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Sample records for high dose aspirin

  1. Duration of high-dose aspirin therapy does not affect long-term coronary artery outcomes in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migally, Karl; Braunlin, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Lei; Binstadt, Bryce A

    2018-05-02

    BackgroundHigh-dose aspirin (HDA) is used with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in Kawasaki disease (KD). Practice regarding HDA varies, and it is unclear whether HDA duration affects the long-term course.MethodsWe retrospectively studied KD patients at our hospital for over 10 years. Patients were categorized as having received HDA for 0, 1-7, or >7 days. Primary outcome was the maximum coronary Z-score at diagnosis and follow-up; secondary outcomes included inflammatory markers.ResultsOne hundred and three patients had HDA duration documented, of which 35 patients had coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) at diagnosis. There was no difference in demographics or inflammatory markers between the HDA groups, and no difference in HDA duration between patients with or without CAAs. Seventeen patients received no HDA; they had longer illness and defervescence duration before diagnosis, and were less likely to receive IVIg. For CAAs, multivariate regression revealed that HDA duration did not predict the coronary Z-score at 9-15 months. Higher Z-score at diagnosis was associated with higher Z-score at 9-15 months.ConclusionThe only factor associated with coronary Z-score at 9-15 months was the Z-score at diagnosis. At our institution, longer illness and defervescence duration and the lack of IVIg administration were associated with not administering HDA. HDA duration did not affect the clinically relevant outcomes, particularly CAA persistence.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 2 May 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2018.44.

  2. Safety of low-dose aspirin in endovascular treatment for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel versus high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel in prevention of vascular risk within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2013, this prospective and observational study enrolled 370 patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis of ≥70% with poor collateral undergoing intracranial endovascular treatment. Antiplatelet therapy consists of aspirin, at a low-dose of 100 mg or high-dose of 300 mg daily; clopidogrel, at a dose of 75 mg daily for 5 days before endovascular treatment. The dual antiplatelet therapy continued for 90 days after intervention. The study endpoints include acute thrombosis, subacute thrombosis, stroke or death within 90 days after intervention. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy three patients received low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel and 97 patients received high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel before intracranial endovascular treatment. Within 90 days after intervention, there were 4 patients (1.5% with acute thrombosis, 5 patients (1.8% with subacute thrombosis, 17 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (0.7% in low-dose aspirin group, compared with no patient (0% with acute thrombosis, 2 patient (2.1% with subacute thrombosis, 6 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (2.1% in high-dose aspirin group, and there were no significant difference in all study endpoints between two groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel is comparative in safety with high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment.

  3. Low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Charlotte; Dehlendorff, Christian; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that aspirin use may protect against prostate cancer. In a nationwide case-control study, using Danish high-quality registry data, we evaluated the association between the use of low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs......) and the risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We identified 35,600 patients (cases) with histologically verified prostate cancer during 2000-2012. Cases were matched to 177,992 population controls on age and residence by risk-set sampling. Aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID exposure was defined by type, estimated dose......, duration, and consistency of use. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs), with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), for prostate cancer associated with low-dose aspirin (75-150 mg) or nonaspirin NSAID use, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Use of low-dose aspirin...

  4. Comparison of hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetics on low dose aspirin and not on low dose aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency of hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetes patients who are taking low dose aspirin with those patients who are not taking low dose aspirin. Study design: Quasi experimental study. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out at Military Hospital Rawalpindi for a period of two years (June 2006-May 2008). Patients and Methods: Sixty diabetic patients were selected who were taking low dose aspirin comparing group A and sixty diabetic patients who were not taking aspirin were placed in group B. These patients were selected from the OPD through non probability convenience sampling. All these patients were being followed up in medical outpatient quite regularly on fort-nightly basis. Data had been collected through a carefully designed questionnaire. Results: In group A, 90% of the patients had uric acid less than 445 micro mol/l and 10% of the patients had uric acid more than 445micro mol/l. Whereas in group B 100% of the patients had uric acid less than 445umol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Aspirin in low doses cause hyperuricemia and regular monitoring of uric acid is mandatory to prevent its adverse effects. (author)

  5. Low-dose aspirin and risk of intracranial bleeds

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    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Gaist, David; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse

    2017-01-01

    cohort of nonusers of low-dose aspirin at baseline were followed (maximum 14 years, median 5.4 years) to identify incident cases of ICB, with validation by manual review of patient records or linkage to hospitalization data. Using 10,000 frequency-matched controls, adjusted rate ratios (RRs) with 95...

  6. Similar Efficacy of Proton-Pump Inhibitors vs H2-Receptor Antagonists in Reducing Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding or Ulcers in High-Risk Users of Low-Dose Aspirin.

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    Chan, Francis K L; Kyaw, Moe; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Lee, Vivian; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Naito, Yuji; Watanabe, Toshio; Ching, Jessica Y L; Lam, Kelvin; Lo, Angeline; Chan, Heyson; Lui, Rashid; Tang, Raymond S Y; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tse, Yee Kit; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Handa, Osamu; Nebiki, Hiroko; Wu, Justin C Y; Abe, Takashi; Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Ng, Siew C; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    It is not clear whether H 2 -receptor antagonists (H2RAs) reduce the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in aspirin users at high risk. We performed a double-blind randomized trial to compare the effects of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) vs a H2RA antagonist in preventing recurrent upper GI bleeding and ulcers in high-risk aspirin users. We studied 270 users of low-dose aspirin (≤325 mg/day) with a history of endoscopically confirmed ulcer bleeding at 8 sites in Hong Kong and Japan. After healing of ulcers, subjects with negative results from tests for Helicobacter pylori resumed aspirin (80 mg) daily and were assigned randomly to groups given a once-daily PPI (rabeprazole, 20 mg; n = 138) or H2RA (famotidine, 40 mg; n = 132) for up to 12 months. Subjects were evaluated every 2 months; endoscopy was repeated if they developed symptoms of upper GI bleeding or had a reduction in hemoglobin level greater than 2 g/dL and after 12 months of follow-up evaluation. The adequacy of upper GI protection was assessed by end points of recurrent upper GI bleeding and a composite of recurrent upper GI bleeding or recurrent endoscopic ulcers at month 12. During the 12-month study period, upper GI bleeding recurred in 1 patient receiving rabeprazole (0.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-5.1%) and in 4 patients receiving famotidine (3.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%-8.1%) (P = .16). The composite end point of recurrent bleeding or endoscopic ulcers at month 12 was reached by 9 patients receiving rabeprazole (7.9%; 95% CI, 4.2%-14.7%) and 13 patients receiving famotidine (12.4%; 95% CI, 7.4%-20.4%) (P = .26). In a randomized controlled trial of users of low-dose aspirin at risk for recurrent GI bleeding, a slightly lower proportion of patients receiving a PPI along with aspirin developed recurrent bleeding or ulcer than of patients receiving an H2RA with the aspirin, although this difference was not statistically significant. ClincialTrials.gov no: NCT01408186. Copyright © 2017 AGA

  7. Low-Dose Aspirin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia.

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    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2018-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder specific to pregnancy that remains a significant cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Identification of women who are most at risk for preeclampsia is imprecise. Because of the potential negative health consequences of preeclampsia for women and newborns and the lack of effective screening mechanisms preventing preeclampsia is an important component of prenatal care. Researchers have documented that low-dose aspirin, taken daily after the first trimester, can decrease the development of preeclampsia and reduce the incidence of preterm birth and birth of small-for-gestational-age infants. This column includes an overview of low-dose aspirin in pregnancy and a review of current recommendations from leading national organizations. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  8. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

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    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  9. Use of low-dose aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; García-Rodríguez, L A; Sørensen, H T

    2013-01-01

    Background:Few studies have examined the association between use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and risk of glioma and the results have been equivocal. We therefore investigated the influence of NSAID use on glioma risk in a nationwide setting.Methods:We used...... exposure to low-dose aspirin or non-aspirin (NA) NSAIDs into ever use or long-term use, defined as continuous use for 5 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for glioma associated with NSAID use, adjusted for potential...... confounders.Results:A total of 2688 glioma cases and 18 848 population controls were included in the study. Ever use of low-dose aspirin (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.04) or NA-NSAIDs (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.96-1.14) was not associated with glioma risk. Compared with never use, long-term use of low-dose aspirin...

  10. Use of Low-dose Aspirin as Secondary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Among US Adults (From the National Health Interview Survey, 2012)

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    Fang, Jing; George, Mary G.; Gindi, Renee M.; Hong, Yuling; Yang, Quanhe; Ayala, Carma; Ward, Brian W.; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend that adults with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease take low-dose aspirin or other antiplatelet medications as secondary prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events. Yet, no national level assessment of low-dose aspirin use for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease has been reported among a community-based population. Using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, we assessed low-dose aspirin use among those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We estimated the prevalence ratios of low-dose aspirin use, adjusting for sociodemographic status, health insurance, and cardiovascular risk factors. Among those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (n=3,068), 76% had been instructed to take aspirin, and 88% of those were following this advice. Of those not advised, 11% took aspirin on this own. Overall, 70% were taking aspirin (including those who followed their health care provider's advice and those who were not advised but took aspirin on their own). Logistic regression models showed that women, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, those aged 40–64 years, with a high school education or with some college, or with fewer cardiovascular disease risk factors were less likely to take aspirin than men, non-Hispanic whites, those aged ≥65 years, with a college education or higher, or with all four selected cardiovascular disease risk factors, respectively. Additional analyses conducted among those with coronary heart disease only (n=2,007) showed similar patterns. In conclusion, use of low-dose aspirin for secondary prevention was 70%, with high reported adherence to health care providers' advice to take low-dose aspirin (88%), and significant variability within subgroups. PMID:25670639

  11. Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart

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    Toolkit No. 23 Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart What can taking aspirin do for me? If you are at high risk for or if you have heart disease, taking a low dose aspirin every day may help. Aspirin can also help ...

  12. Low dose aspirin as adjuvant treatment for venous leg ulceration: pragmatic, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial (Aspirin4VLU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Andrew; Wadham, Angela; Bullen, Chris; Parag, Varsha; Kerse, Ngaire; Waters, Jill

    2017-11-24

    Objective  To determine the effect of low dose aspirin on ulcer healing in patients with venous leg ulcers. Design  Pragmatic, community based, parallel group, double blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting  Five community nursing centres in New Zealand. Participants  251 adults with venous leg ulcers who could safely be treated with aspirin or placebo: 125 were randomised to aspirin and 126 to placebo. Interventions  150 mg oral aspirin daily or matching placebo for up to 24 weeks treatment, with compression therapy as standard background treatment. Main outcome measures  The primary outcome was time to complete healing of the reference ulcer (largest ulcer if more than one ulcer was present). Secondary outcomes included proportion of participants healed, change in ulcer area, change in health related quality of life, and adverse events. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results  The median number of days to healing of the reference ulcer was 77 in the aspirin group and 69 in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.13, P=0.25). The number of participants healed at the endpoint was 88 (70%) in the aspirin group and 101 (80%) in the placebo group (risk difference -9.8%, 95% confidence interval -20.4% to 0.9%, P=0.07). Estimated change in ulcer area was 4.1 cm 2 in the aspirin group and 4.8 cm 2 in the placebo group (mean difference -0.7 cm 2 , 95% confidence interval -1.9 to 0.5 cm 2 , P=0.25). 40 adverse events occurred among 29 participants in the aspirin group and 37 adverse events among 27 participants in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.7, P=0.71). Conclusion  Our findings do not support the use of low dose aspirin as adjuvant treatment for venous leg ulcers. Trial registration  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02158806. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Bleeding Risk with Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

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    García Rodríguez, Luis A.; Martín-Pérez, Mar; Hennekens, Charles H.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Lanas, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin has proven effectiveness in secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but is also associated with an increased risk of major bleeding events. For primary prevention, this absolute risk must be carefully weighed against the benefits of aspirin; such assessments are currently limited by a lack of data from general populations. Methods Systematic searches of Medline and Embase were conducted to identify observational studies published between 1946 and 4 March 2015 that reported the risks of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) with long-term, low-dose aspirin (75–325 mg/day). Pooled estimates of the relative risk (RR) for bleeding events with aspirin versus non-use were calculated using random-effects models, based on reported estimates of RR (including odds ratios, hazard ratios, incidence rate ratios and standardized incidence ratios) in 39 articles. Findings The incidence of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin was 0.48–3.64 cases per 1000 person-years, and the overall pooled estimate of the RR with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–1.7). For upper and lower GI bleeding, the RRs with low-dose aspirin were 2.3 (2.0–2.6) and 1.8 (1.1–3.0), respectively. Neither aspirin dose nor duration of use had consistent effects on RRs for upper GI bleeding. The estimated RR for ICH with low-dose aspirin was 1.4 (1.2–1.7) overall. Aspirin was associated with increased bleeding risks when combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, clopidogrel and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with monotherapy. By contrast, concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors decreased upper GI bleeding risks relative to aspirin monotherapy. Conclusions The risks of major bleeding with low-dose aspirin in real-world settings are of a similar magnitude to those reported in randomized trials. These data will help inform clinical judgements regarding the use of low-dose aspirin

  14. Is Daily Low-Dose Aspirin Safe to Take Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Obesity Surgery?

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    Kang, Xian; Hong, Dennis; Anvari, Mehran; Tiboni, Maria; Amin, Nalin; Gmora, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with severe obesity. One potential complication of LRYGB is the development of marginal ulcers (MUs). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to significantly increase the likelihood of developing marginal ulcers after surgery. However, the risk associated with low-dose aspirin consumption is not well defined. We examined the impact of daily low-dose aspirin (81 mg) on the development of marginal ulcers following LRYGB. A retrospective cohort design studied patients undergoing LRYGB surgery, between January 2009 and January 2013, at a single, high-volume bariatric center in Ontario, Canada. The marginal ulcer rate of patients taking low-dose aspirin after surgery was compared to that of the control patients who did not take any NSAID. Diagnosis of MU was confirmed by upper endoscopy in patients presenting with symptoms and a history indicative of marginal ulceration. A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the difference in marginal ulcer rates. A total of 1016 patients underwent LRYGB. Patients taking aspirin were more likely to be male, older, and have diabetes than patients not taking NSAIDs. Of the 1016 patients, 145 (14.3%) took low-dose aspirin following LRYGB and the rest did not (n = 871, 85.7%). The incidence of marginal ulceration was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (12/145, 8.3% versus 90/871, 10.3%; p = 0.45). Patients treated with LRYGB at our institution were not at increased risk of marginal ulcer formation when taking low-dose aspirin after surgery.

  15. Prophylactic low-dose aspirin is effective antithrombotic therapy for combination treatments of thalidomide or lenalidomide in myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesvizky, Ruben; Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Christos, Paul; Furst, Jessica; De Sancho, Maria; Mark, Tomer; Pearse, Roger; Mazumdar, Madhu; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Leonard, John; Jayabalan, David; Coleman, Morton

    2007-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have a propensity for thromboembolic events (TE), and treatment with thalidomide/dexamethasone or lenalidomide/dexamethasone increases this risk. This report describes the use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) as primary thromboprophylaxis in three series of MM patients receiving thalidomide or lenalidomide with other drugs. In the first regimen (clarithromycin, thalidomide, dexamethasone), initiation of low-dose aspirin negated the occurrence of any further TE. In a second study, prophylactic aspirin given with thalidomide/dexamethasone resulted in a rate of TE similar to that seen with dexamethasone alone (without aspirin). A third study (n = 72) evaluated thrombosis rates with aspirin and a lenalidomide-containing regimen (clarithromycin, lenalidomide, dexamethasone). Of nine occurrences of thromboembolism, five were associated with aspirin interruption or poor compliance. Low-dose aspirin appears to reduce the incidence of thrombosis with these regimens. Routine use of aspirin as antithrombotic prophylaxis in MM patients receiving immunomodulatory drugs with corticosteroids is warranted.

  16. An Hourly Dose-Escalation Desensitization Protocol for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Buchmiller, Brett L; Khan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization followed by maintenance therapy effectively improves symptom control in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The majority of current desensitization protocols use 3-hour dosing intervals and often require 2 to 3 days to complete. We evaluated hourly dose escalations in a subset of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and asthma who historically reacted to aspirin within 1 hour or were avoiding aspirin with the goal of developing a safe and efficient desensitization protocol. Fifty-seven aspirin desensitizations were performed under the hourly protocol. All patients had refractory nasal polyposis as an indication for aspirin desensitization. The clinical characteristics of each subject were analyzed in relation to aspects of his or her reactions during the procedure. Ninety-eight percent of study patients were successfully treated under the hourly protocol, including those with a history of severe reactions and intubation. None required further medication than is available in an outpatient allergy clinic. A total of 96% of reactors recorded a bronchial or naso-ocular reaction within 1 hour of the preceding dose. Of the total patients on this protocol, 40% were able to complete the procedure in a single day, and 60% within 2 days. Patients with AERD who have a history of symptoms less than 1 hour after aspirin exposure can be safely desensitized with a 1-hour dose-escalation protocol that can often be completed in a single day. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. European Collaboration on Low-dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera (ECLAP): a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Marchioli, R

    1997-01-01

    Thrombotic complications characterize the clinical course of polycythemia vera (PV) and represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality. However, uncertainty still exists as to the benefit/risk ratio of aspirin prophylaxis in this setting. In vivo platelet biosynthesis of thromboxane A2 is enhanced and can be suppressed by low-dose aspirin in PV, thus providing a rationale for assessing the efficacy and safety of a low-dose aspirin regimen in these patients. The Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera has recently performed a pilot study on 112 patients randomized to receive aspirin, 40 mg daily, or placebo and followed for 16 +/- 6 months (mean +/- SD). This study showed that low-dose aspirin is well tolerated in PV patients, and that a large-scale efficacy trial is feasible in this setting. In this article we report the protocol of the European Collaboration on Low-dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera (ECLAP) study, which is a randomized trial designed to assess the risk/benefit ratio of low-dose aspirin in PV. To estimate the size and the follow-up duration required for the ECLAP trial, a retrospective analysis of the clinical epidemiology of a large PV population has recently been completed by the Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera. On this basis, approximately 3500 patients will be enrolled in the ECLAP study with a follow-up of 3 to 4 years. The uncertainty principle will be used as the main eligibility criterion: Polycythemic patients of any age, having no clear indication for or contraindication to aspirin treatment, will be randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive oral aspirin (100 mg daily) or placebo. According to current therapeutic recommendations, the basic treatment of randomized patients should be aimed at maintaining the hematocrit value 50. Randomization will be stratified by participating center. The study is funded by the European Union BIOMED 2 program.

  18. Low-dose aspirin in polycythaemia vera: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia (GISP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In this pilot study, aimed at exploring the feasibility of a large-scale trial of low-dose aspirin in polycythaemia vera (PV), 112 PV patients (42 females, 70 males. aged 17-80 years) were selected for not having a clear indication for, or contraindication to, aspirin treatment and randomized to receive oral aspirin (40 mg/d) or placebo. Follow-up duration was 16 +/- 6 months. Measurements of thromboxane A2 production during whole blood clotting demonstrated complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity in patients receiving aspirin. Aspirin administration was not associated with any bleeding complication. Within the limitations of the small sample size, this study indicates that a biochemically effective regimen of antiplatelet therapy is well tolerated in patients with polycythaemia vera and that a large-scale placebo-controlled trial is feasible.

  19. Low-Dose Aspirin in Heart Failure Not Complicated by Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelaire, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar; Kristensen, Søren L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess safety and effectiveness of low-dose aspirin in heart failure (HF) not complicated by atrial fibrillation. BACKGROUND: Despite lack of evidence, low-dose aspirin is widely used in patients with HF and sinus rhythm with and without prior ischemic heart disease....... METHODS: The study included 12,277 patients with new-onset HF during 2007 to 2012 who had no history of atrial fibrillation. Of 5,450 patients using low-dose aspirin at baseline, 3,840 were propensity matched to non-aspirin users in a 1:1 ratio. Propensity-matched Cox models were calculated with respect...... to the primary composite outcome of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke and the secondary outcomes of bleeding and HF readmission. RESULTS: The composite outcome occurred in 1,554 (40.5%) patients in the aspirin group and 1,604 (41.8%) patients in the non-aspirin group. Aspirin use...

  20. A meta-analysis of low-dose aspirin for prevention of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low-dose aspirin (LDA is widely used for prevention of preeclampsia. However, conflicting results have been obtained from various studies. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of LDA in prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk and low-risk women. Materials and Methods : A total of 19 randomized control trials were identified using PUBMED search engine and Cochrane Clinical Trial register. The study population was divided into high-risk and low-risk groups. The effect measured was incidence of preeclampsia in women taking either LDA or placebo where the relative risk (RR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated for both groups. Results : A total of 28237 women were studied, out of which 16550 were in the low-risk group while 11687 were in the high-risk group. The overall incidence of preeclampsia was 7.4%. With the aspirin group it was 6.9% while in the placebo group it was 7.8%. In the high-risk group there was 21% reduction in the risk of preeclampsia associated with the use of aspirin (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97. However, LDA is not effective in reducing the risk in low-risk population (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.64-1.17. Conclusion: LDA has a small effect in the prevention of preeclampsia in women considered to be at high risk for the disease. However, it is not effective in reducing the risk in the low-risk group.

  1. Frequency and severity of reactions to a 325-mg aspirin dose during desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Charles F; Baldwin, James L; Baptist, Alan P

    2017-03-01

    The frequency with which patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) react to 325 mg of aspirin during aspirin desensitization, or fail to react at all, is not fully known. To determine the rate and type of reaction at 325 mg of aspirin during desensitization. A retrospective study of 104 patients who underwent aspirin desensitization from 2010 to 2016 was performed. A standard desensitization protocol (starting at 20-40 mg, progressing through 325 mg, and extinguishing reactions by dose repetition) was used. Reactions were defined by upper respiratory tract symptoms, lower respiratory tract symptoms, and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second decrease of 15% or greater. Patients who did and did not react were compared by logistic regression. Eighty-four patients reacted (81%) and 20 did not (19%). Seventy-seven patients who had a provoking reaction at 162 mg of aspirin or less subsequently extinguished their reactions before they reached a dose of 325 mg and had no problems at that dose; one subsequent 325-mg reaction occurred during a protocol violation. One initial provoking reaction to 325 mg occurred. Both 325-mg reactions were mild, and neither met the forced expiratory volume in 1 second criterion for a clinically meaningful change. The remaining 5 patients could not complete the protocol because of persistent reactions or social reasons. Reactors were more likely to have had asthma for more than 10 years than nonreactors (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-10.3; P = .05). During aspirin desensitization for AERD, provoking reactions at the 325-mg dose are rare (1%) and mild. Patients who react at 162 mg or less and extinguish their reactions may be able to administer the 325-mg dose at home. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A long-term risk-benefit analysis of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Chen; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Yu, Fang-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Wu, Tzung-Shiun; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-02-01

    The long-term risk-benefit effect of occasional and regular use of low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg per day) in primary prevention of vascular diseases and cancers was calculated. One representative database of 1 000 000 participants from Taiwan's National Health Insurance scheme in 1997-2000 was used. The potential study subjects were those aged 30-95 years, were found not to have been prescribed aspirin before 1 January 2000, but to have first been prescribed low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg per day) after that date and were followed up to 31 December 2009. Participants prescribed low-dose aspirin risk. A total of 1720 pairs were analysed. During the study period, haemorrhage and ischaemia occurred in 25 (1·45%) and 67 participants (3·90%) in occasional users and 69 (4·01%) and 100 participants (5·81%) in regular users, whereas cancer occurred in 32 participants (1·86%) in occasional users and 26 participants (1·51%) in regular users. The crude and adjusted net clinical risks of low-dose aspirin use between the two frequency of users (≥ 80% vs. prevention against major vascular diseases and cancer. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  3. Low-dose aspirin and risk of intracranial bleeds: An observational study in UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Gaist, David; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Bromley, Susan; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2017-11-28

    To quantify the risk of intracranial bleeds (ICBs) associated with new use of prophylactic low-dose aspirin using a population-based primary care database in the United Kingdom. A cohort of new users of low-dose aspirin (75-300 mg; n = 199,079) aged 40-84 years and a 1:1 matched cohort of nonusers of low-dose aspirin at baseline were followed (maximum 14 years, median 5.4 years) to identify incident cases of ICB, with validation by manual review of patient records or linkage to hospitalization data. Using 10,000 frequency-matched controls, adjusted rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for current low-dose aspirin use (0-7 days before the index date [ICB date for cases, random date for controls]); reference group was never used. There were 1,611 cases of ICB (n = 743 for intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH], n = 483 for subdural hematoma [SDH], and n = 385 for subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). RRs (95% CI) were 0.98 (0.84-1.13) for all ICB, 0.98 (0.80-1.20) for ICH, 1.23 (0.95-1.59) for SDH, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for SAH. No duration of use or dose-response association was apparent. RRs (95% CI) for ≥1 year of low-dose aspirin use were 0.90 (0.72-1.13) for ICH, 1.20 (0.91-1.57) for SDH, and 0.69 (0.50-0.94) for SAH. Low-dose aspirin is not associated with an increased risk of any type of ICB and is associated with a significantly decreased risk of SAH when used for ≥1 year. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Low-dose aspirin use and the risk of ovarian cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kjaer, S K; Olsen, J H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A comprehensive body of evidence has shown that aspirin has cancer-preventive effects, particularly against gastrointestinal cancer, but its effects on the risk of ovarian cancer are less well established. This nationwide case-control study examined the association between low......-dose aspirin and the risk of ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients in the Danish Cancer Registry aged 30-84 years old with a histologically verified first diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011. Each patient was sex- and age-matched to 15 population controls using...... risk-set sampling. Prescription use, comorbidity, reproductive history, and demographic characteristics data were obtained from nationwide registries. The use of low-dose (75-150 mg) aspirin was defined according to the dose as well as the duration and consistency of use. Conditional logistic...

  5. The influence of aspirin dose and glycemic control on platelet inhibition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemkes, B. A.; Bahler, L.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Stroobants, A. K.; van den Dool, E. J.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Nieuwland, R.; Gerdes, V. E.; Holleman, F.

    Background: Low-dose aspirin seems to offer no benefit in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The anti-platelet effect may be diminished by poor glycemic control or inadequate dosing of aspirin. Objectives: To study the effects of both glycemic control

  6. Low-dose aspirin and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemmelund, Holger; Jørgensen, Trine M M; Høgh, Annette

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The use of low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA]) has been suggested to attenuate growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), yet solid clinical evidence of this hypothesis is still missing. This study aimed to investigate whether preadmission ASA use influenced the risk...

  7. Safety of ultrasound-guided transrectal extended prostate biopsy in patients receiving low-dose aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kariotis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether the peri-procedural administration of low-dose aspirin increases the risk of bleeding complications for patients undergoing extended prostate biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2007 to September 2008, 530 men undergoing extended needle biopsies were divided in two groups; those receiving aspirin and those not receiving aspirin. The morbidity of the procedure, with emphasis on hemorrhagic complications, was assessed prospectively using two standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean number of biopsy cores (12.9 ± 1.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.2 cores, p = 0.09. No major biopsy-related complications were noted. Statistical analysis did not demonstrate significant differences in the rate of hematuria (64.5% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.46, rectal bleeding (33.6% vs. 25.9%, p = 0.09 or hemospermia (90.1% vs. 86.9%, p = 0.45. The mean duration of hematuria and rectal bleeding was significantly greater in the aspirin group compared to the control group (4.45 ± 2.7 vs. 2.4 ± 2.6, p = < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.7, p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only younger patients (mean age 60.1 ± 5.8 years with a lower body mass index (< 25 kg/m2 receiving aspirin were at a higher risk (odds ratio = 3.46, p = 0.047 for developing hematuria and rectal bleeding after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The continuing use of low-dose aspirin in patients undergoing extended prostatic biopsy is a relatively safe option since it does not increase the morbidity of the procedure.

  8. Low-dose aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective COX-2 inhibitors and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and selective COX-2 inhibitors may improve outcomes in breast cancer patients. We investigated the association of aspirin, NSAIDs, and use of selective COX-2 inhibitors with breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: We identified incident...... stage I-III Danish breast cancer patients in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group registry, who were diagnosed during 1996-2008. Prescriptions for aspirin (>99% low-dose aspirin), NSAIDs, and selective COX-2 inhibitors were ascertained from the National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began....... RESULTS: We identified 34,188 breast cancer patients with 233,130 person-years of follow-up. Median follow-up was 7.1 years; 5,325 patients developed recurrent disease. Use of aspirin, NSAIDs, or selective COX-2 inhibitors was not associated with the rate of recurrence (HRadjusted aspirin = 1.0, 95% CI...

  9. [Low-dose aspirin in patients with diabete melitus: risks and benefits regarding macro and microvascular complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Eduardo G; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Weinert, Letícia S; Lavinsky, Joel; Silveiro, Sandra P

    2007-04-01

    Aspirin is recommended as cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus. Due to the increased risk of bleeding and because of the hypothesis that there could be a worsening of microvascular complications related to aspirin, there has been observed an important underutilization of the drug. However, it is now known that aspirin is not associated with a deleterious effect on diabetic retinopathy and there is evidence indicating that it also does not affect renal function with usual doses (150 mg/d). On the other hand, higher doses may prove necessary, since recent data suggest that diabetic patients present the so called "aspirin resistance". The mechanisms of this resistance are not yet fully understood, being probably related to an abnormal intrinsic platelet activity. The employment of alternative antiplatelet strategies or the administration of higher aspirin doses (150-300 mg/d) should be better evaluated regarding effective cardiovascular disease prevention in diabetes as well as the possible effects on microvascular complications.

  10. Low-Dose Aspirin Use and Cognitive Function in Older Age: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Maggi, Stefania; Thompson, Trevor; Schofield, Patricia; Muller, Christoph; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Lin, Pao-Yen; Carvalho, André F; Solmi, Marco

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether low-dose aspirin (aspirin was not associated with onset of dementia or cognitive impairment (5 studies, N = 26,159; OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.55-1.22, P = .33, I 2 = 67%). In three RCTs (N = 10,037; median follow-up 5 years), the use of low-dose aspirin was not associated with significantly better global cognition (SMD=0.005, 95% CI=-0.04-0.05, P = .84, I 2 = 0%) in individuals without dementia. Adherence was lower in participants taking aspirin than in controls, and the incidence of adverse events was higher. This review found no evidence that low-dose aspirin buffers against cognitive decline or dementia or improves cognitive test scores in RCTs. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin on Chronic Acid Reflux Esophagitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Yano, Fumiaki; Omura, Nobuo; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Clinical role of low-dose aspirin (LDA) in pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease is by far controversial. This can be attributed to the paucity of basic research detailing the mechanism of LDA-induced esophageal mucosal injury (EI) on underlying chronic acid reflux esophagitis (RE). The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of LDA on chronic RE in rats. Esophagitis was induced in 8-week-old male Wistar rats by ligating the border between forestomach and glandular portion with a 2-0 silk tie and covering the duodenum with a small piece of 18-Fr Nélaton catheter. Seventy-eight chronic RE rat models were divided into five treatment groups, consisting of orally administered vehicle (controls), and aspirin doses of 2, 5, 50 or 100 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. EI was assessed by gross area of macroscopic mucosal injury, severity grade of esophagitis and microscopic depth of infiltration by inflammatory cells. Area of esophagitis in animals with aspirin dose of 100 mg/kg/day showed a 36.5% increase compared with controls, although it failed to achieve statistical significance (p = 0.812). Additionally, the rate of severe EI was increased in animals with aspirin dose of 100 mg/kg/day as compared with controls (p aspirin (100 mg/kg/day) contributed in exacerbating preexisting EI. LDA (2 and 5 mg/kg/day), on the other hand, did not affect chronic RE in this model. LDA seems to be safe for use in patients with chronic RE.

  12. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  13. Effect of kefir and low-dose aspirin on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbak, Güngör; Uzuner, Kubilay; Kuşat Ol, Kevser; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Kartkaya, Kazım; Şentürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We aim to study the effect of low-dose aspirin and kefir on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, high-salt (HS) (8.0% NaCl), HS+aspirin (10 mg/kg), HS+kefir (10.0%w/v), HS+aspirin +kefir. We measured sistolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic pressure, pulse pressure in the rats. Cathepsin B, L, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were determined from rat kidney tissues and rats clearance of creatinine calculated. Although HS diet increased significantly SBP, MAP, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure parameters compared the control values. They were not as high as accepted hypertension levels. When compared to HS groups, kefir groups significantly decrease Cathepsin B and DNA fragmentation levels. Caspase levels were elevated slightly in other groups according to control group. While, we also found that creatinine clearance was higher in HS+kefir and HS+low-dose aspirin than HS group. Thus, using low-dose aspirin had been approximately decreased of renal function damage. Kefir decreased renal function damage playing as Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. But, low-dose aspirin together with kefir worsened rat renal function damage. Cathepsin B might play role both apoptosis and prorenin-processing enzyme. But not caspase pathway may be involved in the present HS diet induced apoptosis. In conclusion, kefir and low-dose aspirin used independently protect renal function and renal damage induced by HS diet in rats.

  14. Two doses of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. Rationale for and design of the EINSTEIN CHOICE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Bauersachs, Rupert; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A; Cohen, Alexander T; Davidson, Bruce L; Holberg, Gerlind; Kakkar, Ajay; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin; Haskell, Lloyd; van Bellen, Bonno; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S; Prandoni, Paolo

    2015-08-31

    Patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are at high risk for recurrence. Although rivaroxaban is effective for extended VTE treatment at a dose of 20 mg once daily, use of the 10 mg dose may further improve its benefit-to-risk ratio. Low-dose aspirin also reduces rates of recurrent VTE, but has not been compared with anticoagulant therapy. The EINSTEIN CHOICE study is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, event-driven study comparing the efficacy and safety of two once daily doses of rivaroxaban (20 and 10 mg) with aspirin (100 mg daily) for the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients who completed 6-12 months of anticoagulant therapy for their index acute VTE event. All treatments will be given for 12 months. The primary efficacy objective is to determine whether both doses of rivaroxaban are superior to aspirin for the prevention of symptomatic recurrent VTE, while the principal safety outcome is the incidence of major bleeding. The trial is anticipated to enrol 2,850 patients from 230 sites in 31 countries over a period of 27 months. In conclusion, the EINSTEIN CHOICE study will provide new insights into the optimal antithrombotic strategy for extended VTE treatment by comparing two doses of rivaroxaban with aspirin (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02064439).

  15. Cumulative inhibitory effect of low-dose aspirin on vascular prostacyclin and platelet thromboxane production in patients with atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, B B; Tack-Goldman, K; Subramanian, V A; Gay, W A

    1985-02-01

    The relationship between the antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of aspirin is complex, since aspirin influences other systems that protect against thrombosis as well as inhibiting platelet function. We investigated possible cumulative effects of low-dose aspirin on vascular production of prostacyclin in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Candidates for coronary artery vein graft bypass ingested 20 mg of aspirin daily during the week before surgery, and platelet aggregation, platelet formation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), aortic and saphenous vein production of prostacyclin (PGI2), and hemostatic status were measured at the time of the bypass surgery. Low-dose aspirin markedly inhibited platelet aggregation responses and reduced TXA2 generation by greater than 90%, effects similar to those observed with much higher doses of aspirin. Both aortic and saphenous vein production of PGI2 were inhibited by 50% compared with PGI2 produced by vascular tissues of control subjects who received no aspirin preoperatively (51 +/- 10 pg 6-keto-PGF1 alpha/mg aortic wet weight [mean +/- SEM] in aspirin-treated subjects vs 130 +/- 16 pg/mg in control subjects, and 71 +/- 8 pg/mg saphenous vein wet weight vs 131 +/- 17 pg/mg). Blood loss at surgery was not significantly increased by preoperative low-dose aspirin as measured by chest tube drainage (754 +/- 229 ml in aspirin-treated subjects vs 645 +/- 271 ml in control subjects), hematocrit nadir (31.2 +/- 1.9% vs 31.8 +/- 1.7%), or transfusions (2.2 +/- 1.3 units of red blood cells vs 2.2 +/- 1.7 units).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

    1985-01-01

    Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the 51 Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients

  17. Chronic use of low-dose aspirin is not associated with lower bone mineral density in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonten, T N; de Mutsert, R; Rosendaal, F R; Jukema, J W; van der Bom, J G; de Jongh, R T; den Heijer, M

    2017-10-01

    Low-dose aspirin is the cornerstone of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies suggested that the use of aspirin is associated with an increased fracture risk. However, there is uncertainty whether this is due to an effect of aspirin on bone mineral density (BMD). Between 2008 and 2012, information on medication use and dual X-ray absorptiometry measured vertebral and femoral BMD of 916 participants was collected in the Netherland Epidemiology of Obesity study. The cross-sectional association between chronic low-dose aspirin use and BMD was estimated using linear regression, controlling for demography, body composition, comorbidity and other medication use which could affect BMD. A subgroup analysis in postmenopausal women (n=329) was conducted. After full adjustment, there was no difference between aspirin users and non-users for vertebral BMD (adjusted mean difference: 0.036 (95% CI -0.027 to 0.100) g/cm 2 ) and femoral BMD (adjusted mean difference: 0.001 (-0.067 to 0.069) g/cm 2 ). Also in the subgroup of postmenopausal women, aspirin use was not associated with lower vertebral (adjusted mean difference: 0.069 (-0.046 to 0.184) g/cm 2 ) or femoral BMD (adjusted mean difference: -0.055 (-0.139;0.029) g/cm 2 ). Chronic use of low-dose aspirin is not associated with lower BMD in the general population. The increased risk of fractures observed in aspirin users in previous studies is therefore more likely to be the result of common causes of aspirin use and fractures, but not of direct effects of aspirin on BMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-Dose Aspirin Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in Women with Diabetes: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Sun; Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Lai, Yung-Rung; Lo, Shih-Chang; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose aspirin is commonly used for preventing cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes, but its association with cancer remains controversial. This study used a nationwide population-based reimbursement database to investigate the relationship between low-dose aspirin use and breast cancer incidence in women with diabetes. This retrospective cohort study was conducted using data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2011. Women diagnosed as having diabetes with low-dose aspirin use (75-165 mg daily) were identified as the study population, whereas those without low-dose aspirin use were selected as the comparison group. We analyzed 148,739 patients with diabetes. Their mean age (standard deviation) was 63.3 (12.8) years. A total of 27,378 patients were taking aspirin. Overall, the use of aspirin in patients with diabetes reduced the risk of breast cancer by 18% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.94) after adjustment for potential confounders, namely age and comorbidities. Specifically, a cumulative dose of aspirin exceeding 88,900 mg was observed to reduce the risk of breast cancer by 47% (HR, 0.53, 95% CI, 0.43-0.67); however, low (aspirin did not reduce the risk of breast cancer. Our findings suggest that a cumulative aspirin dosage of more than 88,900 mg daily was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in women with diabetes. However, additional studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  19. Could Aspirin and Diets High in Fiber Act Synergistically to Reduce the Risk of Colon Cancer in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Early inhibition of inflammation suppresses the carcinogenic process. Aspirin is the most commonly used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and it irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX1, COX2. Multiple randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that aspirin offers substantial protection from colon cancer mortality. The lower aspirin doses causing only minimal gastrointestinal disturbance, ideal for long-term use, can achieve only partial and transitory inhibition of COX2. Aspirin’s principal metabolite, salicylic acid, is also found in fruits and vegetables that inhibit COX2. Other phytochemicals such as curcumin, resveratrol, and anthocyanins also inhibit COX2. Such dietary components are good candidates for combination with aspirin because they have little or no toxicity. However, obstacles to using phytochemicals for chemoprevention, including bioavailability and translational potential, must be resolved. The bell/U-shaped dose–response curves seen with vitamin D and resveratrol might apply to other phytochemicals, shedding doubt on ‘more is better’. Solutions include: (1 using special delivery systems (e.g., nanoparticles to retain phytochemicals; (2 developing robust pharmacodynamic biomarkers to determine efficacy in humans; and (3 selecting pharmacokinetic doses relevant to humans when performing preclinical experiments. The combination of aspirin and phytochemicals is an attractive low-cost and low-toxicity approach to colon cancer prevention that warrants testing, particularly in high-risk individuals.

  20. Evaluation the effect of low-dose aspirin on endothelial dysfunction in preeclamptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia complicates up to 3% of pregnancies in developing countries. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effect of low-dose aspirin on endothelial dysfunction in preeclamptic patients. Materials and Methods: in this triple-blind randomized clinical trial, enrolled patients were divided randomly into two groups. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA 80 mg or placebo will be taken daily by oral administration from the initiation of diagnosis until 2 months after delivery. Every patient's flow-mediated dilation (FMD were evaluated at the beginning of study and 2 months after delivery with the same experienced operator at a same period of the time (3–5 pm by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic. T-test or Mann–Whitney test was used in the comparison of means between the intervention and placebo groups. To compare FMD in each group, before and after the intervention, paired t-test was used. Results: Mean value of FMD in intervention (9.61 ± 5.58 and control group (9.40 ± 4.33 have no significant differences before drug consumption (P = 0.089. FMD in intervention group significantly increased after ASA consumption ([9.61 ± 5.58 vs. 13.65 ± 7.91] [P = 0.044]. Conclusion: Increase mean of FMD in intervention group shows that this supplement can improve endothelial function.

  1. Benefit-harm analysis and charts for individualized and preference-sensitive prevention: example of low dose aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Milo A; Yu, Tsung; Stegeman, Inge; Varadhan, Ravi; Singh, Sonal; Boyd, Cynthia M

    2015-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines provide separate recommendations for different diseases that may be prevented or treated by the same intervention. Also, they commonly provide recommendations for entire populations but not for individuals. To address these two limitations, our aim was to conduct benefit-harm analyses for a wide range of individuals using the example of low dose aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer and to develop Benefit-Harm Charts that show the overall benefit-harm balance for individuals. We used quantitative benefit-harm modeling that included 16 outcomes to estimate the probability that low dose aspirin provides more benefits than harms for a wide range of men and women between 45 and 84 years of age and without a previous myocardial infarction, severe ischemic stroke, or cancer. We repeated the quantitative benefit-harm modeling for different combinations of age, sex, and outcome risks for severe ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, cancers, and severe gastrointestinal bleeds. The analyses considered weights for the outcomes, statistical uncertainty of the effects of aspirin, and death as a competing risk. We constructed Benefit-Harm Charts that show the benefit-harm balance for different combinations of outcome risks. The Benefit-Harm Charts ( http://www.benefit-harm-balance.com ) we have created show that the benefit-harm balance differs largely across a primary prevention population. Low dose aspirin is likely to provide more benefits than harms in men, elderly people, and in those at low risk for severe gastrointestinal bleeds. Individual preferences have a major impact on the benefit-harm balance. If, for example, it is a high priority for individuals to prevent stroke and severe cancers while severe gastrointestinal bleeds are deemed to be of little importance, the benefit-harm balance is likely to favor low dose aspirin for most individuals. Instead, if severe gastrointestinal bleeds are

  2. Low dose aspirin in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm labour - the APRIL study: a multicenter randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Laura; de Boer, Marjon A; de Groot, Christianne J M; Nijman, Tobias A J; Hemels, Marieke A C; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Bosmans, Judith E; Kok, Marjolein; van Laar, Judith O; Sueters, Marieke; Scheepers, Hubertina; van Drongelen, Joris; Franssen, Maureen T M; Sikkema, J Marko; Duvekot, Hans J J; Bekker, Mireille N; van der Post, Joris A M; Naaktgeboren, Christiana; Mol, Ben W J; Oudijk, Martijn A

    2017-07-14

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 weeks of gestation) is a major problem in obstetrics and affects an estimated 15 million pregnancies worldwide annually. A history of previous preterm birth is the strongest risk factor for preterm birth, and recurrent spontaneous preterm birth affects more than 2.5 million pregnancies each year. A recent meta-analysis showed possible benefits of the use of low dose aspirin in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. We will assess the (cost-)effectiveness of low dose aspirin in comparison with placebo in the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth in a randomized clinical trial. Women with a singleton pregnancy and a history of spontaneous preterm birth in a singleton pregnancy (22-37 weeks of gestation) will be asked to participate in a multicenter, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial. Women will be randomized to low dose aspirin (80 mg once daily) or placebo, initiated from 8 to 16 weeks up to maximal 36 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome measure will be preterm birth, defined as birth at a gestational age (GA) aspirin is effective in preventing preterm birth, we expect that there will be cost savings, because of the low costs of aspirin. To evaluate this, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed comparing preventive treatment with aspirin with placebo. This trial will provide evidence as to whether or not low dose aspirin is (cost-) effective in reducing recurrence of spontaneous preterm birth. Clinical trial registration number of the Dutch Trial Register: NTR 5675 . EudraCT-registration number: 2015-003220-31.

  3. Low-Dose Aspirin Discontinuation and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Swedish Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Johan; Hedberg, Jakob; Thuresson, Marcus; Aarskog, Pernilla; Johannesen, Kasper Munk; Oldgren, Jonas

    2017-09-26

    There are increasing concerns about risks associated with aspirin discontinuation in the absence of major surgery or bleeding. We investigated whether long-term low-dose aspirin discontinuation and treatment gaps increase the risk of cardiovascular events. We performed a cohort study of 601 527 users of low-dose aspirin for primary or secondary prevention in the Swedish prescription register between 2005 and 2009 who were >40 years of age, were free from previous cancer, and had ≥80% adherence during the first observed year of treatment. Cardiovascular events were identified with the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers. The first 3 months after a major bleeding or surgical procedure were excluded from the time at risk. During a median of 3.0 years of follow-up, 62 690 cardiovascular events occurred. Patients who discontinued aspirin had a higher rate of cardiovascular events than those who continued (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.41), corresponding to an additional cardiovascular event observed per year in 1 of every 74 patients who discontinue aspirin. The risk increased shortly after discontinuation and did not appear to diminish over time. In long-term users, discontinuation of low-dose aspirin in the absence of major surgery or bleeding was associated with a >30% increased risk of cardiovascular events. Adherence to low-dose aspirin treatment in the absence of major surgery or bleeding is likely an important treatment goal. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The impact of low-dose aspirin on preterm birth: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, A A; Jessel, R H; Heyborne, K D

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether low-dose aspirin (LDA) reduced the rate of preterm birth (PTB) in a cohort of women at high risk for preeclampsia. Secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units High-Risk Aspirin trial. Preterm births were categorized by phenotype: indicated, spontaneous or due to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROMs). Of 1789 randomized women, 30.5% delivered before 37 weeks (18.5% indicated, 5.8% spontaneous and 6.2% following preterm PPROMs). Among women randomized to LDA, we observed a trend favoring fewer PTBs due to spontaneous preterm labor and preterm PPROMs, odds ratio (OR: 0.826 (0.620, 1.099)); the incidence of indicated PTBs appeared unchanged, OR: 0.999 (0.787, 1.268). Although not reaching significance, we observed an effect size similar to other studies of both low- and high-risk women. These results support findings from other studies assessing LDA as a PTB prevention strategy.

  5. Complexity in estimation of esomeprazole and its related impurities' stability in various stress conditions in low-dose aspirin and esomeprazole magnesium capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Palavai Sripal; Hotha, Kishore Kumar; Sait, Shakil

    2013-01-01

    A complex, sensitive, and precise high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the profiling of impurities of esomeprazole in low-dose aspirin and esomeprazole capsules has been developed, validated, and used for the determination of impurities in pharmaceutical products. Esomeprazole and its related impurities' development in the presence of aspirin was traditionally difficult due to aspirin's sensitivity to basic conditions and esomeprazole's sensitivity to acidic conditions. When aspirin is under basic, humid, and extreme temperature conditions, it produces salicylic acid and acetic acid moieties. These two byproducts create an acidic environment for the esomeprazole. Due to the volatility and migration phenomenon of the produced acetic acid and salicylic acid from aspirin in the capsule dosage form, esomeprazole's purity, stability, and quantification are affected. The objective of the present research work was to develop a gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method to separate all the degradation products and process-related impurities from the main peak. The impurities were well-separated on a RP8 column (150 mm × 4.6mm, X-terra, RP8, 3.5μm) by the gradient program using a glycine buffer (0.08 M, pH adjusted to 9.0 with 50% NaOH), acetonitrile, and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) with detection wavelength at 305 nm and column temperature at 30°C. The developed method was found to be specific, precise, linear, accurate, rugged, and robust. LOQ values for all of the known impurities were below reporting thresholds. The drug was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation in the presence of aspirin. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, ruggedness, and robustness.

  6. Drug Resistance and Pseudoresistance: An Unintended Consequence of Enteric Coating Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Tilo; Fries, Susanne; Lawson, John A.; Kapoor, Shiv C.; Grant, Gregory R.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low dose aspirin reduces the secondary incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. Drug resistance to aspirin might result in treatment failure. Despite this concern, no clear definition of “aspirin resistance” has emerged and estimates of its incidence have varied remarkably. We aimed to determine the commonality of a mechanistically consistent, stable and specific phenotype of true pharmacological resistance to aspirin – such as might be explained by genetic causes. Methods and Results Healthy volunteers (n=400) were screened for their response to a single oral dose of 325 mg immediate release or enteric coated aspirin. Response parameters reflected the activity of aspirin's molecular target, cyclooxygenase-1. Individuals who appeared “aspirin resistant” on one occasion underwent repeat testing and if still “resistant” were exposed to low dose enteric coated aspirin (81 mg) and clopidogrel (75 mg) for one week each. Variable absorption caused a high frequency of apparent resistance to a single dose of 325 mg enteric coated aspirin (up to 49%) but not to immediate release aspirin (0%). All individuals responded to aspirin upon repeated exposure, extension of the post dosing interval or addition of aspirin to their platelets ex vivo. Conclusions Pharmacological resistance to aspirin is rare; this study failed to identify a single case of true drug resistance. Pseudoresistance, reflecting delayed and reduced drug absorption, complicates enteric coated but not immediate release aspirin administration. Clinical Trial Registration Information clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00948987. PMID:23212718

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers for low-dose aspirin-associated peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Akiko; Murao, Takahisa; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Sakakibara, Takashi; Nishio, Kazuto; Haruma, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In our previous study, the SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer in patients taking low-dose aspirin (LDA). The aim of the present study was to investigate pharmacogenomic profile of LDA-induced peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding. Patients taking 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin for cardiovascular diseases and with a peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding and patients who also participated in endoscopic surveillance were studied. Genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Affymetrix DME Plus Premier Pack. SLCO1B1*1b haplotype and candidate genotypes of genes associated with ulcer bleeding or small bowel bleeding identified by genome-wide analysis were determined using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay kits, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and direct sequencing. Of 593 patients enrolled, 111 patients had a peptic ulcer and 45 had ulcer bleeding. The frequencies of the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype and CHST2 2082 T allele were significantly greater in patients with peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding compared to the controls. After adjustment for significant factors, the SLCO1B1*1b haplotype was associated with peptic ulcer (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.24-3.89) and CHST2 2082 T allele with ulcer bleeding (2.57, 1.07-6.17). The CHST2 2082 T allele as well as SLCO1B1*1b haplotype may identify patients at increased risk for aspirin-induced peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Incidence of intracranial bleeds in new users of low-dose aspirin: a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, L; Gaist, D; Soriano-Gabarró, M; García Rodríguez, L A

    2017-06-01

    Essentials Intracranial bleeds (ICB) are serious clinical events that have been associated with aspirin use. Incidence rates of ICB were calculated among new-users of low-dose aspirin in the UK (2000-2012). Over a median follow-up of 5.58 years, the incidence of ICB was 0.08 per 100 person-years. Our estimates are valuable for inclusion in risk-benefit assessments of low-dose aspirin use. Background Low-dose aspirin protects against both ischemic cardiovascular (CV) events and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, low-dose aspirin may be associated with a slightly increased risk of intracranial bleeds (ICBs). Objectives To obtain the incidence rates of ICBs overall and by patient subgroups among new users of low-dose aspirin. Patients/Methods Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) UK primary-care database (2000-2012), we identified a cohort of new users of low-dose aspirin aged 40-84 years (N = 199 079; mean age at start of follow-up, 63.9 years) and followed them for up to 14 years (median 5.58 years). Incident ICB cases were identified and validated through linkage to hospitalization data and/or review of THIN records with free-text comments. Incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Eight hundred and eighty-one incident ICBs cases were identified: 407 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 283 cases of subdural hematoma (SDH), and 191 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Incidence rates per 100 person-years were 0.08 (95% CI 0.07-0.08) for all ICBs, 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.04) for ICH, 0.03 (95% CI 0.02-0.03) for SDH, and 0.02 (95% CI 0.01-0.02) for SAH. The ICB incidence rates per 100 person-years for individuals with an indication of primary CV disease prevention were 0.07 (95% CI 0.06-0.07) and 0.09 (95% CI 0.08-0.10) for secondary CV disease prevention. Incidence rates were higher in men for SDH, and higher in women for ICH and SAH. Conclusions Our results provide valuable estimates of the absolute ICB risk for

  9. Incidence of colorectal cancer in new users and non-users of low-dose aspirin without existing cardiovascular disease: A cohort study using The Health Improvement Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2017-12-01

    Evidence regarding the chemo-protective effects of aspirin has influenced expert opinion in favour of low-dose aspirin use in certain patient populations without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The effects of aspirin in reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) may be a large contributor to this favourable risk-benefit profile of low-dose aspirin in primary CVD prevention. Using The Health Improvement Network, we estimated the incidence of CRC in individuals free of CVD and either prescribed or not prescribed prophylactic low-dose aspirin. Two cohorts - new-users of low-dose aspirin (N=109,426) and a comparator cohort of non-users (N=154,056) at start of follow-up - were followed (maximum 13years) to identify incident CRC cases. Individuals with a record of CVD, cancer or low-dose aspirin prescription before start of follow-up were excluded. 2330 incident cases of CRC occurred; 885 in the aspirin cohort and 1445 in the comparator cohort, after mean follow-ups of 5.43years and 5.17years, respectively. Incidence rates of CRC per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval) were 14.90 (13.95-15.92) in the aspirin cohort and 18.15 (17.24-19.12) in the comparator cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.82 (0.76-0.89) adjusted for age, sex and primary care practitioner (PCP) visits in the previous year. Lower incidence rates were seen in the aspirin cohort for all strata evaluated (gender, age group and number of PCP visits in the previous year) except those aged ≥80years. Among most individuals without established CVD, initiation of low-dose aspirin is associated with a reduced incidence of CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of low dose aspirin on osseointegration around titanium implants in osteoporotic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Li, F L

    2018-02-09

    Objective: To investigate the effect of aspirin on osseointegration around titanium implants in ostoeporotic rats and to provide evidence for future researches and clinical application. Methods: A total of 60 female SD rats, aged 3-4 months, were divided into ovariectomy group (Ovx group, n= 48) and sham-ovariectomy group (Sham group, n= 12). The rats in Ovx group received ovariectomy and those in Sham group underwent sham-ovariectomy. Twelve weeks later, six rats in each group were randomly selected to confirm the osteoporosis models. The Ovx group was divided into 4 subgroups with 12 rats in each group, namely the osteoporosis group (OP group), and Aspirin groups (A1, A2, A3 group). Pure screw titanium implants were placed in the right tibia near metaphysis of all rats. Three days after implant surgery, aspirin groups were intragastrically administered aspirin at a dose of 2.06, 4.11, 8.21 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) (A1, A2, A3), and OP group and Sham group were fed the same amount of normal saline. Four and 12 weeks following implantations surgery, half of the rats in each group were randomly chosen and sacrificed. Implant bone contact rate (IBCR), combined bone lamella width (CBLW) and trabercular width (TW) were observed and calculated using histomorphometric measurement. Results: Four weeks after implantations surgery, the TW and CBLW of rats in A1 group [(39.60±2.77) and (27.56±4.14) μm] and the IBCR, TW and CBLW of rats in A2 group and A3 group [A2: (47.21±4.19)%, (48.74±3.20) and (35.91±3.79) μm; A3: (47.35±6.07)%, (50.27±5.25) and (40.66±2.11) μm] were much higher than those in OP group [(33.89±7.17)%, (32.20±6.10) and (19.77±6.80) μm]( P 0.05). Twelve weeks after implantations surgery, the IBCR and CBLW of rats in A1 group [ (85.86±3.64) %, (53.12±8.68) μm], and the IBCR, TW and CBLW of rats in A2 group and A3 group [A2: (85.64±3.97)%, (69.42±6.78) and (54.19±3.12) μm; A3: (86.22±3.48)%, (75.43±3.50) and (55.79±5.60) μm] were much higher

  11. Aspirin exerts high anti-cancer activity in PIK3CA-mutant colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mancang; Nishihara, Reiko; Chen, Yang; Li, Wanwan; Shi, Yan; Masugi, Yohei; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Kosumi, Keisuke; Liu, Li; da Silva, Annacarolina; Nowak, Jonathan A; Twombly, Tyler; Du, Chunxia; Koh, Hideo; Li, Wenbin; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Wolpin, Brian M; Giannakis, Marios; Aguirre, Andrew J; Bass, Adam J; Drew, David A; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2017-10-20

    Evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) may improve patient survival in PIK3CA -mutant colorectal carcinoma, but not in PIK3CA -wild-type carcinoma. However, whether aspirin directly influences the viability of PIK3CA -mutant colon cancer cells is poorly understood. We conducted in vitro experiments to test our hypothesis that the anti-proliferative activity of aspirin might be stronger for PIK3CA -mutant colon cancer cells than for PIK3CA -wild-type colon cancer cells. We measured the anti-proliferative effect of aspirin at physiologic concentrations in seven PIK3CA -mutant and six PIK3CA -wild-type human colon cancer cell lines. After exposure to aspirin, the apoptotic index and cell cycle phase of colon cancer cells were assessed. In addition, the effect of aspirin was examined in parental SW48 cells and SW48 cell clones with individual knock-in PIK3CA mutations of either c.3140A>G (p.H1047R) or c.1633G>A (p.E545K). Aspirin induced greater dose-dependent loss of cell viability in PIK3CA -mutant cells than in PIK3CA -wild-type cells after treatment for 48 and 72 hours. Aspirin treatment also led to higher proportions of apoptotic cells and G0/G1 phase arrest in PIK3CA -mutant cells than in PIK3CA -wild-type cells. Aspirin treatment of isogenic SW48 cells carrying a PIK3CA mutation, either c.3140A>G (p.H1047R) or c.1633G>A (p. E545K), resulted in a more significant loss of cell viability compared to wild-type controls. Our findings indicate that aspirin causes cell cycle arrest, induces apoptosis, and leads to loss of cell viability more profoundly in PIK3CA -mutated colon cancer cells than in PIK3CA -wild-type colon cancer cells. These findings support the use of aspirin to treat patients with PIK3CA -mutant colon cancer.

  12. High Serum Pepsinogen I and beta Helicobacter pylori Infection Are Risk Factors for Aspirin-Induced Gastroduodenal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Lei, Hongjun; Shi, Wei; Sun, Xiaobin; Tang, Yu; Ren, Chunrong

    2018-01-01

    Whether gastric hyperchlorhydria and Helicobacter pylori infection contribute to aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury still lacks evidence. Because serum pepsinogens (PGs) and gastrin-17 (G17) can reflect gastric acid secretion, this study intended to elucidate whether serum PGs, serum G17, and H. pylori infection are associated with aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury. A total of 60 patients taking low-dose aspirin for more than 1 month were enrolled in this study. Serum PG I, PG II, and G17 were determined using ELISA. A 14C-urea breath test was used for the detection of an H. pylori infection. The modified Lanza score was used to evaluate the degree of gastroduodenal injury under endoscopy. The median serum PG I level was significantly higher in the intensive gastroduodenal injury (IGI) group compared to that in the mild gastroduodenal injury group (155.0 vs. 116.6 ng/mL, p = 0.006). The H. pylori infection rate was significantly higher in the IGI group (73 vs. 40%, p = 0.037). Receiver operator characteristic curves analysis revealed that the cutoff value of PG I was 123 ng/mL, with 80% sensitivity and 61.4% specificity. H. pylori infection combined with PG I at >123 ng/mL had an OR (95% CI) of 15.8 (2.4 ± 104.5) for the prediction of aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury. Key Messages: Serum PG I and H. pylori infection could be used to identify potential high-risk aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Aspirin as a potential modality for the chemoprevention of breast cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies from 857,831 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liming; Shi, Leiyu; Zeng, Jingchun; Wen, Zehuai

    2017-06-20

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between aspirin use and breast cancer risk have drawn inconsistent results. In addition, the threshold effect of different doses, frequencies and durations of aspirin use in preventing breast cancer have yet to be established. The search yielded 13 prospective cohort studies (N=857,831 participants) that reported an average of 7.6 cases/1,000 person-years of breast cancer during a follow-up period of from 4.4 to 14 years. With a random effects model, a borderline significant inverse association was observed between overall aspirin use and breast cancer risk, with a summarized RR = 0.94 (P = 0.051, 95% CI 0.87-1.01). The linear regression model was a better fit for the dose-response relationship, which displayed a potential relationship between the frequency of aspirin use and breast cancer risk (RR = 0.97, 0.95 and 0.90 for 5, 10 and 20 times/week aspirin use, respectively). It was also a better fit for the duration of aspirin use and breast cancer risk (RR = 0.86, 0.73 and 0.54 for 5, 10 and 20 years of aspirin use). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases through early October 2016 for relevant prospective cohort studies of aspirin use and breast cancer risk. Meta-analysis of relative risks (RR) estimates associated with aspirin intake were presented by fixed or random effects models. The dose-response meta-analysis was performed by linear trend regression and restricted cubic spline regression. Our study confirmed a dose-response relationship between aspirin use and breast cancer risk. For clinical prevention, long term (>5 years) consistent use (2-7 times/week) of aspirin appears to be more effective in achieving a protective effect against breast cancer.

  14. Efecto de diferentes dosis de aspirina sobre el precondicionamiento contra el atontamiento en ovejas Effect of different doses of aspirin on preconditioning against stunning in conscious sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena C. Lascano

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se ha postulado que los antiinflamatorios no esteroides que actuan inhibiendo la ciclooxigenasa (COX podrían tener efectos nocivos sobre el corazón. Recientemente se ha demostrado que los inhibidores de la COX-2 bloquean la protección por precondicionamiento tardío (PT. Se desconoce sin embargo, el efecto que pudiera tener la aspirina, el antiinflamatorio no esteroide más ampliamente utilizado en la clínica, sobre el PT en mamíferos grandes. La aspirina actúa inhibiendo las dos isoenzimas de la ciclooxigenasa (COX-1 y COX-2, siendo empleada en dosis altas como droga antiinflamatoria y en dosis bajas como agente antitrombótico. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar qué efecto tienen distintas dosis de aspirina sobre la protección del PT contra el atontamiento y las arritmias en ovejas conscientes. Se consideraron 5 grupos; control (C: 12 min de isquemia (I y 2 hr de reperfusión (R; PT: 6 períodos de 5 min I-5 min R, 24 hr antes de la I de 12 min, y tres grupos igual que PT, pero con 1.5 (PTA1.5, 8 (PTA8 y 20 (PTA20 mg/kg de aspirina respectivamente, administrados 10 min antes de la primera I de precondicionamiento. Los resultados demostraron que la dosis antiinflamatoria de aspirina (20 mg/kg fue capaz de inhibir el PT contra el atontamiento (C vs PTA20, NS, mientras que las dosis bajas (1.5 mg/kg e intermedia (8 mg/kg no afectaron la protección (C vs PT, PT1.5 y PT8, pNon-steroid antiinflammatory drugs, inhibitors of cyclooxigenase (COX, have been postulated to have deletereous effects on the heart. Recently, COX-2 inhibitors have also been found to block late preconditioning (LP protection. Aspirin is the most widely clinically used non-steroid antiinflammatory drug; yet its effect on LP in big mammals has not been determined. It inhibits the two cyclooxigenase isoenzymes (COX-1 and COX-2, at high doses being used as an antiinflammatory drug and at low doses as an antithrombotic agent. The goal of this study was thus, to

  15. New use of low-dose aspirin and risk of colorectal cancer by stage at diagnosis: a nested case-control study in UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rodríguez, Luis A; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Bromley, Susan; Lanas, Angel; Cea Soriano, Lucía

    2017-09-07

    Evidence from clinical trial populations suggests low-dose aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Part of this reduction in risk might be due to protection against metastatic disease. We investigated the risk of CRC among new-users of low-dose aspirin (75-300 mg), including risk by stage at diagnosis. Using The Health Improvement Network, we conducted a cohort study with nested case-control analysis. Two cohorts (N = 170,336 each) aged 40-89 years from 2000 to 2009 and free of cancer were identified: i) new-users of low-dose aspirin, ii) non-users of low-dose aspirin, at start of follow-up, matched by age, sex and previous primary care practitioner visits. Patients were followed for up to 12 years to identify incident CRC. 10,000 frequency-matched controls were selected by incidence density sampling where the odds ratio is an unbiased estimator of the incidence rate ratio (RR). RRs with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Low-dose aspirin use was classified 'as-treated' independent from baseline exposure status to account for changes in exposure during follow-up. Current users of low-dose aspirin (use on the index date or in the previous 90 days) had a significantly reduced risk of CRC, RR 0.66 (95% CI 0.60-0.74). The reduction in risk was apparent across all age groups, and was unrelated to dose, indication, gender, CRC location or case-fatality status. Reduced risks occurred throughout treatment duration and with all low-dose aspirin doses. RRs by aspirin indication were 0.71 (0·63-0·79) and 0.60 (0.53-0.68) for primary and secondary cardiovascular protection, respectively. Among cases with staging information (n = 1421), RRs for current use of low-dose aspirin were 0.94 (0.66-1.33) for Dukes Stage A CRC, 0.54 (0.42-0.68) for Dukes B, 0.71 (0.56-0.91) for Dukes C, and 0.60 (0.48-0.74) for Dukes D. After 5 years' therapy, the RR for Dukes Stage A CRC was 0.53 (0.24-1.19). Patients starting low-dose aspirin therapy have a reduced

  16. Low-dose aspirin for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentali, F.; Ageno, W.; Rezoagli, E.; Rancan, E.; Squizzato, A.; Middeldorp, S.; Margaglione, M.; Grandone, E.

    2012-01-01

    . Background: It was hypothesized that low-dose aspirin could improve implantation rates in subsequent pregnancies in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Previous studies have shown inconclusive results or focused on surrogate endpoints. We

  17. of aspirin The use of renal enzymes indication of renal toxicity dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-30

    Apr 30, 1983 ... analysis revealed that aspirin significantly increased the output of both ... Acetylsalicylic acid (Disprin) I500 mg wa administered 3 times a day .... completely removing salicylic acid and metabolites from the urine, as could be ...

  18. Light, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study of the effect of low-dose aspirin during the proestrus phase on rat endometrium in the preimplantation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Utku; Baka, Meral; Turgut, Mehmet; Uyanikgil, Yiğit; Ulker, Sibel; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Tavmergen, Erol; Yurtseven, Mine

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate structural alterations in rat endometrium at preimplantation following treatment with aspirin beginning from proestrus by light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. Twenty rats were divided into control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10) groups. Experimental rats were treated with low-dose aspirin daily (2 mg/kg/day) during estrus, beginning from the proestrus phase, mated at end of cycle and treated with aspirin. Untreated pregnant rats were the control group. Rats in both groups were sacrificed at the 84th pregnancy hour; the uterus was rapidly removed and dissected free of surrounding adipose tissue. Uteri specimens from nonpregnant rats were transferred into fixative solution and processed for light, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study. Light and electron microscopy of endometrium from control rats conformed to mid-diestrus phase; endometrial histology of the aspirin-treated group conformed to late diestrus phase. The endometrial layer was significantly thicker in the aspirin-treated group compared to the untreated control group (p <0.001). No significant difference was found in vessel number between groups. Staining with alphaV integrin was more dense in the aspirin-treated group. Based on histologic findings, we suggest low-dose aspirin has positive effects on preparing endometrium before implantation.

  19. [Determination of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Zhao, Yuan-zheng; Zhang, Yi-na

    2002-05-01

    The contents of aspirin and free salicylic acid in lysinipirine injection were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Hypersil BDS C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (35:65:3, volume ratio) and the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The average recoveries of aspirin and salicylic acid added were 99.27% (RSD = 0.8%) and 99.61%(RSD = 1.3%), respectively. The calibration curves had good linearity in the range of 0.028 g/L -0.141 mg/L and 0.77 mg/L -3.85 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9999 and 0.9998 for aspirin and salicylic acid respectively.

  20. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  1. Aspirin Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Decompression Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Aspirin Desensitization Kevin C. Welch, MD Zara Patel, MD Introduction The term "aspirin-sensitive asthma" (also known as "aspirin triad" or " ...

  2. Aspirin overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002542.htm Aspirin overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An overdose of aspirin means you have too much aspirin in your ...

  3. Subchorionic hematomas are increased in early pregnancy in women taking low-dose aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Ashley; Sayago, M Mercedes; Kutteh, William H; Ke, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    To determine the frequency of subchorionic hematomas (SCH) in first-trimester ultrasound examinations of patients with infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and in patients from a general obstetric population. To determine if the method of assisted reproduction utilized or the use of anticoagulants, such as heparin and aspirin (ASA), influenced frequency of SCH. Prospective, cohort study. Fertility clinic and general obstetrics clinic. Five hundred and thirty-three women who were pregnant in the first-trimester. Not applicable. Frequencies of subchorionic hematomas in women based on diagnosis, use of anticoagulants, and fertility treatment. SCH were identified in 129/321 (40.2%) in the study group compared to 23/212 (10.9%) in the control group. Fertility diagnosis and the use of heparin did not appear to affect the frequency of SCH in the first trimester; however, SCH occurred at an almost four-fold increase in patients taking ASA compared to those not taking ASA, regardless of fertility diagnosis or method of fertility treatment. The use of ASA may be associated with an increased risk of developing a SCH during the first trimester. The increased frequencies of SCH in pregnancies of patients attending a fertility clinic compared to women from a general obstetrical practice was highly correlated with the use of ASA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preventive effects of lansoprazole and famotidine on gastric mucosal injury induced by low-dose aspirin in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masafumi; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Kodaira, Chise; Yamade, Mihoko; Uotani, Takahiro; Shirai, Naohito; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Tanaka, Tatsuo; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Hishida, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2011-07-01

    The preventive effects of lansoprazole and famotidine on low-dose aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in relation to gastric acidity were compared in healthy Japanese volunteers. Fifteen Helicobacter pylori-negative volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes were randomly administered aspirin 100 mg, aspirin plus famotidine 20 mg twice daily, or aspirin plus lansoprazole 15 mg once daily for 7 days each in a crossover fashion. Gastroscopy for the evaluation of mucosal injury based on modified Lanza score (MLS) and 24-hour intragastric pH monitoring were performed on day 7 of each regimen. Aspirin induced gastric mucosal injury (median MLS = 3). Lansoprazole significantly decreased MLS to 0, which was significantly lower than that by famotidine (MLS = 1) (P lansoprazole regimen were significantly higher than those with famotidine (P lansoprazole appeared to be more protective than famotidine against low-dose aspirin-induced mucosal injury but a larger well-controlled study is necessary to establish a definitive clinical benefit.

  5. [Aspirin and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancher, Adrien; Michel, Pierre; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Sefrioui, David

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide public health problem. Aspirin has been identified as a protective factor against the apparition of colorectal cancer. There are several mechanisms about the actions by aspirin on colorectal tumorogenesis. These are not perfectly known nowadays. On one hand, there are direct mechanisms on colorectal mucosa, on the other hand there are indirect mechanisms through platelet functions. Aspirin also plays a role by its anti-inflammatory action and the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Several studies show that long-term treatment with low-doses of aspirin decreases the incidence of adenomas and colorectal cancers. In the United States, aspirin is currently recommended for primary prevention of the risk of colorectal cancer in all patients aged 50 to 59, with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular event greater than 10 %. However, primary prevention with aspirin should not be a substitute for screening in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, aspirin seems to be beneficial when used in post-diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It could actually decrease the risk of metastasis in case of a localized colorectal cancer, and increase the survival in particular, concerning PIK3CA mutated tumors. The association of aspirin with neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer by radiochimiotherapy seems to have beneficial effects. French prospective randomized study is currently being conducted to investigate postoperative aspirin in colorectal cancers with a PIK3CA mutation. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Should patients prescribed long-term low-dose aspirin receive proton pump inhibitors? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran-Duy, A.; Vanmolkot, F. H.; Joore, M. A.; Hoes, A. W.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several clinical guidelines recommend the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients taking low-dose aspirin but report no or limited supporting data. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of co-administration of PPIs in patients taking low-dose

  7. Efficacy of Albis for the Prevention of Gastric Mucosal Injury Concomitant with the Use of Low-Dose Aspirin: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Gyun Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Long-term use of aspirin can be a risk factor of peptic ulcer diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Albis (Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. for the prevention of gastric mucosal injury caused by aspirin. Methods Aspirin users were enrolled and randomized into the Albis or placebo group. Screening and follow-up endoscopy were performed for modified Lanza scores (MLSs. Primary outcome was measured by the incidence rate of peptic ulcer, and secondary outcomes were measured by the incidence rate of gastritis, improvement in MLS and subjective symptoms. Results In total, 81 aspirin users were randomized, 43 in the Albis group and 38 in the placebo group. There was no incidence of peptic ulcer in both groups. The incidence of gastritis was significantly higher in the placebo group (44.4% vs. 10.0%, p=0.003; however, the scores of mucosal edema, hyperemia and hemorrhage were not statistically different between the two groups (p>0.05. The frequency of subjective symptoms were more improved in the Albis group than in the placebo group (p=0.023. Conclusions The incidence of gastritis was lower in the group that received low-dose aspirin and Albis. The development of peptic ulcer due to long-term use of aspirin might be prevented with concomitant use of Albis.

  8. The Protective Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin against Colorectal Cancer Is Unlikely Explained by Selection Bias: Results from Three Different Study Designs in Clinical Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Cea Soriano

    Full Text Available We conducted three differently designed nested case-control studies to evaluate whether the protective effect of low-dose aspirin against colorectal cancer (CRC is explained by selection bias.Using a large validated UK primary care database, we followed different cohorts of patients, who varied in their demographic and clinical characteristics, to identify first ever cases of CRC. In Studies 1 and 2, two cohorts were followed, i new users of low-dose aspirin at start of follow-up (N = 170,336 in Study 1, N = 171,527 in Study 2 and either ii non-users of low-dose aspirin (Study 1, N = 170,336 or new users of paracetamol (Study 2, N = 149,597 at start of follow-up. In Study 3 a single cohort of individuals näive to low-dose aspirin at the start of observation was followed. Controls were selected using incidence sampling and logistic regression used to obtain an unbiased estimate of the incidence rate ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Low-dose aspirin exposure was analyzed 'as-treated' before the index date (CRC date for cases, random date for controls.In the three studies, median (maximum follow-up was 5.1 (12, 5.8 (12 and 7.5 (13 years, respectively. 3033 incident CRC cases were identified in Study 1, 3174 in Study 2, and 12,333 in Study 3. Current use of low-dose aspirin was associated with a significantly reduced risk of 34%, 29% and 31% in the three studies, respectively; corresponding RRs (95% CIs were 0.66 (0.60-0.73, 0.71 (0.63-0.80 and 0.69 (0.64-0.74. In each study, significantly reduced risks of CRC were seen when low-dose aspirin was used for primary or secondary cardiovascular disease prevention, in both sexes, and across all age groups evaluated.Low-dose aspirin is associated with a significantly reduced risk of CRC. The consistency of our findings across different studies makes selection bias an unlikely explanation.

  9. Low-Dose Aspirin Use Does Not Increase Survival in 2 Independent Population-Based Cohorts of Patients With Esophageal or Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Andrew D; Busby, John; Johnston, Brian T; Baron, John A; Hughes, Carmel M; Coleman, Helen G; Cardwell, Chris R

    2018-03-01

    Preclinical studies have shown aspirin to have anticancer properties and epidemiologic studies have associated aspirin use with longer survival times of patients with cancer. We studied 2 large cohorts to determine the association between aspirin use and cancer-specific mortality in patients with esophageal or gastric cancer. We performed a population-based study using cohorts of patients newly diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancer, identified from cancer registries in England from 1998 through 2012 and the Scottish Cancer Registry from 2009 through 2012. Low-dose aspirin prescriptions were identified from linkages to the United Kingdom Clinical Research Practice Datalink in England and the Prescribing Information System in Scotland. Deaths were identified from linkage to national mortality records, with follow-up until September 2015 in England and January 2015 in Scotland. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific mortality by low-dose aspirin use after adjusting for potential confounders. Meta-analysis was used to pool results across the 2 cohorts. The combined English and Scottish cohorts contained 4654 patients with esophageal cancer and 3833 patients with gastric cancer, including 3240 and 2392 cancer-specific deaths, respectively. The proportions surviving 1 year, based on cancer-specific mortality, were similar in aspirin users vs non-users after diagnosis with esophageal cancer (48% vs 50% in England and 49% vs 46% in Scotland, respectively) or gastric cancer (58% vs 57% in England and 59% vs 55% in Scotland, respectively). There was no association between postdiagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and cancer-specific mortality among patients with esophageal cancer (pooled adjusted HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09) or gastric cancer (pooled adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.85-1.08). Long-term aspirin use was not associated with cancer-specific mortality after diagnosis of

  10. Regular and low-dose aspirin, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and prospective risk of HER2-defined breast cancer: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A; Canchola, Alison J; Moy, Lisa M; Neuhausen, Susan L; Chung, Nadia T; Lacey, James V; Bernstein, Leslie

    2017-05-01

    Regular users of aspirin may have reduced risk of breast cancer. Few studies have addressed whether risk reduction pertains to specific breast cancer subtypes defined jointly by hormone receptor (estrogen and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression. This study assessed the prospective risk of breast cancer (overall and by subtype) according to use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) in a cohort of female public school professionals in California. In 1995 - 1996, participants in the California Teachers Study completed a baseline questionnaire on family history of cancer and other conditions, use of NSAIDs, menstrual and reproductive history, self-reported weight and height, living environment, diet, alcohol use, and physical activity. In 2005-2006, 57,164 participants provided some updated information, including use of NSAIDs and 1457 of these participants developed invasive breast cancer before January 2013. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models provided hazard rate ratios (HRR) for the association between NSAID use and risk of invasive breast cancer as well as hormone receptor- and HER2-defined subtypes. Developing breast cancer was associated inversely with taking three or more tablets of low-dose aspirin per week (23% of participants). Among women reporting this exposure, the HRR was 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.98) compared to those not taking NSAIDs and this was particularly evident in women with the hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative subtype (HRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.96). Use of three or more tablets of "other" NSAIDs was marginally associated with lower risk of breast cancer (HRR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.00). Other associations with NSAIDs were generally null. Our observation of reduced risk of breast cancer, among participants who took three or more tablets of low-dose aspirin weekly, is consistent with other reports looking at

  11. A randomized controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of calcium supplement plus low-dose aspirin on hs-CRP, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Z; Samimi, M; Heidarzadeh, Z; Khorrammian, H; Tabassi, Z

    2012-05-15

    Increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors, markers of oxidative stress and insulin resistance during pregnancy have been associated with the development of pre-eclampsia. There is some evidence to suggest that calcium supplement and aspirin can reduce the risk of the disorder. To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of consumed calcium supplement plus aspirin on high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), oxidative stress parameters and insulin resistance in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of consumed calcium supplement plus low-dose aspirin on hs-CRP, oxidative stress parameters and insulin resistance among Iranian pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia. This randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial was carried out among 42 pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia, primigravida, aged 18-40 year old who were carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester. Subjects were randomly assigned to received either the placebo (n = 22) or calcium supplement plus low-dose aspirin (n = 20) for 9 weeks. Calcium supplement plus low-dose aspirin were containing 500 mg carbonate calcium plus 80 mg aspirin. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 9 weeks intervention to measure serum hs-CRP, oxidative stress parameters including plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Glutathione (GSH), Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), serum insulin and HOMA-IR score. Consumption of calcium supplement plus low-dose aspirin resulted in a significant difference serum hs-CRP levels as compared to the placebo (102.87 vs. 3227.75 ng mL(-1), p = 0.01). Also, mean changes for plasma TAC (68.96 vs. -74.46 mmol L(-1), p = 0.04) and total GSH levels (304.33 vs. -39.33 micromol L(-1), p = 0.03) were significantly different between the two groups. No significant differences were found comparing calcium supplement plus low-dose aspirin and placebo in terms of their effects on FPG

  12. Monitoring aspirin therapy with the Platelet Function Analyzer-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jette; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low platelet response to aspirin has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of vascular events. The reported prevalence of aspirin low-responsiveness varies, which may be explained by poor reproducibility of the methods used to evaluate aspirin response and low compliance....... The Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) is a commonly used platelet function test. We aimed to assess the reproducibility of the PFA-100 and the agreement with optical platelet aggregometry (OPA) in healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with low-dose aspirin....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 43 patients with CAD took part in the study. During treatment with aspirin 75 mg daily, all participants had platelet function assessed in duplicate with the PFA-100 and OPA on 4 consecutive days. Additionally, platelet function was assessed before...

  13. Effect of different aspirin doses on arterial thrombosis after canine carotid endarterectomy: a scanning electron microscope and indium-111-labeled platelet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercius, M.S.; Chandler, W.F.; Ford, J.W.; Swanson, D.P.; Burke, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis, the appropriate dosage of aspirin remains quite controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of aspirin (0.5 mg/kg vs. 10 mg/kg) on mural thrombus formation after carotid endarterectomy. Eighteen hours after oral aspirin administration, 20 endarterectomies were performed on mongrel dogs with the use of the operating microscope. Blood flow was then restored for 3 hours and the vessels were prepared for investigation with the scanning electron microscope. Ten endarterectomies were also performed on unmedicated dogs as controls. Five minutes before vessel unclamping, autologous indium-111-labeled platelets were administered intravenously, and the endarterectomized portions of the vessels were studied with a gamma counter system after harvesting. Group 1, the control group, revealed extensive mural thrombus consisting of platelet aggregates, fibrin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Six of the 10 vessels in Group 2, premedicated with 0.5 mg of aspirin per kg, demonstrated varying amounts of mural thrombus. Group 3 (10 vessels), premedicated with 10 mg of aspirin per kg, revealed a platelet monolayer completely covering the exposed vessel wall media, with scattered white blood cells and infrequent fine fibrin strands overlying the platelet surface. The mean (+/- SD) radioactivity per group expressed as counts/minute/mm2 was: Group 1--2055.3 +/- 1905.5, log . 7.253 +/- 0.926; Group 2--1235.6 +/- 1234.3, log . 6.785 +/- 0.817; Group 3--526 +/- 433.06, log . 5.989 +/- 0.774

  14. Aspirin and omeprazole for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients at risk for aspirin-associated gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rayado, Guillermo; Sostres, Carlos; Lanas, Angel

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and low-dose aspirin is considered the cornerstone of the cardiovascular disease prevention. However, low-dose aspirin use is associated with gastrointestinal adverse effects in the whole gastrointestinal tract. In this setting, co-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor is the most accepted strategy to reduce aspirin related upper gastrointestinal damage. In addition, some adverse effects have been described with proton pump inhibitors long term use. Areas covered: Low-dose aspirin related beneficial and adverse effects in cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract are reviewed. In addition, this manuscript summarizes current data on upper gastrointestinal damage prevention and adverse events with proton pump inhibition. Finally, we discuss the benefit/risk ratio of proton pump inhibitor use in patients at risk of gastrointestinal damage taking low-dose aspirin. Expert commentary: Nowadays, with the current available evidence, the combination of low-dose aspirin with proton pump inhibitor is the most effective therapy for cardiovascular prevention in patients at high gastrointestinal risk. However, further studies are needed to discover new effective strategies with less related adverse events.

  15. Comparison of antiplatelet activity of garlic tablets with cardio-protective dose of aspirin in healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shafiekhani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some of the adverse effects of aspirin including peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and aspirin resistance compelled researchers to find a suitable alternative with fewer adverse effects. In this clinical trial, we aimed to find the effective antiplatelet dose of garlic. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT was conducted on 62 healthy volunteers of 20-50 years old. All volunteers used 80 mg aspirin per day for 1 week and at the end of this time, platelet aggregation (PA induced by 4 agonists acting in aggregation pathway including adenosinediphosphate (20 μmol/l, epinephrine (20 μmol/l, collagen(0.19 mg/ ml and arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ ml was measured by Light Transmittance Aggregometry (LTA in all participants. After one month washout period, volunteers were randomized into 3 groups and each received 1, 2 or 3 garlic tablets (1250 mg a day for 1 month. After one month, PA was examined in all groups. Results: The mean ±SD of the age of all volunteers was 28.60 ± 9.00 years. In addition, 52.00 % of our volunteers were male and 48.00% of them were female. Garlic tablet didnot have significant effect on PA at any dose. However, 30% of volunteers in the group that used 3 garlic tablets/day reported adverse effect (i.e. bleeding. No significant association between sex, age and PA was observed. Conclusion:  In this study, we were unable to determine the effective anti-platelet dose of garlic which that could be equal to that of aspirin anti-platelet activity, as assessed LTA method.

  16. Effects of aspirin and enoxaparin in a rat model of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Liu; Liu, De-Liang

    2017-09-21

    To examine the effects of aspirin and enoxaparin on liver function, coagulation index and histopathology in a rat model of liver fibrosis. METHODS Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 5) and model group (n = 40). Thioacetamide (TAA) was used to induce liver fibrosis in the model group. TAA-induced fibrotic rats received TAA continuously (n = 9), TAA + low-dose aspirin (n = 9), TAA + high-dose aspirin (n = 9) or TAA + enoxaparin (n = 9) for 4 wk. All rats were euthanized after 4 wk, and both hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining were performed to observe pathological changes in liver tissue. Liver fibrosis was assessed according to the METAVIR score. Compared with untreated cirrhotic controls, a significant improvement in fibrosis grade was observed in the low-dose aspirin, high-dose aspirin and enoxaparin treated groups, especially in the high-dose aspirin treated group. Alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were higher, albumin was lower and both prothrombin time and international normalized ratio were prolonged in the four treatment groups compared to controls. No significant differences among the four groups were observed. Aspirin and enoxaparin can alleviate liver fibrosis in this rat model.

  17. Effect of omega 3 fatty acids plus low-dose aspirin on both clinical and biochemical profiles of patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwakeel, N M; Hazaa, H H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was, first, to investigate the effect of omega 3 (ω3) fatty acids plus low-dose aspirin with closed debridement in the treatment of patients with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and second, to estimate the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3) in response to the supposed modulatory therapy. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 DM were equally divided into groups 1 (patients received ω3 plus low-dose aspirin for 6 mo) and 2 (patients received placebo during the same period). Evaluation was done clinically (pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, gingival index and plaque index) and biochemically by estimating levels of interleukin 1β and MCP-3 in gingival crevicular fluid, plus investigating the effect of treatment on glycemic control by levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c in serum. All data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 mo after treatment. Subjects of group 1 showed a highly significant reduction in pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, gingival index (p ≤ 0.01) after 3 and 6 mo compared to group 2. Glycated hemoglobin A1c levels showed a reduction in both groups at the end of the study period, with a non-significant difference (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the treatment protocol showed a significant reduction in levels of MCP-3 and interleukin 1β at 3 and 6 mo compared to the placebo group. Within the limits of the present study, ω3 plus low-dose aspirin proved effective as an adjunct to closed periodontal therapy in the management of patients with periodontitis and type 2 DM. Moreover, MCP-3 was proven to be effective both in the pathogenesis of the disease and as a biomarker in evaluating the response to periodontal treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10......,010 patients who were preparing to undergo noncardiac surgery and were at risk for vascular complications to receive aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. The results of the aspirin trial are reported here. The patients were stratified according to whether they had not been taking aspirin before...... the study (initiation stratum, with 5628 patients) or they were already on an aspirin regimen (continuation stratum, with 4382 patients). Patients started taking aspirin (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo just before surgery and continued it daily (at a dose of 100 mg) for 30 days in the initiation stratum...

  19. Phenomenology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapowal, A G; Simon, H U; Schmitz-Schumann, M

    1995-01-01

    Aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis is a non-allergic, non-infectious perennial eosinophilic rhinitis starting in middle age and rarely seen in children. It may also been seen in atopic patients who have developed a mixed type rhinitis with recurrent airway infections. There is an intolerance to aspirin and most other NSAID. An intolerance to tartrazine, food additives, alcohol, narcotics and local anaesthetics can follow. Most aspirin-sensitive patients develop nasal polyps. Untreated, it can lead to asthma. The frequency of aspirin intolerance is 6.18% in patients with perennial rhinitis and 14.68% in patients with nasal polyps. Immunologic studies of the blood and the nasal polyps show a hyperreactive immune system with an activation of the eosinophil granulocytes due to a TH1-lymphocyte-activation. In atopic subjects with a mixed type rhinitis, we found a TH2- and B-lymphocyte-activation as well. Inhibition of eosinophil apoptosis might be a second remarkable change in the immune system of aspirin-sensitive patients. A key pathogenic event for aspirin sensitivity is the change of the leukotriene pathway for arachidonic acid metabolism releasing high amounts of leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4, effective chemoattractants and activators of inflammatory cells. For the diagnosis of aspirin intolerance, nasal, bronchial and oral challenge are available. The sensitivity of nasal challenge with lysine-aspirin for the diagnosis of aspirin-sensitive rhinitis is 0.93, the specificity 0.97. It is the safest test in aspirin-sensitive asthmatics causing bronchial side effects only in 0.45%. Therapy of aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis includes avoidance of aspirin and NSAID. A general down regulation of the immune response with glucocorticosteroids is an effective means. We prefer a maintenance dose of budesonid 400 micrograms a day. Systemic steroids for a reversibility test or in exacerbation due to viral infection are given in a dose of 50 mg a day for one week. If steroids

  20. Effect of Aspirin on Spinal Cord Injury: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Reihani Kermani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory drug, peroxyl radical scavenger, and antioxidant agent that inhibits phospholipases, nitric oxide synthetases, and cyclooxygenase enzymes. The existing literature contains no studies on the effects of various doses of aspirin on spinal cord injury (SCI. Therefore, we sought to investigate the putative effects of aspirin on experimental SCI. The weight-drop injury model was used to produce SCI in 100 albino Wistar rats. The animals were allocated to five groups: a control group, where the rats did not undergo any surgical or medical intervention except for anesthesia; a sham-treated group, where laminectomy was performed without SCI and no further therapy was administered; and three other groups, where the rats with SCI received low-dose aspirin [20 mg/kg], high-dose aspirin [80 mg/kg], and a vehicle, respectively. Half of the rats were sacrificed 24 hours later, and their spinal cords were excised for biochemical studies. The other rats were subjected to Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale scoring once a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Aspirin decreased lipid peroxidation following SCI as the mean (± standard error catalase level was significantly higher in the high-dose aspirin group (46.10±12.01 than in the sham-treated group (16.07±2.42 and the vehicle-treated group (15.31±3.20 (P<0.05; P<0.05, respectively. Both of the groups treated with high-dose and low-dose aspirin demonstrated a higher mean BBB score than did the control group (P<0.001 and the sham-treated group (P<0.001. Our data provide evidence in support of the potential effects of aspirin in biochemical and neurobehavioral recovery after SCI.

  1. A Proteomic Approach to Analyze the Aspirin-mediated Lysine Acetylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Michael H; Cole, Christian; Scullion, Paul; Wilkie, Ross; Westwood, Nicholas J; Stark, Lesley A; Hay, Ronald T

    2017-02-01

    Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid is widely used to control pain, inflammation and fever. Important to this function is its ability to irreversibly acetylate cyclooxygenases at active site serines. Aspirin has the potential to acetylate other amino acid side-chains, leading to the possibility that aspirin-mediated lysine acetylation could explain some of its as-yet unexplained drug actions or side-effects. Using isotopically labeled aspirin-d 3 , in combination with acetylated lysine purification and LC-MS/MS, we identified over 12000 sites of lysine acetylation from cultured human cells. Although aspirin amplifies endogenous acetylation signals at the majority of detectable endogenous sites, cells tolerate aspirin mediated acetylation very well unless cellular deacetylases are inhibited. Although most endogenous acetylations are amplified by orders of magnitude, lysine acetylation site occupancies remain very low even after high doses of aspirin. This work shows that while aspirin has enormous potential to alter protein function, in the majority of cases aspirin-mediated acetylations do not accumulate to levels likely to elicit biological effects. These findings are consistent with an emerging model for cellular acetylation whereby stoichiometry correlates with biological relevance, and deacetylases act to minimize the biological consequences of nonspecific chemical acetylations. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. A Proteomic Approach to Analyze the Aspirin-mediated Lysine Acetylome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Michael H.; Cole, Christian; Scullion, Paul; Wilkie, Ross; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Stark, Lesley A.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid is widely used to control pain, inflammation and fever. Important to this function is its ability to irreversibly acetylate cyclooxygenases at active site serines. Aspirin has the potential to acetylate other amino acid side-chains, leading to the possibility that aspirin-mediated lysine acetylation could explain some of its as-yet unexplained drug actions or side-effects. Using isotopically labeled aspirin-d3, in combination with acetylated lysine purification and LC-MS/MS, we identified over 12000 sites of lysine acetylation from cultured human cells. Although aspirin amplifies endogenous acetylation signals at the majority of detectable endogenous sites, cells tolerate aspirin mediated acetylation very well unless cellular deacetylases are inhibited. Although most endogenous acetylations are amplified by orders of magnitude, lysine acetylation site occupancies remain very low even after high doses of aspirin. This work shows that while aspirin has enormous potential to alter protein function, in the majority of cases aspirin-mediated acetylations do not accumulate to levels likely to elicit biological effects. These findings are consistent with an emerging model for cellular acetylation whereby stoichiometry correlates with biological relevance, and deacetylases act to minimize the biological consequences of nonspecific chemical acetylations. PMID:27913581

  3. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Low-Dose Aspirin Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Preeclampsia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Erika F; Hauspurg, Alisse K; Rouse, Dwight J

    2015-12-01

    To develop a decision model to evaluate the risks, benefits, and costs of different approaches to aspirin prophylaxis for the approximately 4 million pregnant women in the United States annually. We created a decision model to evaluate four approaches to aspirin prophylaxis in the United States: no prophylaxis, prophylaxis per American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the College) recommendations, prophylaxis per U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations, and universal prophylaxis. We included the costs associated with aspirin, preeclampsia, preterm birth, and potential aspirin-associated adverse effects. TreeAge Pro 2011 was used to perform the analysis. The estimated rate of preeclampsia would be 4.18% without prophylaxis compared with 4.17% with the College approach in which 0.35% (n=14,000) of women receive aspirin, 3.83% with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force approach in which 23.5% (n=940,800) receive aspirin, and 3.81% with universal prophylaxis. Compared with no prophylaxis, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force approach would save $377.4 million in direct medical care costs annually, and universal prophylaxis would save $365 million assuming 4 million births each year. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force approach is the most cost-beneficial in 79% of probabilistic simulations. Assuming a willingness to pay of $100,000 per neonatal quality-adjusted life-year gained, the universal approach is the most cost-effective in more than 99% of simulations. Both the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force approach and universal prophylaxis would reduce morbidity, save lives, and lower health care costs in the United States to a much greater degree than the approach currently recommended by the College.

  4. A short-term risk-benefit analysis of occasional and regular use of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention of vascular diseases: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Chen; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2015-01-09

    To calculate the short-term risk-benefit effect of occasional and regular use of low-dose aspirin (≤100 mg/day) in primary prevention. Two retrospective cohort studies. Taiwan. 63 788 and 24 910 patients of two nationwide population-based studies were examined. Two databases of 1 000 000 patients were randomly sampled from data of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) for years 1997-2000 (NHI 2000) and 2005 (NHI 2005). In NHI 2000, 63 788 patients 30-95 years of age were found not to have previously been prescribed aspirin before 1 January 2000, but to have first been prescribed low-dose aspirin after that date. They were also found to be at risk of first hospitalisation for any major vascular diseases including haemorrhage (major gastrointestinal haemorrhage or cerebral haemorrhage) and ischaemia (acute myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke) after their first prescription. We also applied it to NHI 2005, and the number of eligible patients was 24 910. Patients prescribed low-dose aspirin for risk. Vascular diseases. In NHI 2000, the overall unadjusted rates of haemorrhage and ischaemia were 0.09% and 0.21%, respectively, for occasional users and 0.32% and 2.30%, respectively, for regular users. Adjusted net clinical risk of low-dose aspirin use between the two groups was 2.24% (95% CI 2.03% to 2.48%; ppreventing major vascular diseases in primary prevention. Prescribing regular low-dose aspirin for primary prevention should be done with caution. Future studies should explore the risk-benefit effect of long-term low-dose aspirin use in primary prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Systemic low-dose aspirin and clopidogrel independently attenuate reflex cutaneous vasodilation in middle-aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowatz, Lacy A; Jennings, John D; Lang, James A; Kenney, W Larry

    2010-06-01

    Chronic systemic platelet cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition with low-dose aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] significantly attenuates reflex cutaneous vasodilation in middle-aged humans, whereas acute, localized, nonisoform-specific inhibition of vascular COX with intradermal administration of ketorolac does not alter skin blood flow during hyperthermia. Taken together, these data suggest that platelets may be involved in reflex cutaneous vasodilation, and this response is inhibited with systemic pharmacological platelet inhibition. We hypothesized that, similar to ASA, specific platelet ADP receptor inhibition with clopidogrel would attenuate reflex vasodilation in middle-aged skin. In a double-blind crossover design, 10 subjects (53+/-2 yr) were instrumented with four microdialysis fibers for localized drug administration and heated to increase body core temperature [oral temperature (Tor)] 1 degrees C during no systemic drug (ND), and after 7 days of systemic ASA (81 mg) and clopidogrel (75 mg) treatment. Skin blood flow (SkBF) was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry over each site assigned as 1) control, 2) nitric oxide synthase inhibited (NOS-I; 10 mM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), 3) COX inhibited (COX-I; 10 mM ketorolac), and 4) NOS-I+COX-I. Data were normalized and presented as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (%CVCmax; 28 mM sodium nitroprusside+local heating to 43 degrees C). During ND conditions, SkBF with change (Delta) in Tor=1.0 degrees C was 56+/-3% CVCmax. Systemic low-dose ASA and clopidogrel both attenuated reflex vasodilation (ASA: 43+/-3; clopidogrel: 32+/-3% CVCmax; both P0.05). NOS-I attenuated vasodilation in ND and ASA (ND: 28+/-6; ASA: 25+/-4% CVCmax; both P0.05). NOS-I+COX-I was not different compared with NOS-I alone in either systemic treatment condition. Both systemic ASA and clopidogrel reduced the time required to increase Tor 1 degrees C (ND: 58+/-3 vs. ASA: 45+/-2; clopidogrel: 39+/-2 min; both Preflex

  6. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Bellesini, Marta; Takeda, Andrea; Middeldorp, Saskia; Donadini, Marco Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin is the prophylactic antiplatelet drug of choice for people with cardiovascular disease. Adding a second antiplatelet drug to aspirin may produce additional benefit for people at high risk and people with established cardiovascular disease. This is an update to a previously published review

  7. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Keller, Tymen; Romualdi, Erica; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin is the prophylactic antiplatelet drug of choice for people with cardiovascular disease. Adding a second antiplatelet drug to aspirin may produce additional benefit for those at high risk and those with established cardiovascular disease. To quantify the benefit and harm of adding clopidogrel

  8. A prospective randomized trial of aspirin-clopidogrel combination therapy and dose-adjusted warfarin on indices of thrombogenesis and platelet activation in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sridhar; Blann, Andrew D; Chin, Bernard S P; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2002-08-07

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not combination aspirin-clopidogrel therapy would reduce markers of thrombogenesis and platelet activation in atrial fibrillation (AF), in a manner similar to warfarin. Dose-adjusted warfarin is beneficial as thromboprophylaxis in AF, but potentially serious side effects and regular monitoring leave room for alternative therapies. METHODS; We randomized 70 patients with nonvalvular AF who were not on any antithrombotic therapy to either dose-adjusted warfarin (international normalized ratio 2 to 3) (Group I) or combination therapy with aspirin 75 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg (Group II). Plasma indices of thrombogenesis (fibrin D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2) and platelet activation (beta-thromboglobulin [TG] and soluble P-selectin) were quantified, along with platelet aggregation responses to standard agonists, at baseline (pretreatment) and at six weeks posttreatment. RESULTS; Pretreatment levels of fibrin D-dimer (p = 0.001), beta-TG (p = 0.01) and soluble P-selectin (p = 0.03) were raised in patients with AF, whereas plasma prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels and platelet aggregation were not significantly different compared with controls. Dose-adjusted warfarin reduced plasma levels of fibrin D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2 and beta-thromboglobulin levels at six weeks (all p failed to reduce plasma indices of thrombogenesis and platelet activation in AF, although some aspects of ex vivo platelet aggregation were altered. Anticoagulation with warfarin may be superior to combination aspirin-clopidogrel therapy as thromboprophylaxis in AF.

  9. Aspirin in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: current facts and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Patrono, C

    1996-09-01

    The role of aspirin in the antithrombotic strategy of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) is highly controversial. Long considered unsafe on the basis of a single clinical trial testing very high doses in PV patients, aspirin is being increasingly used at lower dosage. The rationale for the use of aspirin in patients with PV and ET is provided by the efficacy of this agent in the treatment of microcirculatory disturbances of thrombocythemic states associated with myeloproliferative disorders and by recent evidence that asymptomatic PV and ET patients have persistently increased thromboxane (TX) A2-biosynthesis. This increase, which most likely reflects enhanced platelet activation in vivo, is independent of the platelet mass and blood viscosity and largely supressed by a short term low-dose aspirin regimen (50 mg/day for 7 days). Since enhanced TXA2 biosynthesis may play a role in transducing the increased thrombotic risk associated with PV and ET, long-term low-dose aspirin administration has been proposed as a possible antithombotic strategy in these subjects. The safety of this treatment in PV patients has been recently reassessed by the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Policitemia Vera (GISP) which has followed for over one year 112 patients randomized to receive 40 mg/day aspirin or placebo. In the same study, serum TXB2 measurements provided evidence that the low-dose aspirin regimen tested was fully effective in inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase activity. On this basis, a large scale trial aimed at assessing the antithrombotic efficacy of this approach is currently being organized. In patients with ET both the minimal aspirin dose required for complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and the safety of long-term aspirin administration need to be established prior to extensive clinical evaluation of this strategy.

  10. Effects of low dose aspirin (50 mg/day), low dose aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anticoagulant agents after internal mammary artery bypass grafting: patency and clinical outcome at 1 year. CABADAS Research Group of the Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of The Netherlands. Prevention of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Occlusion by Aspirin, Dipyridamole and Acenocoumarol/Phenprocoumon Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J.; Brutel de la Rivière, A.; van Gilst, W. H.; Hillege, H. L.; Pfisterer, M.; Kootstra, G. J.; Dunselman, P. H.; Mulder, B. J.; Lie, K. I.

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of aspirin, aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anticoagulant agents in the prevention of internal mammary artery graft occlusion. Antithrombotic drugs increase vein graft patency after coronary artery bypass surgery. Their benefit after

  11. Impact of Blood Type, Functional Polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 Gene Promoter and Clinical Factors on the Development of Peptic Ulcer during Cardiovascular Prophylaxis with Low-Dose Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Yao; Chen, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Angela; Tsay, Feng-Woei; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Peng, Nan-Jing; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Ping-I

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the impact of blood type, functional polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 gene promoter, and clinical factors on the development of peptic ulcer during cardiovascular prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin. Methods. In a case-control study including 111 low-dose aspirin users with peptic ulcers and 109 controls (asymptomatic aspirin users), the polymorphism (T-1676C) of the COX-1 gene promoter was genotyped, and blood type, H pylori status, and clinical factors were assessed. Results. Univariate analysis showed no significant differences in genotype frequencies of the COX-1 gene at position -1676 between the peptic ulcer group and control group. Multivariate analysis revealed that blood type O, advanced age, history of peptic ulcer, and concomitant use of NSAID were the independent risk factors for the development of peptic ulcer with the odds ratios of the 2.1, 3.1, 27.6, and 2.9, respectively. Conclusion. The C-1676T polymorphism in the COX-1 gene promoter is not a risk factor for ulcer formation during treatment with low-dose aspirin. Blood type O, advanced age, history of peptic ulcer, and concomitant use of NSAID are of independent significance in predicting peptic ulcer development during treatment with low-dose aspirin. PMID:25243161

  12. Aspirin resistance as cardiovascular risk after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Barbara; Varga, Adam; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Andras; Papp, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Szakaly, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35-40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low ( i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 μM) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.

  13. Effect of transcervical resection of adhesion combined with low-dose aspirin on uterine artery blood flow and Smad2/3 in endometrial tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Wen Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of transcervical resection of adhesion combined with lowdose aspirin on uterine artery blood flow and Smad2/3 in endometrial tissue. Methods: A total of 78 patients with severe intrauterine adhesions who received transcervical resection of adhesion in our hospital between June 2012 and October 2014 were prospectively studied and randomly divided into two groups, observation group received postoperative estrogenprogestogen combined with low-dose aspirin therapy, and control group received postoperative estrogen-progestogen therapy. Ultrasound examination was conducted before and after treatment to determine uterine artery and endometrial blood flow parameters, intrauterine adhesion tissue was collected to detect the expression levels of Smad2 and Smad3 as well as downstream molecules, and serum was collected to determine the levels of cytokines. Results: On the ovulation day after 3 cycles of treatment, uterine artery RI and PI of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, and endometrial VI, FI and VFI were significantly higher than those of control group; uPA expression level in intrauterine adhesion tissue of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group, Smad2, Smad3, PAI-1, ADAM15 and ADAM17 expression levels were significantly lower than those of control group, and serum TGF-β, VEGF, CTGF, IGF-I and TNF-α levels were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusions: Transcervical resection of adhesion combined with low-dose aspirin therapy can improve the postoperative uterine artery and endometrial blood flow state, inhibit extracellular matrix deposition mediated by Smad2/3 signaling pathway and prevent intrauterine re-adhesion in patients with intrauterine adhesions.

  14. Gastric and renal effects of COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs in rats receiving low-dose aspirin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Goetz MORO

    Full Text Available Abstract The consumption of low-dose aspirin (LDA to prevent cardiovascular disease continues to increase worldwide. Consequently, the number of chronic LDA users seeking dental procedures that require complementary acute anti-inflammatory medication has also grown. Considering the lack of literature evaluating this interaction, we analyzed the gastric and renal effects caused by a selective COX-2 inhibitor (etoricoxib and a non-selective COX-2 inhibitor (ibuprofen nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID in rats receiving chronic LDA therapy. Male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC - vehicle; LDA; LDA + ibuprofen; ibuprofen; LDA + etoricoxib; and etoricoxib and submitted to long-term LDA therapy with a subsequent NSAID administration for three days by gavage. After the experimental period, we analyzed gastric and renal tissues and quantified serum creatinine levels. The concomitant use of LDA with either NSAID induced the highest levels of gastric damage when compared to the CMC group (F = 20.26, p 0.05. These results suggest that even the acute use of an NSAID (regardless of COX-2 selectivity can induce gastric damage when combined with the long-term use of low-dose aspirin in an animal model. Additional studies, including clinical assessments, are thus needed to clarify this interaction, and clinicians should be careful of prescribing NSAIDs to patients using LDA.

  15. PPI versus Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonists for Prevention of Upper Gastrointestinal Injury Associated with Low-Dose Aspirin: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mo

    Full Text Available This study compared proton pump inhibitors (PPIs and histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs for prevention of low-dose aspirin (LDA-related gastrointestinal (GI erosion, ulcer and bleeding. Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and WanFang Data were searched from the date of their establishment to December 31, 2013. Randomized controlled trials comparing PPIs and H2RAs for prevention of GI injury associated with low-dose aspirin (LDA were collected. Two reviewers independently abstracted studies and patient characteristics and appraised study quality using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. We included nine RCTs involving 1047 patients. The meta-analysis showed that PPIs were superior to H2RAs for prevention of LDA-associated GI erosion/ulcer [odds ratio (OR=0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16-0.50] and bleeding (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14-0.59. In conclusion, PPIs were superior to H2RAs for prevention of LDA-related GI erosion/ulcer and bleeding. Higher quality, large, multicenter RCTs are needed to demonstrate the preventive effect of the two acid-suppressive drugs.

  16. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2006-09-20

    To balance the cardiovascular benefits from low-dose aspirin against the gastrointestinal harm caused, studies have considered the coronary heart disease risk for each individual but not their gastrointestinal risk profile. We characterized the gastrointestinal risk profile of low-dose aspirin users in real clinical practice, and estimated the excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin among patients with different gastrointestinal risk profiles. To characterize aspirin users in terms of major gastrointestinal risk factors (i.e., advanced age, male sex, prior ulcer history and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), we used The General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom and the Base de Datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria in Spain. To estimate the baseline risk of upper gastrointestinal complications according to major gastrointestinal risk factors and the excess risk attributable to aspirin within levels of these factors, we used previously published meta-analyses on both absolute and relative risks of upper gastrointestinal complications. Over 60% of aspirin users are above 60 years of age, 4 to 6% have a recent history of peptic ulcers and over 13% use other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The estimated average excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin is around 5 extra cases per 1,000 aspirin users per year. However, the excess risk varies in parallel to the underlying gastrointestinal risk and might be above 10 extra cases per 1,000 person-years in over 10% of aspirin users. In addition to the cardiovascular risk, the underlying gastrointestinal risk factors have to be considered when balancing harms and benefits of aspirin use for an individual patient. The gastrointestinal harms may offset the cardiovascular benefits in certain groups of patients where the gastrointestinal risk is high and the cardiovascular risk is low.

  17. Combining aspirin with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure: how safe is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, H; Mahajan, A; Bansal, N; Vaidya, S; Pathak, L

    1998-11-01

    The above discussion on the interaction of aspirin and ACE inhibitors seems to suggest that aspirin in high doses may have adverse interaction with ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure but the data obtained is not sufficient or conclusive to recommended omission of aspirin in patients with heart failure. This raises a query in the mind of the physician whether to use a combination or not? The role of aspirin in the early period after myocardial infarction is well established so is the role of ACE inhibitors. Hence in patients with myocardial infarction and preserved left ventricular function it would not be wrong to administer combination of ACE inhibitors and aspirin. Albeit at a lower dose. In patients with large myocardial infarction or heart failure, warfarin may be an option but still needs to be documented in large trials. As suggested long term use of aspirin after infarction is still ambiguous and may be harmful in patients with heart failure with its anticedent side effects. But long term benefits of ACE inhibitors in heart failure are well documented. Hence if a choice has to be made whether to discontinue either of the two drugs it would be preferable to stop the aspirin. To answer the issue of use of aspirin in patients with heart failure it would be essential to conduct a double blind randomized trial comparing known anti-thrombotic treatment, aspirin and anti-coagulants on mortality in patients with heart failure, especially caused by coronary artery disease. Such a trial is underway at the present and till the results are available it should be left to clinical judgement of the physician whether to administer aspirin in patients with heart failure after weighing the benefits versus risk.

  18. Gamma dosimetry of high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, T.; Galvan G, A.; Canizal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The gamma dosimetry of high doses is problematic in almost all the classic dosemeters either based on the thermoluminescence, electric, chemical properties, etc., because they are saturated to very high dose and they are no longer useful. This work carries out an investigation in the interval of high doses. The solid system of heptahydrate ferrous sulfate, can be used as solid dosemeter of routine for high doses of radiation. The proposed method is simple, cheap and it doesn't require sophisticated spectrophotometers or spectrometers but expensive and not common in some laboratories

  19. Enhanced Glucose Tolerance and Pancreatic Beta Cell Function by Low Dose Aspirin in Hyperglycemic Insulin-Resistant Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Amiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder, characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic islet beta-cell failure. The most common complications associated with type 2 diabetes are hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, increased inflammatory and reduced insulin response. Aspirin (ASA and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been associated with the prevention of diabetes, obesity and related cardiovascular disorders. Aspirin has been used in many clinical and experimental trials for the prevention of diabetes and associated complications. Methods: In this study, five month old Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, which showed signs of mild hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose 80-95 mg/dl vs 55-60 mg/dl Wistar control rats were used. Two subgroups of GK and Wistar control rats were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg aspirin/kg body weight/ day for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and blood and tissues were collected after performing glucose tolerance (2 h post 2g IP glucose ingestion tests in experimental and control groups. Results: Aspirin caused a moderate decrease in hyperglycemia. However, we observed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance after ASA treatment in GK rats compared to the nondiabetic Wistar rats. Also, the ASA treated GK rats exhibited a significant decrease in insulinemia. ASA treatment also caused a marked reduction in the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin, PGE2, which was significantly higher in GK rats. On the other hand, no significant organ toxicity was observed after ASA treatment at this dose and time period. However, the total cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were significantly increased in GK rats, which decreased after ASA treatment. Immunofluorescence staining for insulin/glucagon secreting pancreatic cells showed improved beta-cell structural and functional integrity in ASA-treated rats which was also confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis

  20. Aspirin and Omeprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin and omeprazole is used to reduce the risk of stroke or heart attack in patients who have had or ... risk of developing a stomach ulcer when taking aspirin. Aspirin is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Comparison of Thromboemboli Prophylactic Effect of Aspirin and Low Dose Warfarin in Standard Risk Multiple Myeloma Patients that Treated with Regimens Containing Thalidomide

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    Seyed Amir Dadkhahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Most of the current regimens in the treatment of multiple myeloma include thalidomide. Thalidomide is a modulator of the immune system and according to several studies, its main complication is thromboembolism. The aim of this study is to compare the thromboemboli prophylactic effect of aspirin and low dose warfarin in standard risk multiple myeloma patients that treated with regimens containing thalidomide. Materials and Methods: In this double- blind clinical trial study, sixty-six patients with multiple myeloma under treatment with thalidomide-containing regimens with standard risk for thromboembolism who were admitted to Khansari hospital, entered the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The incidence of thromboembolism in these patients was evaluated. Results: Five patients in the warfarin group and 2 patients in the aspirin group had thromboemboli. Chi square analyses showed no significant difference between groups (p=0.635. Conclusion: The results showed that both drugs are effective in preventing thromboembolism and can be used as a prophylactic treatment.

  2. Aspirin resistance following pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholette, Jill M; Mamikonian, Lara; Alfieris, George M; Blumberg, Neil; Lerner, Norma B

    2010-09-01

    Aspirin is often used to prevent thrombosis in pediatric cardiac surgery. The primary study aim was to assess aspirin resistance in this context. Secondary aims were to evaluate (1) the relationship between elevated inflammatory markers and thrombosis and (2) aspirin's effect on these levels. This was a prospective observational study of children undergoing cardiac surgery managed with and without aspirin. Aspirin response was assessed using the VerifyNow system and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (uTxB2) measurements. Laboratory studies of inflammation were also obtained. 101 subjects were studied; 50 received aspirin. Six subjects (5.9%), 5 aspirin-treated, experienced symptomatic thrombosis. When measured by VerifyNow resistance was 43% after aspirin suppositories and 14% after additional days of oral aspirin. There was no correlation with thrombosis. Upper quartile post-operative day (POD) #5 uTxB2 was correlated with thrombosis in aspirin treated subjects (pchildren with high levels of uTxB2 despite aspirin therapy and/or those with elevated preoperative CRP are at increased risk for thrombosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  4. Long-term efficacy of aspirin desensitization in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Review of two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Cambray-Gutiérrez

    2016-05-01

    Clinical cases: two patients diagnosed with respiratory disease exacerbated by aspirin, with poor asthma control and need for multiple polypectomies, despite optimal pharmacological management, carrying out protocol desensitization to aspirin (AAS successful, now after 4 years of having carried out, they have adequate asthma control without need for polypectomies with a maintenance dose of aspirin 150 mg/day.

  5. Probing Vitamine C, Aspirin and Paracetamol in the Gas Phase: High Resolution Rotational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, S.; Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Pena, I.; Nino, A.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Grabow, J.-U.

    2011-06-01

    A solid sample of Vitamin C (m.p. 190°C) vaporized by laser ablation has been investigated in gas phase and characterized through their rotational spectra. Two spectroscopy techniques has been used to obtain the spectra: a new design of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy with in-phase/quadrature-phase-modulation passage-acquired-coherence technique (IMPACT) and conventional laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW). Up to now, two low-energy conformer have been observed and their rotational constants determined. Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory predicted rotational constants which helped us to identify these conformers unequivocally. Among the molecules to benefit from the LA-MB-FTMW technique there are common important drugs never observed in the gas phase through rotational spectroscopy. We present here the results on acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (m.p. 136°C), commonly known as aspirin and paracetamol respectively. We have observed two stable conformers of aspirin and two for paracetamol. The internal rotation barrier of the methyl group in aspirin has been determined for both conformers from the analysis of the A-E splittings due to the coupling of internal and overall rotation. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11,617-627 (2009)and references therein

  6. Effects of Low-Dose Aspirin and Fish Oil on Platelet Function and NF-kappaB in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C; Abdolahi, Amir; Smith, Brian; Meednu, N; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Cai, Xueya; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker; Brenna, J. Thomas; Georas, S

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Many diabetics are insensitive to aspirin’s platelet anti-aggregation effects. The possible modulating effects of coadministration of aspirin and fish oil in subjects with diabetes are poorly characterized. Participants and Methods Thirty adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with aspirin 81 mg/d for 7 days, then with fish oil 4g/day for 28 days, then the combination of fish oil and aspirin for another 7 days. Results Aspirin alone and in combination with fish oil reduced platelet aggregation in most participants. Five of 7 participants classified as aspirin insensitive 1 week after daily aspirin ingestion were sensitive after the combination. Although some platelet aggregation measures correlated positively after aspirin and fish oil ingestion alone and (in combination) in all individuals, correlation was only observed in those who were aspirin insensitive after ingestion of the combination. Conclusions Co-adminstration of aspirin and fish oil may reduce platelet aggregation more than aspirin alone in adults with diabetes mellitus. PMID:23664596

  7. Influence of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use on ovarian and endometrial cancer: Summary of epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, F; Kjaer, S K; Friis, S

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for aspirin use in reducing the incidence and mortality of several cancer types. This has spurred a new wave of interest in this widely used drug. In this review, we present and evaluate the epidemiologic evidence of the association between the use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the incidence and prognosis of ovarian and endometrial cancer. The evidence of a preventive effect of NSAID use on risk of ovarian or endometrial cancer is based primarily on results from observational studies and, consequently, is only suggestive. Overall, observational studies indicate modest reductions in risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer with aspirin use, whereas the results for non-aspirin NSAID use are equivocal. The strongest inverse associations have been reported for long-term consistent aspirin use, notably among subgroups of users (e.g., those with high body mass index). Few studies have evaluated the influence of NSAID use on the mortality of ovarian or endometrial cancer, and substantial heterogeneity of study characteristics and results preclude any conclusions. Additional studies of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use and ovarian or endometrial cancer risk and prognosis are warranted. In the present review, we discuss the importance of comprehensive exposure definitions (i.e., duration, timing, consistency and intensity/dose) and evaluation of potential effect modification according to user characteristics, with the aim of identifying women who may experience the largest benefit of aspirin or non-aspirin NSAID use on risk or prognosis of ovarian and endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use on ovarian and endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, F.; Kjaer, S. K.; Friis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for aspirin use in reducing the incidence and mortality of several cancer types. This has spurred a new wave of interest in this widely used drug. In this review, we present and evaluate the epidemiologic evidence of the association between the use of aspirin....... Overall, observational studies indicate modest reductions in risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer with aspirin use, whereas the results for non-aspirin NSAID use are equivocal. The strongest inverse associations have been reported for long-term consistent aspirin use, notably among subgroups of users (e.......g., those with high body mass index). Few studies have evaluated the influence of NSAID use on the mortality of ovarian or endometrial cancer, and substantial heterogeneity of study characteristics and results preclude any conclusions. Additional studies of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use and ovarian...

  9. Aspirin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation in human models of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, U; Krasnodembskaya, A; Fitzgerald, M; Shyamsundar, M; Kissenpfennig, A; Scott, C; Lefrancais, E; Looney, M R; Verghis, R; Scott, J; Simpson, A J; McNamee, J; McAuley, D F; O'Kane, C M

    2017-11-01

    Platelets play an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal and observational studies have shown aspirin's antiplatelet and immunomodulatory effects may be beneficial in ARDS. To test the hypothesis that aspirin reduces inflammation in clinically relevant human models that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of ARDS. Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive placebo or aspirin 75  or 1200 mg (1:1:1) for seven days prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 6 hours after inhaling 50 µg of LPS. The primary outcome measure was BAL IL-8. Secondary outcome measures included markers of alveolar inflammation (BAL neutrophils, cytokines, neutrophil proteases), alveolar epithelial cell injury, systemic inflammation (neutrophils and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)) and platelet activation (thromboxane B2, TXB2). Human lungs, perfused and ventilated ex vivo (EVLP) were randomised to placebo or 24 mg aspirin and injured with LPS. BAL was carried out 4 hours later. Inflammation was assessed by BAL differential cell counts and histological changes. In the healthy volunteer (n=33) model, data for the aspirin groups were combined. Aspirin did not reduce BAL IL-8. However, aspirin reduced pulmonary neutrophilia and tissue damaging neutrophil proteases (Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-8/-9), reduced BAL concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α and reduced systemic and pulmonary TXB2. There was no difference between high-dose and low-dose aspirin. In the EVLP model, aspirin reduced BAL neutrophilia and alveolar injury as measured by histological damage. These are the first prospective human data indicating that aspirin inhibits pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, at both low and high doses. Further clinical studies are indicated to assess the role of aspirin in the

  10. Impact of high glucose concentration on aspirin-induced acetylation of human serum albumin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (ASA plays a key role in protecting high risk cardiovascular patients from ischaemic events. The modifications underlying its effects are the results of the trans-acetylation that occurs between ASA and the amino groups made up of lysine and N-terminal residues. ASA's effects have also been demonstrated on several plasma proteins, including human serum albumin (HSA. However, its beneficial effects seem to be lower in diabetic patients, suggesting that protein glycation may impair ASA's acetylation process. Using immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, this study characterized the degree of HSA acetylation mediated by ASA in vitro, as well as the impact of high glucose concentrations. Glycation's influence on HSA acetylation might impair the latter's biological functions, leading to a potential failure of ASA to prevent cardiovascular complications in diabetes.

  11. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine comes as a capsule and tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 4 ... explain any part you do not understand. Take aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine exactly as directed. Do not ...

  12. Longterm Hydroxychloroquine Therapy and Low-dose Aspirin May Have an Additive Effectiveness in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Serena; Pierro, Luciana; Pantano, Ilenia; Iudici, Michele; Valentini, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thromboprophylaxis with low-dose aspirin (ASA) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) seems promising in SLE. We investigated the effects of HCQ cumulative dosages (c-HCQ) and the possible synergistic efficacy of ASA and HCQ in preventing a first CV event (CVE) in patients with SLE. Patients consecutively admitted to our center who, at admission, satisfied the 1997 American College of Rheumatology and/or 2012 Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for SLE, and had not experienced any CVE, were enrolled. The occurrence of a thrombotic event, use of ASA, and c-HCQ were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine the c-HCQ associated with a lower incidence of CVE. Cox regression analysis served to identify factors associated with a first CVE. For the study, 189 patients with SLE were enrolled and monitored for 13 years (median). Ten CVE occurred during followup. At Kaplan-Meier analysis, the CVE-free rate was higher in ASA-treated patients administered a c-HCQ > 600 g (standard HCQ dose for at least 5 yrs) than in patients receiving ASA alone, or with a c-HCQ dose < 600 g (log-rank test chi-square = 4.01, p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis showed that antimalarials plus ASA protected against thrombosis (HR 0.041 and HR 0.047, respectively), while antiphospholipid antibodies (HR 17.965) and hypertension (HR 18.054) increased the risk of a first CVE. Our results suggest that prolonged use of HCQ plus ASA is thromboprotective in SLE and provides additional evidence for its continued use in patients with SLE.

  13. The effect of aspirin nanoemulsion on TNFα and iNOS in gastric tissue in comparison with conventional aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud FA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatma Abd Elhalim Mahmoud,1,2 Khalid S Hashem,3 Asmaa Mohammed M Hussein Elkelawy21Medical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, 2Clinical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, 3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptBackground: No dose of aspirin is free of bleeding risk. Even at a dose as low as 75 mg/day, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is twice as high as among nonusers. Nanoemulsions (NEs are emulsion systems with droplet size in nanometer scale in which oil or water droplets are finely dispersed in the opposite phase with the help of a suitable surfactant to stabilize the system.Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin NE in comparison to conventional aspirin.Materials and methods: A total of 24 male rats were used in the study and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given saline. Group 2 was given blank NE 1.5 mL/kg orally. Group 3 was given aspirin 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Group 4 was given aspirin NE 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Rats were killed, and gastric tissue was quickly excised after dissection of the animals. The tissues were divided into three pieces. The first one was kept in formalin 10% for pathological investigation. The second piece was kept in liquid nitrogen for molecular investigation. The third piece was homogenized in ten volumes of ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7 using a Teflon homogenizer until a uniform suspension was obtained. The homogenate was centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 4°C to separate the supernatant from cellular debris. The supernatant was then used for the estimation of biochemical assays.Results: The present study shows that aspirin has a toxic effect on the stomach as a result of inducing marked oxidative damage and the release of reactive oxygen species. This was shown by the significant

  14. Influence of warfarin and low-dose aspirin on the outcomes of geriatric patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage resulting from ground-level fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Miyatake, Satoru; Hirose, Yuichi

    2012-10-01

    Ground-level fall is the most common cause of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (TICH) in the elderly, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in that population. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate whether the use of warfarin/low-dose aspirin (LDA) is predictive of unfavorable outcomes in geriatric patients who sustain a fall-induced TICH. Charts of 76 geriatric patients (≥ 65 years-of-age) with fall-induced TICH were reviewed. The number of patients taking warfarin and LDA was 12 and 21, respectively, whereas the other 43 took neither medication (non-user group). The frequency of patients with unfavorable outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) at discharge was calculated. Furthermore, variables predictive of unfavorable outcomes were identified by logistic regression analysis. The frequency of patients with unfavorable outcomes was 75% in the warfarin group, 33% in the LDA group and 27% in the non-user group, respectively. The risk of having unfavorable outcomes was significantly higher in the warfarin group compared with the LDA group (P = 0.03) and non-user group (P fall-induced TICH. The risk of TICH should be communicated properly to elderly taking warfarin. The information might be important not only to trauma surgeons who take care of injured elderly, but also to geriatric physicians who prescribe warfarin/LDA to them. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. A critical appraisal of the phenomenon of aspirin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina; Risom Kristensen, Søren; Atar, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay antiplatelet treatment in patients with high risk of cardiovascular atherothrombotic events, and its beneficial effect is documented in several clinical trials. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of aspirin has been questioned by the emergence of the concept of 'aspirin...

  16. Age-related macular degeneration in a randomized controlled trial of low-dose aspirin: Rationale and study design of the ASPREE-AMD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Robman

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The study findings will be of significant clinical and public interest due to a potential to identify a possible low cost therapy for preventing AMD worldwide and to determine risk/benefit balance of the aspirin usage by the AMD-affected elderly. The ASPREE-AMD study provides a unique opportunity to determine the effect of aspirin on AMD incidence and progression, by adding retinal imaging to an ongoing, large-scale primary prevention randomized clinical trial.

  17. Aspirin challenge and desensitization: how, when and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Gabriele; Caruso, Cristiano; Romano, Antonino

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the current approach to aspirin challenge (drug provocation) and/or desensitization in patients with histories of hypersensitivity reactions to it, particularly in those with cardiovascular diseases. The literature indicates that patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), including those with an acute coronary syndrome, may safely undergo low-dose aspirin challenge and/or desensitization. Recently, flowcharts regarding challenge/desensitization procedures with aspirin in patients with CAD and histories of aspirin hypersensitivity reactions have become available. Aspirin desensitization and continuous aspirin therapy constitute an effective option in patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-exacerbated respiratory diseases (NERD) who have suboptimally controlled asthma or rhinosinusitis, or require multiple revision polypectomies. The use of aspirin has proven to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with CAD. There is a general consensus on aspirin's effectiveness in secondary prevention of CAD. Therefore, aspirin desensitization is necessary in patients with CAD and histories of hypersensitivity reactions to it. The effectiveness of aspirin desensitization and continuous therapy in patients with NERD has been shown in numerous studies. However, shared selection criteria of candidates for aspirin challenge/desensitization procedures, and simple and homogeneous protocols are necessary. Moreover, preventive safety measures are still needed in order to reduce the potential risks of these procedures.

  18. Optimized dose distribution of a high dose rate vaginal cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zuofeng; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To present a comparison of optimized dose distributions for a set of high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cylinders calculated by a commercial treatment-planning system with benchmark calculations using Monte-Carlo-calculated dosimetry data. Methods and Materials: Optimized dose distributions using both an isotropic and an anisotropic dose calculation model were obtained for a set of HDR vaginal cylinders. Mathematical optimization techniques available in the computer treatment-planning system were used to calculate dwell times and positions. These dose distributions were compared with benchmark calculations with TG43 formalism and using Monte-Carlo-calculated data. The same dwell times and positions were used for a quantitative comparison of dose calculated with three dose models. Results: The isotropic dose calculation model can result in discrepancies as high as 50%. The anisotropic dose calculation model compared better with benchmark calculations. The differences were more significant at the apex of the vaginal cylinder, which is typically used as the prescription point. Conclusion: Dose calculation models available in a computer treatment-planning system must be evaluated carefully to ensure their correct application. It should also be noted that when optimized dose distribution at a distance from the cylinder surface is calculated using an accurate dose calculation model, the vaginal mucosa dose becomes significantly higher, and therefore should be carefully monitored

  19. Impact of aspirin on fetal growth in diabetic pregnancies according to White classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Katlynn; Allshouse, Amanda A; Metz, Torri D; Heyborne, Kent D

    2017-10-01

    Current US Preventive Services Task Force and other guidelines recommend low-dose aspirin for all pregnant women with pregestational diabetes mellitus to prevent preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age birth. The Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units High-Risk Aspirin trial did not show a reduction in either preeclampsia or small-for-gestational-age birth in diabetic women. Our objective was to reassess the impact of aspirin on fetal growth in diabetic pregnancies overall and according to White classification. We hypothesized that aspirin improves fetal growth in pregnancies with vascular complications of diabetes at highest risk for poor fetal growth. We conducted secondary analysis of the cohort of diabetic women enrolled in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units High-Risk Aspirin trial. The impact of aspirin prophylaxis on birthweight was assessed in the overall cohort and in 2 groups categorized according to White classification as nonvascular (White class B, C, D) or vascular (White class R, F, RF). Birthweight was converted to Z-score normalized for gestational age at delivery and neonatal sex. Difference in birthweight Z-score between aspirin and placebo was tested with a 2-sample t test. The effect of vascular group, aspirin vs placebo randomization, and the interaction of the 2 on normalized birthweight percentile was estimated with linear regression with a multivariable model including covariates body mass index, tobacco use, race, and parity. The percentage of small and large-for-gestational-age newborns born to aspirin- vs placebo-treated women was compared between groups using Pearson exact χ 2 analysis, and an adjusted model was estimated by logistic regression. All 444 women with pregestational diabetes and complete outcome data were included (53 vascular, 391 nonvascular). Aspirin was significantly associated with a higher birthweight Z-score (0.283; 95% confidence interval, 0.023-0.544) in the overall cohort (P = .03). In the adjusted model, the

  20. Clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin after femoro-popliteal stenting. The CLAFS project: 1- and 2-year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter K.; Boos, Irene B.L.; Goettmann, Dieter; Vetter, Sylvia [Department of Imaging, Interventional Radiology, and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissen Hospital, Diakonissenstrasse 28, 76199, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the patency rate after femoro-popliteal stenting followed by oral clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin. In a prospective trial, 31 patients with a total of 33 femoro-popliteal artery lesions (21 stenoses, 12 occlusions; 24 femoral, 9 popliteal) were treated with flexible tantalum stents after unsuccessful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) preceded by local fibrinolysis in 5 of 12 patients with total occlusion. Post-interventionally, oral aspirin 100 mg was started simultaneously for the long term and was combined with an oral loading dose of 300 mg clopidogrel, followed by 75 mg clopidogrel daily for 28 days. Patients were followed for at least 12 months (maximum 34 months) by clinical examination, Doppler pressure measurement, color and duplex sonography, and angiography in case of suspicion of restenosis. In a retrospective analysis, the results were compared with those of historical groups of patients having received aspirin only (41 patients) or a long-term high-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)+aspirin treatment (42 patients). Three small puncture aneurysms were treated successfully by conservative means and were categorized as minor bleeding complication. Cumulative primary patency rate (PPR) was 76{+-}7.5% (1 year), and 70{+-}9.6% (2 years) in the clopidogrel+aspirin group, thus being tendentiously better than in the aspirin-only group showing 75{+-}4.6% (1 year), and 50{+-}8.1% (2 years). Long-term high-dose LMWH+aspirin treatment showed 87{+-}5.8% (1 year), and 72{+-}9.1% (2 years), thus being superior to the other treatment regimes, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the LMWH+aspirin and the aspirin group. Clopidogrel plus aspirin is a safe medication regimen and may be effective in the prevention of early stent thrombosis. Mid- and long-term patency rate seems to be intermediate as compared with other therapeutic regimens. The LMWH+aspirin seems to be superior compared with

  1. Clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin after femoro-popliteal stenting. The CLAFS project: 1- and 2-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter K.; Boos, Irene B.L.; Goettmann, Dieter; Vetter, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the patency rate after femoro-popliteal stenting followed by oral clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin. In a prospective trial, 31 patients with a total of 33 femoro-popliteal artery lesions (21 stenoses, 12 occlusions; 24 femoral, 9 popliteal) were treated with flexible tantalum stents after unsuccessful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) preceded by local fibrinolysis in 5 of 12 patients with total occlusion. Post-interventionally, oral aspirin 100 mg was started simultaneously for the long term and was combined with an oral loading dose of 300 mg clopidogrel, followed by 75 mg clopidogrel daily for 28 days. Patients were followed for at least 12 months (maximum 34 months) by clinical examination, Doppler pressure measurement, color and duplex sonography, and angiography in case of suspicion of restenosis. In a retrospective analysis, the results were compared with those of historical groups of patients having received aspirin only (41 patients) or a long-term high-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)+aspirin treatment (42 patients). Three small puncture aneurysms were treated successfully by conservative means and were categorized as minor bleeding complication. Cumulative primary patency rate (PPR) was 76±7.5% (1 year), and 70±9.6% (2 years) in the clopidogrel+aspirin group, thus being tendentiously better than in the aspirin-only group showing 75±4.6% (1 year), and 50±8.1% (2 years). Long-term high-dose LMWH+aspirin treatment showed 87±5.8% (1 year), and 72±9.1% (2 years), thus being superior to the other treatment regimes, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the LMWH+aspirin and the aspirin group. Clopidogrel plus aspirin is a safe medication regimen and may be effective in the prevention of early stent thrombosis. Mid- and long-term patency rate seems to be intermediate as compared with other therapeutic regimens. The LMWH+aspirin seems to be superior compared with CLAFS

  2. Prevention of one-year vein-graft occlusion after aortocoronary-bypass surgery: a comparison of low-dose aspirin, low-dose aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anticoagulants. The CABADAS Research Group of the Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J.; Hillege, H. L.; Kootstra, G. J.; Ascoop, C. A.; Mulder, B. J.; Pfisterer, M.; van Gilst, W. H.; Lie, K. I.

    1993-01-01

    Aspirin, alone or in combination with dipyridamole, is known to prevent occlusion of aortocoronary vein grafts. The benefit of dipyridamole in addition to aspirin remains controversial, and the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulants for prevention of vein-graft occlusion have not been

  3. Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkes, P H A; van Gijn, J; Kappelle, L J; Koudstaal, P J; Algra, A

    2006-05-20

    Results of trials of aspirin and dipyridamole combined versus aspirin alone for the secondary prevention of vascular events after ischaemic stroke of presumed arterial origin are inconsistent. Our aim was to resolve this uncertainty. We did a randomised controlled trial in which we assigned patients to aspirin (30-325 mg daily) with (n=1363) or without (n=1376) dipyridamole (200 mg twice daily) within 6 months of a transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of presumed arterial origin. Our primary outcome event was the composite of death from all vascular causes, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or major bleeding complication, whichever happened first. Treatment was open, but auditing of outcome events was blinded. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial (number ISRCTN73824458) and with (NCT00161070). Mean follow-up was 3.5 years (SD 2.0). Median aspirin dose was 75 mg in both treatment groups (range 30-325); extended-release dipyridamole was used by 83% (n=1131) of patients on the combination regimen. Primary outcome events arose in 173 (13%) patients on aspirin and dipyridamole and in 216 (16%) on aspirin alone (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.98; absolute risk reduction 1.0% per year, 95% CI 0.1-1.8). Addition of the ESPRIT data to the meta-analysis of previous trials resulted in an overall risk ratio for the composite of vascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction of 0.82 (95% CI 0.74-0.91). Patients on aspirin and dipyridamole discontinued trial medication more often than those on aspirin alone (470 vs 184), mainly because of headache. The ESPRIT results, combined with the results of previous trials, provide sufficient evidence to prefer the combination regimen of aspirin plus dipyridamole over aspirin alone as antithrombotic therapy after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin.

  4. Aspirin for Primary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana B; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-07-01

    Aspirin reduces the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding. The best available evidence supports initiating aspirin in select populations. In 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended initiating aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer among adults ages 50 to 59 who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Adults 60 to 69 who are at increased cardiovascular disease risk may also benefit. There remains considerable uncertainty about whether younger and older patients may benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspirin-mediated acetylation of haemoglobin increases in presence of high glucose concentration and decreases protein glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycation represents the first stage in the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin was shown to prevent sugars reacting with proteins, but the exact mechanism of this interaction was not well defined. We performed a quantitative analysis to calculate the levels of acetylation and glycation of haemoglobin, among others red blood cell (RBC proteins, using a label free approach. After glucose incubation, increases in the acetylation levels were seen for several haemoglobin subunits, while a parallel decrease of their glycation levels was observed after aspirin incubation. These results suggest that, a mutual influence between these two modifications, occur at protein level.

  6. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing of (high-dose) chemotherapeutic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema-de Jonge, M.E. (Milly Ellen)

    2004-01-01

    Due to variation in drug distribution, metabolism and elimination processes between patients, systemic exposure to chemotherapeutic agents may be highly variable from patient to patient after administration of similar doses. This pharmacokinetic variability may explain in part the large variability

  7. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Bellesini, Marta; Takeda, Andrea; Middeldorp, Saskia; Donadini, Marco Paolo

    2017-12-14

    Aspirin is the prophylactic antiplatelet drug of choice for people with cardiovascular disease. Adding a second antiplatelet drug to aspirin may produce additional benefit for people at high risk and people with established cardiovascular disease. This is an update to a previously published review from 2011. To review the benefit and harm of adding clopidogrel to aspirin therapy for preventing cardiovascular events in people who have coronary disease, ischaemic cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, or were at high risk of atherothrombotic disease, but did not have a coronary stent. We updated the searches of CENTRAL (2017, Issue 6), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 4 July 2017) and Embase (Ovid, 1947 to 3 July 2017) on 4 July 2017. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP portal, and handsearched reference lists. We applied no language restrictions. We included all randomised controlled trials comparing over 30 days use of aspirin plus clopidogrel with aspirin plus placebo or aspirin alone in people with coronary disease, ischaemic cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, or at high risk of atherothrombotic disease. We excluded studies including only people with coronary drug-eluting stent (DES) or non-DES, or both. We collected data on mortality from cardiovascular causes, all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal and non-fatal ischaemic stroke, major and minor bleeding. The overall treatment effect was estimated by the pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), using a fixed-effect model (Mantel-Haenszel); we used a random-effects model in cases of moderate or severe heterogeneity (I 2 ≥ 30%). We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We used GRADE profiler (GRADE Pro) to import data from Review Manager to create a 'Summary of findings' table. The search identified 13 studies in addition to the two studies in the previous version of our systematic review. Overall

  8. Fiber optics in high dose radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the behavior of state-of-the-art optical fiber waveguides in high dose (greater than or equal to 10 5 rad), steady state radiation fields is presented. The influence on radiation-induced transmission loss due to experimental parameters such as dose rate, total dose, irradiation history, temperature, wavelength, and light intensity, for future work in high dose environments are given

  9. Preparation and analysis of deuterium-labeled aspirin: application to pharmacokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.K.; FitzGerald, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibition of endogenous prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis by aspirin is critically dose-dependent in humans. Gastrointestinal and hepatic hydrolysis may limit systemic availability of aspirin, especially in low doses, perhaps contributing to the biochemical selectivity of aspirin. Existing analytical methods do not permit determination of systemic bioavailability when low (less than 100 mg) doses of aspirin are administered. Deuterium-labeled aspirin (2-acetoxy[3,4,5,6- 2 H4]benzoic acid) was synthesized from salicylic acid by catalytic exchange and subsequent acetylation. Analysis of the compounds as benzyl esters by GC-MS followed extractive alkylation from plasma. Heptadeuterated compounds were used as internal standards. Simultaneous administration of tetradeuterated aspirin intravenously with native aspirin orally to anesthetized dogs permitted kinetic studies of both aspirin and salicylic acid. The sensitivity of the method is superior to published methods using HPLC and, thus, more applicable to studies of low dose aspirin. Pulse administration of stable isotope-labeled aspirin permits detailed and repeated studies of dose-related aspirin pharmacokinetics in humans

  10. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  11. Once- versus twice-daily aspirin treatment in patients with essential thrombocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Lamm; Pedersen, Oliver Heidmann; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2018-01-01

    Insufficient platelet inhibition has been reported in up to 40% of aspirin-treated patients, including patients with essential thrombocytosis. To maintain sufficient platelet inhibition, a shorter dosing interval with aspirin has been suggested. We aimed to investigate the antiplatelet effect...... of low-dose aspirin given twice-daily compared to standard once-daily dosing in patients with essential thrombocytosis. We included 22 patients, who were treated for 7 days with standard once-daily aspirin (75 mg once-daily) followed by 7 days treatment of twice-daily aspirin (37.5 mg twice......-daily). The two regimens were separated by 14 days aspirin washout. Blood samples were obtained 1h and 24h/12h after the last pill intake in each regimen. The effect of aspirin was evaluated by: (1) platelet aggregation measured by whole blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyser) using arachidonic acid...

  12. Endorectal high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devic, S.; Vuong, T.; Evans, M.; Podgorsak, E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our quality assurance method for preoperative high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy of endorectal tumours. Reproduction of the treatment planning dose distribution on a daily basis is crucial for treatment success. Due to the cylindrical symmetry, two types of adjustments are necessary: applicator rotation and dose distribution shift along the applicator axis. (author)

  13. Aspirin and lipid mediators in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrör, Karsten; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin is an unique compound because it bears two active moieties within one and the same molecule: a reactive acetyl group and the salicylate metabolite. Salicylate has some effects similar to aspirin, however only at higher concentrations, usually in the millimolar range, which are not obtained at conventional antiplatelet aspirin doses of 100-300 mg/day. Pharmacological actions of aspirin in the cardiovascular system at these doses are largely if not entirely due to target structure acetylation. Several classes of lipid mediators become affected: Best known is the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in platelets with subsequent inhibition of thromboxane and, possibly, thrombin formation. By this action, aspirin also inhibits paracrine thromboxane functions on other lipid mediators, such as the platelet storage product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an inflammatory mediator. Acetylation of COX-2 allows for generation of 15-(R)HETE and subsequent formation of "aspirin-triggered lipoxin" (ATL) by interaction with white cell lipoxygenases. In the cardiovascular system, aspirin also acetylates eNOS with subsequent upregulation of NO formation and enhanced expression of the antioxidans heme-oxygenase-1. This action is possibly also COX-2/ATL mediated. Many more acetylation targets have been identified in live cells by quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling and might result in discovery of even more aspirin targets in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expanded applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Reference systems also include a number of chemical dose meters: ferrous sulphate, ferrous-cupric sulphate, and ceric sulphate acidic aqueous solutions. Requirements for stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: amino acids and saccharides analysed by ESR or lyoluminescence, thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes and plastics, ceric-cerous solutions analysed by potentiometry, and ethanol-chlorobenzene solutions analysed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dose meters are also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA programme of high-dose standardization and intercomparison for industrial radiation processing is described. (author)

  15. Aspirin and clonidine in non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perioperative Ischaemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) is an international 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial of low-dose aspirin versus placebo and low-dose clonidine versus placebo in patients who undergo non-cardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin (and possibly clonidine) may reduce...... and preoperative chronic aspirin use. At the time of randomisation, a subpopulation agreed to a single measurement of serum creatinine between 3 and 12 months after surgery, and the authors will examine intervention effects on this outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The authors were competitively awarded a grant...

  16. ESR investigation of gamma-irradiated Aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozar, O.; Chis, V.; David, L.; Damian, G.; Barbur, I.

    1997-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate the radiation damage in a powder of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid (Aspirin). Three types of radicals occur by γ-irradiation of Aspirin at room temperature. Two of them are result of hydrogen abstraction while the third is produced by hydrogen addition at one of the carbon atoms of the ring. The relative yielding of the free radicals as a function of absorbed dose in the range of 2.4 kGy to 160 kGy is also discussed. (author)

  17. Antiplatelet therapy: aspirin resistance and all that jazz!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Zantek, Nicole D; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Rao, Gundu H R

    2013-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. Aspirin used alone or in combination with other antiplatelet drugs has been shown to offer significant benefit to patients at high risk of vascular events. Resistance to the action of aspirin may decrease this benefit. Aspirin resistance has been defined by clinical and/or laboratory criteria; however, detection by laboratory methods prior to experiencing a clinical event will likely provide the greatest opportunity for intervention. Numerous laboratory methods with different cutoff points have been used to evaluate the resistance. Noncompliance with aspirin treatment has also confounded studies. A single assay is currently insufficient to establish resistance. Combinations of results to confirm compliance and platelet inhibition may identify "at-risk" individuals who truly have aspirin resistance. The most effective strategy for managing patients with aspirin resistance is unknown; however, studies are currently underway to address this issue.

  18. Baseline placental growth factor levels for the prediction of benefit from early aspirin prophylaxis for preeclampsia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gaea S; Allshouse, Amanda A; Winn, Virginia D; Galan, Henry L; Heyborne, Kent D

    2015-10-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels early in pregnancy are lower in women who ultimately develop preeclampsia. Early initiation of low-dose aspirin reduces preeclampsia risk in some high risk women. We hypothesized that low PlGF levels may identify women at increased risk for preeclampsia who would benefit from aspirin. Secondary analysis of the MFMU High-Risk Aspirin study including singleton pregnancies randomized to aspirin 60mg/d (n=102) or placebo (n=72), with PlGF collected at 13w 0d-16w 6d. Within the placebo group, we estimated the probability of preeclampsia by PlGF level using logistic regression analysis, then determined a potential PlGF threshold for preeclampsia prediction using ROC analysis. We performed logistic regression modeling for potential confounders. ROC analysis indicated 87.71pg/ml as the threshold between high and low PlGF for preeclampsia-prediction. Within the placebo group high PlGF weakly predicted preeclampsia (AUC 0.653, sensitivity/specificity 63%/66%). We noted a 2.6-fold reduction in preeclampsia with aspirin in the high-PlGF group (12.15% aspirin vs 32.14% placebo, p=0.057), but no significant differences in preeclampsia in the low PlGF group (21.74% vs 15.91%, p=0.445). Unlike other studies, we found that high rather than low PlGF levels were associated with an increased preeclampsia risk. Low PlGF neither identified women at increased risk of preeclampsia nor women who benefitted from aspirin. Further research is needed to determine whether aspirin is beneficial in women with high PlGF, and whether the paradigm linking low PlGF and preeclampsia needs to be reevaluated. High-risk women with low baseline PlGF, a risk factor for preeclampsia, did not benefit from early initiation of low-dose aspirin. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000092.htm Aspirin and heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... healthy people who are at low risk for heart disease. You provider will consider your overall medical condition ...

  20. Effect of aspirin on tumour cell colony formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Goel, Ajay; Boland, C Richard; Komarova, Natalia L

    2017-09-01

    Aspirin is known to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In a previous study, we quantified the in vitro growth kinetics of different CRC tumour cell lines treated with varying doses of aspirin, measuring the rate of cell division and cell death. Here, we use these measured parameters to calculate the chances of successful clonal expansion and to determine the evolutionary potential of the tumour cell lines in the presence and absence of aspirin. The calculations indicate that aspirin increases the probability that a single tumour cell fails to clonally expand. Further, calculations suggest that aspirin increases the evolutionary potential of an expanding tumour cell colony. An aspirin-treated tumour cell population is predicted to result in the accumulation of more mutations (and is thus more virulent and more difficult to treat) than a cell population of the same size that grew without aspirin. This indicates a potential trade-off between delaying the onset of cancer and increasing its evolutionary potential through chemoprevention. Further work needs to investigate to what extent these findings apply to in vivo settings, and to what degree they contribute to the epidemiologically documented aspirin-mediated protection. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Failure of ethamsylate to reduce aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshmend, T K; Stein, A G; Bhaskar, N K; Hawkey, C J

    1989-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of the haemostatic agent ethamsylate on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding. 2. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied three times: at the end of 48 h periods of treatment with (a) placebo, (b) aspirin 600 mg four times daily, (9 doses) and (c) aspirin 600 mg four times daily with each dose preceded by ethamsylate 500 mg. 3. At the end of each treatment period gastric mucosal bleeding into timed gastric washings was quantified using the orthotolidine reactio...

  2. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    updated 3/10/08 Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products © National Reye's Syndrome Foundation Inc. 2008 Epidemiologic research has shown an association between the development of Reye's ...

  3. Differential impairment of aspirin-dependent platelet cyclooxygenase acetylation by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanwen; Fries, Susanne; Li, Ruizhi; Lawson, John A.; Propert, Kathleen J.; Diamond, Scott L.; Blair, Ian A.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Grosser, Tilo

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be influenced by interactions with antiplatelet doses of aspirin. We sought to quantitate precisely the propensity of commonly consumed NSAIDs—ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib—to cause a drug–drug interaction with aspirin in vivo by measuring the target engagement of aspirin directly by MS. We developed a novel assay of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) acetylation in platelets isolated from volunteers who were administered aspirin and used conventional and microfluidic assays to evaluate platelet function. Although ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib all had the potential to compete with the access of aspirin to the substrate binding channel of COX-1 in vitro, exposure of volunteers to a single therapeutic dose of each NSAID followed by 325 mg aspirin revealed a potent drug–drug interaction between ibuprofen and aspirin and between naproxen and aspirin but not between celecoxib and aspirin. The imprecision of estimates of aspirin consumption and the differential impact on the ability of aspirin to inactivate platelet COX-1 will confound head-to-head comparisons of distinct NSAIDs in ongoing clinical studies designed to measure their cardiovascular risk. PMID:25385584

  4. High-dose irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Studies performed on behalf of the International Project on Food Irradiation in the period from 1971 until 1980 resulted in the concluding statement that ''.the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy presents no toxicological hazard; hence, toxicological testing of foods so treated is no longer required.'' Since then, licenses for food irradiation have been restricted to this maximum dose in any country applying this technology. Further testing programmes have been carried out investigating the wholesomeness or hazards of high-dose irradiation, but there has been little demand so far by the food industry for licensing of high-dose irradiation, as there is only a small range of products whose irradiation at higher doses offers advantages for given, intended use. These include eg. spices, dried herbs, meat products in flexible pouch packagings for astronauts, or patients with immune deficiencies. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Effects of aspirin in combination with EPA and DHA on HDL-C cholesterol and ApoA1 exchange in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C; Holub, Ashley; Abdolahi, Amir; Tu, Xin M; Mousa, Shaker A; Oda, Michael N

    2017-11-01

    Low-dose aspirin is an effective drug for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but individuals with diabetes mellitus can be subject to 'aspirin resistance'. Thus, aspirin's effect in these individuals is controversial. Higher blood levels of seafood-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also have beneficial effects in reducing risk of CVD events but few studies have examined the interaction of plasma EPA and DHA with aspirin ingestion. Our study examined the combinatory effects of EPA, DHA, and aspirin ingestion on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I exchange (shown to be associated with CVD event risk). 30 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus ingested aspirin (81mg/day) for 7 consecutive days, EPA+DHA (2.6g/day) for 28 days, then both for 7 days. Plasma was collected at baseline and at 5 subsequent visits including 4h after each aspirin ingestion. Mixed model methods were used to determine HDL-C-concentrations and apoA-I exchange compared to the baseline visit values. LOWESS curves were used for non-linear analyses of outcomes to help discern change patterns, which was followed by piecewise linear functions for formal testing of curvilinear relationships. Significant changes (p aspirin-only ingestion, apoA-I exchange was significantly modified by increasing levels of DHA concentration, with increased apoA-I exchange observed up until log(DHA) of 4.6 and decreased exchange thereafter (p = 0.03). These LOWESS curve effects were not observed for EPA or HDL-C (p > 0.05). Aspirin's effects on apoA-I exchange were the greatest when EPA or DHA concentrations were moderate compared to high or low. Comparison of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA LOWESS curves, demonstrated that the majority of the effect is due to DHA. Our results strongly suggest that plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA influence aspirin effects on lipid mediators of CVD event risk where their concentrations are most beneficial

  6. The use of preoperative aspirin in cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Hassan, Sleiman Sebastian; Stankowski, Tomasz; Marczak, Jakub; Peksa, Maciej; Nawotka, Marcin; Stanislawski, Ryszard; Kryszkowski, Bartosz; Cichon, Romuald

    2017-12-01

    Despite the fact that aspirin is of benefit to patients following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), continuation or administration of preoperative aspirin before CABG or any cardiac surgical procedure remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the influence of preoperative aspirin administration on patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Medline database was searched using OVID SP interface. Similar searches were performed separately in EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials. Twelve randomized controlled trials and 28 observational studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The use of preoperative aspirin in patients undergoing CABG at any dose is associated with reduced early mortality as well as a reduced incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg/d) is associated with a decreased incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI). Administration of preoperative aspirin at any dose in patients undergoing cardiac surgery increases postoperative bleeding. Despite this effect of preoperative aspirin, it did not increase the rates of surgical re-exploration due to excessive postoperative bleeding nor did it increase the rates of packed red blood cell transfusions (PRBC) when preoperative low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg/d) was administered. Preoperative aspirin increases the risk for postoperative bleeding. However, this did not result in an increased need for chest re-exploration and did not increase the rates of PRBC transfusion when preoperative low-dose (≤160 mg/d) aspirin was administered. Aspirin at any dose is associated with decreased mortality and AKI and low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg/d) decreases the incidence of perioperative MI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy as a definitive treatment modality for locally advanced cervical cancer. T Refaat, A Elsaid, N Lotfy, K Kiel, W Small Jr, P Nickers, E Lartigau ...

  8. Radiation effects of high and low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive proliferation of the uses and applications of atomic and nuclear energy resulted in possible repercussions on human health. The prominent features of the health hazards that may be incurred after exposure to high and low radiation doses are discussed. The physical and biological factors involved in the sequential development of radiation health effects and the different cellular responses to radiation injury are considered. The main criteria and features of radiation effects of high and low doses are comprehensively outlined

  9. Aspirin effects on lymphocyte cyclic AMP levels in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, D E; Parker, C W

    1976-01-01

    In purified lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of healthy human subjects who had ingested therapeutic doses of aspirin, there was a significant decrease in resting cyclic AMP levels as well as a partial inhibition of the rise in cyclic AMP with isoproterenol or prostaglandin E1. These changes were seen as early as 30 min after aspirin ingestion and did not appear to result from aspirin effects on lymphocyte recovery, purity, viability, or relative number of thymus- or bone marrow-derived lymphocytes. In contrast, the direct addition of aspirin to suspensions of purified peripheral lymphocytes did not significantly alter their cyclic AMP levels. However, an effect of aspirin could be obtained in vitro if aspirin was added to unprocessed whole blood during the dextran sedimentation phase of the cell purification. Thus the effect of aspirin on lymphocyte cyclic AMP metabolism, may be indirect, through other cells present in the peripheral blood. PMID:182720

  10. Aspirin in the Chemoprevention of Colorectal Neoplasia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T.; Arber, Nadir; Burn, John; Chia, John Whay-Kuang; Elwood, Peter; Hull, Mark A.; Logan, Richard F.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Schrör, Karsten; Baron, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) in addition to its well-established benefits in the prevention of vascular disease. Epidemiologic studies have consistently observed an inverse association between aspirin use and risk of CRC. A recent pooled analysis of a long-term post-trial follow-up of nearly 14,000 patients from 4 randomized, cardiovascular disease prevention trials showed that daily aspirin treatment for about 5 years was associated with a 34% reduction in 20-year CRC mortality. A separate meta-analysis of nearly 3,000 patients with a history of colorectal adenoma or cancer in 4 randomized adenoma prevention trials demonstrated that aspirin reduced the occurrence of advanced adenomas by 28% and any adenoma by 17%. Aspirin has also been shown to be beneficial in a clinical trial of patients with Lynch syndrome, a hereditary CRC syndrome; in those treated with aspirin for at least 2 years, there was a ≥ 50% reduction in the risk of CRC commencing 5 years after randomization and after aspirin had been discontinued. A few observational studies have shown an increase in survival among patients with CRC who use aspirin. Taken together, these findings strengthen the case for consideration of long-term aspirin use in CRC prevention. Despite these compelling data, there is a lack of consensus about the balance of risks and benefits associated with long-term aspirin use, particularly in low-risk populations. The optimal dose to use for cancer prevention and the precise mechanism underlying aspirin’s anticancer effect require further investigation. PMID:22084361

  11. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionization chamber for high dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo

    2005-01-01

    Industrial gamma irradiators facilities are designed for processing large amounts of products, which are exposed to large doses of gamma radiation. The irradiation, in industrial scale, is usually carried out in a dynamic form, where the products go through a 60 Co gamma source with activity of TBq to P Bq (k Ci to MCi). The dose is estimated as being directly proportional to the time that the products spend to go through the source. However, in some situations, mainly for research purposes or for validation of customer process following the ISO 11137 requirements, it is required to irradiate small samples in a static position with fractional deliver doses. The samples are put inside the irradiation room at a fixed distance from the source and the dose is usually determined using dosimeters. The dose is only known after the irradiation, by reading the dosimeter. Nevertheless, in the industrial irradiators, usually different kinds of products with different densities go through between the source and the static position samples. So, the dose rate varies in function of the product density. A suitable methodology would be to monitor the samples dose in real time, measuring the dose on line with a radiation detector, which would improve the dose accuracy and avoid the overdose. A cylindrical ionization chamber of 0.9 cm 3 has been developed for high-doses real-time monitoring, during the sample irradiation at a static position in a 60 Co gamma industrial plant. Nitrogen and argon gas at pressure of 10 exp 5 Pa (1 bar) was utilized to fill the ionization chamber, for which an appropriate configuration was determined to be used as a detector for high-dose measurements. To transmit the signal generated in the ionization chamber to the associated electronic and processing unit, a 20 m mineral insulated cable was welded to the ionization chamber. The signal to noise ratio produced by the detector was about 100. The dosimeter system was tested at a category I gamma

  13. Up-regulation of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Astrocytes by Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Sendtner, Michael; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used analgesics. Interestingly, aspirin increased mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse and human astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aspirin induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C (PKC). H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated aspirin-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), but not NF-κB, by aspirin, the abrogation of aspirin-induced expression of CNTF by siRNA knockdown of CREB, the presence of a consensus cAMP-response element in the promoter of CNTF, and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by aspirin suggest that aspirin increases the expression of the Cntf gene via the activation of CREB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that aspirin-induced astroglial CNTF was also functionally active and that supernatants of aspirin-treated astrocytes of wild type, but not Cntf null, mice increased myelin-associated proteins in oligodendrocytes and protected oligodendrocytes from TNF-α insult. These results highlight a new and novel myelinogenic property of aspirin, which may be of benefit for multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:23653362

  14. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Rushworth, Gordon F; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin remains the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in cardiac patients. However, if a patient is allergic to aspirin and dual anti-platelet therapy is indicated - such as with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), then there is no clear guidance. One possibility is aspirin desensitization. A variety of protocols exist for the rapid desensitization of patients with aspirin allergy. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge and practice regarding aspirin desensitization in the UK. We conducted a UK wide survey of all UK 116 PCI centers and obtained complete responses from 40 (35.4%) centers. Of these, just 7 (17.5%) centers had previously desensitised patients; 29 (87.9%) centers suggested a lack of a local protocol prevented them from desensitizing, with 10 (30.3%) unsure of how to conduct desensitization. Only 5 (12.5%) centers had a local policy for aspirin desensitization although 25 (64.1%) units had a clinical strategy for dealing with aspirin allergy; the majority (72%) giving higher doses of thienopyridine class drugs. In the UK, there appears to be no consistent approach to patients with aspirin allergy. Patients undergoing PCI benefit from dual anti-platelet therapy (including aspirin), and aspirin desensitization in those with known allergy may facilitate this. Sustained effort should be placed on encouraging UK centers to use desensitization as a treatment modality prior to PCI rather than avoiding aspirin altogether.

  15. Intracranial meningiomas after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, D.; Gomori, J.M.; Siegal, T.; Shalit, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients who presented with intracranial meningiomas 12, 15, and 20 years, respectively, after therapeutic high-dose irradiation of a primary brain tumor are described. Analysis of these cases and similar documented cases suggests that meningiomas after high-dose irradiation constitute a recognizable entity. Patients with such tumors received radiation therapy at a young age (mean age, 9.4 years). After a latent period of 2 to 47 years (mean, 19.8 years) they developed meningiomas at the site of irradiation, at a much younger age than patients with ''spontaneous'' meningiomas. Similar to the situation with meningiomas after low-dose irradiation, a relatively high proportion of meningiomas induced by high-dose irradiation tend to be malignant and biologically aggressive. A very young age at the time of irradiation seems to predispose to the induction of malignant meningiomas, rather than benign tumors. These unusual features provide indirect evidence that high-dose radiation may play a role in the pathogenesis of meningiomas.41 references

  16. Repurposing of Aspirin and Ibuprofen as Candidate Anti-Cryptococcus Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundeji, Adepemi O.; Pohl, Carolina H.

    2016-01-01

    The usage of fluconazole and amphotericin B in clinical settings is often limited by, among other things, drug resistance development and undesired side effects. Thus, there is a constant need to find new drugs to better manage fungal infections. Toward this end, the study described in this paper considered the repurposing of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and ibuprofen as alternative drugs to control the growth of cryptococcal cells. In vitro susceptibility tests, including a checkerboard assay, were performed to assess the response of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii to the above-mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. Next, the capacity of these two drugs to induce stress as well as their mode of action in the killing of cryptococcal cells was determined. The studied fungal strains revealed a response to both aspirin and ibuprofen that was dose dependent, with ibuprofen exerting greater antimicrobial action. More importantly, the MICs of these drugs did not negatively (i) affect growth or (ii) impair the functioning of macrophages; rather, they enhanced the ability of these immune cells to phagocytose cryptococcal cells. Ibuprofen was also shown to act in synergy with fluconazole and amphotericin B. The treatment of cryptococcal cells with aspirin or ibuprofen led to stress induction via activation of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, and cell death was eventually achieved through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated membrane damage. The presented data highlight the potential clinical application of aspirin and ibuprofen as candidate anti-Cryptococcus drugs. PMID:27246782

  17. Standardization of high-dose measurement of electron and gamma ray absorbed doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Intense electron beams and gamma radiation fields are used for sterilizing medical devices, treating municipal wastes, processing industrial goods, controlling parasites and pathogens, and extending the shelf-life of foods. Quality control of such radiation processes depends largely on maintaining measurement quality assurance through sound dosimetry procedures in the research leading to each process, in the commissioning of that process, and in the routine dose monitoring practices. This affords documentation as to whether satisfactory dose uniformity is maintained throughout the product and throughout the process. Therefore, dosimetry at high doses and dose rates must in many radiation processes be standardized carefully, so that 'dosimetry release' of a product is verified. This standardization is initiated through preliminary dosimetry intercomparison studies such as those sponsored recently by the IAEA. This is followed by establishing periodic exercises in traceability to national or international standards of absorbed dose and dose rate. Traceability is achieved by careful selection of dosimetry methods and proven reference dosimeters capable of giving sufficiently accurate and precise 'transfer' dose assessments: (1) they must be calibrated or have well-established radiation-yield indices; (2) their radiation response characteristics must be reproducible and cover the dose range of interest; (3) they must withstand the rigours of back-and-forth mailing between a central standardizing laboratory and radiation processing facilities, without excessive errors arising due to instabilities, dosimeter batch non-uniformities, and environmental and handling stresses. (author)

  18. Aspirin as a Chemopreventive Agent for Cancer: a New Hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnatin Miladiyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: inflammation has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Inflammatory process activates the immune system through pro-inflammatory mediators and subsequent triggers transformation into malignant cells. Some tumors or cancers has been associated with chronic infections, such as hepatitis B and C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma, human papilloma virus (cervical cancer, Helicobacter pylori (gastric cancer and lymphoma, and prostatitis (prostate cancer. A considerable study have investigated the benefits of aspirin for the prevention and treatment of cancer or tumors. Objectives: This paper aims to describe the relationship between inflammation and cancer incidence, so that use of aspirin as an anti-inflammatory agent is a rational choice in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Conclusion: Aspirin potential for chemoprevention of various types of cancer. Considering the high risk of side effects of aspirin, aspirin is not intended as a routine therapy to prevent the occurrence of cancer.

  19. Aspirin for acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-01-13

    . Four studies specified using IHS diagnostic criteria; one predated commonly recognised criteria, but described comparable characteristics and excluded migraine. All participants treated headaches of at least moderate pain intensity.None of the included studies were at low risk of bias across all domains considered, although for most studies and domains this was likely to be due to inadequate reporting rather than poor methods. We judged one study to be at high risk of bias due to small size.There were no data for aspirin at any dose for the IHS preferred outcome of being pain free at two hours, or for being pain free at any other time, and only one study provided data equivalent to having no or mild pain at two hours (very low quality evidence). Use of rescue medication was lower with aspirin 1000 mg than with placebo (2 studies, 397 participants); 14% of participants used rescue medication with aspirin 1000 mg compared with 31% with placebo (NNTp 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1 to 12) (low quality evidence). Two studies (397 participants) reported a Patient Global Evaluation at the end of the study; we combined the top two categories for both studies to determine the number of participants who were 'satisfied' with treatment. Aspirin 1000 mg produced more satisfied participants (55%) than did placebo (37%) (NNT 5.7, 95% CI 3.7 to 12) (very low quality evidence).Adverse events were not different between aspirin 1000 mg and placebo (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.5), or aspirin 500 mg or 650 mg and placebo (RR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.0) (low quality evidence). Studies reported no serious adverse events.The quality of the evidence using GRADE comparing aspirin doses between 500 mg and 1000 mg with placebo was low or very low. Evidence was downgraded because of the small number of studies and events, and because the most important measures of efficacy were not reported.There were insufficient data to compare aspirin with any active comparator (paracetamol alone, paracetamol

  20. Comparative effects of aspirin and enteric-coated aspirin on loss of chromium 51-labeled erythrocytes from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, D.C.; Schwartz, R.S.; Kutny, K.; Vallejo, G.; Horton, E.S.; Cotter, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Sodium chromate Cr 51 was used to label red blood cells of 19 healthy male volunteers, whose stools were collected for four days before and four days during oral administration of either uncoated (N . 9) or enteric-coated (N . 10) aspirin. Each subject received 2.925 gm/day of aspirin, in three equal doses separated by eight-hour intervals, for a total of seven days. During drug use, stools were collected on days 4 through 7. Fecal blood content, estimated by measuring radioactivity in the stools, was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) during use of either type of aspirin than at baseline, but losses measured during use of the coated aspirin (mean, 1.54 ml/day) were significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than those measured during use of the uncoated aspirin (mean, 4.33 ml/day). The two types of aspirin produced equivalent serum concentrations of salicylates. We conclude that enteric-coated aspirin reduces gastrointestinal blood loss

  1. Dosimetric systems of high dose, dose rate and dose uniformity in food and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, J.; Vivanco, M.; Castro, E.

    2014-08-01

    In the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) we use the chemical dosimetry Astm-E-1026 Fricke as a standard dosimetric system of reference and different routine dosimetric systems of high doses, according to the applied doses to obtain the desired effects in the treated products and the doses range determined for each type of dosimeter. Fricke dosimetry is a chemical dosimeter in aqueous solution indicating the absorbed dose by means an increase in absorbance at a specific wavelength. A calibrated spectrophotometer with controlled temperature is used to measure absorbance. The adsorbed dose range should cover from 20 to 400 Gy, the Fricke solution is extremely sensitive to organic impurities, to traces of metal ions, in preparing chemical products of reactive grade must be used and the water purity is very important. Using the referential standard dosimetric system Fricke, was determined to March 5, 2013, using the referential standard dosimetric system Astm-1026 Fricke, were irradiated in triplicate Fricke dosimeters, to 5 irradiation times (20; 30; 40; 50 and 60 seconds) and by linear regression, the dose rate of 5.400648 kGy /h was determined in the central point of the irradiation chamber (irradiator Gamma cell 220 Excel), applying the decay formula, was compared with the obtained results by manufacturers by means the same dosimetric system in the year of its manufacture, being this to the date 5.44691 kGy /h, with an error rate of 0.85. After considering that the dosimetric solution responds to the results, we proceeded to the irradiation of a sample of 200 g of cereal instant food, 2 dosimeters were placed at the lateral ends of the central position to maximum dose and 2 dosimeters in upper and lower ends as minimum dose, they were applied same irradiation times; for statistical analysis, the maximum dose rate was 6.1006 kGy /h and the minimum dose rate of 5.2185 kGy /h; with a dose uniformity of 1.16. In medical material of micro pulverized bone for

  2. Nonlinear model of high-dose implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilyuk, A.

    2001-01-01

    The models of high-dose implantation, using the distribution functions, are relatively simple. However, they must take into account the variation of the function of distribution of the implanted ions with increasing dose [1-4]. This variation takes place owing to the fact that the increase of the concentration of the implanted ions results in a change of the properties of the target. High-dose implantation is accompanied by sputtering, volume growth, diffusion, generation of defects, formation of new phases, etc. The variation of the distribution function is determined by many factors and is not known in advance. The variation within the framework of these models [1-4] is taken into account in advance by the introduction of intuitive assumptions on the basis of implicit considerations. Therefore, these attempts should be regarded as incorrect. The model prepared here makes it possible to take into account the sputtering of the target, volume growth and additional declaration on the implanted ions. Without any assumptions in relation to the variation of the distribution function with increasing dose. In our model it is assumed that the type of distribution function for small doses in a pure target substance is the same as in substances with implanted ions. A second assumption relates to the type of the distribution function valid for small doses in the given substances. These functions are determined as a result of a large number of theoretical and experimental investigations and are well-known at the present time. They include the symmetric and nonsymmetric Gauss distribution, the Pearson distribution, and others. We examine implantation with small doses of up to 10 14 - 10 15 cm -2 when the accurately known distribution is valid

  3. High dose gamma-ray standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrin, R.; Moraru, R.

    1999-01-01

    The high gamma-ray doses produced in a gamma irradiator are used, mainly, for radiation processing, i.e. sterilization of medical products, processing of food, modifications of polymers, irradiation of electronic devices, a.s.o. The used absorbed doses depend on the application and cover the range 10 Gy to 100 MGy. The regulations in our country require that the response of the dosimetry systems, used for the irradiation of food and medical products, be calibrated and traceable to the national standards. In order to be sure that the products receive the desired absorbed dose, appropriate dosimetric measurements must be performed, including the calibration of the dosemeters and their traceability to the national standards. The high dose gamma-ray measurements are predominantly based on the use of reference radiochemical dosemeters. Among them the ferrous sulfate can be used as reference dosemeter for low doses (up to 400 Gy) but due to its characteristics it deserves to be considered a standard dosemeter and to be used for transferring the conventional absorbed dose to other chemical dosemeters used for absorbed doses up to 100 MGy. The study of the ferrous sulfate dosemeter consisted in preparing many batches of solution by different operators in quality assurance conditions and in determining for all batches the linearity, the relative intrinsic error, the repeatability and the reproducibility. The principal results are the following: the linear regression coefficient: 0.999, the relative intrinsic error: max.6 %, the repeatability (for P* = 95 %): max.3 %, the reproducibility (P* = 95%): max.5 %. (authors)

  4. Risk for Major Bleeding in Patients Receiving Ticagrelor Compared With Aspirin After Transient Ischemic Attack or Acute Ischemic Stroke in the SOCRATES Study (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, J Donald; Aunes, Maria; Albers, Gregory W; Amarenco, Pierre; Bokelund-Singh, Sara; Denison, Hans; Evans, Scott R; Held, Peter; Jahreskog, Marianne; Jonasson, Jenny; Minematsu, Kazuo; Molina, Carlos A; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, K S Lawrence; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-09-05

    Patients with minor acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack are at high risk for subsequent stroke, and more potent antiplatelet therapy in the acute setting is needed. However, the potential benefit of more intense antiplatelet therapy must be assessed in relation to the risk for major bleeding. The SOCRATES trial (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes) was the first trial with ticagrelor in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in which the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor were compared with those of aspirin. The main safety objective was assessment of PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)-defined major bleeds on treatment, with special focus on intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH). An independent adjudication committee blinded to study treatment classified bleeds according to the PLATO, TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction), and GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) definitions. The definitions of ICrH and major bleeding excluded cerebral microbleeds and asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of cerebral infarctions so that the definitions better discriminated important events in the acute stroke population. A total of 13 130 of 13 199 randomized patients received at least 1 dose of study drug and were included in the safety analysis set. PLATO major bleeds occurred in 31 patients (0.5%) on ticagrelor and 38 patients (0.6%) on aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.34). The most common locations of major bleeds were intracranial and gastrointestinal. ICrH was reported in 12 patients (0.2%) on ticagrelor and 18 patients (0.3%) on aspirin. Thirteen of all 30 ICrHs (4 on ticagrelor and 9 on aspirin) were hemorrhagic strokes, and 4 (2 in each group) were symptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of brain infarctions. The ICrHs were spontaneous in 6 and 13, traumatic in 3 and 3, and procedural in 3 and 2

  5. Rivaroxaban or Aspirin for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although many patients with venous thromboembolism require extended treatment, it is uncertain whether it is better to use full- or lower-intensity anticoagulation therapy or aspirin. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, we assigned 3396 patients with venous...... thromboembolism to receive either once-daily rivaroxaban (at doses of 20 mg or 10 mg) or 100 mg of aspirin. All the study patients had completed 6 to 12 months of anticoagulation therapy and were in equipoise regarding the need for continued anticoagulation. Study drugs were administered for up to 12 months...... in 17 of 1107 patients (1.5%) receiving 20 mg of rivaroxaban and in 13 of 1127 patients (1.2%) receiving 10 mg of rivaroxaban, as compared with 50 of 1131 patients (4.4%) receiving aspirin (hazard ratio for 20 mg of rivaroxaban vs. aspirin, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.59; hazard ratio...

  6. NIST high-dose calibration services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for the standardization of high-dose measurements used in the radiation-processing industry in order to provide assured traceability to national standards. NIST provides dosimetry calibration services to this industry. One of these services involves administration of known absorbed doses of gamma rays to customer-supplied dosimeters. The dosimeters are packaged to provide electron equilibrium conditions and are irradiated in a standard 60 Co calibration facility; this provides a calibration of that batch of dosimeters. Another service consists of supplying to a customer calibrated transfer dosimeters for irradiation with the customer's radiation source. The irradiated transfer dosimeters are then returned to NIST for analysis; the results are reported to the customer, providing a calibration of the dose rate of the customer's source. (orig.)

  7. Effect of misoprostol on patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease undergoing aspirin challenge and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kristen M; Simon, Ronald A; Woessner, Katharine M; Wineinger, Nathan E; White, Andrew A

    2017-07-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is an anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity. Diminished PGE 2 regulation in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) leads to respiratory reactions on cyclooxygenase 1 inhibition. In vitro studies have found that exogenous PGE 2 stabilizes inflammatory mediator release. To examine whether misoprostol (oral prostaglandin E 1 analogue) use during aspirin challenge and desensitization might decrease the severity of aspirin-induced symptoms and make desensitization safer for patients with AERD. Forty-five patients undergoing aspirin challenge and/or desensitization were randomized to misoprostol (n = 30) or placebo (n = 15) and compared with a group of historical controls (n = 31). Misoprostol (200 μg) was administered at 30 minutes, 90 minutes, and 4 hours after the first dose of nasal ketorolac. Measured end points included change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), peak nasal inspiratory flow rate (PNIF), number of treatments received for induced reactions, and adverse gastrointestinal effects. A difference in FEV 1 and PNIF reduction was detected between misoprostol and placebo (P = .03) and misoprostol and historical controls (P = .01), respectively, during nasal ketorolac challenge. No difference was detected among aspirin reactors. Among all reactors, no difference in magnitude was found for FEV 1 (P = .13) or PNIF (P = .07) reduction across all 3 groups. Total treatment requirement was similar (P = .14). Patients receiving misoprostol were more likely to report adverse gastrointestinal effects (P = .02). The addition of misoprostol to current aspirin challenge and/or desensitization protocols reveals no protective effect in reducing the intensity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced symptoms and is not recommended based on the findings in this study. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploratory plasma proteomic analysis in a randomized crossover trial of aspirin among healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    Full Text Available Long-term use of aspirin is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers; however, the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of aspirin is not fully understood. Animal studies suggest that COX-2, NFκB signaling and Wnt/β-catenin pathways may play a role, but no clinical trials have systematically evaluated the biological response to aspirin in healthy humans. Using a high-density antibody array, we assessed the difference in plasma protein levels after 60 days of regular dose aspirin (325 mg/day compared to placebo in a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of 44 healthy non-smoking men and women, aged 21-45 years. The plasma proteome was analyzed on an antibody microarray with ~3,300 full-length antibodies, printed in triplicate. Moderated paired t-tests were performed on individual antibodies, and gene-set analyses were performed based on KEGG and GO pathways. Among the 3,000 antibodies analyzed, statistically significant differences in plasma protein levels were observed for nine antibodies after adjusting for false discoveries (FDR adjusted p-value<0.1. The most significant protein was succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC, a key enzyme complex of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. The other statistically significant proteins (NR2F1, MSI1, MYH1, FOXO1, KHDRBS3, NFKBIE, LYZ and IKZF1 are involved in multiple pathways, including DNA base-pair repair, inflammation and oncogenic pathways. None of the 258 KEGG and 1,139 GO pathways was found to be statistically significant after FDR adjustment. This study suggests several chemopreventive mechanisms of aspirin in humans, which have previously been reported to play a role in anti- or pro-carcinogenesis in cell systems; however, larger, confirmatory studies are needed.

  9. Aspirin inhibition of platelet deposition at angioplasty sites: demonstration by platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuningham, D.A.; Kumar, B.; Siegel, B.A.; Gilula, L.A.; Totty, W.G.; Welch, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    In-111 platelet scintigraphy was used to evaluate the effects of prior aspirin administration on the accumulation of In-111-labeled autologous platelets at sites of arterial injury resulting from iliac, femoral, or popliteal transluminal angioplasty in a nonrandomized study of 17 men. The degree of platelet localization at angioplasty sites was significantly less in nine men who had received aspirin in varying doses within the 4 days before angioplasty than in eight men who had not received aspirin for at least two weeks. The results suggest that aspirin treatment before angioplasty limits the early platelet deposition at the angioplasty site in men

  10. Beyond COX-1: the effects of aspirin on platelet biology and potential mechanisms of chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Argentina; Zacharias-Millward, Niki; Menter, David G; Davis, Jennifer S; Lichtenberger, Lenard; Hawke, David; Hawk, Ernest; Vilar, Eduardo; Bhattacharya, Pratip; Millward, Steven

    2017-06-01

    After more than a century, aspirin remains one of the most commonly used drugs in western medicine. Although mainly used for its anti-thrombotic, anti-pyretic, and analgesic properties, a multitude of clinical studies have provided convincing evidence that regular, low-dose aspirin use dramatically lowers the risk of cancer. These observations coincide with recent studies showing a functional relationship between platelets and tumors, suggesting that aspirin's chemopreventive properties may result, in part, from direct modulation of platelet biology and biochemistry. Here, we present a review of the biochemistry and pharmacology of aspirin with particular emphasis on its cyclooxygenase-dependent and cyclooxygenase-independent effects in platelets. We also correlate the results of proteomic-based studies of aspirin acetylation in eukaryotic cells with recent developments in platelet proteomics to identify non-cyclooxygenase targets of aspirin-mediated acetylation in platelets that may play a role in its chemopreventive mechanism.

  11. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Once-daily aspirin is standard treatment, but recent studies point towards increased platelet function at the end of the dosing interval. Stent thrombosis (ST) has been linked with reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin, so we investigated if platelet inhibition by aspirin declines...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity, platelet...... activation, immature platelets, and thrombopoietin were measured. RESULTS: Platelet aggregation increased by 109±150 (arachidonic acid) and 47±155 (collagen) aggregation units per minute from 1 to 24 h after aspirin intake (p-values

  12. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of colorectal cancer: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Poulsen, Aslak H; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2009-01-01

    The optimal duration and dose of aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the potential prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been established. We examined this issue in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Self-reported NSAID use at entry (January...... a protective effect against CRC. Further studies of the effective dose of aspirin and the potential interaction between NSAID use and BMI are warranted....

  13. High-dose erythropoietin for tissue protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anton; Lundby, Carsten; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discovery of potential anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has led to clinical trials investigating the use of high-dose, short-term rHuEPO therapy for tissue protection in conditions such as stroke and myocardial infarction....... Experimental studies have been favourable, but the clinical efficacy has yet to be validated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have reviewed clinical studies regarding the use of high-dose, short-term rHuEPO therapy for tissue protection in humans with the purpose to detail the safety and efficacy of r...... no effect of rHuEPO therapy on measures of tissue protection. Five trials including 1025 patients reported safety concerns in the form of increased mortality or adverse event rates. No studies reported reduced mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is sparse to support a tissue-protective benefit of r...

  14. Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Itabashi, Tsukasa; Abe, Sumihisa; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Uemura, Naomi; Hiramatsu, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole has not been established for the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in those receiving long-term low-dose aspirin (LDA) for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection. This study sought to examine the efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole (15 mg once daily) for the secondary prevention of LDA-associated gastric or duodenal ulcers. Patients were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 226) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 235) for 12 months or longer in a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized active-controlled trial, followed by a 6-month follow-up study with open-label lansoprazole treatment. The study utilized 94 sites in Japan and 461 Japanese patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The primary endpoint was the development of gastric or duodenal ulcers. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcers on days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 1.5, 2.1, and 3.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 15.2, 24.0, and 31.7%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk of ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.099 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.042-0.230). Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy.

  15. PFA-100-measured aspirin resistance is the predominant risk factor for hospitalized cardiovascular events in aspirin-treated patients: A 5-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Y; Chou, P

    2018-04-01

    Aspirin therapy is the clinical gold standard for the prevention of cardiovascular events. However, cardiovascular events still develop in some patients undergoing aspirin therapy. Many laboratory methods exist for measuring aspirin resistance. Using the platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 system, we aimed to determine the effect of aspirin resistance on hospitalized cardiovascular events (hCVE) in a 5-year follow-up cohort. We also sought to determine the impact of aspirin resistance on the relationship between common cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular hospitalization. Aspirin resistance was evaluated in aspirin-treated patients from the outpatient department. A total of 465 patients during a 5-year follow-up period were included in this study. The primary endpoint of the study was hospitalization for any acute cardiovascular event. The prevalence and associated risk factors of acute cardiovascular events were evaluated. Aspirin resistance was prevalent in 91 (20.0%) of 465 patients. Prior hospitalization history of cardiovascular events was highly associated with aspirin resistance (P = .001). At the 5-year follow-up, cardiovascular events were found to have developed in 11 patients (8 stroke and 3 myocardial infarction) who exhibited aspirin resistance (12.1%) and in 9 (4 stroke and 5 myocardial infarction) patients who did not exhibit aspirin resistance (2.4%) (P resistance and cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio 4.28; 95% CI: 1.64-11.20; P = .03). PFA-100 measurements of aspirin resistance correlate with hCVE, as evidenced by both the past medical history and the 5-year follow-up. The logistic regression analysis results showed that aspirin resistance plays a larger role in hospitalized cardiovascular disease than do other cardiovascular risk factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Souhei

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  17. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer.

  18. Update on pediatric resuscitation drugs: high dose, low dose, or no dose at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Annalise

    2005-04-01

    Pediatric resuscitation has been a topic of discussion for years. It is difficult to keep abreast of changing recommendations, especially for busy pediatricians who do not regularly use these skills. This review will focus on the most recent guidelines for resuscitation drugs. Three specific questions will be discussed: standard dose versus high-dose epinephrine, amiodarone use, and the future of vasopressin in pediatric resuscitation. The issue of using high-dose epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation refractory to standard dose epinephrine has been a topic of debate for many years. Recently, a prospective, double-blinded study was performed to help settle the debate. These results will be reviewed and compared with previous studies. Amiodarone is a medication that was added to the pediatric resuscitation algorithms with the most recent recommendations from the American Heart Association in 2000. Its use and safety will also be discussed. Another topic that is resurfacing in resuscitation is the use of vasopressin. Its mechanism and comparisons to other agents will be highlighted, although its use in the pediatric patient has not been thoroughly studied. Pediatric resuscitation is a constantly evolving subject that is on the mind of anyone taking care of sick children. Clinicians are continually searching for the most effective methods to resuscitate children in terms of short- and long-term outcomes. It is important to be familiar with not only the agents being used but also the optimal way to use them.

  19. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  20. High dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy - treatment technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Aisen, Salim; Haddad, Cecilia Maria Kalil; Nadalin, Wladimir; Pedreira Junior, Wilson Leite; Chavantes, Maria Cristina

    1998-01-01

    High dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy is efficient in symptom relief due to obstructive endobronchial malignancies. However, it's role in survival improvement for patients with lung cancer is not yet established. The use of this treatment in increasing, specially in the developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to present the treatment technique used in the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital da Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo, based on an experience of 60 cases treated with 180 procedures. Some practical suggestions and rules adopted in the Department are described. The severe complications rate is 6.7%, demonstrating an adequate patient selection associated with the technique utilized. (author)

  1. Neuroprotective potential of high-dose biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2017-11-01

    A recent controlled trial has established that high-dose biotin supplementation - 100 mg, three times daily - has a stabilizing effect on progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this effect has been attributed to an optimization of biotin's essential cofactor role in the brain, a case can be made that direct stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by pharmacological concentrations of biotin plays a key role in this regard. The utility of high-dose biotin in MS might reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of cGMP on the cerebral microvasculature, as well on oligodendrocyte differentiation and on Schwann cell production of neurotrophic factors thought to have potential for managing MS. But biotin's ability to boost cGMP synthesis in the brain may have broader neuroprotective potential. In many types of neurons and neural cells, cGMP exerts neurotrophic-mimetic effects - entailing activation of the PI3K-Akt and Ras-ERK pathways - that promote neuron survival and plasticity. Hippocampal long term potentiation requires nitric oxide synthesis, which in turn promotes an activating phosphorylation of CREB via a pathway involving cGMP and protein kinase G (PKG). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta suppresses this mechanism by inhibiting sGC activity; agents which exert a countervailing effect by boosting cGMP levels tend to restore effective long-term potentiation in rodent models of AD. Moreover, NO/cGMP suppresses amyloid beta production within the brain by inhibiting expression of amyloid precursor protein and BACE1. In conjunction with cGMP's ability to oppose neuron apoptosis, these effects suggest that high-dose biotin might have potential for the prevention and management of AD. cGMP also promotes neurogenesis, and may lessen stroke risk by impeding atherogenesis and hypertrophic remodeling in the cerebral vasculature. The neuroprotective potential of high-dose biotin likely could be boosted by concurrent administration of brain

  2. Aspirin and Risk of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Moore, Justin M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the use of low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We aimed to evaluate any association between aspirin use and risk of aSAH based on the literature, and whether this is influenced by duration or frequency of aspirin use. A search of electronic databases was done from inception to September 2016. For each study, data on risk of aSAH in aspirin versus nonaspirin users were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and combined using inverse variance-weighted averages of logarithmic odds ratios in a random-effects models. From 7 included studies, no significant difference was noted between aspirin use of any duration or frequency and nonaspirin users (odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.24; P =0.99). We found a significant association between short-term use of aspirin (3 years of durations of use. No significant association was found between infrequent aspirin use (≤2× per week) or frequent use (≥3× per week) with risk of aSAH. Current evidence suggests that short-term (aspirin is associated with increased risk of aSAH. Limitations include substantial heterogenity of the included studies. The role of long-term aspirin in reducing risk of aSAH remains unclear and ideally should be addressed by an appropriately designed randomized controlled trial. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  4. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang; He, Huabin; Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis

  5. Comparative bioequivalence assessment of aspirin tablets marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In the last few years, aspirin has become a life saver against cardiovascular accidents. This investigation was carried out to determine possible bioequivalence between regular aspirin and soluble aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria. Methods: The in vivo bioavailability profiles of three commercial brands of aspirin ...

  6. Performance of thermoluminescent materials for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texeira, Maria I.; Cecatti, Sonia G.P.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cases involving high-doses of ionizing radiation are becoming increasingly common.The objective of this work was to characterize thermoluminescent materials for the dosimetry of workers exposed to high doses. Samples of TLD-200, TLD-400 and TLD-800 pellets from Thermo Electron Corporation were studied in gamma high-doses. Dose-response curves were obtained for doses between 100 mGy and 100 Gy. The reproducibility, the lower detection limits and dose-response curves were obtained for all three materials. The different kinds of detectors show usefulness for dosimetry of workers exposed accidentally to high doses. (author)

  7. Immune reactivity after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, W.; Wottge, H.U.; von Kolzynski, M.; Mueller-Ruchholtz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Immune reactivity after total-body irradiation was investigated in rats using skin graft rejection as the indicator system. After sublethal irradiation with 10.5 Gy (approximately 50% lethality/6 weeks) the rejection of major histocompatibility complex allogeneic skin grafts was delayed significantly compared with nonirradiated control animals (28 versus 6.5 days). In contrast, skin grafts were rejected after 7.5 days in sublethally irradiated animals and 7 days in lethally irradiated animals if additional skin donor type alloantigens--namely, irradiated bone marrow cells--were given i.v. either simultaneously or with a delay of not more than 24 hr after the above conditioning regimen. These reactions were alloantigen-specific. They were observed in six different strain combinations with varying donors and recipients. Starting on day 2 after irradiation, i.v. injection of bone marrow gradually lost its effectivity and skin grafts were no longer rejected with uniform rapidity; skin donor marrow given on days 4 or 8 did not accelerate skin graft rejection at all. These data show that for approximately 1-2 days after high-dose total-body irradiation rats are still capable of starting a vigorous immune reaction against i.v.-injected alloantigens. The phenomenon of impaired rejection of skin grafted immediately after high-dose irradiation appears to result from the poor accessibility of skin graft alloantigens during the early postirradiation phase when vascularization of the grafted skin is insufficient

  8. High-dose vitamin C and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Unlu, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate is a basic compound that is of great importance with its role in various enzymatic reactions including the synthesis of collagen, as well as with its redox functions. Vitamin C has become the center of interest in cancer studies, in consequence of the facts that connective tissue changes and vitamin C deficiency were first alleged to be associated with cancer in the 1950s; and that high doses of vitamin C was asserted to be cytotoxic for cancer cells, later on. The results of the first study carried out in the 1970s were promising; but afterwards, the studies were ascertained to be faulty. Despite the positive results achieved from some laboratory and animal experiments, randomized clinical trials did not verify those findings, and no clear benefit of vitamin C for cancer treatment could be demonstrated. As for studies, where its use in combination with other cancer treatment regimens was assessed, conflicting results were obtained. Although intake of high doses of vitamin C is alleged to be harmless, based on that it is in the group of water soluble vitamins and is not stored in the body, there are many side effects and drug interactions reported in the literature. For now, it is better to abstain from this treatment, until the benefit of the treatment (if any is clearly demonstrated, considering the potential side effects and interactions.

  9. Perioperative aspirin and clonidine and risk of acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit X; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Acute kidney injury, a common complication of surgery, is associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. Some studies suggest aspirin or clonidine administered during the perioperative period reduces the risk of acute kidney injury; however, these effects are uncertain...... and each intervention has the potential for harm. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether aspirin compared with placebo, and clonidine compared with placebo, alters the risk of perioperative acute kidney injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2 × 2 factorial randomized, blinded, clinical trial of 6905...... patients undergoing noncardiac surgery from 88 centers in 22 countries with consecutive patients enrolled between January 2011 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned to take aspirin (200 mg) or placebo 2 to 4 hours before surgery and then aspirin (100 mg) or placebo daily up to 30 days...

  10. Quality control of 192Ir high dose rate after loading brachytherapy dose veracity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhongsu; Xu Xiao; Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    Recently, 192 Ir high dose rate (HDR) afterloading are widely used in brachytherapy. The advantage of using HDR systems over low dose rate systems are shorter treatment time and higher fraction dose. To guarantee the veracity of the delivery dose, several quality control methods are deseribed in this work. With these we can improve the position precision, time precision and dose precision of the brachytherapy. (authors)

  11. Prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers/erosions in patients taking low-dose aspirin with either 15 mg/day of lansoprazole or 40 mg/day of famotidine: The OITA-GF study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The preventive effects of histamine 2 receptor antagonists vs. proton pump inhibitors on low-dose aspirin (LDA)-related gastroduodenal mucosal injury have not been fully investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers or erosions in patients taking LDA with either 40 mg/day of famotidine or 15 mg/day of lansoprazole for at least three months. Methods Of 84 eligible patients, two taking 40 mg/day of famotidine and four taking 15 mg/day of lansoprazole refused to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Ultimately, we performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in 78 patients taking either 40 mg/day of famotidine (group F, n = 31) or 15 mg/day of lansoprazole (group L, n = 47). The prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers or erosions and the magnitude of gastric mucosal injury evaluated using modified Lanza scores were compared between the two groups. Results No patients in either group had gastroduodenal ulcers. Gastroduodenal erosions were more prevalent in group F than in group L (48.4% vs. 17.0%, p = 0.005). The modified Lanza scores (mean ± SD) were significantly higher in group F than in group L (0.9 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.7, p = 0.007). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the use of lansoprazole was negatively associated with gastroduodenal erosions. Conclusions This study suggests that 15 mg/day of lansoprazole may be more effective in preventing the development of LDA-related gastroduodenal erosions than 40 mg/day of famotidine. The preventive effects of these two regimens on the development of LDA-related gastroduodenal ulcers require further investigation. PMID:23531145

  12. Prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers/erosions in patients taking low-dose aspirin with either 15 mg/day of lansoprazole or 40 mg/day of famotidine: the OITA-GF study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Akira; Murakami, Kazunari; Kadota, Junichi

    2013-03-26

    The preventive effects of histamine 2 receptor antagonists vs. proton pump inhibitors on low-dose aspirin (LDA)-related gastroduodenal mucosal injury have not been fully investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers or erosions in patients taking LDA with either 40 mg/day of famotidine or 15 mg/day of lansoprazole for at least three months. Of 84 eligible patients, two taking 40 mg/day of famotidine and four taking 15 mg/day of lansoprazole refused to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Ultimately, we performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in 78 patients taking either 40 mg/day of famotidine (group F, n = 31) or 15 mg/day of lansoprazole (group L, n = 47). The prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers or erosions and the magnitude of gastric mucosal injury evaluated using modified Lanza scores were compared between the two groups. No patients in either group had gastroduodenal ulcers. Gastroduodenal erosions were more prevalent in group F than in group L (48.4% vs. 17.0%, p = 0.005). The modified Lanza scores (mean ± SD) were significantly higher in group F than in group L (0.9 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.7, p = 0.007). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the use of lansoprazole was negatively associated with gastroduodenal erosions. This study suggests that 15 mg/day of lansoprazole may be more effective in preventing the development of LDA-related gastroduodenal erosions than 40 mg/day of famotidine. The preventive effects of these two regimens on the development of LDA-related gastroduodenal ulcers require further investigation.

  13. Chemical dosimetry principles in high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.

    2016-01-01

    In radiation processing, activities of principal concern are process validation and process control. The objective of such formalized procedures is to establish documentary evidence that the irradiation process has achieved the desired results. The key element of such activities is inevitably a well characterized reliable dosimetry system that is traceable to recognized national and international dosimetry standards. Only such dosimetry systems can help establish the required documentary evidence. In addition, industrial radiation processing such as irradiation of foodstuffs and sterilization of health careproducts are both highly regulated, in particular with regard to dose. Besides, dosimetry is necessary for scaling up processes from the research level to the industrial level. Thus, accurate dosimetry is indispensable

  14. Onyx as radiation detector for high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Maria Inês; Souza, Divanizia N.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2011-01-01

    A study of the thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of white, black and stripped onyx samples is reported in this work. Onyx is a variety of chalcedony, a form of quartz. The onyx stone is considered nobler than marble. The irradiations were performed using a Gamma-Cell 220 system ( 60 Co). The TL emission curves presented two peaks around 150 °C and 210 °C for all samples. The dose–response curves showed a sublinear behavior between 0.5 Gy and 5 kGy, and the lower detection limit for the white onyx pellets was 1.5 mGy. The main dosimetric characteristics were studied, and the material showed good performance for high dose dosimetry.

  15. The application of high dose food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyn, I. De

    1997-01-01

    During the 1950's to end 1970's the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive 'dried cooked' taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 25 to 45 kGy (depending on the product) at a temperature of between -20 and -40 Centigrade to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions. The product can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. (Author)

  16. The application of high dose food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyn, I. De [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa LTD, Building 2000, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001, (South Africa)

    1997-12-31

    During the 1950`s to end 1970`s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive `dried cooked` taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 25 to 45 kGy (depending on the product) at a temperature of between -20 and -40 Centigrade to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions. The product can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. (Author)

  17. Aspirin reduces serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in vitiligo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zailaie, Mohamad Z.

    2005-01-01

    Increased serum levels of certain immunologic markers including immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-melanocyte/ vitiligo antibodies (V-IgG) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) are associated with augmented humoral and cellular immunity involved in melanocyte cytotoxicity during the active phase of non-segmental vitiligo. Recent reports have shown that, aspirin possesses a wide range of immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of long-term treatment of vitiligo patients with low-dose oral aspirin on serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration. The present study was carried out at the Vitiligo Unit, King Abdul-Aziz University Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March and October 2003. Eighteen female and 14 male patients with a recent onset of non-segmental vitiligo were divided into 2 equal groups. One group received a daily single dose of oral aspirin (300 mg) and the second group received only placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration were determined before and at the end of treatment period. The V-IgG activity was measured using cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following incubation of IgG antibodies with an adult cultured melanocytes. Serum sIL-2R concentration was measured using the highly sensitive quantitative sandwich ELISA utilizing a commercially available kit. As expected, the serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration of the active vitiligo patients (0.81 +/- 0.23 optical density (O.D.), 1428 +/- 510 pg/ml) were significantly increased compared with that of controls (0.27 +/- 0.1 O.D., 846 +/- 312 pg/ml; p<0.05, p<0.01). Aspirin-treated vitiligo patients showed significant decrease in serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration (0.32 +/- 0.08 O.D., 756 +/- 216 pg/ml) compared with that of placebo-treated patients (0.83 +/- 0.19 O.D., 1327 +/- 392 pg/ml; p<0.01). Low-dose oral aspirin treatment of

  18. Prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with an evolving acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Jørgensen, Bo; Korsholm, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and importance of aspirin resistance in patients with an evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by use of the Platelet Function Analyzer-100. INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of aspirin resistance, but the clinical relevance...... of the phenomenon remains to be clarified. If aspirin resistant patients comprise a high-risk subgroup, it might be expected that the prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with AMI would be higher than in patients without AMI. We hypothesized that the prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with AMI...... was twice the prevalence in patients without AMI. METHODS: We included 298 consecutive patients with known cardiovascular disease who were admitted to hospital with symptoms suggestive of an AMI. All had been taking aspirin 150 mg/day for at least 7 days prior to hospital admission. Platelet function...

  19. Increased platelet expression of glycoprotein IIIa following aspirin treatment in aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Christopher N; Goodman, Timothy; Becker, Silke; Chen, Nan; Mustafa, Agnesa; Schofield, Emma; Campbell, James; Ward, Malcolm; Sharma, Pankaj; Ferro, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aims Aspirin is widely used as an anti-platelet agent for cardiovascular prophylaxis. Despite aspirin treatment, many patients experience recurrent thrombotic events, and aspirin resistance may contribute to this. We examined the prevalence of aspirin resistance in a healthy population, and investigated whether the platelet proteome differed in aspirin-resistant subjects. Methods Ninety-three healthy subjects received aspirin 300 mg daily for 28 days. Before and at the end of treatment, urine was taken to determine 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and blood was taken to measure arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma and to interrogate the platelet proteome by mass spectrometric analysis with further confirmation of findings using Western blotting. Results In two of the 93 subjects, neither AA-induced aggregation nor urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was effectively suppressed by aspirin, despite measurable plasma salicylate concentrations, suggesting the presence of true aspirin resistance. Despite no detectable differences in the platelet proteome at baseline, following aspirin a marked increase was seen in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in the aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects. An increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression with aspirin resistance was confirmed in a separate cohort of 17 patients with stable coronary artery disease on long term aspirin treatment, four of whom exhibited aspirin resistance. Conclusions In a healthy population, true aspirin resistance is uncommon but exists. Resistance is associated with an increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in response to aspirin. These data shed new light on the mechanism of aspirin resistance, and provide the potential to identify aspirin-resistant subjects using a novel biomarker. PMID:25099258

  20. Aspirin provocation increases 8-iso-PGE2 in exhaled breath condensate of aspirin-hypersensitive asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Januszek, Rafał; Kaszuba, Marek; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Gielicz, Anna; Plutecka, Hanna; Oleś, Krzysztof; Stręk, Paweł; Sanak, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Isoprostanes are bioactive compounds formed by non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mostly arachidonic, and markers of free radical generation during inflammation. In aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthmatic symptoms are precipitated by ingestion of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs capable for pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 isoenzyme. We investigated whether aspirin-provoked bronchoconstriction is accompanied by changes of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC was collected from 28 AERD subjects and 25 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics before and after inhalatory aspirin challenge. Concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and prostaglandin E2 were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Leukotriene E4 was measured by immunoassay in urine samples collected before and after the challenge. Before the challenge, exhaled 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and PGE2 levels did not differ between the study groups. 8-iso-PGE2 level increased in AERD group only (p=0.014) as a result of the aspirin challenge. Urinary LTE4 was elevated in AERD, both in baseline and post-challenge samples. Post-challenge airways 8-iso-PGE2 correlated positively with urinary LTE4 level (p=0.046), whereas it correlated negatively with the provocative dose of aspirin (p=0.027). A significant increase of exhaled 8-iso-PGE2 after inhalatory challenge with aspirin was selective and not present for the other isoprostane measured. This is a novel finding in AERD, suggesting that inhibition of cyclooxygenase may elicit 8-iso-PGE2 production in a specific mechanism, contributing to bronchoconstriction and systemic overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug and Aspirin-induced Peptic Ulcer Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Young Kwang; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-06-25

    Despite decreasing Helicobacter pylori prevalence, the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease is increasing in the aged population, mainly due to increasing use of NSAIDs to manage pain and inflammation. In addition, low dose aspirin is employed as an anti-coagulant for those who have suffered or are at high risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular disease. However, NSAIDs and aspirin are injurious to mucosa of stomach and duodenum. NSAID-induced inhibition of mucosal prostaglandin synthesis is thought to be a major mechanism of gastrointestinal mucosal injury. The proportion of elderly has increased rapidly in Korea, with the proportion over 65 years old expected to be 24.3% in 2030. In this higher-risk population, the strategy to reduce the incidence of NSAID-related peptic ulcers and complications such as bleeding, obstruction and perforation is very important. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor can be used for reducing the risk of NSAID-related ulcers and upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications. However, continuous use of PPI has several problems. In addition, NSAID-related problems in the lower GI tract have increased, in contrast to the decrease of NSAID-related upper GI disease. The aim of this review is to provide an evidence-based knowledge regarding the mechanism, complications of treatment, and prevention strategies for NSAID- or aspirin-related peptic ulcer disease in Korea.

  2. Limitations of high dose carrier based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Stewart; Traini, Daniela; Tweedie, Alan; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Young, Paul M

    2018-06-10

    This study was performed to investigate how increasing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content within a formulation affects the dispersion of particles and the aerosol performance efficiency of a carrier based dry powder inhalable (DPI) formulation, using a custom dry powder inhaler (DPI) development rig. Five formulations with varying concentrations of API beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) between 1% and 30% (w/w) were formulated as a multi-component carrier system containing coarse lactose and fine lactose with magnesium stearate. The morphology of the formulation and each component were investigated using scanning electron micrographs while the particle size was measured by laser diffraction. The aerosol performance, in terms of aerodynamic diameter, was assessed using the British pharmacopeia Apparatus E cascade impactor (Next generation impactor). Chemical analysis of the API was observed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increasing the concentration of BDP in the blend resulted in increasing numbers and size of individual agglomerates and densely packed BDP multi-layers on the surface of the lactose carrier. BDP present within the multi-layer did not disperse as individual primary particles but as dense agglomerates, which led to a decrease in aerosol performance and increased percentage of BDP deposition within the Apparatus E induction port and pre-separator. As the BDP concentration in the blends increases, aerosol performance of the formulation decreases, in an inversely proportional manner. Concurrently, the percentage of API deposition in the induction port and pre-separator could also be linked to the amount of micronized particles (BDP and Micronized composite carrier) present in the formulation. The effect of such dose increase on the behaviour of aerosol dispersion was investigated to gain greater insight in the development and optimisation of higher dosed carrier-based formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Daily Aspirin Therapy: Understand the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily aspirin therapy: Understand the benefits and risks Daily aspirin therapy can be a lifesaving option, but it's not ... everyone. Get the facts before considering a daily aspirin. By Mayo Clinic Staff Daily aspirin therapy may ...

  4. ELDRS Characterization for a Very High Dose Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard D.; McClure, Steven S.; Rax, Bernard G.; Kenna, Aaron J.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.; Clark, Karla B.; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of bipolar linear parts which may have Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity (ELDRS) is problematic for missions that have very high dose radiation requirements. The accepted standards for evaluating parts that display ELDRS require testing at a very low dose rate which could be prohibitively long for very high dose missions. In this work, a methodology for ELDRS characterization of bipolar parts for mission doses up to 1 Mrad(Si) is evaluated. The procedure employs an initial dose rate of 0.01 rad(Si)/s to a total dose of 50 krad(Si) and then changes to 0.04 rad(Si)/s to a total dose of 1 Mrad(Si). This procedure appears to work well. No change in rate of degradation with dose has been observed when the dose rate is changed from 0.01 to 0.04 rad(Si)/s. This is taken as an indication that the degradation due to the higher dose rate is equivalent to that at the lower dose rate at the higher dose levels, at least for the parts studied to date. In several cases, significant parameter degradation or functional failure not observed at HDR was observed at fairly high total doses (50 to 250 krad(Si)) at LDR. This behavior calls into question the use of dose rate trend data and enhancement factors to predict LDR performance.

  5. Brachytherapy treatment with high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana Rodriguez, Sergio Marcelino; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Lissi Lisbet; Ciscal Chiclana, Onelio Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Retrospectively analyze results and prognostic factors of cervical cancer patients treated with radio concomitant cisplatin-based chemotherapy, radiation therapy combined modality. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2007, 198 patients with invasive cervical cancer were treated at the Oncology Department of Hospital Robau Celestino Hernandez (brachytherapy performed at INOR). The most common age group was 31 to 40 years. The histology in squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 84.3% of cases. The treatment consisted of external pelvic irradiation and vaginal brachytherapy, high dose rate. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly with a maximum of 70 mg for 5 weeks. Results: 66.2% of patients completed 5 cycles of chemotherapy. The median overall survival was 39 months, overall survival, disease-free survival and survival free of locoregional recurrence at 5 years of 78%, 76% and 78.6% respectively .. We found that clinical stage, histological type (adenocarcinoma worst outcome) were statistically related to level of response. Conclusions: Treatment with external pelvic radiation, brachytherapy and concurrent weekly cisplatin in patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer is feasible in the Chilean public health system, well tolerated and results comparable to international literature. (Author)

  6. Use and Misuse of Aspirin in Primary Cardiovascular Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Coccheri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV events in healthy or apparently healthy people is a widely debated topic. Many arguments indicate that “primary prevention” is only a conventional definition and that the transition from primary to secondary prevention represents a continuum of increasing levels of CV risk. Although there are no direct proofs of a different efficacy of aspirin at different CV risk levels, in low-risk populations aspirin will appear to be less efficient. In fact, the lower number of events occurring in patients at low risk yields lower absolute numbers of events prevented. As many as 6 meta-analyses of trials of primary CV prevention with aspirin versus placebo, performed between 2009 and 2016, confirmed the above concepts and showed a concordant, significant reduction in nonfatal myocardial infarction, with no significant effects on stroke, as well as on CV and all-cause mortality. The recent demonstration of a moderate protective effect of aspirin on cancer (especially colorectal confers, however, additional value to the use of aspirin, although unusually long durations of treatment and optimal daily compliance seem to be necessary. Because aspirin increases the bleeding risk, the evaluation of its net clinical benefit is an important point of debate. Thus, it is justified to search for a cutoff level of global CV risk above which the net clinical benefit of aspirin becomes evident. Such a threshold value has been calculated considering the data of 9 primary prevention trials, by the Thrombosis Group of the European Society of Cardiology, and has been indicated as a risk value of 2 or more major CV events per 100 persons per year. Also, in the recent 2016 US Guidelines, the main criterion adopted for the indication of aspirin is the level of global CV risk (suggested cutoff is 1 or more major CV events per 100 persons per year. Beyond the different values selected, it is seems very

  7. High dose potassium-nitrate chemical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda de Cancio, E.M.; Munoz, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This dosimeter is used to control 10 kGY-order doses (1 Mrad). Nitrate suffers a radiolitic reduction phenomena, which is related to the given dose. The method to use potassium nitrate as dosimeter is described, as well as effects of the temperature of irradiation, pH, nitrate concentration and post-irradiation stability. Nitrate powder was irradiated at a Semi-Industrial Plant, at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, and also in a Gammacell-220 irradiator. The dose rates used were 2,60 and 1,80 KGY/hour, and the given doses varied between 1,0 and 150 KGY. The uncertainty was +-3% in all the range. (author) [es

  8. The effect of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use after diagnosis on survival of oesophageal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Van Staalduinen (Jente); M. Frouws (Martine); B. Reimers (Bernhard); E. Bastiaannet (Esther); M.P.P. van Herk-Sukel (Myrthe); V.E.P.P. Lemmens (Valery); W.O. de Steur (Wobbe O.); H.H. Hartgrink (H.); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); G.-J. Liefers (Gerrit-Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Aspirin use has been shown to lower incidence and mortality in cancer patients. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the effect of postdiagnosis low-dose aspirin use on survival of patients with oesophageal cancer.Methods:Patients with oesophageal cancer

  9. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  10. Prostacyclin production in rabbit arteries in situ: inhibition by arachidonic acid-induced endothelial cell damage or by low-dose aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerman-Wojenski, C; Silver, M J; Smith, J B; Nissenbaum, M; Sedar, A W

    1981-04-01

    The central artery of the rabbit ear was perfused in situ and effluent fractions from the artery were assayed for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-K-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), the stable metabolites of prostacyclin (PGI2) and TxA2, using specific radioimmunoassays. These metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) were not detected in the effluent during infusion of Tyrode's solution but both metabolites were detected when small amounts of AA were infused into the artery. Examination of the arteries by scanning electron microscopy revealed that high concentrations of AA which caused a short burst of 6-K-PGF1 alpha and TxB2 production damaged the endothelial cells while lower concentrations which stimulated continuous production did not cause damage. When a non-damaging concentration of AA was infused into an artery that had previously received a damaging concentration, PG production was greatly reduced. Pretreatment of the rabbits with 4 mg/kg acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited 6-K-PGF1 alpha production by the rabbit ear artery in response to AA and 70% inhibition was still evident 18 hours after ASA.

  11. Failure of ethamsylate to reduce aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmend, T K; Stein, A G; Bhaskar, N K; Hawkey, C J

    1989-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of the haemostatic agent ethamsylate on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding. 2. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied three times: at the end of 48 h periods of treatment with (a) placebo, (b) aspirin 600 mg four times daily, (9 doses) and (c) aspirin 600 mg four times daily with each dose preceded by ethamsylate 500 mg. 3. At the end of each treatment period gastric mucosal bleeding into timed gastric washings was quantified using the orthotolidine reaction. 4. Aspirin increased bleeding from a rate on placebo of 1.2 microliters 10 min-1 geometric mean (95% confidence limits) (0.7-1.8) microliters 10 min-1 to 20.0 (11.6-34.2) microliters 10 min-1, (P less than 0.01). The rate of bleeding after aspirin preceded by ethamsylate [14.1 (8.5-23.4) microliters 10 min-1] was not significantly different from that after aspirin alone. 5. We conclude that ethamsylate does not reduce acute aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in healthy humans.

  12. Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work By Emily Carlson ... biology of how cancer cells grow. Antihistamines, Antidepressants, Aspirin Adrenergic receptor with carazolol, a beta-blocker. View ...

  13. ''Low dose'' and/or ''high dose'' in radiation protection: A need to setting criteria for dose classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The ''low dose'' and/or ''high dose'' of ionizing radiation are common terms widely used in radiation applications, radiation protection and radiobiology, and natural radiation environment. Reading the title, the papers of this interesting and highly important conference and the related literature, one can simply raise the question; ''What are the levels and/or criteria for defining a low dose or a high dose of ionizing radiation?''. This is due to the fact that the criteria for these terms and for dose levels between these two extreme quantities have not yet been set, so that the terms relatively lower doses or higher doses are usually applied. Therefore, setting criteria for classification of radiation doses in the above mentioned areas seems a vital need. The author while realizing the existing problems to achieve this important task, has made efforts in this paper to justify this need and has proposed some criteria, in particular for the classification of natural radiation areas, based on a system of dose limitation. (author)

  14. Biological dose estimation for accidental supra-high dose gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Yan, X.K.; Du, J.; Wang, Z.D.; Zhang, X.Q.; Zeng, F.G.; Zhou, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    To correctly estimate the biological dose of victims accidentally exposed to a very high dose of 60 Co gamma-ray, a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics/multicentrics and rings in the supra-high dose range was established. Peripheral blood from two healthy men was irradiated in vitro with doses of 60 Co gamma-rays ranging from 6 to 22 Gy at a dose rate of 2.0 Gy/min. Lymphocytes were concentrated, cultured and harvested at 52 h, 68 h and 72 h. The numbers of dic + r were counted. The dose-effect curves were established and validated using comparisons with doses from the Tokai-mura accident and were then applied to two victims of supra-high dose exposure accident. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in chromosome aberration frequency among the different culture times from 52 h to 72 h. The 6-22 Gy dose-effect curve was fitted to a linear quadratic model Y = -2.269 + 0.776D - 7.868 x l0 -3 D 2 . Using this mathematic model, the dose estimates were similar to data from Tokai-mura which were estimated by PCC ring. Whole body average doses of 9.7 Gy and 18.1 Gy for two victims in the Jining accident were satisfactorily given. We established and successfully applied a new dose-effect curve of chromosomal dicentrics plus ring (dic + r) after 6-22 Gy γ-irradiation from a supra-high dose 60 Co gamma-ray accident.

  15. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment

  16. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.W. (Queensland Radium Inst., Herston (Australia))

    1981-11-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment.

  17. Relative safety profiles of high dose statin regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escobar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Escobar, Rocio Echarri, Vivencio BarriosDepartment of Cardiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Recent clinical trials recommend achieving a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <100 mg/dl in high-risk and <70 mg/dl in very high risk patients. To attain these goals, however, many patients will need statins at high doses. The most frequent side effects related to the use of statins, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and increased levels of transaminases, are unusual. Although low and moderate doses show a favourable profile, there is concern about the tolerability of higher doses. During recent years, numerous trials to analyze the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of statins have been published. This paper updates the published data on the safety of statins at high doses.Keywords: statins, high doses, tolerability, liver, muscle

  18. High dose rate brachytherapy in treatment of high grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Alejo, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Cerro, E. del; Torres, J.J.; Martinez, R.

    1996-01-01

    From May 1994 to June 1995, 18 patients with high grade astrocytomas were entered prospectively on a selective protocol combining surgery, external beam radiotherapy, stereotactic interstitial implantation with HDR Iridium 192 and chemotherapy. Only those patients with tumor size 100cc or less average dimension, high grade astrocytoma, Karnofsky 70 or greater, unilateral, circumscribed, unifocal, tumor stable or responding to external radiation and supratentorial were included in the study. Ages ranged from 16 to 69 years. There were 13 males and 5 females. Surgery consisted of biopsy only in 3 patients, subtotal resection in 11, and gross total resection in 4 patients. Focal external beam radiation portals included the contrast enhancing mass on CT scan plus a 3 cm margin. The protocol called for minimum tumor dose of 60 Gy to be given in 2 Gy daily fractions. An interstitial brachytherapy boost was to be performed two weeks after the conclusion of external beam radiation. The dose was 30 Gy in 4 fractions. The authors analyze on basis on their personal experience, the possibilities and the limits offered by this therapeutic procedure in neuro-oncology. Using stereotactic techniques, interstitial brachytherapy of brain tumors was technically possible with negligible acute morbidity and mortality, and appeared to be effective and may provide for an increase in tumor control in selected cases

  19. Evaluation of the dose uniformity for double-plane high dose rate interstitial breast implants with the use of dose reference points and dose non-uniformity ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAjor, T.; Polgar, C.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of dwell time optimizations on dose uniformity characterized by dose values in dose points and dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR) and analyzed which implant parameters have influence on the DNR. Double-plane breast implants with catheters arranged in triangular pattern were used for the calculations. At a typical breast implant, dose values in dose reference points inside the target volume and volumes enclosed by given isodose surfaces were calculated and compared for non-optimized and optimized implants. The same 6-cm treatment length was used for the comparisons. Using different optimizations plots of dose non-uniformity ratio as a function of catheter separation, source step size, number of catheters, length of active sections were drawn and the minimum DNR values were determined. Optimization resulted in less variation in dose values over dose points through the whole volume and in the central plane only compared to the non-optimized case. At implant configurations consisting of seven catheters with 15-mm separation, 5-mm source step size and various active lengths adapted according to the type of optimization, the no optimization, geometrical (volume mode) and dose point (on dose points and geometry) optimization resulted in similar treatment volumes, but an increased high dose volume was observed due to the optimization. The dose non-uniformity ratio always had the minimum at average dose over dose normalization points, defined in the midpoints between the catheters through the implant volume. The minimum value of DNR depended on catheter separation, source step size, active length and number of catheters. The optimization had only a small influence on DNR. In addition to the reference points in the central plane only, dose points positioned in the whole implant volume can be used for evaluating the dose uniformity of interstitial implants. The dose optimization increases not only the dose uniformity within the implant but

  20. Dosimetry in high dose rate endoluminal brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Takashi; Kotaka, Kikuo; Itami, Jun

    1994-01-01

    In endoluminal brachytherapy for the tracheobronchial tree, esophagus, and bile duct, a reference point for dose calculation has been often settled at 1 cm outside from the middle of source travel path. In the current study, a change in the ratio of the reference point dose on the convex to concave side (Dq/Dp) was calculated, provided the source travel path bends as is the case in most endoluminal brachytherapies. Point source was presumed to move stepwise at 1 cm interval from 4 to 13 locations. Retention time at each location was calculated by personal computer so as to deliver equal dose at 1 cm from the linear travel path. With the retention time remaining constant, the change of Dq/Dp was assessed by bending the source travel path. Results indicated that the length of the source travel path and radius of its curve influenced the pattern of change in Dq/Dp. Therefore, it was concluded that the difference in reference dose on the convex and concave side of the curved path is not negligible under certain conditions in endoluminal brachytherapy. In order to maintain the ratio more than 0.9, relatively greater radius was required when the source travel path was decreased. (author)

  1. Cutaneous dosimetry at low and high dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    2009-01-01

    As radiodermatitis is a complication related to the exposure to ionizing radiation after an accidental exposition or a medical examination (radiotherapy or interventional radiology), the author briefly reports an investigation of the response of the human keratinocyte to irradiation for different dose levels, and the search for exposure markers

  2. Dose volume assessment of high dose rate 192IR endobronchial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B. Saw; Korb, Leroy J.; Pawlicki, Todd; Wu, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the dose distributions of high dose rate (HDR) endobronchial implants using the dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR) and three volumetric irradiation indices. Methods and Materials: Multiple implants were configured by allowing a single HDR 192 Ir source to step through a length of 6 cm along an endobronchial catheter. Dwell times were computed to deliver a dose of 5 Gy to points 1 cm away from the catheter axis. Five sets of source configurations, each with different dwell position spacings from 0.5 to 3.0 cm, were evaluated. Three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions were then generated for each source configuration. Differential and cumulative dose-volume curves were generated to quantify the degree of target volume coverage, dose nonuniformity within the target volume, and irradiation of tissues outside the target volume. Evaluation of the implants were made using the DNR and three volumetric irradiation indices. Results: The observed isodose distributions were not able to satisfy all the dose constraints. The ability to optimally satisfy the dose constraints depended on the choice of dwell position spacing and the specification of the dose constraint points. The DNR and irradiation indices suggest that small dwell position spacing does not result in a more homogeneous dose distribution for the implant. This study supports the existence of a relationship between the dwell position spacing and the distance from the catheter axis to the reference dose or dose constraint points. Better dose homogeneity for an implant can be obtained if the spacing of the dwell positions are about twice the distance from the catheter axis to the reference dose or dose constraint points

  3. Efficacy of wheat germ oil in alleviating certain disorders induced by aspirin administration and/or Γ-irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, induces during pregnancy high incidence of developmental anomalies in pregnant rats when given on specific days during stage of organogenesis. Accordingly, this study was performed to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of wheat germ oil on the effect of aspirin administration and/or radiation induced maternal and foetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered aspirin from the gestational day (GD), 6 to (GD) 17 at a dose of 250 mg kg/day body wt and exposed to whole body γ-irradiation at dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on GD 9,10,11 and 12 days from pregnancy. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as estimation of alkaline phosphatase and total proteins content in tissues of liver and placenta was used as sensitive parameters of choice to evaluate tissue damage. Radiation exposure and aspirin administration induced marked elevation in lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde), alkaline phosphatase, accompanied by decline in total protein content in placenta and liver tissues. In addition, miscellaneous malformations including anopthalmia, microtia, excencephaly, diminution of size or kypophysis were designated. The results showed that supplementation of pregnant female rats with wheat germ oil were able to reduce the high levels of malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase. Total protein content returned once more to its normal pattern. Also, reduction of severe deleterious symptoms of radiation and aspirin administration inducing i foetal mortality were reduced. Wheat germ oil showed to increase growth in surviving foetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities as well as biochemical, histochemical and embryological disorders

  4. Statistical behavior of high doses in medical radiodiagnosis; Comportamento estatistico das altas doses em radiodiagnostico medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Adriana Elisa, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com, E-mail: elisa@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work has as main purpose statistically estimating occupational exposure in medical diagnostic radiology in cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at national level. For statistical survey of this study, doses of 372 IOE's diagnostic radiology in different Brazilian states were evaluated. Data were extracted from the work of monograph (Research Methodology Of High Doses In Medical Radiodiagnostic) that contains the database's information Sector Management doses of IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The identification of these states allows the Sanitary Surveillance (VISA) responsible, becomes aware of events and work with programs to reduce these events. (author)

  5. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M.

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author)

  6. measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamrin, M Thoyib; Sofyan, Hasnel

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosemeter has been carried out. Dose range used was between 0.1 to 3.0 kGy. Measurement of dose rate against Fricke dosemeter as a standard dose meter From the irradiation of Fricke dosemeter with time variation of 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 minute, it was obtained average dose rate of 955.57 Gy/hour, linear equation of dose was Y= 2.333+15.776 X with its correlation factor r = 0.9999. Measurement result using yellow perspex show that correlation between net optical density and radiation dose was not linear with its equation was ODc exp. [Bo + In(dose).Bi] Value of Bo = -0.215 and Bi=0.5020. From the experiment it was suggested that routine dosimeter (yellow perspex) should be calibrated formerly against standard dosemeters

  7. Aspirin administered to women at 100 mg every other day produces less platelet inhibition than aspirin administered at 81 mg per day: implications for interpreting the women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Lisa; Hillman, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    We aimed to determine the relative level of platelet inhibition achieved with low-dose aspirin (81 mg daily) compared with a very low-dose (100 mg every other day). The Womens Health Study (WHS) found that a dose of 100 mg every other day of aspirin provided protection against stroke as primary prophylaxis, but not myocardial infarction. In the United States, the most commonly prescribed dose of aspirin for primary prophylaxis is 81 mg per day. As a result, it is important to know whether these doses are equivalent before extrapolating the results of the WHS to women in the U.S. To achieve this goal, we have studied the effects of these two dosing regimens on platelet function in healthy women meeting the WHS inclusion criteria using a randomized design. We enrolled 49 healthy female volunteers and used a sequential, crossover design to compare the two regimens. The participants received a 17-day course of each aspirin-dosing regimen separated by a 7-day washout period. The degree of platelet inhibition was measured on days 14-17 of each dosing regimen using a point-of-care platelet function assay utilizing arachidonic acid to activate platelets (VerifyNow-Aspirin). Participants platelet response, expressed as Aspirin Response Unit (ARU) attained a significantly greater level of platelet inhibition on days 14-17 while taking aspirin 81 mg daily compared to aspirin 100 mg every other day (31.3% vs. 12.7%, P or=550 ARU, a value correlated with clinical outcomes in several studies, with the 100 mg every other day regimen (72.0% vs. 6.4% with 81 mg daily, P day regimen also resulted in more day-to-day variability in platelet function (P = 0.0002). We found significantly less inhibition of platelet function with the dose used in the WHS than the usual U.S. dose. We observed that the degree of platelet inhibition was significantly less with aspirin 100 mg every other day compared with aspirin 81 mg daily, suggesting that results of the Women's Health Study may have

  8. Methodology of high dose research in medical radiodiagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Adriana E.; Martins, Cintia P. de S.

    2013-01-01

    This work has as main purpose to study occupational exposure in diagnostic radiology in medical cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at the national level . These doses were recorded by monitoring individual of the occupationally exposed individuals (OEI's). This monitoring of the doses received by ionizing radiation has as main objective to ensure that the principle of dose limitation is respected. In this study it were evaluated doses of 372 OEI's radiology in different Brazilian states. Doses were extracted from the database of Sector Management Doses of the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The information from the database provide reports of doses from several states, which allows to quantify statistically, showing those with the highest doses in four areas: dose greater than or equal to 20 mSv apron and chest and dose greater than or equal to 100 mSv apron and chest. The identification of these states allows the respective Sanitary Surveillance (VISA), be aware of the events and make plans to reduce them. This study clarified the required procedures when there is a record of high dose emphasizing the importance of using protective radiological equipment, dosimeter and provide a safety environment work by maintaining work equipment. Proposes the ongoing training of professionals, emphasizing the relevance of the concepts of radiation protection and the use of the questionnaire with their investigative systematic sequence, which will allow quickly and efficiently the success the investigations

  9. Study design of ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE): a randomized, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effective strategies to maintain healthy active lifestyle in aging populations are required to address the global burden of age-related diseases. ASPREE will examine whether the potential primary prevention benefits of low dose aspirin outweigh the risks in older healthy individuals. Our primary hypothesis is that daily oral 100 mg enteric-coated aspirin will extend a composite primary endpoint termed ‘disability-free life’ including onset of dementia, total mortality, or persistent disa...

  10. Dose-reduction techniques for high-dose worker groups in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a study of the extent of radiation dose received by special work groups in the nuclear power industry. Work groups which chronically get large doses were investigated, using information provided by the industry. The tasks that give high doses to these work groups were examined and techniques described that were found to be particularly successful in reducing dose. Quantitative information on the extent of radiation doses to various work groups shows that significant numbers of workers in several critical groups receive doses greater than 1 and even 2 rem per year, particularly contract personnel and workers at BWR-type plants. The number of radiation workers whose lifetime dose is greater than their age is much less. Although the techniques presented would go some way in reducing dose, it is likely that a sizeable reduction to the high-dose work groups may require development of new dose-reduction techniques as well as major changes in procedures. 10 refs., 26 tabs

  11. Compound list: aspirin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aspirin ASA 00014 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aspirin....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/aspirin....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aspirin....Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/aspirin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  12. Impact of catheter reconstruction error on dose distribution in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy and evaluation of OAR doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaper, Deepak; Shukla, Arvind; Rathore, Narendra; Oinam, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of catheter reconstruction error on dose distribution in CT based intracavitary brachytherapy planning and evaluation of its effect on organ at risk (OAR) like bladder, rectum and sigmoid and target volume High risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV)

  13. High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, Gary; Wirth, Brian; Motta, Athur; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Hosemann, Peter; Odette, Robert

    2018-04-30

    Project Objective: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the capability to predict the evolution of microstructure and properties of structural materials in-reactor and at high doses, using ion irradiation as a surrogate for reactor irradiations. “Properties” includes both physical properties (irradiated microstructure) and the mechanical properties of the material. Demonstration of the capability to predict properties has two components. One is ion irradiation of a set of alloys to yield an irradiated microstructure and corresponding mechanical behavior that are substantially the same as results from neutron exposure in the appropriate reactor environment. Second is the capability to predict the irradiated microstructure and corresponding mechanical behavior on the basis of improved models, validated against both ion and reactor irradiations and verified against ion irradiations. Taken together, achievement of these objectives will yield an enhanced capability for simulating the behavior of materials in reactor irradiations

  14. An evaluation of high-dose jobs for ALARA improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, J. H.; Kim, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that about 70 percent of occupational dose have incurred from maintenance jobs at outage period. To reduce occupational dose, first, the high-dose jobs at the outage period should be identified and evaluated. For this, the database program is used, which contains the ORE data of reference plants, Kori Units 3 and 4. As a result, it is found that the jobs related to steam generator are the highest dose jobs in terms of collective ORE dose. From the analysis of the job procedures of those jobs, the ALARA improvements are also derived

  15. Development of computerized dose planning system and applicator for high dose rate remote afterloading irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, T. J. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Kim, S. W. [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea); Kim, O. B.; Lee, H. J.; Won, C. H. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Yoon, S. M. [Dong-a Univ., Pusan (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To design and fabricate of the high dose rate source and applicators which are tandem, ovoids and colpostat for OB/Gyn brachytherapy includes the computerized dose planning system. Designed the high dose rate Ir-192 source with nuclide atomic power irradiation and investigated the dose characteristics of fabricated brachysource. We performed the effect of self-absorption and determining the gamma constant and output factor and determined the apparent activity of designed source. he automated computer planning system provided the 2D distribution and 3D includes analysis programs. Created the high dose rate source Ir-192, 10 Ci(370GBq). The effective attenuation factor from the self-absorption and source wall was examined to 0.55 of the activity of bare source and this factor is useful for determination of the apparent activity and gamma constant 4.69 Rcm{sup 2}/mCi-hr. Fabricated the colpostat was investigated the dose distributions of frontal, axial and sagittal plane in intra-cavitary radiation therapy for cervical cancer. The reduce dose at bladder and rectum area was found about 20 % of original dose. The computerized brachytherapy planning system provides the 2-dimensional isodose and 3-D include the dose-volume histogram(DVH) with graphic-user-interface mode. emoted afterloading device was built for experiment of created Ir-192 source with film dosimetry within {+-}1 mm discrepancy. 34 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  16. Impact of USPSTF recommendations for aspirin for prevention of recurrent preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcher, Mary Catherine; Chu, Derrick M; Hollier, Lisa M; Mastrobattista, Joan M; Racusin, Diana A; Ramin, Susan M; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2017-09-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia among women at high risk for primary occurrence or recurrence of disease. Recommendations for the use of aspirin for preeclampsia prevention were issued by the US Preventive Services Task Force in September 2014. The objective of the study was to evaluate the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia in our cohort before and after the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation for aspirin for preeclampsia prevention. This was a retrospective cohort study designed to evaluate the rates of recurrent preeclampsia among women with a history of preeclampsia. We utilized a 2-hospital, single academic institution database from August 2011 through June 2016. We excluded multiple gestations and included only the first delivery for women with multiple deliveries during the study period. The cohort of women with a history of preeclampsia were divided into 2 groups, before and after the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force 2014 recommendations. Potential confounders were accounted for in multivariate analyses, and relative risk and adjusted relative risk were calculated. A total of 17,256 deliveries occurred during the study period. A total of 417 women had a documented history of prior preeclampsia: 284 women before and 133 women after the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Comparing the before and after groups, the proportion of Hispanic women in the after group was lower and the method of payment differed between the groups (P .05]). Risk factors for recurrent preeclampsia included maternal age >35 years (relative risk, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.48), Medicaid insurance (relative risk, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.78), type 2 diabetes (relative risk, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-3.33), and chronic hypertension (relative risk, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-2.66). The risk of recurrent preeclampsia was decreased by

  17. Acute renal failure in high dose carboplatin chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Kool, G.; de Kraker, J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboplatin has been reported to cause acute renal failure when administered in high doses to adult patients. We report a 4 1/2-year-old girl who was treated with high-dose carboplatin for metastatic parameningeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Acute renal failure developed followed by a slow partial

  18. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacokinetics in high-dose alkylating chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekhart, G.C. (Corine)

    2008-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy in combination with peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation has been developed as a possible curative treatment modality in several solid tumours. A frequently used high-dose regimen in the Netherlands is the CTC regimen, which is a 4-day course of cyclophosphamide,

  19. Fertility of Tall Girls Treated with High-Dose Estrogen, a Dose-Response Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A. E. J.; Drop, S. L. S.; Laven, J. S. E.; Boot, A. M.

    Context: High-dose estrogen treatment to reduce final height of tall girls increases their risk for infertility in later life. Objective: The aim was to study the effect of estrogen dose on fertility outcome of these women. Design/Setting: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of university

  20. Estimation of the transit dose component in high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Romero, A.; Millan Cebrian, E.; Lozano Flores, F.J.; Lope Lope, R.; Canellas Anoz, M.

    2001-01-01

    Current high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning systems usually calculate dose only from source stopping positions (stationary component), but fails to account for the administered dose when the source is moving (dynamic component or transit dose). Numerical values of this transit dose depends upon the source velocity, implant geometry, source activity and prescribed dose. In some HDR treatments using particular geometry the transit dose cannot be ignored because it increases the dose at the prescriptions points and also could increase potential late tissue complications as predicted by the linear quadratic model. International protocols recommend to verify this parameter. The aim of this paper has been to establish a procedure for the transit dose calculation for the Gammamed 12i equipment at the RT Department in the Clinical University Hospital (Zaragoza-Spain). A numeric algorithm was implemented based on a dynamic point approximation for the moving HDR source and the calculated results for the entrance-exit transit dose was compared with TLD measurements made in some discrete points. (author) [es

  1. By inhibiting PFKFB3, aspirin overcomes sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sainan; Dai, Weiqi; Mo, Wenhui; Li, Jingjing; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Liu, Tong; Yu, Qiang; Xu, Shizan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Zhang, Qinghui; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Xu, Ling; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-12-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the few cancers with a continuous increase in incidence and mortality. Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of HCC. In this study, two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines and a nude mouse subcutaneously tumor model were used to explore the possible mechanisms leading to sorafenib resistance, and to investigate whether aspirin could increase the sensitivity of hepatoma cells to sorafenib. The combination of aspirin and sorafenib resulted in a synergistic antitumor effect against liver tumors both in vitro and in vivo. High glycolysis and PFKFB3 overexpression occupied a dominant position in sorafenib resistance, and can be targeted and overcome by aspirin. Aspirin plus sorafenib induced apoptosis in tumors without inducing weight loss, hepatotoxicity or inflammation. Our results suggest that aspirin overcomes sorafenib resistance and their combination may be an effective treatment approach for HCC. © 2017 UICC.

  2. Statistical behavior of high doses in medical radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Adriana Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This work has as main purpose statistically estimating occupational exposure in medical diagnostic radiology in cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at national level. For statistical survey of this study, doses of 372 IOE's diagnostic radiology in different Brazilian states were evaluated. Data were extracted from the work of monograph (Research Methodology Of High Doses In Medical Radiodiagnostic) that contains the database's information Sector Management doses of IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The identification of these states allows the Sanitary Surveillance (VISA) responsible, becomes aware of events and work with programs to reduce these events. (author)

  3. Study of teflon pads as high doses dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Maria Ines; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the Teflon, which is used as a binder in the manufacture of dosimetric tablets, for the feasibility of this material as high dose dosemeter. In this paper we used the technique of thermally stimulated luminescence (OSL) to characterize the dosimetric properties of Teflon. Teflon samples were exposed to different doses of radiation, using a source of gamma radiation ( 60 Co). It was obtained dose-response curve between 100 Gy to 50 kGy and reproducibility of OSL response. The preliminary results show that Teflon is a useful material to high dose dosimetry

  4. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and Prostaglandins on thyroid tissue and carbohydrate metabolism in liver of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1979-01-01

    Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na 131 I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [U- 14 C] glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs. (auth.)

  5. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and Prostaglandins on thyroid tissue and carbohydrate metabolism in liver of male albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, A; Ramakrishnan, S [Jawaharlal Inst. of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry (India)

    1979-04-01

    Aspirin, both in chronic and acute doses, led to a considerable decrease in percentage uptake of labelled iodine (Na/sup 131/I) and serum protein-bound iodine by the thyroid gland whereas prostaglandins (PGs) did not exhibit any significant effect on both the parameters. Simultaneous administration of aspirin and PGs caused a significant decrease in the two parameters, and on withdrawal of aspirin from the diet the two parameters were restored to normal levels, thus suggesting that the effect of aspirin on thyroid is direct and reversible. Aspirin, both in acute and chronic doses, effected decrease in glycogen levels, in vivo and in vitro incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C) glucose into glycogen, and glycogen synthetase activity in the liver of both fed, and fasting, rat. Prostaglandins, on the other hand, resulted in a significant increase in the three parameters, thus enhancing the rate of liver glycogenesis. Normal levels were restored when both aspirin and PGs were given together. Withdrawal of aspirin also restored normal hepatic glycogenesis. Significant reduction in the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, viz. glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, phosphopyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase was observed due to chronic and acute administration of aspirin and PGs were devoid of any significant effect on gluconeogenic enzymes, thus ruling out the mediation of PGs.

  6. COAST (Cisplatin ototoxicity attenuated by aspirin trial): A phase II double-blind, randomised controlled trial to establish if aspirin reduces cisplatin induced hearing-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Simon J; Martin, Karen; Abab, Julia; Ratcliffe, Ian; Thornton, Roger; Lineton, Ben; Ellis, Mary; Moody, Ronald; Stanton, Louise; Galanopoulou, Angeliki; Maishman, Tom; Geldart, Thomas; Bayne, Mike; Davies, Joe; Lamb, Carolynn; Popat, Sanjay; Joffe, Johnathan K; Nutting, Chris; Chester, John; Hartley, Andrew; Thomas, Gareth; Ottensmeier, Christian; Huddart, Robert; King, Emma

    2017-12-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most ototoxic chemotherapy drugs, resulting in a permanent and irreversible hearing loss in up to 50% of patients. Cisplatin and gentamicin are thought to damage hearing through a common mechanism, involving reactive oxygen species in the inner ear. Aspirin has been shown to minimise gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that aspirin could also reduce ototoxicity from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. A total of 94 patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy for multiple cancer types were recruited into a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive aspirin 975 mg tid and omeprazole 20 mg od, or matched placebos from the day before, to 2 days after, their cisplatin dose(s), for each treatment cycle. Patients underwent pure tone audiometry before and at 7 and 90 days after their final cisplatin dose. The primary end-point was combined hearing loss (cHL), the summed hearing loss at 6 kHz and 8 kHz, in both ears. Although aspirin was well tolerated, it did not protect hearing in patients receiving cisplatin (p-value = 0.233, 20% one-sided level of significance). In the aspirin arm, patients demonstrated mean cHL of 49 dB (standard deviation [SD] 61.41) following cisplatin compared with placebo patients who demonstrated mean cHL of 36 dB (SD 50.85). Women had greater average hearing loss than men, and patients treated for head and neck malignancy experienced the greatest cHL. Aspirin did not protect from cisplatin-related ototoxicity. Cisplatin and gentamicin may therefore have distinct ototoxic mechanisms, or cisplatin-induced ototoxicity may be refractory to the aspirin regimen used here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Dose escalation using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy improves outcome in unfavorable prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alvaro A; Gustafson, Gary; Gonzalez, José; Armour, Elwood; Mitchell, Chris; Edmundson, Gregory; Spencer, William; Stromberg, Jannifer; Huang, Raywin; Vicini, Frank

    2002-06-01

    To overcome radioresistance for patients with unfavorable prostate cancer, a prospective trial of pelvic external beam irradiation (EBRT) interdigitated with dose-escalating conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy was performed. Between November 1991 and August 2000, 207 patients were treated with 46 Gy pelvic EBRT and increasing HDR brachytherapy boost doses (5.50-11.5 Gy/fraction) during 5 weeks. The eligibility criteria were pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level >or=10.0 ng/mL, Gleason score >or=7, or clinical Stage T2b or higher. Patients were divided into 2 dose levels, low-dose biologically effective dose 93 Gy (149 patients). No patient received hormones. We used the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition for biochemical failure. The median age was 69 years. The mean follow-up for the group was 4.4 years, and for the low and high-dose levels, it was 7.0 and 3.4 years, respectively. The actuarial 5-year biochemical control rate was 74%, and the overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survival rate was 92%, 98%, and 68%, respectively. The 5-year biochemical control rate for the low-dose group was 52%; the rate for the high-dose group was 87% (p failure. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 gastrointestinal/genitourinary complications ranged from 0.5% to 9%. The actuarial 5-year impotency rate was 51%. Pelvic EBRT interdigitated with transrectal ultrasound-guided real-time conformal HDR prostate brachytherapy boost is both a precise dose delivery system and a very effective treatment for unfavorable prostate cancer. We demonstrated an incremental beneficial effect on biochemical control and cause-specific survival with higher doses. These results, coupled with the low risk of complications, the advantage of not being radioactive after implantation, and the real-time interactive planning, define a new standard for treatment.

  8. Aspirin desensitization for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accelerated Irradiations for High Dose Microstructures in Fast Reactor Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhijie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The objective of this project is to determine the extent to which high dose rate, self-ion irradiation can be used as an accelerated irradiation tool to understand microstructure evolution at high doses and temperatures relevant to advanced fast reactors. We will accomplish the goal by evaluating phase stability and swelling of F-M alloys relevant to SFR systems at very high dose by combining experiment and modeling in an effort to obtain a quantitative description of the processes at high and low damage rates.

  10. Potential of prescription registries to capture individual-level use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Denmark: trends in utilization 1999–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt M

    2014-05-01

    registries in Denmark is high. Low-dose aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID use varied substantially between 1999 and 2012. Notably, use of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors nearly ceased, use of diclofenac decreased markedly, and naproxen use remained unaltered.Keywords: drug utilization, NSAID, registries, over-the-counter

  11. Radiobiological aspects of continuous low dose-rate irradiation and fractionated high dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turesson, I.

    1990-01-01

    The biological effects of continuous low dose-rate irradiation and fractionated high dose-rate irradiation in interstitial and intracavitary radiotherapy and total body irradiation are discussed in terms of dose-rate fractionation sensitivity for various tissues. A scaling between dose-rate and fraction size was established for acute and late normal-tissue effects which can serve as a guideline for local treatment in the range of dose rates between 0.02 and 0.005 Gy/min and fraction sizes between 8.5 and 2.5 Gy. This is valid provided cell-cycle progression and proliferation can be ignored. Assuming that the acute and late tissue responses are characterized by α/β values of about 10 and 3 Gy and a mono-exponential repair half-time of about 3 h, the same total doses given with either of the two methods are approximately equivalent. The equivalence for acute and late non-hemopoietic normal tissue damage is 0.02 Gy/min and 8.5 Gy per fraction; 0.01 Gy/min and 5.5 Gy per fraction; and 0.005 Gy/min and 2.5Gy per fraction. A very low dose rate, below 0.005 Gy/min, is thus necessary to simulate high dose-rate radiotherapy with fraction sizes of about 2Gy. The scaling factor is, however, dependent on the repair half-time of the tissue. A review of published data on dose-rate effects for normal tissue response showed a significantly stronger dose-rate dependence for late than for acute effects below 0.02 Gy/min. There was no significant difference in dose-rate dependence between various acute non-hemopoietic effects or between various late effects. The consistent dose-rate dependence, which justifies the use of a general scaling factor between fraction size and dose rate, contrasts with the wide range of values for repair half-time calculated for various normal-tissue effects. This indicates that the model currently used for repair kinetics is not satisfactory. There are also few experimental data in the clinical dose-rate range, below 0.02 Gy/min. It is therefore

  12. High-temperature absorbed dose measurements in the megagray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, P.; Ardonceau, J.; Zuppiroli, L.

    1988-01-01

    Organic conductors of the tetraselenotetracene family have been tested as ''high-temperature'' absorbed dose dosimeters. They were heated up to 120 0 C and irradiated at this temperature with 1-MeV electrons in order to simulate, in a short time, a much longer γ-ray irradiation. The electric resistance increase of the crystal can be considered a good measurement of the absorbed dose in the range 10 6 Gy to a few 10 8 Gy and presumably one order of magnitude more. This dosimeter also permits on-line (in-situ) measurements of the absorbed dose without removing the sensor from the irradiation site. The respective advantages of organic and inorganic dosimeters at these temperature and dose ranges are also discussed. In this connection, we outline new, but negative, results concerning the possible use of silica as a high-temperature, high-dose dosimeter. (author)

  13. Radiophotoluminescence light scope for high-dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fuminobu; Zushi, Naoki; Sakiyama, Tomoki; Kato, Yushi; Murata, Isao; Shimizu, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    A radiophotoluminescence (RPL) light scope is a remote-sensing technique for measuring in situ the radiation dose in an RPL detector placed at a distance. The RPL light scope is mainly composed of an ultraviolet (UV) pulse laser, telescopic lenses, a photomultiplier tube, and camera modules. In a performance test, some RPL detectors were placed at distances up to 30 m and were illuminated with a pulsed UV laser beam. The photoluminescence responses of the RPL detectors were analyzed using this scope. Their radiation doses were determined from the amplitude of the given component of the photoluminescence responses. The RPL readout could be repeated without fading, and its amplitude exhibited good linearity at a dose ranging from 0.1 to 60 Gy. Furthermore, a two-dimensional distribution of radiation dose was obtained by laser scanning on an RPL detector. It was confirmed that the RPL light scope was a useful remote-sensing tool for high-dose dosimetry. - Highlights: • A radiophotoluminescence (RPL) light scope was developed for high-dose dosimetry. • The RPL light scope has high sensitivity and accuracy in high-dose dosimetry. • Two-dimensional radiation dose distribution was obtained by the RPL light scope.

  14. Relevance of high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, P; de Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH; van der Graaf, WTA

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of solid tumours. Based on a steep dose-response relationship for especially alkylating agents on tumour cell survival, high-dose chemotherapy was considered of interest for the treatment of solid tumours. Results of phase 1 and 2 studies with

  15. Aspirin for the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly: rationale and design of a neuro-vascular imaging study (ENVIS-ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Christopher M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the rationale and design of the ENVIS-ion Study, which aims to determine whether low-dose aspirin reduces the development of white matter hyper-intense (WMH lesions and silent brain infarction (SBI. Additional aims include determining whether a changes in retinal vascular imaging (RVI parameters parallel changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; b changes in RVI parameters are observed with aspirin therapy; c baseline cognitive function correlates with MRI and RVI parameters; d changes in cognitive function correlate with changes in brain MRI and RVI and e whether factors such as age, gender or blood pressure influence the above associations. Methods/Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of three years duration set in two Australian academic medical centre outpatient clinics. This study will enrol 600 adults aged 70 years and over with normal cognitive function and without overt cardiovascular disease. Subjects will undergo cognitive testing, brain MRI and RVI at baseline and after 3 years of study treatment. All subjects will be recruited from a 19,000-patient clinical outcome trial conducted in Australia and the United States that will evaluate the effects of aspirin in maintaining disability-free longevity over 5 years. The intervention will be aspirin 100 mg daily versus matching placebo, randomized on a 1:1 basis. Discussion This study will improve understanding of the mechanisms at the level of brain and vascular structure that underlie the effects of aspirin on cognitive function. Given the limited access and high cost of MRI, RVI may prove useful as a tool for the identification of individuals at high risk for the development of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive decline. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01038583

  16. Rectal dose assessment in patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jetro Pereira de; Batista, Delano Valdivino Santos; Bardella, Lucia Helena; Carvalho, Arnaldo Rangel

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed at developing a thermoluminescent dosimetric system capable of assessing the doses delivered to the rectum of patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer. Materials and methods: LiF:Mg,Ti,Na powder was the thermoluminescent material utilized for evaluating the rectal dose. The powder was divided into small portions (34 mg) which were accommodated in a capillary tube. This tube was placed into a rectal probe that was introduced into the patient's rectum. Results: The doses delivered to the rectum of six patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer evaluated by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters presented a good agreement with the planned values based on two orthogonal (anteroposterior and lateral) radiographic images of the patients. Conclusion: The thermoluminescent dosimetric system developed in the present study is simple and easy to be utilized as compared to other rectal dosimetry methods. The system has shown to be effective in the evaluation of rectal doses in patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer. (author)

  17. Dose escalation using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy improves outcome in unfavorable prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro A.; Gustafson, Gary; Gonzalez, Jose; Armour, Elwood; Mitchell, Chris; Edmundson, Gregory; Spencer, William; Stromberg, Jannifer; Huang, Raywin; Vicini, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To overcome radioresistance for patients with unfavorable prostate cancer, a prospective trial of pelvic external beam irradiation (EBRT) interdigitated with dose-escalating conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy was performed. Methods and Materials: Between November 1991 and August 2000, 207 patients were treated with 46 Gy pelvic EBRT and increasing HDR brachytherapy boost doses (5.50-11.5 Gy/fraction) during 5 weeks. The eligibility criteria were pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level ≥10.0 ng/mL, Gleason score ≥7, or clinical Stage T2b or higher. Patients were divided into 2 dose levels, low-dose biologically effective dose 93 Gy (149 patients). No patient received hormones. We used the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition for biochemical failure. Results: The median age was 69 years. The mean follow-up for the group was 4.4 years, and for the low and high-dose levels, it was 7.0 and 3.4 years, respectively. The actuarial 5-year biochemical control rate was 74%, and the overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survival rate was 92%, 98%, and 68%, respectively. The 5-year biochemical control rate for the low-dose group was 52%; the rate for the high-dose group was 87% (p<0.001). Improvement occurred in the cause-specific survival in favor of the brachytherapy high-dose level (p=0.014). On multivariate analysis, a low-dose level, higher Gleason score, and higher nadir value were associated with increased biochemical failure. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 gastrointestinal/genitourinary complications ranged from 0.5% to 9%. The actuarial 5-year impotency rate was 51%. Conclusion: Pelvic EBRT interdigitated with transrectal ultrasound-guided real-time conformal HDR prostate brachytherapy boost is both a precise dose delivery system and a very effective treatment for unfavorable prostate cancer. We demonstrated an incremental beneficial effect on biochemical control and cause

  18. High-dose dosimetry using natural silicate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Mendes, Leticia; Watanabe, Shigueo; Rao, Gundu; Lucas, Natasha; Sato, Karina; Barbosa, Renata F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, certain natural silicate minerals such as aquamarine (AB), morganite (PB), goshenite (WB), white jadeite (JW), green jadeite (JG), pink tourmaline (PT) and two varieties of jadeite-like quartz, denoted here by JQ1 and JQ2, were investigated using the thermoluminescence technique to evaluate their potential for use as very-high- and high-dose dosimeters. These minerals respond to high doses of γ-rays of up to 1000 kGy and often to very high doses of up to 3000 kGy. The TL response of these minerals may be considered to be satisfactory for applications in high-dose dosimetry. Investigations of electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry are in progress. (author)

  19. High-dose dosimetry using natural silicate minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Mendes, Leticia, E-mail: isatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Rao, Gundu; Lucas, Natasha; Sato, Karina, E-mail: lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear; Barbosa, Renata F., E-mail: profcelta@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias do Mar

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, certain natural silicate minerals such as aquamarine (AB), morganite (PB), goshenite (WB), white jadeite (JW), green jadeite (JG), pink tourmaline (PT) and two varieties of jadeite-like quartz, denoted here by JQ1 and JQ2, were investigated using the thermoluminescence technique to evaluate their potential for use as very-high- and high-dose dosimeters. These minerals respond to high doses of γ-rays of up to 1000 kGy and often to very high doses of up to 3000 kGy. The TL response of these minerals may be considered to be satisfactory for applications in high-dose dosimetry. Investigations of electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry are in progress. (author)

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of chronic aspirin on brain arachidonic acid metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2010-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA) modulate peripheral inflammation and its resolution. Aspirin (ASA) is a unique non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which switches AA metabolism from prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and 15-epi-LXA4. However it is unknown whether chronic therapeutic doses of ASA are anti-inflammatory in the brain. We hypothesized that ASA would dampen increases in brain concentrations of AA metabolites in a rat model of neuroinflammation, produced by a 6-day intracerebroventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In rats infused with LPS (0.5 ng/h) and given ASA-free water to drink, concentrations in high-energy microwaved brain of PGE2, TXB2 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were elevated. In rats infused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 6 weeks of treatment with a low (10 mg/kg/day) or high (100 mg/kg/day) ASA dose in drinking water decreased brain PGE2, but increased LTB4, LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 concentrations. Both doses attenuated the LPS effects on PGE2, and TXB2. The increments in LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 caused by high-dose ASA were significantly greater in LPS-infused rats. The ability of ASA to increase anti-inflammatory LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 and reduce pro-inflammatory PGE2 and TXB2 suggests considering aspirin further for treating clinical neuroinflammation. PMID:20981485

  1. Treatment of the prostate cancer with high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Torres Silva, Felipe

    2002-01-01

    The prostate cancer treatment in early stages is controversial. The high dose rate brachytherapy has been used like monotherapy or boost with external beam radiotherapy in advanced disease. This paper describes the technique and the advantages over other modalities

  2. Aspirin use and head and neck cancer survival: an observational study of 11,623 person-years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Ae; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Sung-Bae; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with reduced risks for certain human cancers. However, the effects of aspirin and NSAIDs on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain controversial, and the prognostic effects of these drugs in patients with HNSCC are largely unknown. This study examined the clinical impact of aspirin and NSAIDs on disease recurrence and survival in patients with HNSCC. This study analysed a cohort of 1392 consecutive patients who received definitive treatment for previously untreated HNSCC at our tertiary referral center. Aspirin or NSAID use was considered positive if the patients were receiving aspirin or NSAID medication from HNSCC diagnosis to at least 1 year after treatment initiation. Cox proportional hazard models were utilised to determine the association of aspirin and/or NSAID use with recurrence, survival, and second primary cancer occurrence. Of 1392 patients, 81 (5.8%) and 89 (6.4%) received post-diagnosis treatment with aspirin and NSAIDs, respectively. After controlling for clinical factors, aspirin and NSAIDs were not significantly associated with recurrence, survival, or second cancer occurrence (P > 0.05). The cumulative dose of aspirin or NSAIDs did not alter survival outcomes (P > 0.05). Our data illustrated that the use of aspirin or NSAIDs has no effect on survival or recurrence in patients with HNSCC.

  3. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t sure why this works. Can taking aspirin every day cause any side effects? Taking aspirin isn't ... read these benefits and risks of taking aspirin every day . Next section Talk with Your Doctor Previous section ...

  4. Investigation of PBAT dosimetric properties for high gamma dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Elisete L.; Schimitberger, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) is an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester which is biodegradable. It is a non-photoluminescent copolyester that becomes photoluminescent after previous exposure to gamma doses higher than 100 kGy. After the previous high energy irradiation, the material shows the highest photo-stimulated luminescence emission when excited with a LED source at wavelengths ranging from 370 to 405 nm. In this work we investigated the enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) and dosimetric properties of PBAT, after exposure to high doses of gamma radiation ranging from 50 to 4,000 kGy. In this investigation we demonstrate that increasing the PBAT film thickness by 100 μm enhances the PL output by 3.5 times, when irradiated with 500 kGy. Also, besides the already known color green brightness, the PL intensity can also be used for high dose dosimetry purposes for doses ranging from 50 to 750 kGy. The FTIR analysis has demonstrated that the there is a linear relationship between peak intensity and dose for doses ranging from 100 and 2,000 kGy for the absorbance peaks at 3,241 cm -1 and 3271 cm -1 , with linear correlation coefficients of 0.9981 and 0.9992, respectively. The results indicate that PBAT has great potential for applications in bio-imaging devices and high gamma dose dosimetry. (author)

  5. Investigation of PBAT dosimetric properties for high gamma dose dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Elisete L.; Schimitberger, Thiago, E-mail: elisete.cunha@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Cristiana M.; Faria, Luiz O., E-mail: farialo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) is an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester which is biodegradable. It is a non-photoluminescent copolyester that becomes photoluminescent after previous exposure to gamma doses higher than 100 kGy. After the previous high energy irradiation, the material shows the highest photo-stimulated luminescence emission when excited with a LED source at wavelengths ranging from 370 to 405 nm. In this work we investigated the enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) and dosimetric properties of PBAT, after exposure to high doses of gamma radiation ranging from 50 to 4,000 kGy. In this investigation we demonstrate that increasing the PBAT film thickness by 100 μm enhances the PL output by 3.5 times, when irradiated with 500 kGy. Also, besides the already known color green brightness, the PL intensity can also be used for high dose dosimetry purposes for doses ranging from 50 to 750 kGy. The FTIR analysis has demonstrated that the there is a linear relationship between peak intensity and dose for doses ranging from 100 and 2,000 kGy for the absorbance peaks at 3,241 cm{sup -1} and 3271 cm{sup -1}, with linear correlation coefficients of 0.9981 and 0.9992, respectively. The results indicate that PBAT has great potential for applications in bio-imaging devices and high gamma dose dosimetry. (author)

  6. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  7. Braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose no Brasil High-dose rate brachytherapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carlos Barros Esteves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose foi introduzida em nosso meio em janeiro de 1991. Desde então, houve uma mudança significativa na abordagem das neoplasias malignas em relação às vantagens do novo método, e também resolução da demanda reprimida de braquiterapia para as neoplasias ginecológicas. Nos primeiros dez anos de atividade, o Brasil tratou, em 31 serviços, 26.436 pacientes com braquiterapia, sendo mais de 50% das pacientes portadoras de neoplasias do colo uterino. Este estudo mostra o número e o perfil de pacientes tratados com esse método e a sua distribuição no território nacional, deixando explícito o benefício da braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose para o Brasil.High-dose rate brachytherapy was first introduced in Brazil in January 1991. Significant changes in the management of malignant neoplasms were observed since utilization of high-dose rate brachytherapy. The high number of gynecological patients awaiting for brachytherapy also decreased during this period. In the first ten years 26,436 patients were treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. More than 50% of these patients presented neoplasms of the uterine cervix. In this study we present the number and profile of the patients treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy as well as the distribution of these patients in the Brazilian territory, proving the benefit of the use of high-dose rate brachytherapy in Brazil.

  8. Retrospective analysis of dose delivery in intra-operative high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, M.; Avadhani, J.S.; Malhotra, H.K.; Cunningham, B.; Tripp, P.; Jaggernauth, W.; Podgorsak, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Background. This study was performed to quantify the inaccuracy in clinical dose delivery due to the incomplete scatter conditions inherent in intra-operative high dose rate (IOHDR) brachytherapy. Methods. Treatment plans of 10 patients previously treated in our facility, which had irregular shapes of treated areas, were used. Treatment geometries reflecting each clinical case were simulated using a phantom assembly with no added build-up on top of the applicator. The treatment planning geometry (full scatter surrounding the applicator) was subsequently simulated for each case by adding bolus on top of the applicator. Results. For geometries representing the clinical IOHDR incomplete scatter environment, measured doses at the 5 mm and 10 mm prescription depths were lower than the corresponding prescribed doses by about 7.7% and 11.1%, respectively. Also, for the two prescription methods, an analysis of the measured dose distributions and their corresponding treatment plans showed average decreases of 1.2 mm and 2.2 mm in depth of prescription dose, respectively. Conclusions. Dosimetric calculations with the assumption of an infinite scatter environment around the applicator and target volume have shown to result in dose delivery errors that significantly decrease the prescription depth for IOHDR treatment.(author)

  9. Low-dose and high-dose acetylsalicylic acid, with and without dipyridamole: a review of clinical trial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Publication of the results of the second European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS-2) provided the incentive for an update of the meta-analyses of aspirin and dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of stroke. After review of published randomized trials of prolonged treatment with aspirin,

  10. Proximity correction of high-dosed frame with PROXECCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans

    1994-05-01

    Usefulness of electron beam lithography is strongly related to the efficiency and quality of methods used for proximity correction. This paper addresses the above issue by proposing an extension to the new proximity correction program PROXECCO. The combination of a framing step with PROXECCO produces a pattern with a very high edge accuracy and still allows usage of the fast correction procedure. Making a frame with a higher dose imitates a fine resolution correction where the coarse part is disregarded. So after handling the high resolution effect by means of framing, an additional coarse correction is still needed. Higher doses have a higher contribution to the proximity effect. This additional proximity effect is taken into account with the help of the multi-dose input of PROXECCO. The dose of the frame is variable, depending on the deposited energy coming from backscattering of the proximity. Simulation proves the very high edge accuracy of the applied method.

  11. Radiation Parameters of High Dose Rate Iridium -192 Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    A lack of physical data for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 sources has necessitated the use of basic radiation parameters measured with low dose rate (LDR) Ir-192 seeds and ribbons in HDR dosimetry calculations. A rigorous examination of the radiation parameters of several HDR Ir-192 sources has shown that this extension of physical data from LDR to HDR Ir-192 may be inaccurate. Uncertainty in any of the basic radiation parameters used in dosimetry calculations compromises the accuracy of the calculated dose distribution and the subsequent dose delivery. Dose errors of up to 0.3%, 6%, and 2% can result from the use of currently accepted values for the half-life, exposure rate constant, and dose buildup effect, respectively. Since an accuracy of 5% in the delivered dose is essential to prevent severe complications or tumor regrowth, the use of basic physical constants with uncertainties approaching 6% is unacceptable. A systematic evaluation of the pertinent radiation parameters contributes to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in HDR Ir-192 dose delivery. Moreover, the results of the studies described in this thesis contribute significantly to the establishment of standardized numerical values to be used in HDR Ir-192 dosimetry calculations.

  12. Dose intercomparison studies for standardization of high-dose dosimetry in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Hoang Hoa; Duong Nguyen Dinh; Kojima, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (IC-VAEC) is planning to establish a traceability system for high-dose dosimetry and to provide high-dose standards as a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) level in Vietnam. For countries which do not have a standard dosimetry laboratory, the participation in the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the most common means to verify own dosimetry performance with a certain uncertainty. This is, however, only one-direction dose intercomparison with evaluation by IAEA including unknown parameter at participant laboratories. The SSDL level laboratory should have traceability as well as compatibility, ability to evaluate uncertainties of its own dosimetry performance by itself In the present paper, we reviewed our dosimetry performance through two-way dose intercomparison studies and self-evaluation of uncertainty in our dosimetry procedure. The performance of silver dichromate dosimeter as reference transfer dosimeter in IC-VAEC was studied through two-way blind dose intercomparison experiments between the IC-VAEC and JAERI. As another channel of dose intercomparison with IAEA, alanine dosimeters issued by IDAS were simultaneously irradiated with the IC-VAEC dichromate dosimeters at IC-VAEC and analyzed by IAEA. Dose intercomparison between IC-VAEC and JAERI results into a good agreement (better than ±2.5%), and IDAS results also show similar agreement within ±3.0%. The uncertainty was self-estimated on the basis of the JAERI alanine dosimetry, and a preliminary value of about 1.86% at a 68% confidence level is established. The results from these intercomparisons and our estimation of the uncertainty are consistent. We hope that our experience is valuable to other countries which do not have dosimetry standard laboratories and/or are planning to establish them. (author)

  13. General practitioner attitudes towards prescribing aspirin to carriers of Lynch Syndrome: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Foy, Robbie; McGowan, Jennifer; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Burn, John; Brown, Karen; Side, Lucy; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-10-01

    A dose non-inferiority study comparing 100 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg of aspirin for cancer prevention among Lynch Syndrome carriers is underway (Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme trial 3, CaPP3). To guide implementation of the findings, we investigated general practitioner (GP) attitudes towards aspirin prescribing for Lynch Syndrome carriers. We surveyed 1007 UK GPs (9.6% response rate). Using a within-subjects design, GPs read a statement on harms and benefits of aspirin and indicated their willingness to prescribe aspirin at three doses (100 mg, 300 mg, 600 mg). Approximately two-thirds (70.8%) of GPs had heard of Lynch Syndrome or its associated names, and among those 46.7% were aware of the cancer preventive effects of aspirin among carriers. Two-thirds (68.1%) of GPs reported feeling comfortable discussing harms and benefits of aspirin with a Lynch Syndrome patient. Willingness to prescribe was 91.3% at 100 mg, and declined to 81.8% at 300 mg and 62.3% at 600 mg (p Lynch Syndrome patient in practice (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01-2.05, p = 0.045). GPs report limited awareness of Lynch Syndrome and the preventive effects of aspirin among carriers. To ensure the optimal dose identified in the CaPP3 trial is readily available to patients, prescribing guidance and strategies to educate GPs should be developed.

  14. Investigation of polymer composite for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.L.M.; Batista, A.S.M.; Ribeiro, F.A.S.; Santos, A.P.; Faria, L.O.; Oliveira, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents the efficacy evaluation of PVDF and nanocomposites of the PVDF films for high gamma dosimetry. Our scope in this first part of our studies is the selection of the most promising film for future dosimetry trials, where the proportionality of response of the selected material will be investigated over a large range of doses and dose rates. Methods: Was prepared nanocomposites made by mixing Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) aiming to find dosimetric properties for applications in high dose dosimetry. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate (16.7 kGy/h), with doses ranging from 100 to 2750 kGy. The UV-Vis and FTIR spectrophotometry have been used to monitor the appearing of C=C conjugated bonds and radio-oxidation of carbon (C=O). Results: FTIR spectrometry has that the absorbance intensities at 1715 cm -1 and 1730 cm -1 can be used for high dosimetry purposes for gamma doses ranging from 400 to 2750 kGy. In this range, it is possible to observe a linear relationship between Abs & Dose. Fading of signal was evaluated for one month and reproducibility in 2000 kGy dose. Conclusion: FTIR spectroscopic data revealed two optical absorption bands at 1715 cm -1 and 1730 cm -1 whose intensities are unambiguously related to gamma delivered dose ranging from 400 kGy to 2750 kGy. (author)

  15. Investigation of polymer composite for high dose dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, E.L.M.; Batista, A.S.M., E-mail: adriananuclear@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ribeiro, F.A.S.; Santos, A.P.; Faria, L.O.; Oliveira, A.H. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: This paper presents the efficacy evaluation of PVDF and nanocomposites of the PVDF films for high gamma dosimetry. Our scope in this first part of our studies is the selection of the most promising film for future dosimetry trials, where the proportionality of response of the selected material will be investigated over a large range of doses and dose rates. Methods: Was prepared nanocomposites made by mixing Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) aiming to find dosimetric properties for applications in high dose dosimetry. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate (16.7 kGy/h), with doses ranging from 100 to 2750 kGy. The UV-Vis and FTIR spectrophotometry have been used to monitor the appearing of C=C conjugated bonds and radio-oxidation of carbon (C=O). Results: FTIR spectrometry has that the absorbance intensities at 1715 cm{sup -1} and 1730 cm{sup -1} can be used for high dosimetry purposes for gamma doses ranging from 400 to 2750 kGy. In this range, it is possible to observe a linear relationship between Abs & Dose. Fading of signal was evaluated for one month and reproducibility in 2000 kGy dose. Conclusion: FTIR spectroscopic data revealed two optical absorption bands at 1715 cm{sup -1} and 1730 cm{sup -1} whose intensities are unambiguously related to gamma delivered dose ranging from 400 kGy to 2750 kGy. (author)

  16. High-dose contrast-enhanced MRI in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koudriavtseva, T. [Department of Neurosciences, University of Rome ``La Sapienza`` Rome (Italy); Pozzilli, C. [Department of Neurosciences, University of Rome ``La Sapienza`` Rome (Italy); Di Biasi, C. [MR Unit, Clinica Medica 1, University of Rome ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy); Iannilli, M. [MR Unit, Clinica Medica 1, University of Rome ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy); Trasimeni, G. [MR Unit, Clinica Medica 1, University of Rome ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy); Gasperini, C. [Department of Neurosciences, University of Rome ``La Sapienza`` Rome (Italy); Argentino, C. [Department of Neurosciences, University of Rome ``La Sapienza`` Rome (Italy); Gualdi, G.F. [MR Unit, Clinica Medica 1, University of Rome ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy)

    1996-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is effective for assessing disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and may provide an outcome measure for testing the efficacy of treatment in clinical trials. To compare the sensitivity of high-dose gadolinium-HP-DO3A with that of a standard dose of gadolinium-DTPA, we studied 16 patients with relapsing-remitting MS in the acute phase of the disease. Each underwent two MRI examinations within at most 48 h. The initial MRI study was with a standard dose of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg), and the second one an experimental dose of gadolinium-HP-DO3A (0.3 mmol/kg). No adverse effects were attributed to the contrast media. The high-dose study revealed more enhancing lesions than the standard-dose study (56 vs 38). This difference was found to be more relevant for infratentorial and small lesions. Furthermore, with the higher dose, there was a marked qualitative improvement in the visibility and delineation of the lesions. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. High-dose contrast-enhanced MRI in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudriavtseva, T.; Pozzilli, C.; Di Biasi, C.; Iannilli, M.; Trasimeni, G.; Gasperini, C.; Argentino, C.; Gualdi, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is effective for assessing disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and may provide an outcome measure for testing the efficacy of treatment in clinical trials. To compare the sensitivity of high-dose gadolinium-HP-DO3A with that of a standard dose of gadolinium-DTPA, we studied 16 patients with relapsing-remitting MS in the acute phase of the disease. Each underwent two MRI examinations within at most 48 h. The initial MRI study was with a standard dose of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg), and the second one an experimental dose of gadolinium-HP-DO3A (0.3 mmol/kg). No adverse effects were attributed to the contrast media. The high-dose study revealed more enhancing lesions than the standard-dose study (56 vs 38). This difference was found to be more relevant for infratentorial and small lesions. Furthermore, with the higher dose, there was a marked qualitative improvement in the visibility and delineation of the lesions. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Establishment of a dosimetric system for high doses using glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Quezada, Valeria de la Asuncion

    1997-01-01

    A routine dosimetric system was developed using commercial glass samples. The dosimetric characteristics of national and imported samples were studied: batch uniformity, response repeatability, reutilization, absorbed dose response, detection range, response stability as a function of absorbed dose, storage temperature and thermal treatments pre- and post-irradiation, using the optical absorption technique. As an application, the dosimetric system was tested in a flower irradiation process at IPEN. All the obtained results show the usefulness of the proposed system for high dose dosimetry. (author)

  19. Effect of aspirin on chromosome aberration and DNA damage induced by X-rays in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, M.; Chuuriki, K.; Shibuya, K.; Seo, M.; Nagase, H.

    In order to reveal the anticlastogenic potency of aspirin, we evaluated the suppressive ability of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray. Aspirin at doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally or orally at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation. The anticlastogenic activity of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray was determined in the mouse micronucleus test and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vivo. The frequency by polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (MNPCEs) was decreased by about 19-61% at 0.5 h after and about 23-62% at 0.5 h before the X-ray irradiation. DNA damage by X-ray was significantly decreased by oral administration of aspirin at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation for the SCG assay. We consider aspirin can be used as preventive agents against exposure of X-ray.

  20. Aspirin mono-therapy continuation does not result in more bleeding after knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lavand'homme, Patricia; Yombi, JeanCyr; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Current clinical practice guidelines sometimes still recommend stopping aspirin five to seven days before knee arthroplasty surgery. Literature regarding multimodal blood management and continuation of anti-platelet therapy in this type of surgery is scant. The study hypothesis was that knee arthroplasty under low-dose aspirin mono-therapy continuation does not cause more total blood loss than knee arthroplasty performed without aspirin. Blood loss would be measured by haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (HTC) levels drop at day 2 or day 4 for patients who benefit from multimodal bleeding control measures. A database of all patients undergoing knee arthroplasty between 2006 and 2014 was analysed. Demographic, surgical and complete blood workup data were collected. A retrospective comparison study analysed both groups in terms of blood loss, by mean calculated blood loss as haemoglobin or haematocrit drop between the preoperative Nadir value and the postoperative day 2 and 4 value. A group of 198 (44 UKA and 154 TKA) patients underwent surgery without interrupting their aspirin therapy for cardiovascular prevention. Mean (SD) age was 71 (8) and the mean (SD) BMI was 29 (5.5) kg/m 2 . The control group consisted of 403 (102 UKA and 301 TKA) patients who were not under aspirin, or any other anti-platelet agent. Mean (SD) age was 65 (10) (p aspirin mono-therapy for cardiovascular prevention. III.

  1. Calibration procedure for thermoluminescent dosemeters in water absorbed doses for Iridium-192 high dose rate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Cac, Franky Eduardo

    2004-10-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters are used in brachytherapy services quality assurance programs, with the aim of guaranteeing the correct radiation dose supplied to cancer patients, as well as with the purpose of evaluating new clinical procedures. This work describes a methodology for thermoluminescent dosimeters calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water for 192 Ir high dose rate sources. The reference dose used is measured with an ionization chamber previously calibrated for 192 Ir energy quality, applying the methodology proposed by Toelli. This methodology aims to standardizing the procedure, in a similar form to that used for external radiotherapy. The work evolves the adaptation of the TRS-277 Code of the International Atomic Energy Agency, for small and big cavities, through the introduction for non-uniform experimental factor, for the absorbed dose in the neighborhood of small brachytherapy sources. In order to simulate a water medium around the source during the experimental work, an acrylic phantom was used. It guarantees the reproducibility of the ionization chamber and the thermoluminescent dosimeter's location in relation to the radiation source. The values obtained with the ionization chamber and the thermoluminescent dosimeters, exposed to a 192 Ir high dose rate source, were compared and correction factors for different source-detector distances were determined for the thermoluminescent dosimeters. A numeric function was generated relating the correction factors and the source-detector distance. These correction factors are in fact the thermoluminescent dosimeter calibration factors for the 192 Ir source considered. As a possible application of this calibration methodology for thermoluminescent dosimeters, a practical range of source-detector distances is proposed for quality control of 192 Ir high dose rate sources. (author)

  2. A prospective study of aspirin use and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Huang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding the influence of dose and duration of aspirin use on risk of gastrointestinal bleeding are conflicting.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 32,989 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS in 1994 who provided biennial aspirin data. We estimated relative risk of major gastrointestinal bleeding requiring hospitalization or a blood transfusion.During 14 years of follow-up, 707 men reported an episode of major gastrointestinal bleeding over 377,231 person-years. After adjusting for risk factors, regular aspirin use (≥2 times/week had a multivariate relative risk (RR of gastrointestinal bleeding of 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.55 compared to non-regular use. The association was particularly evident for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (multivariate RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.92. Compared to men who denied any aspirin use, multivariate RRs of upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 1.05 (95% CI 0.71-1.52 for men who used 0.5-1.5 standard tablets/week, 1.31 (95% CI 0.88-1.95 for 2-5 aspirin/week, 1.63 (95% CI, 1.15-2.32 for 6-14 aspirin/week and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.10-5.22 for >14 aspirin/week (P(trend<0.001. The relative risk also appeared to be dose-dependent among short-term users <5 years; P(trend<.001 and long-term users (≥5 years; P(trend = 0.015. In contrast, after controlling for dose, increasing duration of use did not appear to be associated with risk (P(trend = 0.749.Regular aspirin use increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, especially from the upper tract. However, risk of bleeding appears to be more strongly related to dose than to duration of use. Risk of bleeding should be minimized by using the lowest effective dose among short-term and long-term aspirin users.

  3. Assessments for high dose radionuclide therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in the biotechnology of cell specific targeting of cancer and the increased number of clinical trials involving treatment of cancer patients with radiolabelled antibodies, peptides, and similar delivery vehicles have led to an increase in the number of high dose radionuclide therapy procedures. Optimised radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment is based on the concept of absorbed dose to the dose limiting normal organ or tissue. The limiting normal tissue is often the red marrow, but it may sometimes be the lungs, liver, intestinal tract, or kidneys. Appropriate treatment planning requires assessment of radiation dose to several internal organs and tissues, and usually involves biodistribution studies in the patient using a tracer amount of radionuclide bound to the targeting agent and imaged at sequential timepoints using a planar gamma camera. Time-activity curves are developed from the imaging data for the major organ tissues of concern, for the whole body and sometimes for selected tumours. Patient specific factors often require that dose estimates be customised for each patient. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration regulates the experimental use of investigational new drugs and requires 'reasonable calculation of radiation absorbed dose to the whole body and to critical organs' using the methods prescribed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Review of high dose studies shows that some are conducted with minimal dosimetry, that the marrow dose is difficult to establish and is subject to large uncertainties. Despite the general availability of software, internal dosimetry methods often seem to be inconsistent from one clinical centre to another. (author)

  4. Interaction of 2-Gy Equivalent Dose and Margin Status in Perioperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Moreno, Marta; Gaztanaga, Miren; San Julian, Mikel; Alcalde, Juan; Jurado, Matias

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine patient, tumor, and treatment factors predictive of local control (LC) in a series of patients treated with either perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (PHDRB) alone (Group 1) or with PHDRB combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (Group 2). Patient and Methods: Patients (n = 312) enrolled in several PHDRB prospective Phase I-II studies conducted at the Clinica Universidad de Navarra were analyzed. Treatment with PHDRB alone, mainly because of prior irradiation, was used in 126 patients to total doses of 32 Gy/8 b.i.d. or 40 Gy/10 b.i.d. treatments after R0 or R1 resections. Treatment with PHDRB plus EBRT was used in 186 patients to total doses of 16 Gy/4 b.i.d. or 24 Gy/6 b.i.d. treatments after R0 or R1 resections along with 45 Gy of EBRT with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Results: No dose-margin interaction was observed in Group 1 patients. In Group 2 patients there was a significant interaction between margin status and 2-Gy equivalent (Eq2Gy) dose (p = 0.002): (1) patients with negative margins had 9-year LC of 95.7% at Eq2Gy = 62.9Gy; (2) patients with close margins of >1 mm had 9-year LC of 92.4% at Eq2Gy = 72.2Gy, and (3) patients with positive/close <1-mm margins had 9-year LC of 68.0% at Eq2Gy = 72.2Gy. Conclusions: Two-gray equivalent doses ≥70 Gy may compensate the effect of close margins ≥1 mm but do not counterbalance the detrimental effect of unfavorable (positive/close <1 mm) resection margins. No dose-margin interaction is observed in patients treated at lower Eq2Gy doses ≤50 Gy with PHDRB alone.

  5. Calcium carbonate as a possible dosimeter for high irradiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron M, A.; Ramos B, S.; Camargo R, C.; Uribe, R. M.; Gomez V, V.; Kobayashi, K.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the interactions of 5 MeV electron beam radiation and a 290 MeV/u Carbon beam with calcium carbonate (powder) at 298 K and at different irradiation doses, for the potential use of calcium carbonate as a high-dose dosimeter. The irradiation doses with the electron beam were from 0.015 to 9 MGy, and with Carbon beam from 1.5 kGy to 8 kGy. High-energy radiation induces the formation of free radicals in solid calcium carbonate that can be detected and measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). An increase of the EPR response for some of the free radicals produced in the sample was observed as a function of the irradiation dose. The response of one of the radicals decreased with the dose. These measurements are reproducible; the preparation of the sample is simple and inexpensive; and the signal is stable for several months. The response curves show that the dosimeter tends to saturate at 10 MGy. Based on these properties, we propose this chemical compound as a high-dose dosimeter, mainly for electron irradiation. (author)

  6. Calcium carbonate as a possible dosimeter for high irradiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negron M, A.; Ramos B, S.; Camargo R, C. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Uribe, R. M. [Kent State University, College of Technology, Kent OH (United States); Gomez V, V. [UNAM, Instituto de Quimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Kobayashi, K., E-mail: negron@nucleares.unam.mx [Yokohama National University (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the interactions of 5 MeV electron beam radiation and a 290 MeV/u Carbon beam with calcium carbonate (powder) at 298 K and at different irradiation doses, for the potential use of calcium carbonate as a high-dose dosimeter. The irradiation doses with the electron beam were from 0.015 to 9 MGy, and with Carbon beam from 1.5 kGy to 8 kGy. High-energy radiation induces the formation of free radicals in solid calcium carbonate that can be detected and measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). An increase of the EPR response for some of the free radicals produced in the sample was observed as a function of the irradiation dose. The response of one of the radicals decreased with the dose. These measurements are reproducible; the preparation of the sample is simple and inexpensive; and the signal is stable for several months. The response curves show that the dosimeter tends to saturate at 10 MGy. Based on these properties, we propose this chemical compound as a high-dose dosimeter, mainly for electron irradiation. (author)

  7. Chromosomal Aberrations in Normal and AT Cells Exposed to High Dose of Low Dose Rate Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, T.; Shigematsu, N.; Kawaguchi, O.; Liu, C.; Furusawa, Y.; Hirayama, R.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a human autosomally recessive syndrome characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune dysfunction, and genomic instability, and high rate of cancer incidence. A-T cell lines are abnormally sensitive to agents that induce DNA double strand breaks, including ionizing radiation. The diverse clinical features in individuals affected by A-T and the complex cellular phenotypes are all linked to the functional inactivation of a single gene (AT mutated). It is well known that cells deficient in ATM show increased yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations after high-dose-rate irradiation, but, less is known on how cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation. It has been shown that AT cells contain a large number of unrejoined breaks after both low-dose-rate irradiation and high-dose-rate irradiation, however sensitivity for chromosomal aberrations at low-dose-rate are less often studied. To study how AT cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation, we exposed confluent normal and AT fibroblast cells to up to 3 Gy of gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/day and analyzed chromosomal aberrations in G0 using fusion PCC (Premature Chromosomal Condensation) technique. Giemsa staining showed that 1 Gy induces around 0.36 unrejoined fragments per cell in normal cells and around 1.35 fragments in AT cells, whereas 3Gy induces around 0.65 fragments in normal cells and around 3.3 fragments in AT cells. This result indicates that AT cells can rejoin breaks less effectively in G0 phase of the cell cycle? compared to normal cells. We also analyzed chromosomal exchanges in normal and AT cells after exposure to 3 Gy of low-dose-rate rays using a combination of G0 PCC and FISH techniques. Misrejoining was detected in the AT cells only? When cells irradiated with 3 Gy were subcultured and G2 chromosomal aberrations were analyzed using calyculin-A induced PCC technique, the yield of unrejoined breaks decreased in both normal and AT

  8. Lower mortality rate in elderly patients with community-onset pneumonia on treatment with aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Cangemi, Roberto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Calvieri, Camilla; Barillà, Francesco; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Palange, Paolo; Taliani, Gloria; Venditti, Mario; Violi, Francesco

    2015-01-06

    Pneumonia is complicated by high rate of mortality and cardiovascular events (CVEs). The potential benefit of aspirin, which lowers platelet aggregation by inhibition of thromboxane A2 production, is still unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of aspirin on mortality in patients with pneumonia. Consecutive patients admitted to the University-Hospital Policlinico Umberto I (Rome, Italy) with community-onset pneumonia were recruited and prospectively followed up until discharge or death. The primary end point was the occurrence of death up to 30 days after admission; the secondary end point was the intrahospital incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. One thousand and five patients (age, 74.7±15.1 years) were included in the study: 390 were receiving aspirin (100 mg/day) at the time of hospitalization, whereas 615 patients were aspirin free. During the follow-up, 16.2% of patients died; among these, 19 (4.9%) were aspirin users and 144 (23.4%; PFiO(2) ratio <300 negatively influenced survival, whereas aspirin therapy was associated with improved survival. Compared to patients receiving aspirin, the propensity score adjusted analysis confirmed that patients not taking aspirin had a hazard ratio of 2.07 (1.08 to 3.98; P=0.029) for total mortality. This study shows that chronic aspirin use is associated with lower mortality rate within 30 days after hospital admission in a large cohort of patients with pneumonia. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. High-dose buprenorphine: perioperative precautions and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D M; Meyer-Witting, M

    2005-02-01

    Buprenorphine has been in clinical use in anaesthesia for several decades. Recently, the high-dose sublingual formulation (Subutex, Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, U.K.) has been increasingly used as maintenance therapy in opioid dependence, as an alternative to methadone and other pharmacological therapies. Buprenorphine has unique pharmacological properties making it well suited for use as a maintenance therapy in opioid dependence. However, these same properties may cause difficulty in the perioperative management of pain. Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist, attenuating the effects of supplemental illicit or therapeutic opioid agonists. As a result of its high receptor affinity, supplemental opioids do not readily displace buprenorphine from the opioid receptor in standard doses. High-dose buprenorphine has an extended duration of action that prolongs both of these effects. The perioperative management of patients stabilized on high-dose buprenorphine and undergoing surgery requires consideration of the likely analgesic requirements. Where possible the buprenorphine should be continued. Pain management should focus on maximizing non-opioid analgesia, local anaesthesia and non-pharmacological techniques. Where pain may not be adequately relieved by these methods, the addition of a full opioid agonist such as fentanyl or morphine at appropriate doses should be considered, accompanied by close monitoring in a high dependency unit. In situations where this regimen is unlikely to be effective, preoperative conversion to morphine or methadone may be an option. Where available, liaison with a hospital-based alcohol and drug service should always be considered.

  10. Radiobiological modelling of dose-gradient effects in low dose rate, high dose rate and pulsed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armpilia, C; Dale, R G; Sandilos, P; Vlachos, L

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generalization of a previously published methodology which quantified the radiobiological consequences of dose-gradient effects in brachytherapy applications. The methodology uses the linear-quadratic (LQ) formulation to identify an equivalent biologically effective dose (BED eq ) which, if applied uniformly to a specified tissue volume, would produce the same net cell survival as that achieved by a given non-uniform brachytherapy application. Multiplying factors (MFs), which enable the equivalent BED for an enclosed volume to be estimated from the BED calculated at the dose reference surface, have been calculated and tabulated for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. The main types of brachytherapy (high dose rate (HDR), low dose rate (LDR) and pulsed (PB)) have been examined for a range of radiobiological parameters/dimensions. Equivalent BEDs are consistently higher than the BEDs calculated at the reference surface by an amount which depends on the treatment prescription (magnitude of the prescribed dose) at the reference point. MFs are closely related to the numerical BED values, irrespective of how the original BED was attained (e.g., via HDR, LDR or PB). Thus, an average MF can be used for a given prescribed BED as it will be largely independent of the assumed radiobiological parameters (radiosensitivity and α/β) and standardized look-up tables may be applicable to all types of brachytherapy treatment. This analysis opens the way to more systematic approaches for correlating physical and biological effects in several types of brachytherapy and for the improved quantitative assessment and ranking of clinical treatments which involve a brachytherapy component

  11. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-05-06

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Spectroscopic gamma camera for use in high dose environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yuichiro, E-mail: yuichiro.ueno.bv@hitachi.com [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Fujishima, Yasutake; Kometani, Yutaka [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuhiko [Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Ome-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Umegaki, Kikuo [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-21

    We developed a pinhole gamma camera to measure distributions of radioactive material contaminants and to identify radionuclides in extraordinarily high dose regions (1000 mSv/h). The developed gamma camera is characterized by: (1) tolerance for high dose rate environments; (2) high spatial and spectral resolution for identifying unknown contaminating sources; and (3) good usability for being carried on a robot and remotely controlled. These are achieved by using a compact pixelated detector module with CdTe semiconductors, efficient shielding, and a fine resolution pinhole collimator. The gamma camera weighs less than 100 kg, and its field of view is an 8 m square in the case of a distance of 10 m and its image is divided into 256 (16×16) pixels. From the laboratory test, we found the energy resolution at the 662 keV photopeak was 2.3% FWHM, which is enough to identify the radionuclides. We found that the count rate per background dose rate was 220 cps h/mSv and the maximum count rate was 300 kcps, so the maximum dose rate of the environment where the gamma camera can be operated was calculated as 1400 mSv/h. We investigated the reactor building of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using the gamma camera and could identify the unknown contaminating source in the dose rate environment that was as high as 659 mSv/h.

  13. A novel theory of radiation damage at high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, A.; Stuttgart Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Deviations of radiation damage (in the case of metals usually monitored by the residual electrical resistivity) from proportionality with the irradiation dose have so far been analysed almost exclusively in terms of extensions of models originally developed for small doses. The present theory considers the opposite limit i.e. the quasi-saturated state. It is argued that at high doses the Lueck-Sizmann effect may result in a self-organization of clusters of vacancies and self-interstitials, forming a heterogeneous froth. Possible structures of this froth and its effect on the electrical resistivity of metals are discussed. The model is shown to account for the dependence of the ''saturation resistivity'' on the nature of the irradiation as well as for several other hitherto poorly explained observations. Among them are the electrical-resistivity variation induced by high-dose irradiation with heavy ions, the amorphization of certain alloys by high-dose electron irradiation, and the occurrence of ordered arrays of stacking-fault tetrahedra after in-situ irradiations in high-voltage electron microscopes. (author)

  14. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid has enhanced chemo-preventive properties compared to aspirin, is gastrointestinal safe with all the classic therapeutic indications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodela, Ravinder; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is chemopreventive; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel hybrid that releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-platelet, and chemopreventive properties of aspirin and NBS-1120 administered orally to rats at equimolar doses. Gastrointestinal safety: 6h post-administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs were counted; tissue samples were frozen for PGE2, SOD, and MDA determination. Anti-inflammatory: 1h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 5h. Anti-pyretic: fever was induced by LPS (ip) an hour before administration of the test drugs, core body temperature was measured hourly for 5h. Analgesic: time-dependent analgesic effects were evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Antiplatelet: anti-aggregatory effects were studied on collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma. Chemoprevention: Nude mice were gavaged daily for 25 days with vehicle, aspirin or NBS-1120. After one week, each mouse was inoculated subcutaneously in the right flank with HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Both agents reduced PGE2 levels in stomach tissue; however, NBS-1120 did not cause any stomach ulcers, whereas aspirin caused significant bleeding. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that exerted by NBS-1120. SOD activity was significantly inhibited by aspirin but increased by NBS-1120. Both agents showed similar anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-platelet activities. Aspirin increased plasma TNFα more than NBS-1120-treated animals. NBS-1120 was better than aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; it dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth and tumor mass. PMID:26394025

  15. Role of Aspirin in Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Holmes, Michelle D

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer. Although the potential mechanism for aspirin preventing breast cancer is not known, possible pathways may involve platelets, inflammation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, hormones, or PI3 kinase. This review article summarizes the current epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence as well as possible underlying mechanisms that justify current phase III randomized trials of aspirin to improve breast cancer survival.

  16. Radiation shielding and dose rate distribution for the building of the high dose rate accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Koji; Takagaki, Torao; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Yohta.

    1984-03-01

    A high dose rate electron accelerator was established at Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Takasaki Establishment, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1975. This report shows the fundamental concept for the radiation shielding of the accelerator building and the results of their calculations which were evaluated through the model experiments. After the construction of the building, the leak radiation was measured in order to evaluate the calculating method of radiation shielding. Dose rate distribution of X-rays was also measured in the whole area of the irradiation room as a data base. (author)

  17. Effective dose calculation in CT using high sensitivity TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Z.; Johnston, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: To determine the effective dose for common paediatric CT examinations using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) mea surements. High sensitivity TLD chips (LiF:Mg,Cu,P, TLD-IOOH, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) were calibrated on a linac at an energy of 6 MY. A calibration was also performed on a superricial X-ray unit at a kilovoltage energy to validate the megavoltage cali bration for the purpose of measuring doses in the diagnostic energy range. The dose variation across large organs was assessed and a methodology for TLD placement in a 10 year old anthropomorphic phantom developed. Effective dose was calculated from the TLD measured absorbed doses for typical CT examinations after correcting for the TLD energy response and taking into account differences in the mass energy absorption coefficients for different tissues and organs. Results Using new tissue weighting factors recommended in ICRP Publication 103, the effective dose for a CT brain examination on a 10 year old was 1.6 millisieverts (mSv), 4.9 mSv for a CT chest exa ination and 4.7 mSv for a CT abdomen/pelvis examination. These values are lower for the CT brain examination, higher for the CT chest examination and approximately the same for the CT abdomen/ pelvis examination when compared with effective doses calculated using ICRP Publication 60 tissue weighting factors. Conclusions High sensitivity TLDs calibrated with a radiotherapy linac are useful for measuring dose in the diagnostic energy range and overcome limitations of output reproducibility and uniformity asso ciated with traditional TLD calibration on CT scanners or beam quality matched diagnostic X-ray units.

  18. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect...... on the colon. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a two-by-two design to investigate the effects of aspirin, at a dose of 600 mg per day, and resistant starch (Novelose), at a dose of 30 g per day, in reducing the risk of adenoma and carcinoma among persons with the Lynch syndrome...... on the incidence of colorectal adenoma or carcinoma among carriers of the Lynch syndrome. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN59521990.)...

  19. Implementation of high-dose chemical dosimetry for industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Cirilo Cezar Sant'Anna da

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of methodology for high dose measurements using chemical dosimeters in liquid phase, traceable to the international metrology system, and make available in the country, the standard of high-dose to industrial irradiation facilities and research irradiators, trough the quality program with comparative measurements and direct use of the standard dosimeters in routine. The use of these low cost dosimetry systems in industrial irradiation facilities, assists to the certification requirements and it can reduce the costs with dosimetry for approximately 20% of the total dosimetry costs, using these systems in routine measurements and validation process, largely substituting the imported PMMA dosimeters, among others. (author)

  20. Lower Mortality Rate in Elderly Patients With Community?Onset Pneumonia on Treatment With Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Cangemi, Roberto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Calvieri, Camilla; Barill?, Francesco; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Palange, Paolo; Taliani, Gloria; Venditti, Mario; Violi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is complicated by high rate of mortality and cardiovascular events (CVEs). The potential benefit of aspirin, which lowers platelet aggregation by inhibition of thromboxane A2 production, is still unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of aspirin on mortality in patients with pneumonia. Methods and Results Consecutive patients admitted to the University?Hospital Policlinico Umberto I (Rome, Italy) with community?onset pneumonia were recruited and prospectiv...

  1. Characterization of Thymol blue Radiochromic dosimeters for high dose applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras M. Aldweri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymol blue (TB solutions and Thymol blue Polyvinyl Alcohol (TB-PVA films have been introduced as Radiochromic dosimeter for high dose applications. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray (60Co source from 5 to 30 kGy for film, and from 0.150 kGy to 4 kGy for solution. The optical density of unirradiated and irradiated TB solution as well as TB-PVA film dosimeters were studied in terms of absorbance at 434 nm using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The effects of scan temperature, light pre-gamma irradiation, dose rate, relative humidity and stability of the absorbance of solutions and films after irradiation were investigated. We found the dose sensitivity of TB solution and TB-PVA film dosimeters increases significantly with increases of the absorbed dose as well as with the increases of TB dye concentrations. The useful dose range of developed TB solutions and TB-PVA films dosimeters is in the range 0.125–1 kGy and of 5–20 kGy, respectively. Keywords: Dose sensitivity, Radio-chromic dosimeter, Thymol blue, Absorbance, Concentrations

  2. Chronic Use of Aspirin and Total White Matter Lesion Volume: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Andrea; Ammann, Eric; Espeland, Mark A; Kelley, Brendan J; Manson, JoAnn E; Wallace, Robert; Robinson, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between aspirin and subclinical cerebrovascular heath, we evaluated the effect of chronic aspirin use on white matter lesions (WML) volume among women. Chronic aspirin use was assessed in 1365 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Differences in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers were assessed with linear mixed models. A number of secondary analyses were performed, including lobe-specific analyses, subgroup analyses based on participants' overall risk of cerebrovascular disease, and a dose-response relationship analysis. The mean age of the women at magnetic resonance imaging examination was 77.6 years. Sixty-one percent of participants were chronic aspirin users. After adjusting for demographic variables and comorbidities, chronic aspirin use was nonsignificantly associated with 4.8% (95% CI: -6.8%, 17.9%) larger WML volumes. These null findings were confirmed in secondary and sensitivity analyses, including an active comparator evaluation where aspirin users were compared to users of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen. There was a nonsignificant difference in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers. Further, our results suggest that chronic aspirin use may not have a clinically significant effect on WML volumes in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Prophylactic Properties Of Licorice Roots (GLYCYRRHIZA Gabbler) And / Or Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) Against GAMMA Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress And Metabolic Disorders In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAHIM, TH.M.; ABDEL FATTAH, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress with subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been postulated as one of the mechanism of cardiac and renal toxicity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible protective effects of licorice and/or aspirin on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac and renal damage in rats. Licorice and/or aspirin was supplemented daily to rats (100 mg licorice/kg body wt and 50 mg aspirin/kg body wt) orally, 15 days before and after whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy (applied as a shot dose). Gamma irradiation caused significant drop in haemoglobin, erythrocytes, haematocrit values, platelets count, prothrombin time (PT) and leukocytes with their differential counts with elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).The results obtained showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induced biochemical alteration in the levels of serum lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol), creatinine and urea. Furthermore, some markers of cardiac injury enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities showed significant increase associated with decrease in the glutathione content (GSH) of cardiac and renal tissues. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation end products malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cardiac and renal tissues was observed.Licorice and/or aspirin treatment prior and post gamma irradiation of rats has attenuated the renal and cardiac toxic effects of radiation manifested by reduction in the levels of MDA and NO, rescued the depletion of endogenous GSH, haematologial parameters and diminished the increase of cardiac and renal injury markers .

  4. Aspirin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Jin Young; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation was greater in VSMC from SHR than WKY. → Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMC from SHR. → Low basal AMPK phosphorylation in SHR elicits increased VSMC proliferation. → Inhibition of AMPK restored decreased VSMC proliferation by aspirin in SHR. → Aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effect through AMPK activation in VSMC from SHR. -- Abstract: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), used to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, plays an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation. However, mechanisms responsible for aspirin-induced growth inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether aspirin may exert therapeutic effects via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from wistar kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aspirin increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in VSMCs from WKY and SHR, but with greater efficacy in SHR. In SHR, a low basal phosphorylation status of AMPK resulted in increased VSMC proliferation and aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMCs. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and AMPK siRNA reduced the aspirin-mediated inhibition of VSMC proliferation, this effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. In VSMCs from SHR, aspirin increased p53 and p21 expression and inhibited the expression of cell cycle associated proteins, such as p-Rb, cyclin D, and cyclin E. These results indicate that in SHR VSMCs aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effects through the induction of AMPK phosphorylation.

  5. Aspirin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Young [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation was greater in VSMC from SHR than WKY. {yields} Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMC from SHR. {yields} Low basal AMPK phosphorylation in SHR elicits increased VSMC proliferation. {yields} Inhibition of AMPK restored decreased VSMC proliferation by aspirin in SHR. {yields} Aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effect through AMPK activation in VSMC from SHR. -- Abstract: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), used to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, plays an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation. However, mechanisms responsible for aspirin-induced growth inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether aspirin may exert therapeutic effects via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from wistar kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aspirin increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in VSMCs from WKY and SHR, but with greater efficacy in SHR. In SHR, a low basal phosphorylation status of AMPK resulted in increased VSMC proliferation and aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMCs. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and AMPK siRNA reduced the aspirin-mediated inhibition of VSMC proliferation, this effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. In VSMCs from SHR, aspirin increased p53 and p21 expression and inhibited the expression of cell cycle associated proteins, such as p-Rb, cyclin D, and cyclin E. These results indicate that in SHR VSMCs aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effects through the induction of AMPK phosphorylation.

  6. BH3105 type neutron dose equivalent meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Enshan; Yang Jianfeng; Zhang Hong; Huang Jiling

    1995-10-01

    It is noted that to design a neutron dose meter of high sensitivity is almost impossible in the frame of traditional designing principle--'absorption net principle'. Based on a newly proposed principle of obtaining neutron dose equi-biological effect adjustment--' absorption stick principle', a brand-new neutron dose-equivalent meter with high neutron sensitivity BH3105 has been developed. Its sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), which is 18∼40 times higher than one of foreign products of the same kind and is 10 4 times higher than that of domestic FJ342 neutron rem-meter. BH3105 has a measurement range from 0.1μSv/h to 1 Sv/h which is 1 or 2 orders wider than that of the other's. It has the advanced properties of gamma-resistance, energy response, orientation, etc. (6 tabs., 5 figs.)

  7. Safety and tolerability of high doses of glucocorticoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Branislava D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia includes the use of high doses of glucocorticoides (prednisone and dexamethasone, which significantly increase the success of therapy due to lymphocytolitic effect. The aim: The aim of the study was to determine tolerability of high doses of prednisone and dexamethasone in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the structure and the intensity of adverse effects, occurred after application of these medicines. Subjects and methods: In a prospective study, we analyzed adverse effects of high doses of glucocorticoides in children suffering acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in the Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina, since December 2010. until October 2014, were analyzed. This study included 18 patients, aged from 2 to 15 years. Results: Hyperglycemia appeared in 89% of patients treated with prednisone and in 61% of patients treated with dexamethasone. In order to control the high blood glucose level (above 10 mmol /L, in 11% of patients insulin was used. Hypertension appeared in 28% patients treated with prednisone and dexamethasone. Antihypertensives were needed for regulation in 17% patients. Hypopotassemia and hypocalcaemia were significantly more expressed after the use of prednisone in comparison to dexamethasone. In 11% of patients, the treatment with dexamethasone caused depressive behavior, followed by agitation. Conclusion: Adverse effects of dexamethasone and prednisone, administered in high doses in children with ALL were known, expected and reversible. Adverse reactions usually disappeared spontaneously or after short-term symptomatic therapy.

  8. Low dose radiation enhance the anti-tumor effect of high dose radiation on human glioma cell U251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chang; Wang Guanjun; Tan Yehui; Jiang Hongyu; Li Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect the effect on the growth of human glioma cell U251 induced by low dose irradiation and low dose irradiation combined with large dose irradiation. Methods: Human glioma cell line U251 and nude mice carried with human glioma were used. The tumor cells and the mice were treated with low dose, high dose, and low dose combined high dose radiation. Cells growth curve, MTT and flow cytometry were used to detect the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of the cells; and the tumor inhibition rate was used to assess the growth of tumor in vivo. Results: After low dose irradiation, there was no difference between experimental group and control group in cell count, MTT and flow cytometry. Single high dose group and low dose combined high dose group both show significantly the suppressing effect on tumor cells, the apoptosis increased and there was cell cycle blocked in G 2 period, but there was no difference between two groups. In vivo apparent anti-tumor effect in high dose radiation group and the combining group was observed, and that was more significant in the combining group; the prior low dose radiation alleviated the injury of hematological system. There was no difference between single low dose radiation group and control. Conclusions: There is no significant effect on human glioma cell induced by low dose radiation, and low dose radiation could not induce adaptive response. But in vivo experience, low dose radiation could enhance the anti-tumor effect of high dose radiation and alleviated the injury of hematological system. (authors)

  9. Physicochemical impact studies of gamma rays on "aspirin" analgesics drug and its metal complexes in solid form: Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological assessment of Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) aspirinate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Sharshar, T.; Elsabawy, Khaled M.; Heiba, Zein K.

    2013-09-01

    Metal aspirinate complexes, M2(Asp)4, where M is Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) or Ba(II) are formed by refluxed of aspirin (Asp) with divalent non-transition metal ions of group (II) and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic measurements (infrared, electronic, 1H NMR, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy). Elemental analysis of the chelates suggests the stoichiometry is 1:2 (metal:ligand). Infrared spectra of the complexes agree with the coordination to the central metal atom through three donation sites of two oxygen atoms of bridge bidentate carboxylate group and oxygen atom of sbnd Cdbnd O of acetyl group. Infrared spectra coupled with the results of elemental analyzes suggested a distorted octahedral structure for the M(II) aspirinate complexes. Gamma irradiation was tested as a method for stabilization of aspirin as well as their complexes. The effect of gamma irradiation, with dose of 80 Gy, on the properties of aspirinate complexes was studied. The aspirinate chelates have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria, gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two strains of fungus (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more antibacterial activity than the free aspirin chelate.

  10. HIGH-DOSE RATE BRACHYTHERAPY IN CARCINOMA CERVIX STAGE IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya Maruthavanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Radiotherapy is the standard treatment in locally advanced (IIB-IVA and early inoperable cases. The current standard of practice with curable intent is concurrent chemoradiation in which intracavitary brachytherapy is an integral component of radiotherapy. This study aims at assessing the efficacy of HDR ICBT (High-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy in terms local response, normal tissue reactions, and feasibility. METHODS AND MATERIALS A total of 20 patients of stage IIIB cancer of the uterine cervix were enrolled in the study and were planned to receive concurrent chemotherapy weekly along with EBRT (external beam radiotherapy to a dose of 50 Gy/25 Fr. Suitability for ICBT was assessed at 40 Gy/20 Fr. 6/20 patients were suitable at 40 Gy and received HDR ICBT with a dose of 5.5 Gy to point A in 4 sessions (5.5 Gy/4 Fr. The remaining 14/20 patients completed 50 Gy and received HDR ICBT with a dose of 6 Gy to point A in 3 sessions (6 Gy/3 Fr. RESULTS A total of 66 intracavitary applications were done and only one application required dose modification due to high bladder dose, the pelvic control rate was 85% (17/20. 10% (2/20 had stable disease and 5% (1/20 had progressive disease at one year of follow up. When toxicity was considered only 15% developed grade I and grade II rectal complications. Patient compliance and acceptability was 100%. Patients were very comfortable with the short treatment time as compared with patients on LDR ICBT (low-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment interviewed during the same period. CONCLUSION This study proves that HDR brachytherapy is efficacious and feasible in carcinoma of cervix stage IIIB. It also proves that good dose distribution can be achieved with HDR intracavitary facility by the use of dose optimization. The short treatment time in HDR ICBT makes it possible to maintain this optimised dose distribution throughout the treatment providing a gain in the therapeutic ratio and

  11. The influence of high doses of radiation in citrine stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M. I.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2014-08-01

    The possibility of using samples of Brazilian stones as quartz, amethyst, topaz, jasper, etc. for high-dose dosimetry has been studied in recent years at IPEN, using the techniques of optical absorption (Oa), thermoluminescent (Tl), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and resonance paramagnetic electron (EPR). In this work, the Tl properties of citrine samples were studied. They were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation ( 60 Co). The natural citrine stone was extracted from a mine in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; it is a tecto silicate ranked as one of three-dimensional structure, showing clear yellow to golden brown color. The natural citrine stone is classified as quartz (SiO 2 ), and it has a lower symmetry and more compact reticulum. The Tl emission curve showed two peaks at 160 grades C and 220 grades C. To remove the Tl peak (160 grades C) of the sintered citrine pellet glow curves, different thermal treatments were tested during several time intervals. The Tl dose-response curve between 50 Gy and 100 kGy, the reproducibility of Tl response and the lower detection dose were obtained. The results show that citrine may be useful as high-dose detectors. (Author)

  12. TL response of citrine samples for high-dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Maria Ines; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of using samples of Brazilian stones as quartz, amethyst, topaz, etc. for high-dose dosimetry has been studied in recent years at IPEN, using the thermoluminescence technique (TL). In this work, the TL properties of citrine samples were studied. They were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation ( 60 Co). The natural citrine stone was extracted from a mine in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; it is a tectosilicate ranked as one of three-dimensional structure, showing clear yellow to golden brown color. The natural citrine stone is classified as quartz (SiO 2 ), and it has a lower symmetry and more compact reticulum. The citrine stone samples were powdered, and the selected grains were mixed with Teflon in the proportion 2 (Teflon):1 (Citrine). The mixture was pressed and sintered for production of Citrine -Teflon pellets of 50 mg. The TL emission curve showed two peaks at 160 deg C and 220 deg C. To remove the TL peak (160 deg C) of the sintered citrine pellet glow curves, different thermal treatments were tested during several time intervals. The TL dose-response curve between 50 Gy and 100 kGy, the reproducibility of TL response and the lower detection dose were obtained. The preliminary results show that citrine may be useful for high-dose dosimetry. (author)

  13. Multifocal Electroretinography after High Dose Chloroquine Therapy for Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate changes in multifocal electroretinography (mfERG parameters associated with high dose chloroquine therapy for treatment of malaria in the Amazonia region of Brazil. Methods: Forty-eight subjects who had received chloroquine treatment for single or multiple malaria infections with a cumulative dose ranging from 1,050 to 27,000mg were included. The control group consisted of 37 healthy aged-matched subjects. Data was collected on amplitude and implicit time of the N1, P1 and N2 waves in the central macular hexagon (R1 and in five concentric rings at different retinal eccentricities (R2-R6. Results: No significant difference was observed in any mfERG parameter between chloroquine treated patients and control subjects. A comparison with previous data obtained from patients with rheumatologic disorders in the same region of Brazil who had received larger cumulative doses of chloroquine and had displayed mfERG changes, indicated that retinal toxicity seems to be dependent on cumulative dose. Conclusion: Lack of mfERG changes in the current study suggests that intensive high dose chloroquine therapy for treatment of malaria is not associated with retinal toxicity.

  14. The influence of high doses of radiation in citrine stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M. I. [Universidade Nove de Julho - UNINOVE, Rua Vergueiro 235/249, 01504-001 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: miteixeira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The possibility of using samples of Brazilian stones as quartz, amethyst, topaz, jasper, etc. for high-dose dosimetry has been studied in recent years at IPEN, using the techniques of optical absorption (Oa), thermoluminescent (Tl), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and resonance paramagnetic electron (EPR). In this work, the Tl properties of citrine samples were studied. They were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). The natural citrine stone was extracted from a mine in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; it is a tecto silicate ranked as one of three-dimensional structure, showing clear yellow to golden brown color. The natural citrine stone is classified as quartz (SiO{sub 2}), and it has a lower symmetry and more compact reticulum. The Tl emission curve showed two peaks at 160 grades C and 220 grades C. To remove the Tl peak (160 grades C) of the sintered citrine pellet glow curves, different thermal treatments were tested during several time intervals. The Tl dose-response curve between 50 Gy and 100 kGy, the reproducibility of Tl response and the lower detection dose were obtained. The results show that citrine may be useful as high-dose detectors. (Author)

  15. Use of glasses as radiation detectors for high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.

    1989-08-01

    Glass samples were tested in relation to the possibility of use in high dose dosimetry in medical and industrial areas. The main characteristics were determined: detection threshold, reproducibility, response to gamma radiation of 137 Cs and 6 Co and thermal decay at ambient temperature, with the use of optical absorption and thermoluminesce techniques. (author) [pt

  16. Oval pulsed high-dose dexamethasone for myositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk, JE; Wokke, JHJ; de Visser, M

    To study the short-term effect of oral pulsed high-dose dexamethasone for myositis we treated eight newly diagnosed patients with three 28-day cycles of oral dexamethasone. Primary outcome measures were muscle strength, pain, and serum creatine kinase activity. Sis patients responded. Side effects

  17. Oral pulsed high-dose dexamethasone for myositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, M. F.; Hoogendijk, J. E.; Wokke, J. H.; de Visser, M.

    2000-01-01

    To study the short-term effect of oral pulsed high-dose dexamethasone for myositis we treated eight newly diagnosed patients with three 28-day cycles of oral dexamethasone. Primary outcome measures were muscle strength, pain, and serum creatine kinase activity. Six patients responded. Side effects

  18. High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demedts, Maurits; Behr, Juergen; Buhl, Roland; Costabel, Ulrich; Dekhuijzen, Richard; Jansen, Henk M.; MacNee, William; Thomeer, Michiel; Wallaert, Benoit; Laurent, François; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Verbeken, Eric K.; Verschakelen, Johny; Flower, Christopher D. R.; Capron, Frédérique; Petruzzelli, Stefano; de Vuyst, Paul; van den Bosch, Jules M. M.; Rodriguez-Becerra, Eulogio; Corvasce, Giuseppina; Lankhorst, Ida; Sardina, Marco; Montanari, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disorder with a poor prognosis. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study that assessed the effectiveness over one year of a high oral dose of acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily) added

  19. Bortezomib or high-dose dexamethasone for relapsed multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. Richardson (Paul Gerard); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); M.W. Schuster (Michael); D. Irwin (David); E.A. Stadtmauer (Edward); T. Facon (Thierry); J-L. Harousseau (Jean-Luc); D. Ben-Yehuda (Dina); S. Lonial (Sagar); H. Goldschmidt (Hartmut); D. Reece (Donna); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); J. Bladé (Joan); M. Boccadoro (Mario); J. Cavenagh (Jamie); W. Dalton (William); A.L. Boral (Anthony); D.-L. Esseltine (Dixie-Lee); J.B. Porter (Jane); D. Schenkein (David); K.C. Anderson (Kenneth)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This study compared bortezomib with high-dose dexamethasone in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma who had received one to three previous therapies. METHODS: We randomly assigned 669 patients with relapsed myeloma to receive either an intravenous bolus of bortezomib (1.3

  20. Unusual complication and successful high-dose chemotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... treated with high-dose chemotherapy in our institution, complicated by unusual bilateral renal vein tumour thrombi and tumour lysis syndrome. We believe this unique case highlights the need for early recognition of current and potential complications on staging computed tomography imaging, as well as successful use of ...

  1. A clinical comparison of high dose and low dose of Suxamethonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suxamethonium having its rapid onset and short duration of action makes this drug unique amongst the neuromuscular blocking drugs described so far. However, use of suxamethonium is associated with a large number of undesirable side effects. Objective: To evaluate clinical effects of high and low dose of suxamethonium and to determine whether lower dose of suxamethonium can be used for any beneficial effects in terms of its various adverse effects e.g. cardiovascular responses, post-operative muscle pains and intraocular pressure. Methods: A total of 100 patients were included in this prospective study. All these patients on preoperative clinical evaluation were assessed to have adequate airway. All the patients were divided in two groups, low dose group (group I and High dose group (group II with 50 patients in each at random. A standard anesthetic technique was adhered to all the patients and following parameters were observed on comparative basis: a. Fasciculation and post operative myalgia. b. Cardiovascular effects, c. Intraocular pressure. Observation: The incidence of post Suxamethonium pain was significantly greater in group II. Increase in heart rate from baseline was significant in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the diastolic pressure but rise in systolic blood pressure was significant at all assessment times in both groups. This rise from control was statistically significant. Conclusion: Suxamethonium can be used in lower doses (0.5 mg/kg in elective cases without airway compromise. It gives benefits of reduced muscle pains, cardiovascular responses and intraocular hypertension. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-2, 1-8 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i2.9677

  2. Biological effective doses in the intracavitary high dose rate brachytherapy of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sobita Devi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the decrease of biological equivalent dose and its correlation withlocal/loco-regional control of tumour in the treatment of cervical cancer when the strength of the Ir-192 high dose rate(HDR brachytherapy (BT source is reduced to single, double and triple half life in relation to original strength of10 Ci (~ 4.081 cGy x m2 x h–1. Material and methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 52 cervical cancer patients with stage II and IIItreated with fractionated HDR-BT following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. International Commission onRadiation Units and Measurement (ICRU points were defined according to ICRU Report 38, using two orthogonal radiographimages taken by Simulator (Simulix HQ. Biologically effective dose (BED was calculated at point A for diffe -rent Ir-192 source strength and its possible correlation with local/loco-regional tumour control was discussed. Result: The increase of treatment time per fraction of dose due to the fall of dose rate especially in HDR-BT of cervicalcancer results in reduction in BED of 2.59%, 7.02% and 13.68% with single, double and triple half life reduction ofsource strength, respectively. The probabilities of disease recurrence (local/loco-regional within 26 months are expectedas 0.12, 0.12, 0.16, 0.39 and 0.80 for source strength of 4.081, 2.041, 1.020, 0.510 and 0.347 cGy x m2 x h–1, respectively.The percentages of dose increase required to maintain the same BED with respect to initial BED were estimated as1.71, 5.00, 11.00 and 15.86 for the dose rate of 24.7, 12.4, 6.2 and 4.2 Gy/hr at point A, respectively. Conclusions: This retrospective study of cervical cancer patients treated with HDR-BT at different Ir-192 sourcestrength shows reduction in disease free survival according to the increase in treatment time duration per fraction.The probable result could be associated with the decrease of biological equivalent dose to point A. Clinical

  3. Radiation processing and high-dose dosimetry at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, G.J.; Saunders, M.; Banos, C.; Mo, L.; Davies, J.; Evans, O.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation Technology group at ANSTO is part of the Physics Division and provides services and advice in the areas of gamma irradiation and high-dose dosimetry. ANSTO's irradiation facilities are designed for maximum dose uniformity and provide a precision irradiation service unique in Australia. Radiation Technology makes and sells reference and transfer standard dosimeters which are purchased by users and suppliers of commercial irradiation services in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region. A calibration service is also provided for dosimeters purchased from other suppliers

  4. Australian high-dose-rate brachytherapy protocols for gynaecological malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.; Dally, M.; Stevens, M.; Thornton, D.; Carruthers, S.; Jeal, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is no consensus over the optimal dose fractionation schedules for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy used for gynaecological malignancy. In Australian public hospital departments of radiation oncology, HDR brachytherapy for gynaecological cancer is being more commonly used. A survey of public departments that are using this technology, or that plan to introduce this technology, was performed. Their current protocols are presented. In general, protocols are similar biologically; however, the practical aspects such as the number of fractions given do vary and may reflect resource restrictions or, alternatively, differences in interpretations of the literature and of the best protocols by clinicians. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • Aspirin inhibits the levels of liquid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HCC cells. • Aspirin is able to down-regulate ACSL1 in HCC cells. • NF-κB inhibitor PDTC can down-regulate ACSL1 and reduces lipogenesis in HCC cells. • Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.

  6. Tolerance of the Brachial Plexus to High-Dose Reirradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: achen5@kumc.edu; Yoshizaki, Taeko; Velez, Maria A.; Mikaeilian, Argin G.; Hsu, Sophia; Cao, Minsong

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To study the tolerance of the brachial plexus to high doses of radiation exceeding historically accepted limits by analyzing human subjects treated with reirradiation for recurrent tumors of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Data from 43 patients who were confirmed to have received overlapping dose to the brachial plexus after review of radiation treatment plans from the initial and reirradiation courses were used to model the tolerance of this normal tissue structure. A standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy believed to be related to brachial plexus injury was utilized to screen for toxicity. Cumulative dose was calculated by fusing the initial dose distributions onto the reirradiation plan, thereby creating a composite plan via deformable image registration. The median elapsed time from the initial course of radiation therapy to reirradiation was 24 months (range, 3-144 months). Results: The dominant complaints among patients with symptoms were ipsilateral pain (54%), numbness/tingling (31%), and motor weakness and/or difficulty with manual dexterity (15%). The cumulative maximum dose (Dmax) received by the brachial plexus ranged from 60.5 Gy to 150.1 Gy (median, 95.0 Gy). The cumulative mean (Dmean) dose ranged from 20.2 Gy to 111.5 Gy (median, 63.8 Gy). The 1-year freedom from brachial plexus–related neuropathy was 67% and 86% for subjects with a cumulative Dmax greater than and less than 95.0 Gy, respectively (P=.05). The 1-year complication-free rate was 66% and 87%, for those reirradiated within and after 2 years from the initial course, respectively (P=.06). Conclusion: The development of brachial plexus–related symptoms was less than expected owing to repair kinetics and to the relatively short survival of the subject population. Time-dose factors were demonstrated to be predictive of complications.

  7. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Cartigny, A.; Blakely, E.A.; Lyman, J.T.; Zink, S.R.

    1985-02-01

    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons.

  8. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons

  9. Ab initio study of aspirin adsorption on single-walled carbon and carbon nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongju; Kwon, Dae-Gyeon; Kim, Gunn; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    We use ab intio density functional theory to investigate the adsorption properties of acetylsalicylic acid or aspirin on a (10, 0) carbon nanotube (CNT) and a (8, 0) triazine-based graphitic carbon nitride nanotube (CNNT). It is found that an aspirin molecule binds stronger to the CNNT with its adsorption energy of 0.67 eV than to the CNT with 0.51 eV. The stronger adsorption energy on the CNNT is ascribed to the high reactivity of its N atoms with high electron affinity. The CNNT exhibits local electric dipole moments, which cause strong charge redistribution in the aspirin molecule adsorbed on the CNNT than on the CNT. We also explore the influence of an external electric field on the adsorption properties of aspirin on these nanotubes by examining the modifications in their electronic band structures, partial densities of states, and charge distributions. It is found that an electric field applied along a particular direction induces aspirin molecular states in the in-gap region of the CNNT implying a potential application of aspirin detection.

  10. Dimethyl sulfoxyde diethyl fumarate solution for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Kattan, M.; Daher, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Dosimetric characterization of diethyl fumarate DEF in dimethyl sulfoxyde DMSO solution has been studied spectrophotometrically for possible application at high dose radiation dosimetry in the range (0-225 kGy). The absorption spectra of irradiated solution showed broad absorption bands between (325-400 nm) with a shoulder at 332 nm. The absorption increases as the dose is increased. Absorbance at 332 nm were measured and plotted against absorbed dose. Linear relationship and good response were found between absorbed dose and absorbance of 20% DEF concentration in the range (0-225 kGy) at the wave length, and linearity up to 250 kGy of absorbance at 332 nm .Good dose rate independence was observed in the range (14-33 kGy/h). The effect of post irradiation storage in darkness and indirect daylight conditions were not found to influence the absorption up to 700 h after irradiation. The effect of irradiation temperature within the range (0 to 60 centigrade degree) on the dosimetry performance was discussed.(author)

  11. Tailored antiplatelet therapy can overcome clopidogrel and aspirin resistance - The BOchum CLopidogrel and Aspirin Plan (BOCLA-Plan to improve antiplatelet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepinghege Fenena

    2011-01-01

    initial ALRs had an adequate antiplatelet response. The results for clopidogrel revealed that 69% of the CLR were treated effectively by increasing the clopidogrel dose to 150 mg daily. When prasugrel was not available or contraindicated, 12.7% of the remaining low responders showed an adequate result after being switched to ticlopidine. Consequently, by applying the therapy algorithm, we were able to reduce the CLR prevalence by 86.6%. On including prasugrel in the therapy plan, we were finally able to eliminate thienopyridine low response. In addition, no ADP receptor defect was found in this study as a potential reason for CLR. We identified the following factors associated with both CLR and ALR status: acute coronary syndromes, positive troponin values as well as diabetes mellitus and elevated HbA1C values and a higher platelet count. Furthermore, our data revealed for CLR elevated C-reactive protein values and a high PREDICT-score (including an age >65 years, acute coronary syndrome, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and reduced left ventricular function as risk factors. The following factors correlated with the risk of ASA low response: patients with elevated hemoglobin, serum creatinine and C-reactive protein values. In addition, medication with nitrates reduced the risk of being CLR. As also holds true for CLR, we found the PREDICT-score to be correlated to the risk of being ALR. However, by far the strongest risk factor for CLR or ALR was the fact of dual resistance. Conclusion Following a structured therapy plan based on a "test and treat" strategy, the prevalence of clopidogrel or aspirin low response can be significantly reduced and the risk of inadequate dual antiplatelet therapy minimized. Trial Registration NCT01212302 (Clinicaltrials.gov

  12. Pulsed dose rate and fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy: choice of brachytherapy schedules to replace low dose rate treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Andries G.; Aardweg, Gerard J.M.J. van den; Levendag, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy is a new type of afterloading brachytherapy (BT) in which a continuous low dose rate (LDR) treatment is simulated by a series of 'pulses,' i.e., fractions of short duration (less than 0.5 h) with intervals between fractions of 1 to a few hours. At the Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, the term 'PDR brachytherapy' is used for treatment schedules with a large number of fractions (at least four per day), while the term 'fractionated high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy' is used for treatment schedules with just one or two brachytherapy fractions per day. Both treatments can be applied as alternatives for LDR BT. This article deals with the choice between PDR and fractionated HDR schedules and proposes possible fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: To calculate HDR and PDR fractionation schedules with the intention of being equivalent to LDR BT, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been used in an incomplete repair formulation as given by Brenner and Hall, and by Thames. In contrast to earlier applications of this model, both the total physical dose and the overall time were not kept identical for LDR and HDR/PDR schedules. A range of possible PDR treatment schedules is presented, both for booster applications (in combination with external radiotherapy (ERT) and for BT applications as a single treatment. Because the knowledge of both α/β values and the half time for repair of sublethal damage (T (1(2)) ), which are required for these calculations, is quite limited, calculations regarding the equivalence of LDR and PDR treatments have been performed for a wide range of values of α/β and T (1(2)) . The results are presented graphically as PDR/LDR dose ratios and as ratios of the PDR/LDR tumor control probabilities. Results: If the condition that total physical dose and overall time of a PDR treatment must be exactly identical to the values for the corresponding LDR treatment regimen is not applied, there appears

  13. High dose rate versus low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy for carcinoma of the floor of mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hideya; Koizumi, Masahiko; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Ken; Shiomi, Hiroya; Imai, Atsushi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Tanaka, Eichii; Nose, Takayuki; Teshima, Teruki; Furukawa, Souhei; Fuchihata, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with cancer of the floor of mouth are treated with radiation because of functional and cosmetic reasons. We evaluate the treatment results of high dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) interstitial radiation for cancer of the floor of mouth. Methods and Materials: From January 1980 through March 1996, 41 patients with cancer of the floor of mouth were treated with LDR interstitial radiation using 198 Au grains, and from April 1992 through March 1996 16 patients with HDR interstitial radiation. There were 26 T1 tumors, 30 T2 tumors, and 1 T3 tumor. For 21 patients treated with interstitial radiation alone, a total radiation dose of interstitial therapy was 60 Gy/10 fractions/6-7 days in HDR and 85 Gy within 1 week in LDR. For 36 patients treated with a combination therapy, a total dose of 30 to 40 Gy of external radiation and a total dose of 48 Gy/8 fractions/5-6 days in HDR or 65 Gy within 1 week in LDR were delivered. Results: Two- and 5-year local control rates of patients treated with HDR interstitial radiation were 94% and 94%, and those with LDR were 75% and 69%, respectively. Local control rate of patients treated with HDR brachytherapy was slightly higher than that with 198 Au grains (p = 0.113). For late complication, bone exposure or ulcer occurred in 6 of 16 (38%) patients treated with HDR and 13 of 41 (32%) patients treated with LDR. Conclusion: HDR fractionated interstitial brachytherapy can be an alternative to LDR brachytherapy for cancer of the floor of mouth and eliminate radiation exposure for the medical staff

  14. Brachytherapy for early oral tongue cancer. Low dose rate to high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Inoue, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Souhei; Kakimoto, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    To examine the compatibility of low dose rate (LDR) with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, we reviewed 399 patients with early oral tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) treated solely by brachytherapy at Osaka University Hospital between 1967 and 1999. For patients in the LDR group (n=341), the treatment sources consisted of Ir-192 pin for 227 patients (1973-1996; irradiated dose, 61-85 Gy; median, 70 Gy), Ra-226 needle for 113 patients (1967-1986; 55-93 Gy; median, 70 Gy). Ra-226 and Ir-192 were combined for one patient. Ir-192 HDR (microSelectron-HDR) was used for 58 patients in the HDR group (1991-present; 48-60 Gy; median, 60 Gy). LDR implantations were performed via oral and HDR via a submental/submandibular approach. The dose rates at the reference point for the LDR group were 0.30 to 0.8 Gy/h, and for the HDR group 1.0 to 3.4 Gy/min. The patients in the HDR group received a total dose of 48-60 Gy (8-10 fractions) during one week. Two fractions were administered per day (at least a 6-h interval). The 3- and 5-year local control rates for patients in the LDR group were 85% and 80%, respectively, and those in the HDR group were both 84%. HDR brachytherapy showed the same lymph-node control rate as did LDR brachytherapy (67% at 5 years). HDR brachytherapy achieved the same locoregional result as did LDR brachytherapy. A converting factor of 0.86 is applicable for HDR in the treatment of early oral tongue cancer. (author)

  15. On the genetic risk after high dose radioiodine therapy with regard to the gonadal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenheim, C.; Hauswirth, C.; Fitschen, J.; Martin, E.; Oetting, G.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The genetic risk for the offspring of patients treated with high doses of radioiodine was to be assessed with special regard to the gonadal dose caused by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Methods: 41 young females (aged between 19 and 39 years) and four young males (aged 26 to 36 years) treated with radioiodine because of a thyroid carcinoma were interviewed by use of a questionnaire. The course of pregnancy and birth history could be documented as well as the congenital and developmental conditions of 56 children. Results: The amount of radioactivity applied for therapy and whole body scans ranged over 4,144 and 35,15 GBq I-131; the individual gonadal dose was calculated based on the MIRD model and ranged over 0,2 and 2,2 Sv (0,51 Sv at a mean). The period of time between the last radioiodine application and confinement was at least 9 months, not exceeding 14 years. As to the course of pregnancy and birth two early abortions, one extrauterine gravidity and one premature birth due to an insufficiency of the placenta were stated. In one case a chromosomal translocation 7/14 occured as a genetic defect which lead to an interruption. The children's development was unconspicuous except of two cases of neurodermatitis as well as multiple allergies and an early closure of the anterior fontanelle in one child each. Conclusion: Although the genetic risk is supposed to increase with the gonadal dose achieved (doubling dose 1 Sv) and the increased risk of any congenital anomaly was calculated as about 13% at a mean in our patients, the rate of genetic determined diseases was not elevated (1,8% or 1/57). Thus, no increase of genetic defects or congenital malformations was reported in a total of 408 children described in the literature and in our group. (orig.) [de

  16. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce fever and to relieve mild to moderate pain from headaches, menstrual periods, arthritis, colds, toothaches, and muscle aches. Nonprescription ... weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and ...

  17. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association Science Volunteer Warning Signs Search for this keyword Search Advanced Search Donate Home About this Journal ... Sign In Join Sign out Search for this keyword Search Advanced search Header Publisher Menu American Heart ...

  18. High dose calibrations at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Fox, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    The need is increasing for both high radiation exposures and calibration measurements that provide traceability of such exposures to national standards. The applications of high exposures include: electronic component damage studies, sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Accurate high exposure measurements are difficult to obtain and cannot, in general, be carried out with a single dose measurement system or technique because of the wide range of doses and the variety of materials involved. This paper describes the dosimetric measurement and calibration techniques used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that make use of radiochromic dye films, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), ionization chambers, and calorimetric dosimeters. The methods used to demonstrate the consistency of PNL calibrations with national standards will also be discussed. 4 refs

  19. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis. PMID:27534531

  20. Low dose rate and high dose rate intracavitary treatment for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atsushi; Shidou, Mitsuo

    1997-01-01

    From 1984 through 1993, 144 previous untreated patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix were treated with either low dose rate 137 Cs therapy (LDR) or high dose rate 60 Co therapy (HDR). The local failure rates for more than 2-years for the primary lesions were 11.8% (8 of 63 patients) for LDR and 18.0% (11 of 61 patients). Rectal complication rates were significantly lower for HDR versus LDR (14.3% VS. 32.8%. p<0.01). Also, bladder complication rates were significantly lower for HDR versus LDR (0% VS. 10.4%, p<0.005). Treatment results in term of local control were equivalent for HDR and LDR treatment. However, the incidence of complications was higher for the LDR group than for the HDR group. (author)

  1. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Lesné, L.; Fol, V. Le

    2012-01-01

    on gestational day 14.5 rat testes, we herein show that testosterone production was inhibited by paracetamol, at doses of 0.1??m to 100??m. Similar results were obtained for aspirin (1?100??m) and indomethacin (10??m). The production of the other Leydig cell hormone, Insl3, was not disrupted by exposure...... inhibit testosterone production in rat foetal testes in vitro and that these compounds had no effect on gonocyte survival. Parallel determinations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production indicated that the effects of paracetamol and aspirin on PGD2 and testosterone were not connected, whereas the effects...

  2. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies on aspirin : An experimental and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, R.; Premkumar, S.; Parameswari, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin, E-mail: miltonfranklin@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N College, Madurai-625019, Tamilnadu, India. (India); Rekha, T. N. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Lady Doak College, Madurai-625 002, Tamilnadu, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies on aspirin molecule adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were synthesized by the solution-combustion method and characterized by the X-ray diffraction and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques. The averaged particle size of synthesized AgNPs was calculated as ∼55 nm. The normal Raman spectrum (nRs) and SERS spectrum of the aspirin were recorded. The molecular structure of the aspirin and aspirin adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/ B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The calculated nRs and SERS frequencies were correlated well with the observed frequencies. The flat-on orientation was predicted from the nRs and SERS spectra, when the aspirin adsorbed on the AgNPs. Hence, the present studies lead to the understanding of adsorption process of aspirin on the AgNPs, which paves the way for biomedical applications.

  3. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies on aspirin : An experimental and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premkumar, R.; Premkumar, S.; Parameswari, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Rekha, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies on aspirin molecule adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were synthesized by the solution-combustion method and characterized by the X-ray diffraction and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques. The averaged particle size of synthesized AgNPs was calculated as ∼55 nm. The normal Raman spectrum (nRs) and SERS spectrum of the aspirin were recorded. The molecular structure of the aspirin and aspirin adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/ B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The calculated nRs and SERS frequencies were correlated well with the observed frequencies. The flat-on orientation was predicted from the nRs and SERS spectra, when the aspirin adsorbed on the AgNPs. Hence, the present studies lead to the understanding of adsorption process of aspirin on the AgNPs, which paves the way for biomedical applications.

  4. Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2α and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2α and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1- 14 C glucose and 6- 14 C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14 CO 2 from 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2α also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1- 14 C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6- 14 C glucose. (auth.)

  5. Separate and simultaneous binding effects of aspirin and amlodipine to human serum albumin based on fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular modeling characterizations: A mechanistic insight for determining usage drugs doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahpour, Nooshin; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, JamshidKhan

    2011-01-01

    The binding of aspirin (ASA) and amlodipine (AML) to human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution was investigated by multiple techniques such as fluorescence quenching, resonance light scattering (RLS), three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, FT-IR and zeta-potential measurements in an aqueous solution at pH=7.4. For the protein-ligand association reaction, fluorescence measurements can give important clues as to the binding of ligands to proteins, e.g., the binding mechanism, binding mode, binding constants, binding sites, etc. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that ASA and AML could quench the HSA fluorescence spectra, and this quenching effect became more significant when both ASA and AML coexisted. The results pointed at the interaction between HSA and both drugs as ternary systems decreasing the binding constant and binding stability of the HSA-drug complex as a binary system. Therefore, by reducing the amount of drugs transported to their targets, the free drug concentration of the target would be reduced, lowering the efficacy of the drugs. It was demonstrated that there exists antagonistic behavior between the two drugs when it comes to binding of HSA. Furthermore, the fluorescence results also showed that the quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes as binary and ternary systems is a static procedure. The number of binding sites of HSA-ASA, (HSA-AML)ASA, HSA-AML and (HSA-ASA) AML were 1.31, 0.92, 1 and 0.93, respectively. Due to the existence of the antagonistic action between ASA and AML, the binding distance r was reduced. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the antagonistic action between ASA and AML would alter the micro-environment around Trp and Tyr residues. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of ASA and AML during binding to HSA should be taken into account in multidrug therapy, as it induces the necessity of a monitoring therapy owing to the possible increase of uncontrolled toxic

  6. Separate and simultaneous binding effects of aspirin and amlodipine to human serum albumin based on fluorescence spectroscopic and molecular modeling characterizations: A mechanistic insight for determining usage drugs doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahpour, Nooshin [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asoodeh, Ahmad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saberi, Mohammad Reza [Department of Medical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chamani, JamshidKhan, E-mail: chamani@ibb.ut.ac.ir [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The binding of aspirin (ASA) and amlodipine (AML) to human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution was investigated by multiple techniques such as fluorescence quenching, resonance light scattering (RLS), three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, FT-IR and zeta-potential measurements in an aqueous solution at pH=7.4. For the protein-ligand association reaction, fluorescence measurements can give important clues as to the binding of ligands to proteins, e.g., the binding mechanism, binding mode, binding constants, binding sites, etc. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that ASA and AML could quench the HSA fluorescence spectra, and this quenching effect became more significant when both ASA and AML coexisted. The results pointed at the interaction between HSA and both drugs as ternary systems decreasing the binding constant and binding stability of the HSA-drug complex as a binary system. Therefore, by reducing the amount of drugs transported to their targets, the free drug concentration of the target would be reduced, lowering the efficacy of the drugs. It was demonstrated that there exists antagonistic behavior between the two drugs when it comes to binding of HSA. Furthermore, the fluorescence results also showed that the quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes as binary and ternary systems is a static procedure. The number of binding sites of HSA-ASA, (HSA-AML)ASA, HSA-AML and (HSA-ASA) AML were 1.31, 0.92, 1 and 0.93, respectively. Due to the existence of the antagonistic action between ASA and AML, the binding distance r was reduced. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the antagonistic action between ASA and AML would alter the micro-environment around Trp and Tyr residues. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of ASA and AML during binding to HSA should be taken into account in multidrug therapy, as it induces the necessity of a monitoring therapy owing to the possible increase of uncontrolled toxic

  7. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, J.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program.

  8. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program

  9. Anticoagulation and high dose liver radiation. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightdale, C.J.; Wasser, J.; Coleman, M.; Brower, M.; Tefft, M.; Pasmantier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of patients were observed for evidence of acute radiation hepatitis during high dose radiation to the liver. The first group of 18 patients with metastatic liver disease received an average of 4,050 rad to the whole liver. Half received anticoagulation with warfarin. One patient on anticoagulation developed evidence of acute radiation hepatitis while 2 patients did so without anticoagulation. Eleven patients with Hodgkin's disease received 4,000 rad to the left lobe of the liver during extended field radiation. Four of these 11 patients were anticoagulated to therapeutic range. Only one of the fully anticoagulated patients showed changes on liver scan consistent with radiation hepatitis whereas three did so without anticoagulation. No serious sequelae from anticoagulation occurred in either group. These preliminary data suggest that anticoagulation may be safely administered with high dose hepatic radiation and that further trials with anticoagulation are warranted

  10. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6-11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. METHODS: Twenty boys and girls (6-11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxi...

  11. Radiotherapy and high-dose chemotherapy in advanced Ewing's tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, H.; Glag, M.; Gripp, S.; Wittkamp, M.; Schmitt, G.; Laws, H.J.; Kaik, B. van; Goebel, U.; Burdach, S.; Juergens, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Ewing's tumors are sensitive to radio- and chemotherapy. Patients with multifocal disease suffer a poor prognosis. Patients presenting primary bone marrow involvement or bone metastases at diagnosis herald a 3-year disease-free survival below 15%. The European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (EICESS) has established the following indications for high-dose therapy in advanced Ewing's tumors: Patients with primary multifocal bone disease, patients with early ( [de

  12. Dose characteristics of high-energy electrons, muons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvich, G.I.; Krupnyj, G.I.; Peleshko, V.N.; Rastsvetalov, Ya.N.

    1980-01-01

    Differential distribution of energy release at different depth of tissue-equivalent phantoms (plexiglas, polystyrene, polyethylene) at the energy of incident electrons, muons of 0.2-40 GeV and photons with the mean energy of 3.6 GeV are measured. The error of experimental results does not exceed 7%. On the basis of the data obtained dose characteristics of electrons, muons and photons for standard geometry are estimated. For all types of irradiation the maximum value of specific equivalent dose, nremxcm 2 /part. is presented. It is shown that published values of specific equivalent dose of electron radiation are higher in all the investigated energy range from 0.2 to 40 GeV, and for muon radiation a good agreement with the present experiment is observed. The highly precise results obtained which cover the wide dynamic range according to the energy of incident particles can serve as the basis for reconsidering the existing recommendations for dose characteristics of electron radiation [ru

  13. Ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Dessouki, A.; El-Assay, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of using various types of ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters, by analysis of the decrease in exchange capacity with absorbed dose. The resins studied are Sojuzchim-export-Moscow Cation Exchanger KU-2 and Anion Exchanger AV-17 and Merck Cation Exchanger I, and Merck Anion Exchangers II and III. Over the dose range 1 to 100 kGy, the systems show linearity between log absorbed dose and decrease in resin ion exchange capacity. The slope of this response function differs for the different resins, depending on their ionic form and degree of cross-linking. The radiation sensitivity increases in the order KU-2; Exchanger I; AV-17; Exchanger II; Exchanger III. Merck resins with moisture content of 21% showed considerably higher radiation sensitivity than those with 2 to 3% moisture content. The mechanism of radiation-induced denaturing of the ion exchanger resins involves cleavage and decomposition of functional substituents, with crosslinking playing a stabilizing role, with water and its radiolytic products serving to inhibit radical recombination and interfering with the protection cage effect of crosslinking. (author)

  14. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

  15. Comparative bioavailability studies of citric acid and malonic acid based aspirin effervescent tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Gauniya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present investigation is aimed at comparing the pharmacokinetic profile (Bioavailability of aspirin in tablet formulations, which were prepared by using different effervescent excipients such as citric acid and malonic acid. Materials and Methods: The relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of citric acid based aspirin effervescent tablet (Product A and malonic acid based aspirin effervescent tablet (Product B formulations were evaluated for an in-vitro dissolution study and in-vivo bioavailability study, in 10 normal healthy rabbits. The study utilized a randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period between doses. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours following a 100 mg/kg dose. Plasma samples were assayed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. T max , C max , AUC 0-24 , AUC 0- ∞, MRT, K a, and relative bioavailability were estimated using the traditional pharmacokinetic methods and were compared by using the paired t-test. Result: In the present study, Products A and B showed their T max , C max , AUC 0-24 , AUC 0- ∞, MRT, and K a values as 2.5 h, 2589 ± 54.79 ng/ml, 9623 ± 112.87 ng.h/ml, 9586 ± 126.22 ng.h/ml, 3.6 ± 0.10 h, and 0.3698 ± 0.003 h -1 for Product A and 3.0 h, 2054 ± 55.79 ng/ml, 9637 ± 132.87 ng.h/ml, 9870 ± 129.22 ng.h/ml, 4.76 ± 0.10 h, and 0.3812 ± 0.002 h -1 for Product B, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the paired t-test of pharmacokinetics data showed that there was no significant difference between Products A and B. From both the in vitro dissolution studies and in vivo bioavailability studies it was concluded that products A and B had similar bioavailability.

  16. Establishment and verification of dose-response curve of chromosomal aberrations after exposure to very high dose γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Luo Yisheng; Cao Zhenshan; Liu Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    To estimate accurately biological dose of the victims exposed to high dose, the dose-response curves of chromosome aberration induced by 6-22 Gy 60 Co γ-ray were established. Human peripheral blood in vitro was irradiated, then lymphocytes were concentrated, cultured 52h, 68h and 72h and harvested. The frequencies of dicentrics (multi-centrics) and rings were counted and compared between different culture times. The dose-response curves and equations were established, as well as verified with high dose exposure accidents. The experiment showed that the culture time should be prolonged properly after high dose exposure, and no significant differences were observed between 52-72h culture. The dose-response curve of 6-22 Gy fitted to linear-square model Y=-2.269 + 0.776D - 7.868 x 10 -3 D 2 and is reliable through verification of the accident dose estimations. In this study, the dose-response curve and equation of chromosome dic + r after 6-22 Gy high dose irradiation were established firstly, and exact dose estimation can be achieved according to it. (authors)

  17. Survey on patient doses in cardiology in Latin America. Criteria for high skin doses follow up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Ariel; Duro, Ivanna; Lopez, Leonardo; Ramirez, Alfredo; Herrera, Carlos; Navarro, Joaquin; Rivarola, Carlos; Lopez, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As part of the International Action Plan for Protection of Patients and supporting by the IAEA, a survey on patient doses in fluoroscopy guided procedures in cardiology in Latin America has been conducted since 2006. One of the objectives of the survey was to set criteria for the identification and evaluation of high skin doses in a certain number of patients to recommend a clinical follow up for potential radiation injuries (more than 3 Gy at the skin). The used methodology for the survey was initiated with two dedicated workshops held in Santiago de Chile (2005) and San Jose de Costa Rica (2007) involving relevant cardiologists from 15 different Latin American Countries. Some sessions were also attended by experts from the Regulatory and Health Authorities. Standardized forms to collect demographic and patient dosimetric data were agreed. Considering that most of the involved centres had still not dosimeters installed in the cardiology x-ray systems, it was agreed to collect data on fluoroscopy time and total number of cine frames per procedure. Relevant factors influencing radio sensitivity of the skin were also collected. Data from 10 countries representing a sample of 709 patients were received during the first year. Procedures included were diagnostic (DG) (coronary angiography and electrophysiology studies), therapeutic (TH) (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties, cardiac ablations and valvuloplasties) or including both DG and TH. A total of 26 patients (3.7%) were selected for potential high skin doses. Initial considered criteria for selection were more than 30 minutes of fluoroscopy, more than 3,000 cine frames per procedure or patients with more than 100 kg of weight. Maximum reported values were 72 minutes and 8,100 frames. In addition, 5 of these patients were diabetic, 6 have previous fluoroscopy procedures and 5 were over 95 kg. The percentage of selected cases for clinical follow up derived from potential skin injuries seem

  18. Dose specification for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy in terms of dose-to-water-in-medium and dose-to-medium-in-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson; Nilsson, Josef; Persson, Maria; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Dose calculation in high dose rate brachytherapy with 192 Ir is usually based on the TG-43U1 protocol where all media are considered to be water. Several dose calculation algorithms have been developed that are capable of handling heterogeneities with two possibilities to report dose: dose-to-medium-in-medium (D m,m ) and dose-to-water-in-medium (D w,m ). The relation between D m,m and D w,m for 192 Ir is the main goal of this study, in particular the dependence of D w,m on the dose calculation approach using either large cavity theory (LCT) or small cavity theory (SCT). A head and neck case was selected due to the presence of media with a large range of atomic numbers relevant to tissues and mass densities such as air, soft tissues and bone interfaces. This case was simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code to score: D m,m, D w,m (LCT), mean photon energy and photon fluence. D w,m (SCT) was derived from MC simulations using the ratio between the unrestricted collisional stopping power of the actual medium and water. Differences between D m,m and D w,m (SCT or LCT) can be negligible (<1%) for some tissues e.g. muscle and significant for other tissues with differences of up to 14% for bone. Using SCT or LCT approaches leads to differences between D w,m (SCT) and D w,m (LCT) up to 29% for bone and 36% for teeth. The mean photon energy distribution ranges from 222 keV up to 356 keV. However, results obtained using mean photon energies are not equivalent to the ones obtained using the full, local photon spectrum. This work concludes that it is essential that brachytherapy studies clearly report the dose quantity. It further shows that while differences between D m,m and D w,m (SCT) mainly depend on tissue type, differences between D m,m and D w,m (LCT) are, in addition, significantly dependent on the local photon energy fluence spectrum which varies with distance to implanted sources. (paper)

  19. Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the ASPREE (ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, John J; Woods, Robyn L; Nelson, Mark R; Murray, Anne M; Reid, Christopher M; Kirpach, Brenda; Storey, Elsdon; Shah, Raj C; Wolfe, Rory S; Tonkin, Andrew M; Newman, Anne B; Williamson, Jeff D; Lockery, Jessica E; Margolis, Karen L; Ernst, Michael E; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Stocks, Nigel; Fitzgerald, Sharyn M; Trevaks, Ruth E; Orchard, Suzanne G; Beilin, Lawrence J; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Gibbs, Peter; Johnston, Colin I; Grimm, Richard H

    2017-10-12

    There are no primary prevention trials of aspirin with relevant geriatric outcomes in elderly people. ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) is a placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin that will determine whether 5 years of daily 100-mg enteric-coated aspirin extends disability-free and dementia-free life in a healthy elderly population and whether these benefits outweigh the risks. Set in primary care, this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial has a composite primary endpoint of death, incident dementia or persistent physical disability. Participants aged 70+ years (non-minorities) or 65+ years (U.S. minorities) were free of cardiovascular disease, dementia, or physical disability and without a contraindication to, or indication for, aspirin. Baseline data include physical and lifestyle, personal and family medical history, hemoglobin, fasting glucose, creatinine, lipid panel, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, cognition (3MS, HVLT-R, COWAT, SDMT), mood (CES-D-10), physical function (gait speed, grip strength), Katz activities of daily living and quality of life (SF-12). Recruitment ended in December 2014 with 16,703 Australian and 2,411 U.S. participants, a median age of 74 (range 65-98) years and 56% women. Approximately 55% of the U.S. cohort were from minority groups; 9% of the total cohort. Proportions with hypertension, overweight, and chronic kidney disease were similar to age-matched populations from both countries although lower percentages had diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoarthritis. Findings from ASPREE will be generalizable to a healthier older population in both countries and will assess whether the broad benefits of daily low-dose aspirin in prolonging independent life outweigh the risks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. High dose vitamin K3 infusion in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Shiv K; Kumar, Manoj; Garg, Sanjay; Hissar, Syed; Pandey, Chandana; Sharma, Barjesh C

    2006-09-01

    The survival of patients with unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis is dismal. Current therapeutic options have limited efficacy. Vitamin K has been shown to have antitumor effect on HCC cells both in cell lines and patients with advanced HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of high dose vitamin K3 in the treatment of advanced HCC with portal vein thrombosis. Forty-two consecutive patients with advanced HCC (Stage C according to BCLC staging system) with portal vein thrombosis were randomized into two groups: (i) high dose vitamin K3 (n = 23); and (ii) placebo (n = 19). The vitamin K3 was administered by i.v. infusion of 50 mg/day with daily increase of dose by 50 mg for 6 days, followed by 20 mg i.m. twice daily for 2 weeks. Of the 23 patients treated with vitamin K, one (4.3%) achieved complete response and three (13%) partial response, for a total of four (17.4%) objective responders overall. The overall mean survival was 8.9 +/- 8.8 months (median: 6; range 1-37 months) in the vitamin K group and 6.8 +/- 5.3 months (median: 5; range 1.5-21 months) in the placebo group (P = 0.552). The mean duration of survival was longer in patients in the vitamin K group who achieved objective response (22.5 +/- 12.2; median: 21; range 11-37 months) as compared to patients not achieving objective response (6.1 +/- 4.6; median: 5; range 1-16 months) (P = 0.0.002). Portal vein thrombosis resolved with complete patency in one (4.35%) patient. Treatment with high dose vitamin K produces objective response in 17% patients with improved survival in patients achieving objective response; however, it does not affect the overall survival.

  1. High-dose preoperative radiation for cancer of the rectum: Impact of radiation dose on patterns of failure and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.R.; Mohiuddin, M.; Marks, G.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of dose-time schedules are currently used for preoperative radiation therapy of rectal cancer. An analysis of patients treated with high-dose preoperative radiation therapy was undertaken to determine the influence of radiation dose on the patterns of failure, survival, and complications. Two hundred seventy-five patients with localized rectal cancer were treated with high-dose preoperative radiation therapy. One hundred fifty-six patients received 45 Gy (low-dose group). Since 1985, 119 patients with clinically unfavorable cancers were given a higher dose, 55 Gy using a shrinking field technique (high-dose group). All patients underwent curative resection. Median follow-up was 66 months in the low-dose group and 28 months in the high-dose group. Patterns of failure, survival, and complications were analyzed as a function of radiation dose. Fourteen percent of the total group developed a local recurrence; 20% in the low-dose group as compared with 6% in the high-dose group. The actuarial local recurrence rate at 5 years was 20% for the low-dose group and 8% for the high-dose group, and approached statistical significance with p = .057. For tethered/fixed tumors the actuarial local recurrence rates at 5 years were 28% and 9%, respectively, with p = .05. Similarly, for low-lying tumors (less than 6 cm from the anorectal junction) the rates were 24% and 9%, respectively, with p = .04. The actuarial rate of distant metastasis was 28% in the low-dose group and 20% in the high-dose group and was not significantly different. Overall actuarial 5-year survival for the total group of patients was 66%. No significant difference in survival was observed between the two groups, despite the higher proportion of unfavorable cancers in the high-dose group. The incidence of complications was 2%, equally distributed between the two groups. High-dose preoperative radiation therapy for rectal cancer results in excellent local control rates. 27 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Methodology of high dose research in medical radiodiagnostic; Metodologia de investigacao de doses elevadas em radiodiagnostico medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Adriana E.; Martins, Cintia P. de S., E-mail: ird@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    This work has as main purpose to study occupational exposure in diagnostic radiology in medical cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at the national level . These doses were recorded by monitoring individual of the occupationally exposed individuals (OEI's). This monitoring of the doses received by ionizing radiation has as main objective to ensure that the principle of dose limitation is respected. In this study it were evaluated doses of 372 OEI's radiology in different Brazilian states. Doses were extracted from the database of Sector Management Doses of the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The information from the database provide reports of doses from several states, which allows to quantify statistically, showing those with the highest doses in four areas: dose greater than or equal to 20 mSv apron and chest and dose greater than or equal to 100 mSv apron and chest. The identification of these states allows the respective Sanitary Surveillance (VISA), be aware of the events and make plans to reduce them. This study clarified the required procedures when there is a record of high dose emphasizing the importance of using protective radiological equipment, dosimeter and provide a safety environment work by maintaining work equipment. Proposes the ongoing training of professionals, emphasizing the relevance of the concepts of radiation protection and the use of the questionnaire with their investigative systematic sequence, which will allow quickly and efficiently the success the investigations.

  3. Protective role of wheat germ oil against certain functional and structural disorders produced by repeated aspirin administration and/or gamma irradiation during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.N.; Ramadan, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The biggest problem remains its harshness on the stomach with effects ranging from nausea, heartburn to bleeding ulcer. During pregnancy, high incidence of developmental anomalies occurs in pregnant female rats given aspirin on specific days during organogenesis. Moreover, radiation exposure is considered to be a major pathogenic factor. Hence, the objective of this study is to counter these malformations in pregnant rats and their fetuses by using wheat germ oil, which is a natural vegetable oil and it is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol and linolenic, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the oxidative free radicals. Aspirin when administered to pregnant rats as multiple dosing from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 17 (250 mg/Kg/day) or whole body gamma irradiation of rats (0.5 Gy up to 2 Gy) on GDs 9, 10, 11 and 12, the maternal rat's stomach showed sloughing of the superficial parts of mucosa as well as scattered deep erosions. There were areas of necrosis and mononuclear cellular infiltration. In addition, thickened submucosal blood vessels with excess collagen fibres deposition and decreased mucus secretion were also noticed. Combined treatment revealed increased extent of mucosal damage, where erosive and atrophic changes became more obvious. In parallel, there was a significant increase in serum amylase level, while calcium level was significantly decreased. Fetal vertebrae bone and cartilage are also relatively sensitive to aspirin and / or gamma irradiation. There are reduction in the numbers of mitoses and disorderly maturation followed by the asymptomatic degeneration and necrosis of less mature elements. Bleeding was seen in the periosteum of vertebrae. Also, the trabecular of ossification were very thin and less than normal. These changes were also accompanied with decreased mucus secretion

  4. Routine quality control of high dose rate brachytherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Calcina, Carmen S.; Almeida, Adelaide de; Rocha, Jose R. Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A Quality Assurance program should be installed also for High Dose Rate brachytherapy, in the order to achieve a correct dose administration to the patient and for the safety to those involved directly with the treatment. The work presented here has the following purposes: Analyze the types of equipment tests presented by the official protocols (TG40, TG56 e ARCAL XXX), evaluate the brachytherapy routine tests of protocols from various national and international radiotherapy services and compare the latter with those presented in the official protocols. As a result, we conclude the following: TG56 presents a higher number of tests when compared to the other official protocols and most of the tests presented by the analyzed services are present in TG56. A suggestion for a basic protocol is presented, emphasizing the periodicity and tolerance level of each of the tests. (author)

  5. Development of miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huilu; Tuo Xianguo; Xi Dashun; Tang Rong; Mu Keliang; Yang Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity which design based on single chip microcomputer, it can continue monitoring γ dose rate and then choose wire or wireless communications to sent the monitoring data to host according to the actual conditions. It has two kinds of power supply system, AC power supply system and battery which can be chose by concrete circumstances. The design idea and implementation technology of hardware and software and the system structure of the monitor are detailed illustrated in this paper. The experimental results show that measurable range is 0.1 mR/h-200 mR/h, the sensitivity of γ is 90 cps/mR/h, dead time below 200 us, error of stability below ±10%. (authors)

  6. High-dose dosimetry using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji; Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1992-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimeter capable of measuring large doses of radiation in radiotherapy and radiation processing is outlined. In particular, an alanine/ESR dosimeter is discussed, focusing on the development of elements, the development of the ESR dosimetric system, the application of alanine/ESR dosimeter, and basic researches. Rod elements for gamma radiation and x radiation and film elements for electron beams are described in detail. The following recent applications of the alanine/ESR dosimeter are introduced: using as a transfer dosimeter, applying to various types of radiation, diagnosing the deterioration of radiological materials and equipments, and applying to ESR imaging. The future subjects to be solved in the alanine/ESR dosimetric system are referred to as follows: (1) improvement of highly accurate elements suitable for the measurement of various types of radiation, (2) establishment of sensitive calibration method of the ESR equipment itself, and (3) calibration and standardization of radiation doses. (K.N.) 65 refs

  7. Use of high irradiation doses for preservation of canned beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I; Salem, F.A.; El-Sahy, K.M.; Rady, A.; Badr, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of high irradiation doses (11.25,22.5 and 45 KGy) on the bacteriology, organoleptic quality and shelf - life extension of beef meat that are hermetically sealed in metal cans was investigated in comparison with commercial heat sterilization. The unirradiated cans of pre cooked (enzyme inactivated) unirradiated beef were swollen after only one month of storage at ambient temperature (20-30 degree). Application of 11.25 and 22.5 kGy to vacuum packed and enzyme inactivated beef was not enough for sterilization and only delayed swelling of beef cans. Application of 45 KGy irradiation dose prevented swelling of beef vans up to 12 months at ambient temperature and provided meat product, similar to the commercial heat sterilized one, organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe. Running title: Radiation sterilization of meat

  8. High and low dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    For the brachytherapy component of the r[iation treatment of cervical carcinoma, high dose rate (HDR) is slowly replacing conventional low dose rate (LDR) due primarily to r[iation safety and other physical benefits attributed to the HDR modality. Many r[iation oncologists are reluctant to make this change because of perceived r[iobiological dis[vantages of HDR. However, in clinical practice HDR appears to be as effective as LDR but with a lower risk of late complications, as demonstrated by one randomized clinical trial and two comprehensive literature and practice surveys. The reason for this appears to be that the r[iobiological dis[vantages of HDR are outweighed by the physical [vantages. (orig.)

  9. Calibration of high-dose radiation facilities (Handbook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.; Bhat, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    In India at present several high intensity radiation sources are used. There are 135 teletheraphy machines and 65 high intensity cobalt-60 sources in the form of gamma chambers (2.5 Ci) and PANBIT (50 Ci). Several food irradiation facilities and a medical sterilization plant ISOMED are also in operation. The application of these high intensity sources involve a wide variation of dose from 10 Gy to 100 kGy. Accurate and reproducible radiation dosimetry is essential in the use of these sources. This handbook is especially compiled for calibration of high-dose radiation facilities. The first few chapters discuss such topics as interaction of radiation with matter, radiation chemistry, radiation processing, commonly used high intensity radiation sources and their special features, radiation units and dosimetry principles. In the chapters which follow, chemical dosimeters are discussed in detail. This discussion covers Fricke dosimeter, FBX dosimeter, ceric sulphate dosimeter, free radical dosimetry, coloured indicators for irrdiation verification. A final chapter is devoted to practical hints to be followed in calibration work. (author)

  10. Low dose versus high dose anti-snake venom therapy in the treatment of haematotoxic snake bite in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Imanto M; Kuriakose, Cijoy K; Dev, Anand Vimal; Philip, George A

    2017-10-01

    Most of the studies on the appropriate dose of anti-snake venom (ASV) are from tertiary hospitals and the guidelines are unclear. Our observational study compared the outcomes of two prevalent treatment regimes for haematotoxic snake bite in a secondary care hospital in South India. The time to normalisation of whole blood clotting time, mortality and complications were not different between the groups. The average dose of ASV required in the low and high dose groups were 106 mL and 246 mL, respectively. Consequently, patients who received low dose ASV incurred approximately 50% less expense. Urticarial rashes were also significantly fewer in the low dose group.

  11. High Doses Gamma Radiolysis of PVC: Mechanisms of Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombani, J.

    2006-01-01

    PVC radiolysis leads to the formation of various degradation products: radicals, gas, oxidized products or polyenes. In order to predict the formation of the degradation products with regard to irradiation and ageing parameters, it is important to improve the understanding of the radiolysis mechanisms of PVC. Thus, we used several analytical techniques (Electron Spin Resonance, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Size Exclusion Chromatography) to get information on PVC samples irradiated at high doses (up to 4MGy) under different conditions. Gamma irradiation induces the formation of various radicals into PVC. Older studies were generally focused on the effect of low dose and/or low temperature irradiations on PVC. We present here ESR signals of PVC irradiated at high doses and at room temperature. We show that peroxyl radicals are producted by radiolysis under aerobe conditions and that polyenyl radicals are formed under anaerobe conditions. PVC radiolysis induces gas production and especially hydrogen chloride. Production of hydrogen chloride is well known until 1 MGy. We have studied by FTIR, the evolution of the quantity of HCl produced until 4 MGy. We show that higher irradiation dose leads to the lower radiolytic yield of HCl (G(HCl)). Moreover, G(HCl) obtained in aerobe conditions is about fourfold as great as G(HCl) observed in anaerobe radiolysis. Propagation and termination reactions induce degradation products: polyene sequences and crosslinking reactions are observed under anaerobe conditions; oxidized products with addition of chain scissions are formed under aerobe conditions. Although the literature about PVC radiolysis is rich, the main reacting pathways are not well established. Moreover the high doses studies are almost non-existent. We show by FTIR that aerobe radiolysis induces formation of ketons and acids. NMR experiments confirme these results but also focuse on small acids formed (with 2, 3 or 4 carbons). The

  12. High-dose radioiodine therapy of Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodky, V.; Fomin, D.; Pestritskaya, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objectives: to estimate the effectiveness and safety of the disease treatment under different modes of applying RIT. Materials and methods: 67 patients with the thyrotoxicosis condition associated with Graves disease were researched. The patients were divided into 2 groups: a control group with 25 people (18 women and 7 men), who underwent a low-dose therapy of 150-500 MBq; and a main group of 42 people (32 women and 10 men), who underwent a high-dose therapy of 550 and 800 MBq. The volume of thyroid prior to the treatment made up 23.8 ± 20 ml in the main group and 30.2 ± 23 ml in the control one. The average age in the high-dose group was 44.6 ±23 years old and in the low-dose -47.2 ± 24 years old. In terms of the hormone level before the RIT, 52% of the main group patients experienced euthyroidism, while 48% - thyrotoxicosis. The corresponding indices in the control group were 42% and 58% respectively. The cessation of the thyreostatic therapy came on 5. to 21. day prior to the treatment, with the average of 14 ±7 days in both groups. The diagnosis of the disease was based on ultrasonography, planar scintigraphy, the hormone level and antibody titer. The performance was assessed through the attainment of hypo-thyrosis and the transition to a substitutive hormonal therapy with L-thyroxine in 6 months or more. The attainment of euthyroidism was seen as a partial effect due to a possibility of relapse. Results: in 6 months a positive result in the form of hypo-thyrosis was achieved for 39 patients in the main group, which accounted for 93%, and 3 patients (7%) experienced euthyroidism. No symptomatic thyrotoxicosis relapses were revealed. In the control group, hypo-thyrosis was achieved by 18 patients, which accounted for 72%; euthyroidism came up to 12%; 4 patients needed a refresher course of RIT, which made up 16% of the group. 93% of the main group patients tolerated the treatment favourably. 3 patients complained of the

  13. Cooperative binding mitigates the high-dose hook effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ranjita Dutta; Rosenmund, Christian; Stefan, Melanie I

    2017-08-14

    The high-dose hook effect (also called prozone effect) refers to the observation that if a multivalent protein acts as a linker between two parts of a protein complex, then increasing the amount of linker protein in the mixture does not always increase the amount of fully formed complex. On the contrary, at a high enough concentration range the amount of fully formed complex actually decreases. It has been observed that allosterically regulated proteins seem less susceptible to this effect. The aim of this study was two-fold: First, to investigate the mathematical basis of how allostery mitigates the prozone effect. And second, to explore the consequences of allostery and the high-dose hook effect using the example of calmodulin, a calcium-sensing protein that regulates the switch between long-term potentiation and long-term depression in neurons. We use a combinatorial model of a "perfect linker protein" (with infinite binding affinity) to mathematically describe the hook effect and its behaviour under allosteric conditions. We show that allosteric regulation does indeed mitigate the high-dose hook effect. We then turn to calmodulin as a real-life example of an allosteric protein. Using kinetic simulations, we show that calmodulin is indeed subject to a hook effect. We also show that this effect is stronger in the presence of the allosteric activator Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), because it reduces the overall cooperativity of the calcium-calmodulin system. It follows that, surprisingly, there are conditions where increased amounts of allosteric activator actually decrease the activity of a protein. We show that cooperative binding can indeed act as a protective mechanism against the hook effect. This will have implications in vivo where the extent of cooperativity of a protein can be modulated, for instance, by allosteric activators or inhibitors. This can result in counterintuitive effects of decreased activity with increased concentrations of

  14. High-dose MeV electron irradiation of Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high doses Si+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschieva, S.; Angelov, Ch; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The influence was studied of 22-MeV electron irradiation on Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high-fluence Si+ ions. Our earlier works demonstrated that Si redistribution is observed in Si+-ion-implanted Si-SiO2 structures (after MeV electron irradiation) only in the case when ion implantation is carried out with a higher fluence (1016 cm-2). We focused our attention on the interaction of high-dose MeV electron irradiation (6.0×1016 cm-2) with n-Si-SiO2 structures implanted with Si+ ions (fluence 5.4×1016 cm-2 of the same order magnitude). The redistribution of both oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted Si-SiO2 samples after MeV electron irradiation was studied by Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) spectroscopy in combination with a channeling technique (RBS/C). Our results demonstrated that the redistribution of oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted samples reaches saturation after these high doses of MeV electron irradiation. The transformation of amorphous SiO2 surface into crystalline Si nanostructures (after MeV electron irradiation) was evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon nanocrystals are formed on the SiO2 surface after MeV electron irradiation. The shape and number of the Si nanocrystals on the SiO2 surface depend on the MeV electron irradiation, while their size increases with the dose. The mean Si nanocrystals height is 16-20 nm after irradiation with MeV electrons at the dose of 6.0×1016 cm-2.

  15. The status of low dose rate and future of high dose rate Cf-252 brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Chuba, P.J.; Fontanesi, J.

    1997-12-01

    This work describes the current status of the US low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 brachytherapy program. The efforts undertaken towards development of a high dose rate (HDR) remotely after loaded Cf-252 source, which can accommodate 1 mg or greater Cf-252, are also described. This HDR effort is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), commercial remote after loader manufactures, the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center (ROC), and Wayne State University. To achieve this goal, several advances in isotope chemistry and source preparation at ORNL must be achieved to yield a specific material source loading of greater than or equal 1 mg Cf-252 per mm3. Development work with both radioactive and non-radioactive stand-ins for Cf-252 have indicated the feasibility of fabricating such sources. As a result, the decreased catheter diameter and computer controlled source placement will permit additional sites (e.g. brain, breast, prostate, lung, parotid, etc.) to be treated effectively with Cf-252 sources. Additional work at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) remains in source fabrication, after loader modification, and safe design. The current LDR Cf-252 Treatment Suite at the ROC is shielded and licensed to hold up to 1 mg of Cf-252. This was designed to maintain cumulative personnel exposure, both external to the room and in direct isotope handling, at less than 20 microSv/hr. However, cumulative exposure may be greatly decreased if a Cf-252 HDR unit is employed which would eliminate direct isotope handling and decrease treatment times from tilde 3 hours to an expected range of 3 to 15 minutes. Such a Cf-252 HDR source will also demonstrate improved dose distributions over current LDR treatments due to the ability to step the point-like source throughout the target volume and weight the dwell time accordingly

  16. Diagnosis of cerebral metastases by means of standard doses of Gadobutrol versus a high-dose protocol. Intraindividual evaluation of a phase-II high-dose study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.; Friebe, C.E.; Balzer, T.; Mack, M.G.; Steiner, S.; Schedel, H.; Pegios, W.; Lanksch, W.; Banzer, D.; Felix, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a clinical phase-II study 20 patients who had been diagnosed as having brain metastases with CT or MRT were studied prospectively with Gadobutrol, a new nonionic, low osmolality contrast agent. Each patient received an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight and an additional dose of 0.2 mmol/kg Gadobutrol 10 min later. Spinecho images were obtained before and after the two applications of Gadobutrol. Dynamic scanning (Turbo-FLASH) was performed for 3 min after each injection of the contrast agent. Both quantitative and qualitative data were intraindividually evaluated. The primary tumor was a bronchial carcinoma in 11 cases; in 9 other cases there were different primary tumors. Forty-eight hours after the use of Gadobutrol there were no adverse signs in the clinical examination, vital signs or blood and urine chemistry. Statistical analysis (Friedman test and Wilcoxon test) of the C/N ratios between tumor and white matter, percentage enhancement, and visual assessment rating revealed statistically significant superiority of high-dose Gadobutrol injection in comparison to the standard dose. The percentage enhancement increased on average from 104% after 0.1 mmol/kg to 162% after 0.3 mmol/kg Gadobutrol. Qualitative delineation and contrast of the lesions increased significantly. The use of high-dose Gadobutrol improved the detection of 36 additional lesions in 6 patients. (orig./VHE) [de

  17. High dose tetrabromobisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that is commonly used in commercial and household products, such as, computers, televisions, mobile phones, and electronic boards. TBBPA can accumulate in human body fluids, and it has been reported that TBBPA possesses endocrine disruptive activity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBBPA on hippocampal neurogenesis has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of TBBPA on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Male C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated vehicle or TBBPA (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg daily) for two weeks. TBBPA was observed to significantly and dose-dependently reduce the survival of newly generated cells in the hippocampus but not to affect the proliferation of newly generated cells. Numbers of hippocampal BrdU and NeuN positive cells were dose-dependently reduced by TBBPA, indicating impaired neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, glial activation without neuronal death was observed in hippocampi exposed to TBBPA. Furthermore, memory retention was found to be adversely affected by TBBPA exposure by a mechanism involving suppression of the BDNF-CREB signaling pathway. The study suggests high dose TBBPA disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and induces associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stock selection of high-dose-irradiation-resistant materials for filter press under high-dose irradiation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Minami, Mamoru; Hara, Kouji; Yamashita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    In a volume reduction process for the decontamination of contained soil, the performance degradation of a filter press is expected owing to material deterioration under high-dose irradiation. Eleven-stock selection of candidate materials including polymers, fibers and rubbers for the filter press was conducted to achieve a high performance of volume reduction of contaminated soil and the following results were derived. Crude rubber and nylon were selected as prime candidates for packing, diaphragm and filter plate materials. Polyethylene was also selected as a prime candidate for the filter cloth material. (author)

  19. Physiological and immunological changes following exposure to low versus high-dose ionizing irradiation; comparative analysis with dose rate and cumulative dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesun, Kim; Heewon, Jang; Soungyeon, Song; Shinhye, Oh; Cukcheul, Shin; Meeseon, Jeong; Chasoon, Kim; Kwnaghee, Yang; Seonyoung, Nam; Jiyoung, Kim; Youngwoo, Jin; Changyoung, Cha

    2008-01-01

    Full text: While high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms some reports suggest low-dose of radiation may not be as damaging as previously thought. Despite increasing evidence regarding the protective effect of low-dose radiation, no studies have directly compared the exact dose-response pattern by high- and low-dose of radiation exposed at high-and low-dose rate. This study aims to explore the cellular and molecular changes in mice exposed to low- and high-dose of radiation exposed at low- and high-dose rate. When C57BL/6 mice (Female, 6 weeks) were exposed at high-dose rate, 0.8 Gy/min, no significant change on the level of WBC, RBC, or platelets was observed up to total dose of 0.5 Gy. However, 2 Gy of radiation caused dramatic reduction in the level of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. This reduction was accompanied by increased DNA damage in hematopoietic environments. The reduction of WBC was mainly due to the reduction in the number of CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells. CD8+ T cells and NK cells appeared to be relatively resistant to high-dose of radiation. This change was also accompanied by the reduction of T- and B- progenitor cells in the bone marrow. In contrast, no significant changes of the number of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK, and B cells were observed in the spleen of mice exposed at low-dose-rate (0.7 m Gy/h or 3.95 mGy/h) for up to 2 Gy, suggesting that low-dose radiation does not alter cellular distribution in the spleen. Nevertheless, mice exposed to low-dose radiation exhibited elevation of VEGF, MCP-1, IL-4, Leptin, IL-3, and Tpo in the peripheral blood and slight increases in MIP-2, RANTES, and IL-2 in the spleen. This suggests that chronic γ-radiation can stimulate immune function without causing damage to the immune components of the body. Taken together, these data indicate hormesis of low-dose radiation, which could be attributed to the stimulation of immune function. Dose rate rather than total

  20. Conventional-Dose versus High-Dose Chemotherapy for Relapsed Germ Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaglan J. McHugh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of metastatic germ cell tumors (GCTs are cured with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but 20–30% of patients will relapse after first-line chemotherapy and require additional salvage strategies. The two major salvage approaches in this scenario are high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT or conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT. Both CDCT and HDCT have curative potential in the management of relapsed/refractory GCT. However, due to a lack of conclusive randomized trials, it remains unknown whether sequential HDCT or CDCT represents the optimal initial salvage approach, with practice varying between tertiary institutions. This represents the most pressing question remaining for defining GCT treatment standards and optimizing outcomes. The authors review prognostic factors in the initial salvage setting as well as the major studies assessing the efficacy of CDCT, HDCT, or both, describing the strengths and weaknesses that formed the rationale behind the ongoing international phase III “TIGER” trial.

  1. Prehospital high-dose sublingual nitroglycerin rarely causes hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemency, Brian M; Thompson, Jeffrey J; Tundo, Gina N; Lindstrom, Heather A

    2013-10-01

    High-dose intravenous nitroglycerin is a common in-hospital treatment for respiratory distress due to congestive heart failure (CHF) with hypertension. Intravenous (IV) nitroglycerin administration is impractical in the prehospital setting. In 2011, a new regional Emergency Medical Services (EMS) protocol was introduced allowing advanced providers to treat CHF with high-dose oral nitroglycerin. The protocol calls for patients to be treated with two sublingual tabs (0.8 mg) when systolic blood pressure (SBP) was >160 mm Hg, or three sublingual tabs (1.2 mg) when SBP was >200 mm Hg, every five minutes as needed. Hypothesis/Problem To assess the protocol's safety, the incidence of hypotension following prehospital administration of multiple simultaneous nitroglycerin (MSN) tabs by EMS providers was studied. This study was a retrospective cohort study of patients from a single commercial EMS agency over a 6-month period. Records from patients with at least one administration of MSN were reviewed. For each administration, the first documented vital signs pre- and post-administration were compared. Administrations were excluded if pre- or post-administration vital signs were missing. One hundred case-patients had at least one MSN administration by an advanced provider during the study period. Twenty-five case-patients were excluded due to incomplete vital signs. Seventy-five case-patients with 95 individual MSN administrations were included for analysis. There were 65 administrations of two tabs, 29 administrations of three tabs, and one administration of four tabs. The mean change in SBP following MSN was -14.7 mm Hg (SD = 30.7; range, +59 to -132). Three administrations had documented systolic hypotension in the post-administration vital signs (97/71, 78/50 and 66/47). All three patients were over 65 years old, were administered two tabs, had documented improved respiratory status, and had repeat SBP of at least 100. The incidence of hypotension following MSN

  2. High-dose irradiated food: Current progress, applications, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2018-03-01

    Food irradiation as an established and mature technology has gained more attention in the food industry for ensuring food safety and quality. Primarily used for phytosanitary applications, its use has been expanded for developing various food products for varied purposes (e.g. ready-to-eat & ready-to-cook foods, hospital diets, etc.). This paper summarized and analyzed the recent progress and application of high-dose irradiation and discussed its prospects in the field of food product development, its safety and quality.

  3. SU-F-P-19: Fetal Dose Estimate for a High-Dose Fluoroscopy Guided Intervention Using Modern Data Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moirano, J [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: An accurate dose estimate is necessary for effective patient management after a fetal exposure. In the case of a high-dose exposure, it is critical to use all resources available in order to make the most accurate assessment of the fetal dose. This work will demonstrate a methodology for accurate fetal dose estimation using tools that have recently become available in many clinics, and show examples of best practices for collecting data and performing the fetal dose calculation. Methods: A fetal dose estimate calculation was performed using modern data collection tools to determine parameters for the calculation. The reference point air kerma as displayed by the fluoroscopic system was checked for accuracy. A cumulative dose incidence map and DICOM header mining were used to determine the displayed reference point air kerma. Corrections for attenuation caused by the patient table and pad were measured and applied in order to determine the peak skin dose. The position and depth of the fetus was determined by ultrasound imaging and consultation with a radiologist. The data collected was used to determine a normalized uterus dose from Monte Carlo simulation data. Fetal dose values from this process were compared to other accepted calculation methods. Results: An accurate high-dose fetal dose estimate was made. Comparison to accepted legacy methods were were within 35% of estimated values. Conclusion: Modern data collection and reporting methods ease the process for estimation of fetal dose from interventional fluoroscopy exposures. Many aspects of the calculation can now be quantified rather than estimated, which should allow for a more accurate estimation of fetal dose.

  4. Identification of dose-reduction techniques for BWR and PWR repetitive high-dose jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of concern about the apparent increase in collective radiation dose to workers at nuclear power plants, this project will provide information to industry in preplanning for radiation protection during maintenance operations. This study identifies Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) repetitive jobs, and respective collective dose trends and dose reduction techniques. 3 references, 2 tables

  5. Comparative effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on hematological parameters using propensity score matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaka M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Hayasaka,1 Yasuo Takahashi,2 Yayoi Nishida,2 Yoshikazu Yoshida,1 Shinji Hidaka,3 Satoshi Asai41Department of Pharmacy, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, 2Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, 4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in real-world clinical settings. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters.Methods: We used data from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse obtained between November 2004 and May 2011 to identify cohorts of new users (n = 130 of clopidogrel (75 mg/day plus aspirin (100 mg/day and a propensity score matched sample of new users (n = 130 of aspirin alone (100 mg/day. We used a multivariate regression model to compare serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts up to 2 months after the start of administration of the study drugs.Results: There were no significant differences for any characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters between users of clopidogrel plus aspirin and users of aspirin alone. Reductions in white blood cell and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and

  6. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  7. Physics and quality assurance for high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lowell L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To review the physical aspects of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, including commissioning and quality assurance, source calibration and dose distribution measurements, and treatment planning methods. Following the introduction of afterloading in brachytherapy, development efforts to make it 'remote' culminated in 1964 with the near-simultaneous appearance of remote afterloaders in five major medical centers. Four of these machines were 'high dose rate', three employing 60Co and one (the GammaMed) using a single, cable-mounted 192Ir source. Stepping-motor source control was added to the GammaMed in 1974, making it the precursor of modern remote afterloaders, which are now suitable for interstitial as well as intracavitary brachytherapy by virtue of small source-diameter and indexer-accessed multiple channels. Because the 192Ir sources currently used in HDR remote afterloaders are supplied at a nominal air-kerma strength of 11.4 cGy cm2 s-1 (10 Ci), are not collimated in clinical use, and emit a significant fraction (15%) of photons at energies greater than 600 keV, shielding and facility design must be undertaken as carefully and thoroughly as for external beam installations. Licensing requirements of regulatory agencies must be met with respect both to maximum permissible dose limits and to the existence and functionality of safety devices (door interlocks, radiation monitors, etc.). Commissioning and quality assurance procedures that must be documented for HDR remote afterloading relate to (1) machine, applicator, guide-tube, and facility functionality checks, (2) source calibration, (3) emergency response readiness, (4) planning software evaluation, and (5) independent checks of clinical dose calculations. Source calibration checks must be performed locally, either by in-air measurement of air kerma strength or with a well ionization chamber calibrated (by an accredited standards laboratory) against an in-air measurement of air kerma strength for the

  8. The usefulness of metal markers for CTV-based dose prescription in high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Mitomo, Masanori; Nose, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Kinji; Yoshida, Mineo

    2002-01-01

    We employ a clinical target volume (CTV)-based dose prescription for high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. However, it is not easy to define CTV and organs at risk (OAR) from X-ray film or CT scanning. To solve this problem, we have utilized metal markers since October 1999. Moreover, metal markers can help modify dose prescription. By regulating the doses to the metal markers, refining the dose prescription can easily be achieved. In this research, we investigated the usefulness of the metal markers. Between October 1999 and May 2001, 51 patients were implanted with metal markers at Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (OMCC), Osaka National Hospital (ONH) and Sanda City Hospital (SCH). Forty-nine patients (head and neck: 32; pelvis: 11; soft tissue: 3; breast: 3) using metal markers were analyzed. During operation, we implanted 179 metal markers (49 patients) to CTV and 151 markers (26 patients) to OAR. At treatment planning, CTV was reconstructed judging from the metal markers, applicator position and operation records. Generally, we prescribed the tumoricidal dose to an isodose surface that covers CTV. We also planned to limit the doses to OAR lower than certain levels. The maximum normal tissue doses were decided 80%, 150%, 100%, 50% and 200% of the prescribed doses for the rectum, the urethra, the mandible, the skin and the large vessel, respectively. The doses to the metal markers using CTV-based dose prescription were generated. These were compared with the doses theoretically calculated with the Paris system. Treatment results were also investigated. The doses to the 158 metal markers (42 patients) for CTV were higher than ''tumoricidal dose''. In 7 patients, as a result of compromised dose prescription, 9 markers were lower than the tumoricidal dose. The other 12 markers (7%) were excluded from dose evaluation because they were judged as miss-implanted. The doses to the 142 metal markers (24 patients) for OAR were lower

  9. Clinical application of a OneDose(TM) MOSFET for skin dose measurements during internal mammary chain irradiation with high dose rate brachytherapy in carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Sharma, Pramod K; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M; Mahantshetty, Umesh M; Sarin, Rajiv; Deshpande, Deepak D; Shrivastava, Shyam K

    2006-01-01

    In our earlier study, we experimentally evaluated the characteristics of a newly designed metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) OneDose(TM) in-vivo dosimetry system for Ir-192 (380 keV) energy and the results were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We have now extended the same study to the clinical application of this MOSFET as an in-vivo dosimetry system. The MOSFET was used during high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation for a carcinoma of the breast. The aim of this study was to measure the skin dose during IMC irradiation with a MOSFET and a TLD and compare it with the calculated dose with a treatment planning system (TPS). The skin dose was measured for ten patients. All the patients' treatment was planned on a PLATO treatment planning system. TLD measurements were performed to compare the accuracy of the measured results from the MOSFET. The mean doses measured with the MOSFET and the TLD were identical (0.5392 Gy, 15.85% of the prescribed dose). The mean dose was overestimated by the TPS and was 0.5923 Gy (17.42% of the prescribed dose). The TPS overestimated the skin dose by 9% as verified by the MOSFET and TLD. The MOSFET provides adequate in-vivo dosimetry for HDRBT. Immediate readout after irradiation, small size, permanent storage of dose and ease of use make the MOSFET a viable alternative for TLDs. (note)

  10. Clinical application of a OneDose MOSFET for skin dose measurements during internal mammary chain irradiation with high dose rate brachytherapy in carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Sharma, Pramod K; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M; Mahantshetty, Umesh M; Sarin, Rajiv; Deshpande, Deepak D; Shrivastava, Shyam K

    2006-07-21

    In our earlier study, we experimentally evaluated the characteristics of a newly designed metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) OneDose in-vivo dosimetry system for Ir-192 (380 keV) energy and the results were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We have now extended the same study to the clinical application of this MOSFET as an in-vivo dosimetry system. The MOSFET was used during high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation for a carcinoma of the breast. The aim of this study was to measure the skin dose during IMC irradiation with a MOSFET and a TLD and compare it with the calculated dose with a treatment planning system (TPS). The skin dose was measured for ten patients. All the patients' treatment was planned on a PLATO treatment planning system. TLD measurements were performed to compare the accuracy of the measured results from the MOSFET. The mean doses measured with the MOSFET and the TLD were identical (0.5392 Gy, 15.85% of the prescribed dose). The mean dose was overestimated by the TPS and was 0.5923 Gy (17.42% of the prescribed dose). The TPS overestimated the skin dose by 9% as verified by the MOSFET and TLD. The MOSFET provides adequate in-vivo dosimetry for HDRBT. Immediate readout after irradiation, small size, permanent storage of dose and ease of use make the MOSFET a viable alternative for TLDs.

  11. Coxibs interfere with the action of aspirin by binding tightly to one monomer of cyclooxygenase-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, Gilad; Sidhu, Ranjinder S.; Lauver, D. Adam; Lee, Jullia Y.; Sharma, Narayan P.; Yuan, Chong; Frieler, Ryan A.; Trievel, Raymond C.; Lucchesi, Benedict R.; Smith, William L. (Michigan)

    2010-02-11

    Pain associated with inflammation involves prostaglandins synthesized from arachidonic acid (AA) through cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways while thromboxane A{sub 2} formed by platelets from AA via cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) mediates thrombosis. COX-1 and COX-2 are both targets of nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) including aspirin whereas COX-2 activity is preferentially blocked by COX-2 inhibitors called coxibs. COXs are homodimers composed of identical subunits, but we have shown that only one subunit is active at a time during catalysis; moreover, many nsNSAIDS bind to a single subunit of a COX dimer to inhibit the COX activity of the entire dimer. Here, we report the surprising observation that celecoxib and other coxibs bind tightly to a subunit of COX-1. Although celecoxib binding to one monomer of COX-1 does not affect the normal catalytic processing of AA by the second, partner subunit, celecoxib does interfere with the inhibition of COX-1 by aspirin in vitro. X-ray crystallographic results obtained with a celecoxib/COX-1 complex show how celecoxib can bind to one of the two available COX sites of the COX-1 dimer. Finally, we find that administration of celecoxib to dogs interferes with the ability of a low dose of aspirin to inhibit AA-induced ex vivo platelet aggregation. COX-2 inhibitors such as celecoxib are widely used for pain relief. Because coxibs exhibit cardiovascular side effects, they are often prescribed in combination with low-dose aspirin to prevent thrombosis. Our studies predict that the cardioprotective effect of low-dose aspirin on COX-1 may be blunted when taken with coxibs.

  12. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Li, Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  13. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Li, Tianyu; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the χ 2 test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  14. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  15. Dosimetric properties of commercial glasses and sand for high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Maria Ines

    2004-01-01

    Commercial glasses (transparent and colored) produced by Cebrace, Brazil, Sao Paulo, and sand samples of different Brazilian beaches were studied, due to their low cost and easy handling, to verify the possibility of their use in high dose dosimetry. The main dosimetric characteristics were determined using a densitometer, a spectrophotometer, a thermoluminescent (TL) reader and an electronic paramagnetic resonance system. The gamma irradiations were carried out using a Gamma-Cell 220 and a panoramic source ( 60 Co) of IPEN. An optical absorption band was observed at 420 nm in the glass samples. The TL glow curves presented peaks at 205 deg C, 135 deg C, 150 deg C and 145 deg C for the transparent, bronze, brown and green glass samples, respectively. All EPR spectra of the glasses showed Fe 3+ characteristic signals at g = 4.27 and 2.01. The gamma irradiated sand samples presented two peaks at 110 deg C and 170 deg C and an EPR signal at g= 1.999. However, these materials present a pronounced thermal fading at room temperature after irradiation. With the objective to minimize this thermal fading, both glass and sand samples were submitted to different pre- and post-irradiation thermal treatments. The glass and sand samples showed the possibility of utilization for high dose dosimetry and as Yes/No irradiation detectors. (author)

  16. Audits in high dose rate brachytherapy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.; Rosa, L.A.; Velasco, A.; Paiva, E. de; Goncalves, M.; Castelo, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    The lack of well established dosimetry protocols for HDR sources is a point of great concern regarding the uniformity of procedures within a particular country. The main objective of this paper is to report the results of an implementation of the audit program in dosimetry of high dose rate brachytherapy sources used by the radiation therapy centers in Brazil. In Brazil, among 169 radiotherapy centers, 35 have HDR brachytherapy systems. This program started in August 2001 and until now eight radiotherapy services were audited. The audit program consists of the visit in loco to each center and the evaluation of the intensity of the source with a well type chamber specially design for HDR 192 Ir sources. The measurements was carried out with a HDR1000PLUS Brachytherapy Well Type Chamber and a MAX 4000 Electrometer, both manufactured by Standard Imaging Inc. The chamber was calibrated in air kerma strength by the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin in the USA. The same chamber was calibrated in Brazil using a 192 lr high dose rate source whose intensity was determined by 60 Co gamma rays and 250 kV x rays interpolation methodology. The Nk of 60 Co and 250 kV x rays were provided by the Brazilian National Standard Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LMNRI)

  17. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants in the high background radiation areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2000-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external exposure to natural radiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control areas (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied in which the exposed individual doses were estimated from the environmental radiation doses measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. We analyzed the dose in the hamlets and the variation in the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and several hamlets of different dose levels in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we estimated individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows. The environmental radiation doses are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiations. The indoor radiation doses were due to exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and were about two times as large as the outdoor radiation doses. The difference between indoor and outdoor doses was not observed in CA. The occupancy factor was influenced by the age of individuals and by the season of the year. The occupancy factor was higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher dose rates of exposure to those age groups. A good correlation was observed between the dose assessed indirectly and that measured directly and the

  18. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants in the high background radiation areas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external exposure to natural radiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control areas (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied in which the exposed individual doses were estimated from the environmental radiation doses measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. We analyzed the dose in the hamlets and the variation in the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and several hamlets of different dose levels in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we estimated individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows. The environmental radiation doses are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiations. The indoor radiation doses were due to exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and were about two times as large as the outdoor radiation doses. The difference between indoor and outdoor doses was not observed in CA. The occupancy factor was influenced by the age of individuals and by the season of the year. The occupancy factor was higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher dose rates of exposure to those age groups. A good correlation was observed between the dose assessed indirectly and that measured directly and the

  19. Aspirin Reduces Cardiac Interstitial Fibrosis by Inhibiting Erk1/2-Serpine2 and P-Akt Signalling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelian; Wang, GuoYuan; QiLi, MuGe; Liang, HaiHai; Li, TianShi; E, XiaoQiang; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiao; Qian, Ming; Xu, BoZhi; Shen, ZhiHang; Gitau, Samuel Chege; Zhao, DanDan; Shan, HongLi

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac interstitial fibrosis is an abnormality of various cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, and atrial fibrillation, and it can ultimately lead to heart failure. However, there is a lack of practical therapeutic approaches to treat fibrosis and reverse the damage to the heart. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aspirin administration on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis in mice and reveal the underlying mechanisms of aspirin treatment. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC), and treated with 10 mg·kg-1·day-1 of aspirin for 4 weeks. Masson staining and a collagen content assay were used to detect the effects of aspirin on cardiac fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. Western blot and qRT-PCR were applied to examine the impact of aspirin on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erks), p-Akt/β-catenin, SerpinE2, collagen I, and collagen III levels in the mice heart. Aspirin significantly suppressed the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; 1.19±0.19-fold) and collagen I (0.95±0.09-fold) in TAC mice. Aspirin, at doses of 100 and 1000 µM, also significantly suppressed angiotensin II-induced α-SMA and collagen I in cultured CFs. The enhanced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 caused by TAC (p-Erk1, 1.49±0.19-fold; p-Erk2, 1.96±0.68-fold) was suppressed by aspirin (p-Erk1, 1.04±0.15-fold; p-Erk2, 0.87±0.06-fold). SerpinE2 levels were suppressed via the Erk1/2 signalling pathway following treatment with aspirin (1.36±0.12-fold for TAC; 1.06±0.07-fold for aspirin+TAC). The p-Akt and β-catenin levels were also significantly inhibited in vivo and in vitro. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which aspirin alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis in TAC mice by suppressing the p-Erk1/2 and p-Akt/β-catenin signalling pathways. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Inhibition of Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia Progression to Carcinoma by Nitric Oxide-Releasing Aspirin in p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthalapally V. Rao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NO-aspirin represents a novel class of promising chemopreventive agents. Unlike conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NO-aspirin seems to be free of adverse effects while retaining the beneficial activities of its parent compound. The effect of NO-aspirin on pancreatic carcinogenesis was investigated by assessing the development of precursor pancreatic lesions and adenocarcinomas in KrasG12D/+ transgenic mice that recapitulate human pancreatic cancer progression. Six-week-old male p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ transgenic mice (20 per group were fed diets containing 0, 1000, or 2000 ppm NO-aspirin. The development of pancreatic tumors was monitored by positron emission tomography imaging. All mice were killed at the age of 41 weeks and assessed for pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and for molecular changes in the tumors. Our results reveal that NO-aspirin at 1000 and 2000 ppm significantly suppressed pancreatic tumor weights, PDAC incidence, and carcinoma in situ (PanIN-3 lesions. The degree of inhibition of PanIN-3 and carcinoma was more pronounced with NO-aspirin at 1000 ppm (58.8% and 48%, respectively than with 2000 ppm (47% and 20%, respectively. NO-aspirin at 1000 ppm significantly inhibited the spread of carcinoma in the pancreas (∼97%; P < .0001. Decreased expression of cyclooxygenase (COX; with ∼42% inhibition of total COX activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and β-catenin was observed, with induction of p21, p38, and p53 in the pancreas of NO-aspirin-treated mice. These results suggest that low-dose NO-aspirin possesses inhibitory activity against pancreatic carcinogenesis by modulating multiple molecular targets.

  1. Long-term sinonasal outcomes of aspirin desensitization in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Soudry, Ethan; Psaltis, Alkis J; Nadeau, Kari C; McGhee, Sean A; Nayak, Jayakar V; Hwang, Peter H

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess sinonasal outcomes in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) undergoing aspirin desensitization following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Case series with chart review. University hospital. A retrospective review of sinonasal outcomes was conducted for 30 AERD patients undergoing aspirin desensitization and maintenance therapy following ESS. Sinonasal outcomes were prospectively assessed by the Sinonasal Outcomes Test-22 (SNOT-22) and endoscopic polyp grading system. Data were collected preoperatively, 1 and 4 weeks postsurgery (before desensitization), and 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after aspirin desensitization. Twenty-eight of 30 patients (93.3%) successfully completed aspirin desensitization, whereas 2 of 30 (6.7%) were unable to complete desensitization due to respiratory intolerance. Of the 21 patients who successfully completed a minimum of 24 weeks of follow-up, 20 (95.2%) patients demonstrated sustained endoscopic and symptomatic improvement for a median follow-up period of 33 months. After surgical treatment but before desensitization, patients experienced significant reductions in SNOT-22 and polyp grade scores. In the first 6 months after aspirin desensitization, patients experienced further significant reductions in SNOT-22 scores, whereas polyp grade remained stable. The improvements in symptom endoscopic scores were preserved throughout the follow-up period after desensitization. No patients required additional sinus surgery. One patient had to discontinue aspirin therapy due to gastrointestinal side effects. No other adverse reactions to aspirin were noted. Aspirin desensitization following ESS appears to be a well-tolerated and effective adjunctive therapy for long-term control of nasal polyposis in patients with AERD. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  2. Controlled release from aspirin based linear biodegradable poly(anhydride esters) for anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Queeny; Movva, Sahitya; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2017-08-07

    This work reports the synthesis of a novel, aspirin-loaded, linear poly (anhydride ester) and provides mechanistic insights into the release of aspirin from this polymer for anti-inflammatory activity. As compared to conventional drug delivery systems that rely on diffusion based release, incorporation of bioactives in the polymer backbone is challenging and high loading is difficult to achieve. In the present study, we exploit the pentafunctional sugar alcohol (xylitol) to provide sites for drug (aspirin) attachment at its non-terminal OH groups. The terminal OH groups are polymerized with a diacid anhydride. The hydrolysis of the anhydride and ester bonds under physiological conditions release aspirin from the matrix. The resulting poly(anhydride ester) has high drug loading (53%) and displays controlled release kinetics of aspirin. The polymer releases 8.5 % and 20%, of the loaded drug in one and four weeks, respectively and has a release rate constant of 0.0035h -0.61 . The release rate is suitable for its use as an anti-inflammatory agent without being cytotoxic. The polymer exhibits good cytocompatibility and anti-inflammatory properties and may find applications as injectable or as an implantable bioactive material. The physical insights into the release mechanism can provide development of other drug loaded polymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC...

  4. Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial: effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia in subgroups of women according to their characteristics and medical and obstetrical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Liona C; Wright, David; Rolnik, Daniel L; Syngelaki, Argyro; Delgado, Juan Luis; Tsokaki, Theodora; Leipold, Gergo; Akolekar, Ranjit; Shearing, Siobhan; De Stefani, Luciana; Jani, Jacques C; Plasencia, Walter; Evangelinakis, Nikolaos; Gonzalez-Vanegas, Otilia; Persico, Nicola; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-11-01

    The Combined Multimarker Screening and Randomized Patient Treatment with Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial demonstrated that in women who were at high risk for preterm preeclampsia with delivery at aspirin administration from 11 to 14 until 36 weeks' gestation was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of preterm preeclampsia (odds ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.74; P=0.004). We sought to examine whether there are differences in the effect of aspirin on the incidence of preterm preeclampsia in the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial in subgroups defined according to maternal characteristics and medical and obstetrical history. This was a secondary analysis of data from the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess evidence of differences in the effect of aspirin on incidence of preterm preeclampsia in subgroups defined by maternal age (aspirin effect in subgroups defined according to maternal characteristics and obstetrical history. In participants with chronic hypertension preterm preeclampsia occurred in 10.2% (5/49) in the aspirin group and 8.2% (5/61) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-5.12). The respective values in those without chronic hypertension were 1.1% (8/749) in the aspirin group and 3.9% (30/761) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.60). In all participants with adherence of ≥90% the adjusted odds ratio in the aspirin group was 0.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.65); in the subgroup with chronic hypertension it was 2.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-10.71); and in those without chronic hypertension it was 0.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.41). For the complete data set the test of interaction was not significant at the 5% level (P = .055), but in those with adherence ≥90%, after adjustment for multiple comparisons

  5. High dose rate versus medium dose rate intraluminal brachytherapy in inoperable esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langendijk, J.; Jager, J.; Jong, J. de; Rijken, J.; Pannebakker, M.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the results of medium dose rate (MDR) intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT) and high dose rate (HDR) ILBT in patients with inoperable esophageal carcinoma, with regard to dysphagia, complication rate and survival. Material and methods: Included were 114 patients with inoperable esophageal cancer who were treated with a single session of ILBT. In all cases a single dose of 15 Gy was administered, calculated at a 1 cm radius. Forty-eight patients were treated with MDR ( 137 Cs)ILBT. In June 1990 MDR was replaced by HDR and from then 66 patients were treated with HDR ( 192 Ir). Dysphagia was prospectively scored using a 5-point scale at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Results: No significant differences were noted between the two groups with regard to pretreatment variables. In patients treated with MDR-ILBT improvement of swallowing ability was noted in 30 out of 42 evaluable patients (71%), no change in 9 (21%) and progression of dysphagia in 3 patients (8%), as compared to 34 out of 59 evaluable patients (58%), 16 (27%) and 6 (15%) resp. in de HDR-ILBT group. In the latter category, progression of dysphagia was caused by fistulae in 2 patients. The differences were not significant (ns). Additional treatment in case of recurrent or persistent dysphagia was needed in 50% of the cases in the MDR-ILBT group as compared to 41% in the HDR-ILBT group (ns). The median survival of the MDR-ILBT group was 3.9 months as compared to 4.3 months in the HDR-ILBT group (ns). In 2 patients (4%) treated with MDR-ILBT bronchio-oesphageal fistulae developed at 6 weeks and 2 months. In the HDR-ILBT group fistulae were noted in 7 cases (11%) at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 2, 3, 3, 4 and 9 months (ns). In all of these cases persistent of recurrent tumour was present. Conclusions: No significant differences were noted with regard to palliation of dysphagia, survival and complication rate between MDR-ILBT and HDR-ILBT in the management of esophageal

  6. High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Bojaxhiu, Beat; Simcock, Mathew; Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard; Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Brömme, Jens O.; Geretschläger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3–23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

  7. High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadjar, Pirus, E-mail: pirus.ghadjar@insel.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Bojaxhiu, Beat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Simcock, Mathew [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Broemme, Jens O.; Geretschlaeger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

  8. Biological dose estimation and comet analysis of the victims in a high dose 60Co radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Liu Xiulin; Luo Yisheng; Li You; Yao Bo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the methods of chromosome preparation in human peripheral blood and bone marrow after very high dose exposure and fit the dose-response curve of dicentrics and tings in the range of high doses over 6 Gy for estimating biological dose and detecting DNA damage in the victims of '10.21' accident. Methods: The samples of peripheral blood and bone marrow in 2 victims were collected to prepare chromosome mataphases and dicentrics (multicentrics) + rings were counted. The dose-response curve and equation of human blood irradiated between 6-22 Gy in vitro were established and applied to assess biological dose of 2 victims. In addition, their DNA damages were tested by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. Results: The dicentric + ring numbers of 4.47 per cell in victims B's peripheral blood lymphocytes and 9.15 per cell in victim A's bone marrow who had no mitosis in peripheral blood cell. The whole body average doses of victims B and A estimated by 6-22 Gy equation arrived at 9.4 Gy and 19.5 Gy, respectively. The serious DNA damages were expressed by small head and large tail comet figures. Conclusions: The biological doses of 2 victims estimated by 6-22 Gy dose-response curve have reached the levels of extreme grave bone marrow and intestinal ARS, respectively. (authors)

  9. Dose optimization of intra-operative high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy implants for soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamema Swamidas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : A three dimensional (3D image-based dosimetric study to quantitatively compare geometric vs. dose-point optimization in combination with graphical optimization for interstitial brachytherapy of soft tissue sarcoma (STS. Materials and Methods : Fifteen consecutive STS patients, treated with intra-operative, interstitial Brachytherapy, were enrolled in this dosimetric study. Treatment plans were generated using dose points situated at the "central plane between the catheters", "between the catheters throughout the implanted volume", at "distances perpendicular to the implant axis" and "on the surface of the target volume" Geometrically optimized plans had dose points defined between the catheters, while dose-point optimized plans had dose points defined at a plane perpendicular to the implant axis and on the target surface. Each plan was graphically optimized and compared using dose volume indices. Results : Target coverage was suboptimal with coverage index (CI = 0.67 when dose points were defined at the central plane while it was superior when the dose points were defined at the target surface (CI=0.93. The coverage of graphically optimized plans (GrO was similar to non-GrO with dose points defined on surface or perpendicular to the implant axis. A similar pattern was noticed with conformity index (0.61 vs. 0.82. GrO were more conformal and less homogeneous compared to non-GrO. Sum index was superior for dose points defined on the surface of the target and relatively inferior for plans with dose points at other locations (1.35 vs. 1.27. Conclusions : Optimization with dose points defined away from the implant plane and on target results in superior target coverage with optimal values of other indices. GrO offer better target coverage for implants with non-uniform geometry and target volume.

  10. Decreased proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vitiligo patients following aspirin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zailaie, Mohammad Z.

    2005-01-01

    Limited studies have shown that treatment of cells with aspirin modulates their cytokine production. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to investigate the pattern of important proinflammatory cytokines production by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with active vitiligo following long-term treatment with low-dose oral aspirin. The study was conducted at the Vitiligo Unit, King Abdul-Aziz University Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March and October 2003. Thirty-two patients (18 females and 14 males) with non-segmental vitiligo were divided into 2 equal groups, one group received a daily single dose of oral aspirin (300 mg) and the other group received placebo for a period of 12 weeks. The concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined in the supernatant of isolated cultured PMBC after being stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), before the start of aspirin treatment and at end of treatment period. Cytokine levels were measured using the quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, utilizing commercially available kits. The proinflammatory cytokine production by the PBMC of patients with active vitiligo was significantly increased compared to normal controls. Thus, the relative percentage increase in the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha was: 39.4%, 110.5% (p<0.05), 91.5% (p<0.01), and 37% (p<0.05). At the end of treatment, proinflammatory cytokine production in the aspirin-treated group of active vitiligo patients was significantly decreased compared to the placebo group. Thus, the relative percentage decrease in the production of IL-1beta IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha was: 42.5%, 45.2% (p<0.05), 30.8% (p<0.01), and 50.6% (p<0.05). The vitiligo activity was arrested in all aspirin-treated patients, while 2 patients demonstrated significant repigmentation.Chronic administration of

  11. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placek, V. E-mail: pla@ujv.cz; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M

    2004-10-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO{sub x}-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  12. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Astronaut Project Division, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk [Korea Astronaut Project Division, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods (Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 {sup o}C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  13. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placek, V.; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M.

    2004-01-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x -containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested

  14. High dose rate brachytherapy for the palliation of malignant dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homs, Marjolein Y.V.; Eijkenboom, Wilhelmina M.H.; Coen, Veronique L.M.A.; Haringsma, Jelle; Blankenstein, Mark van; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Siersema, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a commonly used palliative treatment for esophageal carcinoma. We evaluated the outcome of HDR brachytherapy in patients with malignant dysphagia. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis over a 10-year period was performed of 149 patients treated with HDR brachytherapy, administered in one or two sessions, at a median dose of 15 Gy. Patients were evaluated for functional outcome, complications, recurrent dysphagia, and survival. Results: At 6 weeks after HDR brachytherapy, dysphagia scores had improved from a median of 3 to 2 (n=104; P<0.001), however, dysphagia had not improved in 51 (49%) patients. Procedure-related complications occurred in seven (5%) patients. Late complications, including fistula formation or bleeding, occurred in 11 (7%) patients. Twelve (8%) patients experienced minor retrosternal pain. Median survival of the patients was 160 days with a 1-year survival rate of 15%. Procedure-related mortality was 2%. At follow-up, 55 (37%) patients experienced recurrent dysphagia. In 34 (23%) patients a metal stent was placed to relieve persistent or recurrent dysphagia. Conclusion: HDR brachytherapy is a moderately effective treatment for the palliation of malignant dysphagia. The incidence of early major complications is low, however, persistent and recurrent dysphagia occur frequently, and require often additional treatment

  15. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods ( Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  16. Tungsten and carbon surface change under high dose plasma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, Y.V.; Khripunov, B.I.; Petrov, V.B.

    2009-01-01

    Study of surface composition dynamics has been made on the LENTA linear plasma simulator. Experiments have been made on tungsten and carbon materials subjected to steady-state plasma exposure. The achieved ion doses on the surface were 10 21 ion cm -2 . WL 10 tungsten containing 1% of La2O3 oxide and titanium-doped graphite RG-T were studied. The following experimental conditions were varied in these experiments: energy of ions, surface temperature, working gas. Irradiations of tungsten WL 10 were executed in deuterium plasma at low ion energies (about 20 eV) and at 200 eV for temperatures below 340 K. Graphite RG-T was exposed at 1300 K. Elevated surface temperature (about 1050K) was also characteristic of experiments on tungsten sample under nitrogen plasma impact (simulated inter-ELMs condition). Surface microstructure modification has been observed and surface composition changes were found on the materials showing influence of high dose plasma irradiations on element redistribution in the near surface layers. (author)

  17. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods (Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 o C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  18. Concept and computation of radiation dose at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Computational dosimetry, a subdiscipline of computational physics devoted to radiation metrology, is determination of absorbed dose and other dose related quantities by numbers. Computations are done separately both for external and internal dosimetry. The methodology used in external beam dosimetry is necessarily a combination of experimental radiation dosimetry and theoretical dose computation since it is not feasible to plan any physical dose measurements from inside a living human body

  19. Mechanisms of aspirin-sensitive asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ying

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that aspirin, along with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, may precipitate asthma attacks in a minority of susceptible individuals. The syndrome is part of a mucosal inflammatory disease that typically affects the nasal, as well as the bronchial, mucosa and sometimes the gut and skin also. Although the mucosal cellular infiltrate in aspirin-sensitive asthma and rhinitis resembles that of asthma and rhinitis in general, there is evidence of increased expression of asthma-relevant cytokines, such as interleukin-5 and granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor, and a more intense infiltrate of mast cells and eosinophils. One key feature of aspirin-sensitive asthma is thought to be the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes, principally by these local mast cells and eosinophils, but whether this represents a fundamental abnormality or is simply a consequence of greater numbers and activation of inflammatory cells is unclear. Genetic polymorphisms of the leukotriene C4 synthase gene, which result in elevated expression of this enzyme, may also play a role. In addition, overexpression of cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, particularly CysLT1, may contribute to an enhanced response of local inflammatory and structural cells to cysteinyl leukotrienes. Aspirin challenge in these patients is accompanied by acute further elevation of the already elevated baseline cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis, a phenomenon that is most closely related to the ability of aspirin and related NSAIDs to inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzyme COX-1. The reason for this is unknown, although it has been suggested that the COX-1 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 serves as a ‘brake’ to leukotriene synthesis and that somehow this mechanism is deficient in aspirin-sensitive asthmatics. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of aspirin-sensitive asthma will undoubtedly lead to better approaches to treatment. Aside from the use of

  20. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang; Mamontov, Eugene; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ 0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χ T (Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement (x 2 ) and the non-Gaussian parameter α 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  1. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  2. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  3. High-Dose Atomoxetine Treatment of ADHD in Youths with Limited Response to Standard Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Michelson, David; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Weiss, Margaret D.; Busner, Joan; Moore, Rodney J.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Ramsey, Janet; Dickson, Ruth; Turgay, Atilla; Saylor, Keith E.; Luber, Stephen; Vaughan, Brigette; Allen, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the utility and tolerability of higher than standard atomoxetine doses to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Two randomized, double-blind trials of atomoxetine nonresponders ages 6 to 16 years were conducted comparing continued treatment with same-dose atomoxetine to treatment using greater than…

  4. Surface sputtering in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Microstructures and elemental distributions in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Single crystalline Si(0 0 1) substrates were implanted at 350 deg. C with 120 keV Fe ions to fluences ranging from 0.1 x 10 17 to 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . Extensive damage induced by ion implantation was observed inside the substrate below 1.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 , while a continuous iron silicide layer was formed at 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . It was found that the spatial distribution of Fe projectiles drastically changes at the fluence between 1.0 x 10 17 and 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 due to surface sputtering during implantation

  5. High-dose erythropoietin in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Karen; Magyari, Melinda; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a part of an endogenous neuroprotective system in the brain and may address pathophysiological mechanisms in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a treatment effect of EPO on progressive MS. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized......, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, in which 52 patients with secondary or primary progressive MS were allocated to treatment with recombinant EPO (48,000 IU) or placebo, administered intravenously 17 times during 24 weeks. Patients had an Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) from 4 to 6......: This study provides class II evidence that treatment with high-dose EPO is not an effective treatment in patients with moderately advanced progressive MS....

  6. Safety handling manual for high dose rate remote afterloading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This manual is mainly for safety handling of 192 Ir-RALS (remote afterloading system) of high dose rate and followings were presented: Procedure and document format for the RALS therapy and for handling of its radiation source with the purpose of prevention of human errors and unexpected accidents, Procedure for preventing errors occurring in the treatment schedule and operation, and Procedure and format necessary for newly introducing the system into a facility. Consistency was intended in the description with the quality assurance guideline for therapy with small sealed radiation sources made by JASTRO (Japan Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology). Use of the old type 60 Co-RALS was pointed out to be a serious problem remained and its safety handling procedure was also presented. (K.H.)

  7. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose intravenous melatonin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    This crossover study investigated the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of high-dose intravenous melatonin. Volunteers participated in 3 identical study sessions, receiving an intravenous bolus of 10 mg melatonin, 100 mg melatonin, and placebo. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 0, 60......, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, and 420 minutes after the bolus. Quantitative determination of plasma melatonin concentrations was performed using a radioimmunoassay technique. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by a compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Adverse effects included assessments...... of sedation and registration of other symptoms. Sedation, evaluated as simple reaction times, was measured at baseline and 120, 180, 300, and 420 minutes after the bolus. Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Median (IQR) Cmax after the bolus injections of 10 mg and 100 mg of melatonin were 221...

  8. Calibration of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, M H [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dozimetria, Rio de Jainero (Brazil); Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas, UERL, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sibata, C H [Roswell Park Cancer Inst., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method for calibration of high dose rate sources used in afterloading brachytherapy systems is described. The calibration for {sup 192}Ir is determined by interpolating {sup 60}Co gamma-rays and 250 kV x-rays calibration factors. All measurements were done using the same build up caps as described by Goetsch et al and recommended by AAPM. The attenuation correction factors were determined to be 0.9903, 0.9928 and 0.9993 for {sup 192}Ir, {sup 60}Co and 250 kV x-ray, respectively. A wall + cap thickness of 0.421 g.cm{sup -2} is recommended for all measurements to ensure electronic equilibrium for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir gamma-ray beams. A mathematical formalism is described for determination of (N{sub x}){sub Ir}. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  9. 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brain implant: optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Anuj; Singh, Dinesh; Chitra, S.; Gupta, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The new modality of stepping source dosimetry system (SSDs) illustrates a remarkable improvement in attaining the uniform and homogeneous dose distribution within the target volume. The technique enables the physicist to correct for a certain amount of misplacement or curvature of implant geometry. The short course of brachytherapy provides good palliation in terms of functional improvements with low and acceptable toxicity in high-grade glioma. With continual refinements of the technique, brachytherapy performed by a skilled brachytherapy team offers an opportunity to improve patient survival and quality of life. Since 1997, micro selectron HDR 192 Ir treatments are done including gynecological, oesophageal, breast, surface mould, soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and brain in our hospital. In this paper, procedure of interstitial brain implant in glioma as implant technique, simulation and treatment planning will be discussed

  10. Aspirin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism: the INSPIRE collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, John; Becattini, Cecilia; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Eikelboom, John W; Kirby, Adrienne C; Mister, Rebecca; Prandoni, Paolo; Brighton, Timothy A

    2014-09-23

    In patients with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) the risk of recurrent VTE remains high after anticoagulant treatment is discontinued. The Aspirin for the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism (the Warfarin and Aspirin [WARFASA]) and the Aspirin to Prevent Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism (ASPIRE) trials showed that aspirin reduces this risk, but they were not individually powered to detect treatment effects for particular outcomes or subgroups. An individual patient data analysis of these trials was planned, before their results were known, to assess the effect of aspirin versus placebo on recurrent VTE, major vascular events (recurrent VTE, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular disease death) and bleeding, overall and within predefined subgroups. The primary analysis, for VTE, was by intention to treat using time-to-event data. Of 1224 patients, 193 had recurrent VTE over 30.4 months' median follow-up. Aspirin reduced recurrent VTE (7.5%/yr versus 5.1%/yr; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.90; P=0.008), including both deep-vein thrombosis (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92; P=0.01) and pulmonary embolism (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.41-1.06; P=0.08). Aspirin reduced major vascular events (8.7%/yr versus 5.7%/yr; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.86; P=0.002). The major bleeding rate was low (0.4%/yr for placebo and 0.5%/yr for aspirin). After adjustment for treatment adherence, recurrent VTE was reduced by 42% (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85; P=0.005). Prespecified subgroup analyses indicate similar relative, but larger absolute, risk reductions in men and older patients. Aspirin after anticoagulant treatment reduces the overall risk of recurrence by more than a third in a broad cross-section of patients with a first unprovoked VTE, without significantly increasing the risk of bleeding. www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12611000684921. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. High dose rate brachytherapy for superficial cancer of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingon, Philippe; D'Hombres, Anne; Truc, Gilles; Barillot, Isabelle; Michiels, Christophe; Bedenne, Laurent; Horiot, Jean Claude

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with external radiotherapy, combined modality treatment, or HDR brachytherapy alone to limited esophageal cancers. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 1996, 25 patients with limited superficial esophagus carcinomas were treated by high dose rate brachytherapy. The mean age was 63 years (43-86 years). Five patients showed superficial local recurrence after external radiotherapy. Eleven patients without invasion of the basal membrane were staged as Tis. Fourteen patients with tumors involving the submucosa without spreading to the muscle were staged as T1. Treatment consisted of HDR brachytherapy alone in 13 patients, external radiotherapy and brachytherapy in 8 cases, and concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy in 4 cases. External beam radiation was administered to a total dose of 50 Gy using 2 Gy daily fractions in 5 weeks. In cases of HDR brachytherapy alone (13 patients), 6 applications were performed once a week. Results: The mean follow-up is 31 months (range 24-96 months). Twelve patients received 2 applications and 13 patients received 6 applications. Twelve patients experienced a failure (48%), 11/12 located in the esophagus, all of them in the treated volume. One patient presented an isolated distant metastasis. In the patients treated for superficial recurrence, 4/5 were locally controlled (80%) by brachytherapy alone. After brachytherapy alone, 8/13 patients were controlled (61%). The mean disease-free survival is 14 months (1-36 months). Overall survival is 76% at 1 year, 37% at 2 years, and 14% at 3 years. Overall survival for Tis patients is 24% vs. 20% for T1 (p 0.83). Overall survival for patients treated by HDR brachytherapy alone is 43%. One patient presented with a fistula with local failure after external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Four stenosis were registered, two were diagnosed on barium swallowing without symptoms, and two required dilatations. Conclusion: High dose rate brachytherapy permits the treating

  12. "Time sequential high dose of Cytarabine in acute myelocytic leukemia "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavamzadeh A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Given preliminary evidence of timed, sequential chemotherapy of high dose cytosine arabinoside the current study was initiated to assess the side effects and efficacy of this regimen in patients with newly acute myelocytic leukemia (AML. Nineteen adults who referred to Hematology-Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT research center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in a trial from Aug 1999 to Nov 2000. All patients had a Karnofski classification above 60%. At this time induction therapy consisted of daunorubicin or idarubicin given at a dose of 60 mg/m² and 12 mg/m² IV respectively on days 1-3, and cytarabine (Ara-C 100 mg/m² intravenously by continuous infusion on days 1-7, followed by Ara-C 1000 mg/m² given on day 8-10 every 12 hours by IV infusion. Consolidation therapy started after 35th day. Of 19 fully evaluable patients, 10 patients achieved a complete remission, whereas 36.6% patients succumbed to death due to regeneration failure. The clinical data show that the overall survival rate from diagnosis 55.5% (95% CI, 30.8-78.5 at 6 months for the entire cohort of the patients. Disease free survival is also 50% (95% CI, 26-74. Mean duration of death due to treatment was 20 days (range 17-29 after beginning the regimen. Presenting WBC counts, French-American-British (FAB classification, sex and age were not useful prognostic variables. Fever, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting and GI hemorrhage were seen in 19, 6, 4, 7 patients respectively. It seems the 3+7+3 regimen is a promising approach for the AML patients regarding to high complete remission rate, but more supportive care should be considered. Furthermore any, benefit in long-term outcome can’t be determined regardless to the choice of post remission therapy (e.g., GCSF, appropriate antibiotics and etc.

  13. Contemporary Primary Prevention Aspirin Use by Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Impact of US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations, 2007-2015: A Serial, Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Jeremy R; Duval, Sue; Walts, Adrienne; Kopecky, Stephen L; Luepker, Russell V; Hirsch, Alan T

    2017-10-03

    No previous study has evaluated the impact of past US Preventive Services Task Force statements on primary prevention (PP) aspirin use in a primary care setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate temporal changes in PP aspirin use in a primary care population, stratifying patients by their 10-year global cardiovascular disease risk, in response to the 2009 statement. This study estimated biannual aspirin use prevalence using electronic health record data from primary care clinics within the Fairview Health System (Minnesota) from 2007 to 2015. A total of 94 270 patient encounters had complete data to estimate a 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score using the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association global risk estimator. Patients were stratified into low- (aspirin use averaged 43%. When stratified by low, intermediate and high risk, average PP aspirin use was 41%, 63%, and 73%, respectively. Average PP aspirin use decreased after the publication of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement: from 45% to 40% in the low-risk group; from 66% to 62% in the intermediate-risk group; and from 76% to 73% in the high-risk group, before and after the guideline. Publication of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation was not associated with an increase in aspirin use. High risk PP patients utilized aspirin at high rates. Patients at intermediate risk were less intensively treated, and patients at low risk used aspirin at relatively high rates. These data may inform future aspirin guideline dissemination. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Improvements in dose calculation accuracy for small off-axis targets in high dose per fraction tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Bayliss, Adam; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, 53792 (United States); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC 3002 (Australia) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia) and Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Einstein Institute of Oncophysics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: A recent field safety notice from TomoTherapy detailed the underdosing of small, off-axis targets when receiving high doses per fraction. This is due to angular undersampling in the dose calculation gantry angles. This study evaluates a correction method to reduce the underdosing, to be implemented in the current version (v4.1) of the TomoTherapy treatment planning software. Methods: The correction method, termed 'Super Sampling' involved the tripling of the number of gantry angles from which the dose is calculated during optimization and dose calculation. Radiochromic film was used to measure the dose to small targets at various off-axis distances receiving a minimum of 21 Gy in one fraction. Measurements were also performed for single small targets at the center of the Lucy phantom, using radiochromic film and the dose magnifying glass (DMG). Results: Without super sampling, the peak dose deficit increased from 0% to 18% for a 10 mm target and 0% to 30% for a 5 mm target as off-axis target distances increased from 0 to 16.5 cm. When super sampling was turned on, the dose deficit trend was removed and all peak doses were within 5% of the planned dose. For measurements in the Lucy phantom at 9.7 cm off-axis, the positional and dose magnitude accuracy using super sampling was verified using radiochromic film and the DMG. Conclusions: A correction method implemented in the TomoTherapy treatment planning system which triples the angular sampling of the gantry angles used during optimization and dose calculation removes the underdosing for targets as small as 5 mm diameter, up to 16.5 cm off-axis receiving up to 21 Gy.

  15. Improvements in dose calculation accuracy for small off-axis targets in high dose per fraction tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Bayliss, Adam; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent field safety notice from TomoTherapy detailed the underdosing of small, off-axis targets when receiving high doses per fraction. This is due to angular undersampling in the dose calculation gantry angles. This study evaluates a correction method to reduce the underdosing, to be implemented in the current version (v4.1) of the TomoTherapy treatment planning software. Methods: The correction method, termed “Super Sampling” involved the tripling of the number of gantry angles from which the dose is calculated during optimization and dose calculation. Radiochromic film was used to measure the dose to small targets at various off-axis distances receiving a minimum of 21 Gy in one fraction. Measurements were also performed for single small targets at the center of the Lucy phantom, using radiochromic film and the dose magnifying glass (DMG). Results: Without super sampling, the peak dose deficit increased from 0% to 18% for a 10 mm target and 0% to 30% for a 5 mm target as off-axis target distances increased from 0 to 16.5 cm. When super sampling was turned on, the dose deficit trend was removed and all peak doses were within 5% of the planned dose. For measurements in the Lucy phantom at 9.7 cm off-axis, the positional and dose magnitude accuracy using super sampling was verified using radiochromic film and the DMG. Conclusions: A correction method implemented in the TomoTherapy treatment planning system which triples the angular sampling of the gantry angles used during optimization and dose calculation removes the underdosing for targets as small as 5 mm diameter, up to 16.5 cm off-axis receiving up to 21 Gy.

  16. Teflon pastille use in high dose dosimetry; Utilizacao de pastilhas de teflon em dosimetria de doses altas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Maria Ines [Associacao Educacional Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: miteixeira@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper study the Teflon, which is used as aglomerant in the confection of dosimetric pastilles, for the viabilization of this material as high dose dosimeter. This paper used the OSL technique for the characterization of dosimetric properties of Teflon. The doses-response curve has been obtained for {sup 60}Co radiation between 100 Gy and 50 kGy, and the OSL answer reproducibility. The preliminary results shown that the Teflon is a material which can be used for high dose dosimetry

  17. Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L. A.; Reece, W. D.; Hsu, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation experiments. We have also developed 4.3 mm diameter ion chambers with both tissue equivalent and carbon walls for the purpose of measuring dose mean lineal energy due to all radiations and due to all radiations except neutrons, respectively. By adjusting the gas pressure in the ion chamber, it can be made to simulate tissue volumes from a few nanometers to a few millimeters in diameter. The charge is integrated for 0.1 seconds, and the resulting pulse height is recorded by a multi channel analyzer. The system has been used in a variety of photon and neutron radiation fields, and measured values of dose and dose mean lineal energy are consistent with values extrapolated from measurements made by other techniques at much lower dose rates. It is expected that this technique will prove to be much more reliable than extrapolations from measurements made at low dose rates because these low dose rate exposures generally do not accurately reproduce the attenuation and

  18. The Comparison of Two Types of Treatment (High Dose and Low Dose IVIG in Children with GBS in Mofid Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Karim-Zadeh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (Guillain-Barre-Syndrome is by far the most common cause of immune–mediated peripheral nerve disease in children and with the near disappearance of poliomyelitis, is responsible for the great majority of cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Several controlled studies have done with corticosteroids, plasma pheresis and IVIG in pediatric patients. IVIG treatment can be done in two types of treatment: 1- High dose that means 1gr/kg/day for 2 days. 2- Low dose that means 400mg/kg/day for 5 days. Several studies in other countries have shown faster rate of recovery in patients who received total dose of IVIG in 2 days as opposed to 5 days. Materials & Methods: Because we have not any study about this two types of treatment in IRAN we decided to comparison this two types of IVIG treatment. So the patients that referred to Mofid children hospital for weakness and we diagnosed GBS (with history, physical examination, laboratories and EMG-NCV are divided in two groups: 1- High dose IVIG treatment (experimental group. 2- Low dose IVIG treatment (control group Then the results evaluated. Results: Our findings included that in high dose IVIG therapy we have faster rate of recovery and the Hospital stay is shorter than low dose IVIG-therapy. Also in this type of treatment “because the patients cure faster” , so complications are decreased in them. In the group of high dose IVIG therapy, lower and upper extremities weakness decreased in time. Conclusion: We did not receive any relationship between side effects of drugs and the type of treatment. The relationship between high dose IVIG therapy and drug side effects was not significant.

  19. Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Braby, L A; Reece, W D

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation exp...

  20. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart J; Bosch, Jackie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive...... rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after...... a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P

  1. Automated processing of electronic medical records is a reliable method of determining aspirin use in populations at risk for cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Serguei Vs; Shah, Nilay D; Hanson, Penny; Balasubramaniam, Saranya C; Smith, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Low-dose aspirin reduces cardiovascular risk; however, monitoring over-the-counter medication use relies on the time-consuming and costly manual review of medical records. Our objective is to validate natural language processing (NLP) of the electronic medical record (EMR) for extracting medication exposure and contraindication information. The text of EMRs for 499 patients with type 2 diabetes was searched using NLP for evidence of aspirin use and its contraindications. The results were compared to a standardised manual records review. Of the 499 patients, 351 (70%) were using aspirin and 148 (30%) were not, according to manual review. NLP correctly identified 346 of the 351 aspirin-positive and 134 of the 148 aspirin-negative patients, indicating a sensitivity of 99% (95% CI 97-100) and specificity of 91% (95% CI 88-97). Of the 148 aspirin-negative patients, 66 (45%) had contraindications and 82 (55%) did not, according to manual review. NLP search for contraindications correctly identified 61 of the 66 patients with contraindications and 58 of the 82 patients without, yielding a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI 84-97) and a specificity of 71% (95% CI 60-80). NLP of the EMR is accurate in ascertaining documented aspirin use and could potentially be used for epidemiological research as a source of cardiovascular risk factor information.

  2. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and considerations for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Ashley N.; Borish, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a late onset condition characterized by the Samter triad (aspirin sensitivity [as well as sensitivity to any nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor], nasal polyps, asthma) and additional features, including eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, hypereosinophilia, anosmia, frequent absence of atopy, and, intolerance to ingestion of red wine and other alcoholic beverages. The diagnosis is rare, and, because of this, it is also often missed by physicians. However, it is highly overexpressed in patients with severe asthma (and severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps), which makes its recognition essential. For this review, we considered mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this disease and discussed the clinical symptoms of AERD. We also discussed the role of aspirin desensitization in the treatment of AERD. Also, we considered medications (e.g, leukotriene modifiers) and surgical interventions that have a role in the treatment of AERD. PMID:28124651

  3. Aspirin degradation in surface-charged TEMPO-oxidized mesoporous crystalline nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel O; Hua, Kai; Forsgren, Johan; Mihranyan, Albert

    2014-01-30

    TEMPO-mediated surface oxidation of mesoporous highly crystalline Cladophora cellulose was used to introduce negative surface charges onto cellulose nanofibrils without significantly altering other structural characteristics. This enabled the investigation of the influence of mesoporous nanocellulose surface charges on aspirin chemical stability to be conducted. The negative surface charges (carboxylate content 0.44±0.01 mmol/g) introduced on the mesoporous crystalline nanocellulose significantly accelerated aspirin degradation, compared to the starting material which had significantly less surface charge (0.06±0.01 mmol/g). This effect followed from an increased aspirin amorphisation ability in mesopores of the oxidized nanocellulose. These results highlight the importance of surface charges in formulating nanocellulose for drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Urethral stricture following high dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Lisa; Williams, Scott G.; Tai, Keen Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Cleeve, L.; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, timing, nature and outcome of urethral strictures following high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for prostate carcinoma. Methods and materials: Data from 474 patients with clinically localised prostate cancer treated with HDRB were analysed. Ninety percent received HDRB as a boost to external beam radiotherapy (HDRBB) and the remainder as monotherapy (HDRBM). Urethral strictures were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: At a median follow-up of 41 months, 38 patients (8%) were diagnosed with a urethral stricture (6-year actuarial risk 12%). Stricture location was bulbo-membranous (BM) urethra in 92.1%. The overall actuarial rate of grade 2 or more BM urethral stricture was estimated at 10.8% (95% CI 7.0-14.9%), with a median time to diagnosis of 22 months (range 10-68 months). All strictures were initially managed with either dilatation (n = 15) or optical urethrotomy (n = 20). Second line therapy was required in 17 cases (49%), third line in three cases (9%) and 1 patient open urethroplasty (grade 3 toxicity). Predictive factors on multivariate analysis were prior trans-urethral resection of prostate (hazard ratio (HR) 2.81, 95% CI 1.15-6.85, p = 0.023); hypertension (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.37-5.85, p = 0.005); and dose per fraction used in HDR (HR for 1 Gy increase per fraction 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.64, p = 0.008). Conclusions: BM urethral strictures are the most common late grade 2 or more urinary toxicity following HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Most are manageable with minimally invasive procedures. Both clinical and dosimetric factors appear to influence the risk of stricture formation.

  5. Effect of aspirin treatment on chondromalacia patellae.

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, G; Leslie, I J; Fischer, D

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients (21 females and 8 males) with chondromalacia patellae diagnosed by arthroscopy were randomly allocated to receive aspirin or placebo for 3 months. Clinical and arthroscopic examination after 3 months showed no significant change in symptoms, signs, or macroscopic appearances in either group. Surgical treatment was performed in 14 patients for deteriorating symptoms.

  6. Effect of aspirin treatment on chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, G; Leslie, I J; Fischer, D

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients (21 females and 8 males) with chondromalacia patellae diagnosed by arthroscopy were randomly allocated to receive aspirin or placebo for 3 months. Clinical and arthroscopic examination after 3 months showed no significant change in symptoms, signs, or macroscopic appearances in either group. Surgical treatment was performed in 14 patients for deteriorating symptoms. Images PMID:7008711

  7. Aspirin in pregnancy : clinical and biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Bremer (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, is the most frequently consumed drug in pregnancy,47 mostly taken without a prescription because of headache or a minor ailment. 226,277 Numerous preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid are freely available over the counter under a variety of

  8. Aspirin augments hyaluronidase induced adhesion inhibition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative adhesions occur after virtually all abdomino-pelvic surgery and are the leading cause of intestinal obstruction and other gynaecologic problems. We used an animal model to test the efficacy of combined administration of aspirin and hyaluronidase on adhesion formation. Adhesions were induced using ...

  9. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  10. Dosing algorithm to target a predefined AUC in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma receiving high dose methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger, Markus; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Schellens, Jan H M; Cerny, Thomas; Zucca, Emanuele; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2012-02-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal dosing of high dose methotrexate (HDMTX) in patients with primary CNS lymphoma. Our aim was to develop a convenient dosing algorithm to target AUC(MTX) in the range between 1000 and 1100 µmol l(-1) h. A population covariate model from a pooled dataset of 131 patients receiving HDMTX was used to simulate concentration-time curves of 10,000 patients and test the efficacy of a dosing algorithm based on 24 h MTX plasma concentrations to target the prespecified AUC(MTX) . These data simulations included interindividual, interoccasion and residual unidentified variability. Patients received a total of four simulated cycles of HDMTX and adjusted MTX dosages were given for cycles two to four. The dosing algorithm proposes MTX dose adaptations ranging from +75% in patients with MTX C(24) 12 µmol l(-1). The proposed dosing algorithm resulted in a marked improvement of the proportion of patients within the AUC(MTX) target between 1000 and 1100 µmol l(-1) h (11% with standard MTX dose, 35% with the adjusted dose) and a marked reduction of the interindividual variability of MTX exposure. A simple and practical dosing algorithm for HDMTX has been developed based on MTX 24 h plasma concentrations, and its potential efficacy in improving the proportion of patients within a prespecified target AUC(MTX) and reducing the interindividual variability of MTX exposure has been shown by data simulations. The clinical benefit of this dosing algorithm should be assessed in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Studies of absorbed dose determinations and spatial dose distributions for high energy proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Takeshi

    1982-01-01

    Absolute dose determinations were made with three types of ionization chamber and a Faraday cup. Methane based tissue equivalent (TE) gas, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air were used as an ionizing gas with flow rate of 10 ml per minute. Measurements were made at the entrance position of unmodulated beams and for a beam of a spread out Bragg peak at a depth of 17.3 mm in water. For both positions, the mean value of dose determined by the ionization chambers was 0.993 +- 0.014 cGy for which the value of TE gas was taken as unity. The agreement between the doses estimated by the ionization chambers and the Faraday cup was within 5%. Total uncertainty estimated in the ionization chamber and the Faraday cup determinations is 6 and 4%, respectively. Common sources of error in calculating the dose from ionization chamber measurements are depend on the factors of ion recombination, W value, and mass stopping power ratio. These factors were studied by both experimentally and theoretically. The observed values for the factors show a good agreement to the predicted one. Proton beam dosimetry intercomparison between Japan and the United States was held. Good agreement was obtained with standard deviation of 1.6%. The value of the TE calorimeter is close to the mean value of all. In the proton spot scanning system, lateral dose distributions at any depth for one spot beam can be simulated by the Gaussian distribution. From the Gaussian distributions and the central axis depth doses for one spot beam, it is easy to calculate isodose distributions in the desired field by superposition of dose distribution for one spot beam. Calculated and observed isodose curves were agreed within 1 mm at any dose levels. (J.P.N.)

  12. Simultaneous silencing of ACSL4 and induction of GADD45B in hepatocellular carcinoma cells amplifies the synergistic therapeutic effect of aspirin and sorafenib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongping; Lee, Kee Wah; Chen, Jianxiang; Kong, Shik Nie; Sekar, Karthik; Deivasigamani, Amudha; Seshachalam, Veerabrahma Pratap; Goh, Brian Kim Poh; Ooi, London Lucien; Hui, Kam M

    2017-01-01

    Sorafenib is currently the only US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved molecular inhibitor for the systemic therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin has been studied extensively as an anti-inflammation, cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. However, the potential synergistic therapeutic effects of sorafenib and aspirin on advanced HCC treatment have not been well studied. Drug combination studies and their synergy quantification were performed using the combination index method of Chou-Talalay. The synergistic therapeutic effects of sorafenib and aspirin were evaluated using an orthotopic mouse model of HCC and comprehensive gene profiling analyses were conducted to identify key factors mediating the synergistic therapeutic effects of sorafenib and aspirin. Sorafenib was determined to act synergistically on HCC cells with aspirin in vitro. Using Hep3B and HuH7 HCC cells, it was demonstrated that sorafenib and aspirin acted synergistically to induce apoptosis. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that combining sorafenib and aspirin yielded significant synergistically anti-tumor effects by simultaneously silencing ACSL4 and the induction of GADD45B expression in HCC cells both in vitro and in the orthotopic HCC xenograft mouse model. Importantly, clinical evidence has independently corroborated that survival of HCC patients expressing ACSL4highGADD45Blow was significantly poorer compared to patients with ACSL4lowGADD45Bhigh, thus demonstrating the potential clinical value of combining aspirin and sorafenib for HCC patients expressing ACSL4highGADD45Blow. In conclusion, sorafenib and aspirin provide synergistic therapeutic effects on HCC cells that are achieved through simultaneous silencing of ACSL4 and induction of GADD45B expression. Targeting HCC with ACSL4highGADD45Blow expression with aspirin and sorafenib could provide potential synergistic therapeutic benefits. PMID:28900541

  13. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants on high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige [Kinki Univ., Atomic Energy Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Tatsumi, Kusuo [Kinki Univ., Life Science Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu [Health Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan); Yuan Yongling [Labor Hygiene Institute of Hunan Prov. (China); Wei Luxin [Laboratory of Industorial Hygiene, Ministry of Health (China)

    2001-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on the natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external to natural radiation in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control area (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by the personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied to estimate the exposed dose rates from the environmental radiation dose rates measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. An individual radiation dose roughly correlates with the environmental radiation dose and the life style of the inhabitant. We have analyzed the environmental radiation doses in the hamlets and the variation of the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and the several hamlets of the different level doses in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we made estimations of individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from the direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The environmental radiation dose rates are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiation. The indoor radiation dose rates were due to the exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and they were about twice higher than the outdoor radiation dose rates. This difference was not observed in CA. (2) The occupancy factor was affected by the age of individuals and the seasons of a year. Indoor occupancy factors were higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher

  14. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants on high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2001-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on the natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external to natural radiation in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control area (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by the personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied to estimate the exposed dose rates from the environmental radiation dose rates measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. An individual radiation dose roughly correlates with the environmental radiation dose and the life style of the inhabitant. We have analyzed the environmental radiation doses in the hamlets and the variation of the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and the several hamlets of the different level doses in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we made estimations of individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from the direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows: 1) The environmental radiation dose rates are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiation. The indoor radiation dose rates were due to the exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and they were about twice higher than the outdoor radiation dose rates. This difference was not observed in CA. 2) The occupancy factor was affected by the age of individuals and the seasons of a year. Indoor occupancy factors were higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher

  15. Novel high dose rate lip brachytherapy technique to improve dose homogeneity and reduce toxicity by customized mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Jon; Appelbaum, Limor; Sela, Mordechay; Voskoboinik, Ninel; Kadouri, Sarit; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Orion, Itzhak; Meirovitz, Amichay

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a novel brachytherapy technique for lip Squamous Cell Carcinoma, utilizing a customized mold with embedded brachytherapy sleeves, which separates the lip from the mandible, and improves dose homogeneity. Seven patients with T2 lip cancer treated with a “sandwich” technique of High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy to the lip, consisting of interstitial catheters and a customized mold with embedded catheters, were reviewed for dosimetry and outcome using 3D planning. Dosimetric comparison was made between the “sandwich” technique to “classic” – interstitial catheters only plan. We compared dose volume histograms for Clinical Tumor Volume (CTV), normal tissue “hot spots” and mandible dose. We are reporting according to the ICRU 58 and calculated the Conformal Index (COIN) to show the advantage of our technique. The seven patients (ages 36–81 years, male) had median follow-up of 47 months. Four patients received Brachytherapy and External Beam Radiation Therapy, 3 patients received brachytherapy alone. All achieved local control, with excellent esthetic and functional results. All patients are disease free. The Customized Mold Sandwich technique (CMS) reduced the high dose region receiving 150% (V150) by an average of 20% (range 1–47%), The low dose region (les then 90% of the prescribed dose) improved by 73% in average by using the CMS technique. The COIN value for the CMS was in average 0.92 as opposed to 0.88 for the interstitial catheter only. All differences (excluding the low dose