Duty Cycle Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Jarrett; Compere, Marc; Smith, Wilford; Holtz, Dale; Brudnak, Mark; Pozolo, Mike; Paul, Victor; Mohammad, Syed; Mortsfield, Todd; Shvartsman, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual...

  6. Energy storage technologies and hybrid architectures for specific diesel-driven rail duty cycles: Design and system integration aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, M.; Prenleloup, P.; Schmid, S.; Palacin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed integration of energy storage systems into hybrid system architectures. • We considered mechanical and electrical energy storage systems. • Potential of different combinations has been analyzed by standardized duty cycles. • Most promising are diesel-driven suburban, regional and shunting operations. • Double-layer capacitors and Lithium-ion batteries have the highest potential. - Abstract: The use of diesel-driven traction is an intrinsic part of the functioning of railway systems and it is expected to continue being so for the foreseeable future. The recent introduction of more restrictive greenhouse gas emission levels and other legislation aiming at the improvement of the environmental performance of railway systems has led to the need of exploring alternatives for cleaner diesel rolling stock. This paper focuses on assessing energy storage systems and the design of hybrid system architectures to determine their potential use in specific diesel-driven rail duty cycles. Hydrostatic accumulators, flywheels, Lithium-ion batteries and double-layer capacitors have been assessed and used to design hybrid system architectures. The potential of the different technology combinations has been analyzed using standardized duty cycles enhanced with gradient profiles related to suburban, regional and shunting operations. The results show that double-layer capacitors and Lithium-ion batteries have the highest potential to be successfully integrated into the system architecture of diesel-driven rail vehicles. Furthermore, the results also suggest that combining these two energy storage technologies into a single hybridisation package is a highly promising design that draws on their strengthens without any significant drawbacks.

  7. Accessing data transfer reliability for duty cycled mobile wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.K.

    2014-01-01

    Mobility in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) introduces significant challenges which do not arise in static WSNs. Reliable data transport is an important aspect of attaining consistency and QoS (Quality of Service) in several applications of MWSNs (Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks). It is important to understand how each of the wireless sensor networking characteristics such as duty cycling, collisions, contention and mobility affects the reliability of data transfer. If reliability is not managed well, the MWSN can suffer from overheads which reduce its applicability in the real world. In this paper, reliability assessment is being studied by deploying MWSN in different indoor and outdoor scenarios with various duty cycles of the motes and speeds of the mobile mote. Results show that the reliability is greatly affected by the duty cycled motes and the mobility using inherent broadcast mechanisms. (author)

  8. Effect of duty-cycles on the air plasma gas-phase of dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, R.; Biganzoli, I.; Dell'Orto, E. C.; Riccardi, C.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental investigation concerning the effects of a duty-cycle in the supply of a dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air has been performed. Electrical characteristics of the discharge have been measured, focusing mainly on the statistical properties of the current filaments and on dielectric surface charging, both affected by the frequent repetition of breakdown imposed by the duty-cycle. Information on the gas-phase composition was gathered too. In particular, a strong enhancement in the ozone formation rate is observed when suitable long pauses separate the active discharge phases. A simulation of the chemical kinetics in the gas-phase, based on a simplified discharge modeling, is briefly described in order to shed light on the observed increase in ozone production. The effect of a duty-cycle on surface modification of polymeric films in order to increase their wettability has been investigated too.

  9. Analytical Model for LLC Resonant Converter With Variable Duty-Cycle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    are identified and discussed. The proposed model enables a better understanding of the operation characteristics and fast parameter design of the LLC converter, which otherwise cannot be achieved by the existing simulation based methods and numerical models. The results obtained from the proposed model......In LLC resonant converters, the variable duty-cycle control is usually combined with a variable frequency control to widen the gain range, improve the light-load efficiency, or suppress the inrush current during start-up. However, a proper analytical model for the variable duty-cycle controlled LLC...... converter is still not available due to the complexity of operation modes and the nonlinearity of steady-state equations. This paper makes the efforts to develop an analytical model for the LLC converter with variable duty-cycle control. All possible operation models and critical operation characteristics...

  10. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  11. Soft switching resonant converter with duty-cycle control in DC micro-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Ren

    2018-01-01

    Resonant converter has been widely used for the benefits of low switching losses and high circuit efficiency. However, the wide frequency variation is the main drawback of resonant converter. This paper studies a new modular resonant converter with duty-cycle control to overcome this problem and realise the advantages of low switching losses, no reverse recovery current loss, balance input split voltages and constant frequency operation for medium voltage direct currentgrid or system network. Series full-bridge (FB) converters are used in the studied circuit in order to reduce the voltage stresses and power rating on power semiconductors. Flying capacitor is used between two FB converters to balance input split voltages. Two circuit modules are paralleled on the secondary side to lessen the current rating of rectifier diodes and the size of magnetic components. The resonant tank is operated at inductive load circuit to help power switches to be turned on at zero voltage with wide load range. The pulse-width modulation scheme is used to regulate output voltage. Experimental verifications are provided to show the performance of the proposed circuit.

  12. Improving broadcast performance of radio duty-cycled Internet-of-Things devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclu, S.S.; Özcelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Asynchronous Radio Duty Cycling (ARDC) protocols can make embedded networked devices more energy efficient by keeping their radio off most of the time without a need for synchronization between devices. Some ARDC protocols can operate under 6LoWPAN adaptation layer in order to enable the vision of

  13. Predictive Duty Cycle Control of Three-Phase Active-Front-End Rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an on-line optimizing duty cycle control approach for three-phase active-front-end rectifiers, aiming to obtain the optimal control actions under different operating conditions. Similar to finite control set model predictive control strategy, a cost function previously...

  14. Analysis of Fixed Duty Cycle Hysteretic Flyback Converter for Firing Set Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Thomas Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzes several performance aspects of the fixed-duty-cycle, hysteretic flyback converter topology typically used in firing sets. Topologies with and without active pulse-by-pulse current limiting are considered, and closed-form expressions in terms of basic operating parameters are derived.

  15. The visibility of high-redshift galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.I.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The most visible galaxies - that is, those which have the largest apparent sizes and isophotal luminosities when seen at a given distance - are those with a particular observed surface brightness. Extending this argument to high-redshift galaxies, it is clear that this optimum surface brightness moves progressively to brighter intrinsic surface brightnesses, so as to counteract the effect of K-corrections and cosmological dimming. Thus the galaxies appearing in faint surveys will be from a population distinctly different from those 'normal' galaxies observed nearby. Galaxies in deep surveys are more likely to be spirals and to be of high surface brightness. This has very important implications for observational studies of galaxy evolution. (author)

  16. Visible high power fiber coupled diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Drovs, Simon; Stoiber, Michael; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Könning, Tobias; Biesenbach, Jens; König, Harald; Lell, Alfred; Stojetz, Bernhard; Löffler, Andreas; Strauß, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we report on further development of fiber coupled high-power diode lasers in the visible spectral range. New visible laser modules presented in this paper include the use of multi single emitter arrays @ 450 nm leading to a 120 W fiber coupled unit with a beam quality of 44 mm x mrad, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power from 405 nm to 640 nm. However, as these lasers are based on single emitters, power scaling quickly leads to bulky laser units with a lot of optical components to be aligned. We also report on a new approach based on 450 nm diode laser bars, which dramatically reduces size and alignment effort. These activities were performed within the German government-funded project "BlauLas": a maximum output power of 80 W per bar has been demonstrated @ 450 nm. We show results of a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled 35 W source @ 450 nm, which has been reduced in size by a factor of 25 compared to standard single emitter approach. In addition, we will present a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled laser unit with an output power of 135 W.

  17. Prolonged electrical stimulation-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle activation and sitting pressure in spinal cord injury: Effect of duty cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Christof A. J. Smit, MD; Karin J. A. Legemate, MSc; Anja de Koning, MSc; Sonja de Groot, PhD; Janneke M. Stolwijk-Swuste, MD, PhD; Thomas W. J. Janssen, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are highly prevalent in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES) activates muscles and might reduce risk factors. Our objectives were to study and compare the effects of two duty cycles during 3 h of ES-induced gluteal and hamstring activation on interface pressure distribution in sitting individuals with SCI and study the usability of a newly developed electrode garment (ES shorts). Ten individuals with SCI participated in this study, in which t...

  18. Resistance Torque Based Variable Duty-Cycle Control Method for a Stage II Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Meipeng; Zheng, Shuiying

    2017-07-01

    The resistance torque of a piston stage II compressor generates strenuous fluctuations in a rotational period, and this can lead to negative influences on the working performance of the compressor. To restrain the strenuous fluctuations in the piston stage II compressor, a variable duty-cycle control method based on the resistance torque is proposed. A dynamic model of a stage II compressor is set up, and the resistance torque and other characteristic parameters are acquired as the control targets. Then, a variable duty-cycle control method is applied to track the resistance torque, thereby improving the working performance of the compressor. Simulated results show that the compressor, driven by the proposed method, requires lower current, while the rotating speed and the output torque remain comparable to the traditional variable-frequency control methods. A variable duty-cycle control system is developed, and the experimental results prove that the proposed method can help reduce the specific power, input power, and working noise of the compressor to 0.97 kW·m-3·min-1, 0.09 kW and 3.10 dB, respectively, under the same conditions of discharge pressure of 2.00 MPa and a discharge volume of 0.095 m3/min. The proposed variable duty-cycle control method tracks the resistance torque dynamically, and improves the working performance of a Stage II Compressor. The proposed variable duty-cycle control method can be applied to other compressors, and can provide theoretical guidance for the compressor.

  19. Optimization of carrier frequency and duty cycle for pulse modulation of biological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S N; Singh, S; Sharma, P K; Khosla, S

    1980-10-01

    Digital modulation techniques are commonly used for the recording and transmission of biological signals. Hitherto, the choice of subcarrier frequency for recording or transmission of biological signals has been arbitary and this usually results in poor signal to noise ratio (SNR) due to the limited frequency characteristics of the system. In the present study the frequency characteristics of the system (first order approximation) has been taken to be that of a Butterworth filter. Computations based on this assumption show that for a given input signal there exists an optimum subcarrier frequency and a corresponding optimum duty cycle which would give maximum SNR of the system. For convenience, a nomogram has been prepared and it has been shown that for a given frequency response of the system, the nomogram could be used for selecting an optimum subcarrier frequency and a corresponding duty cycle. The theoretical formulations have been verified with experimental work.

  20. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  1. A Pseudo Fractional-N Clock Generator with 50% Duty Cycle Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Bin; Lo, Yu-Lung; Chao, Ting-Sheng

    A proposed pseudo fractional-N clock generator with 50% duty cycle output is presented by using the pseudo fractional-N controller for SoC chips and the dynamic frequency scaling applications. The different clock frequencies can be generated with the particular phase combinations of a four-stage voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). It has been fabricated in a 0.13µm CMOS technology, and work with a supply voltage of 1.2V. According to measured results, the frequency range of the proposed pseudo fractional-N clock generator is from 71.4MHz to 1GHz and the peak-to-peak jitter is less than 5% of the output period. Duty cycle error rates of the output clock frequencies are from 0.8% to 2% and the measured power dissipation of the pseudo fractional-N controller is 146µW at 304MHz.

  2. An Effective Delay Reduction Approach through a Portion of Nodes with a Larger Duty Cycle for Industrial WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minrui; Wu, Yanhui; Liu, Chuyao; Cai, Zhiping; Xiong, Neal N; Liu, Anfeng; Ma, Ming

    2018-05-12

    For Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs), sending data with timely style to the stink (or control center, CC) that is monitored by sensor nodes is a challenging issue. However, in order to save energy, wireless sensor networks based on a duty cycle are widely used in the industrial field, which can bring great delay to data transmission. We observe that if the duty cycle of a small number of nodes in the network is set to 1, the sleep delay caused by the duty cycle can be effectively reduced. Thus, in this paper, a novel Portion of Nodes with Larger Duty Cycle (PNLDC) scheme is proposed to reduce delay and optimize energy efficiency for IWSNs. In the PNLDC scheme, a portion of nodes are selected to set their duty cycle to 1, and the proportion of nodes with the duty cycle of 1 is determined according to the energy abundance of the area in which the node is located. The more the residual energy in the region, the greater the proportion of the selected nodes. Because there are a certain proportion of nodes with the duty cycle of 1 in the network, the PNLDC scheme can effectively reduce delay in IWSNs. The performance analysis and experimental results show that the proposed scheme significantly reduces the delay for forwarding data by 8.9~26.4% and delay for detection by 2.1~24.6% without reducing the network lifetime when compared with the fixed duty cycle method. Meanwhile, compared with the dynamic duty cycle strategy, the proposed scheme has certain advantages in terms of energy utilization and delay reduction.

  3. A Novel Analog-to-digital conversion Technique using nonlinear duty-cycle modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Mbihi; François Ndjali Beng; Martin Kom; Léandre Nneme Nneme

    2012-01-01

    A new type of analog-to-digital conversion technique is presented in this paper. The interfacing hardware is a very simple nonlinear circuit with 1-bit modulated output. As a implication, behind the hardware simplicity retained is hidden a dreadful nonlinear duty-cycle modulation ratio. However, the overall nonlinear behavior embeds a sufficiently wide linear range, for a rigorous digital reconstitution of the analog input signal using a standard linear filter. Simulation and experimental r...

  4. Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks: From Characterization to Duty Cycle Dimensioning

    OpenAIRE

    Oueis , Jad; Stanica , Razvan; Valois , Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Energy harvesting capabilities are challenging our understanding of wireless sensor networks by adding recharging capacity to sensor nodes. This has a significant impact on the communication paradigm, as networking mechanisms can benefit from these potentially infinite renewable energy sources. In this work, we study the consequences of implementing photovoltaic energy harvesting on the duty cycle of a wireless sensor node, in both outdoor and indoor scenarios. We show...

  5. Duty cycle testing and performance evaluation of the SM-229 teleoperator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Kuban, D.P.

    1985-11-01

    This paper contains the first known experimental studies and analyses of teleoperator performance for specific duty cycles. The results are presented in two distinct areas as position usage patterns, and as three-dimensional power grids. The position usage patterns are a valuable means to assess the available motion range. The power grids are a unique concept for evaluating joint performance. Final conclusions contain recommendations to upgrade the teleoperator for optimum performance. 3 refs., 16 figs

  6. 40 CFR 1048.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1048.505 Section 1048.505 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1048.505 How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles... some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine. In these...

  7. 40 CFR 1039.505 - How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? 1039.505 Section 1039.505 Protection of Environment... duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing? This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. In some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an...

  8. Availability and End-to-end Reliability in Low Duty Cycle Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Jukka; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2009-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency is achieved with low duty cycle operation, however, this alone is not enough. WSNs are deployed for different uses, each requiring acceptable Quality of Service (QoS). Due to the unique characteristics of WSNs, such as dynamic wireless multihop routing and resource constraints, the legacy QoS metrics are not feasible as such. We give a new definition to measure and implement QoS in low duty cycle WSNs, namely availability and reliability. Then, we analyze the effect of duty cycling for reaching the availability and reliability. The results are obtained by simulations with ZigBee and proprietary TUTWSN protocols. Based on the results, we also propose a data forwarding algorithm suitable for resource constrained WSNs that guarantees end-to-end reliability while adding a small overhead that is relative to the packet error rate (PER). The forwarding algorithm guarantees reliability up to 30% PER.

  9. Availability and End-to-end Reliability in Low Duty Cycle MultihopWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo D. Hämäläinen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network (WSN is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency is achieved with low duty cycle operation, however, this alone is not enough. WSNs are deployed for different uses, each requiring acceptable Quality of Service (QoS. Due to the unique characteristics of WSNs, such as dynamic wireless multihop routing and resource constraints, the legacy QoS metrics are not feasible as such. We give a new definition to measure and implement QoS in low duty cycle WSNs, namely availability and reliability. Then, we analyze the effect of duty cycling for reaching the availability and reliability. The results are obtained by simulations with ZigBee and proprietary TUTWSN protocols. Based on the results, we also propose a data forwarding algorithm suitable for resource constrained WSNs that guarantees end-to-end reliability while adding a small overhead that is relative to the packet error rate (PER. The forwarding algorithm guarantees reliability up to 30% PER.

  10. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  11. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  12. Influence of Duty Cycle on Ozone Generation and Discharge Using Volume Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wei, L.S.; Pongrác, Branislav; Zhang, Y.F.; Liang, X.; Prukner, Václav; Šimek, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2018), s. 355-364 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ozone generation * Volume dielectric barrier discharge * Electrical characteristics * Duty cycle * Adjustable ozone concentration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11090-017-9866-y

  13. Determination of Duty Cycle for Energy Storage Systems in a Renewables (Solar) Firming Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electric Power Systems Research Dept.; Ellison, James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electric Power Systems Research Dept.

    2016-04-01

    This report supplements the document, “Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems,” issued in a revised version in April 2016, which will include the renewables (solar) firming application for an energy storage system (ESS). This report provides the background and documentation associated with the determination of a duty cycle for an ESS operated in a renewables (solar) firming application for the purpose of measuring and expressing ESS performance in accordance with the ESS performance protocol.

  14. A Mobility-Aware Adaptive Duty Cycling Mechanism for Tracking Objects during Tunnel Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesik Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel construction workers face many dangers while working under dark conditions, with difficult access and egress, and many potential hazards. To enhance safety at tunnel construction sites, low latency tracking of mobile objects (e.g., heavy-duty equipment and construction workers is critical for managing the dangerous construction environment. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are the basis for a widely used technology for monitoring the environment because of their energy-efficiency and scalability. However, their use involves an inherent point-to-point delay caused by duty cycling mechanisms that can result in a significant rise in the delivery latency for tracking mobile objects. To overcome this issue, we proposed a mobility-aware adaptive duty cycling mechanism for the WSNs based on object mobility. For the evaluation, we tested this mechanism for mobile object tracking at a tunnel excavation site. The evaluation results showed that the proposed mechanism could track mobile objects with low latency while they were moving, and could reduce energy consumption by increasing sleep time while the objects were immobile.

  15. The outburst duration and duty cycle of GRS1915+105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick; Combet, Céline; Wynn, Graham A.

    2009-12-01

    The extraordinarily long outburst of GRS1915+105 makes it one of the most remarkable low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). It has been in a state of constant outburst since its discovery in 1992, an eruption which has persisted ~100 times longer than those of more typical LXMBs. The long orbital period of GRS1915+105 implies that it contains large and massive accretion disc which is able to fuel its extreme outburst. In this paper, we address the longevity of the outburst and quiescence phases of GRS1915+105 using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of its accretion disc through many outburst cycles. Our model is set in the two-α framework and includes the effects of the thermoviscous instability, tidal torques, irradiation by central X-rays and wind mass loss. We explore the model parameter space and examine the impact of the various ingredients. We predict that the outburst of GRS1915+105 should last a minimum of 20yr and possibly up to ~100yr if X-ray irradiation is very significant. The predicted recurrence times are of the order of 104yr, making the X-ray duty cycle a few 0.1 per cent. Such a low duty cycle may mean that GRS1915+105 is not an anomaly among the more standard LMXBs and that many similar, but quiescent, systems could be present in the Galaxy.

  16. Analysis of the response of a photovoltaic module subjected to pulsating light of variable duty cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuñiga-Reyes, Marco A.; Sevilla-Camacho, P.Y.; Robles-Ocampo, J.B.; Lopez-Villarea, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The present work analyzes the time domain response of polycrystalline and amorphous silicon modules subjected to a pulsed light signal, applied under conditions of darkness and controlled temperature. The applied light has a wavelength of 625 nm, a constant power of 5 Watts, a constant frequency of 10 kHz and a variable duty cycle. The response of the modules was analyzed in both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). The results of the research showed differences between the waveform and the amplitude of the output voltage of each of the manufacturing technologies of the modules. To validate the obtained results, the simulation of the response of a solar cell using its equivalent circuit in CA was performed. From the experimental and simulation tests it is observed that the relation between the duty cycle and the response of the modules of different technologies can be used for the monitoring and detection of faults or for the determination of the components of the AC equivalent circuit from the solar cells. (author)

  17. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V, E-mail: rjoshi@ipr.res.i [Institute for plasma research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  18. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V

    2010-01-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  19. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H. M.; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twise, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  20. Effect of pulsed duty cycle control on tribological and corrosion properties of AISI-316 in cathodic cage plasma nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, M.; Raza, H. A.; Shafiq, M.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Iqbal, Javed; Díaz-Guillén, J. C.; Zakaullah, M.

    2017-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are of prime importance in many industrial sectors because of their excellent corrosion resistance; however, their poor mechanical and tribological features lead to their reduced applicability. In this regard, low-temperature cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN) can be used to improve surface properties of steels without scarifying the inherent corrosion resistance. In this study, AISI-316 samples are processed in CCPN reactor at a temperature of 400 °C, for the treatment time of 4 h, at a pressure of 150 Pa and variable pulsed duty cycle (15-75%). The microstructure and mechanical features are analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester. The anodic polarization test in 3.5% NaCl is conducted to examine the corrosion properties. The results show that hardness is enhanced up to 1327 HV at low duty cycle, which is considerably higher than base material (278 HV). The wear rate is found to be reduced up to 90% over base material by processing at low duty cycle. The base material exhibits severe abrasive wear, and the nitrided sample has dominant adhesive wear. The corrosion rate is found to be reduced up to 95% over base material for the sample nitrided at low duty cycle. This study shows that wear and corrosion resistance in CCPN can be significantly boosted by reducing the pulsed duty cycle.

  1. Kinematics and duty cycles of the SM-229 force-reflecting servomanipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first known experimental study of servomanipulator duty cycles to appear in the literature. The servomanipulator used was TeleOperator Systems Model SM-229. The experimental approach used was to record the joint positions and motor currents of the right slave arm at a rate of 10 Hz over about 50 h of typical remote manipulation operations. The results are presented as position usage patterns in joint and real-world coordinates, time-use histograms of joint velocities and motor currents, and three-dimensional mechanical power histograms for each joint. All results are presented in dimensionless form, scaled to the design ranges of the manipulator and the total operation time recorded. Applications of this study include improvements in kinematic ranges, gear reductions, motor sizings, drive configurations, and stress relief. Included in appendices are an uncertainty analysis, calibration procedures, and analysis of the kinematics of the manipulator. 12 refs., 42 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Oxidation of tartrazine with ultraviolet light emitting diodes: pH and duty cycles effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandon M; Miller, Michael E; Kempisty, David M; Stubbs, John; Harper, Willie F

    2018-03-01

    The presence of tartrazine (TAR) in the water cycle poses serious threats to human health. This study investigated the used of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the advanced oxidation of TAR under different pH and duty cycle (DC) conditions. The first order reaction rate constant for TAR oxidation was positively correlated with DC, negatively correlated with pH, and typically greatest at pH 6. Chemical byproduct analysis indicated that OH addition, H abstraction, and electron transfer without molecule transfer were among the relevant reaction mechanisms for TAR degradation. Six byproducts were identified, four were reported for the first time, and two demonstrated that TAR rings were cleaved. This research is the first to determine the optimal pH for UVLED-driven oxidation of TAR and the first to identify new TAR-related byproducts from UVLED-based water treatment.

  3. Duty-cycle and energetics of remnant radio-loud AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.

    2018-05-01

    Deriving the energetics of remnant and restarted active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is much more challenging than for active sources due to the complexity in accurately determining the time since the nucleus switched-off. I resolve this problem using a new approach that combines spectral ageing and dynamical models to tightly constrain the energetics and duty-cycles of dying sources. Fitting the shape of the integrated radio spectrum yields the fraction of the source age the nucleus is active; this, in addition to the flux density, source size, axis ratio, and properties of the host environment, provides a constraint on dynamical models describing the remnant radio source. This technique is used to derive the intrinsic properties of the well-studied remnant radio source B2 0924+30. This object is found to spend 50_{-12}^{+14} Myr in the active phase and a further 28_{-5}^{+6} Myr in the quiescent phase, have a jet kinetic power of 3.6_{-1.7}^{+3.0}× 10^{37} W, and a lobe magnetic field strength below equipartition at the 8σ level. The integrated spectra of restarted and intermittent radio sources are found to yield a `steep-shallow' shape when the previous outburst occurred within 100 Myr. The duty-cycle of B2 0924+30 is hence constrained to be δ < 0.15 by fitting the shortest time to the previous comparable outburst that does not appreciably modify the remnant spectrum. The time-averaged feedback energy imparted by AGNs into their host galaxy environments can in this manner be quantified.

  4. Investigation of duty cycle effect on corrosion properties of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azem, Funda Ak, E-mail: funda.ak@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Buca, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Delice, Tulay Koc, E-mail: tulaykocdelice@gmail.com [Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Buca, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Ungan, Guler, E-mail: gulerungan@hotmail.com [Es Group, Izmir (Turkey); Cakir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmet.cakir@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Buca, 35390 Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-11-01

    The bioceramic calcium phosphate (CaP) is frequently used for improving bone fixation in titanium medical implants and thus increasing lifetime of the implant. It is known that the application of CaP coatings on metallic implant devices offers the possibility of combining the strength of the metals and the bioactivity of the ceramic materials. Many different techniques are available for producing CaP coatings. Electrochemical deposition method is widely used because of its ease of operation parameters, low temperature requirement, reproducibility and suitability for coating complex structures. This technique allows obtaining CaP coatings which promote bone in growth during the first healing period leading to permanent fixation. Electrochemical pulse technique is an alternative to calcium phosphate deposition techniques usually employed to cover orthopedic or dental titanium implant surfaces. Additionally, pulse electrodeposition technique can produce more uniform and denser CaP coatings on metallic implants. In this study, CaP based coatings were produced by electrochemical pulse technique on Ti6Al4V substrates. The resulting CaP deposits were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion properties of the CaP coatings were also investigated. The results showed that various duty cycle ranges have remarkably effect on morphology, crystallinity and corrosion properties of the produced CaP coatings. - Highlights: • Electrodeposited CaP based coating were produced by pulse deposition technique. • The pulsed electrodeposited coatings produced under 30% and 50% duty cycles were exhibited better corrosion resistance. • Produced coatings consist of irregular flake-like structure and compact network with fine needles.

  5. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  6. High visibility temporal ghost imaging with classical light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbin; Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Hui; Zheng, Huaibin; Liu, Yanyan; Zhou, Yu; Li, Fu-li; Xu, Zhuo

    2018-03-01

    High visibility temporal ghost imaging with classical light is possible when superbunching pseudothermal light is employed. In the numerical simulation, the visibility of temporal ghost imaging with pseudothermal light, equaling (4 . 7 ± 0 . 2)%, can be increased to (75 ± 8)% in the same scheme with superbunching pseudothermal light. The reasons for that the retrieved images are different for superbunching pseudothermal light with different values of degree of second-order coherence are discussed in detail. It is concluded that high visibility and high quality temporal ghost image can be obtained by collecting sufficient number of data points. The results are helpful to understand the difference between ghost imaging with classical light and entangled photon pairs. The superbunching pseudothermal light can be employed to improve the image quality in ghost imaging applications.

  7. Low Duty-Cycling MAC Protocol for Low Data-Rate Medical Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongqing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs are severely energy constrained, and how to improve the energy efficiency so as to prolong the network lifetime as long as possible is one of the most important goals of WBAN research. Low data-rate WBANs are promising to cut down the energy consumption and extend the network lifetime. Considering the characteristics and demands of low data-rate WBANs, a low duty-cycling medium access control (MAC protocol is specially designed for this kind of WBAN in this paper. Longer superframes are exploited to cut down the energy consumed on the transmissions and receptions of redundant beacon frames. Insertion time slots are embedded into the inactive part of a superframe to deliver the frames and satisfy the quality of service (QoS requirements. The number of the data subsections in an insertion time slot can be adaptively adjusted so as to accommodate low data-rate WBANs with different traffic. Simulation results show that the proposed MAC protocol performs well under the condition of low data-rate monitoring traffic.

  8. Hybrid Simulation of Duty Cycle Influences on Pulse Modulated RF SiH4/Ar Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xifeng; Song, Yuanhong; Zhao, Shuxia; Dai, Zhongling; Wang, Younian

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo (MC) hybrid model is developed to describe capacitively coupled SiH4/Ar discharge, in which the lower electrode is applied by a RF source and pulse modulated by a square-wave, to investigate the modulation effects of the pulse duty cycle on the discharge mechanism. An electron Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the electron energy distribution as a function of position and time phase. Rate coefficients in chemical reactions can then be obtained and transferred to the fluid model for the calculation of electron temperature and densities of different species, such as electrons, ions, and radicals. The simulation results show that, the electron energy distribution f(ɛ) is modulated evidently within a pulse cycle, with its tail extending to higher energies during the power-on period, while shrinking back promptly in the afterglow period. Thus, the rate coefficients could be controlled during the discharge, resulting in modulation of the species composition on the substrate compared with continuous excitation. Meanwhile, more negative ions, like SiH-3 and SiH-2, may escape to the electrodes owing to the collapse of ambipolar electric fields, which is beneficial to films deposition. Pulse modulation is thus expected to provide additional methods to customize the plasma densities and components. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11275038)

  9. An RF energy harvesting power management circuit for appropriate duty-cycled operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we present an RF energy harvesting power management unit (PMU) for battery-less wireless sensor devices (WSDs). The proposed PMU realizes a duty-cycled operation that is divided into the energy charging time and discharging time. The proposed PMU detects two types of timing, thus, the appropriate timing for the activation can be recognized. The activation of WSDs at the proper timing leads to energy efficient operation and stable wireless communication. The proposed PMU includes a hysteresis comparator (H-CMP) and an RF signal detector (RF-SD) to detect the timings. The proposed RF-SD can operate without the degradation of charge efficiency by reusing the RF energy harvester (RF-EH) and H-CMP. The PMU fabricated in a 180 nm Si CMOS demonstrated the charge operation using the RF signal at 915 MHz and the two types of timing detection with less than 124 nW in the charge phase. Furthermore, in the active phase, the PMU generates a 0.5 V regulated power supply from the charged energy.

  10. Coincidence set-up with a high duty-cycle, high energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1981-01-01

    Important studies are now undertaken to develop continuous wave electron accelerators with energy ranging from 1 to 4 Gev. So very important effort must be now put on the development of the experimental set-up matching the performances expected from the electron beam. Major steps in the understanding of the nuclear systems will come from more and more exclusive experiments where well defined mechanisms will be selected

  11. Comparison of Sociometrically High Visibility Rejected and Low Visibility Rejected Children on Teacher, Parent, and Self-Rating Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbor, Jonelle C.

    The study looked at differences between groups of children identified as high visibility rejected (HVR) and low visibility rejected (LVR) on a sociometric measure with 952 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Questionnaires were analyzed to determine the number of positive and negative nominations from peers received by each child. HVR…

  12. Nanosecond high-power dense microplasma switch for visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataller, A., E-mail: bataller@physics.ucla.edu; Koulakis, J.; Pree, S.; Putterman, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Spark discharges in high-pressure gas are known to emit a broadband spectrum during the first 10 s of nanoseconds. We present calibrated spectra of high-pressure discharges in xenon and show that the resulting plasma is optically thick. Laser transmission data show that such a body is opaque to visible light, as expected from Kirchoff's law of thermal radiation. Nanosecond framing images of the spark absorbing high-power laser light are presented. The sparks are ideal candidates for nanosecond, high-power laser switches.

  13. Distributed photovoltaic architecture powering a DC bus: Impact of duty cycle and load variations on the efficiency of the generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouache, Hadj; Zegaoui, Abdallah; Boutoubat, Mohamed; Bokhtache, Aicha Aissa; Kessaissia, Fatma Zohra; Charles, Jean-Pierre; Aillerie, Michel

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on a photovoltaic generator feeding a load via a boost converter in a distributed PV architecture. The principal target is the evaluation of the efficiency of a distributed photovoltaic architecture powering a direct current (DC) PV bus. This task is achieved by outlining an original way for tracking the Maximum Power Point (MPP) taking into account load variations and duty cycle on the electrical quantities of the boost converter and on the PV generator output apparent impedance. Thereafter, in a given sized PV system, we analyze the influence of the load variations on the behavior of the boost converter and we deduce the limits imposed by the load on the DC PV bus. The simultaneous influences of 1- the variation of the duty cycle of the boost converter and 2- the load power on the parameters of the various components of the photovoltaic chain and on the boost performances are clearly presented as deduced by simulation.

  14. Duty cycle dependence of a periodically poled LiNbO3-based electro-optic Solc filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Eyal; Arie, Ady

    2006-01-20

    We demonstrate that the performance of a periodically poled LiNbO3- (PPLN-) based electro-optic Solc filter is dependent on the duty cycle of the crystal. This may limit the performance of the device for applications such as add-drop filtering and switching, owing to the deterioration of the extinction ratio. It is shown that by adding a retarder to the Solc filter it is possible to improve the extinction ratio; thus the dependence of the filter on the duty cycle can be reduced. Using Jones calculus, we analyzed the effect of a variable retarder that can also be rotated on the extinction ratio. We experimentally observed a 6 dB increase in the extinction ratio when we used a half-wavelength retarder.

  15. DC motor operation controlled from a DC/DC power converter in pulse mode with low duty cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Goce; Kukuseva, Maja; Citkuseva Dimitrovska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper pulse mode of operation of DC motor controlled by DC/DC power converter is analyzed. DC motor operation with time intervals in which the motor operates without output load is of interest. In this mode it is possible the motor to restore energy. Also, in the paper are represented calculations for the amount of the restored energy in the pulse mode operation of the motor for different duty cycles.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Energy Conservation Scheme Based on Duty Cycling in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty. PMID:22219676

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Energy Conservation Scheme Based on Duty Cycling in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Won Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty.

  18. Survey of physics research with a high duty cycle electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Earle, E.D.; Knowles, J.W.; Lone, M.A.

    1981-02-01

    The opportunities for nuclear physics research afforded by a CW electron linac with nominal energy 100 MeV and beam current >= 100 μA equipped with a bremsstrahlung monochromator and reaction product coincidence facilities are outlined. It is proposed that a program toward realization of an accelerator meeting these requirements and with provision for eventual extension to higher energies be undertaken at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. (author)

  19. High accuracy wavelength calibration for a scanning visible spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Filippo; Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Spectroscopic applications for plasma velocity measurements often require wavelength accuracies {<=}0.2 A. An automated calibration, which is stable over time and environmental conditions without the need to recalibrate after each grating movement, was developed for a scanning spectrometer to achieve high wavelength accuracy over the visible spectrum. This method fits all relevant spectrometer parameters using multiple calibration spectra. With a stepping-motor controlled sine drive, an accuracy of {approx}0.25 A has been demonstrated. With the addition of a high resolution (0.075 arc sec) optical encoder on the grating stage, greater precision ({approx}0.005 A) is possible, allowing absolute velocity measurements within {approx}0.3 km/s. This level of precision requires monitoring of atmospheric temperature and pressure and of grating bulk temperature to correct for changes in the refractive index of air and the groove density, respectively.

  20. LED-based high-speed visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nan; Shi, Meng; Zhao, Yiheng; Wang, Fumin; Shi, Jianyang; Zhou, Yingjun; Lu, Xingyu; Qiao, Liang

    2018-01-01

    We are seeing a growing use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a range of applications including lighting, TV and backlight board screen, display etc. In comparison with the traditional incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs, LEDs offer long life-space, much higher energy efficiency, high performance cost ratio and above all very fast switching capability. LED based Visible Light Communications (VLC) is an emerging field of optical communications that focuses on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that humans can see. Depending on the transmission distance, we can divide the whole optical network into two categories, long haul and short haul. Visible light communication can be a promising candidate for short haul applications. In this paper, we outline the configuration of VLC, its unique benefits, and describe the state of the art research contributions consisting of advanced modulation formats including adaptive bit loading OFDM, carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP), pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and single carrier Nyquist, linear equalization and nonlinear distortion mitigation based on machine learning, quasi-balanced coding and phase-shifted Manchester coding. These enabling technologies can support VLC up to 10Gb/s class free space transmission.

  1. DC-pulsed voltage electrochemical method based on duty cycle self-control for producing TERS gold tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, V E; Kharintsev, S S; Salakhov, M Kh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified dc-pulsed low voltage electrochemical method in which a duty cycle is self tuned while etching. A higher yield of gold tips suitable for performing tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements is demonstrated. The improvement is caused by the self-control of the etching rate along the full surface of the tip. A capability of the gold tips to enhance a Raman signal is exemplified by TERS spectroscopy of single walled carbon nanotubes bundle, sulfur and vanadium oxide

  2. Diffraction study of duty-cycle error in ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching gratings with Gaussian beam illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prashant Povel; Kumar, Challa Sesha Sai Pavan; Choi, Hee Joo; Cha, Myoungsik

    2016-02-01

    Random duty-cycle error (RDE) is inherent in the fabrication of ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings. Although a small RDE may not affect the nonlinearity of QPM devices, it enhances non-phase-matched parasitic harmonic generations, limiting the device performance in some applications. Recently, we demonstrated a simple method for measuring the RDE in QPM gratings by analyzing the far-field diffraction pattern obtained by uniform illumination (Dwivedi et al. in Opt Express 21:30221-30226, 2013). In the present study, we used a Gaussian beam illumination for the diffraction experiment to measure noise spectra that are less affected by the pedestals of the strong diffraction orders. Our results were compared with our calculations based on a random grating model, demonstrating improved resolution in the RDE estimation.

  3. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  4. Lifecycle comparison of selected Li-ion battery chemistries under grid and electric vehicle duty cycle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alasdair J.; Huang, Qian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Reed, David M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon

    2018-03-01

    Li-ion batteries are expected to play a vital role in stabilizing the electrical grid as solar and wind generation capacity becomes increasingly integrated into the electric infrastructure. This article describes how two different commercial Li-ion batteries based on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiFePO4 (LFP) chemistries were tested under grid duty cycles recently developed for two specific grid services: (1) frequency regulation (FR) and (2) peak shaving (PS) with and without being subjected to electric vehicle (EV) drive cycles. The lifecycle comparison derived from the capacity, round-trip efficiency (RTE), resistance, charge/discharge energy, and total used energy of the two battery chemistries are discussed. The LFP chemistry shows better stability for the energy-intensive PS service, while the NCA chemistry is more conducive to the FR service under the operating regimes investigated. The results can be used as a guideline for selection, deployment, operation, and cost analyses of Li-ion batteries used for different applications.

  5. High-visibility infrared beacons for IFF and combat ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralle, Martin; Puscasu, Irina; Johnson, Edward; Loges, Peter; Melnyk, James

    2005-05-01

    A new kind of Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) infrared beacon has been demonstrated. The omni-directional beacon consists of a pyramidal array of 1W pulsIR thermal light sources. Operating at a total power of 84W, the beacon can be used to track and identify surface vehicles and personnel with a recognition range of up to 6 miles on the battlefield and in urban environments or the marine boundary layer. Advanced photonic technology enables the beacon to be seen only while using a 3-5 μm or 8-12 μm thermal imaging system. There is no visible or near-IR emission to betray the location of the beacon. The beacon is rugged and will operate from -40 to 50°C ambient temperature, 0-100% relative humidity, 0 - 10,000 ft altitude, and meets MIL-STD 810F and MIL-STD 461E.

  6. Development of ultra high speed photographic system using high repetition rate visible laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Hun; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jung Bog; Lim, Chang Hwan; Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Byung Deok; Rhi, Jong Hoon; Baik, Dae Hyun; Han, Jae Min; Rho, Si Pyo; Lee, Byung Cheol; Jeong, Do Yung; Choi, An Seong; Jeong, Chan Ik; Park, Dae Ung; Jeong, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Heon Jun; Jang, Rae gak; Jo, Do Hun; Park, Min Young

    1992-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and commercialize a high speed photographic system equipped with a high repetition rate visible laser. The developed system provides the characteristics of high time resolution and large number of frames. The system consists of 10 W air cooled CVL or a 30 W water cooled CVL, a rotating drum-type high speed camera with the framing rate of 35,000 fps, and a automatic control device. The system has the performance of 10 nsec time resolution, 35,000 fps framing rate, and 250 picture frames. The high speed photographic systems are widely applied to the fields such as high-efficient engine development, high-speed vibration analysis, shock wave propagation study, flow visualization analysis, weapon development, etc. (Author)

  7. Investigation of CuInSe2 nanowire arrays with core-shell structure electrodeposited at various duty cycles into anodic alumina templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Song; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Lin, Jia-Jun; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2017-02-01

    Copper indium selenide (CuInSe2) nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various electrolyte duty cycles by filling anodic alumina templates through the pulsed electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the nucleation mechanism of CuInSe2 NW arrays was affected by the electrodeposition duty cycle. Moreover, SEM images showed that the diameter and length of the NWs were 80 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, PEDOT/CuInSe2 NW core-shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed that a core-shell structure was achieved. Current-voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core-shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63.

  8. The 2007 click it or ticket high-visibility seat belt mobilization : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    In May 2007 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : sponsored the fifth national Click It or Ticket (CIOT) : high-visibility seat belt enforcement mobilization, which followed : the CIOT program model of earned and paid media : publicizi...

  9. Visible light photon counters (VLPCs) for high rate tracking medical imaging and particle astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper is on the operation principles of the Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPCs), application to high luminosity-high multiplicity tracking for High Energy Charged Particle Physics, and application to Medical Imaging and Particle Astrophysics. The VLPCs as Solid State Photomultipliers (SSPMS) with high quantum efficiency can detect down to single photons very efficiently with excellent time resolution and high avalanche gains

  10. Cutting and drilling studies using high power visible lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, D.D.; Dragon, E.P.; Werve, M.E.; Hargrove, R.S.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    High power and radiance laser technologies developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory such as copper-vapor and dye lasers show great promise for material processing tasks. Evaluation of models suggests significant increases in welding, cutting, and drilling capabilities, as well as applications in emerging technologies such as micromachining, surface treatment, and stereolithography. Copper lasers currently operate at 1.8 kW output at approximately three times the diffraction limit and achieve mean time between failures of more than 1,000 hours. Dye lasers have near diffraction limited beam quality at greater than 1.0 kW. Results from cutting and drilling studies in titanium and stainless steel alloys show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye and copper-vapor lasers. High radiance beams produce low distortion and small heat-affected zones. The authors have accomplished very high aspect ratios (> 60:1) and features with micron scale (5-50 μm) sizes. The paper gives a description of the equipment; discusses cutting theory; and gives experimental results of cutting and drilling studies on Ti-6Al-4V and 304 stainless steel

  11. High-Performance Visible-Blind UV Phototransistors Based on n-Type Naphthalene Diimide Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inho; Lee, Seung-Chul; Shang, Xiaobo; Ahn, Jaeyong; Jung, Hoon-Joo; Jeong, Chan-Uk; Kim, Sang-Wook; Yoon, Woojin; Yun, Hoseop; Kwon, O-Pil; Oh, Joon Hak

    2018-04-11

    This study investigates the performance of single-crystalline nanomaterials of wide-band gap naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives with methylene-bridged aromatic side chains. Such materials are found to be easily used as high-performance, visible-blind near-UV light detectors. NDI single-crystalline nanoribbons are assembled using a simple solution-based process (without solvent-inclusion problems), which is then applied to organic phototransistors (OPTs). Such OPTs exhibit excellent n-channel transistor characteristics, including an average electron mobility of 1.7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , sensitive UV detection properties with a detection limit of ∼1 μW cm -2 , millisecond-level responses, and detectivity as high as 10 15 Jones, demonstrating the highly sensitive organic visible-blind UV detectors. The high performance of our OPTs originates from the large face-to-face π-π stacking area between the NDI semiconducting cores, which is facilitated by methylene-bridged aromatic side chains. Interestingly, NDI-based nanoribbon OPTs exhibit a distinct visible-blind near-UV detection with an identical detection limit, even under intense visible light illumination (for example, 10 4 times higher intensity than UV light intensity). Our findings demonstrate that wide-band gap NDI-based nanomaterials are highly promising for developing high-performance visible-blind UV photodetectors. Such photodetectors could potentially be used for various applications including environmental and health-monitoring systems.

  12. Highly Transparent, Visible-Light Photodetector Based on Oxide Semiconductors and Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Park, Jin-Seong; Kang, Seong Jun

    2015-09-09

    Highly transparent phototransistors that can detect visible light have been fabricated by combining indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) and quantum dots (QDs). A wide-band-gap IGZO film was used as a transparent semiconducting channel, while small-band-gap QDs were adopted to absorb and convert visible light to an electrical signal. Typical IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) did not show a photocurrent with illumination of visible light. However, IGZO TFTs decorated with QDs showed enhanced photocurrent upon exposure to visible light. The device showed a responsivity of 1.35×10(4) A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 2.59×10(4) under illumination by a 635 nm laser. The origin of the increased photocurrent in the visible light was the small band gap of the QDs combined with the transparent IGZO films. Therefore, transparent phototransistors based on IGZO and QDs were fabricated and characterized in detail. The result is relevant for the development of highly transparent photodetectors that can detect visible light.

  13. High-visibility time-bin entanglement for testing chained Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasin, Marco; Mantoan, Elia; Jogenfors, Jonathan; Vallone, Giuseppe; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Villoresi, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    The violation of Bell's inequality requires a well-designed experiment to validate the result. In experiments using energy-time and time-bin entanglement, initially proposed by Franson in 1989, there is an intrinsic loophole due to the high postselection. To obtain a violation in this type of experiment, a chained Bell inequality must be used. However, the local realism bound requires a high visibility in excess of 94.63% in the time-bin entangled state. In this work, we show how such a high visibility can be reached in order to violate a chained Bell inequality with six, eight, and ten terms.

  14. Investigation of CuInSe{sub 2} nanowire arrays with core–shell structure electrodeposited at various duty cycles into anodic alumina templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yu-Song [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Rd., Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jia-Jun [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The present paper reports that CuInSe2 NW arrays were fabricated through pulsed electrode position onto an AAO template with various duty cycles, and a pore-filling ratio of approximately 92% was achieved. • GIXRD patterns showed that all CuInSe2 NW arrays were chalcopyrite and SAED images confirmed that the CuInSe2 NWs were polycrystalline. • PEDOT/CuInSe2 NW core–shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. • Current–voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core–shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63. - Abstract: Copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various electrolyte duty cycles by filling anodic alumina templates through the pulsed electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the nucleation mechanism of CuInSe{sub 2} NW arrays was affected by the electrodeposition duty cycle. Moreover, SEM images showed that the diameter and length of the NWs were 80 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, PEDOT/CuInSe{sub 2} NW core–shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe{sub 2} NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed that a core–shell structure was achieved. Current–voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe{sub 2} NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core–shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63.

  15. Investigation of CuInSe2 nanowire arrays with core–shell structure electrodeposited at various duty cycles into anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yu-Song; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Lin, Jia-Jun; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present paper reports that CuInSe2 NW arrays were fabricated through pulsed electrode position onto an AAO template with various duty cycles, and a pore-filling ratio of approximately 92% was achieved. • GIXRD patterns showed that all CuInSe2 NW arrays were chalcopyrite and SAED images confirmed that the CuInSe2 NWs were polycrystalline. • PEDOT/CuInSe2 NW core–shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. • Current–voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core–shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63. - Abstract: Copper indium selenide (CuInSe 2 ) nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various electrolyte duty cycles by filling anodic alumina templates through the pulsed electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the nucleation mechanism of CuInSe 2 NW arrays was affected by the electrodeposition duty cycle. Moreover, SEM images showed that the diameter and length of the NWs were 80 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, PEDOT/CuInSe 2 NW core–shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe 2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed that a core–shell structure was achieved. Current–voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe 2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core–shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63.

  16. Observation of visible and uv magnetic dipole transitions in highly charged xenon and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.A.; Serpa, F.G.; Takacs, E.; Meyer, E.S.; Gillaspy, J.D.; Sugar, J.; Roberts, J.R.; Brown, C.M.; Feldman, U.

    1995-01-01

    We have observed an unusual transition which is predicted to result in visible and near-uv emission from very highly charged titaniumlike ions spanning the entire upper half of the periodic table. Measurements of the wavelengths of the 3d 4 D 2 - 5 D 3 transitions in Ba +34 and Xe +32 are in surprisingly poor agreement with ab initio calculations. This work was carried out in an electron beam ion trap and demonstrates that such a device can be an important tool for visible spectroscopy of highly charged ions

  17. A novel respiratory motion compensation strategy combining gated beam delivery and mean target position concept - A compromise between small safety margins and long duty cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Kavanagh, Anthony; Webb, Steve; Brada, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel respiratory motion compensation strategy combining gated beam delivery with the mean target position (MTP) concept for pulmonary stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Materials and methods: Four motion compensation strategies were compared for 10 targets with motion amplitudes between 6 mm and 31 mm: the internal target volume concept (plan ITV ); the MTP concept where safety margins were adapted based on 4D dose accumulation (plan MTP ); gated beam delivery without margins for motion compensation (plan gated ); a novel approach combining gating and the MTP concept (plan gated and MTP ). Results: For 5/10 targets with an average motion amplitude of 9 mm, the differences in the mean lung dose (MLD) between plan gated and plan MTP were gated and MTP . Despite significantly shorter duty cycles, plan gated reduced the MLD by gated and MTP . The MLD was increased by 18% in plan MTP compared to that of plan gated and MTP . Conclusions: For pulmonary targets with motion amplitudes >10-15 mm, the combination of gating and the MTP concept allowed small safety margins with simultaneous long duty cycles.

  18. Printable photonic crystals with high refractive index for applications in visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Mejia, Camilo A; Munechika, Keiko; Peroz, Christophe; Piña-Hernandez, Carlos; Fillot, Quentin; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Salvadori, Filippo; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of functional high-refractive index materials has proved to be a powerful candidate for the inexpensive manufacturing of high-resolution photonic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of printable photonic crystals (PhCs) with high refractive index working in the visible wavelengths. The PhCs are replicated on a titanium dioxide-based high-refractive index hybrid material by reverse NIL with almost zero shrinkage and high-fidelity reproducibility between mold and printed devices. The optical responses of the imprinted PhCs compare very well with those fabricated by conventional nanofabrication methods. This study opens the road for a low-cost manufacturing of PhCs and other nanophotonic devices for applications in visible light. (paper)

  19. Degradation of fluorescent high-visibility colors used in safety garments for the Australian railway industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Arun; Islam, Saniyat; Jones, Michael; Padhye, Rajiv; Arnold, Lyndon

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the compliance of four fluorescent orange high-visibility garment substrates that are predominantly used in the Australian railway industry. While Special Purpose Orange (SPO), a shade of the Fluorescent orange (Fl-orange) is recommended by most Australian states as the high-visibility background color of a safety garment, there appear to be variations in the background color of clothing used by line-workers and rail contractors. The color of the garment was assessed for compliance with the Australian Standard AS/NZS 1906.2.2010 for high-visibility materials for safety garments. The results were also compared with ANSI Z535.2011 and BS EN ISO 20471.2013 Standards. Photometric and colorimetric assessments of the background color of the garment substrates were performed using a spectrophotometer and were evaluated for compliance with the Standards after washing and exposure to UV. The spectrophotometry measurements showed that Fl-orange background color for all samples except one complied with the AS/NZS 1906.2 Standard for daytime high-visibility garments after 20 washes but failed to comply after exposure to UV. It was also found that the chromaticity coordinates of the corners of the Fl-orange color space, specified in the AS/NZS 1906.4.2010 Standard are much wider and yellower when compared with the ANSI Z535.1.2011 and BS EN ISO 20471.2013 Standards. The sample that failed to comply with the Australian and American Standards however complied with the ISO Standard. Irrespective of the Standard used, the research has shown the degrading effect of washing and light exposure and raises the questions as to how regularly, and under what conditions high-visibility garments need to be replaced. These findings will provide information for safety garment manufacturers about the characteristics and performance of high-visibility safety garments which make them conspicuous during daytime use. This research recommends that colors for railway workers

  20. Facile synthesis of cobalt-doped zinc oxide thin films for highly efficient visible light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem, E-mail: ozlemaltintas@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Arslan, Hanife; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey); Nanotechnology R& D Laboratory, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Photocatalytically active Co-ZnO thin film was obtained by sol-gel method. • Co{sup 2+} doping narrowed the band gap of pure ZnO to an extent of 3.18 eV. • Co-ZnO was effective in MB degradation under visible light. • Optimum dopant content to show high performance was 3 at.%. - Abstract: Cobalt-doped zinc oxide (Co:ZnO) thin films with dopant contents ranging from 0 to 5 at.% were prepared using the sol–gel method, and their structural, morphological, optical, and photocatalytic properties were characterized. The effect of the dopant content on the photocatalytic properties of the films was investigated by examining the degradation behavior of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, and a detailed investigation of their photocatalytic activities was performed by determining the apparent quantum yields (AQYs). Co{sup 2+} ions were observed to be substitutionally incorporated into Zn{sup 2+} sites in the ZnO crystal, leading to lattice parameter constriction and band gap narrowing due to the photoinduced carriers produced under the visible light irradiation. Thus, the light absorption range of the Co:ZnO films was improved compared with that of the undoped ZnO film, and the Co:ZnO films exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity (∼92% decomposition of MB after 60-min visible light irradiation for the 3 at.% Co:ZnO film). The AQYs of the Co:ZnO films were greatly enhanced under visible light irradiation compared with that of the undoped ZnO thin film, demonstrating the effect of the Co doping level on the photocatalytic activity of the films.

  1. Near UV-visible line emission from tungsten highly-charged ions in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Oishi, T.; Morita, S.; Fujii, K.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2015-01-01

    Wavelengths of emission lines from tungsten highly-charged ions have been precisely measured in near UV-visible range (320 - 356 nm and 382 - 402 nm) at Large Helical Device (LHD) by tungsten pellet injection. The tungsten emission lines were assigned based on its line-integrated intensity profiles on a poloidal cross section. The ground-term magnetic-dipole (M1) lines of W 26+,27+ and an M1 line of a metastable excited state of W 28+ , whose wavelengths have been determined by measurements using electron-beam-ion-traps (EBITs), are identified in the LHD spectra. The present results partially compliment wavelength data of tungsten highly-charged ions in the near UV-visible range. (author)

  2. High-efficiency and low-loss gallium nitride dielectric metasurfaces for nanophotonics at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emani, Naresh Kumar; Khaidarov, Egor; Paniagua-Domínguez, Ramón; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Valuckas, Vytautas; Lu, Shunpeng; Zhang, Xueliang; Tan, Swee Tiam; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.

    2017-11-01

    The dielectric nanophotonics research community is currently exploring transparent material platforms (e.g., TiO2, Si3N4, and GaP) to realize compact high efficiency optical devices at visible wavelengths. Efficient visible-light operation is key to integrating atomic quantum systems for future quantum computing. Gallium nitride (GaN), a III-V semiconductor which is highly transparent at visible wavelengths, is a promising material choice for active, nonlinear, and quantum nanophotonic applications. Here, we present the design and experimental realization of high efficiency beam deflecting and polarization beam splitting metasurfaces consisting of GaN nanostructures etched on the GaN epitaxial substrate itself. We demonstrate a polarization insensitive beam deflecting metasurface with 64% and 90% absolute and relative efficiencies. Further, a polarization beam splitter with an extinction ratio of 8.6/1 (6.2/1) and a transmission of 73% (67%) for p-polarization (s-polarization) is implemented to demonstrate the broad functionality that can be realized on this platform. The metasurfaces in our work exhibit a broadband response in the blue wavelength range of 430-470 nm. This nanophotonic platform of GaN shows the way to off- and on-chip nonlinear and quantum photonic devices working efficiently at blue emission wavelengths common to many atomic quantum emitters such as Ca+ and Sr+ ions.

  3. Trade-Offs between Energy Saving and Reliability in Low Duty Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Packet Splitting Forwarding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardi Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenging topics and design constraints in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is the reduction of energy consumption because, in most application scenarios, replacement of power resources in sensor devices might be unfeasible. In order to minimize the power consumption, some nodes can be put to sleep during idle times and wake up only when needed. Although it seems the best way to limit the consumption of energy, other performance parameters such as network reliability have to be considered. In a recent paper, we introduced a new forwarding algorithm for WSNs based on a simple splitting procedure able to increase the network lifetime. The forwarding technique is based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem and exhibits very good results in terms of energy efficiency and complexity. In this paper, we intend to investigate a trade-off between energy efficiency and reliability of the proposed forwarding scheme when duty-cycling techniques are considered too.

  4. Highly efficient holograms based on c-Si metasurfaces in the visible range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Augusto; Li, Juntao; da Mota, Achiles F; Wang, Yin; Neto, Luiz G; do Carmo, João P; Teixeira, Fernando L; Martins, Emiliano R; Borges, Ben-Hur V

    2018-04-16

    This paper reports on the first hologram in transmission mode based on a c-Si metasurface in the visible range. The hologram shows high fidelity and high efficiency, with measured transmission and diffraction efficiencies of ~65% and ~40%, respectively. Although originally designed to achieve full phase control in the range [0-2π] at 532 nm, these holograms have also performed well at 444.9 nm and 635 nm. The high tolerance to both fabrication and wavelength variations demonstrate that holograms based on c-Si metasurfaces are quite attractive for diffractive optics applications, and particularly for full-color holograms.

  5. High-performance visible/UV CCD focal plane technology for spacebased applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, B. E.; Mountain, R. W.; Gregory, J. A.; Huang, J. C. M.; Cooper, M. J.; Savoye, E. D.; Kosicki, B. B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent technology developments aimed at large CCD imagers for space based applications in the visible and UV. Some of the principal areas of effort include work on reducing device degradation in the natural space-radiation environment, improvements in quantum efficiency in the visible and UV, and larger-device formats. One of the most serious hazards for space based CCD's operating at low signal levels is the displacement damage resulting from bombardment by energetic protons. Such damage degrades charge-transfer efficiency and increases dark current. We have achieved improved hardness to proton-induced displacement damage by selective ion implants into the CCD channel and by reduced temperature of operation. To attain high quantum efficiency across the visible and UV we have developed a technology for back-illuminated CCD's. With suitable antireflection (AR) coatings such devices have quantum efficiencies near 90 percent in the 500-700-nm band. In the UV band from 200 to 400 nm, where it is difficult to find coatings that are sufficiently transparent and can provide good matching to the high refractive index of silicon, we have been able to substantially increase the quantum efficiency using a thin film of HfO2 as an AR coating. These technology efforts were applied to a 420 x 420-pixel frame-transfer imager, and future work will be extended to a 1024 x 1024-pixel device now under development.

  6. Measurements of visible forbidden lines and ion distributions of tungsten highly charged ions at the LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2013-01-01

    Visible lines, which are presumably associated with forbidden lines from tungsten highly charged ions, were clearly observed in a spectrum of 370 - 410 nm recorded shortly after a tungsten pellet injection at the LHD. One of the measured lines has been assigned to a magnetic-dipole (M1) line of the ground-term fine-structure transition of W 26+ . Photon emission was observed at 44 lines of sight divided along the vertical direction of a horizontally elongated poloidal cross section of the LHD plasma. The line-integrated intensity of the lines along each line of sight indicates peaked profiles near the plasma center, while visible line emissions of neutral hydrogen and helium recoded in the same sampling time have a maximum located in the peripheral region of the poloidal cross section. (author)

  7. Visible luminescence from highly textured Tb{sup 3+} doped RF sputtered zinc oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, R. Sreeja; Krishnan, R. Reshmi; Bose, R. Jolly; Kavitha, V.S.; Suresh, S. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Vinodkumar, R. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Department of Physics, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); Sudheer, S.K. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Pillai, V.P. Mahadevan, E-mail: vpmpillai9@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highly transparent, luminescent, c-axis oriented Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnO films are prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The structural, morphological, optical and luminescence properties of these films are investigated as a function of Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration by X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The as-deposited films are found to be highly crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO. The characteristic features of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO, particularly the appearance of non-polar E{sub 2} modes are easily identified from the Raman spectra of the films. The surface morphology of the films revealed by FESEM and AFM images present a dense distribution of grains. The elemental analysis carried out using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra confirms the incorporation of Tb{sup 3+} ions in the ZnO lattice. The films are highly transparent in the visible region. Using ellipsometric analysis, the variation of refractive index, dielectric constant and thickness of the films are studied as a function of Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration. The photoluminescence spectra of the Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnO films recorded using an excitation radiation of wavelength 325 nm from a He-Cd laser exhibit visible luminescence ~430, 490, 516 and 542 nm. The origin of visible emissions ~490 and 542 nm in the doped films can be attributed to 5D{sub 4}→7F{sub 6} and 5D{sub 4}→7F{sub 5} transition of Tb{sup 3+} ion respectively. The intensity of the emission at 542 nm is found to be decreasing at higher doping concentration due to concentration quenching effect. The blue emission in the films can be attributed to the electron transition from shallow donor level formed by interstitial Zn atoms to the top of the valence band. The origin of the visible emission ~516 nm is attributed

  8. Infrared and visible laser spectroscopy for highly-charged Ni-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralchenko, Yuri

    2017-10-01

    Application of visible or infrared (IR) lasers for spectroscopy of highly-charged ions (HCI) has not been particularly extensive so far due to a mismatch in typical energies. We show here that the energy difference between the two lowest levels within the first excited configuration 3d9 4 s in Ni-like ions of heavy elements from ZN = 60 to ZN = 92 is within the range of visible or near-IR lasers. The wavelengths of these transitions are calculated within the relativistic model potential formalism and compared with other theoretical and limited experimental data. Detailed collisional-radiative simulations of non-Maxwellian and thermal plasmas are performed showing that photopumping between these levels using relatively moderate lasers is sufficient to provide a two-order of magnitude increase of the pumped level population. This accordingly results in a similar rise of the X-ray line intensity thereby allowing control of X-ray emission with visible/IR lasers.

  9. Tunable High Harmonic Generation driven by a Visible Optical Parametric Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keathley P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 μJ energy at 1-kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping energy, duration and beam size constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of conversion efficiency and cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in argon and helium respectively. Our measurements show a λ−5.9±0.9 wavelength dependence of the conversion efficiency and a λ1.7±0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source and changing the gas, the high order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ~25 eV and ~100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  10. A high-speed, eight-wavelength visible light-infrared pyrometer for shock physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongbo; Li, Shengfu; Zhou, Weijun; Luo, Zhen-Xiong; Meng, Jianhua; Tian, Jianhua; He, Lihua; Cheng, Xianchao

    2017-09-01

    An eight-channel, high speed pyrometer for precise temperature measurement is designed and realized in this work. The addition of longer-wavelength channels sensitive at lower temperatures highly expands the measured temperature range, which covers the temperature of interest in shock physics from 1500K-10000K. The working wavelength range is 400-1700nm from visible light to near-infrared (NIR). Semiconductor detectors of Si and InGaAs are used as photoelectric devices, whose bandwidths are 50MHz and 150MHz respectively. Benefitting from the high responsivity and high speed of detectors, the time resolution of the pyrometer can be smaller than 10ns. By combining the high-transmittance beam-splitters and narrow-bandwidth filters, the peak spectrum transmissivity of each channel can be higher than 60%. The gray-body temperatures of NaI crystal under shock-loading are successfully measured by this pyrometer.

  11. Visible-Frequency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Multiwavelength Achromatic and Highly Dispersive Holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Dong, Fengliang; Li, Qi-Tong; Yang, Dong; Sun, Chengwei; Chen, Jianjun; Song, Zhiwei; Xu, Lihua; Chu, Weiguo; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Yan

    2016-08-10

    Dielectric metasurfaces built up with nanostructures of high refractive index represent a powerful platform for highly efficient flat optical devices due to their easy-tuning electromagnetic scattering properties and relatively high transmission efficiencies. Here we show visible-frequency silicon metasurfaces formed by three kinds of nanoblocks multiplexed in a subwavelength unit to constitute a metamolecule, which are capable of wavefront manipulation for red, green, and blue light simultaneously. Full phase control is achieved for each wavelength by independently changing the in-plane orientations of the corresponding nanoblocks to induce the required geometric phases. Achromatic and highly dispersive meta-holograms are fabricated to demonstrate the wavefront manipulation with high resolution. This technique could be viable for various practical holographic applications and flat achromatic devices.

  12. Scintillating fiber tracking at high luminosities using Visible Light Photon counter readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the research work on the Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPC) that have been developed for the scintillating fiber tracking at high luminosity colliders and high rate fixed target experiments. The devices originated from the joint work between UCLA and Rockwell International Science Center. The VLPCs are capable of counting photons very efficiently down to a single photon level with high avalanche gain, producing pulses at very high rates with very short rise times. Due to small gain dispersions they can be used in counting photons with high quantum efficiencies, therefore they are excellent devices for charged particle tracking using small diameter scintillating plastic fibers. In this paper, fiber tracking for the CDF and D0 upgrades and a possible usage of the VLPC readout for the experiment E803 at Fermilab will be discussed

  13. Broadband plasmonic silver nanoflowers for high-performance random lasing covering visible region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Qing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multicolor random lasing has broad potential applications in the fields of imaging, sensing, and optoelectronics. Here, silver nanoflowers (Ag NF with abundant nanogaps are fabricated by a rapid one-step solution-phase synthesis method and are first proposed as effective broadband plasmonic scatterers to achieve different color random lasing. With abundant nanogaps and spiky tips near the surface and the interparticle coupling effect, Ag NFs greatly enhance the local electromagnetic field and induce broadband plasmonic scattering spectra over the whole visible range. The extremely low working threshold and the high-quality factor for Ag NF-based random lasers are thus demonstrated as 0.24 MW cm−2 and 11,851, respectively. Further, coherent colorful random lasing covering the visible range is realized using the dye molecules oxazine (red, Coumarin 440 (blue, and Coumarin 153 (green, showing high-quality factor of more than 10,000. All these features show that Ag NF are highly efficient scatterers for high-performance coherent random lasing and colorful random lasers.

  14. Graphene–Ag/ZnO nanocomposites as high performance photocatalysts under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, E.; Hong, Z.L.; Khalid, N.R.; Ahmed, W.; Elhissi, A.

    2013-01-01

    , great adsorption of dyes, enhanced visible light absorption and fast transfer processes. This research has the potential to provide new avenues for the in situ fabrication of the Graphene–Ag/ZnO composites as highly efficient photocatalysts

  15. Investigation of Self-injection Locked Visible Laser Diodes for High Bit-rate Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Shemis, Mohamed; Shen, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    -mode-suppression-ratio was considerably increased in all the cases, reaching as high as ~20 dB in self-injection locked blue laser diode, thus enabling a close to single mode operation. This work paves the way for attaining high speed optical wireless communications by overcoming

  16. High security chaotic multiple access scheme for visible light communication systems with advanced encryption standard interleaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Junchao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Diyang; Liu, Xingcheng

    2016-06-01

    Chaotic sequences can be applied to realize multiple user access and improve the system security for a visible light communication (VLC) system. However, since the map patterns of chaotic sequences are usually well known, eavesdroppers can possibly derive the key parameters of chaotic sequences and subsequently retrieve the information. We design an advanced encryption standard (AES) interleaving aided multiple user access scheme to enhance the security of a chaotic code division multiple access-based visible light communication (C-CDMA-VLC) system. We propose to spread the information with chaotic sequences, and then the spread information is interleaved by an AES algorithm and transmitted over VLC channels. Since the computation complexity of performing inverse operations to deinterleave the information is high, the eavesdroppers in a high speed VLC system cannot retrieve the information in real time; thus, the system security will be enhanced. Moreover, we build a mathematical model for the AES-aided VLC system and derive the theoretical information leakage to analyze the system security. The simulations are performed over VLC channels, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and high security of our presented AES interleaving aided chaotic CDMA-VLC system.

  17. Four High-Visibility Enforcement Demonstration Waves in Connecticut and New York Reduce Hand-Held Phone Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The National Highway Traffic : Safety Administration initiated : distracted driving demonstration : programs in two communities : to test whether a high-visibility : enforcement (HVE) model could : reduce two specific instances : of distracted drivin...

  18. High power visible diode laser for the treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Harlander, Maximilian; Nussbaumer, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    We present a high power visible diode laser enabling a low-cost treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation, including the two leading causes of blindness worldwide (diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration) as well as retinopathy of prematurely born children, intraocular tumors and retinal detachment. Laser coagulation requires the exposure of the eye to visible laser light and relies on the high absorption of the retina. The need for treatment is constantly increasing, due to the demographic trend, the increasing average life expectancy and medical care demand in developing countries. The World Health Organization reacts to this demand with global programs like the VISION 2020 "The right to sight" and the following Universal Eye Health within their Global Action Plan (2014-2019). One major point is to motivate companies and research institutes to make eye treatment cheaper and easily accessible. Therefore it becomes capital providing the ophthalmology market with cost competitive, simple and reliable technologies. Our laser is based on the direct second harmonic generation of the light emitted from a tapered laser diode and has already shown reliable optical performance. All components are produced in wafer scale processes and the resulting strong economy of scale results in a price competitive laser. In a broader perspective the technology behind our laser has a huge potential in non-medical applications like welding, cutting, marking and finally laser-illuminated projection.

  19. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G. A.; Dunn, J. P.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m"2), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  20. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, G. A., E-mail: wurden@lanl.gov; Dunn, J. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stephey, L. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M. [Max Planck Institut für Plasma Physik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m{sup 2}), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  1. High-power fiber-coupled 100W visible spectrum diode lasers for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Andreas; Küster, Matthias; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2013-02-01

    Diode lasers in the blue and red spectral range are the most promising light sources for upcoming high-brightness digital projectors in cinemas and large venue displays. They combine improved efficiency, longer lifetime and a greatly improved color space compared to traditional xenon light sources. In this paper we report on high-power visible diode laser sources to serve the demands of this emerging market. A unique electro-optical platform enables scalable fiber coupled sources at 638 nm with an output power of up to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber. For the blue diode laser we demonstrate scalable sources from 5 W to 100 W from a 400 μm NA0.22 fiber.

  2. Polymer dots grafted TiO2 nanohybrids as high performance visible light photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Wang, Feng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Zheming; Lei, Ping; Xu, Zhongshan; Li, Zengxi; Ding, Yanfen; Zhang, Shimin; Yang, Mingshu

    2018-04-01

    As a new member of carbon dots (CDs), Polymer dots (PDs) prepared by hydrothermal treatment of polymers, usually consist of the carbon core and the connected partially degraded polymer chains. This type of CDs might possess aqueous solubility, non-toxicity, excellent stability against photo-bleaching and high visible light activity. In this research, PDs were prepared by a moderate hydrothermal treatment of polyvinyl alcohol, and PDs grafted TiO 2 (PDs-TiO 2 ) nanohybrids with TiOC bonds were prepared by a facile in-situ hydrothermal treatment of PDs and Ti (SO 4 ) 2 . Under visible light irradiation, the PDs-TiO 2 demonstrate excellent photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation, and the photocatalytic rate constant of PDs-TiO 2 is 3.6 and 9.5 times higher than that of pure TiO 2 and commercial P25, respectively. In addition, the PDs-TiO 2 exhibit good recycle stability under UV-Vis light irradiation. The interfacial TiOC bonds and the π-conjugated structures in PDs-TiO 2 can act as the pathways to quickly transfer the excited electrons between PDs and TiO 2 , therefore contribute to the excellent photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.

    1991-01-01

    A spectral reflectance study of selected lunar 'red spots', highland areas characterized by an absorption in the ultraviolet relative to the visible was conducted. Some red spots were suggested to be the sites of ancient highland volcanism. High-resolution spectral data of eight red spots on the western portion of the moon over the wavelength region 0.39-0.82 micron were obtained. Much spectral variation among these red spots in the magnitude as well as the wavelength position of the ultraviolet absorption were found. Spectral structure at visible and near-infrared wavelength were also identified. These spectral differences indicate that red spots do not have a single mineralogical composition, which in turn suggests that red spots may have multiple origins. Additional imaging spectroscopic observations were taken of the Herigonius red spot, a morphologically complex region northeast of Mare Humorum. These data reveal significant spectral differences among the various morphological units within the Herigonius red spot. Although some of these are likely due to the effects of the maturation process, others appear to reflect differences in mineral abundances and composition.

  4. Evaluation of the dependence of CEST-EPI measurement on repetition time, RF irradiation duty cycle and imaging flip angle for enhanced pH sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Lu Jie; Wu Yin; Xiao Gang; Wu Renhua

    2013-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast mechanism that can detect dilute CEST agents and microenvironmental properties, with a host of promising applications. Experimental measurement of the CEST effect is complex, and depends on not only CEST agent concentration and exchange rate, but also experimental parameters such as RF irradiation amplitude and scheme. Although echo planar imaging (EPI) has been increasingly used for CEST MRI, the relationship between CEST effect and repetition time (TR), RF irradiation duty cycle (DC) and EPI flip angle (α) has not been fully evaluated and optimized to enhance CEST MRI sensitivity. In addition, our study evaluated gradient echo CEST-EPI by quantifying the CEST effect and its signal-to-noise ratio per unit time (SNR put ) as functions of TR, DC and α. We found that CEST effect increased with TR and DC but decreased with α. Importantly, we found that SNR put peaked at intermediate TRs of about twice the T 1 and α, at approximately 75°, and increased with RF DC. The simulation results were validated using a dual-pH creatine-gel CEST phantom. In summary, our study provides a useful framework for optimizing CEST MRI experiments. (note)

  5. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changmin; Zhang, Chong; Cantore, Michael; Farrell, Robert M; Oh, Sang Ho; Margalith, Tal; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Bowers, John E; DenBaars, Steven P

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free-space data transmission rate was achieved at room temperature.

  6. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin

    2015-06-10

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free-space data transmission rate was achieved at room temperature.

  7. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin; Zhang, Chong; Cantore, Michael; Farrell, Robert M.; Oh, Sang Ho; Margalith, Tal; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; Bowers, John E.; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free

  8. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion

  9. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. IV. VISIBILITY IN Na I AND Mg I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, R. J.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Vissers, G. J. M., E-mail: R.J.Rutten@uu.nl [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-08-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the solar Balmer lines that mark reconnection in the photosphere. Ellerman noted in 1917 that he did not observe such brightenings in the Na i D and Mg i b lines. This non-visibility should constrain EB interpretation, but has not been addressed in published bomb modeling. We therefore test Ellerman’s observation and confirm it using high-quality imaging spectrometry with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. However, we find a diffuse brightness in these lines that seems to result from prior EBs. We tentatively suggest this is a post-bomb hot-cloud phenomenon also found in recent EB spectroscopy in the ultraviolet.

  10. Quantum dots/silica/polymer nanocomposite films with high visible light transmission and UV shielding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumin, Md Abdul; Xu, William Z; Charpentier, Paul A

    2015-08-07

    The dispersion of light-absorbing inorganic nanomaterials in transparent plastics such as poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA) is of enormous current interest in emerging solar materials, including photovoltaic (PV) modules and commercial greenhouse films. Nanocrystalline semiconductor or quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to absorb UV light and selectively emit visible light, which can control plant growth in greenhouses or enhance PV panel efficiencies. This work provides a new and simple approach for loading mesoporous silica-encapsulated QDs into PEVA. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm size were synthesized using a modified facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single-molecule precursors and capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS. To make both the bare and core-shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interactions. By careful experimental tuning, this encapsulation technique enhanced the quantum yield (∼65%) and photostability compared to the bare QDs. Both the encapsulated bare and core-shell QDs were then melt-mixed with EVA pellets using a mini twin-screw extruder and pressed into thin films with controlled thickness. The results demonstrated for the first time that mesoporous silica not only enhanced the quantum yield and photostability of the QDs but also improved the compatibility and dispersibility of QDs throughout the PEVA films. The novel light selective films show high visible light transmission (∼90%) and decreased UV transmission (∼75%).

  11. Unattended real-time re-establishment of visibility in high dynamic range video and stills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, B.

    2014-05-01

    We describe a portable unattended persistent surveillance system that corrects for harsh illumination conditions, where bright sun light creates mixed contrast effects, i.e., heavy shadows and washouts. These effects result in high dynamic range scenes, where illuminance can vary from few luxes to a 6 figure value. When using regular monitors and cameras, such wide span of illuminations can only be visualized if the actual range of values is compressed, leading to the creation of saturated and/or dark noisy areas and a loss of information in these areas. Images containing extreme mixed contrast cannot be fully enhanced from a single exposure, simply because all information is not present in the original data. The active intervention in the acquisition process is required. A software package, capable of integrating multiple types of COTS and custom cameras, ranging from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) data links to digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR), is described. Hardware and software are integrated via a novel smart data acquisition algorithm, which communicates to the camera the parameters that would maximize information content in the final processed scene. A fusion mechanism is then applied to the smartly acquired data, resulting in an enhanced scene where information in both dark and bright areas is revealed. Multi-threading and parallel processing are exploited to produce automatic real time full motion corrected video. A novel enhancement algorithm was also devised to process data from legacy and non-controllable cameras. The software accepts and processes pre-recorded sequences and stills, enhances visible, night vision, and Infrared data, and successfully applies to night time and dark scenes. Various user options are available, integrating custom functionalities of the application into intuitive and easy to use graphical interfaces. The ensuing increase in visibility in surveillance video and intelligence imagery will expand the performance and

  12. Biomimetic fabrication of WO3 for water splitting under visible light with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Chao; Zhu, Shenmin; Yao, Fan; Gu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Zhixin; Zhang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the high light-harvesting properties of typical butterfly wings, ceramic WO 3 butterfly wings with hierarchical structures of bio-butterfly wings was fabricated using a template of PapilioParis butterfly wings through a sol–gel method. The effect of calcination temperatures on the structures of the ceramic butterfly wings was investigated and the results showed that the WO 3 butterfly wing replica calcined at 550 °C (WO 3 replica-550) is a single phase and has a high crystallinity and relatively fine hierarchical structure. The average grain size of WO 3 replica-550 and WO 3 powder are around 32.6 and 42.2 nm, respectively. Compared with pure WO 3 powder, WO 3 replica-550 demonstrated a higher light-harvesting capability in the region from 460 to 700 nm and more importantly the higher charge separation rate, as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. Photocatalytic O 2 evolutions from water were investigated on the ceramic butterfly wings and pure WO 3 powder under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The results showed that the amount of O 2 produced from WO 3 replica-550 is 50 % higher than that of the pure WO 3 powder. The improved photocatalytic performance of WO 3 replica-550 is attributed to the quasi-honeycomb structure inherited from the PapilioParis butterfly wings, providing both high light-harvesting efficiency and efficient charge transport through the WO 3

  13. Phase synchronization of baroclinic waves in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment subject to periodic forcing with a variable duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, P L; Morice-Atkinson, X; Allen, E J; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2017-12-01

    A series of laboratory experiments in a thermally driven, rotating fluid annulus are presented that investigate the onset and characteristics of phase synchronization and frequency entrainment between the intrinsic, chaotic, oscillatory amplitude modulation of travelling baroclinic waves and a periodic modulation of the (axisymmetric) thermal boundary conditions, subject to time-dependent coupling. The time-dependence is in the form of a prescribed duty cycle in which the periodic forcing of the boundary conditions is applied for only a fraction δ of each oscillation. For the rest of the oscillation, the boundary conditions are held fixed. Two profiles of forcing were investigated that capture different parts of the sinusoidal variation and δ was varied over the range 0.1≤δ≤1. Reducing δ was found to act in a similar way to a reduction in a constant coupling coefficient in reducing the width of the interval in forcing frequency or period over which complete synchronization was observed (the "Arnol'd tongue") with respect to the detuning, although for the strongest pulse-like forcing profile some degree of synchronization was discernible even at δ=0.1. Complete phase synchronization was obtained within the Arnol'd tongue itself, although the strength of the amplitude modulation of the baroclinic wave was not significantly affected. These experiments demonstrate a possible mechanism for intraseasonal and/or interannual "teleconnections" within the climate system of the Earth and other planets that does not rely on Rossby wave propagation across the planet along great circles.

  14. Multifunctional polyoxometalates encapsulated in MIL-100(Fe): highly efficient photocatalysts for selective transformation under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruowen; Chen, Rui; Jing, Fenfen; Qin, Na; Wu, Ling

    2015-11-07

    H3PMo12O40 molecules have been successfully encapsulated in the cavities of MIL-100(Fe) via a facile hydrothermal method (denoted as HPMo@MIL-100(Fe)). A series of characterization has corroborated the insertion of H3PMo12O40 within the cavities of MIL-100(Fe). The resulting HPMo@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposites have exhibited much higher photoactivity than the original-MIL-100(Fe) toward the photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols and the reduction of Cr(vi) under visible light irradiation (λ≥ 420 nm). The higher photoactivity of HPMo@MIL-100(Fe) can be attributed to the integrative effect of enhanced light absorption intensity and more efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The host porous structure of MIL-100(Fe) can achieve a uniform composition with H3PMo12O40, which is significantly important for producing highly reactive dispersed H3PMo12O40 molecules and enhancing the photocatalytic activity of HPMo@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposites. And the immobilized H3PMo12O40 molecules are more convenient for recycling. Importantly, almost no Fe and Mo ions leach from the MIL-100(Fe) during the reaction, which verifies the photostability of the HPMo@MIL-100(Fe). In addition, possible photocatalytic redox reaction mechanisms have been investigated.

  15. High speed visible light communication using blue GaN laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S.; Viola, S.; Giuliano, G.; Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Suski, T.; Marona, L.; Leszczyński, M.; Wisniewski, P.; Czernecki, R.; Targowski, G.; Watson, M. A.; White, H.; Rowe, D.; Laycock, L.; Kelly, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    GaN-based laser diodes have been developed over the last 20 years making them desirable for many security and defence applications, in particular, free space laser communications. Unlike their LED counterparts, laser diodes are not limited by their carrier lifetime which makes them attractive for high speed communication, whether in free space, through fiber or underwater. Gigabit data transmission can be achieved in free space by modulating the visible light from the laser with a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), with recent results approaching 5 Gbit/s error free data transmission. By exploiting the low-loss in the blue part of the spectrum through water, data transmission experiments have also been conducted to show rates of 2.5 Gbit/s underwater. Different water types have been tested to monitor the effect of scattering and to see how this affects the overall transmission rate and distance. This is of great interest for communication with unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) as the current method using acoustics is much slower and vulnerable to interception. These types of laser diodes can typically reach 50-100 mW of power which increases the length at which the data can be transmitted. This distance could be further improved by making use of high power laser arrays. Highly uniform GaN substrates with low defectivity allow individually addressable laser bars to be fabricated. This could ultimately increase optical power levels to 4 W for a 20-emitter array. Overall, the development of GaN laser diodes will play an important part in free space optical communications and will be vital in the advancement of security and defence applications.

  16. Biomimetic fabrication of WO{sub 3} for water splitting under visible light with high performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Chao; Zhu, Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.cn; Yao, Fan; Gu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites (China); Chen, Zhixin [University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering (Australia); Zhang, Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites (China)

    2013-08-15

    Inspired by the high light-harvesting properties of typical butterfly wings, ceramic WO{sub 3} butterfly wings with hierarchical structures of bio-butterfly wings was fabricated using a template of PapilioParis butterfly wings through a sol-gel method. The effect of calcination temperatures on the structures of the ceramic butterfly wings was investigated and the results showed that the WO{sub 3} butterfly wing replica calcined at 550 Degree-Sign C (WO{sub 3} replica-550) is a single phase and has a high crystallinity and relatively fine hierarchical structure. The average grain size of WO{sub 3} replica-550 and WO{sub 3} powder are around 32.6 and 42.2 nm, respectively. Compared with pure WO{sub 3} powder, WO{sub 3} replica-550 demonstrated a higher light-harvesting capability in the region from 460 to 700 nm and more importantly the higher charge separation rate, as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. Photocatalytic O{sub 2} evolutions from water were investigated on the ceramic butterfly wings and pure WO{sub 3} powder under visible light ({lambda} > 420 nm). The results showed that the amount of O{sub 2} produced from WO{sub 3} replica-550 is 50 % higher than that of the pure WO{sub 3} powder. The improved photocatalytic performance of WO{sub 3} replica-550 is attributed to the quasi-honeycomb structure inherited from the PapilioParis butterfly wings, providing both high light-harvesting efficiency and efficient charge transport through the WO{sub 3}.

  17. Leading Contributors to the Research Consortium's Annual Program, 1992-2011: High-Visibility Institutions, Researchers, and Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Lee, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    Between 1992-2011, peer-reviewed research on the Research Consortium's annual program has been published in abstract form in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport". On the basis of frequency, high-visibility institutions, researchers, and sub-disciplinary categories were identified. Data were extracted from each abstract (N =…

  18. Correlated relativistic dynamics and nuclear effects in dielectronic and visible spectra of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Z.; Artemyev, A.N.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination and visible emission spectra are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Spectra of x-rays emitted from electron beam ion trap plasmas allow the study of correlation and quantum electrodynamic effects in relativistic few-body systems. In the visible range, exploring the forbidden M1 transitions in Be- and B-like argon ions provides one new insights into the relativistic modelling of isotope shift effects and extend the scope of bound-electron g factor measurements to few-electron ions. (author)

  19. SU-E-T-247: Determinations of the Optimal Phase for Respiratory Gated Radiotherapy From Statistical Analysis Using a Visible Guidance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S; Yea, J; Kang, M; Lee, H; Kim, S [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gated radiation therapy (RGRT) is used to minimize the radiation dose to normal tissue in lung cancer patients. Determination of the optimal point in the respiratory phase of a patient is important in RGRT but it is not easy. The goal of the present study was to see if a visible guidance system is helpful in determining the optimal phase in respiratory gated therapy. Methods: The breathing signals of 23 lung cancer patients were recorded with a Real-time Position Management (RPM) respiratory gating system (Varian, USA). The patients underwent breathing training with our visible guidance system, after which their breathing signals were recorded during 5 min of free breathing and 5 min of guided breathing. The breathing signals recorded between 3 and 5 min before and after training were compared. We performed statistical analysis of the breathing signals to find the optimal duty cycle in guided breathing for RGRT. Results: The breathing signals aided by the visible guidance system had more regular cycles over time and smaller variations in the positions of the marker block than the free breathing signals. Of the 23 lung cancer patients, 19 showed statistically significant differences by time when the values obtained before and after breathing were compared (p < 0.05); 30% and 40% of the duty cycle, respectively, was determined to be the most effective, and the corresponding phases were 30 60% (duty cycle, 30%; p < 0.05) and 30 70% (duty cycle, 40%; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Respiratory regularity was significantly improved with the use of the RPM with our visible guiding system; therefore, it would help improve the accuracy and efficiency of RGRT.

  20. Liquid phase deposition of WO3/TiO2 heterojunction films with high photoelectrocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Man; Yang, Changzhu; Pu, Wenhong; Tan, Yuanbin; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Jingdong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid phase deposition is developed for preparing WO 3 /TiO 2 heterojunction films. • TiO 2 film provides an excellent platform for WO 3 deposition. • WO 3 expands the absorption band edge of TiO 2 film to visible light region. • WO 3 /TiO 2 heterojunction film shows high photoelectrocatalytic activity. - ABSTRACT: The heterojunction films of WO 3 /TiO 2 were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) method via two-step processes. The scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that flower-like WO 3 film was successfully deposited on TiO 2 film with the LPD processes. The TiO 2 film provided an excellent platform for WO 3 deposition while WO 3 obviously expanded the absorption of TiO 2 film to visible light. As the result, the heterojunction film of WO 3 /TiO 2 exhibited higher photocurrent response to visible light illumination than pure TiO 2 or WO 3 film. The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity of WO 3 /TiO 2 film was evaluated by degrading Rhodamin B (RhB) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the LPD WO 3 /TiO 2 film possessed high PEC activity for efficient removal of various refractory organic pollutants

  1. General approach to high power, coherent visible and ultraviolet light sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer

    by cascaded second harmonic and sum frequency generation using periodically poled KTP and BBO for the SHG and SFG process, respectively. The 355nm light is used to promote different photo induced reactions. The main limitation of reaching any desired wavelength in the visible spectrum using sum frequency...

  2. Ultraporous Electron-Depleted ZnO Nanoparticle Networks for Highly Sensitive Portable Visible-Blind UV Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Noushin; Bo, Renheng; Wang, Fan; Fu, Lan; Tricoli, Antonio

    2015-08-05

    A hierarchical nano- and microstructured morphology for visible-blind UV photo-detectors is developed, which provides record-high milliampere photocurrents, nanoampere dark currents, and excellent selectivity to ultralow UV light intensities. This is a significant step toward the integration of high-performance UV photodetectors in wearable devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Facile Synthesis of Monodispersed Polysulfide Spheres for Building Structural Colors with High Color Visibility and Broad Viewing Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feihu; Tang, Bingtao; Wu, Suli; Zhang, Shufen

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of monodispersed colloidal spheres are currently the subject of extensive investigation to fabricate artificial structural color materials. However, artificial structural colors from general colloidal crystals still suffer from the low color visibility and strong viewing angle dependence which seriously hinder their practical application in paints, colorimetric sensors, and color displays. Herein, monodispersed polysulfide (PSF) spheres with intrinsic high refractive index (as high as 1.858) and light-absorbing characteristics are designed, synthesized through a facile polycondensation and crosslinking process between sodium disulfide and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Owing to their high monodispersity, sufficient surface charge, and good dispersion stability, the PSF spheres can be assembled into large-scale and high-quality 3D photonic crystals. More importantly, high structural color visibility and broad viewing angle are easily achieved because the unique features of PSF can remarkably enhance the relative reflectivity and eliminate the disturbance of scattering and background light. The results of this study provide a simple and efficient strategy to create structural colors with high color visibility, which is very important for their practical application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High Performance self-injection locked 524 nm green laser diode for high bitrate visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Shemis, Mohamed; Shen, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    First demonstration of self-injection locking on 524 nm visible laser diode is presented. Enhancement by ~440 MHz (~30%) in modulation bandwidth, ~7 times reduction in lasing linewidth, and ~10 dB improvement in SMSR is achieved.

  5. High Performance self-injection locked 524 nm green laser diode for high bitrate visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok

    2018-03-05

    First demonstration of self-injection locking on 524 nm visible laser diode is presented. Enhancement by ~440 MHz (~30%) in modulation bandwidth, ~7 times reduction in lasing linewidth, and ~10 dB improvement in SMSR is achieved.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  7. Evaluation of a high visibility enforcement project focused on passenger vehicles interacting with commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F Dennis; Blomberg, Richard D; Peck, Raymond C; Cosgrove, Linda A; Salzberg, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, Washington State applied NHTSA's High Visibility Enforcement model used in the Click It or Ticket seat belt campaign in an attempt to reduce unsafe driving behaviors around commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). The program was called Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT). This paper details the methods used to evaluate the program's effectiveness and the results of the evaluation. Four high-crash interstate highway corridors, each approximately 25 miles in length, were selected. Two of these corridors received TACT media messages and increased enforcement over an 18-month period while two comparison corridors did not receive any increased media or enforcement. A total of 4,737 contacts were made with drivers during the two enforcement waves, and 72% of these contacts led to a citation. Drivers at the intervention sites who said they saw or heard any of the TACT messages increased from 17.7% in the pre period to a high of 67.3% in the post periods. Drivers at the intervention sites also reported increased exposure to the core message of leaving more space when passing trucks (14% pre to 40% post period). The percentage of drivers who said they leave more room when passing trucks than when passing cars rose from 16% in the pre period to 24% in the post period at the intervention sites, while comparison sites showed no change. Over 150 hours of video recorded by law enforcement officers in unmarked vehicles were utilized to examine violation rates and severity of violations before and after the intervention campaigns. Statistical analyses showed that violation rates were reduced significantly at the intervention sites (between 23% and 46%), while remaining constant at the comparison sites. Analyses of the video data also showed that the seriousness of the residual violations at the intervention sites decreased. Overall, the evaluation results provide a consistent picture of the effectiveness of the TACT pilot project. Success was demonstrated at every step

  8. High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of High Quantum Efficiency Back-Illuminated Photon Counting, Far UV, UV, and Visible Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, M. E.; Carver, A. G.; Jones, T. J.; Greer, F.; Hamden, E.; Goodsall, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the high throughput end-to-end post fabrication processing of high performance delta-doped and superlattice-doped silicon imagers for UV, visible, and NIR applications. As an example, we present our results on far ultraviolet and ultraviolet quantum efficiency (QE) in a photon counting, detector array. We have improved the QE by nearly an order of magnitude over microchannel plates (MCPs) that are the state-of-the-art UV detectors for many NASA space missions as well as defense applications. These achievements are made possible by precision interface band engineering of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

  9. Using cuttlefish ink as an additive to produce -non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Chen, Ang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian

    2015-08-26

    Non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility are produced by amorphous photonic structures, in which -natural cuttlefish ink is used as an additive to break down the long-range order of the structures. The color hue and its spectral purity can be tuned by adjusting the diameter of the polystyrene (PS) spheres and the proportion of ink particles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Carbon-doped SnS2 nanostructure as a high-efficiency solar fuel catalyst under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Samireddi, Satyanarayana; Chang, Yu-Chung; Putikam, Raghunath; Chang, Po-Han; Sabbah, Amr; Fu, Fang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Fu; Wu, Chih-I; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Chung, Po-Wen; Lin, M C; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2018-01-12

    Photocatalytic formation of hydrocarbons using solar energy via artificial photosynthesis is a highly desirable renewable-energy source for replacing conventional fossil fuels. Using an L-cysteine-based hydrothermal process, here we synthesize a carbon-doped SnS 2 (SnS 2 -C) metal dichalcogenide nanostructure, which exhibits a highly active and selective photocatalytic conversion of CO 2 to hydrocarbons under visible-light. The interstitial carbon doping induced microstrain in the SnS 2 lattice, resulting in different photophysical properties as compared with undoped SnS 2 . This SnS 2 -C photocatalyst significantly enhances the CO 2 reduction activity under visible light, attaining a photochemical quantum efficiency of above 0.7%. The SnS 2 -C photocatalyst represents an important contribution towards high quantum efficiency artificial photosynthesis based on gas phase photocatalytic CO 2 reduction under visible light, where the in situ carbon-doped SnS 2 nanostructure improves the stability and the light harvesting and charge separation efficiency, and significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity.

  11. High-contrast visible nulling coronagraph for segmented and arbitrary telescope apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Lyon, Richard G.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Exoplanet coronagraphy will be driven by the telescope architectures available and thus the system designer must have available one or more suitable coronagraphic instrument choices that spans the set of telescope apertures, including filled (off-axis), obscured (e.g. with secondary mirror spiders and struts), segmented apertures, such as JWST, and interferometric apertures. In this work we present one such choice of coronagraph, known as the visible nulling coronagraph (VNC), that spans all four types of aperture and also employs differential sensing and control.

  12. A simple and high-resolution stereolithography-based 3D bioprinting system using visible light crosslinkable bioinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zongjie; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Kim, Keekyoung; Abdulla, Raafa; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-01-01

    Bioprinting is a rapidly developing technique for biofabrication. Because of its high resolution and the ability to print living cells, bioprinting has been widely used in artificial tissue and organ generation as well as microscale living cell deposition. In this paper, we present a low-cost stereolithography-based bioprinting system that uses visible light crosslinkable bioinks. This low-cost stereolithography system was built around a commercial projector with a simple water filter to prevent harmful infrared radiation from the projector. The visible light crosslinking was achieved by using a mixture of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with eosin Y based photoinitiator. Three different concentrations of hydrogel mixtures (10% PEG, 5% PEG + 5% GelMA, and 2.5% PEG + 7.5% GelMA, all w/v) were studied with the presented systems. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the developed bioink were measured and discussed in detail. Several cell-free hydrogel patterns were generated to demonstrate the resolution of the solution. Experimental results with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells show that this system can produce a highly vertical 3D structure with 50 μm resolution and 85% cell viability for at least five days. The developed system provides a low-cost visible light stereolithography solution and has the potential to be widely used in tissue engineering and bioengineering for microscale cell patterning. (paper)

  13. Three-dimensional high-precision indoor positioning strategy using Tabu search based on visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qi; Guan, Weipeng; Wu, Yuxiang; Cai, Ye; Xie, Canyu; Wang, Pengfei

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) high-precision indoor positioning strategy using Tabu search based on visible light communication. Tabu search is a powerful global optimization algorithm, and the 3-D indoor positioning can be transformed into an optimal solution problem. Therefore, in the 3-D indoor positioning, the optimal receiver coordinate can be obtained by the Tabu search algorithm. For all we know, this is the first time the Tabu search algorithm is applied to visible light positioning. Each light-emitting diode (LED) in the system broadcasts a unique identity (ID) and transmits the ID information. When the receiver detects optical signals with ID information from different LEDs, using the global optimization of the Tabu search algorithm, the 3-D high-precision indoor positioning can be realized when the fitness value meets certain conditions. Simulation results show that the average positioning error is 0.79 cm, and the maximum error is 5.88 cm. The extended experiment of trajectory tracking also shows that 95.05% positioning errors are below 1.428 cm. It can be concluded from the data that the 3-D indoor positioning based on the Tabu search algorithm achieves the requirements of centimeter level indoor positioning. The algorithm used in indoor positioning is very effective and practical and is superior to other existing methods for visible light indoor positioning.

  14. A simple and high-resolution stereolithography-based 3D bioprinting system using visible light crosslinkable bioinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Abdulla, Raafa; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Kim, Keekyoung

    2015-12-22

    Bioprinting is a rapidly developing technique for biofabrication. Because of its high resolution and the ability to print living cells, bioprinting has been widely used in artificial tissue and organ generation as well as microscale living cell deposition. In this paper, we present a low-cost stereolithography-based bioprinting system that uses visible light crosslinkable bioinks. This low-cost stereolithography system was built around a commercial projector with a simple water filter to prevent harmful infrared radiation from the projector. The visible light crosslinking was achieved by using a mixture of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with eosin Y based photoinitiator. Three different concentrations of hydrogel mixtures (10% PEG, 5% PEG + 5% GelMA, and 2.5% PEG + 7.5% GelMA, all w/v) were studied with the presented systems. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the developed bioink were measured and discussed in detail. Several cell-free hydrogel patterns were generated to demonstrate the resolution of the solution. Experimental results with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells show that this system can produce a highly vertical 3D structure with 50 μm resolution and 85% cell viability for at least five days. The developed system provides a low-cost visible light stereolithography solution and has the potential to be widely used in tissue engineering and bioengineering for microscale cell patterning.

  15. High photoactive and visible-light responsive graphene/titanate nanotubes photocatalysts: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianqian, Zhai; Tang, Bo; Guoxin, Hu

    2011-12-30

    A series of graphene/titanate nanotubes (TNTs) photocatalysts using graphene and nanoscale TiO(2) or P25 as original materials were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Both low hydrothermal temperature and proper amount of graphene are propitious to better photoactivity. The photocatalytic activities of these nanocomposites far exceed that of P25, pure TNTs and reported TiO(2)-based nanocomposites for the degradation of Rhodamine-B under visible-light irradiation. These prepared photocatalysts were characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, BET, FTIR and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra, and the results indicate that the outstanding photoactivities in visible-light region result from sensitization effect of graphene rather than impurity level in the band gap of TNTs. Furthermore, large BET surface areas of these photocatalysts (almost 10 times larger than that of previously reported graphene/TiO(2) nanoparticles) evidently enhance their absorption abilities and photocatalytic performances (the rate constants of degrading Rhodamine-B are at least 5 times higher than that of previously reported photocatalysts). These photocatalysts show good stability, and their photoactivities do not obviously decrease after four times of repeated uses. A detailed photocatalytic mechanism is suggested, as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nano-ferrites for water splitting: Unprecedented high photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Mangrulkar, Priti A.; Polshettiwar, Vivek; Labhsetwar, Nitin K.; Varma, Rajender S.; Rayalu, Sadhana Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, hydrogen production via water splitting by nano-ferrites was studied using ethanol as the sacrificial donor and Pt as co-catalyst. Nano-ferrite is emerging as a promising photocatalyst with a hydrogen evolution rate of 8.275 μmol h -1 and a hydrogen yield of 8275 μmol h -1 g -1 under visible light compared to 0.0046 μmol h -1 for commercial iron oxide (tested under similar experimental conditions). Nano-ferrites were tested in three different photoreactor configurations. The rate of hydrogen evolution by nano-ferrite was significantly influenced by the photoreactor configuration. Altering the reactor configuration led to sevenfold (59.55 μmol h -1) increase in the hydrogen evolution rate. Nano-ferrites have shown remarkable stability in hydrogen production up to 30 h and the cumulative hydrogen evolution rate was observed to be 98.79 μmol h -1. The hydrogen yield was seen to be influenced by several factors like photocatalyst dose, illumination intensity, irradiation time, sacrificial donor and presence of co-catalyst. These were then investigated in detail. It was evident from the experimental data that nano-ferrites under optimized reaction conditions and photoreactor configuration could lead to remarkable hydrogen evolution activity under visible light. Temperature had a significant role in enhancing the hydrogen yield. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Visible and NIR spectral band combination to produce high security ID tags for automatic identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Javidi, Bahram

    2006-09-01

    Verification of a piece of information and/or authentication of a given object or person are common operations carried out by automatic security systems that can be applied, for instance, to control the entrance to restricted areas, access to public buildings, identification of cardholders, etc. Vulnerability of such security systems may depend on the ease of counterfeiting the information used as a piece of identification for verification and authentication. To protect data against tampering, the signature that identifies an object is usually encrypted to avoid an easy recognition at human sight and an easy reproduction using conventional devices for imaging or scanning. To make counterfeiting even more difficult, we propose to combine data from visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral bands. By doing this, neither the visible content nor the NIR data by theirselves are sufficient to allow the signature recognition and thus, the identification of a given object. Only the appropriate combination of both signals permits a satisfactory authentication. In addition, the resulting signature is encrypted following a fully-phase encryption technique and the obtained complex-amplitude distribution is encoded on an ID tag. Spatial multiplexing of the encrypted signature allows us to build a distortion-invariant ID tag, so that remote authentication can be achieved even if the tag is captured under rotation or at different distances. We also explore the possibility of using partial information of the encrypted signature to simplify the ID tag design.

  18. Cut-off scaling of high-harmonic generation driven by a femtosecond visible optical parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirmi, Giovanni; Lai, Chien-Jen; Granados, Eduardo; Huang, Shu-Wei; Sell, Alexander; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Keathley, Phillip; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 µJ energy at the 1 kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping other parameters (energy, duration and beam size) constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in helium. Our measurements show a λ 1.7+0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source, the high-order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ∼25 and ∼100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  19. CdS nanoparticles/CeO_2 nanorods composite with high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Daotong; Pan, Bao; Jiang, Fan; Zhou, Yangen; Su, Wenyue

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Coupling CdS with CeO_2 can effectively improve the light-harvesting ability of wide-band gap CeO_2 NRs as the photoinduced electrons on the conduction band of CdS are transfered to the conduction band of CeO_2. - Highlights: • Coupling CdS can effectively improve the light-harvesting ability of wide-band gap CeO_2. • CdS/CeO_2 composites show high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. • The mechanism of photocatalytic H_2 evolution over CdS/CeO_2 was proposed. - Abstract: Different mole ratios of CdS nanoparticles (NPs)/CeO_2 nanorods (NRs) composites with effective contacts were synthesized through a two-step hydrothermal method. The crystal phase, microstructure, optical absorption properties, electrochemical properties and photocatalytic H_2 production activity of these composites were investigated. It was concluded that the photogenerated charge carriers in the CdS NPs/CeO_2 NRs composite with a proper mole ratio (1:1) exhibited the longest lifetime and highest separation efficiency, which was responsible for the highest H_2-production rate of 8.4 mmol h"−"1 g"−"1 under visible-light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The superior photocatalytic H_2 evolution properties are attributed to the transfer of visible-excited electrons of CdS NPs to CeO_2 NRs, which can effectively extend the light absorption range of wide-band gap CeO_2 NRs. This work provides feasible routes to develop visible-light responsive CeO_2-based nanomaterial for efficient solar utilization.

  20. Prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer among patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examination, without visible lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rangel da Veiga

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem in Brazil. For patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, but with cervical cytological tests suggesting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, the national recommendation is to repeat cervical cytological tests after three months. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of HSIL and cancer among patients with initial cervical cytological tests suggestive of HSIL but with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, in order to contribute towards the discussion regarding a more effective clinical approach that might diminish the likelihood of patient abandonment of follow-up before appropriate diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in Colposcopy Clinic of IFF/Fiocruz. METHOD: Patients admitted between December 1989 and April 2007 with cytological diagnoses of HSIL but with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions underwent cervical cone biopsy. RESULTS: Sixty-five such patients were included, comprising 33.8% with HSIL and 4.6% with cancer, confirmed histologically. The other patients presented low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (26.1%, glandular dysplasia (1.5% and absence of disease (33.8%. CONCLUSION: The observed prevalence of cancer and HSIL does not seem to be enough to justify immediate referral for cone biopsies to investigate the cervical canal in these cases. The findings suggest that the recommendation of repeated cytological tests following an initial one with HSIL, among patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, is appropriate in our setting. Efforts are needed to ensure adherence to follow-up protocols in order to reduce the chances of losses.

  1. Synthesis of Bismuth Stannate Nanoparticles with High Photocatalytic Activity under the Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gnanamoorthy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Malachite Green is one of the most important organic dye, it contains triphenylmethane groups and it has been widely used for many industries. The hazardous dyes were rapidly act on immune and reproductive systems with carcinogenic effect of human health. Different methods were used for the hazardous removal in various industries, such as photocatalysis, biological treatment and adsorption process. The bismuth stannate nanoparticles have special properties of the hydrogen storage, biomolecule detection, gas sensors and catalysis. The bismuth stannate nanoparticles can be used for the degradation of organic pollutants and bismuth stannate is an important ternary oxide semiconductor with a wide band gap material. The composites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method, the obtained product was characterized by XRD, Raman, the morphology structure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and optical properties were carried out by DRS-UV-Vis spectroscopy. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the catalyst was evaluated by malachite green under the visible light.

  2. High spatial and temporal resolution visible spectroscopy of the plasma edge in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.P.

    1990-10-01

    In DIII-D, visible spectroscopic measurements of the He II 468.6 nm and C VI 529.2 nm Doppler broadened spectral lines, resulting from charge exchange recombination interactions between beam neutral atoms and plasma ions, are performed to determine ion temperatures, and toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities. The diagnostics system comprises 32 viewing chords spanning a typical minor radius of 63 cm across the midplane, of which 16 spatial chords span 11 cm of the plasma edge just within the separatrix. A temporal resolution of 260 μs per time slice can be obtained as a result of using MCP phosphors with short decay times and fast camera readout electronics. Results from this system will be used in radial electric field comparisons with theory at the L-H transition and ion transport analysis. 6 refs., 3 figs

  3. Highly Efficient and Visible Light Responsive Heterojunction Composites as Dual Photoelectrodes for Photocatalytic Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a novel photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC system involving a dual heterojunction photoelectrodes, viz. polyaniline/TiO2 nanotubes (PANI/TiO2 NTs photoanode and CuO/Co3O4 nanorods (CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode, has been designed. Compared to TiO2 NTs electrode of PFC, the present heterojunction design not only enhances the visible light absorption but also offers the higher efficiency in degrading Rhodamine B–a model organic pollutant. The study includes an evaluation of the dual performance of the photoelectrodes as well. Under visible-light irradiation of 3 mW cm−2, the cell composed of the photoanode PANI/TiO2 NTs and CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode forms an interior bias of +0.24 V within the PFC system. This interior bias facilitated the transfer of electrons from the photoanode to photocathode across the external circuit and combined with the holes generated therein along with a simultaneous power production. In this manner, the separation of electron/hole pair was achieved in the photoelectrodes by releasing the holes and electrons of PANI/TiO2 NTs photoanode and CuO/Co3O4 NRs photocathode, respectively. Using this PFC system, the degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous media was achieved to an extent of 68.5% within a reaction duration of a four-hour period besides a simultaneous power generation of 85 μA cm−2.

  4. Highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from nickel quinolinethiolate complexes under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Heng; Yu, Wen-Qian; Zheng, Hui-Qin; Bonin, Julien; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Earth-abundant metal complexes have emerged as promising surrogates of platinum for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this study, we report the design and synthesis of two novel nickel quinolinethiolate complexes, namely [Ni(Hqt)2(4, 4‧-Z-2, 2‧-bpy)] (Hqt = 8-quinolinethiol, Z = sbnd H [1] or sbnd CH3 [2], bpy = bipyridine). An efficient three-component photocatalytic homogeneous system for hydrogen generation working under visible light irradiation was constructed by using the target complexes as catalysts, triethylamine (TEA) as sacrificial electron donor and xanthene dyes as photosensitizer. We obtain turnover numbers (TON, vs. catalyst) for H2 evolution of 5923/7634 under the optimal conditions with 5.0 × 10-6 M complex 1/2 respectively, 1.0 × 10-3 M fluorescein and 5% (v/v) TEA at pH 12.3 in EtOH/H2O (1:1, v/v) mixture after 8 h irradiation (λ > 420 nm). We discuss the mechanism of H2 evolution in the homogeneous photocatalytic system based on fluorescence spectrum and cyclic voltammetry data.

  5. Visible-blind and solar-blind detection induced by defects in AlGaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Klein, Brianna; Allerman, Andrew A.; Douglas, Erica A.; Baca, Albert G.; Crawford, Mary H.; Pickrell, Greg W.; Sanchez, Carlos A.

    2018-03-01

    Visible- and solar-blind detection was demonstrated using Al0.45Ga0.55N/Al0.30Ga0.70N and Al0.85Ga0.25N/Al0.70Ga0.30N high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), respectively. Peak responsivities (S) of 3.9 × 106 A/W in the saturation mode and 6.2 × 104 A/W in the pinch-off mode were observed for the visible-blind Al0.45Ga0.55N/Al0.30Ga0.70N HEMT, and a peak S of 4.9 × 104 A/W was observed for the solar-blind Al0.85Ga0.15N/Al0.70Ga0.30N HEMT in the saturation mode. Spectrally resolved photocurrent investigation indicated that sub-bandgap absorption by defect states was the primary origin of the HEMTs' photoresponse. Defect-mediated responsivity caused slow photocurrent rise and fall times, but electrical pulsing was used to improve the bandwidth at the cost of optical gain. Operating HEMTs in this dynamic mode achieved a 25 Hz bandwidth with S = 2.9 × 105 A/W in accumulation and S = 2.0 × 104 A/W in pinch-off for visible-blind detection and S = 5.1 × 103 A/W for solar-blind detection.

  6. High-Performance Visible-Blind Ultraviolet Photodetector Based on IGZO TFT Coupled with p-n Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingjing; Javaid, Kashif; Liang, Lingyan; Wu, Weihua; Liang, Yu; Song, Anran; Zhang, Hongliang; Shi, Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cao, Hongtao

    2018-03-07

    A visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was designed based on a three-terminal electronic device of thin-film transistor (TFT) coupled with two-terminal p-n junction optoelectronic device, in hope of combining the beauties of both of the devices together. Upon the uncovered back-channel surface of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) TFT, we fabricated PEDOT:PSS/SnO x /IGZO heterojunction structure, through which the formation of a p-n junction and directional carrier transfer of photogenerated carriers were experimentally validated. As expected, the photoresponse characteristics of the newly designed photodetector, with a photoresponsivity of 984 A/W at a wavelength of 320 nm, a UV-visible rejection ratio up to 3.5 × 10 7 , and a specific detectivity up to 3.3 × 10 14 Jones, are not only competitive compared to the previous reports but also better than those of the pristine IGZO phototransistor. The hybrid photodetector could be operated in the off-current region with low supply voltages (<0.1 V) and ultralow power dissipation (<10 nW under illumination and ∼0.2 pW in the dark). Moreover, by applying a short positive gate pulse onto the gate, the annoying persistent photoconductivity presented in the wide band gap oxide-based devices could be suppressed conveniently, in hope of improving the response rate. With the terrific photoresponsivity along with the advantages of photodetecting pixel integration, the proposed phototransistor could be potentially used in high-performance visible-blind UV photodetector pixel arrays.

  7. Three-dimensional nano-heterojunction networks: a highly performing structure for fast visible-blind UV photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Noushin; Bo, Renheng; Fu, Lan; Tricoli, Antonio

    2017-02-02

    Visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors are a promising emerging technology for the development of wide bandgap optoelectronic devices with greatly reduced power consumption and size requirements. A standing challenge is to improve the slow response time of these nanostructured devices. Here, we present a three-dimensional nanoscale heterojunction architecture for fast-responsive visible-blind UV photodetectors. The device layout consists of p-type NiO clusters densely packed on the surface of an ultraporous network of electron-depleted n-type ZnO nanoparticles. This 3D structure can detect very low UV light densities while operating with a near-zero power consumption of ca. 4 × 10 -11 watts and a low bias of 0.2 mV. Most notably, heterojunction formation decreases the device rise and decay times by 26 and 20 times, respectively. These drastic enhancements in photoresponse dynamics are attributed to the stronger surface band bending and improved electron-hole separation of the nanoscale NiO/ZnO interface. These findings demonstrate a superior structural design and a simple, low-cost CMOS-compatible process for the engineering of high-performance wearable photodetectors.

  8. BiVO4–graphene catalyst and its high photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yongsheng; Sun Xiaoqiang; Wang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► A facile strategy is designed to deposit leaf-like BiVO 4 lamellas on graphene sheet. ► Graphene oxide is reduced to graphene in the hydrothermal reaction process. ► BiVO 4 –graphene system shows high catalytic effects under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: A BiVO 4 –graphene photocatalyst was prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results show that the graphene sheets in this catalyst are exfoliated and decorated by leaf-like BiVO 4 lamellas. In comparison with the pure BiVO 4 catalyst, the BiVO 4 –graphene system reveals much higher photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB) and active black BL-G in water under visible light irradiation due to the concerted effects of BiVO 4 and graphene sheets or their integrated properties.

  9. Graphene supported silver@silver chloride & ferroferric oxide hybrid, a magnetically separable photocatalyst with high performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Suting; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com; Han, Mei; Liu, Gongzong; Zhang, Na; Lu, Yue

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The composites were synthesized via a facile and effective process. • Plenty of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ag@AgCl nanoparticles are deposited on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. • The catalyst exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic performance and magnetic property. • The catalyst is stable under the visible light irradiation. - Abstract: A stable magnetic separable plasmonic photocatalyst was successfully fabricated by grafting silver@silver chloride (Ag@AgCl) and ferroferric oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The composite exhibited high activity degrading methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation: decomposition 97.4% of MB in 100 min and 97.9% of RB in 120 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to synergistic effect between Ag@AgCl and graphene: the effective charge transfer from Ag@AgCl to graphene thus promotes the separation of electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

  10. Highly efficient tandem polymer solar cells with a photovoltaic response in the visible light range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Maojie; Zhao, Kang; Ye, Long; Chen, Yu; Yang, Bei; Hou, Jianhui

    2015-02-18

    Highly efficient polymer solar cells with a tandem structure are fabricated by using two excellent photovoltaic polymers and a highly transparent intermediate recombination layer. Power conversion -efficiencies over 10% can be realized with a photovoltaic response within 800 nm. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Low cost alternative of high speed visible light camera for tokamak experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Odstrčil, T.; Odstrčil, Michal; Grover, O.; Svoboda, V.; Ďuran, Ivan; Mlynář, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 10 (2012), 10E505-10E505 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/19./. Monterey, 06.05.2012-10.05.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * tokamak * diagnostic * high speed camera * GOLEM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4731003

  12. Phosphorene Co-catalyst Advancing Highly Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jingrun; Zhu, Bicheng; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2017-08-21

    Transitional metals are widely used as co-catalysts boosting photocatalytic H 2 production. However, metal-based co-catalysts suffer from high cost, limited abundance and detrimental environment impact. To date, metal-free co-catalyst is rarely reported. Here we for the first time utilized density functional calculations to guide the application of phosphorene as a high-efficiency metal-free co-catalyst for CdS, Zn 0.8 Cd 0.2 S or ZnS. Particularly, phosphorene modified CdS shows a high apparent quantum yield of 34.7 % at 420 nm. This outstanding activity arises from the strong electronic coupling between phosphorene and CdS, as well as the favorable band structure, high charge mobility and massive active sites of phosphorene, supported by computations and advanced characterizations, for example, synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy. This work brings new opportunities to prepare highly-active, cheap and green photocatalysts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Detector array for measurement of high-frequency fluctuations in visible and near-UV emission from tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, P.D.; Hall, B.F.; Rowan, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    We developed an imaging detector to measure high-frequency fluctuations in visible and near-UV emission from tokamaks. The detector is intended for the study of plasma turbulence, mhd phenomena, and edge-localized modes. Particularly in the first two applications, it will complement existing techniques by providing higher spatial resolution as well as measurement capability in otherwise inaccessible regions of the plasma. The device consists of an optical system, a linear array of 32 photodiodes, and an amplifier for each photodiode. The amplifiers have a transimpedance gain of 10 5 --10 6 and the frequency response is flat to 100 kHz. Experience with this device has shown that optical imaging systems can be easily designed and tailored to a specific measurement because of the small size and close spacing of the individual light-sensitive elements. The device has been successfully tested on TEXT-U in measurements of H α fluctuations

  14. The effect of high-pass filters on the visibility of microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y-M.

    2002-01-01

    Mammographic microcalcifications are significant in diagnosis, as they may indicate early stage malignancy. Thus mammographic screen-film combinations incorporate high contrast and spatial resolution in order to detect fine details. However, screen-film combinations, coupling different functions, can pose limitations. Images acquired in digital format provide a new way of using images, as image enhancement can be achieved by manipulation in the spatial domain without additional radiation exposure. Gold disks of differing diameters and thickness in the Nijmegan phantom were used to simulate microcalcifications. Microcalcification, as an image feature, is of high frequency components in the spatial domain. High-pass filters enable enhancement of microcalcification. Three high-pass filters were investigated to compare their efficacy. A phantom consisting of polystyrene granules embedded in a sodium iodide solution was used to simulate the breast tissue pattern. A composite radiographic image was produced by combining the phantom with a Nijmegen phantom, which was then digitised and processed. This was assessed by observer performance in locating the microcalcifications. Also, line profile image analysis was performed on digital mammograms with microcalcifications. The filter with a central weight of 9 and neighbouring pixels of -1 exhibited the greatest effectiveness in the enhancement of the microcalcification. Copyright (2002) Australian Institute of Radiography

  15. Development of high efficient visible light-driven N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Liu, Peihong; Wu, Honghai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile hydrothermal route to synthesize N, S-codoped TiO 2 nanowires. • The codoped TiO 2 nanowires have TiO 2 (B) and anatase phase. • The significant shift of the optical absorption edge toward the visible region. • The photocatalyst showed high photocatalytic activity for atrazine. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) nanowire material (especially nonmetal doped 1D nanowires) synthesized by a facile way is of great significance and greatly desired as it has higher charge carrier mobility and lower carrier recombination rate. N, S-codoped TiO 2 nanowires were synthesized using titanium sulfate as a precursor and isopropanol as a protective capping agent by a hydrothermal route. The obtained doped nanowires were characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, BET and UV–vis absorption spectrum. The incorporation of N and S into TiO 2 NWs can lead to the expansion of its lattice and remarkably lower its electron-transfer resistance. Photocatalytic activity measurement showed that the N, S-codoped TiO 2 nanowires with high quantum efficiency revealed the best photocatalytic performance for atrazine degradation under visible light irradiation compared to N, S-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles and S-doped TiO 2 nanowires, which was attributed to (i) the synergistic effect of N and S doping in narrowing the band gap, separating electron–hole pairs and increasing the photoinduced electrons, and (ii) extending the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature above 600 °C

  16. Development of high efficient visible light-driven N, S-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanowires photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanlin, E-mail: zhangyl@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment Ministry of Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Peihong; Wu, Honghai [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A facile hydrothermal route to synthesize N, S-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanowires. • The codoped TiO{sub 2} nanowires have TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase phase. • The significant shift of the optical absorption edge toward the visible region. • The photocatalyst showed high photocatalytic activity for atrazine. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) nanowire material (especially nonmetal doped 1D nanowires) synthesized by a facile way is of great significance and greatly desired as it has higher charge carrier mobility and lower carrier recombination rate. N, S-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanowires were synthesized using titanium sulfate as a precursor and isopropanol as a protective capping agent by a hydrothermal route. The obtained doped nanowires were characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, BET and UV–vis absorption spectrum. The incorporation of N and S into TiO{sub 2} NWs can lead to the expansion of its lattice and remarkably lower its electron-transfer resistance. Photocatalytic activity measurement showed that the N, S-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanowires with high quantum efficiency revealed the best photocatalytic performance for atrazine degradation under visible light irradiation compared to N, S-codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and S-doped TiO{sub 2} nanowires, which was attributed to (i) the synergistic effect of N and S doping in narrowing the band gap, separating electron–hole pairs and increasing the photoinduced electrons, and (ii) extending the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature above 600 °C.

  17. Astronomy at high angular resolution a compendium of techniques in the visible and near-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Gaitee; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Schmidtobreick, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an essential compendium of astronomical high-resolution techniques. Recent years have seen considerable developments in such techniques, which are critical to advances in many areas of astronomy. As reflected in the book, these techniques can be divided into direct methods, interferometry, and reconstruction methods, and can be applied to a huge variety of astrophysical systems, ranging from planets, single stars and binaries to active galactic nuclei, providing angular resolution in the micro- to tens of milliarcsecond scales. Written by experts in their fields, the chapters cover adaptive optics, aperture masking imaging, spectra disentangling, interferometry, lucky imaging, Roche tomography, imaging with interferometry, interferometry of AGN, AGN reverberation mapping, Doppler- and magnetic imaging of stellar surfaces, Doppler tomography, eclipse mapping, Stokes imaging, and stellar tomography. This book is intended to enable a next generation of astronomers to apply high-resolution techni...

  18. Development of a high-speed single-photon pixellated detector for visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, Aaron; Mathot, Serge; McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John; Jarron, Pierre; Brownlee, Colin; O’Shea, Val

    2009-01-01

    We present the development of a high-speed, single-photon counting, Hybrid Photo Detector (HPD). The HPD consists of a vacuum tube, containing the detector assembly, sealed with a transparent optical input window. Photons incident on the photocathode eject a photoelectron into a large electric field, which accelerates the incident electron onto a silicon detector. The silicon detector is bump bonded to a Medipix readout chip. This set-up allows for the detection and readout of low incident photon intensities at rates that are otherwise unattainable with current camera technology. Reported is the fabrication of the camera that brings together a range of sophisticated design and fabrication techniques and the expected theoretical imaging performance. Applications to cellular and molecular microscopy are also described in which single-photon-counting abilities at high frame rates are crucial

  19. Highly Efficient Visible Colloidal Lead-Halide Perovskite Nanocrystal Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Xing, Jun; Xing, Guichuan; Quan, Lina; Tan, Swee Tiam; Zhao, Jiaxin; Su, Rui; Zhang, Lulu; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yawen; Huan, Alfred; Sargent, Edward H.; Xiong, Qihua; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2018-05-01

    Lead-halide perovskites have been attracting attention for potential use in solid-state lighting. Following the footsteps of solar cells, the field of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) has been growing rapidly. Their application prospects in lighting, however, remain still uncertain due to a variety of shortcomings in device performance including their limited levels of luminous efficiency achievable thus far. Here we show high-efficiency PeLEDs based on colloidal perovskite nanocrystals (PeNCs) synthesized at room temperature possessing dominant first-order excitonic radiation (enabling a photoluminescence quantum yield of 71% in solid film), unlike in the case of bulk perovskites with slow electron-hole bimolecular radiative recombination (a second-order process). In these PeLEDs, by reaching charge balance in the recombination zone, we find that the Auger nonradiative recombination, with its significant role in emission quenching, is effectively suppressed in low driving current density range. In consequence, these devices reach a record high maximum external quantum efficiency of 12.9% reported to date and an unprecedentedly high power efficiency of 30.3 lm W-1 at luminance levels above 1000 cd m-2 as required for various applications. These findings suggest that, with feasible levels of device performance, the PeNCs hold great promise for their use in LED lighting and displays.

  20. BInGaN alloys nearly lattice-matched to GaN for high-power high-efficiency visible LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Logan; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2017-11-01

    InGaN-based visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs) find commercial applications for solid-state lighting and displays, but lattice mismatch limits the thickness of InGaN quantum wells that can be grown on GaN with high crystalline quality. Since narrower wells operate at a higher carrier density for a given current density, they increase the fraction of carriers lost to Auger recombination and lower the efficiency. The incorporation of boron, a smaller group-III element, into InGaN alloys is a promising method to eliminate the lattice mismatch and realize high-power, high-efficiency visible LEDs with thick active regions. In this work, we apply predictive calculations based on hybrid density functional theory to investigate the thermodynamic, structural, and electronic properties of BInGaN alloys. Our results show that BInGaN alloys with a B:In ratio of 2:3 are better lattice matched to GaN compared to InGaN and, for indium fractions less than 0.2, nearly lattice matched. Deviations from Vegard's law appear as bowing of the in-plane lattice constant with respect to composition. Our thermodynamics calculations demonstrate that the solubility of boron is higher in InGaN than in pure GaN. Varying the Ga mole fraction while keeping the B:In ratio constant enables the adjustment of the (direct) gap in the 1.75-3.39 eV range, which covers the entire visible spectrum. Holes are strongly localized in non-bonded N 2p states caused by local bond planarization near boron atoms. Our results indicate that BInGaN alloys are promising for fabricating nitride heterostructures with thick active regions for high-power, high-efficiency LEDs.

  1. The High Visible Resolution (HVR) instrument of the spot ground observation satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrio, G.

    1980-01-01

    Two identical high resolution cameras, capable of attaining a track width of 116 km in an almost vertical line of sight from the two 60 km images of each instrument, will be carried on the initial mission of the space observation of Earth satellite (SPOT). Specifications for the instrument, including the telescope and CCD devices are summarized. The present status of development is described including the optical characteristics, structure and thermal control, detector assembly, electronic equipment, and calibration. SPOT mission objectives include the developments relating to soil use, the exploration of EART Earth resources, the discrimination of plant species, and cartography.

  2. AgI/Ag3PO4 hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 system. • h + and O 2 ·− play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 . • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag 3 PO 4 and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h + and O 2 ·− play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center

  3. A High-Fidelity Haze Removal Method Based on HOT for Visible Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatially varying haze is a common feature of most satellite images currently used for land cover classification and mapping and can significantly affect image quality. In this paper, we present a high-fidelity haze removal method based on Haze Optimized Transformation (HOT, comprising of three steps: semi-automatic HOT transform, HOT perfection and percentile based dark object subtraction (DOS. Since digital numbers (DNs of band red and blue are highly correlated in clear sky, the R-squared criterion is utilized to search the relative clearest regions of the whole scene automatically. After HOT transform, spurious HOT responses are first masked out and filled by means of four-direction scan and dynamic interpolation, and then homomorphic filter is performed to compensate for loss of HOT of masked-out regions with large areas. To avoid patches and halo artifacts, a procedure called percentile DOS is implemented to eliminate the influence of haze. Scenes including various land cover types are selected to validate the proposed method, and a comparison analysis with HOT and Background Suppressed Haze Thickness Index (BSHTI is performed. Three quality assessment indicators are selected to evaluate the haze removed effect on image quality from different perspective and band profiles are utilized to analyze the spectral consistency. Experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method for haze removal and the superiority of it in preserving the natural color of object itself, enhancing local contrast, and maintaining structural information of original image.

  4. The High-efficiency LED Driver for Visible Light Communication Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lee, Yu-Chen; Lai, Jyun-Liang; Yu, Chueh-Hao; Huang, Li Ren; Yang, Chia-Yen

    2016-08-08

    This paper presents a LED driver for VLC. The main purpose is to solve the low data rate problem used to be in switching type LED driver. The GaN power device is proposed to replace the traditional silicon power device of switching LED driver for the purpose of increasing switching frequency of converter, thereby increasing the bandwidth of data transmission. To achieve high efficiency, the diode-connected GaN power transistor is utilized to replace the traditional ultrafast recovery diode used to be in switching type LED driver. This work has been experimentally evaluated on 350-mA output current. The results demonstrate that it supports the data of PWM dimming level encoded in the PPM scheme for VLC application. The experimental results also show that system's efficiency of 80.8% can be achieved at 1-Mb/s data rate.

  5. Sn doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube with oxygen vacancy for highly efficient visible light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jinliang; Xu, Xingtao [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics & Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Materials Science, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Xinjuan [Institute of Coordination Bond Metrology and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yu, Caiyan; Yan, Dong; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics & Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Materials Science, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Pan, Likun, E-mail: lkpan@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics & Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Materials Science, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Sn doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube with oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}-Sn−TiO{sub 2}) was successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process and subsequent annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. The morphology, structure and photocatalytic performance of V{sub o}-Sn−TiO{sub 2} in the degradation of nitrobenzene were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and electrochemical impedance spectra, respectively. The inner diameter, outer diameter and specific surface area of V{sub o}-Sn−TiO{sub 2} are about 5 nm, 15 nm and 235.54 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. The experimental results show that the V{sub o}-Sn−TiO{sub 2} exhibits excellent photocatalytic performance with a maximum degradation rate of 92% in 300 min for nitrobenzene and 94% in 100 min for Rhodamine B and corresponding mineralization rates of 68% and 70% under visible light irradiation. The improved photocatalytic performance is ascribed to the enhanced light absorption and specific surface area as well as the reduced electron-hole pair recombination with the presence of oxygen vacancy and Sn doping in the TiO{sub 2} nanotube. - Highlights: • Photocatalysis is an environmental-friendly technology for nitrobenzene removal. • Sn doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube with oxygen vacancy is fabricated for the first time. • It exhibits excellent photocatalytic performance in degradation of nitrobenzene. • A high degradation rate of 92% is achieved under visible light irradiation.

  6. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. TRIGGERING, VISIBILITY, AND EFFECT ON UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J., E-mail: g.j.m.vissers@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer H{alpha} line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 8542 A with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs also occur in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 1700 A continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 1600 A SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 6301 A shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancellation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 304 A, Fe IX 171 A, and Fe XIV 211 A show no clear effect of the Ellerman bombs on the overlying transition region and corona. These results strengthen our earlier suggestion, based on H{alpha} morphology alone, that the Ellerman bomb phenomenon is a purely photospheric reconnection phenomenon.

  7. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  8. Making Invisible Histories Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article features Omaha Public Schools' "Making Invisible Histories Visible" program, or MIHV. Omaha's schools have a low failure rate among 8th graders but a high one among high school freshmen. MIHV was created to help at-risk students "adjust to the increased demands of high school." By working alongside teachers and…

  9. Highly efficient visible light TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst prepared by sol-gel method at temperatures lower than 300 {sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Desong, E-mail: dswang06@126.com [School of Sciences, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050018 (China); Xiao Libin; Luo Qingzhi; Li Xueyan; An Jing [School of Sciences, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050018 (China); Duan Yandong [College of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050018 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Mesoporous anatase nano-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was synthesized by sol-gel method at lower temperature ({<=}300 {sup o}C). {yields} Its visible light photocatalytic activity is greatly higher than that of TiO{sub 2} (P-25) and its photocatalytic stability is excellent. {yields} Carbon self-doping and visible photosensitive organic groups result in the improvement of the visible light photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Highly efficient visible light TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was prepared by the sol-gel method at lower temperature ({<=}300 {sup o}C), and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). The effects of the heat treatment temperature and time of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} on its visible light photocatalytic activity were investigated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange solution under visible light irradiation (wavelength {>=} 400 nm). Results show that the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles possess an anatase phase and mesoporous structure with carbon self-doping and visible photosensitive organic groups. The visible light photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} is greatly higher than those of the commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25) and other visible photocatalysts reported in literature (such as PPy/TiO{sub 2}, P3HT/TiO{sub 2}, PANI/TiO{sub 2}, N-TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sup 3+}-TiO{sub 2}) and its photocatalytic stability is excellent. The reasons for improving the visible light photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} can be explained by carbon self-doping and a large amount of visible photosensitive groups existing in the as-prepared TiO{sub 2}. The apparent optical thickness ({tau}{sub app}), local

  10. A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy K. Franks

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned, Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs.

  11. One-step growth of nanosheet-assembled BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres for highly efficient visible photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Lv, Jiali; Dai, Kai; Liang, Changhao; Liu, Qi

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we have developed a simple synthetic approach of nanosheet-assembled BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres by an ethylene glycol (EG)-assisted hydrothermal method. The crystalline form, morphology, chemical composition, optical performance and surface area of BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectra (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis, high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres were nanosheet-assembled particles, which possessed visible light absorption under LED light irridation. Additionally, the methylene blue (MB) photodegradation performance of different BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres irradiated under 410 nm LED light arrays were investigated, the results exhibited that as-prepared BiOCl/BiOBr products showed higher catalytic effiency than pure BiOCl or BiOBr. By optimizing the composition ration of the BiOCl and BiOBr, up to 93% degradation rate can be obtained in the 40%BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres. Finally, the photocatalytic mechanism of BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres had been proposed.

  12. Phase transformation synthesis of TiO2/CdS heterojunction film with high visible-light photoelectrochemical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Canjun; Yang, Yahui; Li, Jie; Chen, Shu

    2018-06-01

    CdS/TiO2 heterojunction film used as a photoanode has attracted much attention in the past few years due to its good visible light photocatalytic activity. However, CdS/TiO2 films prepared by conventional methods (successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction, chemical bath deposition and electrodeposition) show numerous grain boundaries in the CdS layer and an imperfect contact at the heterojunction interface. In this study, we designed a phase transformation method to fabricate CdS/TiO2 nanorod heterojunction films. The characterization results showed that the CdS layer with fewer grain boundaries was conformally coated on the TiO2 nanorod surface and the formation mechanism has been explained in this manuscript. Moreover, the prepared CdS/TiO2 films show a high photocatalytic activity and the photocurrent density is as high as 9.65 mA cm‑2 at 0.80 V versus RHE. It may be attributed to fewer grain boundaries and a compact heterojunction contact, which can effectively improve charge separation and transportation.

  13. A spirooxazine derivative as a highly sensitive cyanide sensor by means of UV-visible difference spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoyin; Li, Minjie; Sheng, Lan; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Yumo; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2012-12-07

    A spirooxazine derivative 2-nitro-5a-(2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-ethylene)-6,6-dimethyl-5a,6-dihydro-12H-indolo[2,1-b][1,3]benzooxazine (P1) was explored as a sensitive cyanide probe. Different from conventional spiropyrans, P1 avoided locating the 3H-indolium cation and the 4-nitrophenolate anion in the same conjugated structure, which enhanced the positive charge of 3H-indolium cation so that the sensitivity and reaction speed were improved highly. UV-visible difference spectroscopy using P1 detection solution as a timely reference improved the measurement accuracy, prevented the error caused by the inherent absorption change of P1 solution with time. This enabled the "positive-negative alternative absorption peaks" in difference spectrum to be used as a finger-print to distinguish whether the spectral change was caused by cyanide. Benefiting from the special design of the molecular structure and the strategy of difference spectroscopy, P1 showed high selectivity and sensitivity for CN(-). A detection limit of 0.4 μM and a rate constant of 1.1 s(-1) were achieved.

  14. Development of high-speed and wide-angle visible observation diagnostics on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak using catadioptric optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. H.; Hu, L. Q.; Zang, Q.; Han, X. F.; Shao, C. Q.; Sun, T. F.; Chen, H.; Wang, T. F.; Li, F. J.; Hu, A. L.; Yang, X. F.

    2013-01-01

    A new wide-angle endoscope for visible light observation on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been recently developed. The head section of the optical system is based on a mirror reflection design that is similar to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wide-angle observation diagnostic on the Joint European Torus. However, the optical system design has been simplified and improved. As a result, the global transmittance of the system is as high as 79.6% in the wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm, and the spatial resolution is <5 mm for the full depth of field (4000 mm). The optical system also has a large relative aperture (1:2.4) and can be applied in high-speed camera diagnostics. As an important diagnostic tool, the optical system has been installed on the HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) for its final experimental campaign, and the experiments confirmed that it can be applied to the investigation of transient processes in plasma, such as ELMy eruptions in H-mode, on EAST

  15. High-aggregate-capacity visible light communication links using stacked multimode polymer waveguides and micro-pixelated LED arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; McKendry, J. J. D.; Xie, E.; Gu, E.; Dawson, M. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have gained renewed interest for use in visible light communication links (VLC) owing to their potential use as both high-quality power-efficient illumination sources as well as low-cost optical transmitters in free-space and guided-wave links. Applications that can benefit from their use include optical wireless systems (LiFi and Internet of Things), in-home and automotive networks, optical USBs and short-reach low-cost optical interconnects. However, VLC links suffer from the limited LED bandwidth (typically 100 MHz). As a result, a combination of novel LED devices, advanced modulation formats and multiplexing methods are employed to overcome this limitation and achieve high-speed (>1 Gb/s) data transmission over such links. In this work, we present recent advances in the formation of high-aggregate-capacity low cost guided wave VLC links using stacked polymer multimode waveguides and matching micro-pixelated LED (μLED) arrays. μLEDs have been shown to exhibit larger bandwidths (>200 MHz) than conventional broad-area LEDs and can be formed in large array configurations, while multimode polymer waveguides enable the formation of low-cost optical links onto standard PCBs. Here, three- and four-layered stacks of multimode waveguides, as well as matching GaN μLED arrays, are fabricated in order to generate high-density yet low-cost optical interconnects. Different waveguide topologies are implemented and are investigated in terms of loss and crosstalk performance. The initial results presented herein demonstrate good intrinsic crosstalk performance and indicate the potential to achieve >= 0.5 Tb/s/mm2 aggregate interconnection capacity using this low-cost technology.

  16. Controllable synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles with high intensity visible photoemission and investigation of its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yunbo; Xiao Wen; Li Weiyan; Xue Junmin; Ding Jun

    2013-01-01

    ZnO is known as a good photoluminescent semiconductor due to its ability to emit visible light. However, the visible emission mechanism is still under debate. In this work, we have successfully synthesized nanoparticles using LiOH, KOH and NaOH as bases and have achieved visible emission of various colours, such as blue, cyan, green and orange. We demonstrate that LiOH is the most efficient base to control the properties of ZnO nanoparticle emission by varying LiOH concentration. Moreover, detailed studies by TEM, UV and XRD show that ZnO particle size plays an important role in the colour of the emitted light and smaller particles tend to emit shorter wavelength photons. The visible emission is suggested to arise from an electron transition from the conduction band to a deep-trapped defect state. Our experimental results suggest the presence of oxygen vacancies on the ZnO nanoparticle surface. (paper)

  17. Graphene oxide–CdS composite with high photocatalytic degradation and disinfection activities under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Jincheng [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, Darren Delai, E-mail: DDSUN@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ng, Wunjern [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► GO–CdS composites were prepared through a novel two-phase mixing method. ► Uniform deposition of CdS nanoparticles on GO sheets. ► Reduced charge recombination rate. ► Enhanced photo-stability. ► High photodegradation and disinfection efficiency. -- Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO)–CdS composites were synthesized via a novel two-phase mixing method successfully. CdS nanoparticles were uniformly self-assembled on GO sheets at water/toluene interface. The photocatalytic degradation (photodegradation) and disinfection activities of GO–CdS composites were investigated thoroughly. The results show that GO–CdS composites exhibit higher efficiency in photodegradation of various water pollutants than pure CdS nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. In addition, the interactions between GO sheets and CdS nanoparticles inhibit the photo-corrosion of CdS and leaching of Cd{sup 2+}. Only 3.5 wt% Cd{sup 2+} of GO–CdS was leached out after photodegradation, while 38.6 wt% Cd{sup 2+} of CdS was lost into aqueous solution. Furthermore, the disinfection activity of GO–CdS composites was investigated for the first time. Nearly 100% of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) were killed within 25 min under visible light irradiation. The excellent performances of GO–CdS composites can be attributed to that (1) effective charge transfer from CdS to GO reduces the recombination rate of photo-generated electron–hole pairs; (2) uniform deposition of CdS on GO sheets eliminates aggregation of CdS nanoparticles; and (3) the strong interactions between GO and CdS enhancing the durability of GO–CdS composites. Finally, the mechanism behind these excellent performances was verified by transient photocurrent measurement and further confirmed by ESR technique as well as employing a radical scavenging species – dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

  18. Graphene oxide–CdS composite with high photocatalytic degradation and disinfection activities under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Jincheng; Sun, Darren Delai; Ng, Wunjern

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► GO–CdS composites were prepared through a novel two-phase mixing method. ► Uniform deposition of CdS nanoparticles on GO sheets. ► Reduced charge recombination rate. ► Enhanced photo-stability. ► High photodegradation and disinfection efficiency. -- Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO)–CdS composites were synthesized via a novel two-phase mixing method successfully. CdS nanoparticles were uniformly self-assembled on GO sheets at water/toluene interface. The photocatalytic degradation (photodegradation) and disinfection activities of GO–CdS composites were investigated thoroughly. The results show that GO–CdS composites exhibit higher efficiency in photodegradation of various water pollutants than pure CdS nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. In addition, the interactions between GO sheets and CdS nanoparticles inhibit the photo-corrosion of CdS and leaching of Cd 2+ . Only 3.5 wt% Cd 2+ of GO–CdS was leached out after photodegradation, while 38.6 wt% Cd 2+ of CdS was lost into aqueous solution. Furthermore, the disinfection activity of GO–CdS composites was investigated for the first time. Nearly 100% of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) were killed within 25 min under visible light irradiation. The excellent performances of GO–CdS composites can be attributed to that (1) effective charge transfer from CdS to GO reduces the recombination rate of photo-generated electron–hole pairs; (2) uniform deposition of CdS on GO sheets eliminates aggregation of CdS nanoparticles; and (3) the strong interactions between GO and CdS enhancing the durability of GO–CdS composites. Finally, the mechanism behind these excellent performances was verified by transient photocurrent measurement and further confirmed by ESR technique as well as employing a radical scavenging species – dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

  19. Development of high efficient visible light-driven N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Liu, Peihong; Wu, Honghai

    2015-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanowire material (especially nonmetal doped 1D nanowires) synthesized by a facile way is of great significance and greatly desired as it has higher charge carrier mobility and lower carrier recombination rate. N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires were synthesized using titanium sulfate as a precursor and isopropanol as a protective capping agent by a hydrothermal route. The obtained doped nanowires were characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, BET and UV-vis absorption spectrum. The incorporation of N and S into TiO2 NWs can lead to the expansion of its lattice and remarkably lower its electron-transfer resistance. Photocatalytic activity measurement showed that the N, S-codoped TiO2 nanowires with high quantum efficiency revealed the best photocatalytic performance for atrazine degradation under visible light irradiation compared to N, S-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles and S-doped TiO2 nanowires, which was attributed to (i) the synergistic effect of N and S doping in narrowing the band gap, separating electron-hole pairs and increasing the photoinduced electrons, and (ii) extending the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature above 600 °C.

  20. Indoor high precision three-dimensional positioning system based on visible light communication using modified genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Guan, Weipeng; Li, Simin; Wu, Yuxiang

    2018-04-01

    To improve the precision of indoor positioning and actualize three-dimensional positioning, a reversed indoor positioning system based on visible light communication (VLC) using genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed. In order to solve the problem of interference between signal sources, CDMA modulation is used. Each light-emitting diode (LED) in the system broadcasts a unique identity (ID) code using CDMA modulation. Receiver receives mixed signal from every LED reference point, by the orthogonality of spreading code in CDMA modulation, ID information and intensity attenuation information from every LED can be obtained. According to positioning principle of received signal strength (RSS), the coordinate of the receiver can be determined. Due to system noise and imperfection of device utilized in the system, distance between receiver and transmitters will deviate from the real value resulting in positioning error. By introducing error correction factors to global parallel search of genetic algorithm, coordinates of the receiver in three-dimensional space can be determined precisely. Both simulation results and experimental results show that in practical application scenarios, the proposed positioning system can realize high precision positioning service.

  1. Simultaneous monitoring of the two coupled motors of a single FoF1-ATP synthase by three-color FRET using duty cycle-optimized triple-ALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, N.; Ernst, S.; Düser, M. G.; Golovina-Leiker, A.; Becker, W.; Erdmann, R.; Dunn, S. D.; Börsch, M.

    2009-02-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase is the enzyme that provides the 'chemical energy currency' adenosine triphosphate, ATP, for living cells. The formation of ATP is accomplished by a stepwise internal rotation of subunits within the enzyme. Briefly, proton translocation through the membrane-bound Fo part of ATP synthase drives a 10-step rotary motion of the ring of c subunits with respect to the non-rotating subunits a and b. This rotation is transmitted to the γ and ɛ subunits of the F1 sector resulting in 120° steps. In order to unravel this symmetry mismatch we monitor subunit rotation by a single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) approach using three fluorophores specifically attached to the enzyme: one attached to the F1 motor, another one to the Fo motor, and the third one to a non-rotating subunit. To reduce photophysical artifacts due to spectral fluctuations of the single fluorophores, a duty cycle-optimized alternating three-laser scheme (DCO-ALEX) has been developed. Simultaneous observation of the stepsizes for both motors allows the detection of reversible elastic deformations between the rotor parts of Fo and F1.

  2. Improving Positioning in High-Dose Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Safety and Visibility of Frequently Used Gold Fiducial Markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonteyne, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.fonteyne@uzgent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Ost, Piet [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Villeirs, Geert [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Oosterlinck, Willem [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Impens, Aline; De Gersem, Werner; De Wagter, Carlos; De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The use of gold fiducial markers (GFMs) for prostate positioning in high-dose radiotherapy is gaining interest. The purpose of this study was to compare five GFMs regarding feasibility of ultrasound-based implantation in the prostate and intraprostatic lesion (IPL); toxicity; visibility on transabdominal ultrasound (TU) and cone-beam CT (CBCT); reliability of automatic, soft tissue, and GFM-based CBCT patient positioning by comparing manual and automatic fusion CBCT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients were included. Pain and toxicity were scored after implantation and high-dose radiotherapy. Fisher exact test was used to evaluate the correlation of patients' characteristics and prostatitis. Positioning was evaluated on TU and kilovoltage CBCT images. CBCT fusion was performed automatically (Elekta XVI technology, release 3.5.1 b27, based on grey values) and manually on soft tissue and GFMs. Pearson correlation statistics and Bland-Altman evaluation were used. Five GFMs were compared. Results: Twenty percent of the patients developed prostatitis despite antibiotic prophylaxis. Cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with prostatitis. The visualization of all GFMs on TU was disappointing. Consequently we cannot recommend the use of these GFMs for TU-based prostate positioning. For all GFMs, there was only fair to poor linear correlation between automatic and manual CBCT images, indicating that even when GFMs are used, an operator evaluation is imperative. However, when GFMs were analyzed individually, a moderate to very strong correlation between automatic and manual positioning was found for larger GFMs in all directions. Conclusion: The incidence of prostatitis in our series was high. Further research is imperative to define the ideal preparation protocol preimplantation and to select patients. Automatic fusion is more reliable with larger GFMs at the cost of more scatter. The stability of all GFMs was proven.

  3. Predictive digital peak current mode controller for DC-DC converters capable of operating over the full 0-100% duty cycle range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2017-01-01

    ) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) and supports high switching frequencies even with low cost A/D converters. The proposed controller is implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to control a 450 W buck converter and the experimental results verify the controller's capability to operate in the full...

  4. Improving urban visibility through fractal analysis of street edges: The case of John Evans Atta Mills High Street in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Oppong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Streets are a representation of cities, and the image of a city is a reflection of its home country. Although attempts to ensure harmonious spatial and environmental development in Ghanaian settlements date back to the colonial era, these efforts have minimal physical manifestation in the urban fabric of the city of Accra. The Independence Arch of Ghana, an important landmark in the urban fabric and history of Accra, lacks the striking vista and approach it deserves. This paper introduces the use of fractal analysis of street edges to understand the characteristics of the John Evans Atta Mills (JEAM High Street for developing recommendations to improve visibility along its stretch and the overall image of the city. The box-counting method with visual survey was used in research. The pertinent questions this paper seeks to address are as follows: What factors affect the visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street? What design aspects should be considered to improve urban visibility along JEAM High Street? What is the link of fractals to urban design and architecture? The paper recommends various design considerations and qualities to improve the urban visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street.

  5. Cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS flat panel detector: Visibility of simulated microcalcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To measure and investigate the improvement of microcalcification (MC) visibility in cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer).

  6. Photogenerated carriers transfer in dye-graphene-SnO2 composites for highly efficient visible-light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shendong; Xu, Xiaoyong; Feng, Bing; Hu, Jingguo; Pang, Yaru; Zhou, Gang; Tong, Ling; Zhou, Yuxue

    2014-01-08

    The visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities of graphene-semiconductor catalysts have recently been demonstrated, however, the transfer pathway of photogenerated carriers especially where the role of graphene still remains controversial. Here we report graphene-SnO2 aerosol nanocomposites that exhibit more superior dye adsorption capacity and photocatalytic efficiency compared with pure SnO2 quantum dots, P25 TiO2, and pure graphene aerosol under the visible light. This study examines the origin of the visible-light-driven photocatalysis, which for the first time links to the synergistic effect of the cophotosensitization of the dye and graphene to SnO2. We hope this concept and corresponding mechanism of cophotosensitization could provide an original understanding for the photocatalytic reaction process at the level of carrier transfer pathway as well as a brand new approach to design novel and versatile graphene-based composites for solar energy conversion.

  7. MoS2 quantum dots@TiO2 nanotube composites with enhanced photoexcited charge separation and high-efficiency visible-light driven photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fenfen; Rong, Yuefei; Wan, Junmin; Hu, Zhiwen; Peng, Zhiqin; Wang, Bing

    2018-03-01

    MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) that are 5 nm in size were deposited on the surface of ultrathin TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) with 5 nm wall thickness by using an improved hydrothermal method to form a MoS2 QDs@TNT visible-light photocatalyst. The ultrathin TNTs with high percentage of photocatalytic reactive facets were fabricated by the commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) through an improved hydrothermal method, and the MoS2 QDs were acquired by using a surfactant-assisted technique. The novel MoS2 QDs@TNT photocatalysts showed excellent photocatalytic activity with a decolorization rate of 92% or approximately 3.5 times more than that of pure TNTs for the high initial concentration of methylene blue solution (20 mg l-1) within 40 min under visible-light irradiation. MoS2 as the co-catalysts favored the broadening of TNTs into the visible-light absorption scope. The quantum confinement and edge effects of the MoS2 QDs and the heterojunction formed between the MoS2 QDs and TNTs efficiently extended the lifetime of photoinduced charges, impeded the recombination of photoexcited electron-hole pairs, and improved the visible-light-driven high-efficiency photocatalysis.

  8. Hydrothermal growth of two dimensional hierarchical MoS2 nanospheres on one dimensional CdS nanorods for high performance and stable visible photocatalytic H2 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chava, Rama Krishna; Do, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Misook

    2018-03-01

    The visible photocatalytic H2 production from water splitting considered as a clean and renewable energy source could solve the problem of greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels. Despite tremendous efforts, the development of cost effective, highly efficient and more stable visible photocatalysts for splitting of water remains a great challenge. Here, we report the heteronanostructures consisting of hierarchical MoS2 nanospheres grown on 1D CdS nanorods referred to as CdS-MoS2 HNSs as a high performance visible photocatalyst for H2 evolution. The as-synthesized CdS-MoS2 HNSs exhibited ∼11 fold increment of H2 evolution rate when compared to pure CdS nanorods. This remarkable enhanced hydrogen evolution performance can be assigned to the positive synergetic effect from heteronanostructures formed between the CdS and MoS2 components which assist as an electron sink and source for abundant active edge sites and in turn increases the charge separation. This study presents a low-cost visible photocatalyst for solar energy conversion to achieve efficient H2.

  9. A highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO3 nanocomposite: Enhanced self-sensitized degradation of colored pollutants under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Guanjie; Tang, Changhe; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Lanxiao; Su, Yiguo; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO 3 composite was prepared via simple hydrothermal synthesis. XRD confirmed the composite was constructed by pure cubic phase of NaTaO 3 and hexagonal phase of ZnO. SEM analysis showed that as-prepared ZnO/NaTaO 3 shaped as an irregular ginger with an obviously smaller size than that of pure ZnO without obvious agglomeration. EDS mapping demonstrated that the four elements (Na, Ta, O, Zn) in the composite were very uniformly distributed. The photocatalytic behaviors of as-prepared composites were studied in the degradation of methylene blue both under UV and visible irradiation. The bare ZnO showed the highest activity with 99.8% methylene blue (MB) photodegraded in 70 min under UV light irradiation whereas 94% photodegraded rate was achieved for ZnO/NaTaO 3 . More importantly, the uniform composite of ZnO/NaTaO 3 exhibited effective degradation of methylene blue under visible light which can be attributed to the well dyes adsorption abilities and the high efficiency of electron separation, induced by the synergistic effect between ZnO and NaTaO 3 . It is confirmed the dye rather than a semiconductor is excited under visible light irradiation and a self-sensitized photocatalytic mechanism was then proposed based on the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: Visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnO/NaTaO 3 and proposed schematic of self-sensitization directed photogradation of MB. - Highlights: • Highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO 3 photocatalysts were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • ZnO/NaTaO 3 composite exhibited effective degradation of MB under visible light. • ZnO/NaTaO 3 composite effectively promoted dye adsorption and electrons separation. • A self-sensitized photocatalytic mechanism was proposed for the degradation of dye

  10. TU-E-217BCD-06: Cone Beam Breast CT with a High Resolution Flat Panel Detector-Improvement of Calcification Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Zhong, Y; Lai, C; Wang, T; Shaw, C

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the advantage of a high resolution flat panel detector for improving the visibility of microcalcifications (MCs) in cone beam breast CT Methods: A paraffin cylinder was used to simulate a 100% adipose breast. Calcium carbonate grains, ranging from 125-140 μm to 224 - 250 μm in size, were used to simulate the MCs. Groups of 25 same size MCs were embedded at the phantom center. The phantom was scanned with a bench-top CBCT system at various exposure levels. A 75μm pitch flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer) with 500μm thick CsI scintillator plate was used as the high resolution detector. A 194 μm pitch detector (Paxscan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems) was used for reference. 300 projection images were acquired over 360° and reconstructed. The images were reviewed by 6 readers. The MC visibility was quantified as the fraction of visible MCs and averaged for comparison. The visibility was plotted as a function of the estimated dose level for various MC sizes and detectors. The MTFs and DQEs were measured and compared. For imaging small (200 μm and smaller) MCs, the visibility achieved with the 75μm pitch detector was found to be significantly higher than those achieved with the 194μm pitch detector. For imaging larger MCs, there was little advantage in using the 75μm pitch detector. Using the 75μm pitch detector, MCs as small as 180 μm could be imaged to achieve a visibility of 78% with an isocenter tissue dose of ∼20 mGys versus 62% achieved with the 194 μm pitch detector at the same dose level. It was found that a high pitch flat panel detector had the advantages of extending its imaging capability to higher frequencies thus helping improve the visibility when used to image small MCs. This work was supported in part by grants CA104759, CA13852 and CA124585 from NIH-NCI, a grant EB00117 from NIH-NIBIB, and a subcontract from NIST-ATP. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Room-temperature synthesis of Zn(0.80)Cd(0.20)S solid solution with a high visible-light photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Hong; Wang, Lei; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-03-21

    Visible light photocatalytic H(2) production from water splitting is of great significance for its potential applications in converting solar energy into chemical energy. In this study, a series of Zn(1-x)Cd(x)S solid solutions with a nanoporous structure were successfully synthesized via a facile template-free method at room temperature. The obtained solid solutions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and N(2) adsorption-desorption analysis. The solid solutions show efficient photocatalytic activity for H(2) evolution from aqueous solutions containing sacrificial reagents S(2-) and SO(3)(2-) under visible-light irradiation without a Pt cocatalyst, and loading of the Pt cocatalyst further improves the visible-light photocatalytic activity. The optimal photocatalyst with x = 0.20 prepared at pH = 7.3 displays the highest activity for H(2) evolution. The bare and 0.25 wt% Pt loaded Zn(0.80)Cd(0.20)S nanoparticles exhibit a high H(2) evolution rate of 193 μmol h(-1) and 458 μmol h(-1) under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm), respectively. In addition, the bare and 0.25 wt% Pt loaded Zn(0.80)Cd(0.20)S catalysts show a high H(2) evolution rate of 252 and 640 μmol h(-1) under simulated solar light irradiation, respectively. Moreover, the Zn(0.80)Cd(0.20)S catalyst displays a high photocatalytic stability for H(2) evolution under long-term light irradiation. The incorporation of Cd in the solid solution leads to the visible light absorption, and the high content of Zn in the solid solution results in a relatively negative conduction band, a modulated band gap and a rather wide valence bandwidth, which are responsible for the excellent photocatalytic performance of H(2) production and for the high photostability

  12. In Situ UV-Visible Assessment of Iron-Based High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Catalysts Promoted with Lanthana: An Extent of Reduction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basseem B. Hallac

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The extent of reduction of unsupported iron-based high-temperature water-gas shift catalysts with small (<5 wt % lanthana contents was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. Temperature- programmed reduction measurements showed that lanthana content higher than 0.5 wt % increased the extent of reduction to metallic Fe, while 0.5 wt % of lanthana facilitated the reduction to Fe3O4. In situ measurements on the iron oxide catalysts using mass and UV-visible spectroscopies permitted the quantification of the extent of reduction under temperature-programmed reduction and high-temperature water-gas shift conditions. The oxidation states were successfully calibrated against normalized absorbance spectra of visible light using the Kubelka-Munk theory. The normalized absorbance relative to the fully oxidized Fe2O3 increased as the extent of reduction increased. XANES suggested that the average bulk iron oxidation state during the water-gas shift reaction was Fe+2.57 for the catalyst with no lanthana and Fe+2.54 for the catalysts with 1 wt % lanthana. However, the UV-vis spectra suggest that the surface oxidation state of iron would be Fe+2.31 for the catalyst with 1 wt % lanthana if the oxidation state of iron in the catalyst with 0 wt % lanthana were Fe+2.57. The findings of this paper emphasize the importance of surface sensitive UV-visible spectroscopy for determining the extent of catalyst reduction during operation. The paper highlights the potential to use bench-scale UV-visible spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry of catalysts instead of less-available synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities.

  13. ZnCr2S4: Highly effective photocatalyst converting nitrate into N2 without over-reduction under both UV and pure visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Mufei; Wang, Rong; Cheng, Nana; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    We propose several superiorities of applying some particular metal sulfides to the photocatalytic nitrate reduction in aqueous solution, including the high density of photogenerated excitons, high N2 selectivity (without over-reduction to ammonia). Indeed, ZnCr2S4 behaved as a highly efficient photocatalyst, and with the assistance of 1 wt% cocatalysts (RuOx, Ag, Au, Pd, or Pt), the efficiency was greatly improved. The simultaneous loading of Pt and Pd led to a synergistic effect. It offered the highest nitrate conversion rate of ~45 mg N/h together with the N2 selectivity of ~89%. Such a high activity remained steady after 5 cycles. The optimal apparent quantum yield at 380 nm was 15.46%. More importantly, with the assistance of the surface plasma resonance effect of Au, the visible light activity achieved 1.352 mg N/h under full arc Xe-lamp, and 0.452 mg N/h under pure visible light (λ > 400 nm). Comparing to the previous achievements in photocatalytic nitrate removal, our work on ZnCr2S4 eliminates the over-reduction problem, and possesses an extremely high and steady activity under UV-light, as well as a decent conversion rate under pure visible light.

  14. ZnCr2S4: Highly effective photocatalyst converting nitrate into N2 without over-reduction under both UV and pure visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Mufei; Wang, Rong; Cheng, Nana; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2016-08-03

    We propose several superiorities of applying some particular metal sulfides to the photocatalytic nitrate reduction in aqueous solution, including the high density of photogenerated excitons, high N2 selectivity (without over-reduction to ammonia). Indeed, ZnCr2S4 behaved as a highly efficient photocatalyst, and with the assistance of 1 wt% cocatalysts (RuOx, Ag, Au, Pd, or Pt), the efficiency was greatly improved. The simultaneous loading of Pt and Pd led to a synergistic effect. It offered the highest nitrate conversion rate of ~45 mg N/h together with the N2 selectivity of ~89%. Such a high activity remained steady after 5 cycles. The optimal apparent quantum yield at 380 nm was 15.46%. More importantly, with the assistance of the surface plasma resonance effect of Au, the visible light activity achieved 1.352 mg N/h under full arc Xe-lamp, and 0.452 mg N/h under pure visible light (λ > 400 nm). Comparing to the previous achievements in photocatalytic nitrate removal, our work on ZnCr2S4 eliminates the over-reduction problem, and possesses an extremely high and steady activity under UV-light, as well as a decent conversion rate under pure visible light.

  15. Dispersed-nanoparticle loading synthesis for monodisperse Au-titania composite particles and their crystallization for highly active UV and visible photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nagao, Daisuke; Noba, Masahiro; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2014-06-24

    Submicrometer-sized amorphous titania spheres incorporating Au nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in a one-pot synthesis consisting of a sol-gel reaction of titanium(IV) isopropoxide in the presence of chloroauric acid and a successive reduction with sodium borohydride in a mixed solvent of ethanol/acetonitrile. The synthesis was allowed to prepare monodisperse titania spheres that homogeneously incorporated Au NPs with sizes of ca. 7 nm. The Au NP-loaded titania spheres underwent different crystallization processes, including 500 °C calcination in air, high-temperature hydrothermal treatment (HHT), and/or low-temperature hydrothermal treatment (LHT). Photocatalytic experiments were conducted with the Au NP-loaded crystalline titania spheres under irradiation of UV and visible light. A combined process of LHT at 80 °C followed by calcination at 500 °C could effectively crystallize titania spheres maintaining the dispersion state of Au NPs, which led to photocatalytic activity higher than that of commercial P25 under UV irradiation. Under visible light irradiation, the Au NP-titania spheres prepared with a crystallization process of LHT at 80 °C for 6 h showed photocatalytic activity much higher than a commercial product of visible light photocatalyst. Structure analysis of the visible light photocatalysts indicates the importance of prevention of the Au NPs aggregation in the crystallization processes for enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  16. Efficient degradation of Methylene Blue dye over highly reactive Cu doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles photocatalyst under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi

    2012-09-01

    Visible light induced photocatalysts of Cu doped SrTiO3 (Cu/SrTiO3) nanoparticles with the size -60-75 nm were prepared via facile sol-gel method. The morphological, optical, crystalline properties and compositions of synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). A significant red shift in the UV-diffused reflectance spectrum was observed and the absorption edge shifted to visible region by the Cu doping. Surprisingly, the band gap of SrTiO3 was changed from 3.2 eV drop to 2.96 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles was demonstrated for the degradation of Methylene Blue dye under visible light irradiation. The formation of new acceptor region in Cu/SrTiO3 was responsible for high photocatalytic activity of Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The results showed that the Methylene Blue dye was degraded by -66% within time span of 2 h over the Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. This dye degradation reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and also exhibited first order reaction rate. The calculated rate constant for the degradation reaction following first order kinetics was k = 0.0016 min(-1).

  17. Mechanochemically synthesized sub-5 nm sized CuS quantum dots with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shun; Ge, Zhen-Hua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Bo-Ping, E-mail: bpzhang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yao, Yao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Huan-Chun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yang, Jing; Li, Yan; Gao, Chao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin, Yuan-Hua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • CuS quantum dots (<5 nm) were synthesized by mechanochemical ball milling. • Defects was observed in the CuS quantum dots. • They show good visible light photocatalytic activity as Fenton-like reagents. - Abstract: We report a simple mechanochemical ball milling method for synthesizing monodisperse CuS quantum dots (QDs) with sizes as small as sub-5 nm. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The CuS QDs exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity and stability for degradation of Rodanmine B aqueous solution as Fenton-like reagents. Our study opens the opportunity to low-cost and facile synthesis of QDs in large scale for future industrial applications.

  18. Cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS flat panel detector: visibility of simulated microcalcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C

    2013-10-01

    To measure and investigate the improvement of microcalcification (MC) visibility in cone beam breast CT with a high pitch (75 μm), thick (500 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (Dexela 2923, Perkin Elmer). Aluminum wires and calcium carbonate grains of various sizes were embedded in a paraffin cylinder to simulate imaging of calcifications in a breast. Phantoms were imaged with a benchtop experimental cone beam CT system at various exposure levels. In addition to the Dexela detector, a high pitch (50 μm), thin (150 μm) scintillator CMOS/CsI flat panel detector (C7921CA-09, Hamamatsu Corporation, Hamamatsu City, Japan) and a widely used low pitch (194 μm), thick (600 μm) scintillator aSi/CsI flat panel detector (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems) were also used in scanning for comparison. The images were independently reviewed by six readers (imaging physicists). The MC visibility was quantified as the fraction of visible MCs and measured as a function of the estimated mean glandular dose (MGD) level for various MC sizes and detectors. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) were also measured and compared for the three detectors used. The authors have demonstrated that the use of a high pitch (75 μm) CMOS detector coupled with a thick (500 μm) CsI scintillator helped make the smaller 150-160, 160-180, and 180-200 μm MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 10.8, 9, and 10.8 mGy, respectively. It also made the larger 200-212 and 212-224 μm MC groups more visible at MGDs up to 7.2 mGy. No performance improvement was observed for 224-250 μm or larger size groups. With the higher spatial resolution of the Dexela detector based system, the apparent dimensions and shapes of MCs were more accurately rendered. The results show that with the aforementioned detector, a 73% visibility could be achieved in imaging 160-180 μm MCs as compared to 28% visibility achieved by the low pitch (194 μm) aSi/CsI flat

  19. Highly Efficient Low-Temperature N-Doped TiO2 Catalysts for Visible Light Photocatalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Julien G.; Cerfontaine, Vincent; Devred, François; Gaigneaux, Eric M.; Heinrichs, Benoît; Lambert, Stéphanie D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, TiO2 prepared with an aqueous sol-gel synthesis by peptization process is doped with nitrogen precursor to extend its activity towards the visible region. Three N-precursors are used: urea, ethylenediamine and triethylamine. Different molar N/Ti ratios are tested and the synthesis is adapted for each dopant. For urea- and trimethylamine-doped samples, anatase-brookite TiO2 nanoparticles of 6–8 nm are formed, with a specific surface area between 200 and 275 m2·g−1. In ethylenediamine-doped samples, the formation of rutile phase is observed, and TiO2 nanoparticles of 6–8 nm with a specific surface area between 185 and 240 m2·g−1 are obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance measurements show the incorporation of nitrogen in TiO2 materials through Ti–O–N bonds allowing light absorption in the visible region. Photocatalytic tests on the remediation of water polluted with p-nitrophenol show a marked improvement for all doped catalysts under visible light. The optimum doping, taking into account cost, activity and ease of synthesis, is up-scaled to a volume of 5 L and compared to commercial Degussa P25 material. This up-scaled sample shows similar properties compared to the lab-scale sample, i.e., a photoactivity 4 times higher than commercial P25. PMID:29642626

  20. AgBr/MgBi2O6 heterostructured composites with highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liansheng; Hu, Chaohao; Zhuang, Jing; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Dianhui; Zhou, Huaiying

    2018-06-01

    AgBr/MgBi2O6 heterostructured photocatalysts were synthesized by the deposition-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS) were employed to examine the phase structure, morphology and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by decomposing methylene blue (MB) solution under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). AgBr/MgBi2O6 composites exhibited significantly enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic properties in comparison with pure MgBi2O6 and AgBr. When the molar ratio of AgBr to MgBi2O6 was 3:1, the composite catalyst showed the optimal photocatalytic activity and excellent stability. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of AgBr/MgBi2O6 composites was attributed to the formation of p-n heterojunction between AgBr and MgBi2O6, thereby resulting in the effective separation and transfer of photogenerated electrons-hole pairs.

  1. Highly Enhanced Photoreductive Degradation of Polybromodiphenyl Ethers with g-C3N4/TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Ye

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of high activity photocatalysts g-C3N4-TiO2 were synthesized by simple one-pot thermal transformation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area, and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS. The g-C3N4-TiO2 samples show highly improved photoreductive capability for the degradation of polybromodiphenyl ethers compared with g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation. Among all the hybrids, 0.02-C3N4-TiO2 with 2 wt % g-C3N4 loaded shows the highest reaction rate, which is 15 times as high as that in bare g-C3N4. The well-matched band gaps in heterojunction g-C3N4-TiO2 not only strengthen the absorption intensity, but also show more effective charge carrier separation, which results in the highly enhanced photoreductive performance under visible light irradiation. The trapping experiments show that holetrapping agents largely affect the reaction rate. The rate of electron accumulation in the conductive band is the rate-determining step in the degradation reaction. A possible photoreductive mechanism has been proposed.

  2. Synthesis and highly visible-induced photocatalytic activity of CNT-CdSe composite for methylene blue solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotube-cadmium selenide (CNT-CdSe composite was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method derived from multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a stating material. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The as-synthesized CNT-CdSe composite efficiently catalyzed the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solutions under visible-light irradiation, exhibiting higher photocatalytic activity.

  3. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of the metastable Bi20TiO32 synthesized by a high-temperature quenching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hefeng; Huang Baibiao; Dai Ying; Qin Xiaoyan; Zhang Xiaoyang; Wang Zeyan; Jiang Minhua

    2009-01-01

    Metastable Bi 20 TiO 32 samples were synthesized by a high-temperature quenching method using α-Bi 2 O 3 and anatase TiO 2 as raw materials. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was measured with the photodegradation of methyl orange at room temperature under visible light irradiation. The Bi 20 TiO 32 samples exhibited good absorption in the visible light region with a band gap of about 2.38 eV and the band structure of Bi 20 TiO 32 was studied. Photodegradation against methyl orange was much better than α-Bi 2 O 3 prepared by the same way. The photocatalytic activity of Bi 20 TiO 32 samples is supposed to be associated with the hybridized Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals. In addition, the dispersive characteristic of Bi 6s orbital in the hybridized valence band facilitates the mobility of the photogenerated carriers and hampers their recombination. - Graphical abstract: Metastable Bi 20 TiO 32 samples were successfully synthesized by a quenching process. Photodegradation against methyl orange showed high visible-light activity and it was supposed to be associated with its corresponding band structure.

  4. Silica supported TiO{sub 2} nanostructures for highly efficient photocatalytic application under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, A.; Jana, T.K.; Chatterjee, K., E-mail: kuntal2k@gmail.com

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of silica–titania nanocomposite by simple and facile chemical route and characterization of the materials. • Excellent catalytic activity on organic pollutant methylene blue under the visible light irradiation. • Photocatalytic rate is much higher than commercial P25 TiO{sub 2} catalyst powder. • The higher activity is attributed to the special structure and synergistic effect of the materials which has immense application potential. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide decorated silica nanospheres have been synthesized by a simple wet chemical approach. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed that anatase phase of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, with exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets, are anchored onto the amorphous silica spheres of ∼60 nm diameter. The photocatalytic activity of the sample under visible light irradiation was examined. It is found that photocatalytic efficiency of the material is better than commercial P25 TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst and the result is attributed to the unique synergistic effect of SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite structure resulting enhanced charge separation and charge transfer.

  5. Simple method of preparing nitrogen - doped nanosized TiO2 powders of high photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Dang Thi Thanh Le

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped nanosized TiO 2 powders were prepared by a simple thermal treatment method of the mixture of titanium dioxide and urea. The prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis-DRS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the crystal structure of N-TiO 2 was a mixture of anatase and rutile phases, and the average particle size was 31 nm calculated from XRD results. The UV-vis spectra indicate an increase in absorption of visible light when compared to undoped TiO 2 . The photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped TiO 2 powder was evaluated by the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. And it was found that nitrogen-doped TiO 2 powders exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO 2 . Moreover, the study also showed that, the doping N atoms improve the growth of the TiO 2 crystal and phase transformation. (author)

  6. Nano scale Devices for Rectification of High Frequency Radiation from the Infrared through the Visible: A New Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovsky, N.M.; Cutler, P.H.; Miskovsky, N.M.; Cutler, P.H.; Lerne, P.B.; Mayer, A.; Weiss, B.L.; Willis, B.; Sullivan, T.E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new and viable method for optical rectification. This approach has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally and is the basis fot the development of devices to rectify radiation through the visible. This technique for rectification is based not on conventional material or temperature asymmetry as used in MIM (metal/insulator/metal) or Schottky diodes, but on a purely sharp geometric property of the antenna. This sharp tip or edge with a collector anode constitutes a tunnel junction. In these devices the rectenna (consisting of the antenna and the tunnel junction) acts as the absorber of the incident radiation and the rectifier. Using current nano fabrication techniques and the selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, junctions of 1?nm can be fabricated, which allow for rectification of frequencies up to the blue portion of the spectrum. To assess the viability of our approach, we review the development of nano antenna structures and tunnel junctions capable of operating in the visible region. In addition, we review the detailed process of rectification and present methodologies for analysis of diode data. Finally, we present operational designs for an optical rectenna and its fabrication and discuss outstanding problems and future work.

  7. Nanoscale Devices for Rectification of High Frequency Radiation from the Infrared through the Visible: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Miskovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and viable method for optical rectification. This approach has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally and is the basis fot the development of devices to rectify radiation through the visible. This technique for rectification is based not on conventional material or temperature asymmetry as used in MIM (metal/insulator/metal or Schottky diodes, but on a purely sharp geometric property of the antenna. This sharp “tip” or edge with a collector anode constitutes a tunnel junction. In these devices the rectenna (consisting of the antenna and the tunnel junction acts as the absorber of the incident radiation and the rectifier. Using current nanofabrication techniques and the selective atomic layer deposition (ALD process, junctions of 1 nm can be fabricated, which allow for rectification of frequencies up to the blue portion of the spectrum. To assess the viability of our approach, we review the development of nanoantenna structures and tunnel junctions capable of operating in the visible region. In addition, we review the detailed process of rectification and present methodologies for analysis of diode data. Finally, we present operational designs for an optical rectenna and its fabrication and discuss outstanding problems and future work.

  8. A highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3} nanocomposite: Enhanced self-sensitized degradation of colored pollutants under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Guanjie; Tang, Changhe [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010021 (China); Zhang, Bo [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430072 (China); Zhao, Lanxiao; Su, Yiguo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010021 (China); Wang, Xiaojing, E-mail: wang_xiao_jing@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010021 (China)

    2015-10-25

    In this study, a highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3} composite was prepared via simple hydrothermal synthesis. XRD confirmed the composite was constructed by pure cubic phase of NaTaO{sub 3} and hexagonal phase of ZnO. SEM analysis showed that as-prepared ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3} shaped as an irregular ginger with an obviously smaller size than that of pure ZnO without obvious agglomeration. EDS mapping demonstrated that the four elements (Na, Ta, O, Zn) in the composite were very uniformly distributed. The photocatalytic behaviors of as-prepared composites were studied in the degradation of methylene blue both under UV and visible irradiation. The bare ZnO showed the highest activity with 99.8% methylene blue (MB) photodegraded in 70 min under UV light irradiation whereas 94% photodegraded rate was achieved for ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3}. More importantly, the uniform composite of ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3} exhibited effective degradation of methylene blue under visible light which can be attributed to the well dyes adsorption abilities and the high efficiency of electron separation, induced by the synergistic effect between ZnO and NaTaO{sub 3}. It is confirmed the dye rather than a semiconductor is excited under visible light irradiation and a self-sensitized photocatalytic mechanism was then proposed based on the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: Visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3} and proposed schematic of self-sensitization directed photogradation of MB. - Highlights: • Highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3} photocatalysts were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3} composite exhibited effective degradation of MB under visible light. • ZnO/NaTaO{sub 3} composite effectively promoted dye adsorption and electrons separation. • A self-sensitized photocatalytic mechanism was proposed for the degradation of dye.

  9. Ultrawide spectral broadening and compression of single extremely short pulses in the visible, uv-vuv, and middle infrared by high-order stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalosha, V. P.; Herrmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive analytical and numerical study of ultrawide spectral broadening and compression of isolated extremely short visible, uv-vuv and middle infrared (MIR) pulses by high-order stimulated Raman scattering in hollow waveguides. Spectral and temporal characteristics of the output pulses and the mechanism of pulse compression using dispersion of the gas filling and output glass window are investigated without the slowly varying envelope approximation. Physical limitations due to phase mismatch, velocity walk off, and pump-pulse depletion as well as improvements through the use of pump-pulse sequences and dispersion control are studied. It is shown that phase-locked pulses as short as ∼2 fs in the visible and uv-vuv, and 6.5 fs in the MIR can be generated by coherent scattering in impulsively excited Raman media without the necessity of external phase control. Using pump-pulse sequences, shortest durations in the range of about 1 fs for visible and uv-vuv probe pulses are predicted

  10. BiVO4 /N-rGO nano composites as highly efficient visible active photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes and antibiotics in eco system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavu, Brindha; Thiripuranthagan, Sivakumar; Ranganathan, Sudhakar; Erusappan, Elangovan; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2018-04-30

    Herein, we report the synthesis of novel nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide/ BiVO 4 photo catalyst by single step hydrothermal method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized using XRD, N 2 adsorption-desorption, Raman, XPS, SEM TEM, DRS-UV and EIS techniques. The synthesized catalysts were tested for their catalytic activity in the photo degradation of some harmful textile dyes (methylene blue & congo red) and antibiotics (metronidazole and chloramphenicol) under visible light irradiation. Reduced charge recombination and enhanced photocatalytic activity were observed due to the concerted effect between BiVO 4 and nitrogen-rGO. The degradation efficiency of BiVO 4 /N-rGO in the degradation of CR and MB was remarkably high i.e 95% and 98% under visible light irradiation. Similarly 95% of MTZ and 93% of CAP were degraded under visible light irradiation. HPLC studies implied that both the dyes and antibiotics were degraded to the maximum extent. The plausible photocatalytic mechanism on the basis of experimental results was suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Facile fabrication of Ag3VO4/attapulgite composites for highly efficient visible light-driven photodegradation towards organic dyes and tetracycline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuting; Luo, Jie; Duan, Guorong; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-12-01

    An efficient one-dimensional attapulgite (ATP)-based photocatalyst, Ag3VO4/ATP nanocomposite, was fabricated by a facile deposition precipitation method with well-dispersed Ag3VO4 nanoparticles anchored on the surface of natural ATP fibers. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) were employed to investigate the morphologies, structure, and optical property of the prepared photocatalysts. The photocatalytic experiments indicated that the Ag3VO4/ATP nanocomposites exhibited enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO), and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH), of which the 20 wt% Ag3VO4/ATP sample showed superb photocatalytic performance. As demonstrated by N2 adsorption-desorption, photocurrent measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectra analyses, the improved photocatalytic activity arose from the enlarged surface area, the facilitated charge transfer, and the suppressed recombination of photogenerated charge carriers in Ag3VO4/ATP system. Furthermore, radical scavengers trapping experiments and recycling tests were also conducted. This work gives a new insight into fabrication of highly efficient, stable, and cost-effective visible light-driven photocatalyst for practical application in wastewater treatment and environmental remediation.

  12. CdS nanoparticles/CeO{sub 2} nanorods composite with high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Daotong; Pan, Bao; Jiang, Fan; Zhou, Yangen; Su, Wenyue, E-mail: suweny@fzu.edu.cn

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Coupling CdS with CeO{sub 2} can effectively improve the light-harvesting ability of wide-band gap CeO{sub 2} NRs as the photoinduced electrons on the conduction band of CdS are transfered to the conduction band of CeO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Coupling CdS can effectively improve the light-harvesting ability of wide-band gap CeO{sub 2}. • CdS/CeO{sub 2} composites show high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. • The mechanism of photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution over CdS/CeO{sub 2} was proposed. - Abstract: Different mole ratios of CdS nanoparticles (NPs)/CeO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) composites with effective contacts were synthesized through a two-step hydrothermal method. The crystal phase, microstructure, optical absorption properties, electrochemical properties and photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity of these composites were investigated. It was concluded that the photogenerated charge carriers in the CdS NPs/CeO{sub 2} NRs composite with a proper mole ratio (1:1) exhibited the longest lifetime and highest separation efficiency, which was responsible for the highest H{sub 2}-production rate of 8.4 mmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1} under visible-light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The superior photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution properties are attributed to the transfer of visible-excited electrons of CdS NPs to CeO{sub 2} NRs, which can effectively extend the light absorption range of wide-band gap CeO{sub 2} NRs. This work provides feasible routes to develop visible-light responsive CeO{sub 2}-based nanomaterial for efficient solar utilization.

  13. In situ synthesis of CdS decorated titanate nanosheets with highly efficient visible-light-induced photoactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhi; Fang, Pengfei; Liu, Fuwei; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Xinzhao; Lu, Dingze; Li, Delong; Wang, Shaojie

    2014-01-01

    Appropriately dispersed CdS nanoparticles were intimately embedded into titanate nanosheets (TNS) through ion-exchange and in situ sulfurization process. The sheet-like intermediates of titanate during the transforming process into nanotubes were firstly used as substrate for the decoration of CdS nanoparticles, and the synthesis route was achieved by ion-exchange process between titanate precursor and Cd 2+ ions solution, and the following sulfuration process by using Na 2 S solutions. The catalytic activity of the photocatalyst was investigated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. With an optimal Cd/Ti molar ratio of 15%, the CdS/TNS composite exhibits the highest photocatalytic performance, which is approximately 5.4 times greater than that of pure TNS. The mechanism of the separation behavior of the photogenerated charges was also discussed.

  14. High sensitivity ethanol gas sensor based on Sn - doped ZnO under visible light irradiation at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peishuo; Pan, Guofeng; Zhang, Bingqiang; Zhen, Jiali; Sun, Yicai, E-mail: pgf@hebut.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronic, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Pure ZnO and 5at%, 7at%, 9at% Sn - doped ZnO materials are prepared by the chemical co - precipitation method. They were annealed by furnace at temperature range of 300 - 700ºC in air for 1h. The ZnO materials are characterized by X - ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the Sn - doped ZnO materials appear rough porous structures. The maximum sensitivity can be achieved by doping the amount of 7 at%. It has much better sensing performance towards ethanol vapor under visible light irradiation. The response and recovery time are ~1s and ~5s, respectively. The mechanism for the improvement in the sensing properties can be explained with the surface adsorption theory and the photoactivation theory. (author)

  15. Controllable Fabrication of Ordered Mesoporous Bi2WO6 and Its High Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Dang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordered mesoporous Bi2WO6 was fabricated by nanocasting technique using SBA-15 as the template. The effect of the dosage of SBA-15 on the formation of the ordered structure and the photocatalytic ability of mesoporous Bi2WO6 was discussed. It was confirmed that the ordered mesoporous structure was obtained as the dosage of SBA-15 was 0.3 g. It was found that, compared to Bi2WO6, the RhB degradation rate with ordered mesoporous Bi2WO6 was enhanced under visible light (λ>400 nm by the photocatalytic measurements. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of ordered mesoporous Bi2WO6 was attributed to its particular ordered mesoporous structure which could increase the light-harvesting efficiency, reduce the recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, and promote the surface reaction.

  16. Visible-light active thin-film WO3 photocatalyst with controlled high-rate deposition by low-damage reactive-gas-flow sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Oka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A process based on reactive gas flow sputtering (GFS for depositing visible-light active photocatalytic WO3 films at high deposition rates and with high film quality was successfully demonstrated. The deposition rate for this process was over 10 times higher than that achieved by the conventional sputtering process and the process was highly stable. Furthermore, Pt nanoparticle-loaded WO3 films deposited by the GFS process exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than those deposited by conventional sputtering, where the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the extent of decomposition of CH3CHO under visible light irradiation. The decomposition time for 60 ppm of CH3CHO was 7.5 times more rapid on the films deposited by the GFS process than on the films deposited by the conventional process. During GFS deposition, there are no high-energy particles bombarding the growing film surface, whereas the bombardment of the surface with high-energy particles is a key feature of conventional sputtering. Hence, the WO3 films deposited by GFS should be of higher quality, with fewer structural defects, which would lead to a decrease in the number of centers for electron-hole recombination and to the efficient use of photogenerated holes for the decomposition of CH3CHO.

  17. Hierarchical architectures of ZnS–In2S3 solid solution onto TiO2 nanofibers with high visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chengbin; Meng, Deshui; Li, Yue; Wang, Longlu; Liu, Yutang; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A unique hierarchical architecture of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution onto TiO 2 nanofibers was fabricated. The hierarchical heterostructures exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity and outstanding recycling performance. - Highlights: • Novel hierarchical heterostructure of TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution. • Efficient inhibition of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution aggregation. • High visible light photocatalytic activity. • Highly stable recycling performance. - Abstract: A unique hierarchical architecture of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution nanostructures onto TiO 2 nanofibers (TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 ) has been successfully fabricated by simple hydrothermal method. The ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution nanostructures exhibit a diversity of morphologies: nanosheet, nanorod and nanoparticle. The porous TiO 2 nanofiber templates effectively inhibit the aggregation growth of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution. The formation of ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution is proved by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the intimate contact between TiO 2 nanofibers and ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution favors fast transfer of photogenerated electrons. The trinary TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures exhibit high adsorption capacity and visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B dye (RhB), remarkably superior to pure TiO 2 nanofibers or binary structures (ZnS/TiO 2 nanofibers, In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 nanofibers and ZnS–In 2 S 3 solid solution). Under visible light irradiation the RhB photocatalytic degradation rate over TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures is about 16.7, 12.5, 6.3, 5.9, and 2.2 times that over pure TiO 2 nanofibers, ZnS nanoparticles, In 2 S 3 /TiO 2 nanofibers, ZnS/TiO 2 nanofibers, and ZnS-In 2 S 3 solid solution, respectively. Furthermore, the TiO 2 @ZnS–In 2 S 3 heterostructures show highly stable recycling performance

  18. Highly efficient visible-light driven photochromism: developments towards a solid-state molecular switch operating through a triplet-sensitised pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayshaw, Simon K; Schiffers, Stephanie; Stevenson, Anna J; Teat, Simon J; Warren, Mark R; Bennett, Robert D; Sazanovich, Igor V; Buckley, Alastair R; Weinstein, Julia A; Raithby, Paul R

    2011-04-11

    We introduce a new highly efficient photochromic organometallic dithienylethene (DTE) complex, the first instance of a DTE core symmetrically modified by two Pt(II) chromophores [Pt(PEt(3))(2)(C≡C)(DTE)(C≡C)Pt(PEt(3))(2)Ph] (1), which undergoes ring-closure when activated by visible light in solvents of different polarity, in thin films and even in the solid state. Complex 1 has been synthesised and fully photophysically characterised by (resonance) Raman and transient absorption spectroscopy complemented by calculations. The ring-closing photoconversion in a single crystal of 1 has been followed by X-ray crystallography. This process occurs with the extremely high yield of 80%--considerably outperforming the other DTE derivatives. Remarkably, the photocyclisation of 1 occurs even under visible light (>400 nm), which is not absorbed by the non-metallated DTE core HC≡C(DTE)C≡CH (2) itself. This unusual behaviour and the high photocyclisation yields in solution are attributed to the presence of a heavy atom in 1 that enables a triplet-sensitised photocyclisation pathway, elucidated by transient absorption spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The results of resonance Raman investigation confirm the involvement of the alkynyl unit in the frontier orbitals of both closed and open forms of 1 in the photocyclisation process. The changes in the Raman spectra upon cyclisation have permitted the identification of Raman marker bands, which include the acetylide stretching vibration. Importantly, these bands occur in the spectral region unobstructed by other vibrations and can be used for non-destructive monitoring of photocyclisation/photoreversion processes and for optical readout in this type of efficiently photochromic thermally stable systems. This study indicates a strategy for generating efficient solid-state photoswitches in which modification of the Pt(II) units has the potential to tune absorption properties and hence operational wavelength across the visible

  19. Facile synthesis of graphitic C3N4 nanoporous-tube with high enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiru; Gao, Jianping; Mei, Shunkang; Wu, Yongli; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhai, Xiangang; Yang, Jiangbing; Hao, Chaoyue; Yan, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A simple and convenient method was used to synthesize a graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanoporous-tube by using SiO2 nanoparticles as pore formers. The structure of the g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was characterized by the SEM and TEM images. Taking photodegradation of RhB as an example, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was investigated. It can photodegrade 90% RhB in 40 min under visible-light irradiation and obtain a k value of 0.04491 min-1, which is 8.16 times that of bulk g-C3N4, 3.09 times that of tubular g-C3N4 and 1.48 times that of tubular g-C3N4-SiO2. The significant enhancement in photocatalytic efficiency is due to the edge effect of the pores and the special structure of the tubes. In addition, the possible mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was also proposed based on the trapping experiment of active species, which indicated that the superoxide radicals ({{{{O}}}2}\\bullet -) and the holes (h +) were the main reactive species in this photocatalyst. This work may open up a new idea of innovation in g-C3N4 structure and inspire its follow-up study.

  20. Construction of Ag/AgCl nanostructures from Ag nanoparticles as high-performance visible-light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Dongzhi; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Wei [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Hu, Wenping [Tianjin University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (China); Zhou, Xueqin, E-mail: zhouxueqin@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-11-15

    A combined strategy of in situ oxidation and assembly is developed to prepare Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes from Ag nanoparticles under room temperature. It is a new facile way to fabricate Ag/AgCl with small sizes and defined morphologies. Ag/AgCl nanospheres with an average size of 80 nm were achieved without any surfactants, while Ag/AgCl nanocubes with a mean edge length of 150 nm were obtained by introduction of N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate. The possible formation mechanism involves the self-assembly of AgCl nanoparticles, Ostwald ripening and photoreduction of Ag{sup +} into Ag{sup 0} by the room light. The as-prepared Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and stability toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag/AgCl nanocubes display enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with Ag/AgCl nanospheres due to the more efficient charge transfer. This work may pave an avenue to construct various functional materials via the assembly strategy using nanoparticles as versatile building blocks.

  1. Visible-light-induced hydrogen production over Pt-Eosin Y catalysts with high surface area silica gel as matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaojie [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Jin, Zhiliang; Li, Shuben; Lu, Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yuexiang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanjing Road 245, Nanchang, 330047 (China)

    2007-03-30

    A new system for the production of hydrogen, constructed using silica gel as a matrix, Eosin Y as a photosensitizer, and Pt as a cocatalyst, has been reported. It was found that the rate of photosensitized hydrogen evolution in the presence of silica gel is enhanced about 10-fold relative to the homogeneous phase, i.e. in the absence of silica gel. The pH value of the solution and the concentration of Eosin Y have remarkable effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. The optimal pH and concentration of Eosin Y are 7 and 3.60 x 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} (E/S = 1/3) to 7.24 x 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} (E/S = 1/1), respectively. Triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, the rate of hydrogen evolution and the apparent quantum efficiency in the silica gel system under visible-light irradiation ({lambda} {>=} 420 nm) can reach about 43 {mu}mol h{sup -1} and 10.4%, respectively. In addition, the roles of silica gel, Pt and TEOA, respectively; and the probable mechanism of photosensitized hydrogen evolution have been discussed. (author)

  2. Visible-light-induced hydrogen production over Pt-Eosin Y catalysts with high surface area silica gel as matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Jin, Zhiliang; Li, Yuexiang; Li, Shuben; Lu, Gongxuan

    A new system for the production of hydrogen, constructed using silica gel as a matrix, Eosin Y as a photosensitizer, and Pt as a cocatalyst, has been reported. It was found that the rate of photosensitized hydrogen evolution in the presence of silica gel is enhanced about 10-fold relative to the homogeneous phase, i.e. in the absence of silica gel. The pH value of the solution and the concentration of Eosin Y have remarkable effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. The optimal pH and concentration of Eosin Y are 7 and 3.60 × 10 -4 mol dm -3 (E/S = 1/3) to 7.24 × 10 -4 mol dm -3 (E/S = 1/1), respectively. Triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, the rate of hydrogen evolution and the apparent quantum efficiency in the silica gel system under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm) can reach about 43 μmol h -1 and 10.4%, respectively. In addition, the roles of silica gel, Pt and TEOA, respectively; and the probable mechanism of photosensitized hydrogen evolution have been discussed.

  3. Highly efficient visible light photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels by Cu-nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chung; Lin, Chang-Hui; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Ganguly, Abhijit; Wang, Chen-Hao; Chang, Jan-Kai; Wu, Chih-I; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2014-11-12

    The production of renewable solar fuel through CO2 photoreduction, namely artificial photosynthesis, has gained tremendous attention in recent times due to the limited availability of fossil-fuel resources and global climate change caused by rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), hereafter referred to as Cu/GO, has been used to enhance photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible-light. A rapid one-pot microwave process was used to prepare the Cu/GO hybrids with various Cu contents. The attributes of metallic copper nanoparticles (∼4-5 nm in size) in the GO hybrid are shown to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of GO, primarily through the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination, further reduction of GO's bandgap, and modification of its work function. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies indicate a charge transfer from GO to Cu. A strong interaction is observed between the metal content of the Cu/GO hybrids and the rates of formation and selectivity of the products. A factor of greater than 60 times enhancement in CO2 to fuel catalytic efficiency has been demonstrated using Cu/GO-2 (10 wt % Cu) compared with that using pristine GO.

  4. High-precision approach to localization scheme of visible light communication based on artificial neural networks and modified genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Weipeng; Wu, Yuxiang; Xie, Canyu; Chen, Hao; Cai, Ye; Chen, Yingcong

    2017-10-01

    An indoor positioning algorithm based on visible light communication (VLC) is presented. This algorithm is used to calculate a three-dimensional (3-D) coordinate of an indoor optical wireless environment, which includes sufficient orders of multipath reflections from reflecting surfaces of the room. Leveraging the global optimization ability of the genetic algorithm (GA), an innovative framework for 3-D position estimation based on a modified genetic algorithm is proposed. Unlike other techniques using VLC for positioning, the proposed system can achieve indoor 3-D localization without making assumptions about the height or acquiring the orientation angle of the mobile terminal. Simulation results show that an average localization error of less than 1.02 cm can be achieved. In addition, in most VLC-positioning systems, the effect of reflection is always neglected and its performance is limited by reflection, which makes the results not so accurate for a real scenario and the positioning errors at the corners are relatively larger than other places. So, we take the first-order reflection into consideration and use artificial neural network to match the model of a nonlinear channel. The studies show that under the nonlinear matching of direct and reflected channels the average positioning errors of four corners decrease from 11.94 to 0.95 cm. The employed algorithm is emerged as an effective and practical method for indoor localization and outperform other existing indoor wireless localization approaches.

  5. One novel material with high visible-light activity: hexagonal Cu flakelets embedded in the petals of BiOBr flower-nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuling; Wu, Qingsheng, E-mail: qswu@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    The novel BiOBr flower-nanospheres embedded by hexagonal Cu have been synthesized successfully through an ingenious design, by one-step solvothermal process with two kinds of bifunctional reagents, namely, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C{sub 16}min]Br and ethylene glycol (EG). Pure BiOBr flower-sphere has been synthesized by solvothermal process. In the result of Cu-embedded BiOBr flower-nanospheres, the diameter of the flower-sphere is about 1.5 μm (±0.1) with hexagon copper about 10-nm side length in the petals of BiOBr flower-nanospheres. The Cu-embedded BiOBr composites exhibit high photocatalytic activity than pure BiOBr, which was investigated by the degradation of rhodamine B solution (RhB) and methyl orange solution (MO) under simulative visible-light irradiation. Nearly 100 and 80% of conversion can be achieved from the degradation of RhB and MO after 1.5 h, respectively. The high ability of photocatalysis may be attributed to the narrow-band-gap semiconductor BiOBr, high electron transportation of copper, and the coupling of Cu and BiOBr. It can lead to the strong absorption in the visible region and improve the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs.

  6. Well-crystalline porous ZnO-SnO2 nanosheets: an effective visible-light driven photocatalyst and highly sensitive smart sensor material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Randeep; Umar, Ahmad; Mehta, S K; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates the synthesis and characterization of porous ZnO-SnO2 nanosheets prepared by the simple and facile hydrothermal method at low-temperature. The prepared nanosheets were characterized by several techniques which revealed the well-crystallinity, porous and well-defined nanosheet morphology for the prepared material. The synthesized porous ZnO-SnO2 nanosheets were used as an efficient photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of highly hazardous dye, i.e., direct blue 15 (DB 15), under visible-light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic degradation of prepared material towards DB 15 dye could be ascribed to the formation of ZnO-SnO2 heterojunction which effectively separates the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and possess high surface area. Further, the prepared porous ZnO-SnO2 nanosheets were utilized to fabricate a robust chemical sensor to detect 4-nitrophenol in aqueous medium. The fabricated sensor exhibited extremely high sensitivity of ~ 1285.76 µA/mmol L(-1)cm(-2) and an experimental detection limit of 0.078 mmol L(-1) with a linear dynamic range of 0.078-1.25 mmol L(-1). The obtained results confirmed that the prepared porous ZnO-SnO2 nanosheets are potential material for the removal of organic pollutants under visible light irradiation and efficient chemical sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. POWERFUL ACTIVITY IN THE BRIGHT AGES. I. A VISIBLE/IR SURVEY OF HIGH REDSHIFT 3C RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, B.; Chiaberge, M.; Kotyla, J. P.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Stanghellini, C. [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti, 101 I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Baum, S.; O’Dea, C. P. [University of Manitoba, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, 66 Chancellors Circle, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Capetti, A. [Osservatorio Astronomico de Torino, Corso Savona, I-10024 Moncalieri TO (Italy); Miley, G. K. [Universiteit Leiden, Rapenburg 70, 2311 EZ Leiden (Netherlands); Perlman, E. S. [Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Quillen, A. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present new rest-frame UV and visible observations of 22 high- z (1 < z < 2.5) 3C radio galaxies and QSOs obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 instrument. Using a custom data reduction strategy in order to assure the removal of cosmic rays, persistence signal, and other data artifacts, we have produced high-quality science-ready images of the targets and their local environments. We observe targets with regions of UV emission suggestive of active star formation. In addition, several targets exhibit highly distorted host galaxy morphologies in the rest frame visible images. Photometric analyses reveal that brighter QSOs generally tend to be redder than their dimmer counterparts. Using emission line fluxes from the literature, we estimate that emission line contamination is relatively small in the rest frame UV images for the QSOs. Using archival VLA data, we have also created radio map overlays for each of our targets, allowing for analysis of the optical and radio axes alignment.

  8. Highly transparent conductive AZO/Zr50Cu50/AZO films in wide range of visible and near infrared wavelength grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyun Cheng

    Full Text Available Novel AZO/Zr50Cu50/AZO tri-layer transparent conductive films with excellent transmittance in both visible and near infrared region were successfully prepared by pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The electrical and optical properties were investigated at various Zr50Cu50 thicknesses. As the AZO thickness was fixed at 50 nm and Zr50Cu50 thickness was varied between 1 and 18 nm, it was found that AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50/AZO (50 nm tri-layer films exhibited good conductivity and high transmittance in both visible and near infrared wavelength. Additionally, both the electrical and optical properties of AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50 (2 nm/AZO (50 nm tri-layer films were found to be sensitive to the growth temperature. In this work, the lowest sheet resistance (43 Ω/□ and relatively high transmittance (∼80% in the range of 400–2000 nm were achieved while the growth temperature was 350 °C. Furthermore, the AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50 (2 nm/AZO (50 nm thin film deposited at 350 °C exhibits the highest figure of merit of 1.42 × 10−3 Ω−1, indicating that the multilayer is promising for coated glasses and thin film solar cells. Keywords: Transparent conductive oxide, AZO, Zr50Cu50, Electrical and optical properties, Visible and near infrared transmittance

  9. Visibility of an iron-containing fiducial marker in magnetic resonance imaging for high-precision external beam prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Komeda, Hisao; Hirose, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Takuya; Ono, Kousei; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2017-11-29

    Visualization of fiducial gold markers is critical for registration on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for imaging-guided radiotherapy. Although larger markers provide better visualization on MRI, they tend to generate artifacts on CT. MRI is strongly influenced by the presence of metals, such as iron, in the body. Here we compared efficacies of a 0.5% iron-containing gold marker (GM) and a traditional non-iron-containing marker. Twenty-seven patients underwent CT/MRI fusion-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Markers were placed by urologists under local anesthesia. Gold Anchor (GA; diameter: 0.28 mm; length: 10 mm), an iron-containing marker, was placed on the right side of the prostate using a 22-G needle and VISICOIL (VIS; diameter: 0.35 mm; length: 10 mm), a non-iron-containing marker, was placed on the left side using a 19-G needle. T2*-weighted images MRI sequences were obtained. Two radiation oncologists and a radiation technologist evaluated and assigned scores for visual quality on a five-point scale (1, poor; 5, best visibility). Artifact generation on CT was slightly greater with GA than with VIS. The mean marker visualization scores on MRI of all three observers were significantly superior for GA than for VIS (3.5 vs 3.2, 3.9 vs 3.2, and 4.0 vs 2.9). The actual size of the spherical GA was about 2 mm in diameter, but the signal void on MRI was approximately 5 mm. Although both markers were well visualized and can be recommended clinically, the results suggest that GA has some subtle advantages for quantitative visualization that could prove useful in certain situations of stereotactic body radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene–ZnS quantum dots composites with highly efficient visible light photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shu-Dong; Tang, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ma, Yi-Fei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Song, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene–ZnS quantum dots (NG–ZnS QDs) were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal process using graphene oxide and [(Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}) (pa)] nanosheets as precursors. The results demonstrated that ZnS QDs deposited on the surface of the nitrogen-doped graphene (NG). Combined with series of our analysis and characterization, we found that [(Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}) (pa)] nanosheets were used not only as the sources of ZnS QDs but also as the sources of nitrogen. Moreover, photocatalytic experiment of NG–ZnS QDs for organic dyes was conducted under visible light irradiation, and the results exhibited that the photocatalytic activities of resultant composites could be remarkably enhanced. This simple and catalyst-free approach for depositing ZnS QDs onto NG may provide an alternative way for preparation of other composites based on NG under mild conditions, which showed their potential applications in wastewater treatment. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the four-step process of the photon-driven CT model for NG–ZnS QDs. - Highlights: • A new strategy was present to synthesize nitrogen-doped graphene–ZnS quantum dots (NG–ZnS QDs) composites. • [(Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}) (pa)] nanosheets were used not only as the sources of ZnS QDs but also as the sources of nitrogen. • The photocatalytic activities of NG–ZnS QDs could be remarkably enhanced.

  11. 450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Hsieh, Dan-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-05-18

    A TO-38-can packaged Gallium nitride (GaN) blue laser diode (LD) based free-space visible light communication (VLC) with 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 32-subcarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission at 9 Gbps is preliminarily demonstrated over a 5-m free-space link. The 3-dB analog modulation bandwidth of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD biased at 65 mA and controlled at 25°C is only 900 MHz, which can be extended to 1.5 GHz for OFDM encoding after throughput intensity optimization. When delivering the 4-Gbps 16-QAM OFDM data within 1-GHz bandwidth, the error vector magnitude (EVM), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bit-error-rate (BER) of the received data are observed as 8.4%, 22.4 dB and 3.5 × 10(-8), respectively. By increasing the encoded bandwidth to 1.5 GHz, the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD enlarges its transmission capacity to 6 Gbps but degrades its transmitted BER to 1.7 × 10(-3). The same transmission capacity of 6 Gbps can also be achieved with a BER of 1 × 10(-6) by encoding 64-QAM OFDM data within 1-GHz bandwidth. Using the 1.5-GHz full bandwidth of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD provides the 64-QAM OFDM transmission up to 9 Gbps, which successfully delivers data with an EVM of 5.1%, an SNR of 22 dB and a BER of 3.6 × 10(-3) passed the forward error correction (FEC) criterion.

  12. Low-Temperature Sol-Gel Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Anatase/Brookite Biphasic Nanoparticles with High Surface Area and Visible-Light Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doping in combination with the brookite phase or a mixture of TiO2 polymorphs nanomaterials can enhance photocatalytic activity under visible light. Generally, nitrogen-dopedanatase/brookite mixed phases TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal or solvothermal method need to be at high temperature and with long time heating treatment. Furthermore, the surface areas of them are low (<125 m2/g. There is hardly a report on the simple and direct preparation of N-doped anatase/brookite mixed phase TiO2 nanostructures using sol-gel method at low heating temperature. In this paper, the nitrogen-doped anatase/brookite biphasic nanoparticles with large surface area (240 m2/g were successfully prepared using sol-gel method at low temperature (165 °C, and with short heating time (4 h under autogenous pressure. The obtained sample without subsequent annealing at elevated temperatures showed enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange (MO with 4.2-, 9.6-, and 7.5-fold visible light activities compared to P25 and the amorphous samples heated in muffle furnace with air or in tube furnace with a flow of nitrogen at 165 °C, respectively. This result was attributed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen doping, mixed crystalline phases, and high surface area.

  13. Novel development of nanocrystalline kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film with high photocatalytic activity under visible light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Andigoni; Mahajan, Sandip; Sharma, Ramphal; Stathatos, Elias

    2018-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) represents a promising p-type direct band gap semiconductor with large absorption coefficient in the visible region of solar light. In the present study, a kesterite CZTS nanocrystalline film, with high purity, was successfully synthesized via the combination of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The morphology and structural properties of the CZTS films were characterized by FE-SEM microscopy, porosimetry in terms of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared films under mild heat treatment at 250 °C in the presence of sulfur atmosphere exhibited fine nanostructure with 35 nm average particle size, high specific surface area of 53 m2/g and 9 nm pore diameter. The photocatalytic activity of the films was examined to the degradation of Basic Blue 41 (BB-41) and Acid Orange 8 (AO-8) organic azo dyes under visible light irradiation, demonstrating 97.5% and 70% discoloration for BB-41 and AO-8 respectively. Reusability of the CZTS films was also tested proving good stability over several repetitions. The reduction of photocatalyst's efficiency after three successive repetitions didn't exceed 5.6% and 8.5% for BB-41 and AO-8 respectively.

  14. Copper NPs decorated titania: A novel synthesis by high energy US with a study of the photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi, Marta; Bianchi, Claudia L; Pirola, Carlo; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Morandi, Sara; Argirusis, Christos; Sourkouni, Georgia; Naldoni, Alberto; Capucci, Valentino

    2016-07-01

    The most important drawback of the use of TiO2 as photocatalyst is its lack of activity under visible light. To overcome this problem, the surface modification of commercial micro-sized TiO2 by means of high-energy ultrasound (US), employing CuCl2 as precursor molecule to obtain both metallic copper as well as copper oxides species at the TiO2 surface, is here. We have prepared samples with different copper content, in order to evaluate its impact on the photocatalytic performances of the semiconductor, and studied in particular the photodegradation in the gas phase of some volatile organic molecules (VOCs), namely acetone and acetaldehyde. We used a LED lamp in order to have only the contribution of the visible wavelengths to the TiO2 activation (typical LED lights have no emission in the UV region). We employed several techniques (i.e., HR-TEM, XRD, FT-IR and UV-Vis) in order to characterize the prepared samples, thus evidencing different sample morphologies as a function of the various copper content, with a coherent correlation between them and the photocatalytic results. Firstly, we demonstrated the possibility to use US to modify the TiO2, even when it is commercial and micro-sized as well; secondly, by avoiding completely the UV irradiation, we confirmed that pure TiO2 is not activated by visible light. On the other hand, we showed that copper metal and metal oxides nanoparticles strongly and positively affect its photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO2 with high-active visible light degradation property via solid state reaction route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaoyou; Tang Qunli; Feng Qingge

    2011-01-01

    S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 (S-TiO 2 , Cr-TiO 2 , S-Cr-TiO 2 ) were successfully synthesized via a simple, effective and environmental benign solid state reaction route. The low angle XRD patterns demonstrated that the resulting samples possess mesostructures. The further characterizations via N 2 adsorption-desorption and XPS showed that the typical S/Cr co-doped mesoporous TiO 2 (S-Cr-TiO 2 (5S-5Cr)) possesses mesopore with the high specific surface area of 118.4 m 2 /g and narrow pore size distribution, and both S and Cr have been incorporated into the lattice of TiO 2 with the amounts of 4.16% sulfur and 7.88% chromium, respectively. And Raman spectroscopy shows that the surface of S-Cr-TiO 2 (5S-5Cr) material possesses stretching vibrational peaks at ∼709, ∼793 cm -1 are assignable to the Ti-O-Cr, O-Cr (Ti)-OH bonds, respectively. Interestingly, the UV-vis displayed that the absorption regions of S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 cover the visible light region. As for the series of S-Cr-TiO 2 samples, the absorption region even extends to near infrared region with strong adsorption. Moreover, compared with the pure titanium dioxide (P25-TiO 2 ), the photodegradation properties of bromocresol green (BCG) on the S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 showed excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation. Within 50 min visible light irradiation, 82.6% of the initial BCG was degraded for the S-Cr-TiO 2 (6S-4Cr) photocatalyst.

  16. Visibility and Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze forms when sunlight encounters particle pollution. It reduces visibility in cities and scenic areas. This web area provides regulatory information and progress towards improving visibility through EPA’s regional haze program.

  17. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  18. Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds...... for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE......-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  19. Facile synthesis of flower-like BiOI hierarchical spheres at room temperature with high visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao-jing; Li, Fa-tang; Li, Dong-yan; Liu, Rui-hong; Liu, Shuang-jun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flower-like BiOI hierarchical sphere is obtained in the presence of ethylene glycol. • A template free hydrolysis route is employed at room temperature. • Ethylene glycol plays an important role in assembling BiOI nanoflakes to form spheres. • The BiOI sphere shows high visible-light photocatalytic activity and good stability. - Abstract: Flower-like BiOI hierarchical spheres are prepared at room temperature via a template free route simply by dropping water into ethylene glycol (EG) solution containing reactants based on the hydrolysis and oriented assembly roles of water and EG, respectively. The BiOI samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption, emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–Vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic reaction rate constant of the as-prepared BiOI hierarchical spheres is 15.8, 13.3, and 2.0 times that of BiOI nanoflakes obtained in the absence of EG in degradation of anionic dye (methyl orange), cationic dye (methylene blue), and colorless target pollutant (phenol), respectively, under the visible-light irradiation, which can be attributed to its unique flower-like structure for utilization of light, small crystal size, and large specific surface area

  20. Vacancy-Rich Monolayer BiO2-x as a Highly Efficient UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Responsive Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyong; Pan, Wenfeng; Zhang, Gaoke; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-08

    Vacancy-rich layered materials with good electron-transfer property are of great interest. Herein, a full-spectrum responsive vacancy-rich monolayer BiO 2-x has been synthesized. The increased density of states at the conduction band (CB) minimum in the monolayer BiO 2-x is responsible for the enhanced photon response and photo-absorption, which were confirmed by UV/Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and photocurrent measurements. Compared to bulk BiO 2-x , monolayer BiO 2-x has exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance for rhodamine B and phenol removal under UV, visible, and near-infrared light (NIR) irradiation, which can be attributed to the vacancy V Bi-O ''' as confirmed by the positron annihilation spectra. The presence of V Bi-O ''' defects in monolayer BiO 2-x promoted the separation of electrons and holes. This finding provides an atomic level understanding for developing highly efficient UV, visible, and NIR light responsive photocatalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High photocatalytic activity of hierarchical SiO2@C-doped TiO2 hollow spheres in UV and visible light towards degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-10-15

    Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visible-Light-Initiated Na2-Eosin Y Catalyzed Highly Regio- and Stereoselective Difunctionalization of Alkynes with Alkyl Bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuai; Meng, Ling-Guo; Wang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    A highly regioselective and stereoselective addition of alkyl bromides (amino-brominated aromatic β,β-dicyanoalkenes) to arylacetylenes by photoredox catalysis was developed. This difunctionalization of arylacetylenes was accomplished under ambient and metal-free conditions to produce alkenyl bromides in high efficiency with a wide range of group tolerance.

  3. Facile synthesis of AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-heterojunctions with high visible light activity for Cr(VI) reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); The Brook Byer Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332 (United States); Shi, Xiaodong; Liu, Enqin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Crittenden, John C. [The Brook Byer Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332 (United States); Ma, Xiangjuan; Zhang, Yi [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Cong, Yanqing, E-mail: yqcong@hotmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Graphical abstract: Highly visible-light-active AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with multi-heterojunctions was developed. - Highlights: • Visible-light-active AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with multi-heterojunctions was prepared. • Highly enhanced photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was observed. • k{sub Cr(VI)} on AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} increased by ca.16 times relative to Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Decreased E{sub g}, shifted E{sub fb} and reduced charge transfer resistance were observed. • Simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of organics were achieved. - Abstract: AgI sensitized BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite (AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with multi-heterojunctions was prepared using simple etching-deposition process. Different characterization techniques were performed to investigate the structural, optical and electrical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts. It was found that the ternary AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite exhibited: (1) improved photocurrent response, (2) smaller band gap, (3) greatly reduced charge transfer resistance and (4) negative shift of flat band potential, which finally led to easier generation and more efficient separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the hetero-interfaces. Thus, for the reduction of Cr(VI), AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation at near neutral pH. AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was optimized when the initial molar ratio of KI to Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AgNO{sub 3} to Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 1:1 and 10%, respectively. The estimated k{sub Cr(VI)} on optimized AgI/BiOI-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was about 16 times that on pure Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Good stability was also observed in cyclic runs, indicating that the current multi-heterostructured photocatalyst is highly desirable for the remediation of Cr(VI)-containing wastewater.

  4. Solvent-assisted self-assembly of fullerene into single-crystal ultrathin microribbons as highly sensitive UV-visible photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lang; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2013-09-24

    The size, shape, and crystallinity of organic nanostructures play an important role in their physical properties and are mainly determined by the self-assembling kinetics of molecular components often involving the solvent conditions. Here, we reported a kinetically controlled self-assembly of C60 assisted by the solvent carbon bisulfide (CS2) into single-crystal ultrathin microribbons of 2C60·3CS2, upon mixing the poor solvent isopropyl alcohol with a C60/CS2 stock solution. Surface energy calculations reveal that these microribbons represent a kinetically favored high-energy state as compared with the thermodynamically stable shape of prismatic rods. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations clarify that association of CS2 at the nucleation stage helps to guide and rigidify the formation of π-π stacking 1D chains of C60 through the surrounding CS2 cage-like structures, which further act as glue, boosting lateral assembly of as-formed 1D chains into untrathin 2D microribbon single crystals. Precise control over the thickness, width, and length of 2C60·3CS2 microribbons was achieved by manipulation of the growth kinetics through adjusting the solvent conditions. Upon heating to 120 °C, sublimation of CS2 components results in fcc C60 microribbons. We found that both microribbons of solvated monoclinic 2C60·3CS2 and pure fcc C60 exhibit highly sensitive photoconductivity properties with a spectral response range covering UV to visible. The highest on/off ratio of two-terminal photodetectors based on single ribbons reaches around 250, while the responsitivity is about 75.3 A W(-1) in the UV region and 90.4 A W(-1) in the visible region.

  5. High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-05-25

    A high-brightness, droop-free, and speckle-free InGaN/GaN quantum well blue superluminescent diode (SLD) was demonstrated on a semipolar (2021) GaN substrate. The 447-nm emitting SLD has a broad spectral linewidth of 6.3 nm at an optical power of 123 mW. A peak optical power of 256 mW was achieved at 700 mA CW injection current. By combining YAG:Ce phosphor, SLD-generated white light shows a color-rendering index (CRI) of 68.9 and a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4340 K. The measured frequency response of the SLD revealed a -3 dB bandwidth of 560 MHz, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the device for both solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  6. High-throughput screening assay used in pharmacognosy: Selection, optimization and validation of methods of enzymatic inhibition by UV-visible spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Granados-Guzmán

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In research laboratories of both organic synthesis and extraction of natural products, every day a lot of products that can potentially introduce some biological activity are obtained. Therefore it is necessary to have in vitro assays, which provide reliable information for further evaluation in in vivo systems. From this point of view, in recent years has intensified the use of high-throughput screening assays. Such trials should be optimized and validated for accurate and precise results, i.e. reliable. The present review addresses the steps needed to develop and validate bioanalytical methods, emphasizing UV-Visible spectrophotometry as detection system. Particularly focuses on the selection of the method, the optimization to determine the best experimental conditions, validation, implementation of optimized and validated method to real samples, and finally maintenance and possible transfer it to a new laboratory.

  7. High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Leonard, John T.; Pourhashemi, Arash; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    A high-brightness, droop-free, and speckle-free InGaN/GaN quantum well blue superluminescent diode (SLD) was demonstrated on a semipolar (2021) GaN substrate. The 447-nm emitting SLD has a broad spectral linewidth of 6.3 nm at an optical power of 123 mW. A peak optical power of 256 mW was achieved at 700 mA CW injection current. By combining YAG:Ce phosphor, SLD-generated white light shows a color-rendering index (CRI) of 68.9 and a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4340 K. The measured frequency response of the SLD revealed a -3 dB bandwidth of 560 MHz, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the device for both solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  8. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We report on high-quality polycrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe–TiO2) porous films synthesized via one-step electrochemical oxidation. We demonstrate that delicate properties such as the impurity concentration and the microstructure that strongly influence the performance of the material for photovol...

  9. Broadband and high absorption in Fibonacci photonic crystal including MoS2 monolayer in the visible range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Narges; Mohebbi, Ensiyeh

    2018-03-01

    2D molybdenum disulfide MoS2, has represented potential applications in optoelectronic devices based on their promising optical absorption responses. However, for practical applications, absorption should increase furthermore in a wide wavelength window. In this paper, we design Fibonacci photonic crystals (PCs) based on Si, SiO2 and MoS2 monolayer and we calculate their absorption responses based on the transfer matrix method. The optical refractive index of the MoS2 monolayer was determined based on the Lorentz-Drude-Gauss model. Effects of Fibonacci order, periodicity, incident light angle and polarization are included in our calculations. Finally, an absorption as large as 90% in a wide optical wavelength range is achieved for both polarizations and incident angle down to 60°. Our results are useful for designing photonic devices with high absorption efficiency.

  10. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets and their highly efficient photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunwoo; Hong, Jin-Yong; Kang, Haeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanorods were successfully decorated on the surface of graphene sheets. ► Population of TiO 2 nanorods can be controlled by changing experimental conditions. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets have an expanded light absorption range. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets photocatalysts with different TiO 2 nanorods population have been synthesized by a simple non-hydrolytic sol–gel approach. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the TiO 2 nanorods are well-dispersed and successfully anchored on the graphene sheet surface through the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and C atoms. The photocatalytic activities are evaluated in terms of the efficiencies of photodecomposition and adsorption of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The as-synthesized TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photodecomposition efficiency compared to the pristine TiO 2 nanorods and the commercial TiO 2 (P-25, Degussa) under visible-light. It is believed that this predominant photocatalytic activity is due to the synergistic contribution of both a retarded charge recombination rate caused by a high electronic mobility of graphene and an increased surface area originated from nanometer-sized TiO 2 nanorods. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical study is performed to give deep insights into the primary roles of graphene that determines the photocatalytic activity.

  11. Modification of TiO{sub 2} nanorods by Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanoparticles for high performance visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Na; Zhu Li [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Weide, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yu Yuxiang; Zhang Wenhui; Hou Meifang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction photocatalysts. > Effective separation of photoexcited electrons and holes. > High visible light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, TiO{sub 2} nanorods were prepared by a hydrothermal process and then Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanoparticles were deposited onto the TiO{sub 2} nanorods by a solvothermal process. The nanostructured Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}/TiO{sub 2} composites were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}/TiO{sub 2} composites was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue. The Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}/TiO{sub 2} composites exhibit higher catalytic activity than pure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} and TiO{sub 2} for degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation ({lambda} > 420 nm). Further investigation revealed that the ratio of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} to TiO{sub 2} in the composites greatly influenced their photocatalytic activity. The experimental results indicated that the composite with Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}:TiO{sub 2} = 1:3 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The enhancement mechanism of the composite catalysts was also discussed.

  12. Real time high frequency monitoring of water quality in river streams using a UV-visible spectrometer: interest, limits and consequences for monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, Mikaël; Fovet, Ophélie; Gruau, Gérard; Jaffrézic, Anne; Petitjean, Patrice; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Ruiz, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    Stream water chemistry is highly variable in space and time, therefore high frequency water quality measurement methods are likely to lead to conceptual advances in the hydrological sciences. Sub-daily data on water quality improve the characterization of pollutant sources and pathways during flood events as well as during long-term periods [1]. However, real time, high frequency monitoring devices needs to be properly calibrated and validated in real streams. This study analyses data from in situ monitoring of a stream water quality. During two hydrological years (2010-11, 2011-12), a submersible UV-visible spectrometer (Scan Spectrolyser) was used for surface water quality measurement at the outlet of a headwater catchment located at Kervidy-Naizin, Western France (AgrHys long-term hydrological observatory, http://www.inra.fr/ore_agrhys/). The spectrometer is reagentless and equipped with an auto-cleaning system. It allows real time, in situ and high frequency (20 min) measurements and uses a multiwavelengt spectral (200-750 nm) for simultaneous measurement of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended solids (TSS). A global calibration based on a PLS (Partial Least Squares) regression is provided by the manufacturer as default configuration of the UV-visible spectrometer. We carried out a local calibration of the spectrometer based on nitrates and DOC concentrations analysed in the laboratory from daily manual sampling and sub-daily automatic sampling of flood events. TSS results are compared with 15 min turbidity records from a continuous turdidimeter (Ponsel). The results show a good correlation between laboratory data and spectrometer data both during basis flows periods and flood events. However, the local calibration gives better results than the global one. Nutrient fluxes estimates based on high and different low frequency time series (daily to monthly) are compared to discuss the implication for environmental monitoring strategies. Such

  13. Highly efficient nitrobenzene photoreduction over the amino acid-modified CdS-TiO2 nanostructures under visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Padervand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS-coupled TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared by the microemulsion-mediated solvothermal method at pretty low temperatures. The semiconductor nanocrystals were modified with tyrosine, phenyl alanine, glysine and glutamate aminoacids and then were characterized by BET, SEM, EDX, XRD, UV–Vis spectroscopy, and FTIR analysis methods. The specific surface area and the average pore diameter were found to be about 470 m2 g−1 and 2.8 nm, respectively. Moreover, the average size of the CdS-TiO2 particles was evaluated to be 28 nm. The results showed that the modification process with the aminoacids improves the adsorption capability and photoactivity of the samples. Among them, tyrosine was determined to be the best choice. According to the results, modification of CdS-TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst with electron-donating groups is an efficient strategy to increase the photoreduction of nitroaromatic compounds. Reusability experiments were also carried out and confirmed the high capacity of the prepared samples for the photoconversion of nitrobenzene after being repeated for four times.

  14. High-accuracy measurements of snow Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function at visible and NIR wavelengths – comparison with modelling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dumont

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High-accuracy measurements of snow Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF were performed for four natural snow samples with a spectrogonio-radiometer in the 500–2600 nm wavelength range. These measurements are one of the first sets of direct snow BRDF values over a wide range of lighting and viewing geometry. They were compared to BRDF calculated with two optical models. Variations of the snow anisotropy factor with lighting geometry, wavelength and snow physical properties were investigated. Results show that at wavelengths with small penetration depth, scattering mainly occurs in the very top layers and the anisotropy factor is controlled by the phase function. In this condition, forward scattering peak or double scattering peak is observed. In contrast at shorter wavelengths, the penetration of the radiation is much deeper and the number of scattering events increases. The anisotropy factor is thus nearly constant and decreases at grazing observation angles. The whole dataset is available on demand from the corresponding author.

  15. Visibility and Citation Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications is the first criteria for assessing a researcher output. However, the main measurement for author productivity is the number of citations, and citations are typically related to the paper's visibility. In this paper, the relationship between article visibility and the number of citations is investigated. A case study of…

  16. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  17. Highly efficient direct Z-scheme WO3/CdS-diethylenetriamine photocatalyst and its enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Taiping; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Jinfeng; Liang, Changhao; Dai, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) has demonstrated great promise in artificial photocataytic hydrogen (H2) production. However, the serious photocorrosion hinders its effective interaction and real-life application. In this work, a typical direct Z-scheme WO3/CdS-diethylenetriamine (CdS-DETA) composite has been designed via facile in-situ solvothermal method, which exhibits excellent H2 production properties in visible light region. In this system, the inorganic-organic CdS-DETA nanobelts (NBs) possess enough active sites and large surface area for the encouraging nanojunction structure information. Furthermore, we also systematically calculated energy band structure and investigated charge transfer of the WO3/CdS-DETA by PL and photocurrent test, the results demonstrated that the suitable band gap matching between CdS-DETA and WO3 and high redox potential improve the separation of photogenerated holes and electrons, restraining intrinsic photocorrosion of CdS as well as improving the photocatalytic activity. 5%WO3/CdS-DETA presented the most outstanding H2 evolution rate (15522 μmol g-1 h-1), which is twice higher than that of pure CdS-DETA. WO3/CdS-DETA composites also presented high stability after three recycle H2 production experiment. Finally, direct Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism is calculated.

  18. Heterogeneous Single-Atom Catalyst for Visible-Light-Driven High-Turnover CO2 Reduction: The Role of Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Chen, Shuangming; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jiawen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Song, Li; Zhang, Wenkai; Xiong, Yujie

    2018-03-01

    Visible-light-driven conversion of CO 2 into chemical fuels is an intriguing approach to address the energy and environmental challenges. In principle, light harvesting and catalytic reactions can be both optimized by combining the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysts; however, the efficiency of charge transfer between light absorbers and catalytic sites is often too low to limit the overall photocatalytic performance. In this communication, it is reported that the single-atom Co sites coordinated on the partially oxidized graphene nanosheets can serve as a highly active and durable heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 conversion, wherein the graphene bridges homogeneous light absorbers with single-atom catalytic sites for the efficient transfer of photoexcited electrons. As a result, the turnover number for CO production reaches a high value of 678 with an unprecedented turnover frequency of 3.77 min -1 , superior to those obtained with the state-of-the-art heterogeneous photocatalysts. This work provides fresh insights into the design of catalytic sites toward photocatalytic CO 2 conversion from the angle of single-atom catalysis and highlights the role of charge kinetics in bridging the gap between heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of solar radiation (UV and visible) at high altitude on CAM-cycling and phenolic compound biosynthesis in Sedum album

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachereau, F.; Marigo, G.; Asta, J.

    1998-01-01

    The field experiment was carried out in order to compare the response of a CAM plant, Sedum album L., to solar radiation at a high altitude (2 100 m) with that at a low altitude location with respect to CAM and phenolic content. Treatment sites included (1) sun-exposed, low altitude, (2) sun-exposed, high altitude with different light treatments, including UV-B and UV-B + A screening, and (3) shade at high altitude. After a 70-day treatment period, CAM-cycling and phenolic compound content were analysed, and high altitude treatments were compared to the low altitude control. The sun-exposed low altitude control was characterized by CAM-cycling and a low phenolic compound content during the experiment. In plants transplanted to the high altitude, only the shaded group maintained a CAM-cycling and a phenolic compound content similar to those of the sun-exposed low altitude control. Samples under UV-B and UV-B + A filters showed similar responses, suggesting the absence of a specific UV-A radiation effect. The screening of UV-B or UV-B + A radiation allowed plants to partially maintain a CAM-cycling and induced a decrease in phenolic compound content. These responses under UV filters were, however, intermediate between those observed in sun-exposed and shaded groups. These results demonstrate a specific effect of radiation from both visible (400–800 nm) and UV-B (280–320 nm) bands on both CAM-cycling and phenolic biosynthesis in S. album L. plants. These light-dependent effects are discussed on a physiological basis and a possible interaction between CAM-cycling and phenolic metabolism is suggested. (author)

  20. Facile in situ synthesis of wurtzite ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructure with highly efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity and photostability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-Hua; Huang, Wei-Qing; Hu, Yong-sheng; Zeng, Fan; Huang, Qin-Yi; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Pan, Anlian; Li, Kai; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2018-02-01

    High photocatalytic activity and photostability are the pursuit of the goal for designing promising photocatalysts. Herein, using ZnO to encapsulate ZnS nanoparticles is proposed as an effective strategy to enhance photocatalytic activity and anti-photocorrosion. The ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructures are obtained via an annealing treatment of ZnS nanoparticles produced by a facile wet chemical approach. Due to its small size, the nascent cubic sphalerite ZnS (s-ZnS) converts into a hexagonal wurtzite ZnS (w-ZnS)/ZnO core/shell structure after annealing treatment. In situ oxidation leads to increasing ZnO, simultaneously decreasing the w-ZnS content in the resultant w-ZnS/ZnO with thermal annealing time. The w-ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructures show high photocatalytic activity, demonstrated by the photodegradation rate of methylene blue being up to ten-fold and seven-fold higher than that of s-ZnS under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively, and the high capability of degrading rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity may be attributed to the large specific surface and improved charge carrier separation at the core/shell interface. Moreover, it displays high photostability owing to the protection of the ZnO shell, greatly inhibiting the photocorrosion of ZnS. This facile in situ oxidation is effective and easily scalable, providing opportunities for developing novel core/shell structure photocatalysts with high activity and photostability.

  1. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  2. Two-dimensional porous architecture of protonated GCN and reduced graphene oxide via electrostatic self-assembly strategy for high photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Chenchen; Wan, Jun; Liu, Enzhou; Yin, Yunchao; Li, Juan; Ma, Yongning [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Fan, Jun, E-mail: fanjun@nwu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Hu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: hxy3275@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The protonated GCN (pGCN) is prepared by acidic cutting and hydrothermal process. • The pGCN coupled with rGO are synthesized via electrostatic self-assembly strategy. • The pGCN-5 wt% rGO is obtained with a high specific surface area of 115.64 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}. • The pGCN-5 wt% rGO photocatalysts exhibit superb photocatalytic reduction capacity. - Abstract: Herein, porous protonated graphitic carbon nitride (pGCN) is prepared from bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GCN) directly by acidic cutting and hydrothermal process. The holey structure not only provides a lot of bounds on the accelerated and photo induced charge transfer and thus reduce the aggregation, but also endows the GCN with more exposure to the active site. The pGCN is obtained with an increased band gap of 2.91 eV together with a higher specific surface area of 82.76 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}. Meanwhile, the positively charged GCN resulted from the protonation pretreatment is beneficial for improving the interaction with negatively charged GO sheets. Compared with GCN, pGCN-rGO displays a significant decrease of PL intensities and an apparently enhancement of visible-light absorption, resulting a lower charge recombination rate and a better light absorption. Besides, the enhanced charge separation is demonstrated by photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and the transient photocurrent measurement. The photocatalytic performance studies for the degradation of MB indicate that pGCN-rGO exhibits the highest adsorption ability towards dye molecules. In addition, the pGCN-5 wt% rGO composite shows the optimal photocatalytic activity, the photodegradation rate of MB is 99.4% after 80 min of irradiation and the H{sub 2} evolution performance up to 557 μmol g{sup −1}h{sup −1} under visible light, which is much higher than the other control samples.

  3. Controlled synthesis of {001} facets-dominated dye-sensitized BiOCl with high photocatalytic efficiency under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongbin; Yu, Xiang; Zhu, Yi; Fu, Xionghui; Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    High-quality BiOCl with {001} facets were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method by controlling the volume ratio of ethanol (ET) and ethylene glycol (EG). The diameters of BiOCl nanosheets with {001} facets varied from 600 to 50 nm with the increase of EG content while the thickness nearly remained the same (∼20 nm). In the meantime, the morphologies of BiOCl turned into 3D hierarchical microspheres from 2D nanosheets. The 91.84 % {001} facets-exposed BiOCl nanosheets with diameter of 300–600 nm exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation on account of the strong adsorption property of the effective electron injection as well as the sequent reactive radical formation. More importantly, the RhB-sensitized BiOCl nanosheets showed effective photocatalytic property for breaking down methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) while RhB keeping almost intact until MB and MO had been photodegraded. It was found that the sensitizer radical cation (·RhB"+) could react with MB and MO and their suitable redox potential confirms that as well. These findings may provide a promising approach method for synthesizing other metal oxyhalide materials with controllable diameters of nanosheets and deepen our comprehending for the role of the semiconductor in the sensitization process.

  4. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Objective: An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Results: Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.55–7.07 μg/mL and 1.67–21.44 μg/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03–104.91%. Conclusion: The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea. PMID:25829768

  5. Certification of caffeine reference material purity by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection as two independent analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, A B; Rizk, M S; Rend, E A

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine reference material certified for purity is produced worldwide, but no research work on the details of the certification process has been published in the literature. In this paper, we report the scientific details of the preparation and certification of pure caffeine reference materials. Caffeine was prepared by extraction from roasted and ground coffee by dichloromethane after heating in deionized water mixed with magnesium oxide. The extract was purified, dried, and bottled in dark glass vials. Stratified random selection was applied to select a number of vials for homogeneity and stability studies, which revealed that the prepared reference material is homogeneous and sufficiently stable. Quantification of caffeine purity % was carried out using a calibrated UV/visible spectrophotometer and a calibrated high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection method. The results obtained from both methods were combined to drive the certified value and its associated uncertainty. The certified value of the reference material purity was found to be 99.86% and its associated uncertainty was ±0.65%, which makes the candidate reference material a very useful calibrant in food and drug chemical analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Rapid modified QuEChERS method for pesticides detection in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography UV-visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture plays an important role in bees die-off and allows the presence of residues in hive products, particularly in honey. An accurate and reliable analytical method, based on QuEChERS extractive technique, has been developed for the quantitative determination by high-performance liquid chromatography UV-visible detector of 5 pesticides (Deltamethrin, Dimethoate, Imidacloprid, Acetamiprid, Chlorfenvinphos in honey. The method, according to Commission Directive 2002/63/EC and Regulation 882/2004/EC, provided excellent results with respect to linearity (correlation coefficient up to 0.993, limits of detection and quantification (0.005 and 0.01 μg/mL for Dimethoate, Deltamethrin and Chlorfenvinphos; 0.02 and 0.05 μg/mL for Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid, recovery values (86.4 to 96.3%, precision and relative expanded uncertainty of a measurement, demonstrating the conformity of the this method with the European directives. The proposed method was applied to 23 samples of Apulian honey. None of the investigated pesticides was detected in these samples.

  7. Certification of caffeine reference material purity by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection as two independent analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Shehata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine reference material certified for purity is produced worldwide, but no research work on the details of the certification process has been published in the literature. In this paper, we report the scientific details of the preparation and certification of pure caffeine reference materials. Caffeine was prepared by extraction from roasted and ground coffee by dichloromethane after heating in deionized water mixed with magnesium oxide. The extract was purified, dried, and bottled in dark glass vials. Stratified random selection was applied to select a number of vials for homogeneity and stability studies, which revealed that the prepared reference material is homogeneous and sufficiently stable. Quantification of caffeine purity % was carried out using a calibrated UV/visible spectrophotometer and a calibrated high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection method. The results obtained from both methods were combined to drive the certified value and its associated uncertainty. The certified value of the reference material purity was found to be 99.86% and its associated uncertainty was ±0.65%, which makes the candidate reference material a very useful calibrant in food and drug chemical analysis.

  8. Fabrication and high visible-light-driven photocurrent response of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} film: The role of thiourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Lijuan; Chen, Shijian, E-mail: sjchen@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Thiourea promotes the growth and crystalline of the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films on ITO. • Thiourea introduces S dopants into the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films. • The obtained S-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films show high VLD photocurrent response. • Three heterojunction structure types based on the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films are proposed. - Abstract: We report on a convenient CVD fabrication of the uniform, compact and reproducible g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} solid films on indium-tin oxide substrates. It is found that mixing quantitative thiourea into melamine as co-precursor prompts the deposition of greenish-yellow, transparent and smooth g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films. The thiourea apparently affects the crystalline, the surface morphologies and the energy band structures of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films by modulating the polymerization process of the precursors, and simultaneously introduces S dopants into the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films. Due to these roles of thiourea, the obtained S-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films as a photoelectrode show a high and stable visible-light-driven photocurrent response. To further improve the photocurrent, the construction of three heterojunction structure types based on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films is proposed and the corresponding charge transfer mechanisms are well discussed. The successful fabrication of high quality g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films in this work provides a footstone to construct the heterojunction film structures based on the carbon nitrides for the photoelectrochemical overall water splitting.

  9. Metal-Free 2D/2D Phosphorene/g-C3 N4 Van der Waals Heterojunction for Highly Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jingrun; Guo, Weiwei; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Bicheng; Yu, Jiaguo; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2018-04-30

    The generation of green hydrogen (H 2 ) energy using sunlight is of great significance to solve the worldwide energy and environmental issues. Particularly, photocatalytic H 2 production is a highly promising strategy for solar-to-H 2 conversion. Recently, various heterostructured photocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability have been fabricated. Among them, 2D/2D van der Waals (VDW) heterojunctions have received tremendous attention, since this architecture can promote the interfacial charge separation and transfer and provide massive reactive centers. On the other hand, currently, most photocatalysts are composed of metal elements with high cost, limited reserves, and hazardous environmental impact. Hence, the development of metal-free photocatalysts is desirable. Here, a novel 2D/2D VDW heterostructure of metal-free phosphorene/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) is fabricated. The phosphorene/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite shows an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H 2 production activity of 571 µmol h -1 g -1 in 18 v% lactic acid aqueous solution. This improved performance arises from the intimate electronic coupling at the 2D/2D interface, corroborated by the advanced characterizations techniques, e.g., synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure, and theoretical calculations. This work not only reports a new metal-free phosphorene/g-C 3 N 4 photocatalyst but also sheds lights on the design and fabrication of 2D/2D VDW heterojunction for applications in catalysis, electronics, and optoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Exceptionally High Efficient Co-Co2P@N, P-Codoped Carbon Hybrid Catalyst for Visible Light-Driven CO2-to-CO Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wen Gan

    2018-05-02

    Artificial photosynthesis has attracted wide attention, particularly the development of efficient solar light-driven methods to reduce CO2 to form energy-rich carbon-based products. Because CO2 reduction is an uphill process with a large energy barrier, suitable catalysts are necessary to achieve this transformation. In addition, CO2 adsorption on a catalyst and proton transfer to CO2 are two important factors for the conversion reaction,and catalysts with high surface area and more active sites are required to improve the efficiency of CO2 reduction. Here, we report a visible light-driven system for CO2-to-CO conversion that consists of a heterogeneous hybrid catalyst of Co and Co2P nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanolayers codoped with N and P (Co-Co2P@NPC) and a homogeneous Ru(II)-based complex photosensitizer. The average generation rate of CO of the system was up to 35,000 μmol h-1 g-1 with selectivity of 79.1% in 3 h. Linear CO production at an exceptionally high rate of 63,000 μmol h-1 g-1 was observed in the first hour of reaction. Inspired by this highly active catalyst, we also synthesized Co@NC and Co2P@NPC materials and explored their structure, morphology, and catalytic properties for CO2 photoreduction. The results showed that the nanoparticle size, partially adsorbed H2O molecules on the catalyst surface, and the hybrid nature of the systems influenced their photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Visible spectroscopy on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.V.

    1991-12-01

    In this report visible spectroscopy and impurity investigations on ASDEX are reviewed and several sets of visible spectra are presented. As a basis for identification of metallic impurity lines during plasma discharges spectra from a stainless steel - Cu arc have been recorded. In a next step a spectrum overview of ASDEX discharges is shown which reveals the dominating role of lines from light impurities like carbon and oxygen throughout the UV and visible range (2000 A ≤ λ ≤ 8000 A). Metallic impurity lines of neutrals or single ionized atoms are observed near localized surfaces. The dramatic effect of impurity reduction by boronization of the vessel walls is demonstrated in a few examples. In extension to some ivesti-gations already published, further diagnostic applications of visible spectroscopy are presented. Finally, the hardware and software system used on ASDEX are described in detail. (orig.)

  12. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-03-11

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  13. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  14. A cocatalyst-free Eosin Y-sensitized p-type of Co₃O₄ quantum dot for highly efficient and stable visible-light-driven water reduction and hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Shi, Jinwen; Niu, Fujun; Wang, Jian; Guo, Liejin

    2015-09-07

    Owing to the effect of energy band bending, p-type Co3O4 quantum dots sensitized by Eosin Y showed a high and stable photocatalytic activity (∼13,440 μmol h(-1) g(-1)(cat)) for water reduction and hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation without any cocatalyst.

  15. High performance sulfur, nitrogen and carbon doped mesoporous anatase–brookite TiO2 photocatalyst for the removal of microcystin-LR under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, Said M.; Zhang, Geshan; El-Hosainy, Hamza M.; Ismail, Adel A.; O'Shea, Kevin E.; Falaras, Polycarpos; Kontos, Athanassios G.; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of tailor-designed C, N and S doped titania anatase–brookite nano-heterojunction photocatalyst. • Microcystin-LR was completely removed in the presence of doped sample under visible light. • The MC-LR degradation rate achieved by the doped sample was much better than that of un-doped sample under visible light. - Abstract: Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur (C, N and S) doped mesoporous anatase–brookite nano-heterojunction titania photocatalysts have been synthesized through a simple sol–gel method in the presence of triblock copolymer Pluronic P123. XRD and Raman spectra revealed the formation of anatase and brookite mixed phases. XPS spectra indicated the presence of C, N and S dopants. The TEM images demonstrated the formation of almost monodisperse titania nanoparticles with particle sizes of approximately 10 nm. N 2 isotherm measurements confirmed that both doped and undoped titania anatase–brookite materials have mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic degradation of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been investigated using these novel nanomaterials under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic efficiency of the mesoporous titania anatase–brookite photocatalyst dramatically increased with the addition of the C, N and S non-metal, achieving complete degradation (∼100%) of MC-LR. The results demonstrate the advantages of the synthetic approach and the great potential of the visible light activated C, N, and S doped titania photocatalysts for the treatment of organic micropollutants in contaminated waters under visible light

  16. Les effets des hyperliens visibles ou invisibles sur l'acquisition lexicale et sur la compréhension en lecture chez des apprenants intermédiaires et avancés en langue étrangère Effects of Visible and Invisible Hyperlinks on Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Comprehension for High- and Average-Foreign Language Achievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia R. Nikolova

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré à l'étude des effets des hyperliens visibles et invisibles pour les mots annotés dans un environnement informatique centré sur l'acquisition de vocabulaire et la compréhension en lecture pour deux types d'apprenants, intermédiaires et avancés, en français. Deux cent soixante-quatre étudiants de français de deuxième semestre ont été identifiés comme intermédiaires ou avancés. Les étudiants de chaque type ont été ensuite assignés par tirage au sort en deux groupes ; un groupe utilisant des liens visibles et un autre des liens invisibles. Tous les étudiants ont reçu pour instruction de lire un court passage en français (181 mots dans un but de compréhension générale. Les étudiants ont reçu également la permission de consulter à loisir tous les mots annotés (marqués par des caractères gras pour le groupe avec liens visibles. Les apprenants ont été soumis à un prétest de vocabulaire et à des post-tests, immédiats et différés de deux semaines, de vocabulaire et de compréhension en lecture. Les résultats de l'étude ont démontré que les apprenants intermédiaires bénéficient mieux des liens visibles en ce qui concerne leur acquisition de vocabulaire et leur compréhension en lecture que les apprenants avancés. Ces résultats sont discutés dans le cadre des théories de l'apprentissage des langues secondes et des apprenants doués. Des suggestions de pistes pour des recherches futures sont proposées.This study investigated the effects of visible and invisible links for annotated words in a computer module for learning French on the vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension of two types of students – high – and average-achievers. Two hundred and sixty four second-semester students of French were identified as high- or average-achievers. Each type of students was then randomly assigned to two groups – with visible or invisible hyperlinks. All students were instructed

  17. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  18. Use of Aerial high resolution visible imagery to produce large river bathymetry: a multi temporal and spatial study over the by-passed Upper Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béal, D.; Piégay, H.; Arnaud, F.; Rollet, A.; Schmitt, L.

    2011-12-01

    Aerial high resolution visible imagery allows producing large river bathymetry assuming that water depth is related to water colour (Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law). In this paper we aim at monitoring Rhine River geometry changes for a diachronic study as well as sediment transport after an artificial injection (25.000 m3 restoration operation). For that a consequent data base of ground measurements of river depth is used, built on 3 different sources: (i) differential GPS acquisitions, (ii) sounder data and (iii) lateral profiles realized by experts. Water depth is estimated using a multi linear regression over neo channels built on a principal component analysis over red, green and blue bands and previously cited depth data. The study site is a 12 km long reach of the by-passed section of the Rhine River that draws French and German border. This section has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries: channelization since 1842 for navigation purposes and the construction of a 45 km long lateral canal and 4 consecutive hydroelectric power plants of since 1932. Several bathymetric models are produced based on 3 different spatial resolutions (6, 13 and 20 cm) and 5 acquisitions (January, March, April, August and October) since 2008. Objectives are to find the optimal spatial resolution and to characterize seasonal effects. Best performances according to the 13 cm resolution show a 18 cm accuracy when suspended matters impacted less water transparency. Discussions are oriented to the monitoring of the artificial reload after 2 flood events during winter 2010-2011. Bathymetric models produced are also useful to build 2D hydraulic model's mesh.

  19. The layered double hydroxide route to Bi-Zn co-doped TiO₂ with high photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalioua, Bahia; Mansour, Meriem; Bentouami, Abdelhadi; Boury, Bruno; Elandaloussi, El Hadj

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a co-doped Bi-Zn-TiO₂ photocatalist is synthesized by an original synthesis route of layered double hydroxide followed by heat treatment at 670 °C. After characterization the photocatalyst efficiency is estimated by the photo-discoloration of an anionic dye (indigo carmine) under visible light and compare to TiO₂-P25 as reference material. In this new photocatalyst, anatase and ZnO wurtzite are the only identified crystalline phase, rutile and Bi₂O₃ being undetected. Moreover, the binding energy of Bi determined (XPS analysis) is different from the one of Bi in Bi₂O₃. Compared to TiO₂-P25, the absorption is red shifted (UV-vis DRS) and the Bi-Zn-TiO₂ photocatalyst showed sorption capacity toward indigo carmine higher than that TiO₂-P25. The kinetics of the photo-discoloration is faster with Bi-Zn-TiO₂ than with TiO₂-P25. Indeed, a complete discoloration is obtained after 70 min and 120 min in the presence of Bi-Zn-TiO₂ and TiO₂-P25 respectively. The identification of the responsible species on photo-discoloration was carried out in the presence of different scavengers. The study showed that the first responsible is h(+) specie with a moderate contribution of superoxide anion radical and a minor contribution of the hydroxyl radical. The material showed high stability after five uses with the same rate of photo-discoloration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The CeO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalyst with stability and high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yanhua [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, 212003 (China); Zhao, Haozhu; Chen, Zhigang; Huang, Liying; Xu, Hui; Li, Huaming [School of the Environment, Institute for Energy Research, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Wang, Weiren [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas, 77005 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The CeO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts are synthesized by an in situ precipitation method. The XRD, FT-IR, XPS, TEM, EDS, and DRS are used to characterize the structure of the samples. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared samples is evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RhB), and ciprofloxacin (CIP). The results show that CeO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} hybrid materials exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} alone. The optimal CeO{sub 2} content in CeO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composites is found to be molar ratio 1 wt%. Photocurrent response of CeO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (1 wt%) is about 1.5 times as high as that of the pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The increase of photocatalytic activity of CeO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composites could be mainly attributed to the heterojunction between CeO{sub 2} and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The trapping experiment has demonstrated that holes serve as the main active species for the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. A photocatalytic mechanism is also proposed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  2. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  3. Self-powered highly enhanced broad wavelength (UV to visible) photoresponse of ZnO@ZnO1-xSx@ZnS core-shell heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Das Mahapatra, Ayon; Basak, Durga

    2018-08-01

    In the present scenario of energy crisis, it is inevitable to focus on the low powered or self-powered devices. Multi-spectral photoresponse is an additional advantage to the above feature. We have developed an efficient self-powered photodetector with broad wavelength detection range based on heterostructures of two wide band-gap materials ZnO and ZnS. More than two orders higher responsivity and 'ON/OFF' ratio has been observed in case of heterostructure sample as compared to pristine ZnO. On the basis of the controlled experimental results, it has been established that the interfacial surface engineering, can be useful to improve the visible response and a significant photovoltaic performance under visible light illumination can be achieved. Unlike the other recent reports on self-powered UV-visible photodetector, we have achieved two order higher visible response without compromising the UV photoresponse. Unprecedented broad wavelength photodetection in self-powered mode in the present study highlights the uniqueness and advantage of an interface in a core-shell heterostructure for photodetection applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  5. Visible light-induced photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Blue-19 over highly efficient polyaniline-TiO2 nanocomposite: a comparative study with solar and UV photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalikeri, Shankramma; Kamath, Nidhi; Gadgil, Dhanashri Jayant; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya

    2018-02-01

    Polyaniline-TiO 2 (PANI-TiO 2 ) nanocomposite was prepared by in situ polymerisation method. X-ray diffractogram (XRD) showed the formation of PANI-TiO 2 nanocomposite with the average crystallite size of 46 nm containing anatase TiO 2 . The PANI-TiO 2 nanocomposite consisted of short-chained fibrous structure of PANI with spherical TiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed at the tips and edge of the fibres. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the nanocomposite was 99.5 nm. The band gap energy was 2.1 eV which showed its ability to absorb light in the visible range. The nanocomposite exhibited better visible light-mediated photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 (Degussa P25) in terms of degradation of Reactive Blue (RB-19) dye. The photocatalysis was favoured under initial acidic pH, and complete degradation of 50 mg/L dye could be achieved at optimum catalyst loading of 1 g/L. The kinetics of degradation followed the Langmuir-Hinshelhood model. PANI-TiO 2 nanocomposite showed almost similar photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light as well as in the solar light which comprises of radiation in both UV and visible light range. Chemical oxygen demand removal of 86% could also be achieved under visible light, confirming that simultaneous mineralization of the dye occurred during photocatalysis. PANI-TiO 2 nanocomposites are promising photocatalysts for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing RB-19 dye.

  6. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates managerial tactics of visualisation when a need to know and manage employees' values and attitudes is expressed. Using the Danish public school as a case study, we explore how school managers use teachers' emotions to render visible presumably invisible information about...... their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...

  7. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  8. ABSORPTIONS IN THE VISIBLE OF PROTONATED PYRENE COLLISIONALLY COOLED TO 15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, F.-X.; Gause, O.; Rice, C. A.; Maier, J. P., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 80, 4056-CH Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-12-01

    Protonated polycyclic hydrocarbons have been added to the list of suggested carriers of diffuse interstellar absorptions. To test this proposition requires laboratory spectra measured under interstellar conditions, in particular with the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom equilibrated to low temperatures. This has been achieved for protonated pyrene with absorption bands in the visible, using an ion trap and collisional cooling to ≈15 K. A two-photon excitation-dissociation scheme was employed to record the (1) {sup 1} A' ← X {sup 1} A' electronic spectrum on around 10{sup 5} ions per duty cycle. The origin band of the absorption spectrum of this relatively large polycyclic aromatic species with 27 atoms is located at 4858.86 Å. Two further comparably intense spectral features are present at 4834.48 and 4809.32 Å. This is one of the largest protonated aromatics studied in the gas phase and compared to astronomical observations; however, it is not a carrier of known diffuse interstellar bands.

  9. White LED visible light communication technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  10. High-quality elliptical iron glycolate nanosheets: selective synthesis and chemical conversion into FexOy nanorings, porous nanosheets, and nanochains with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guoxiu; Liu, Yun; Wu, Tong; Ye, Yucheng; Tong, Chaoli

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an original and facile polyol-mediated solvothermal synthesis of elliptical iron glycolate nanosheets (IGNSs) combined with precursor thermal conversion into γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 porous nanosheets (PNSs), α-Fe2O3 nanochains (NCs), and elliptical Fe3O4 nanorings (NRs). The IGNSs were produced via the oxidation-reduction and co-precipitation reactions in the presence of iron(iii) salts, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and ethylenediamine. Control over Fe3+ concentration, temperature, and time can considerably modulate the size and phase of the products. The IGNSs can be transformed to γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 PNSs, α-Fe2O3 NCs, and elliptical Fe3O4 NRs by heat treatment under various annealing temperatures and ambiences. The PNSs and NCs exhibited high soft magnetic properties and coercivity, respectively. Visible-light photocatalytic activity toward RhB in the presence of H2O2 by PNSs and NCs was phase-, SBET, size-, porosity-, and local structure-dependent, following the order: α-Fe2O3 NCs > α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 PNSs > γ-Fe2O3 PNSs > IGNSs. In particular, α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 PNSs possessed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity with good recyclability and could be conveniently separated by an applied magnetic field because of high magnetization. We believe that the as-prepared α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 PNSs have potential practical use in waste water treatment and microwave absorption.This paper describes an original and facile polyol-mediated solvothermal synthesis of elliptical iron glycolate nanosheets (IGNSs) combined with precursor thermal conversion into γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 porous nanosheets (PNSs), α-Fe2O3 nanochains (NCs), and elliptical Fe3O4 nanorings (NRs). The IGNSs were produced via the oxidation-reduction and co-precipitation reactions in the presence of iron(iii) salts, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and ethylenediamine. Control over Fe3+ concentration, temperature, and time can

  11. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  12. Visible-light-assisted SLCs template synthesis of sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites with high electrocatalytic activity for methane oxidation in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li

    2018-03-01

    Sea anemone-like palladium (Pd)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites were synthesized via visible-light-assisted swollen liquid crystals (SLCs) template method. The resulting samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The electrocatalytic properties of Pd/PANI nanocomposites modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) for methane oxidation were investigated by cycle voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. Those dispersed sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites had an average diameter of 320 nm. The obtained Pd nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 45 nm were uniformly distributed in PANI matrix. Sea anemone-like Pd/PANI nanocomposites exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for oxidation of methane (CH4).

  13. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces.

  14. Social media visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    2018-01-01

    of activists remains under-researched. This article examines BP’s surveillance of activists who criticise the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) programme as ‘greenwashing’. In this way, it goes beyond corporations’ uses of big data and instead explores how they monitor and discuss strategies......As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms, they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... for responding to the activities of individual activists in social media. It shows that while social media afford an unprecedented level of visibility for activists, it comes with the risk of being monitored by corporations. Theoretically, it draws on conceptions of visibility in social sciences and media...

  15. Making Heat Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  16. Efficient resource allocation scheme for visible-light communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Chan; Bae, Chi-Sung; Cho, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hong-Seok; Jung, D. K.; Oh, Y. J.

    2009-01-01

    A visible-light communication utilizing LED has many advantagies such as visibility of information, high SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio), low installation cost, usage of existing illuminators, and high security. Furthermore, exponentially increasing needs and quality of LED have helped the development of visible-light communication. The visibility is the most attractive property in visible-light communication system, but it is difficult to ensure visibility and transmission efficiency simultaneously during initial access because of the small amount of initial access process signals. In this paper, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme at initial access for ensuring visibility with high resource utilization rate and low data transmission failure rate. The performance has been evaluated through the numerical analysis and simulation results.

  17. Paradoxes of Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnay László

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates two possible critical arguments following the pictorial turn. The first is formulated within ocularcentrism, the dominance of sight, and starts with the right to visibility as a general principle that governs today’s digital culture but gets twisted in special cases like the Auschwitz photos of the Shoa, the Abu Ghraib prison videos, or recently the website called Yolocaust. The second is conceived outside the visual culture and is meant to vindicate the other senses vis-à-vis the eyes. However, the argument is truncated here only to highlight the boomerang effect of the other senses: haptic vision. It is the case of visual perception when (a there is a lack of things to see and (b indeterminate synaesthesia: when vision intensifies the other senses in the embodied viewer. The two arguments converge upon a dialectic of the visible and the imaginable, which is formulated here as two paradoxes that the discussed examples transcend. By enforcing visibility at all costs where there is hardly anything recognizable to see, they lead to two diverging results. On the one hand, the meaning of “image” is extended toward the unimaginable, the traumatic experience, on the other hand, it is extended toward the invisible, the encounter with the radical Other.

  18. The benefits of visibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; DeWitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  19. The benefits of visibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; DeWitt, D

    1994-07-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  20. Advanced Corrosion-Resistant Zr Alloys for High Burnup and Generation IV Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur Motta; Yong Hwan Jeong; R.J. Comstock; G.S. Was; Y.S. Kim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this collaboration between four institutions in the US and Korea is to demonstrate a technical basis for the improvement of the corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys in more extreme operating environments (such as those present in severe fuel duty, cycles high burnup, boiling, aggressive chemistry) and to investigate the feasibility (from the point of view of corrosion rate) of using advanced zirconium-based alloys in a supercritical water environment

  1. Characterization of the Edges and Contrasts in a digital image with the variation of the Parameters of the High-pass Filters used in the Estimation of Atmospheric Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Guzmán-Zapata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the edges and contrasts obtained with high-pass filters used in the estimation of daytime atmospheric visibility from digital images, and the behavior of these edges and contrasts is characterized by varying the parameters of high-pass filters such as the Ideal, Gaussian, and Homomorphic-Gaussian. A synthetic image of regions with different contrasts is used to apply different filters, then, we define an index to measure the quality of the edges obtained in the filtered image and it is used to analyze the results. The results show that both, the filter selection and the selection of its parameters: affects the characteristics and quality of the detected edges in the filtered image, also determine the amount of noise that the filter added to the image (artifacts that were not present in the original image, and also establish if achieved, or not, the edge detection. The results also show that the edge quality index reaches maximum values at certain combinations of the filters parameters, which means that some combinations of parameters reduce situations distorting the edges and distorting atmospheric visibility measures based on the Fourier transform. So these parameters which provide maximum quality edges are established as suitable for use in visibility measurement.

  2. Proton and electron impact on molecular and atomic oxygen: I. High resolution fluorescence spectra in the visible and VUV spectral range and emission cross-sections for dissociative ionisation and excitation of O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Schartner, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.11, p.45-58, 2000. Molecular oxygen O 2 was dissociated in collisions with protons and electrons in the intermediate velocity range (p + -energies: 17-800 keV, e - -energies: 0.2-2 keV). Fluorescence from excited atomic and singly ionised fragments and from singly ionised molecules was detected in the VUV and in the visible and near UV spectral range. Highly resolved spectra are presented for the VUV (46-131 nm) and the near UV/visible (340-605 nm) spectral range. Absolute emission cross-sections have been determined for dissociative ionisation and excitation leading to fluorescence in the VUV. Results are compared with published data. (orig.)

  3. NiS and MoS2 nanosheet co-modified graphitic C3N4 ternary heterostructure for high efficient visible light photodegradation of antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejun; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xinyi; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Dongmei; Lv, Jun; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-01-05

    The development of efficient solar driven catalytic system for the degradation of antibiotics has become increasingly important in environmental protection and remediation. Non-noble-metal NiS and MoS 2 nanosheet co-modified graphitic C 3 N 4 ternary heterostructure has been synthesized via a facile combination of hydrothermal and ultrasound method, and the ternary heterostructure has been utilized for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic agents. The antibiotics of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) were photodegraded by the hybrid under the visible light. The optimal photodegradation rate of the ternary heterostructure reaches about 96% after 2h irradiation, which is 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C 3 N 4 for TC degradation. The photocatalytic degradation rates of the ternary heterostructure for both CIP and TC obey the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The enhanced visible light adsorption and charge separation efficiency contribute to the photocatalytic performance of the ternary heterostructure. This work provides new insights and pathways by which efficient degradation of antibiotics can be achieved and will stimulate further studies in this important field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Bin [Department of Materials Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Baocheng, E-mail: caobch@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO{sub 2} thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  5. Synthesis of Nb doped TiO2 nanotube/reduced graphene oxide heterostructure photocatalyst with high visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoyou; Yan, Weijing; Zhao, Hongli; Yang, Jingkai

    2018-05-01

    Limited by the narrowed photoresponse range and unsatisfactory recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 is still far below what is expected. Here, we initially doped TiO2 nanotubes (TNTS) by transition metal ion Nb, then it is coupled with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to construct a heterostructure photocatalyst. The defect state presented in TiO2 leading to the formation of localized midgap states (MS) in the bandgap, which regulating the band structure of TiO2 and extending the optical absorption to visible light region. The internal charge transport and transfer behavior analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveal that the coupling of rGO with TNTS results in the formation of electron transport channel in the heterostructure, which makes a great contribution to the photoinduced charge separation. As expected, the Nb-TNTS/rGO exhibits a stable and remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity in the visible-light irradiation degradation of methylene blue (MB), up to ∼5 times with respect to TNTS, which is attributed to the effective inhibition of charge recombination, the reduction of bandgap and higher redox potential, as well as the great adsorptivity.

  6. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi; Liu, Bin; Cao, Baocheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO 2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  7. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L. C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-08-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4-4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope - to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle - were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  8. Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction as a highly efficient and stable visible light photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chengbin, E-mail: chem_cbliu@hnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cao, Chenghao [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Xubiao [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Graphical abstract: A unique Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. The heterostructures exhibit high photocatalytic activity and excellent recycling performance. - Highlights: • Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network self-stability structure. • Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube p–n heterojunction. • High visible light photocatalytic activity. • Highly stable recycling performance. - Abstract: A unique Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction (Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT) was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. Ag nanoparticles were firstly electrochemically deposited onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} NT and then were partly oxidized to Ag{sub 2}O nanowires while the rest of Ag mother nanoparticles were located at the junctions of Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network. The Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT heterostructure exhibited strong visible-light response, effective separation of photogenerated carriers, and high adsorption capacity. The integration of Ag–Ag{sub 2}O self-stability structure and p–n heterojunction permitted high and stable photocatalytic activity of Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT heterostructure photocatalyst. Under 140-min visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic removal efficiency of both dye acid orange 7 (AO7) and industrial chemical p-nitrophenol (PNP) over Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT reached nearly 100% much higher than 17% for AO7 or 13% for PNP over bare TiO{sub 2} NT. After 5 successive cycles under 600-min simulated solar light irradiation, Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT remained highly stable photocatalytic activity.

  9. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290–740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment–2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes. - Highlights: • Our goals was visible surface reflectance for satellite trace gas measurements. • Captured the range of surface reflectance spectra through EOF analysis. • Used satellite surface reflectance products for each given scene to anchor EOFs. • Generated a climatology of time/geometry dependent surface reflectance spectra. • Demonstrated potential to

  10. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... on the interpreter's interpersonal role and, in particular, on signs of the interpreter's visibility, i.e. active co-participation. At first sight, the interpreting assignment in question seems to be a short and simple routine task which would not require the interpreter to deviate from the traditional picture...

  11. Making Invisible Forces Visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2013-01-01

    their 'true' attitudes and values. The paper draws on theories of affect as well as actor-network theory to analyse three incidents where managers turn their interpretations of teachers' emotions into such information. These incidents suggest that the efforts to render employees' attitudes and values visible...... install a normative emotional scale where an ideal employee displays emotional investment and self-control. This has implications, not only for employees who are expected to exhibit the 'right' emotions, but also for management, which comes to depend on transient emotions and co-presence in situations...

  12. CTAB-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Bi2Sn2O7 Photocatalyst and Its Highly Efficient Degradation of Organic Dye under Visible-Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicheng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrochlore-type Bi2Sn2O7 (BSO nanoparticles have been prepared by a hydrothermal method assisted with a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. These BSO products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy (IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. The results indicated that CTAB alters the surface parameters and the morphology and enhances the photoinduced charge separation rate of BSO. The photocatalytic degradation test using rhodamine B as a model pollutant showed that the photocatalytic activity of the BSO assisted with CTAB was two times that of the reference BSO. Close investigation revealed that the size, the band gap, the structure, and the existence of impurity level played an important role in the photocatalytic activities.

  13. Asymptotic Connectivity of Low Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Dongsook; Hsin, Chih-fan; Liu, Mingyan

    2004-01-01

    The Army's Future Combat Systems potentially rely heavily on the efficient use of unattended sensors to detect, identify and track targets in order to enhance situation awareness, agility and survivability...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.512 - Duty cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at least 5 Hz. Use these recorded values to calculate cycle-validation statistics and total work. (d... sequence of paired values for speed and torque or for speed and power. (b) Transform normalized values of... describes how to transform these normalized values into a sequence of reference speeds, f nref. Running duty...

  15. Thrombolysis using multi-frequency high intensity focused ultrasound at MHz range: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Dingjie; Guo, Sijia; Jiang, Xiaoning; Jing, Yun; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) based thrombolysis has emerged as a promising drug-free treatment approach for ischemic stroke. The large amount of acoustic power required by this approach, however, poses a critical challenge to the future clinical translation. In this study, multi-frequency acoustic waves at MHz range (near 1.5 MHz) were introduced as HIFU excitations to reduce the required power for treatment as well as the treatment time. In vitro bovine blood clots weighing around 150 mg were treated by single-frequency and multi-frequency HIFU. The pulse length was 2 ms for all experiments except the ones where the duty cycle was changed. It was found that dual-frequency thrombolysis efficiency was statistically better than single-frequency under the same acoustic power and excitation condition. When varying the acoustic power but fixing the duty cycle at 5%, it was found that dual-frequency ultrasound can save almost 30% power in order to achieve the same thrombolysis efficiency. In the experiment where the duty cycle was increased from 0.5% to 10%, it was shown that dual-frequency ultrasound can achieve the same thrombolysis efficiency with only half of the duty cycle of single-frequency. Dual-frequency ultrasound could also accelerate the thrombolysis by a factor of 2–4 as demonstrated in this study. No significant differences were found between dual-frequencies with different frequency differences (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 MHz) and between dual-frequency and triple-frequency. The measured cavitation doses of dual-frequency and triple-frequency excitations were at about the same level but both were significantly higher than that of single-frequency. (paper)

  16. Visible but Unseen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that whiteboards support much cooper-ative work by for example strengthening awareness, im-proving communication, and reducing mental workload. In line with these predominantly positive findings, an emer-gency department (ED) turned to its whiteboard to improve the coordination...... of its work with blood tests. We investi-gate this use of the whiteboard through observations and informal interviews in the ED and analyze the ability of the whiteboard to support coordination and awareness in the work with blood tests. Our findings show limitations in the ability of the whiteboard...... to support awareness in a setting where the users are (locally) mobile, specifically in regard to information that requires continuous monitoring. We do however also find that the whiteboard safeguarded the work with blood tests against some risks by making blood-test information socially visible....

  17. Well-crystallized ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanosheets as a new-style support of Au catalyst for high efficient CO preferential oxidation in H{sub 2} stream under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kai [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi (China); Zhang, Yujuan; Meng, Chao [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Cao, FangFang [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass Technology, Bengbu 233000 (China); Chen, Xun; Fu, Xianzhi [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Dai, Wenxin, E-mail: daiwenxin@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Spinel ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanosheets were fabricated by a facile template-free wet chemical method. • ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanosheet supported Au catalyst exhibited a good stability for oxidizing CO. • Visible light could promote the adsorption and activation of CO and O{sub 2} on Au/ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • A efficient charge transfer occurred on the interface of Au and ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: A kind of high dispersed gold catalyst supported on the spinel ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanosheets was readily fabricated by a facile template-free wet chemical method for CO oxidation in H{sub 2}-rich streams at room temperature under visible light irradiation or not, which was found to be a high performance catalyst. As verified by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), Raman spectra, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), photoelectrochemical measurement and photoluminescence (PL) spectra results, the contribution of high crystallinity, the enhanced mass and charge transport, the longer lifetime of surface electrons as well as the optical absorbance properties on Au/ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} enabled the superior CO preferential oxidation. Notably, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and CO chemisorption (TPD-MS) results indicate that visible light could promote the adsorption and activation of both CO and O{sub 2} at Au/ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to both the photo-response of Au nanoparticles and the photo-excitation of ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} band gap under visible light irradiation. This study indicates that Au/ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} may be highly desirable for a promising photo-assisted Au catalyst.

  18. High performance of visible-NIR broad spectral photocurrent application of monodisperse PbSe nanocubes decorated on rGO sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorban Shiravizadeh, A.; Elahi, S. M.; Sebt, S. A.; Yousefi, Ramin

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the photoresponse performance of monodisperse PbSe nanocubes in the range of visible and near-infrared (NIR) (400-1500 nm) regions was enhanced by reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A simple cost-effective method is presented to synthesize monodisperse PbSe nanocubes (NCs) that are decorated on the rGO sheets. By the addition of PbSe/rGO nanocomposites with different rGO concentrations, pristine PbSe NCs were synthesized with the same method. Microscopy images showed that the size of NCs was smaller than the exciton Bohr radius (46 nm) of PbSe bulk. Therefore, the UV-Vis-IR spectroscopy result revealed that the PbSe/rGO samples had absorption peaks in the NIR region around 1650 nm and showed a blue shift compared to the absorption peak of the PbSe bulk. J-V measurements of the samples indicated that monodisperse PbSe/rGO nanocomposites had a higher resistance than the other samples under dark condition. On the other hand, the resistance of the monodisperse PbSe/rGO nanocomposites decreased under different light source illuminations while the resistance of the other samples was increased under illumination. Photodetector measurements indicated that the monodisperse morphology of the PbSe NCs enhanced the photoresponse speed and photocurrent intensity. In addition, responsivity (R) and detectivity (D*) of the samples were higher in the NIR region.

  19. Construction of fiber-shaped silver oxide/tantalum nitride p-n heterojunctions as highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijie; Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Kaibing; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yu; Leng, Zhe; Liu, Jianshe

    2017-10-15

    Constructing novel and efficient p-n heterojunction photocatalysts has stimulated great interest. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of fiber-shaped Ag 2 O/Ta 3 N 5 p-n heterojunctions as a kind of efficient photocatalysts. Ta 3 N 5 nanofibers were prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation method, and then the in-situ anchoring of Ag 2 O on their surfaces was realized by a facile deposition method. The resulting Ag 2 O/Ta 3 N 5 heterojunctions were comprised of porous Ta 3 N 5 nanofibers (diameter: ∼150nm) and Ag 2 O nanoparticles (size: ∼12nm). The photocatalytic activity of these heterojunctions were studied by decomposing rhodamine B (RhB) dye and tetracycline (TC) antibiotic under visible light (λ>400nm). In all the samples, the heterojunction with Ag 2 O/Ta 3 N 5 molar ratio of 0.2/1 displays the best activity. It is found that a synergistic effect contributes to the effective suppression of charges recombination between Ta 3 N 5 and Ag 2 O, leading to an enhanced photocatalytic activity with good stability. The photogenerated holes (h + ) and superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) play dominant roles in the photocatalytic process. These p-n heterojunctions will have great potential for environmental remediation because of the facile preparation process and exceptional photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly sensitive and simple liquid chromatography assay with ion-pairing extraction and visible detection for quantification of gold from nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Arnaud; Philippe, Valentin; Boudier, Ariane; Leroy, Pierre; Clarot, Igor

    2018-03-01

    A simple isocratic HPLC method using visible detection was developed and validated for the quantification of gold in nanoparticles (AuNP). After a first step of oxidation of nanoparticles, an ion-pair between tetrachloroaurate anion and the cationic dye Rhodamine B was formed and extracted from the aqueous media with the help of an organic solvent. The corresponding Rhodamine B was finally quantified by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a Nucleosil C18 (150mm × 4.6mm, 3µm) column and with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid aqueous solution (25/75, V/V) at 1.0mLmin -1. and at a wavelength of 555nm. The method was validated using methodology described by the International Conference on Harmonization and was shown to be specific, precise (RSD < 11%), accurate and linear in the range of 0.1 - 30.0µM with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.1µM. This method was in a first time applied to AuNP quality control after their synthesis. In a second time, the absence of gold leakage (either as AuNP or gold salt form) from nanostructured multilayered polyelectrolyte films under shear stress was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Facile synthesis of hierarchical Ag3PO4/TiO2 nanofiber heterostructures with highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinlei; Yang, Yefeng; He, Haiping; Cheng, Ding; Mao, Minmin; Jiang, Qinxu; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Heterostructured semiconductor nanostructures have provoked great interest in the areas of energy, environment and catalysis. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterostructure consisting of nearly spherical Ag3PO4 particles firmly coupled on the surface of TiO2 nanofibers (NFs). The construction of Ag3PO4/TiO2 heterostructure with tailored morphologies, compositions and optical properties was simply achieved via a facile and green synthetic strategy involving the electrospinning and solution-based processes. Owing to the synergetic effects of the components, the resulting hybrid heterostructures exhibited much improved visible light photocatalytic performance, which could degrade the RhB dye completely in 7.5 min. In addition, the coupling of Ag3PO4 particles with UV-light-sensitive TiO2 NFs enabled full utilization of solar energy and less consumption of noble metals, significantly appealing for their practical use in new energy sources and environmental issues. The developed synthetic strategy was considered to be applicable for the rational design and construction of other heterostructured catalysts.

  2. Spatial Co-Registration of Ultra-High Resolution Visible, Multispectral and Thermal Images Acquired with a Micro-UAV over Antarctic Moss Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Turner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs as tools for environmental remote sensing has become more commonplace. Compared to traditional airborne remote sensing, UAVs can provide finer spatial resolution data (up to 1 cm/pixel and higher temporal resolution data. For the purposes of vegetation monitoring, the use of multiple sensors such as near infrared and thermal infrared cameras are of benefit. Collecting data with multiple sensors, however, requires an accurate spatial co-registration of the various UAV image datasets. In this study, we used an Oktokopter UAV to investigate the physiological state of Antarctic moss ecosystems using three sensors: (i a visible camera (1 cm/pixel, (ii a 6 band multispectral camera (3 cm/pixel, and (iii a thermal infrared camera (10 cm/pixel. Imagery from each sensor was geo-referenced and mosaicked with a combination of commercially available software and our own algorithms based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The validation of the mosaic’s spatial co-registration revealed a mean root mean squared error (RMSE of 1.78 pixels. A thematic map of moss health, derived from the multispectral mosaic using a Modified Triangular Vegetation Index (MTVI2, and an indicative map of moss surface temperature were then combined to demonstrate sufficient accuracy of our co-registration methodology for UAV-based monitoring of Antarctic moss beds.

  3. BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} (x + y + z = 1) solid solutions with controllable band gap and highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiuguo; Zhang, Yangyang; Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Peng, Zheng; Si, Huayan; Zhang, Jianmin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Li, Yanting, E-mail: yantingcn@stdu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Traffic Engineering materials, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} solid solutions were prepared by hydrolysis method. • Band gap of the solid solutions can be controllable by adjusting the molar ratio of halogen ions. • The samples show higher visible light photocatalytic activity than pure BiOX. • Orbital diversification of VB is beneficial to separating the holes and electrons effectively. • The mechanisms are discussed by active species trapping and band theory. - Abstract: A series of BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} solid solutions with controllable band gap and highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances were synthesized by a simple hydrolysis method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. By adjusting the molar ratio of halogen ions, the band gap of BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} could be controllable to the suitable value for a photocatalytic reaction. Especially, BiOCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} with a 1:1:2 molar ratio of Cl, Br to I showed the highest visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange than individual BiOX systems. The degradation efficiency could reach over 90% within 60 min. The possible mechanism of photogenerated carrier transfer and higher photocatalytic activity was analyzed by active species trapping and energy band theory.

  4. Highly efficient visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiwichian, Saranyoo [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai50200 (Thailand); Inceesungvorn, Burapat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Khatcharin [Program of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Ubon Ratchathani 34000 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong [National Nanotechnology Center, Thailand Science Park, Phahonyotin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Phathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Natda, E-mail: natda_we@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai50200 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were obtained using hydrothermal method. • Physicochemical properties played a significant role on photocatalytic efficiency. • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterogeneous structures were greatly enhanced for degradation of MB. • A tentative mechanism of charge transfer process in MB degradation was proposed. - Abstract: The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Physical properties of the heterojunction photocatalyst samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The XRD results indicated that BiVO{sub 4} retain monoclinic and tetragonal structures, while Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} presented as orthorhombic structure. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) adsorption–desorption of nitrogen gas for specific surface area determination at the temperature of liquid nitrogen was performed on all samples. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS) were used to identify the absorption range and band gap energy of the heterojunction photocatalysts. The photocatalytic performance of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts was studied via the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results indicated that the heterojunction photocatalyst at 0.5:0.5 mole ratio of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}:BiVO{sub 4} shows the highest photocatalytic activity.

  5. Synthesis of carbon-doped nanosheets m-BiVO{sub 4} with three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure by one-step hydrothermal method and evaluation of their high visible-light photocatalytic property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Deqiang; Zong, Wenjuan [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment Ministry of Education and National Centre for International Research of Low-carbon and Green Buildings (China); Fan, Zihong [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering Chongqing Technology and Business University (China); Fang, Yue-Wen [East China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering (China); Xiong, Shimin; Du, Mao; Wu, Tianhui; Ji, Fangying, E-mail: jfy@cqu.edu.cn; Xu, Xuan, E-mail: xuxuan@cqu.edu.cn [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment Ministry of Education and National Centre for International Research of Low-carbon and Green Buildings (China)

    2017-04-15

    To achieve an efficient visible-light absorption and degradation of bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}), in this paper, a carbon-doped (C-doped) nanosheets monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} (m-BiVO{sub 4}), with thicknesses within 19.86 ± 8.48 nm, was synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) as a template and l-carbonic as the carbon source by one-step hydrothermal synthesis method. This C-doped BiVO{sub 4} in three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure enjoys high visible-light photocatalytic property. The samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Raman spectra, energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area, electron spin resonance, and transient photocurrent response, photoluminescence spectra, and incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency, respectively. What is more, we studied the C-doping effect on the band-gap energy of BiVO{sub 4} based on First-principles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all photocatalysts were in the same single monoclinic scheelite structure. According to the other characterization results, the element C was successfully doped in BiVO{sub 4}, resulting in the 3D hierarchical structure of C-doped BiVO{sub 4} (P-L-BiVO{sub 4}). We speculated that it could be the directional coalescence mechanism by which the l-cysteine promoted the two-dimensional growth and C-doping process of BiVO{sub 4}, thus leading to the formation of nanosheets which were then promoted into 3D self-assembly by PVP and the shortening of the band gap. Among all samples, P-L-BiVO{sub 4} can make the highest removal ratio of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. The stability of P-L-BiVO{sub 4} was verified by recycle experiments. It showed that P-L-BiVO{sub 4} had strong visible-light absorption behavior and high electron–hole separation efficiency and stability, making a significant

  6. Digital/Commercial (In)visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2017-01-01

    an argument demonstrating specifically how digital and commercial logics characterize the aesthetic, circulatory, and infrastructuring practices re-producing the regime of (in)visibility. It shows that digital/commercial logics are at the heart of the combinatorial marketing of multiple, contradictory images......This article explores one aspect of digital politics, the politics of videos and more spe- cifically of DAESH recruitment videos. It proposes a practice theoretical approach to the politics of DAESH recruitment videos focused on the re-production of regimes of (in)visibility. The article develops...... on the internet. The theoretical and political cost of overlooking these digital and commercial characteristics of DAESH visibility practices are high. It perpetuates misconceptions of how the videos work and what their politics are and it reinforces the digital Orientalism/Occidentalism in which...

  7. Making Intercultural Language Learning Visible and Assessable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student…

  8. Fabrication and photocatalytic activity of high-efficiency visible-light-responsive photocatalyst ZnTe/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yutang; Zhang Xilin; Liu Ronghua; Yang Renbin; Liu Chengbin; Cai Qingyun

    2011-01-01

    A new ZnTe modified TiO 2 nanotube (NT) array catalyst was prepared by pulse potential electrodeposition of ZnTe nanoparticles (NPs) onto TiO 2 NT arrays, and its application for photocatalytic degradation of anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AnCOOH) was investigated. The even distribution of ZnTe NPs was well-proportionately grown on the top surface of the TiO 2 NT while without clogging the tube entrances. Compared with the unmodified TiO 2 NT, the ZnTe modified TiO 2 NT (ZnTe/TiO 2 NT) showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity towards 9-AnCOOH under simulated solar light. After 70 min of irradiation, 9-AnCOOH was degraded with the removal ratio of 45% on the bare TiO 2 NT, much lower than 80%, 90%, and 100% on the ZnTe/TiO 2 NT with the ZnTe NPs prepared under the pulsed 'on' potentials of -0.8, -1.0, and -2.0 V, respectively. The increased photodegradation efficiency mainly results from the improved photocurrent density as results of enhanced visible-light absorption and decreased hole-electron recombination due to the presence of narrow-band-gap p-type semiconductor ZnTe. -- Graphical abstract: Surface-view SEM images of ZnTe/TiO 2 NT prepared under -2.0 V, and the inset is the corresponding enlarged drawings. Display Omitted Research highlights: → A new method to deposit chalcogenides of transition metals on the TiO 2 nanotubes. → The even distribution of ZnTe nanoparticles was well-proportionedly grown onto TiO 2 NT arrays. → ZnTe/TiO 2 NT showed remarkably increased photocurrent density. → ZnTe/TiO 2 NT showed good photocatalytic performance. → The prepared new catalyst has a promising application in practical systems.

  9. Synthesis of surface molecular imprinted TiO{sub 2}/graphene photocatalyst and its highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of target pollutant under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Cui, E-mail: laicui@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Wang, Man-Man [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Zeng, Guang-Ming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Liu, Yun-Guo; Huang, Dan-Lian; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Rong-Zhong; Xu, Piao; Cheng, Min; Huang, Chao; Wu, Hai-Peng; Qin, Lei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The surface molecular imprinting technique was successfully combined with photocatalyst. • Molecularly imprinted photocatalyst exhibits recognition ability to the target molecules. • MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR shows higher adsorption capacity and selectivity than NIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR. • The photocatalytic activity of MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR is enhanced for target molecules. - Abstract: The molecular imprinted TiO{sub 2}/graphene photocatalyst (MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR) was successfully prepared with bisphenol A (BPA) as the template molecule (target pollutant) and o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) as functional monomers by the surface molecular imprinting method. The combination between BPA and OPDA led to the formation of the precursor, and the subsequent polymerization of OPDA initiated by ultraviolet radiation can ensure the realization of MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR. The samples were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, BET, UV–vis DRS and Zeta potential. In addition, adsorption capacities, adsorption selectivity and visible light photocatalytic performances of MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR and non-imprinted TiO{sub 2}/graphene (NIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR) were evaluated. Moreover, the effects of pH and initial BPA concentration on removal efficiency of BPA were also investigated. The results showed that MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR exhibited better adsorption capacity and adsorption selectivity towards the template molecule compared to NIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR due to the imprinted cavities on the surface of MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR toward the target molecules was stronger than that of NIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR as a result of large adsorption capacity to target molecules and narrow band gap energy on MIP-TiO{sub 2}/GR. Therefore, modifying the photocatalyst by the surface molecular imprinting is a promising method to improve the molecule recognition and photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalyst for target pollutant.

  10. Revisiting visibility in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    Abstract We consider two closely related problems: computing the region visible from a point amid simple polygonal obstacles and computing the lower envelope of a set of disjoint segments. Visibility problems such as these were proposed and promptly solved in the late'80s and early'90s before...

  11. Tuning Cu dopant of Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S nanocrystals enables high-performance photocatalytic H 2 evolution from water splitting under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Zongwei; Zhang, Bingkai; Zheng, Jiaxin; Yuan, Sheng; Zhuo, Zengqing; Meng, Xianguang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Yang, Wanli; Wang, Lin. -Wang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shufeng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Jun; Liu, Fu. -Sheng; Pan, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Cu-doping into Zn1-xCdxS can greatly enhance the photocatalytic H2 evolution from water splitting under visible-light irradiation. However, it is still controversial for how the Cu-dopant improves this performance. Here, we report that appropriate Cu-doped Zn0.5Cd0.5S nanocrystals reach 21.4 mmol/h/g of H2 evolution rate without cocatalyst in the visible-light region, which is also 2.8 times as high as that of the undoped counterpart, and the corresponding apparent quantum efficiency is 18.8% at 428 nm. It is firstly confirmed that the Cu2+ changes into Cu+ after being doped by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). We theoretically propose that the transformation of 2Cu2+ to 2Cu+ results in one adjacent S2- vacancy (VS) in host during the doping process, while the Cu+-dopant and VS attract the photoexcited holes and electrons, respectively. Accordingly, the photocatalytic activity is improved due to the enhanced separation of photoexcited carriers accompanied with the enhanced light absorption resulting from the Cu+-dopant and 2Cu+/VS complex as possible active site for photocatalytic H2 evolution.

  12. Sol-Gel-Hydrothermal Synthesis of the Heterostructured TiO2/N-Bi2WO6 Composite with High-Visible-Light- and Ultraviolet-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterostructured TiO2/N-Bi2WO6 composites were prepared by a facile sol-gel-hydrothermal method. The phase structures, morphologies, and optical properties of the samples were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities for rhodamine B of the as-prepared products were measured under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation at room temperature. The TiO2/N-Bi2WO6 composites exhibited much higher photocatalytic performances than TiO2 as well as Bi2WO6. The enhancement in the visible light photocatalytic performance of the TiO2/N-Bi2WO6 composites could be attributed to the effective electron-hole separations at the interfaces of the two semiconductors, which facilitate the transfer of the photoinduced carriers.

  13. Structural and optical properties of zirconia thin films deposited by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Jin, Jie [Tianjin University, School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Cheng, Jui-Ching, E-mail: juiching@ntut.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Ming Chi University of Technology, College of Materials Engineering, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wu, Kuo-Hong [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Tsai, Jung-Ruey [Asia University, Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Kou-Chen, E-mail: jacobliu@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technology on glass and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/glass substrates. Preparation, microstructure and optical characteristics of the films have been studied. During deposition, the influence of the target power and duty cycle on the peak current–voltage and power density has been observed in oxide mode. Transparent thin films under different oxygen proportions are obtained on the two substrates. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the surface roughness of the films was lower by reactive HiPIMS than DC sputtering for all oxygen contents. The transmission and reflectance properties of differently grown zirconia films were also investigated using an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. The optical transmittance of films grown on glass substrates by HiPIMS reached maximum values above 90%, which exceeded that by DC sputtering. The band edge near 5.86 eV shifted to a lower wavelength for zirconia films prepared with oxygen flow rates lower than 4.5 sccm. For the films prepared on ITO/glass substrates, the transmittance and the band gap of zirconia films were limited by ITO films; a maximum average transmittance of 84% was obtained at 4.5 sccm O{sub 2} and the energy band gap was in the range of 3.7–3.8 eV for oxygen flow rates ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 sccm. Finally, the electrical properties of zirconia films have also been discussed. - Highlights: • Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • Low roughness films are obtained. • Films show a high transmittance (> 90%). • Films prepared on glass have a band gap of 5.9 eV.

  14. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Evans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.

  15. Infrared and visible fusion face recognition based on NSCT domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-01-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In this paper, a novel fusion algorithm in non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed for Infrared and visible face fusion recognition. Firstly, NSCT is used respectively to process the infrared and visible face images, which exploits the image information at multiple scales, orientations, and frequency bands. Then, to exploit the effective discriminant feature and balance the power of high-low frequency band of NSCT coefficients, the local Gabor binary pattern (LGBP) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) are applied respectively in different frequency parts to obtain the robust representation of infrared and visible face images. Finally, the score-level fusion is used to fuse the all the features for final classification. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. Experiments results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible-light images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition.

  16. Development and Validation of High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for Determination of α-Mangostin in Fruit Pericarp of Mangosteen Plant (Garcinia mangostana L. using Ultraviolet – Visible Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast and precise quantitative high performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantitative estimation of α-mangostin in fruit pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. (Hypericaceae. Best solvent for extraction of a-mangostin optimized after screening with five solvents under same conditions using hot solid-liquid extraction through soxhlet apparatus. Methanol and chloroform gave highest and second highest recovery of a-mangostin, respectively. Plates were developed in chloroform-methanol in the ratio of 27-3 (v/v. Post-chromatographic derivatization performed using anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and scanned at 382 nm in ultraviolet-visible mode. The developed method was found to be linear in the range 1.0 to 5.0 mg spot-1, limits of detection and quantitation were 150 and 450 ng spot-1. The developed method was validated in terms of system suitability, specificity and robustness.

  17. Visible light reduces C. elegans longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Magalhaes Filho, C Daniel; Henriquez, Brian; Seah, Nicole E; Evans, Ronald M; Lapierre, Louis R; Dillin, Andrew

    2018-03-02

    The transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can sense UV and blue-violet light to alter behavior. Because high-dose UV and blue-violet light are not a common feature outside of the laboratory setting, we asked what role, if any, could low-intensity visible light play in C. elegans physiology and longevity. Here, we show that C. elegans lifespan is inversely correlated to the time worms were exposed to visible light. While circadian control, lite-1 and tax-2 do not contribute to the lifespan reduction, we demonstrate that visible light creates photooxidative stress along with a general unfolded-protein response that decreases the lifespan. Finally, we find that long-lived mutants are more resistant to light stress, as well as wild-type worms supplemented pharmacologically with antioxidants. This study reveals that transparent nematodes are sensitive to visible light radiation and highlights the need to standardize methods for controlling the unrecognized biased effect of light during lifespan studies in laboratory conditions.

  18. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  19. Visible neutrino decay at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Peres, Orlando G. [ICTP, Trieste

    2017-05-09

    If the heaviest neutrino mass eigenstate is unstable, its decay modes could include lighter neutrino eigenstates. In this case part of the decay products could be visible, as they would interact at neutrino detectors via mixing. At neutrino oscillation experiments, a characteristic signature of such \\emph{visible neutrino decay} would be an apparent excess of events at low energies. We focus on a simple phenomenological model in which the heaviest neutrino decays as $\

  20. Reactive removal of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide vapors under visible light irradiation by cerium oxide modified highly porous zirconium (hydr) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Joshua K.; Arcibar-Orozco, Javier A.; Bandosz, Teresa J., E-mail: tbandosz@ccny.cuny.edu

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Microporous zirconium-cerium (hydr) oxides were synthetized. • Ce presence narrowed the band gap of the materials. • The samples showed a high efficiency for removal of CEES vapors. • 1,2-Bis (ethyl thio) ethane and ethyl vinyl sulfide were the main reaction products. • 5% (Ce/Zr mol) addition of cerium oxide results in the best performing material. - Abstract: Highly porous cerium oxide modified Zr(OH){sub 4} samples were synthesized using a simple one stage urea precipitation method. The amorphicity level of zirconium hydroxide did not change upon addition of cerium oxide particles. A unique aspect of the cerium oxide-modified materials is the presence of both the oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and hydroxide (Zr(OH){sub 4}) phases resulting in a unique microporous structure of the final material. Extensive characterization using various chemical and physical methods revealed significant differences in the surface features. All synthesized materials were microporous and small additions of cerium oxide affected the surface chemistry. These samples were found as effective catalysts for a decontamination of mustard gas surrogate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Cerium oxide addition significantly decreased the band gap of zirconium hydroxide. Ethyl vinyl sulfide and 1,2-bis (Ethyl thio) ethane were identified as surface reaction products.

  1. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium

  2. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium.

  3. NaYF4:Er,Yb/Bi2MoO6 core/shell nanocomposite: A highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst utilizing upconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenzhong; Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and synthesis of NaYF 4 :Er,Yb/Bi 2 MoO 6 based on upconversion. • NaYF 4 :Er,Yb/Bi 2 MoO 6 nanocomposite was prepared for the first time. • Core–shell structure benefits the properties. • Upconversion contributed to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. • Helps to understand the functionality of new type photocatalysts. - Abstract: NaYF 4 :Er,Yb/Bi 2 MoO 6 core/shell nanocomposite was designed and prepared for the first time based on upconversion. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results revealed that the as-synthesized NaYF 4 :Er,Yb/Bi 2 MoO 6 consisted of spheres with a core diameter of about 26 nm and a shell diameter of around 6 nm. The core was upconversion illuminant NaYF 4 :Er,Yb and the shell was Bi 2 MoO 6 around the core, which was confirmed by EDS. The NaYF 4 :Er,Yb/Bi 2 MoO 6 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the photodecomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the irradiation of Xe lamp and green light emitting diode (g-LED). The mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity was discussed by photoluminescence spectra (PL), which is mainly attributed to upconversion of NaYF 4 :Er,Yb in the NaYF 4 :Er,Yb/Bi 2 MoO 6 nanocomposite and the core–shell structure

  4. The highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of gaseous o-dichlorobenzene through fabricating like-flowers BiPO{sub 4}/BiOBr p-n heterojunction composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xuejun [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, 116600 (China); Dong, Yuying, E-mail: dongy@dlnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, 116600 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: fatzhxd@126.com [Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200093 (China); Cui, Yubo; Ou, Xiaoxia [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, 116600 (China); Qi, Xiaohui [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, 116600 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Like-flowers BiPO{sub 4}/BiOBr was fabricated by mixing in solvent method. • o-Dichlorobenzene removal efficiency was 53.6% using BiPO{sub 4}/BiOBr. • The p–n junction improved o-dichlorobenzene degradation activity. - Abstract: In this paper, in order to enhance photo-induced electron-hole pairs separation of BiOBr, flowers-like BiPO{sub 4}/BiOBr p-n heterojunction composites was fabricated by a mixing in solvent method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. Meanwhile, their photocatalytic properties were investigated by the degradation of gaseous o-dichlorobenzene under visible light irradiation. Due to its strong adsorption capacity and the formation of p-n heterojunction, compared with BiPO{sub 4} and BiOBr, the BiPO{sub 4}/BiOBr composites showed higher photocatalytic activity in the degradation of gaseous o-DCB under visible light. Among them, 2% BiPO{sub 4}/BiOBr showed the maximum value of the activity, whose degradation rate was about 2.6 times as great as the pure BiOBr. Furthermore, the OH· was confirmed the main active species during the photocatalytic process by the trapping experiments. The outstanding performance indicated that the photocatalysts could be applied to air purification for chlorinated volatile organic compound.

  5. W18O49 nanorods decorated with Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as highly-sensitive gas-sensing material and visible-light-driven photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shibin; Chang Xueting; Dong Lihua; Zhang Yidong; Li Zhenjiang; Qiu Yanyan

    2011-01-01

    A novel gas-sensing material and photocatalyst was successfully obtained by decorating Ag/AgCl nanoparticles on the W 18 O 49 nanorods through a clean photochemical route. The as-prepared samples were characterized using combined techniques of X-ray diffractometry, electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Gas-sensing measurements indicate that the Ag/AgCl/W 18 O 49 NRs sensors exhibit superior reducing gas-sensing properties to those of bare W 18 O 49 NRs, and they are highly selective and sensitive to NH 3 , acetone, and H 2 S with short response and recovery times. The Ag/AgCl/W 18 O 49 NRs photocatlysts also possess higher photocatalytic performance than bare W 18 O 49 NRs for degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight irradiation. Possible mechanisms concerning the enhancement of gas-sensing and photocatalytic activities of the Ag/AgCl/W 18 O 49 NRs composite were proposed. - Graphical Abstract: The Ag/AgCl nanoparticles adhered well to the W 18 O 49 nanorod. The Ag could act as transfer center of the photoexcited carriers, prohibiting their recombinations in both W 18 O 49 and AgCl. Highlights: → Ag/AgCl/W 18 O 49 NRs were successfully obtained via a clean photochemical route. → The Ag/AgCl nanoparticles decorated on the W 18 O 49 NRs possessed cladding structure. → The Ag/AgCl/W 18 O 49 NRs exhibited excellent gas-sensing and photocatalytic properties.

  6. Visible tunable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    We planned four tasks for the second phase of this project; these are: study the effect of different grating materials; study the effect of different grating shapes; study the effect of anisotropic conductivity, and optimize the resonator configuration. Because the measurement techniques involved in the first two tasks are similar, the studies on different grating materials and shapes are discussed together. We are conducting two more experiments which were not originally planned. An experiment with a high current pulsed e-beam generator is presented and a measurement of radiation as a function of beam thickness is reported

  7. Utilization of Large Scale Surface Models for Detailed Visibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caha, J.; Kačmařík, M.

    2017-11-01

    This article demonstrates utilization of large scale surface models with small spatial resolution and high accuracy, acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle scanning, for visibility analyses. The importance of large scale data for visibility analyses on the local scale, where the detail of the surface model is the most defining factor, is described. The focus is not only the classic Boolean visibility, that is usually determined within GIS, but also on so called extended viewsheds that aims to provide more information about visibility. The case study with examples of visibility analyses was performed on river Opava, near the Ostrava city (Czech Republic). The multiple Boolean viewshed analysis and global horizon viewshed were calculated to determine most prominent features and visibility barriers of the surface. Besides that, the extended viewshed showing angle difference above the local horizon, which describes angular height of the target area above the barrier, is shown. The case study proved that large scale models are appropriate data source for visibility analyses on local level. The discussion summarizes possible future applications and further development directions of visibility analyses.

  8. Visible Light Communication: An Emerging Area in Wireless

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Chockalingam

    infrared to ultraviolet. • includes visible light wavelengths (380 to 780 nm). Concluding remarks. NH ... low power, high data rate systems in satellites, portable devices, etc. .... improve spectral efficiency and performance. • Issues. • channel ...

  9. The Linac4 DTL Prototype: Low and High Power Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Marques-Balula, J; Ramberger, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) has undergone low power measurements in order to verify the RF coupling and to adjust the post-coupler lengths based on bead-pull and spectrum measurements. Following the installation at the test stand, the cavity has been subjected to high power operation at Linac4 and SPL duty cycles. Saturation effects and multipacting have been observed and linked to X-ray emission. Voltage holding is reported in the presence of magnetic fields from permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) installed in the first drift tubes.

  10. High Efficiency Boost Converter with Three State Switching Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    is on performance improvement of this type of the converter. Use of foil windings helps to reduce conduction losses in magnetic components and to reduce size of these components. Also it has been demonstrated that the regulation range of this type of converter can be increased by operation with duty cycle lower......The boost converter with the three-state switching cell seems to be a good candidate for a dc-dc stage for non-isolated generators based on alternative energy sources. It provides a high voltage gain, a reduced voltage stress on transistors and limited input current ripples. In this paper the focus...

  11. Two phase interleaved buck converter for driving high power LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate an interleaved buck topology for driving high current light-emitting diodes. Low output capacitor value allows the use of non-electrolytic capacitors extending the lifetime of the converter. Converter is operated as a constant, regulated current source which...... increases luminous efficacy of LED compared to PWM dimmed system. Because of the low dynamic resistance of LEDs the duty cycle of the converter does not change greatly with controlled current. By setting the input voltage of the buck converter to around twice the voltage of diode strings, converter can...

  12. Visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoju; Zhan, Qiuqiang; Zhao, Yuxiang; Wu, Ruitao; Liu, Jing; He, Sailing

    2016-01-25

    Further development of multiphoton microscopic imaging is confronted with a number of limitations, including high-cost, high complexity and relatively low spatial resolution due to the long excitation wavelength. To overcome these problems, for the first time, we propose visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging by using a common cost-effective 730-nm laser diode to excite the prepared Nd(3+)-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles (Nd(3+)-UCNPs). An ordinary multiphoton scanning microscope system was built using a visible CW diode laser and the lateral imaging resolution as high as 161-nm was achieved via the four-photon upconversion process. The demonstrated large saturation excitation power for Nd(3+)-UCNPs would be more practical and facilitate the four-photon imaging in the application. A sample with fine structure was imaged to demonstrate the advantages of visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals. Combining the uniqueness of UCNPs, the proposed visible-to-visible four-photon imaging would be highly promising and attractive in the field of multiphoton imaging.

  13. Visible light communications modulation and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhaocheng; Huang, Wei; Xu, Zhengyuan

    2018-01-01

    This informative new book on state-of-the-art visible light communication (VLC) provides, for the first time, a systematical and advanced treatment of modulation and signal processing for VLC. Visible Light Communications: Modulation and Signal Processing offers a practical guide to designing VLC, linking academic research with commercial applications. In recent years, VLC has attracted attention from academia and industry since it has many advantages over the traditional radio frequency, including wide unregulated bandwidth, high security, and low cost. It is a promising complementary technique in 5G and beyond wireless communications, especially in indoor applications. However, lighting constraints have not been fully considered in the open literature when considering VLC system design, and its importance has been underestimated. That’s why this book—written by a team of experts with both academic research experience and industrial development experience in the field—is so welcome. To help readers u...

  14. Advances and prospects in visible light communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongda; Wu Chunhui; Li Honglei; Chen Xiongbin; Gao Zongyu; Cui Shigang; Wang Qin

    2016-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging technology in optical wireless communication (OWC) that has attracted worldwide research in recent years. VLC can combine communication and illumination together, which could be applied in many application scenarios such as visible light communication local area networks (VLANs), indoor localization, and intelligent lighting. In recent years, pioneering and significant work have been made in the field of VLC. In this paper, an overview of the recent progress in VLC is presented. We also demonstrate our recent experiment results including bidirectional 100 Mbit/s VLAN or Li-Fi system based on OOK modulation without blue filter. The VLC systems that we proposed are good solutions for high-speed VLC application systems with low-cost and low-complexity. VLC technology shows a bright future due to its inherent advantages, shortage of RF spectra and ever increasing popularity of white LEDs. (review)

  15. Analysis of major antioxidants from extracts of Myrmecodia pendans by UV/visible spectrophotometer, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography/UV techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engida, Adam Mekonnen; Faika, Sitti; Nguyen-Thi, Bich Thuyen; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, heat reflux extraction with ethanol/water (80:20; v/v) as the solvent was used to extract antioxidants from Myrmecodia pendans. The crude extract (CE) was fractionated using hexane and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and aqueous fraction were collected. Antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical radical and ferric reducing power of the CE, EAF, and aqueous fraction were evaluated. EAF showed comparable antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical radical and ferric reducing power to those of the CE. UV/visible, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography were employed for identifying the major antioxidant compounds in the EAF. Three major phenolic compounds (rosmarinic acid, procyanidin B1, and polymer of procyanidin B1) were identified. The first two compounds were confirmed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography using authentic standards, but confirmation of the third compound was hampered by a lack of commercial standard. Concentrations of rosmarinic acid and procyanidin B1 in the EAF were found to be 20.688 ± 1.573 mg/g dry sample and 3.236 ± 0.280 mg/g dry sample, respectively. All these three compounds are reported for the first time in sarang semut. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Analysis of major antioxidants from extracts of Myrmecodia pendans by UV/visible spectrophotometer, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography/UV techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mekonnen Engida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, heat reflux extraction with ethanol/water (80:20; v/v as the solvent was used to extract antioxidants from Myrmecodia pendans. The crude extract (CE was fractionated using hexane and ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and aqueous fraction were collected. Antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical radical and ferric reducing power of the CE, EAF, and aqueous fraction were evaluated. EAF showed comparable antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical radical and ferric reducing power to those of the CE. UV/visible, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography were employed for identifying the major antioxidant compounds in the EAF. Three major phenolic compounds (rosmarinic acid, procyanidin B1, and polymer of procyanidin B1 were identified. The first two compounds were confirmed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography using authentic standards, but confirmation of the third compound was hampered by a lack of commercial standard. Concentrations of rosmarinic acid and procyanidin B1 in the EAF were found to be 20.688 ± 1.573 mg/g dry sample and 3.236 ± 0.280 mg/g dry sample, respectively. All these three compounds are reported for the first time in sarang semut.

  17. High Density Metamaterials for Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    longitudinal plasmons with magnetic characteristics , whose field distribution is qualitatively similar to that in m0 mode for isolated SRR structure. On...gold first and then extend the techniques to other metals for better characteristics . Bio-chemical sensors will be developed based on different split...and Discussion (1) Observation of the kinetic inductance limitation for the fundamental magnetic resonance in ultrasmall gold v-shape split ring

  18. Understanding and Approaching Muslim Visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2011-01-01

    Within Western nation-states such as Denmark, Islamic identities are often seen as inherently and divergently visible, an aspect that some argue is detrimental to the secular nation-state. From a research perspective, one way to nuance this position is by focusing on groups of 'invisible' Muslims...

  19. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  20. Non-Euclidean visibility problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FERNANDO CHAMIZO. Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. MS received 14 November 2005. Abstract. We consider the analog of visibility problems in hyperbolic plane (repre- sented by Poincaré half-plane model H), replacing the standard lattice Z ...

  1. Are naked singularities really visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1978-12-09

    The question whether a Kerr naked singularity is actually visible from infinity is investigated; it is shown that in fact any signal which could be emitted from the singularity is infinitely red-shifted. This implies that naked singularities would be indistinguishable from a black hole.

  2. Visible Machine Learning for Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Michael K; Ma, Jianzhu; Fisher, Jasmin; Kreisberg, Jason F; Raphael, Benjamin J; Ideker, Trey

    2018-06-14

    A major ambition of artificial intelligence lies in translating patient data to successful therapies. Machine learning models face particular challenges in biomedicine, however, including handling of extreme data heterogeneity and lack of mechanistic insight into predictions. Here, we argue for "visible" approaches that guide model structure with experimental biology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Website visibility the theory and practice of improving rankings

    CERN Document Server

    Weideman, Melius

    2009-01-01

    The quest to achieve high website rankings in search engine results is a prominent subject for both academics and website owners/coders. Website Visibility marries academic research results to the world of the information practitioner and contains a focused look at the elements which contribute to website visibility, providing support for the application of each element with relevant research. A series of real-world case studies with tested examples of research on website visibility elements and their effect on rankings are reviewed.Written by a well-respected academic and practitioner in the

  4. Photodetector Characteristics in Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Kang-Ting

    2016-04-01

    Typically, in the semiconductor industry pn heterojunctions have been used as either light-emitting diodes (LED) or photodiodes by applying forward current bias or reverse voltage bias, respectively. However, since both devices use the same structure, the light emitting and detecting properties could be combine in one single device, namely LED-based photodetector. Therefore, by integrating LED-based photodetectors as either transmitter or receiver, optical wireless communication could be easily implemented for bidirectional visible light communication networks at low-cost. Therefore, this dissertation focus on the investigation of the photodetection characteristics of InGaN LED-based photodetectors for visible light communication in the blue region. In this regard, we obtain external quantum efficiency of 10 % and photoresponse rise time of 71 μs at 405-nm illumination, revealing high-performance photodetection characteristics. Furthermore, we use orthogonal frequency division multiplexing quadrature amplitude modulation codification scheme to enlarge the operational bandwidth. Consequently, the transmission rate of the communication is efficiently enhanced up to 420 Mbit/s in visible light communication.

  5. Visible-to-near IR quantum dot-based hypermulticolor high-content screening of herbal medicines for the efficacy monitoring of hair growth promotion and hair loss inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Lim, Chaeyun; Lee, Jun Young; Im, Kyung Ran; Yoon, Kyung-Sup; Song, Joon Myong

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing interest in alopecia prevention strategies, as the number of alopecia patients is increasing. We examine the efficacy of herbal medicine for hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition in two cell lines via Western blot and high-content screening (HCS). Nine herbal extracts were obtained from three different herbal medicine mixtures using 3 different extraction methods. Five target proteins-IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), TGF-β2 (transforming growth factor-β2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), DKK-1 (Dickkopf-1), and Wnt5α-were observed for the assessment of hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition efficacy. The efficacies of nine extracts were compared with minoxidil as control. Efficacy was defined as a rise in the expression levels of IGF-1, VEGF, and Wnt5α but a decrease in DKK-1 and TGF-β2. Intracellular concurrent imaging of these proteins was successfully achieved using HCS, employing visible-to-near infrared probing based on quantum-antibody conjugates and hypermulticolor imaging.

  6. One-step synthesis of highly active Ti-containing Cr-modified MCM-48 mesoporous material and the photocatalytic performance for decomposition of H{sub 2}S under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhen; Ci Xinbo; Dai Hongjun; Yin Lu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shi Huixiang, E-mail: lanyueheyu@163.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2012-08-01

    A highly photoactive Ti-containing Cr-modified MCM-48 photocatalyst (Si/Ti = 3.4, Si/Cr = 50) was prepared by a facile one-step method at room temperature. A combination of various physicochemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} physisorption, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectra (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) were used to characterize the properties of the synthetic catalysts. The characterization and experimental results indicated that tetrahedral Ti oxide moieties as dominant Ti oxide were loaded into the mesoporous structure and there was a synergistic interaction between the Ti species anchored on the walls and the Cr ions presented in the MCM-48 framework, which was considered to be directly correlated to the photoactivity. The Ti-Cr-MCM-48 sample can remove H{sub 2}S with the efficiency of 92% under visible light, being the Cr{sup 6+} species primarily responsible for this photoactivity. A deactivation was observed as a consequence of sulfate accumulation on the surface of the catalyst and reduction of Cr{sup 6+}.

  7. Towards a semiquantitative non invasive characterisation of Tyrian purple dye composition: Convergence of UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy and fast-high temperature-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Catia; Nowik, Witold; Romani, Aldo; Cardon, Dominique; Trojanowicz, Marek; Davantès, Athénaïs; Chaminade, Pierre

    2016-07-05

    In this paper, partial least square (PLS) regression is innovatively applied for a semi-quantitative non invasive study of the most precious dye of Antiquity: Tyrian purple. This original approach for the study of organic dyes in the cultural heritage field, is based on the correlation of spectrophotometric (UV-Visible) and chromatographic (Fast-HT-HPLC-PDA) data from an extensive set of textiles prepared with different snail species according to historical recipes. A cross-validated PLS model, based on the quantity of 6,6'-dibromoindigotin, displays an excellent correlation factor (R(2)Y = 0.987) between values determined by chromatography and those predicted from reflectance spectra. This indicates that the spectral features of Tyrian purple on textile fibre is strictly related to the amount of this indigoid component whose content may be non invasively predicted from reflectance spectrum. The studied correlation also highlights that, independently of the dyeing method and nature of the textile fibre used, the relative content of 6,6'-dibromindigotin may be used as a parameter to distinguish samples prepared with Hexaplex trunculus L. snails from those prepared with further mollusc species. To validate this model, archaeological textile fragments dating from the Roman period were successfully examined. The results achieved open an absolutely new way in Tyrian purple analysis in cultural heritage by non invasive spectroscopic techniques attesting their convergence with HPLC and giving them a semi-quantitative value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  9. Chemical lasers in the visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.R.; Broida, H.P.

    1974-01-01

    Since the beginning of the laser era in 1960, a continuing search for chemical lasers has been carried out. This quest has been influenced by the knowledge that many chemical reactions produce visible chemiluminescence and, therefore, partition some of the reaction products into emitting, electronically excited states. Such luminescence has been observed not only from low-pressure, gas-phase reactions, notably those of alkali metals and halogens, but also from a limited number of liquid-phase reactions. (U.S.)

  10. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  11. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Visible Light Sensitive Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šubrt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase transition of anatase nanoparticles into the phases TiO2-II and rutile under grinding was studied. The addition of ammonium carbamate to the reaction mixture inhibits the phase conversion and the cold welding of particles. The UV-visible absorption spectrum showed narrowing the band gap width after grinding with an ammonium carbamate additive resulting in shift of the light absorption of the ground sample towards the visible region. By EPR, intensive formation of OH• radical at irradiation of the sample with both UV (λ > 300 nm and visible (λ > 435 nm light was observed. High photocatalytic activity of the ground sample in visible light region was demonstrated also by measurement of kinetics of the photocatalytic decomposition of 4-chlorophenol.

  12. Monitoring the Impacts of Wildfires on Forest Ecosystems and Public Health in the Exo-Urban Environment Using High-Resolution Satellite Aerosol Products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Amy K; Kondragunta, Shobha; Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing development of exo-urban environments and the spread of urbanization into forested areas is making humans and forest ecosystems more susceptible to the risks associated with wildfires. Larger and more damaging wildfires are having a negative impact on forest ecosystem services, and smoke from wildfires adversely affects the public health of people living in exo-urban environments. Satellite aerosol measurements are valuable tools that can track the evolution of wildfires and monitor the transport of smoke plumes. Operational users, such as air quality forecasters and fire management officials, can use satellite observations to complement ground-based and aircraft measurements of wildfire activity. To date, wildfire applications of satellite aerosol products, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been limited by the relatively coarse resolution of available AOD data. However, the new Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite has high-resolution AOD that is ideally suited to monitoring wildfire impacts on the exo-urban scale. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750-m × 750-m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6-km × 6-km resolution Environmental Data Record product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. True color (red, green, and blue [RGB]) imagery and a smoke mask at 750-m × 750-m resolution are also available from VIIRS as decision aids for wildfire applications; they serve as counterparts to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke in the atmosphere. To meet the needs of operational users, who do not have time to process raw data files and need access to VIIRS products in near-real time (NRT), VIIRS AOD and RGB NRT imagery are available from the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) web site. A key feature of IDEA is an interactive visualization tool that allows users to

  13. Prague-Ruzyne airport visibility data processing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvicera, Vaclav; Grabner, Martin; Vasicek, Jiri

    2010-05-01

    Experimental research in the Department of Frequency Engineering in the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) in Prague, the Czech Republic, is focused on stability of received signal on terrestrial radio and optical communication links. A free space optical (FSO) communication system can provide a high bandwidth solution to last mile broadband access. Dense fog events can cause serious attenuation of optical waves. The availability performances of FSO links are seriously affected by lower atmospheric visibility. Fog seems to be the most important impairment factor for FSO communication links. Therefore, our experimental research is also focused on processing meteorological data to obtain basic information for the assessment of availability performances of FSO links. The visibility measured at airports provides a good estimate for the assessment of fog impairment. The visibility data that is measured and stored in meteorological stations or airports is usually used for the calculation of specific attenuation due to fog in accordance with either the relevant ITU-R Recommendation or other common methods. Fog visibility data obtained by the Vaisala transmissometer at the Prague-Ruzyne airport from January 1996 to December 2008 (13 years of observation) was statistically processed over the individual years, the individual months and the individual hours and the following cumulative distributions (CDs) of visibility were obtained: 1) CDs of visibility for individual years, 2) CDs of visibility for individual months over the whole period of processing, 3) CDs of visibility for the worst hour over the whole period of processing, and 4) CDs of visibility for the average year and the average worst month over the entire 13 year period of processing. It can be concluded that the frequency of fog events shows a great year-to-year variability in accordance with the frequency of individual synoptic situations occurring during the year. Fog occurred most frequently in November and

  14. In situ synthesis of g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction nanocomposites as a highly active photocatalyst for the degradation of Orange II under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bin; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Deng, Fang; Liang, Dongli; Yang, Wenli; Liu, Meishan

    2018-05-04

    As a highly active photocatalyst, g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 heterojunction nanocomposites were in situ synthesized by simple ultrasonic mixing and calcination by using TiO 2 and melamine as precursors. The morphology and structure of the prepared photocatalysts were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 nanocomposites to degrade Orange II (AO7) under visible light irradiation were evaluated. Results showed that the photocatalytic rate of the prepared g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 photocatalyst to degrade AO7 was about three times than that of pristine TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 . The g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composite with a ratio of 1:4 had the highest degradation efficiency for AO7 solution. Its degradation efficiency under acidic conditions was significantly higher than that under alkaline conditions. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the formation of heterojunctions between g-C 3 N 4 and TiO 2 , which leads to rapid charge transfer and the efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The recycling experiment indicated that the photocatalyst of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 nanocomposites still maintained good photochemical stability and recyclability after five cycles; this finding was important for its practical applications. A series of free radical trapping experiments showed that •O 2 - played a crucial role in the degradation of AO7. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Fabrication of highly active Melem/Zn0.25Cd0.75S composites for the degradation of bisphenol A and methyl orange under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Yan, Tao; Liu, Xiaohuan; Ji, Pengge; Sun, Meng; Wei, Dong; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S composite showed enhanced activity in MO degradation. • The composites with melem content of 30 wt.% exhibited the best activity. • The heterojunction was in situ fabricated between melem and Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S. • The Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S heterojunction facilitated the separation of electron-hole pairs. - Abstract: Metal-free polymeric catalyst hold great promise owing to their abundant sources, low-cost fabrication and easy processibility. Melem, an important intermediate during condensation of melamine rings to graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ), was synthesized by simple solid phase polymerization process. A novel Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S composite was fabricated through a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The as-products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis DRS spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The TEM and HRTEM results reveal that Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S nanoparticles and Melem closely contact with each other to form an intimate interface. The as-prepared composites exhibit significantly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Methyl orange (MO) and Bisphenol A (BPA), which could be attributed to the effective photo-induced charges transfer and separation in Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S composites. On the basis of radical scavenger experiments, superoxide radicals and holes are suggested to play a critical role in MO degradation over Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S heterojunctions. A possible mechanism for charge separation and transfer in the Melem/Zn 0.25 Cd 0.75 S composites was proposed to explain the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  16. [Street Outreach Offices: visibility, invisibility, and enhanced visibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallais, Janaína Alves da Silveira; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses care for street people from a socio-anthropological perspective, using participant observation conducted with a team from a street outreach project. Based on observations, street people are historically viewed as marginal and rarely obtain access to health services, thus making them invisible to the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Brazil's National Policy for the Homeless provides for their access to health care, but such care is not always guaranteed in practice, because health services and professionals have little experience in dealing with homeless persons. The study concludes that enhanced visibility is needed to ensure care for people living on the street, establishing a therapeutic bond that deconstructs stigmatizing practice.

  17. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  18. Computing visibility on terrains in external memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Zhuang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel application of the distribution sweeping technique to computing visibility on terrains. Given an arbitrary viewpoint v, the basic problem we address is computing the visibility map or viewshed of v, which is the set of points in the terrain that are visible from v. We give the

  19. Facile Synthesis of Magnetic Photocatalyst Ag/BiVO4/Mn1−xZnxFe2O4 and Its Highly Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ag/BiVO4/Mn1−xZnxFe2O4 was synthesized with a dip-calcination in situ synthesis method. This work was hoped to provide a simple method to synthesis three-phase composite. The phase structure, optical properties and magnetic feature were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer (UV-vis DRS, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by Rhodamine B (RhB photo-degradation under visible light irradiation. The photo-degradation rate of RhB was 94.0~96.0% after only 60 min photocatalytic reaction under visible light irradiation, revealing that it had an excellent visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity. In the fifth recycle, the degradation rate of Ag/BiVO4/Mn1−xZnxFe2O4 still reached to 94.0%. Free radical tunnel experiments confirmed the dominant role of •O2− in the photocatalytic process for Ag/BiVO4/Mn1−xZnxFe2O4. Most importantly, the mechanism that multifunction Ag could enhance photocatalytic activity was explained in detail.

  20. Visible Nulling Coronagraph Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R. G.; Clampin, M.; Woodruff, R. A.; Vasudevan, G.; Thompson, P.; Petrone, P.; Madison, T.; Rizzo, M.; Melnick, G.; Tolls, V.

    2010-10-01

    We report on recent laboratory results with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) testbed. We have achieved focal plane contrasts of 108 and approaching 109 at inner working angles of 2 λ/D and 4 λ/D, respectively. Results were obtained with a broadband source and 40 nm filter centered on 630 nm. A null control breadboard (NCB) was also developed to assess and quantify MEMS based deformable mirror technology (DM), and to develop and assess closed-loop null control algorithms. We have demonstrated closed-loop performance at 27 Hz.

  1. Single Switch Nonisolated Ultra-Step-Up DC-DC Converter with an Integrated Coupled Inductor for High Boost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new single-switch nonisolated dc-dc converter with very high voltage gain and reduced semiconductor voltage stress. The converter utilizes an integrated autotransformer and a coupled inductor on the same core in order to achieve a very high voltage gain without using extreme...... duty cycle. Furthermore, a passive lossless clamp circuit recycles the leakage energy of the coupled magnetics and alleviates the voltage spikes across the main switch. This feature along with low stress on the switching device enables the designer to use a low voltage and low RDS-on MOSFET, which...

  2. Can you tell that I'm in a relationship? Attachment and relationship visibility on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lydia F; Muise, Amy; Dix, Emily L; Le, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    People often attempt to shape others' perceptions of them, but the role of romantic relationships in this process is unknown. The present set of studies investigates relationship visibility, the centrality of relationships in the self-images that people convey to others. We propose that attachment underlies relationship visibility and test this hypothesis across three studies in the context of Facebook. Avoidant individuals showed low desire for relationship visibility, whereas anxious individuals reported high desired visibility (Studies 1 and 2); however, similar motives drove both groups' actual relationship visibility (Study 1). Moreover, both avoidant individuals and their partners were less likely to make their relationships visible (Studies 1 and 3). On a daily basis, when people felt more insecure about their partner's feelings, they tended to make their relationships visible (Study 3). These studies highlight the role of relationships in how people portray themselves to others. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  4. Fabrication of highly active Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composites for the degradation of bisphenol A and methyl orange under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaodong [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yan, Tao, E-mail: yantujn@163.com [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu, Xiaohuan; Ji, Pengge [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Sun, Meng; Wei, Dong; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Novel Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composite showed enhanced activity in MO degradation. • The composites with melem content of 30 wt.% exhibited the best activity. • The heterojunction was in situ fabricated between melem and Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S. • The Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S heterojunction facilitated the separation of electron-hole pairs. - Abstract: Metal-free polymeric catalyst hold great promise owing to their abundant sources, low-cost fabrication and easy processibility. Melem, an important intermediate during condensation of melamine rings to graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), was synthesized by simple solid phase polymerization process. A novel Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composite was fabricated through a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The as-products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis DRS spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The TEM and HRTEM results reveal that Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S nanoparticles and Melem closely contact with each other to form an intimate interface. The as-prepared composites exhibit significantly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Methyl orange (MO) and Bisphenol A (BPA), which could be attributed to the effective photo-induced charges transfer and separation in Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composites. On the basis of radical scavenger experiments, superoxide radicals and holes are suggested to play a critical role in MO degradation over Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S heterojunctions. A possible mechanism for charge separation and transfer in the Melem/Zn{sub 0.25}Cd{sub 0.75}S composites was proposed to explain the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  5. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  6. High activity of Ag-doped Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalyst prepared by the hydrothermal method for hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Yuliati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hydrothermal method was used as a new approach to prepare a series of Ag-doped Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalysts. The effect of Ag doping on the properties and photocatalytic activity of Cd0.1Zn0.9S was studied for the hydrogen production from water reduction under visible light irradiation.Results: Compared to the series prepared by the co-precipitation method, samples prepared by the hydrothermal method performed with a better photocatalytic activity. The sample with the optimum amount of Ag doping showed the highest hydrogen production rate of 3.91 mmol/h, which was 1.7 times higher than that of undoped Cd0.1Zn0.9S. With the Ag doping, a red shift in the optical response was observed, leading to a larger portion of the visible light absorption than that of without doping. In addition to the larger absorption in the visible-light region, the increase in photocatalytic activity of samples with Ag doping may also come from the Ag species facilitating electron–hole separation.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Ag doping is a promising way to enhance the activity of Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalyst.

  7. Visible nulling coronagraph testbed results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Thompson, Patrick; Petrone, Peter; Madison, Timothy; Rizzo, Maxime; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker

    2009-08-01

    We report on our recent laboratory results with the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) testbed. We have experimentally achieved focal plane contrasts of 1 x 108 and approaching 109 at inner working angles of 2 * wavelength/D and 4 * wavelength/D respectively where D is the aperture diameter. The result was obtained using a broadband source with a narrowband spectral filter of width 10 nm centered on 630 nm. To date this is the deepest nulling result with a visible nulling coronagraph yet obtained. Developed also is a Null Control Breadboard (NCB) to assess and quantify MEMS based segmented deformable mirror technology and develop and assess closed-loop null sensing and control algorithm performance from both the pupil and focal planes. We have demonstrated closed-loop control at 27 Hz in the laboratory environment. Efforts are underway to first bring the contrast to > 109 necessary for the direct detection and characterization of jovian (Jupiter-like) and then to > 1010 necessary for terrestrial (Earth-like) exosolar planets. Short term advancements are expected to both broaden the spectral passband from 10 nm to 100 nm and to increase both the long-term stability to > 2 hours and the extent of the null out to a ~ 10 * wavelength / D via the use of MEMS based segmented deformable mirror technology, a coherent fiber bundle, achromatic phase shifters, all in a vacuum chamber at the GSFC VNC facility. Additionally an extreme stability textbook sized compact VNC is under development.

  8. PAPR analysis for OFDM visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaheng; Xu, Yang; Ling, Xintong; Zhang, Rong; Ding, Zhi; Zhao, Chunming

    2016-11-28

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a practical technology in visible light communication (VLC) for high-speed transmissions. However, one of its operational limitations is the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. In this paper, we analyze the PAPR distributions of four VLC OFDM schemes, namely DC-biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM), asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM), pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT), and Flip-OFDM. Both lower and upper clippings are considered. We analytically derive the complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) of the PAPRs of the clipped VLC OFDM signals, and investigate the impact of lower and upper clippings on PAPR distributions. Our analytical results, as verified by numerical simulations, provide useful insights and guidelines for VLC OFDM system designs.

  9. Revisiting adoption of high transmission PSM: pros, cons and path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z. Mark; McDonald, Steve; Progler, Chris

    2009-12-01

    High transmission attenuated phase shift masks (Hi-T PSM) have been successfully applied in volume manufacturing for certain memory devices. Moreover, numerous studies have shown the potential benefits of Hi-T PSM for specific lithography applications. In this paper, the potential for extending Hi-T PSM to logic devices, is revisited with an emphasis on understanding layout, transmission, and manufacturing of Hi-T PSM versus traditional 6% embedded attenuated phase shift mask (EAPSM). Simulations on various layouts show Hi-T PSM has advantage over EAPSM in low duty cycle line patterns and high duty cycle space patterns. The overall process window can be enhanced when Hi- T PSM is combined with optimized optical proximity correction (OPC), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF), and source illumination. Therefore, Hi-T PSM may be a viable and lower cost alternative to other complex resolution enhancement technology (RET) approaches. Aerial image measurement system (AIMS) results on test masks, based on an inverse lithography technology (ILT) generated layout, confirm the simulation results. New advancement in high transmission blanks also make low topography Hi-T PSM a reality, which can minimize scattering effects in high NA lithography.

  10. Visible Light Communications towards 5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zvanovec

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 5G networks have to offer extremely high capacity for novel streaming applications. One of the most promising approaches is to embed large numbers of co-operating small cells into the macro-cell coverage area. Alternatively, optical wireless based technologies can be adopted as an alternative physical layer offering higher data rates. Visible light communications (VLC is an emerging technology for future high capacity communication links (it has been accepted to 5GPP in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum (~370–780 nm utilizing light-emitting diodes (LEDs simultaneously provide data transmission and room illumination. A major challenge in VLC is the LED modulation bandwidths, which are limited to a few MHz. However, myriad gigabit speed transmission links have already been demonstrated. Non line-of-sight (NLOS optical wireless is resistant to blocking by people and obstacles and is capable of adapting its’ throughput according to the current channel state information. Concurrently, organic polymer LEDs (PLEDs have become the focus of enormous attention for solid-state lighting applications due to their advantages over conventional white LEDs such as ultra-low costs, low heating temperature, mechanical flexibility and large photoactive areas when produced with wet processing methods. This paper discusses development of such VLC links with a view to implementing ubiquitous broadcasting networks featuring advanced modulation formats such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM or carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation (CAP in conjunction with equalization techniques. Finally, this paper will also summarize the results of the European project ICT COST IC1101 OPTICWISE (Optical Wireless Communications - An Emerging Technology dealing VLC and OLEDs towards 5G networks.

  11. Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D. (2011). Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible. Presentation given at the Startbijeenkomst SURFnet Innovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT. May, 13, 2011, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  12. Inequality and visibility of wealth in experimental social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro; Shirado, Hirokazu; Rand, David G; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2015-10-15

    Humans prefer relatively equal distributions of resources, yet societies have varying degrees of economic inequality. To investigate some of the possible determinants and consequences of inequality, here we perform experiments involving a networked public goods game in which subjects interact and gain or lose wealth. Subjects (n = 1,462) were randomly assigned to have higher or lower initial endowments, and were embedded within social networks with three levels of economic inequality (Gini coefficient = 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4). In addition, we manipulated the visibility of the wealth of network neighbours. We show that wealth visibility facilitates the downstream consequences of initial inequality-in initially more unequal situations, wealth visibility leads to greater inequality than when wealth is invisible. This result reflects a heterogeneous response to visibility in richer versus poorer subjects. We also find that making wealth visible has adverse welfare consequences, yielding lower levels of overall cooperation, inter-connectedness, and wealth. High initial levels of economic inequality alone, however, have relatively few deleterious welfare effects.

  13. Efficient visibility encoding for dynamic illumination in direct volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronander, Joel; Jönsson, Daniel; Löw, Joakim; Ljung, Patric; Ynnerman, Anders; Unger, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    We present an algorithm that enables real-time dynamic shading in direct volume rendering using general lighting, including directional lights, point lights, and environment maps. Real-time performance is achieved by encoding local and global volumetric visibility using spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions stored in an efficient multiresolution grid over the extent of the volume. Our method enables high-frequency shadows in the spatial domain, but is limited to a low-frequency approximation of visibility and illumination in the angular domain. In a first pass, level of detail (LOD) selection in the grid is based on the current transfer function setting. This enables rapid online computation and SH projection of the local spherical distribution of visibility information. Using a piecewise integration of the SH coefficients over the local regions, the global visibility within the volume is then computed. By representing the light sources using their SH projections, the integral over lighting, visibility, and isotropic phase functions can be efficiently computed during rendering. The utility of our method is demonstrated in several examples showing the generality and interactive performance of the approach.

  14. The Influence of Visibility Conditions in Horizontal Road Curves on the Efficiency of Noise Protection Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džambas Tamara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring sufficient visibility on planned roads by sight distance testing is an integral part of every project, but problems with visibility can emerge when noise barriers are erected on existing roads. Namely, in order to provide sufficient noise protection, high noise barriers are often placed at minimum distance from the carriageway edge, and additional visibility testing in most cases is not carried out.

  15. One dimensional CdS nanowire@TiO2 nanoparticles core-shell as high performance photocatalyst for fast degradation of dye pollutants under visible and sunlight irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabzadeh, Abbas; Salimi, Abdollah

    2016-10-01

    In this study, one-dimensional CdS nanowires@TiO2 nanoparticles core-shell structures (1D CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs) were synthesized by a facile wet chemical-solvothermal method. The different aspects of the properties of CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs were surveyed by using a comprehensive range of characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The as-prepared nanostructure was applied as an effective photocatalyst for degradation of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible and sunlight irradiation. The results indicated significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs for degradation of MO, MB and Rh B compared to CdS NWs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enhanced sunlight absorbance and the efficient charge separation of the formed heterostructure between CdS NWs and TiO2. The results showed that MO, Rh B and MB were almost completely degraded after 2, 2 and 3min of exposure to sunlight, respectively; while under visible light irradiation (3W blue LED lamp) the dyes were decomposed with less half degradation rate. The catalytic activity was retained even after three degradation cycles of organic dyes, demonstrating that the proposed nanocomposite can be effectively used as efficient photocatalyst for removal of environmental pollutions caused by organic dyes under sunlight irradiation and it could be an important addition to the field of wastewater treatment. We hope the present study may open a new window of such 1-D semiconductor nanocomposites to be used as visible light photocatalysts in the promising field of organic dyes degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Outstanding visible photocatalytic activity of a new mixed bismuth titanatate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Americo Vespucio 49, 410092, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento Cristalografía, Mineralogía y Química Agrícola, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor García González s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Sayagués, M.J.; Navío, J.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Americo Vespucio 49, 410092, Sevilla (Spain); Hidalgo, M.C., E-mail: carmen.hidalgo@csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Americo Vespucio 49, 410092, Sevilla (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Photocatalyst based on bismuth titanates with high visible activity. • Its visible activity as high as UV activity of TiO{sub 2} P25 for phenol degradation. • Photocatalyst is majority of phase Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} with Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} and amorphous TiO{sub 2}. • High visible activity due to low BG, interconnected phases and high surface area. - Abstract: In this work, a new photocatalyst based on bismuth titanates with outstanding visible photocatalytic activity was prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The synthesised material showed visible activity as high as UV activity of commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 under the same experimental conditions for phenol degradation. A wide characterisation of the photocatalyst was performed. The material was composed of three phases; majority of Bi{sub 20}TiO{sub 32} closely interconnected to Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} and amorphous TiO{sub 2}. The high visible activity showed by this material could be ascribed to a combination of several features; i.e. low band gap energy value (2.1 eV), a structure allowing a good separation path for visible photogenerated electron-holes pairs and a relatively high surface area. This photocatalyst appeared as a promising material for solar and visible applications of photocatalysis.

  17. The Relationship between Social Visibility and CSR Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the link between different proxies of social visibility such as company size, company profitability, environmental sensitivity, and multinational subsidiary with CSR disclosure. This study used a content analysis method to extract CSR-related information from the annual reports of 253 listed companies of Pakistan. The collected data was analyzed through a multiple linear pooled regression analysis technique. The results showed that company size, company profitability, environmental sensitivity, and to be a multinational subsidiary have a significant positive relationship with CSR disclosure. This indicates that different aspects of corporate social visibility are associated with CSR disclosure. We assert that highly socially visible companies, prone to pressures from various actors of the society such as the media, NGOs, the government, and other stakeholders, appear to disclose CSR information to manage relationships with these actors.

  18. Visibility of wavelet quantization noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Solomon, J. A.; Villasenor, J.

    1997-01-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that we call DWT uniform quantization noise; it is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2-lambda, where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and lambda is the wavelet level. Thresholds increase rapidly with wavelet spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from lowpass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We construct a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

  19. Investigation and improvement of high step- up converters for pv module applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed moradmand jazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available sun is of the clean and cheapest sources of energy. Charging slight energy to electricity is carried out by PV modules. Since most electric consumers need Ac input voltage, the PV modules output voltage should be changed into Ac form. But, the voltage level of PV modules is much lower than the voltage needed in input stage of inverters. Because of large voltage level. Difference it is not possible to use the basic boost and buck-boost converters. The basic boost and buck-boost converters definitely can not be used in this applications, for, they will face extreme drop in efficiency in duty cycles closer to unity. In this paper The proposed converter is presented in order to decrease the voltage stress of coupled inductors based high step-up converters. The voltage stress in the proposed converter is lower than the high step-up boost converter with coupled inductors in identical condition. Also, soft switching condition for switches and diodes is realized by active clamp circuit, and with this technique and proper selection of duty cycle, large gain and high efficiency could be achieved ultimately. . In this paper theoretical analysis is used for analyzing the performance of the proposed converters, and in order to verify the theoretical analysis, simulated results from pspice software is provides.

  20. Technology Advancement of the Visible Nulling Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Thompson, Patrick; Bolcar, Matt; Madison, Timothy; Woodruff, Robert; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The critical high contrast imaging technology for the Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) mission concept is the visible nulling coronagraph (VNC). EPIC would be capable of imaging jovian planets, dust/debris disks, and potentially super-Earths and contribute to answering how bright the debris disks are for candidate stars. The contrast requirement for EPIC is 10(exp 9) contrast at 125 milli-arseconds inner working angle. To advance the VNC technology NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, in collaboration with Lockheed-Martin, previously developed a vacuum VNC testbed, and achieved narrowband and broadband suppression of the core of the Airy disk. Recently our group was awarded a NASA Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions to achieve two milestones: (i) 10(exp 8) contrast in narrowband light, and, (ii) 10(ecp 9) contrast in broader band light; one milestone per year, and both at 2 Lambda/D inner working angle. These will be achieved with our 2nd generation testbed known as the visible nulling testbed (VNT). It contains a MEMS based hex-packed segmented deformable mirror known as the multiple mirror array (MMA) and coherent fiber bundle, i.e. a spatial filter array (SFA). The MMA is in one interferometric arm and works to set the wavefront differences between the arms to zero. Each of the MMA segments is optically mapped to a single mode fiber of the SFA, and the SFA passively cleans the sub-aperture wavefront error leaving only piston, tip and tilt error to be controlled. The piston degree of freedom on each segment is used to correct the wavefront errors, while the tip/tilt is used to simultaneously correct the amplitude errors. Thus the VNT controls both amplitude and wavefront errors with a single MMA in closed-loop in a vacuum tank at approx.20 Hz. Herein we will discuss our ongoing progress with the VNT.

  1. Improved visibility computation on massive grid terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishman, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Wolfson, O.; Agrawal, D.; Lu, C.-T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of algorithms for computing visibility maps on massive grid terrains. Given a terrain T, specified by the elevations of points in a regular grid, and given a viewpoint v, the visibility map or viewshed of v is the set of grid points of T that are

  2. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  3. 40 CFR 52.2179 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2179 Section 52.2179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2179 Visibility protection...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1606 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1606 Section 52.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1606 Visibility protection...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1236 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1236 Section 52.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1236 Visibility protection. (a...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1488 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1488 Section 52.1488 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1488 Visibility protection. (a...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2383 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2383 Section 52.2383 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2383 Visibility protection. (a...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2498 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2498 Section 52.2498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Washington § 52.2498 Visibility protection...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2304 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2304 Section 52.2304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2304 Visibility protection. (a...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1387 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1387 Section 52.1387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1387 Visibility protection. (a...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1831 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1831 Section 52.1831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Dakota § 52.1831 Visibility protection...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2533 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2533 Section 52.2533 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2533 Visibility protection...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1183 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1183 Section 52.1183 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1183 Visibility protection. (a...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1531 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1531 Section 52.1531 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1531 Visibility protection...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2452 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2452 Section 52.2452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2452 Visibility protection. (a...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1033 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1033 Section 52.1033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1033 Visibility protection. (a...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1339 - Visibility protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1339 Section 52.1339 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1339 Visibility protection. (a...

  18. Measurements of impurity spectra using UV/visible spectroscopic system in a GAMMA 10 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matama, K.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubota, Y.; Cho, T.

    2006-01-01

    Impurity spectra have been measured and identified using a newly designed ultraviolet and visible (UV/visible) spectroscopic system in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. It is constructed using two spectrometers to obtain an entire wavelength range of UV/visible impurity spectra with a high wavelength resolution in one plasma shot. We successfully obtained the emission intensities of the radiation spectra in detail and information on the time-varying population densities of the impurities. We evaluate radiation loss from the GAMMA 10 plasma in the UV/visible range; further we estimate the electron density and temperature after applying the measured spectral intensity to a collisional-radiative model

  19. Visibility of gingiva - An important determinant for an esthetic smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepolia, Shipra; Sepolia, Gaurav; Kaur, Rupinder; Gautam, Devendar Kumar; Jindal, Vikas; Gupta, Subhash Chander

    2014-07-01

    Need for having better esthetics is the new emerging trend seen in patients' demands and expectations. Various periodontal procedures including the mucogingival procedures have been designed to enhance the esthetics. The amount of gingival display of the patient is also an important parameter while considering the esthetics of the patient. Till date, very few studies have been done in which the amount of gingival visibility have been determined. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of visibility of gingiva during natural smile and forced smile in the patients visiting Himachal Dental College and Hospital. A total of 400 patients (242 females and 158 males), aged between 18 to 49 years, attending the outpatient department of Himachal Dental College, were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to age and gender. Clinical photographs of the patients were taken and analyzed according to the following classification: (1) Very high smile line that is more than 2 mm of marginal gingiva visible or more than 2 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction visible for the reduced but healthy periodontium, (2) high smile line that is between 0 and 2 mm of marginal gingiva visible or between 0 and 2 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction visible for the reduced but healthy periodontium, (3) average smile line in which only gingival embrasures are visible, (4) low smile line in which gingival embrasures and cementoenamel junction not visible. Examination of the gingiva was done for both natural smile and forced smile. During smile analysis, the following results were revealed for Natural smile and forced smile. Natural smile analysis revealed following: C1: 1%, C2: 6%, C3: 43.50% and C4 was 49.50%. Forced smile analysis revealed the following: C1: 1%, C2: 15.50%, C3: 59% and C4: 24.50%. Excessive gingival display is an esthetic concern both to the patient and clinician. Therefore, understanding the etiology and treatment options is

  20. Visibility of gingiva - An important determinant for an esthetic smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Sepolia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Need for having better esthetics is the new emerging trend seen in patients′ demands and expectations. Various periodontal procedures including the mucogingival procedures have been designed to enhance the esthetics. The amount of gingival display of the patient is also an important parameter while considering the esthetics of the patient. Till date, very few studies have been done in which the amount of gingival visibility have been determined. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of visibility of gingiva during natural smile and forced smile in the patients visiting Himachal Dental College and Hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients (242 females and 158 males, aged between 18 to 49 years, attending the outpatient department of Himachal Dental College, were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to age and gender. Clinical photographs of the patients were taken and analyzed according to the following classification: (1 Very high smile line that is more than 2 mm of marginal gingiva visible or more than 2 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction visible for the reduced but healthy periodontium, (2 high smile line that is between 0 and 2 mm of marginal gingiva visible or between 0 and 2 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction visible for the reduced but healthy periodontium, (3 average smile line in which only gingival embrasures are visible, (4 low smile line in which gingival embrasures and cementoenamel junction not visible. Examination of the gingiva was done for both natural smile and forced smile. Results: During smile analysis, the following results were revealed for Natural smile and forced smile. Natural smile analysis revealed following: C1: 1%, C2: 6%, C3: 43.50% and C4 was 49.50%. Forced smile analysis revealed the following: C1: 1%, C2: 15.50%, C3: 59% and C4: 24.50%. Conclusions: Excessive gingival display is an esthetic concern both to the patient and

  1. Modern methods of high-pressure fuel pump common rail power system diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyshchun В.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We've considered high pressure fuel pumps design features and equipment for their diagnosis. It was noted that the reliability of the fuel elements Common Rail system primarily provide precision parts of the fuel equipment. As a consequence, the aim of study was comparative analysis and laborious of modern methods of the high pressure fuel pump diagnosing. In particular, the definition of a technical condition of the fuel pump was carried out using a special stand and by measuring the fuel pressure and duty cycle of the pressure regulator signal. As an object of our research we've chosen Bosch № 0445010008 fuel pump (from Mercedes Benz E320cdi in which the plunger pairs were changed alternately with different technical conditions. Preliminary fuel pump parameters were determined by hydraulic testing. Based on conducted experiments we've found out that fuel pressure measurement change method and the duty cycle of the pressure regulator signal at the starting and full load modes less laborious compared to the definition of a technical condition of the pump on the stand. The results of both methods of diagnosing confirmed identity of the fuel pumps.

  2. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R.

    1999-01-01

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 ampersand micro;s at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle

  3. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Física de Partículas, Campus Sur, Universidad, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Amaral Soares, E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boháčová, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bonifazi, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Física de Partículas, Campus Sur, Universidad, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2013-08-11

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4–4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope – to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle – were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. -- Highlights: • The MIDAS objective is to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays using microwaves. • GHz radiation could provide a powerful alternative to current detection methods. • The MIDAS prototype explores the potential of the microwave technique.

  4. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4–4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope – to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle – were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. -- Highlights: • The MIDAS objective is to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays using microwaves. • GHz radiation could provide a powerful alternative to current detection methods. • The MIDAS prototype explores the potential of the microwave technique

  5. Design of High Efficient MPPT Solar Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to design a High Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Solar Inverter. A boost converter is designed in the system to boost the power from the photovoltaic panel. By this experimental setup a room consisting of 500 Watts load (eight fluorescent tubes is completely controlled. It is aimed to decrease the maintenance cost. A microcontroller is introduced for tracking the P&O (Perturb and Observe algorithm used for tracking the maximum power point. The duty cycle for the operation of the boost convertor is optimally adjusted by using MPPT controller. There is a MPPT charge controller to charge the battery as well as fed to inverter which runs the load. Both the P&O scheme with the fixed variation for the reference current and the intelligent MPPT algorithm were able to identify the global Maximum power point, however the performance of the MPPT algorithm was better.

  6. High-efficient photo-electron transport channel in SiC constructed by depositing cocatalysts selectively on specific surface sites for visible-light H{sub 2} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Da; Peng, Yuan; Wang, Qi; Pan, Nanyan; Guo, Zhongnan; Yuan, Wenxia, E-mail: wxyuanwz@163.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-04-18

    Control cocatalyst location on a metal-free semiconductor to promote surface charge transfer for decreasing the electron-hole recombination is crucial for enhancing solar energy conversion. Based on the findings that some metals have an affinity for bonding with the specific atoms of polar semiconductors at a heterostructure interface, we herein control Pt deposition selectively on the Si sites of a micro-SiC photocatalyst surface via in-situ photo-depositing. The Pt-Si bond forming on the interface constructs an excellent channel, which is responsible for accelerating photo-electron transfer from SiC to Pt and then reducing water under visible-light. The hydrogen production is enhanced by two orders of magnitude higher than that of bare SiC, and 2.5 times higher than that of random-depositing nano-Pt with the same loading amount.

  7. Improved spring model-based collaborative indoor visible light positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhijie; Zhang, WeiNan; Zhou, GuoFu

    2016-06-01

    Gaining accuracy with indoor positioning of individuals is important as many location-based services rely on the user's current position to provide them with useful services. Many researchers have studied indoor positioning techniques based on WiFi and Bluetooth. However, they have disadvantages such as low accuracy or high cost. In this paper, we propose an indoor positioning system in which visible light radiated from light-emitting diodes is used to locate the position of receivers. Compared with existing methods using light-emitting diode light, we present a high-precision and simple implementation collaborative indoor visible light positioning system based on an improved spring model. We first estimate coordinate position information using the visible light positioning system, and then use the spring model to correct positioning errors. The system can be employed easily because it does not require additional sensors and the occlusion problem of visible light would be alleviated. We also describe simulation experiments, which confirm the feasibility of our proposed method.

  8. Estimation of visibility of phase contrast with extraction voltages for field emission gun electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com

    2017-02-15

    Estimation was made for visibility of phase contrast with varying extraction voltages. The resulting decay rates of visibility show that images with low image contrast from cryo EM will be seriously impacted with high extraction voltages. - Highlights: • Cryo EM • Phase contrast • Extraction votage.

  9. Visible light communication: Applications, architecture, standardization and research challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Latif Ullah

    2016-01-01

    The Radio Frequency (RF) communication suffers from interference and high latency issues. Along with this, RF communication requires a separate setup for transmission and reception of RF waves. Overcoming the above limitations, Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a preferred communication technique because of its high bandwidth and immunity to interference from electromagnetic sources. The revolution in the field of solid state lighting leads to the replacement of florescent lamps by Light E...

  10. Nanopatterned organic semiconductors for visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xilu; Dong, Yurong; Zeng, Pan; Yu, Yan; Xie, Yujun; Gong, Junyi; Shi, Meng; Liang, Rongqing; Ou, Qiongrong; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Shuyu

    2018-03-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is becoming an important and promising supplement to the existing Wi-Fi network for the coming 5G communications. Organic light-emitting semiconductors present much fast fluorescent decay rates compared to those of conventional colour-converting phosphors, therefore capable of achieving much higher bandwidths. Here we explore how nanopatterned organic semiconductors can further enhance the data rates of VLC links by improving bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and by supporting spatial multiplexing. We first demonstrate a colour-converting VLC system based on nanopatterned hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM), the bandwidth of which is enhanced by 50%. With regard to enhancing SNRs, we achieve a tripling of optical gain by integrating a nanopatterned luminescent concentrator to a signal receiver. In addition, we demonstrate highly directional fluorescent VLC antennas based on nanoimprinted polymer films, paving the way to achieving parallel VLC communications via spatialmultiplexing. These results indicate nanopatterned organic semiconductors provide a promising route to high speed VLC links.

  11. Catadioptric lenses in Visible Light Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marquez, J.; Valencia, J. C.; Perez, H.; Topsu, S.

    2015-04-01

    Since few years ago, visible light communications (VLC) have experience an accelerated interest from a research point of view. The beginning of this decade has seen many improvements in VLC at an electronic level. High rates of transmission at low bit error ratios (BER) have been reported. A few numbers of start-ups have initiated activities to offer a variety of applications ranging from indoor geo-localization to internet, but in spite of these advancements, some other problems arise. Long-range transmissions mean a high BER which reduce the number of applications. In this sense, new redesigned optical collectors or in some cases, optical reflectors must be considered to ensure a low BER at higher distance transmissions. Here we also expose a preliminary design of a catadioptric and monolithical lens for a LI-FI receiver with two rotationally symmetrical main piecewise surfaces za and zb. These surfaces are represented in a system of cylindrical coordinates with an anterior surface za with a central and refractive sector surrounded by a peripheral reflective sector and a back piecewise surface zb with a central refractive sector and a reflective sector, both characterized as ideal for capturing light within large acceptance angles.

  12. A visible light-curable yet visible wavelength-transparent resin for stereolithography 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Key; Shin, Mikyung; Kim, Bongkyun; Park, Jin Woo; Lee, Haeshin

    2018-04-01

    Herein, a new polymeric resin for stereolithography (SLA) three-dimensional printing (SLA-3DP) is reported. An ultraviolet (UV) or visible (VIS) light source is critical for SLA printing technology. UV light can be used to manufacture 3D objects in SLA-3DP, but there are significant occupational safety and health issues (particularly for eyes). These issues prevent the widespread use of SLA-3DP at home or in the office. Through the use of VIS light, the safety and health issues can largely be solved, but only non-transparent 3D objects can be manufactured, which prevents the application of 3DP to the production of various common transparent consumer products. For these reasons, we developed a VIS light-curable yet visibly transparent resin for SLA-3DP, which also retains UV curability. The key was to identify the photoinitiator diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (DPTBP). DPTBP was originally designed as a UV photoinitiator, but we found that VIS light irradiation is sufficient to split DPTBP and generate radicals due to its slight VIS light absorption up to 420 nm. The cured resin displays high transparency and beautiful transparent colors by incorporating various dyes; additionally, its mechanical properties are superior to those of commercial resins (Arario 410) and photoinitiators (Irgacure 2959).

  13. Query Load Balancing For Visible Object Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    Interactive visual data explorations impose rigid real-time requirements on the extraction of visible objects. Often these requirements are met by deploying powerful hardware that maintains the entire data set in huge main memory structures. In this paper we propose an approach that retrieves...... the visible data on demand and is based on a tight integration of the database and visualization systems. We propose to incrementally adjust the observer path by adding and dropping path points. The result is an optimal path that minimizes the interaction with the database system and retrieves all visible...

  14. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an ac...

  15. Production of microbunched beams of very highly charged ions with an electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckli, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources produce very highly charged ions most efficiently in a batch mode as the confinement time can be directly optimized for the production of the desired charge state. If, after confinement, the voltage of the ion-confining downstream dam is lowered rapidly, all ions escape and form an ion beam pulse with a length of a few tens of μs. Raising the main trap voltage while maintaining a constant dam voltage in a open-quotes spill-over expulsionclose quotes reduces the energy spread of the expelled ions. The longer time periods of open-quotes slow-,close quotes open-quotes leaky batch mode-,close quotes and open-quotes direct current (dc) batch mode-close quotes expulsions allow for increasing the ion beam duty cycle. Combining the rapid expulsion with one of the latter methods allows for the expulsion of the ions of a single batch in many small microbunches with variable intervals, maintaining the low energy spread and the increased duty cycle of slow expulsions. Combining the open-quotes microbunchingclose quotes with open-quotes dc batch mode productionclose quotes and a multitrap operation will eventually allow for the production of equally intense ion bunches over a wide range of frequencies without any deadtime, and with minimal compromise on the most efficient production parameters. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Development of localized arc filament RF plasma actuators for high-speed and high Reynolds number flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Nishihara, M.; Adamovich, I.V.; Samimy, M.; Gorbatov, S.V.; Pliavaka, F.V.

    2010-01-01

    Recently developed localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) have shown tremendous control authority in high-speed and high Reynolds number flow for mixing enhancement and noise mitigation. Previously, these actuators were powered by a high-voltage pulsed DC plasma generator with low energy coupling efficiency of 5-10%. In the present work, a new custom-designed 8-channel pulsed radio frequency (RF) plasma generator has been developed to power up to 8 plasma actuators operated over a wide range of forcing frequencies (up to 50 kHz) and duty cycles (1-50%), and at high energy coupling efficiency (up to 80-85%). This reduces input electrical power requirements by approximately an order of magnitude, down to 12 W per actuator operating at 10% duty cycle. The new pulsed RF plasma generator is scalable to a system with a large number of channels. Performance of pulsed RF plasma actuators used for flow control was studied in a Mach 0.9 circular jet with a Reynolds number of about 623,000 and compared with that of pulsed DC actuators. Eight actuators were distributed uniformly on the perimeter of a 2.54-cm diameter circular nozzle extension. Both types of actuators coupled approximately the same amount of power to the flow, but with drastically different electrical inputs to the power supplies. Particle image velocimetry measurements showed that jet centerline Mach number decay produced by DC and RF actuators operating at the same forcing frequencies and duty cycles is very similar. At a forcing Strouhal number near 0.3, close to the jet column instability frequency, well-organized periodic structures, with similar patterns and dimensions, were generated in the jets forced by both DC and RF actuators. Far-field acoustic measurements demonstrated similar trends in the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) change produced by both types of actuators, resulting in OASPL reduction up to 1.2-1.5 dB in both cases. We conclude that pulsed RF actuators demonstrate flow

  17. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2010-06-01

    We present a robust algorithm for estimating visibility from a given viewpoint for a point set containing concavities, non-uniformly spaced samples, and possibly corrupted with noise. Instead of performing an explicit surface reconstruction for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities, and use the derivations to develop a robust visibility estimation algorithm. In addition, computing visibility from a set of adaptively placed viewpoints allows us to generate locally consistent partial reconstructions. Using a graph based approximation algorithm we couple such reconstructions to extract globally consistent reconstructions. We test our method on a variety of 2D and 3D point sets of varying complexity and noise content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indigoid Photoswitches: Visible Light Responsive Molecular Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermayer, Christian; Dube, Henry

    2018-05-15

    Indigoid photoswitches comprise a class of chromophores that are derived from the parent and well-known indigo dye. Different from most photoswitches their core structures absorb in the visible region of the spectrum in both isomeric states even without substitutions, which makes them especially interesting for applications not tolerant of high-energy UV light. Also different from most current photoswitching systems, they provide highly rigid structures that undergo large yet precisely controllable geometry changes upon photoisomerization. The favorable combination of pronounced photochromism, fast and efficient photoreactions, and high thermal bistability have led to a strongly increased interest in indigoid photoswitches over the last years. As a result, intriguing applications of these chromophores as reversible triggering units in supramolecular and biological chemistry, the field of molecular machines, or smart molecules have been put forward. In this Account current developments in the synthesis, mechanistic understanding of light responsiveness, advantageous properties as phototools, and new applications of indigoid photoswitches are summarized with the focus on hemithioindigo, hemiindigo, and indigo as key examples. Many methods for the synthesis of hemithioindigos are known, but derivatives with a fourth substituent at the double bond could not easily be prepared because of the resulting increased steric hindrance in the products. Recent efforts in our laboratory have provided two different methods to prepare these highly promising photoswitches in very efficient ways. One method is especially designed for the introduction of sterically hindered ketones while the second one allows rapid structural diversification in only three high-yielding synthetic steps. Given the lesser prominence of indigoid photoswitches, mechanistic understanding of their excited state behavior and therefore rational design opportunities for photophysical properties are also much

  19. Mutual Visibility by Robots with Persistent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Subhash; Mukhopadhyaya, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the mutual visibility problem for a set of semi-synchronous, opaque robots occupying distinct positions in the Euclidean plane. Since robots are opaque, if three robots lie on a line, the middle robot obstructs the visions of the two other robots. The mutual visibility problem asks the robots to coordinate their movements to form a configuration, within finite time and without collision, in which no three robots are collinear. Robots are endowed with a constant bits of pe...

  20. Visible Light Communication Systems Conception and VIDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Navin; Lourenço, Nuno; Spiez, Michal; Aguiar, Rui L

    2008-01-01

    Visible Light Communication (VLC) using LEDs is emerging as a key technology for a ubiquitous communication system, because LED has the advantages of fast switching, long life expectancy, being less expensive and being visible light that is safe for the human body. The VLC system is expected to undergo rapid progress, inspiring numerous indoor and outdoor applications; however, many technical issues need to be addressed, especially in outdoor environment. In order to provide a better understa...

  1. Metasurface axicon lens design at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyammahi, Saleimah; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-08-01

    The emerging field of metasurfaces is promising to realize novel optical devices with miniaturized flat format and added functionalities. Metasurfaces have been demonstrated to exhibit full control of amplitude, phase and polarization of electromagnetic waves. Using the metasurface, the wavefront of light can be manipulated permitting new functionalities such as focusing and steering of the beams and imaging. One optical component which can be designed using metasurfaces is the axicon. Axicons are conical lenses used to convert Gaussian beams into nondiffraction Bessel beams. These unique devices are utilized in different applications ranging from optical trapping and manipulation, medical imaging, and surgery. In this work, we study axicon lens design comprising of planar metasurfaces which generate non-diffracting Bessel beams at visible wavelengths. Dielectric metasurfaces have been used to achieve high efficiency and low optical loss. We measured the spot size of the resulted beams at different planes to demonstrate the non-diffraction properties of the resulted beams. We also investigated how the spot size is influenced by the axicon aperture. Furthermore, we examined the achromatic properties of the designed axicon. Comparing with the conventional lens, the metasurface axicon lens design enables the creation of flat optical device with wide range of depth of focus along its optical axis.

  2. Visible Imaging Diagnostic on Tore-Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dachicourt, R.; Monier Garbet, P.; Beaute, A.; Habib-Naiim, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA Cadarache (France); Marandet, Y. [PIIM, CNRS-Universite de Provence, Marseille (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Research for thermonuclear fusion aims at energy production using fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium nuclei. To this end, a deuterium/tritium mixture has to be heated to a very high temperature (about 100 millions degrees). Chemical and physical sputtering erodes the plasma facing components (PFC), leading to an impurity influx to the plasma. Estimating this erosion source is important both for the PFC lifetime and the quality of the confinement. In fact, impurities reaching the plasma core radiate energy and dilute the fuel. In this contribution, we describe an erosion diagnostic operated on the Tore Supra tokamak, consisting in the combination of visible spectroscopy and filtered imaging over a full TPL (Toroidal Pumped Limiter) sector. Quantitative measurements of spectral lines brightness on four spectrometer chords monitoring the TPL top are used to process the corresponding filtered images, namely to remove background emission or unwanted lines. The particle influx from the TPL's vicinity is obtained from photon fluxes measurements [1], which require absolute calibration in intensity of the system. Filtered images provide the spatial pattern of erosion, from which the total eroded carbon flux is reconstructed. The variation of the particle influx with the input power is studied by analyzing a dedicated experimental campaign. References: [1] Behringer K. et al. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 31, No. 14, pp. 2059 to 2099, 1989. (authors)

  3. An investigation of laser cutting quality of 22MnB5 ultra high strength steel using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Abdul Fattah Mohd; Aqida, Syarifah Nur

    2017-07-01

    In hot press forming, changes of mechanical properties in boron steel blanks have been a setback in trimming the final shape components. This paper presents investigation of kerf width and heat affected zone (HAZ) of ultra high strength 22MnB5 steel cutting. Sample cutting was conducted using a 4 kW Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser machine with 10.6 μm wavelength with the laser spot size of 0.2 mm. A response surface methodology (RSM) using three level Box-Behnken design of experiment was developed with three factors of peak power, cutting speed and duty cycle. The parameters were optimised for minimum kerf width and HAZ formation. Optical evaluation using MITUTOYO TM 505 were conducted to measure the kerf width and HAZ region. From the findings, laser duty cycle was crucial to determine cutting quality of ultra-high strength steel; followed by cutting speed and laser power. Meanwhile, low power intensity with continuous wave contributes the narrowest kerf width formation and least HAZ region.

  4. Characterization and mechanism analysis of N doped TiO2 with visible light response and its enhanced visible activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiuwen; Yu Xiujuan; Xing Zipeng

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized through a hydrolysis-precipitation process using ammonia water as the doping species. The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, DRS, SPS, XPS and FT-IR. Further, the activity enhanced-mechanism was discussed in detail. XRD results showed that doping with nitrogen could effectively retard the phase transformation of TiO 2 from anatase to rutile and increase the anatase crystallinity. DRS and SPS results indicated that the light absorbance edge of nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanoparticle was obviously red-shifted to visible light region and the separation rates of photogenerated charge carriers were greatly improved, respectively. XPS and FT-IR analysis implied that the contents of surface hydroxyl groups were improved significantly and the VBM (valance bond maximum) of O2p was 2.3 eV. Under the visible light irradiation with 120 min, a 65.3% degradation rate of phenol could be achieved. The photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO 2 was 2.08 and 1.97 times than that of pure TiO 2 and P25 TiO 2 , respectively. The enhanced visible light activity was attributed to the well anatase crystallinity, small crystallite size, intense light absorbance edge in visible region, more content of surface hydroxyl groups and high separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers.

  5. 1H NMR visibility of mammalian glycogen in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, L.H.; Rothman, D.L.; Shulman, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution 1 H NMR spectra of rabbit liver glycogen in 2 H 2 O were obtained at 500 MHz, and several resonances were assigned by comparison with the chemical shifts of α-linked diglucose molecules. The NMR relaxation times T 1 and T 2 of glycogen in 2 H 2 O were determined to be 1.1 and 0.029 s, respectively. The measured natural linewidth of the carbon-1 proton is in excellent agreement with that calculated from T 2 . The visibility measurements made by digesting glycogen and comparing glucose and glycogen signal intensities demonstrate that in spite of the very high molecular weight, all of the proton nuclei in glycogen contribute to the NMR spectrum. The result is not unexpected, since 100% NMR visibility was previously observed from the carbon nuclei of glycogen, due to the rapid intramolecular motions

  6. ABB high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Helmersson, S.; Nilsson, S.; Jourdain, P.; Karlsson, L.; Limback, M.; Garde, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fuel designed and fabricated by ABB is now operating in 40 PWRs and BWRs in Europe, the United States and Korea. An excellent fuel reliability track record has been established. High burnups are proven for both PWR and BWR. Thermal margin improving features and advanced burnable absorber concepts enable the utilities to adopt demanding duty cycles to meet new economic objectives. In particular we note the excellent reliability record of ABB PWR fuel equipped with Guardian TM debris filter proven to meet the 6 rod-cycles fuel failure goal, and the out-standing operating record of the SVEA 10 x 10 fuel, where ABB is the only vendor to date with batch experience to high burnup. ABB is dedicated to maintain high fuel reliability as well as continually improve and develop a broad line of PWR and BWR products. ABB's development and fuel follow-up activities are performed in close co-operation with its utility customers. This paper provides an overview of recent fuel performance and reliability experience at ABB. Selected development and validation activities for PWR and BWR fuel are presented, for which the ABB test facilities in Windsor (TF-2 loop, mechanical test laboratory) and Vaesteras (FRIGG, BURE) are essential. (authors)

  7. Middlemen: the visible market makers

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe Watanabe, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a search-theoretic model where middlemen can emerge endogenously to intermediate between ex ante homogeneous buyers and sellers in the presence of coordination frictions. Middlemen set price to compete in the market, and hold an inventory to provide a high matching service. I show that middlemen's inventories can mitigate trade imbalances and interact with price competition, generating an interesting tradeoff for the equilibrium price determination. The competitive limit e...

  8. [VISIBLE LIGHT AND HUMAN SKIN (REVIEW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibadze, A; Chikvaidze, E; Katsitadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Tskhvediani, N; Chikviladze, A

    2015-09-01

    Biological effect of a visible light depends on extend of its property to penetrate into the tissues: the greater is a wavelength the more is an effect of a radiation. An impact of a visible light on the skin is evident by wave and quantum effects. Quanta of a visible radiation carry more energy than infrared radiation, although an influence of such radiation on the skin is produced by the light spectrum on the boarder of the ultraviolet and the infrared rays and is manifested by thermal and chemical effects. It is determined that large doses of a visible light (405-436 nm) can cause skin erythema. At this time, the ratio of generation of free radicals in the skin during an exposure to the ultraviolet and the visible light range from 67-33% respectively. Visible rays of 400-500 nm length of wave cause an increase of the concentration of oxygen's active form and mutation of DNA and proteins in the skin. The urticaria in 4-18% of young people induced by photodermatosis is described. As a result of a direct exposure to sunlight photosensitive eczema is more common in elderly. Special place holds a hereditary disease - porphyria, caused by a visible light. In recent years, dermatologists widely use phototherapy. The method uses polychromatic, non-coherent (wavelength of 515-1200 nm) pulsating beam. During phototherapy/light treatment a patient is being exposed to sunlight or bright artificial light. Sources of visible light are lasers, LEDs and fluorescent lamps which have the full range of a visible light. Phototherapy is used in the treatment of acne vulgaris, seasonal affective disorders, depression, psoriasis, eczema and neurodermities. LED of the red and near infrared range also is characterized by the therapeutic effect. They have an ability to influence cromatophores and enhance ATP synthesis in mitochondria. To speed up the healing of wounds and stimulate hair growth light sources of a weak intensity are used. The light of blue-green spectrum is widely used for

  9. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Snow Cover Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of snow cover from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument...

  10. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Detection Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of suspended matter from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  11. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Mask Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of cloud masks from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard...

  12. Resource Allocation for Outdoor Visible Light Communications with Energy Harvesting Capabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technology that can support high data rate services for outdoor mass gathering night events while permitting energy harvesting. In this paper, a VLC system is considered where a transmitter sends data

  13. Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential...... looking method in conjunction with masking and brief presentations (300 ms and below) to establish the temporal thresholds of visibility at different stages of development. We found that 5 and 10 month-old infants have remarkably similar visibility thresholds about three times higher than those of adults....... By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....

  14. Visibility graph approach to exchange rate series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Huijie; Mang, Jingshi

    2009-10-01

    By means of a visibility graph, we investigate six important exchange rate series. It is found that the series convert into scale-free and hierarchically structured networks. The relationship between the scaling exponents of the degree distributions and the Hurst exponents obeys the analytical prediction for fractal Brownian motions. The visibility graph can be used to obtain reliable values of Hurst exponents of the series. The characteristics are explained by using the multifractal structures of the series. The exchange rate of EURO to Japanese Yen is widely used to evaluate risk and to estimate trends in speculative investments. Interestingly, the hierarchies of the visibility graphs for the exchange rate series of these two currencies are significantly weak compared with that of the other series.

  15. The Disappearing Audience and Reflexive Visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Girginova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular opinion and some academic writing that celebrates the renewed visibility of new media audiences, this essay argues that they are increasingly going into retreat. To understand how new media audiences “disappear” from view of one another, I borrow from Brighenti’s typology of visibility and develop the idea of “reflexive visibility.” The latter describes the ability to socially orient ourselves in a digital environment through the textual and contextual cues of others—an activity that is of utmost importance not only to researchers wishing to “see” various audiences but also for audiences writ large, wishing to know themselves.

  16. Visible nulling coronagraphy testbed development for exoplanet detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Thompson, Patrick; Chen, Andrew; Petrone, Peter; Booth, Andrew; Madison, Timothy; Bolcar, Matthew; Noecker, M. Charley; Kendrick, Stephen; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker

    2010-07-01

    Three of the recently completed NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept (ASMC) studies addressed the feasibility of using a Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) as the prime instrument for exoplanet science. The VNC approach is one of the few approaches that works with filled, segmented and sparse or diluted aperture telescope systems and thus spans the space of potential ASMC exoplanet missions. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has a well-established effort to develop VNC technologies and has developed an incremental sequence of VNC testbeds to advance the this approach and the technologies associated with it. Herein we report on the continued development of the vacuum Visible Nulling Coronagraph testbed (VNT). The VNT is an ultra-stable vibration isolated testbed that operates under high bandwidth closed-loop control within a vacuum chamber. It will be used to achieve an incremental sequence of three visible light nulling milestones of sequentially higher contrasts of 108, 109 and 1010 at an inner working angle of 2*λ/D and ultimately culminate in spectrally broadband (>20%) high contrast imaging. Each of the milestones, one per year, is traceable to one or more of the ASMC studies. The VNT uses a modified Mach-Zehnder nulling interferometer, modified with a modified "W" configuration to accommodate a hex-packed MEMS based deformable mirror, a coherent fiber bundle and achromatic phase shifters. Discussed will be the optical configuration laboratory results, critical technologies and the null sensing and control approach.

  17. Indoor visible light communication with smart lighting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Barman, Abhirup; Halder, Alak

    2017-02-01

    An indoor visible-light communication performance is investigated utilizing energy efficient white light by 2D LED arrays. Enabled by recent advances in LED technology, IEEE 802.15.7 standardizes high-data-rate visible light communication and advocates for colour shift keying (CSK) modulation to overcome flicker and to support dimming. Voronoi segmentation is employed for decoding N-CSK constellation which has superior performance compared to other existing decoding methods. The two chief performance degrading effects of inter-symbol interference and LED nonlinearity is jointly mitigated using LMS post equalization at the receiver which improves the symbol error rate performance and increases field of view of the receiver. It is found that LMS post equalization symbol at 250MHz offers 7dB SNR improvement at SER10-6

  18. Switching Diarylethenes Reliably in Both Directions with Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, Sebastian; Göstl, Robert; Herder, Martin; Grubert, Lutz; Hecht, Stefan

    2016-01-18

    A diarylethene photoswitch was covalently connected to two small triplet sensitizer moieties in a conjugated and nonconjugated fashion and the photochromic performance of the resulting compounds was investigated. In comparison with the parent diarylethene (without sensitizers) and one featuring saturated linkages, the conjugated photoswitch offers superior fatigue resistance upon visible-light excitation due to effective triplet energy transfer from the biacetyl termini to the diarylethene core. Our design makes it possible to switch diarylethenes with visible light in both directions in a highly efficient and robust fashion based on extending π-conjugation and by-product-free ring-closure via the triplet manifold. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.; Maqueda, R.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  20. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence